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Sample records for mouth breathing children

  1. [Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felcar, Josiane Marques; Bueno, Izabele Rafael; Massan, Ana Carolina Silva; Torezan, Roberta Pereira; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouth breathing, the test of logistic regression was used and its magnitude was calculated through Odds Ratio. The statistical significance was set at 5%, and the rate of returned questionnaires was 84.5%. The prevalence of the mouthbreathing over this population was 56.8%. The average age was 7 years old (6-9). There was no significant statistical difference between genders, considering 49.1% male and 50.9% female. The final model of logistic regression identified the variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores as factors that predict the occurrence of the mouth-breathing. The prevalence of mouthbreathing was similar to related in the literature. The variables dribble, sleeps well (negative association) and snores may be factors that predict the occurrence of mouth-breathing.

  2. Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.

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    Neiva, Patricia Dayrell; Kirkwood, Renata Noce; Mendes, Polyana Leite; Zabjek, Karl; Becker, Helena Gonçalves; Mathur, Sunita

    2017-07-05

    Mouth breathing syndrome can cause sleep disturbances that compromise the performance of children in school. It might also cause postural abnormalities involving the head and cervical spine; however, the association between postural abnormalities and mouth breathing in children is unclear. To assess the methodological quality of studies and determine if there is an association between mouth breathing and postural disorders in children. Databases comprised MEDLINE, CINAHL, PEDro, LILACS, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Registrar of Controlled Trials. Searches were until March 2016 and included studies that evaluated postural disorders in children diagnosed with mouth breathing. The Downs and Black checklist was used to evaluate the quality of the evidences. Ten studies were included totaling 417 children from 5 to 14 years. Two studies used the New York State Postural Rating Scale, seven used photography and one used motion capture to measure posture. The methods used to analyze the data included the Postural Analysis Software (SAPO), Fisiometer, ALCimagem and routines in MATLAB program. Quality assessment resulted in low scores (Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Guidelines proposal for clinical recognition of mouth breathing children

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    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing (MB is an etiological factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB during childhood. The habit of breathing through the mouth may be perpetuated even after airway clearance. Both habit and obstruction may cause facial muscle imbalance and craniofacial changes.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to propose and test guidelines for clinical recognition of MB and some predisposing factors for SDB in children.METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 110 orthodontists regarding their procedures for clinical evaluation of MB and their knowledge about SDB during childhood. Thereafter, based on their answers, guidelines were developed and tested in 687 children aged between 6 and 12 years old and attending elementary schools.RESULTS: There was no standardization for clinical recognition of MB among orthodontists. The most common procedures performed were inefficient to recognize differences between MB by habit or obstruction.CONCLUSIONS: The guidelines proposed herein facilitate clinical recognition of MB, help clinicians to differentiate between habit and obstruction, suggest the most appropriate treatment for each case, and avoid maintenance of mouth breathing patterns during adulthood.

  4. Mouth breathing in children with learning disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fensterseifer, Giovana Serrão; Carpes, Oswaldo; Weckx, Luc Louis Maurice; Martha, Viviane Feller

    2013-01-01

    Given the importance of studying the causes of learning disorders, we designed this case-control study to assess the nasal cavity volume, pharyngeal and palatine tonsils in children with and without...

  5. Skeletal and occlusal characteristics in mouth-breathing pre-school children.

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    Mattar, Sara Elisa M; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma T; Valera, Fabiana C P; Matsumoto, Mirian A N

    2004-01-01

    This study verified the influence of chronic mouth breathing on dentofacial growth and developmental in pre-school children. The study evaluated 73 children, both sexes, ranging from 3 to 6 years of age. After the otorhinolaryngological breathing diagnosis, 44 mouth-breathing children and 29 nasal-breathing children were compared according to facial and occlusal characteristics. The skeletal pattern measurements SN.GoGn, BaN.PtGn, PP.PM, Ar-Go, S-Go indicated a tendency to mouth-breathing children presenting a dolicofacial pattern. According to occlusal characteristics, only the intermolar distance showed a significant correlation with a narrow maxillary arch in mouth-breathing subjects. Based on the results of this study, mouth-breathing can influence craniofacial and occlusal development early in childhood.

  6. Radiological evaluation of facial types in mouth breathing children: a retrospective study.

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    Izuka, E N; Costa, J R; Pereira, S R A; Weckx, L L M; Pignatari, S N; Uema, S F H

    2008-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a condition often associated with a long face, half-open mouth and increased anterior facial height. We performed conventional lateral and frontal cephalograms of eighty-nine children with nasal and mouth breathing and independently measured Total Facial Height using the analysis technique of Ricketts, and the Morphologic Facial Index employing the technique of Avila. It was concluded that dolicofacial following mesofacial were the most frequent patterns found in mouth-breathing children and this suggests that both analyses can be used independently.

  7. Prevalence of oral malodor and the relationship with habitual mouth breathing in children.

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    Kanehira, Takashi; Takehara, Junji; Takahashi, Dairo; Honda, Okahito; Morita, Manabu

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of oral malodor and association of habitual mouth breathing with oral malodor were investigated in children residing in rural areas. One hundred and nineteen children participated in this study. A sulfide monitor and organoleptic method were used to evaluate oral malodor. About 8% of children had a sulfide level in mouth air above the socially acceptable limit (75 ppb). Habitual mouth breathing was a factor contributing to oral malodor. Oral malodor was not significantly correlated with plaque index, history of caries or frequency of toothbrushing.

  8. Changes in the palatal dimensions of mouth breathing children caused by nasal obstruction

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    Indiarti, I. S.; Setyanto, D. B.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Budiardjo, S. B.

    2017-08-01

    During children’s growth and development, the breathing process plays an important role in craniofacial growth, especially of the palate. Nose breathing can stimulate the lateral growth of the maxilla, thus making the palate flat. Disturbances in nose breathing caused by nasal obstruction such as allergic rhinitis, adenoid hypertrophy, rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and obstructive sleep apnea can lead to a mouth breathing habit in children. This habit can cause palatal dimension changes such as a narrow V-shaped maxillary arch and a high palatal vault. This study analyzed the relationship between the mouth breathing habit in children who have nasal obstruction and palatal dimension changes. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with a consecutive sampling method on children 7-18 years old with a history of allergic rhinitis, adenoid hypertrophy, rhinosinusitis, nasal polyps, and obstructive sleep apnea in the Pediatric Respirology and Pediatric Immunology Allergy Outpatient Clinic Kiara Maternal and Child Health Center at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in Jakarta. The palatal dimensions were measured by the height and transversal width of the hard palate of castings of each child’s upper dental arch using vernier calipers. Palatal dimension changes were found in children with a mouth breathing habit due to nasal obstruction.

  9. Deficits in working memory, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills in children with mouth breathing syndrome: analytical cross-sectional study.

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    Kuroishi, Rita Cristina Sadako; Garcia, Ricardo Basso; Valera, Fabiana Cardoso Pereira; Anselmo-Lima, Wilma Terezinha; Fukuda, Marisa Tomoe Hebihara

    2015-01-01

    Mouth breathing syndrome is very common among school-age children, and it is possibly related to learning difficulties and low academic achievement. In this study, we investigated working memory, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills in children with nasal and mouth breathing. Analytical cross-sectional study with control group conducted in a public university hospital. 42 children (mean age = 8.7 years) who had been identified as mouth breathers were compared with a control group (mean age = 8.4 years) matched for age and schooling. All the participants underwent a clinical interview, tone audiometry, otorhinolaryngological evaluation and cognitive assessment of phonological working memory (numbers and pseudowords), reading comprehension and arithmetic skills. Children with mouth breathing had poorer performance than controls, regarding reading comprehension (P = 0.006), arithmetic (P = 0.025) and working memory for pseudowords (P = 0.002), but not for numbers (P = 0.76). Children with mouth breathing have low academic achievement and poorer phonological working memory than controls. Teachers and healthcare professionals should be aware of the association of mouth breathing with children's physical and cognitive health.

  10. Deficits in working memory, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills in children with mouth breathing syndrome: analytical cross-sectional study

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    Rita Cristina Sadako Kuroishi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Mouth breathing syndrome is very common among school-age children, and it is possibly related to learning difficulties and low academic achievement. In this study, we investigated working memory, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills in children with nasal and mouth breathing. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical cross-sectional study with control group conducted in a public university hospital. METHODS: 42 children (mean age = 8.7 years who had been identified as mouth breathers were compared with a control group (mean age = 8.4 years matched for age and schooling. All the participants underwent a clinical interview, tone audiometry, otorhinolaryngological evaluation and cognitive assessment of phonological working memory (numbers and pseudowords, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills. RESULTS: Children with mouth breathing had poorer performance than controls, regarding reading comprehension (P = 0.006, arithmetic (P = 0.025 and working memory for pseudowords (P = 0.002, but not for numbers (P = 0.76. CONCLUSION: Children with mouth breathing have low academic achievement and poorer phonological working memory than controls. Teachers and healthcare professionals should be aware of the association of mouth breathing with children's physical and cognitive health.

  11. Malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children from public schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

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    Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence and types of malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children at public schools.Methods: An evaluation was made of 219 children of both genders, between 5 and 12 years of age, attending two public schools in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; with 121 mouth breather children being selected for this study. Orthodontic and phonoaudiological evaluation were made to verify the breathing mode and presence or absence of malocclusion and articulation disorders.Results: It was observed that 100% of the mouth breather children presented malocclusion, 49.60% being Angle’s Class II, 48.76% ClassI and 1.65% Class III. It was also verified that 18.2% of the mouth breather children presented articulation disturbance. Conclusion: All mouth breathing children presented some type of malocclusion, the majority being Angle’s Class II, followed by Class I. The articulation disorders most frequently observed was anterior lisping.

  12. Coordination of Tongue Activity During Swallowing in Mouth-breathing Children

    OpenAIRE

    Knösel, Michael; Klein, Sabine; Bleckmann, Annalen; Engelke, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Habitual mouth breathing is often accompanied by habitual anterior tongue thrust, instead of a lip closure, in order to create the anterior seal necessary for the initiation of physiological deglutition. We tested the null hypothesis of no significant influence of oral maneuver and the use of oral screens on tongue coordination and position during deglutition in 29 subjects (age = 6-16; mean = 9.69 years; 13/16 female/male) with habitual open-mouth posture using intraoral polysensography. The...

  13. Coordination of tongue activity during swallowing in mouth-breathing children.

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    Knösel, Michael; Klein, Sabine; Bleckmann, Annalen; Engelke, Wilfried

    2012-09-01

    Habitual mouth breathing is often accompanied by habitual anterior tongue thrust, instead of a lip closure, in order to create the anterior seal necessary for the initiation of physiological deglutition. We tested the null hypothesis of no significant influence of oral maneuver and the use of oral screens on tongue coordination and position during deglutition in 29 subjects (age = 6-16; mean = 9.69 years; 13/16 female/male) with habitual open-mouth posture using intraoral polysensography. The target parameters for swallowing were swallowing-associated nasal airflow interruption (NAI) and coordination of tongue-palate contact during NAI. Conventional myofunctional maneuvers could be facilitated and made more efficient, in terms of increasing the numbers of favorable early tongue-palate contacts typical of somatic swallowing, if accompanied by the application of an oral screen. Habitual open-mouth breathing does not necessarily coincide with distinctively pronounced proportions of late tongue-palate contact.

  14. Discriminating between Nasal and Mouth Breathing

    CERN Document Server

    Curran, Kevin; Coyle, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing. Our findings show that the breath pattern can be discriminated in certain places of the body both by visual spectrum analysis and with a Back Propagation neural network classifier. The sound file recoded from the sensor placed on the hollow in the neck shows the most promising accuracy which is as high as 90%.

  15. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2-6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: "breathes with mouth ordinarily," "mouth is open ordinarily," and "mouth is open when chewing." We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: "snoring," "mouth is open during sleeping," and "mouth is dry when your child gets up." The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3-4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8-9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis.

  16. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2–6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: “breathes with mouth ordinarily,” “mouth is open ordinarily,” and “mouth is open when chewing.” We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: “snoring,” “mouth is open during sleeping,” and “mouth is dry when your child gets up.” The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3–5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8–9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25915864

  17. Padrão respiratório e movimento toracoabdominal de crianças respiradoras orais Breathing pattern and thoracoabdominal motion in mouth-breathing children

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    TCS Brant

    2008-12-01

    motion of mouth-breathing children aged between eight and ten years and to compare these characteristics with those of nose-breathing children of the same ages. METHODS: This observational study was carried out in a university laboratory. The sample size of 50 subjects was estimated based on the results of a pilot study with ten children in each group (total of 20 children and considering a significance level of 0.05 and statistical power of 0.80. Twenty-six mouth-breathing and 25 nose-breathing children participated. Calibrated respiratory inductive plethysmography was used to analyze the following variables, among others: respiratory frequency (f, rib cage contribution towards tidal volume (%RC/Vt, phase angle (PhAng and the ratio between time taken to reach peak inspiratory flow and total inspiratory time (PifT/Ti. Peripheral oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO2 was measured using pulse oximetry. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t test for independent groups or the Mann-Whitney U test, according to the sample distribution of the variables. RESULTS: A total of 4,816 respiratory cycles were analyzed: 2,455 from mouth-breathers and 2,361 from nose-breathers, with a mean of 94 cycles per child. No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups, for the variables studied (f=20.00±2.68 versus 20.73±2.58, p=0.169; %RC/Vt=39.30±11.86 versus 38.36±10.93, p=0.769; PhAng=14.53±7.97 versus 13.31±7.74, p=0.583; PifT/Ti=57.40±7.16 versus 58.35±5.99, p=0.610; SpO2=96.42±1.52% versus 96.88± 1.01%, p=0.208; respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that mouth-breathing children show breathing patterns and thoracoabdominal motion that are similar to those of nose-breathing children in the same age group.

  18. Effect of etiology of mouth breathing on craniofacial morphology

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    Mohammadreza Majidi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasal septal deviation and hypertrophy of the adenoids and palatine tonsils are two common causes of nasopharyngeal obstruction and consequently mouth breathing in children. It is accepted that chronic mouth breathing influences craniofacial growth and development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences of craniofacial morphology in children with two different etiological factors of mouth breathing. Materials and Methods: Study design: cross sectional. The research was conducted between 2005-2007 on 47 predominantly mouth breathing patients aged 6-10 years. After otorhinolaryngologic examination, patients were divided into two groups based on the etiology of nasopharyngeal obstruction: group 1, with Adenoid hypertrophy and group 2 with nasal septal deviation. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained to assess craniofacial development. Data gained were statistically evaluated by Mann-Whitney and T-student tests. Results: With respect to the inclination of the mandibular and palatal planes, anteroposterior relationship of maxilla and mandible to the cranial base, and indexes of facial height proportions, no significant differences were observed between two groups of children with mouth breathing. Only the gonial and craniocervical angle measurements were significantly larger in children with adenoid hypertrophy (P

  19. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

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    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (Pmouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (PMouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  20. Mensuração da amplitude de movimento cervical em crianças respiradoras orais Measurement of neck range of motion among mouth-breathing children

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    PD Neiva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Por definição clínica, respiradores orais (RO utilizam a boca como maior via de acesso de ar durante a respiração. Isso resulta em alterações na posição da língua e cabeça e pode influenciar a mecânica craniofacial durante o desenvolvimento. A anteriorização da cabeça também é comum em RO, podendo levar a desalinhamentos em segmentos adjacentes do corpo humano. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a amplitude de movimento (ADM cervical em crianças RO e comparar com crianças respiradoras nasais (RN. MÉTODOS: Dez crianças RO, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 6,90 ± 1,37 anos e dez RN, de ambos os sexos, com idade de 7,70 ± 1,42 anos, participaram do estudo. O Cervical Range of Motion (CROM foi utilizado para medir a ADM de flexão, extensão e protrusão da cabeça. Para a análise estatística foi utilizado o teste t Student para amostras independentes, considerando nível de significância estatística o valor de pINTRODUCTION: By clinical definition, mouth breathers use the mouth as their main air pathway during breathing. This results in modifications to tongue and head positioning and may have an influence on craniofacial mechanics during development. Bringing the head forward is also common among mouth breathers and may lead to misalignments in adjacent segments of the human body. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neck (cervical range of motion (ROM among mouth-breathing children and compare this with a group of nose-breathing children. METHOD: Ten mouth-breathing children of both sexes aged 6.90 ± 1.37 years and ten nose-breathing children aged 7.70 ± 1.42 years participated in this study. The ROM for neck flexion, extension and protrusion of the head were evaluated. Student's t test for independent samples was used for the statistical analysis, considering p< 0.05 as the statistical significance level. RESULTS: The mouth-breathing children had a significantly smaller ROM for neck extension (59.0º ± 10.79º, compared with the

  1. Parâmetros espectrais da voz em crianças respiradoras orais Spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children

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    Danieli Viegas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar parâmetros espectrais (f0 e formantes descritivos da voz de crianças respiradoras orais, visando contribuir na caracterização desta população e, consequentemente, na efetividade do diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: foram selecionadas 50 crianças respiradoras orais e 101 crianças com respiração nasal de ambos os gêneros entre cinco e dez anos. Os sinais de fala foram obtidos a partir das gravações de sentenças-veículo e os segmentos das vogais orais [a], [i] e [u] do português falado no Brasil em posição tônica foram selecionados para a estimação da frequência fundamental (f0 e da frequência dos três primeiros formantes (F1, F2 e F3. O software Praat foi utilizado para gravar, recortar e processar os sinais. RESULTADOS: a frequência fundamental das vogais [i] e [u] apresentou-se menor nos respiradores orais, enquanto que a frequência de F1 da vogal [u] foi mais elevada no mesmo grupo. CONCLUSÃO: a partir dos resultados expostos, concluiu-se que a frequência fundamental consiste em um parâmetro vocal que auxilia na diferenciação de crianças respiradores orais e respiradoras nasais, contribuindo, desta forma para uma caracterização mais efetiva do respirador oral.PURPOSE: to investigate spectral parameters on voices of mouth-breathing children so as to contribute to the characterization of this population, thus to an efficient diagnosis. METHODS: fifty mouth-breathing children and one hundred and one nasal breathing children were selected among five and ten year old children of both genders. Recordings were obtained from carrier phrases and segments of the oral vowels [a], [i] and [u] of Brazilian Portuguese in the stressed syllable were selected to estimate the fundamental frequency (f0 and the frequency of the first three formants (F1, F2 e F3. The signals were recorded, cut out and processed using Praat software. RESULTS: the fundamental frequency for the vowels [i] and [u] showed lower frequency in

  2. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

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    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth.

  3. Distância interincisiva máxima em crianças respiradoras bucais Maximum interincisal distance in mouth breathing children

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    Débora Martins Cattoni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a distância interincisiva máxima é um importante aspecto na avaliação miofuncional orofacial, pois distúrbios miofuncionais orofaciais podem limitar a abertura da boca. OBJETIVO: mensurar a distância interincisiva máxima de crianças respiradoras bucais, relacionando-a com a idade, e comparar as médias dessas medidas com as médias dessa distância em crianças sem queixas fonoaudiológicas. MÉTODOS: participaram 99 crianças respiradoras bucais, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre 7 anos e 11 anos e 11 meses, leucodermas, em dentadura mista. O grupo controle foi composto por 253 crianças, com idades entre 7 anos e 11 anos e 11 meses, leucodermas, em dentadura mista, sem queixas fonoaudiológicas. RESULTADOS: os achados evidenciam que a média das distâncias interincisivas máximas das crianças respiradoras bucais foi, no total da amostra, de 43,55mm, não apresentando diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias, segundo a idade. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias da distância interincisiva máxima dos respiradores bucais e as médias dessa medida das crianças do grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: a distância interincisiva máxima é uma medida que não variou nos respiradores bucais, durante a dentadura mista, segundo a idade, e parece não estar alterada em portadores desse tipo de disfunção. Aponta-se, também, a importância do uso do paquímetro na avaliação objetiva da distância interincisiva máxima.INTRODUCTION: The maximum interincisal distance is an important aspect in the orofacial myofunctional evaluation, because orofacial myofunctional disorders can limit the mouth opening. AIM: To describe the maximum interincisal distance of the mouth breathing children, according to age, and to compare the averages of the maximum interincisal distance of mouth breathing children to those of children with no history of speech-language pathology disorders. METHODS

  4. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior.

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    Jefferson, Yosh

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  5. Prevalência de respiradores bucais em crianças de idade escolar Prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school

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    Josiane Marques Felcar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se identificar a prevalência de respiradores bucais em crianças de uma escola do ensino fundamental. Foram aplicados 496 questionários aos pais ou responsáveis das crianças de 1ª à 4ª série de uma escola fundamental, para identificar respiradores bucais. O questionário incluía questões sobre hábitos, sono, comportamento, alimentação, cuidados pessoais e respiração. Para comparar as variáveis entre respiradores bucais e nasais, foi utilizado o teste de Mann-Whitney e qui-quadrado. Para medir o efeito da exposição das variáveis explicativas sobre o desfecho primário, foi utilizada regressão logística e sua magnitude foi calculada por meio do odds ratio. A significância estatística foi estipulada em 5%. A taxa de devolução dos questionários foi de 84,5%. A prevalência de respiração bucal nessa população foi 56,8%. A mediana de idade foi sete anos (6-9. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os gêneros, 49,1% masculino e 50,9% feminino. O modelo final de regressão logística identificou as variáveis baba, dorme bem (associação negativa e ronca como fatores que predizem a ocorrência da respiração bucal. A prevalência de respiradores bucais foi semelhante à encontrada na literatura pesquisada. As variáveis babar, roncar e dormir bem (associação negativa podem predizer a ocorrência da respiração bucal.The objective of this article is to identify the prevalence of mouth breathing in children from an elementary school. 496 questionnaires were answered by 1st and 4th grade children's parents or sponsors in order to identify mouth-breathing. There were questions about habits, sleeping, behavior, eating, personal care and breathing. Mann-Whitney and the Chi-square tests were used to compare the variables between mouth-breathing and nose-breathing among the groups. To measure the exposure effect of the explanatory variables on mouse breathing, the test of logistic regression was

  6. Medidas e proporções antropométricas orofaciais de crianças respiradoras orais Anthropometric orofacial measurements and proportions in mouth breathing children

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    Débora Martins Cattoni

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as medidas e proporções orofaciais de crianças respiradoras orais e comparar a média do lado direito da face com a média do lado esquerdo da face, segundo a idade. MÉTODOS: Participaram 100 crianças, de ambos os sexos, com idades entre sete anos e 11 anos e 11 meses, leucodermas, em dentição mista, com diagnóstico de respiração oral. As crianças foram submetidas à avaliação antropométrica, sendo que as medidas orofaciais obtidas foram lábio superior, lábio inferior, filtro, terço superior da face, terço médio da face, terço inferior da face e lados da face. O instrumento utilizado foi o paquímetro eletrônico digital da marca Starrett, Série 727. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias das medidas antropométricas orofaciais das crianças respiradoras orais, segundo a idade, com exceção do terço médio da face e dos lados da face. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias das proporções orofaciais das crianças respiradoras orais, com exceção da proporção entre o terço superior da face e o terço médio da face. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as médias dos lados da face, segundo a idade. CONCLUSÕES: Não houve diferença estatisticamente entre a maioria das médias das medidas e proporções orofaciais de crianças respiradoras orais, segundo a idade.PURPOSE: To describe the orofacial measurements and proportions of mouth breathing children and to compare the average of the right side of the face to the average of the left side of the face, according to age. METHODS: One hundred children of both sexes, with ages ranging from seven to 11 years and 11 months, leukoderms, in mixed dentition period and with mouth breathing diagnosis participated in the study. The children were submitted to anthropometric assessment, and the orofacial measurements obtained were upper lip, lower lip, philtrum, upper

  7. Using acoustic sensors to discriminate between nasal and mouth breathing.

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    Curran, Kevin; Yuan, Peng; Coyle, Damian

    2012-01-01

    The recommendation to change breathing patterns from the mouth to the nose can have a significantly positive impact upon the general well being of the individual. We classify nasal and mouth breathing by using an acoustic sensor and intelligent signal processing techniques. The overall purpose is to investigate the possibility of identifying the differences in patterns between nasal and mouth breathing in order to integrate this information into a decision support system which will form the basis of a patient monitoring and motivational feedback system to recommend the change from mouth to nasal breathing.

  8. Speech-language pathology findings in patients with mouth breathing: multidisciplinary diagnosis according to etiology.

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    Junqueira, Patrícia; Marchesan, Irene Queiroz; de Oliveira, Luciana Regina; Ciccone, Emílio; Haddad, Leonardo; Rizzo, Maria Cândida

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the results of the findings from speech-language pathology evaluations for orofacial function including tongue and lip rest postures, tonus, articulation and speech, voice and language, chewing, and deglutition in children who had a history of mouth breathing. The diagnoses for mouth breathing included: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hypertrophy, allergic rhinitis with adenoidal hypertrophy; and/or functional mouth breathing. This study was conducted with on 414 subjects of both genders, from 2 to 16-years old. A team consisting of 3 speech-language pathologists, 1 pediatrician, 1 allergist, and 1 otolaryngologist, evaluated the patients. Multidisciplinary clinical examinations were carried out (complete blood counting, X-rays, nasofibroscopy, audiometry). The two most commonly found etiologies were allergic rhinitis, followed by functional mouth breathing. Of the 414 patients in the study, 346 received a speech-language pathology evaluation. The most prevalent finding in this group of 346 subjects was the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorders. The most frequently orofacial myofunctional disorder identified in these subjects who also presented mouth breathing included: habitual open lips rest posture, low and forward tongue rest posture and lack of adequate muscle tone. There were also no statistically significant relationships identified between etiology and speech-language diagnosis. Therefore, the specific type of etiology of mouth breathing does not appear to contribute to the presence, type, or number of speech-language findings which may result from mouth breathing behavior.

  9. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

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    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P glucide elution rate (%) for each chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P glucide elution rate for 5-minute chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P < .05) lower during mouth breathing. It takes a longer amount of time to complete chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  10. Atypical streptococcal infection of gingiva associated with chronic mouth breathing.

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    Haytac, M Cenk; Oz, I Attila

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcal infections of oral tissues are mainly seen in young children who experience a variety of upper respiratory tract infections. The disease is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and ulcers on the gingiva, lips, and tonsils. This case report presents an atypical streptococcal infection of the gingiva in an 18-year-old man. The patient was referred to the periodontology department complaining of a 2-month history of gingival enlargement. He had persistent fever (39.5 degrees C) and general malaise for 2 weeks. Intraoral examination revealed extremely inflamed and enlarged gingiva with spontaneous bleeding and suppuration. Based on the otolaryngologic consultation and the hematologic, immunologic, and microbiologic tests, the final diagnosis was an atypical streptococcal gingivitis with chronic adenoid-related mouth breathing and oral hygiene neglect as contributing factors. Treatment consisted of a broad-spectrum antibiotic regimen, supragingival and subgingival debridement, adenoidectomy, and scaling and root planing. A good response to nonsurgical therapy was achieved despite poor patient compliance, and no recurrence of gingival enlargement was observed after 1 year. Streptococcal gingivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of suppurative gingival enlargements. Furthermore, chronic mouth breathing may initiate and/or contribute to this disease.

  11. CRANIOFACIAL MORPHOLOGY AND NASOPHARYNGEAL DIMENSIONS IN MOUTH BREATHING PATIENTS

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    Irina Nicoleta ZETU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Maxillofacial structures and mouth breathing patients constitute an especially interesting topic in orthodontic literature. The present study aims at determining the possible correlations between the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions of the pharynx and the craniofacial morphology in these patients. Materials and method. Prior to the orthodontic treatment, measurements were performed on 90 teleradiographies of some children aged between 8 and 13, with Class I, II and III anomalies, after which the anteroposterior and vertical dimensions of the pharynx and the skeletal craniofacial morphology were statistically compared. Results and discussion. Correlations have been established between the nasopharyngeal and craniofacial variables. Nasopharyngeal depth increases in skeletal Class II- and decreases in skeletal Class III-cases, while the discrepancy is represented by either the ANB angle or AOBO value. No significant differences between ages were recorded. Conclusions. Obstruction of the nasopharynx can be – in some specific cases – statistically significant, being related to a specific craniofacial morphology.

  12. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children.

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    Hitos, Silvia F; Arakaki, Renata; Solé, Dirceu; Weckx, Luc L M

    2013-01-01

    To assess speech alterations in mouth-breathing children, and to correlate them with the respiratory type, etiology, gender, and age. A total of 439 mouth-breathers were evaluated, aged between 4 and 12 years. The presence of speech alterations in children older than 5 years was considered delayed speech development. The observed alterations were tongue interposition (TI), frontal lisp (FL), articulatory disorders (AD), sound omissions (SO), and lateral lisp (LL). The etiology of mouth breathing, gender, age, respiratory type, and speech disorders were correlated. Speech alterations were diagnosed in 31.2% of patients, unrelated to the respiratory type: oral or mixed. Increased frequency of articulatory disorders and more than one speech disorder were observed in males. TI was observed in 53.3% patients, followed by AD in 26.3%, and by FL in 21.9%. The co-occurrence of two or more speech alterations was observed in 24.8% of the children. Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review

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    Ana Carolina Cardoso de Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry.OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.METHODS: Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected.RESULTS: The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing.CONCLUSION: According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted.

  14. Acoustic rhinometry in mouth breathing patients: a systematic review.

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    Melo, Ana Carolina Cardoso de; Gomes, Adriana de Oliveira de Camargo; Cavalcanti, Arlene Santos; Silva, Hilton Justino da

    2015-01-01

    When there is a change in the physiological pattern of nasal breathing, mouth breathing may already be present. The diagnosis of mouth breathing is related to nasal patency. One way to access nasal patency is by acoustic rhinometry. To systematically review the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry for the diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. Electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed and Bireme, SciELO, Web of Science, Scopus, PsycInfo, CINAHL, and Science Direct, from August to December 2013, were consulted. 11,439 articles were found: 30 from LILACS, 54 from MEDLINE via Bireme, 5558 from MEDLINE via PubMed, 11 from SciELO, 2056 from Web of Science, 1734 from Scopus, 13 from PsycInfo, 1108 from CINAHL, and 875 from Science Direct. Of these, two articles were selected. The heterogeneity in the use of equipment and materials for the assessment of respiratory mode in these studies reveals that there is not yet consensus in the assessment and diagnosis of patients with mouth breathing. According to the articles, acoustic rhinometry has been used for almost twenty years, but controlled studies attesting to the efficacy of measuring the geometry of nasal cavities for complementary diagnosis of respiratory mode are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Etiologia, manifestações clínicas e alterações presentes nas crianças respiradoras orais Etiology, clinical manifestations and concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children

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    Rubens Rafael Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a etiologia, as principais manifestações clínicas e as alterações presentes em crianças de 3 a 9 anos, respiradoras orais, residentes na região urbana de Abaeté (MG. MÉTODOS: Estudo com amostra aleatória representativa da população do município de 23.596 habitantes. Clinicamente, foram consideradas respiradoras orais as crianças que roncavam, dormiam com a boca aberta, babavam no travesseiro e apresentavam queixas de obstrução nasal freqüente ou intermitente. As crianças com diagnóstico clínico de respirador oral foram submetidas a endoscopia nasal, teste alérgico cutâneo e raio X do cavum, hemograma, contagem de eosinófilos, dosagem de IgE total e parasitológico de fezes. Os dados foram analisados utilizando o programa SPSS® versão 10.5. RESULTADOS: As principais causas da respiração oral foram: rinite alérgica (81,4%, hipertrofia de adenóides (79,2%, hipertrofia de amígdalas (12,6% e desvio obstrutivo do septo nasal (1,0%. As principais manifestações clínicas do respirador oral foram: dormir com a boca aberta (86%, roncar (79%, coçar o nariz (77%, babar no travesseiro (62%, dificuldade respiratória noturna ou sono agitado (62%, obstrução nasal (49% e irritabilidade durante o dia (43%. CONCLUSÃO: Algumas manifestações clínicas são muito freqüentes na criança respiradora oral. Essas manifestações devem ser reconhecidas e consideradas no diagnóstico clínico da respiração oral.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the etiology, main clinical manifestations and other concurrent findings in mouth-breathing children aged 3 to 9 years and resident in the urban area of Abaeté (MG, Brazil. METHODS: This study was based on a representative random sample of the town population, of 23,596 inhabitants. Clinical diagnosis of mouth-breathing was defined as a combination of snoring, sleeping with mouth open, drooling on the pillow and frequent or intermittent nasal obstruction. Children with a

  16. Teste de caminhada e rendimento escolar em crianças respiradoras bucais Walk test and school performance in mouth-breathing children

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    Ana Paula Dias Vilas Boas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, vários trabalhos sobre respiração bucal (RB têm surgido na literatura; em contrapartida, pouco se conhece sobre vários aspectos desta síndrome, incluindo gravidade, repercussões sobre o rendimento físico e escolar. OBJETIVO: Comparar o rendimento físico pelo teste de caminhada de seis minutos (TC6' e rendimento escolar de crianças e adolescentes com RB e respiradores nasais (RN. MÉTODO: Estudo de corte transversal descritivo e prospectivo em crianças RB e RN que foram submetidas ao TC6' e avaliação do rendimento escolar. RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 156 escolares, 87 meninas (60 RN e 27 RB e 69 meninos (44 RN e 25 RB. Foram analisadas variáveis durante o TC6': frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória, saturação periférica de oxigênio, distância percorrida em seis minutos e escala de Borg modificada. Todos os valores das variáveis estudadas foram estatisticamente diferentes entre os grupos RB e RN, com exceção do rendimento escolar e FC no TC6'. CONCLUSÃO: A RB afeta o rendimento físico e não o rendimento escolar, sendo observado padrão alterado no TC6' no grupo RB. Uma vez que os RB desse estudo foram classificados como não graves outros estudos comparando as variáveis de rendimento escolar e TC6' são necessários para o melhor entendimento do processo dos desempenhos físico e escolar em crianças com RB.In recent decades, many studies on mouth breathing (MB have been published; however, little is known about many aspects of this syndrome, including severity, impact on physical and academic performances. OBJECTIVE: Compare the physical performance in a six minutes walk test (6MWT and the academic performance of MB and nasal-breathing (NB children and adolescents. METHOD: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective study with MB and NB children submitted to the 6MWT and scholar performance assessment. RESULTS: We included 156 children, 87 girls (60 NB and 27 MB and 69

  17. Effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food.

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    Ikenaga, N; Yamaguchi, K; Daimon, S

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of mouth breathing on masticatory muscle activity during chewing food. Masseter muscle activity during chewing of a rice ball was recorded in 45 adult volunteers (three women), identified as nose breathers. Surface electrodes were placed on the skin according to the orientation of the masseter muscle to record the activity of this muscle while the subjects chewed the food until swallowing. Each activity was recorded twice, once with nose breathing and once with mouth breathing induced by nasal obstruction. The integrated and mean electromyography values for mouth breathing were significantly lower than the values for nose breathing (P breathing through the mouth compared with the nose. Significantly more chewing strokes were counted for mouth breathing compared with nose breathing (P breathing decreases chewing activity and reduces the vertical effect upon the posterior teeth. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Ocorrência da síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS em crianças respiradoras orais Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS in mouth breathing children

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    Suemy Cioffi Izu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available É bem estabelecido que a respiração oral em crianças está relacionada à hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana, que é a principal causa de apneia do sono nesta população. Apesar da importância deste tema, há poucos estudos que comprovam a relação entre SAOS e respiração oral. OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de distúrbios respiratórios do sono em crianças respiradoras orais e sua correlação com achados otorrinolaringológicos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente 248 prontuários de crianças respiradoras orais do serviço de Otorrinolaringologia Pediátrica de uma grande instituição entre 2000 e 2006, analisando os achados otorrinolaringológicos, polissonografia, nasofibroscopia e/ou radiografia em perfil do Cavum. O principal dado polissonográfico utilizado foi o índice de apneia (IA. Classificou-se como ronco primário aqueles com IA1. Desenho Científico: Coorte retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: Dos 248 pacientes incluídos, 144 (58% apresentavam ronco primário e 104 (42% apresentavam SAOS. Os achados otorrinolaringológicos mais frequentes foram Hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana (n=152; 61,2%, Hipertrofia de tonsila palatina (n=17; 6,8% Hipertrofia da tonsila faríngea (n=37; 14,9%, Rinite Alérgica (n=155; 62,5% e Otite Secretora (36; 14,5%. CONCLUSÕES: Ronco Primário e SAOS são frequentes em crianças respiradoras orais. A afecção otorrinolaringológica mais encontrada em crianças com SAOS é a hipertrofia adenoamigdaliana acompanhada ou não de rinite alérgica.It is well known that mouth breathing is associated with adenotonsillar hypertrophy - which is the main cause of obstructive sleep apnea among children. Despite the importance of this matter, there are only a handful of studies showing the relationship between OSAS and mouth breathing. AIM: to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep disorders in mouth breathing children and study its correlation with otorhinolaryngological findings. STUDY

  19. Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en niños respiradores bucales de 11años (I parte Cephalometric study of the hyoid bone in mouth-breathing children aged 11 (first part

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    Dariel Carulla Martínez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente trabajo se realizó con el propósito de describir el comportamiento de la posición del hueso hioides, en niños respiradores bucales y no respiradores bucales. Métodos: Se recogieron historias clínicas de 60 pacientes con edad de 11 años que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología y nos propusimos comparar desde el punto de vista cefalométrico a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales, con el objetivo de determinar si existían diferencias en el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con ciertas variables cefalométricas (lineales y angulares, con respecto a pacientes no respiradores bucales (controles. Para cada una de las mediciones se calculó la media y la desviación estándar. Para determinar la posible diferencia de las mediciones para muestras independientes se realizó Prueba de t de Student para muestras independientes o su equivalente no paramétrico (Mann- Whitney y Kolmogorov- Smirnov. En todas las pruebas de hipótesis se utilizó un nivel de significación del 5 %. Resultados: El mayor número de pacientes se encuentra entre los rangos de 30-35 mm. Los valores y la frecuencia de las variables H-C3 y H-PPF tienen una distribución similar tanto en el grupo de Control como en el Grupo Respirador Bucal. La variable Gn-H muestra su mayor frecuencia en el rango de 40-45 mm. Conclusiones: Se encontró una resistencia de los músculos constrictor medio de la faringe, estilohioideo y vientre posterior del digástrico y del ligamento estilohioideo al traslado del hioides en sentido anterior, resistencia que ejercen los músculos milohioideo, genihioideo y vientre anterior digástrico en los respiradores bucales (descenso del huesoOBJECTIVE: this paper is aimed at describing the behavior of the position of the hyoid bone in mouth- and non-mouth breathing children. METHODS: the medical histories of 60 patients aged 11 that were seen at the Orthodontics

  20. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  1. A postura corporal e as funções estomatognáticas em crianças respiradoras orais: uma revisão de literatura Body posture and the stomatognathic functions in mouth breathing children: a literature review

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    Patricia Girarde Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A postura corporal das crianças é objeto de crescente estudo na fisioterapia, assim como as crianças respiradoras orais o são na fonoaudiologia. Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar, na literatura científica, as funções estomatognáticas, a postura corporal e suas relações, em crianças respiradoras orais. Trata-se de uma revisão da literatura sobre a postura corporal, e o sistema estomatognático e suas relações em respiradores orais obstrutivos e funcionais. Buscou-se nas bases de dados eletrônicos MEDLINE, SCIELO e LILACS, e Googlecientífico, artigos que relacionassem esses temas nos últimos 10 anos. Os artigos selecionados foram organizados de acordo com os autores, o título, a origem, a faixa etária e o ano de publicação. Após a seleção dos textos, foram identificados apenas quatro trabalhos que relacionam postura, sistema estomatognático e respiração oral; dois que relacionam sistema estomatognático e postura; e a maioria, treze que estudam sistema estomatognático e respiração oral; dentre outros. Notou-se que há uma escassez de informações sobre a relação da postura corporal com o sistema estomatognático em respiradores orais. A escassez é ainda maior quando se compara o grupo de respiradores orais obstrutivos e respiradores orais funcionais relacionando a postura corporal com o sistema estomatognático.Children's body posture has been studied more and more by physical therapy, as well as mouth breather children have been studied by speech-language-hearing therapy. This study tries to check, through scientific literature, the relationship between stomatognathic functions and body posture in mouth breather children. This is a review of literature on body posture and the stomatognathic system in obstructive and functional mouth breathers. We searched, in electronic data basis such as MEDLINE, SCIELO and LILACS, and Google Scientific, articles related to these topics, published in the last 10. The

  2. Evaluation of oxygen saturation by pulse-oximetry in mouth breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Chalipa, Javad; Taghipoor, Elahe

    2010-01-01

    Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests. 34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%). Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic. A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4%) and gingival hyperplasia (29.2%) were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  3. Evaluation of Oxygen Saturation by Pulse-Oximetry in Mouth Breathing Patients

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    Esfandiar Akhavan Niaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests.  34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%. Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic.  A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4% and gingival hyperplasia (29.2% were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Veronique Sousa; Maria Paço; Teresa Pinho

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The stomatognathic system is a set of structures that are interconnected to perform vital functions. Changes in any of the parts may lead to a general postural imbalance. Purpose: To verify if there is a relation between breathing pattern and swallowing with posture, dental occlusion and harmful oral habits of the sample under study. Materials and methods: The final sample of n=50 consisted of 34 children/ adolescents males and 16 females. The evaluation consisted of a que...

  5. Respiração oral na criança: repercussões diferentes de acordo com o diagnóstico Mouth breathing in children: different repercussions according to the diagnosis

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    Renata C. Di Francesco

    2004-10-01

    breathing is very common in children. Mouthbreathing syndrome is characterized by tiredness, daytime sleepiness, failure to thrive, restless sleep, nocturnal enuresis and poor school performance. However, this symptom has several causes and it is necessary to elucidate more details about this entity. AIM: Compare the findings of daytime sleepiness, headache, nocturnal enuresis, poor school performance and attention deficit and bruxism in subjects that present mouth breathing according to the following diagnosis: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hyperplasia and adenotonsillar hyperplasia. STUDY DESIGN: Transversal cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a prospective study of 142 patients from 2 to 16 years old. After ENT evaluation, patients were classified in 3 groups according to the following diagnosis: allergic rhinitis, adenoidal hyperplasia, adenotonsillar hyperplasia. Parents and caregivers answered a questionnaire about night symptoms in order to describe the presence of sleep apnea and specific questions about: morning headaches, school performance and attention deficit, daytime sleepiness, restless sleep, nocturnal enuresis and bruxism. RESULTS: Mouth breathing is common in boys. Children with adenotonsillar hyperplasia are younger and present more snoring and sleep apnea. They present also poor school performance, bruxism, nocturnal enuresis and restless sleep, which are correlated to sleep apnea, differing from the allergic rhinitis group. Significant findings of daytime sleepiness and morning headaches were not found. CONCLUSION: Bruxism, enuresis, restless sleep and poor school performance are related to sleep apnea and more frequent in subjects with adenotonsillar hyperplasia. The investigation of sleep apnea in children with mouth breathing is mandatory, as well as the determination of its cause.

  6. The effect of mouth breathing on dentofacial morphology of growing child

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    S Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The oral mode of respiration cause postural adaptations of structures in the head and neck region producing the effect on the positional relationship of the jaws. Aim: The aim of this study is to verify the skeletal relationship of mouth and nose breathing child. Study design: A cross sectional study was performed to assess the association of changed mode of respiration with dentofacial growth. Materials and Methods : One hundred children among which 54 were mouth breathers and 46 were nasal breathers of 6-12 years of age were submitted to clinical examination and cephalometric radiographical analysis. Statistical analysis : Chi-square test for proportions and independent sample′s ′t′test for parametric data is used. Result: The mean values of N-Me (P<0.001 ANS-Me (P<0.001 and SN-GoGn (P<0.001 for mouth breathers is significantly higher. ArGo-GoMe (P=0.003 and (P<0.011 for 6-9 and 9-12 years age group, respectively, were significantly low in nasal breathers group. Conclusions: Changed mode of respiration was associated with increased facial height, mandibular plane angle and gonial angle.

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

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    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  8. Postura, tônus e mobilidade de lábios e língua de crianças respiradoras orais Posture, lips and tongue tone and mobility of mouth breathing children

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    Marta Assumpção de Andrada e Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: caracterizar a postura, o tônus e a mobilidade dos lábios e da língua de crianças respiradoras orais. MÉTODO: participaram do estudo realizado em São Paulo, SP, Brasil, 40 crianças respiradoras orais, sendo 26 (65% do sexo masculino e 14 (35% do sexo feminino, com idades entre 7 e 10 anos. Utilizou-se o protocolo MBGR para avaliação dos aspectos analisados. RESULTADOS: foram encontrados os seguintes achados para postura dos lábios: entreabertos (32,5%, alternância entre abertos e fechados (27,5%, abertos (22,5% e fechados (17,5%. Em relação ao tônus do lábio superior: 90% apresentaram tônus normal, 10% diminuído e nenhuma com tônus aumentado. Quanto ao tônus de lábio inferior, 80,0% das crianças apresentaram tônus diminuído e 20,0% normal. No item mobilidade dos lábios, 100,0% apresentaram mobilidade mais próxima dos melhores escores. Em relação à postura habitual da língua, em 57,5% esta estrutura permaneceu no assoalho, em 32,5% não foi possível observar sua posição e em 10,0% se encontrava em posição interdental. Quanto ao tônus da língua, 52,5% apresentaram tônus diminuído e 47,5% normal. Na avaliação de mobilidade de língua, 100,0% apresentaram mobilidade mais próxima dos melhores escores. CONCLUSÃO: as características de postura, tônus e mobilidade dos lábios das crianças respiradoras orais estudadas foram: lábios entreabertos, lábio superior com tônus normal, lábio inferior com tônus diminuído e mobilidade normal. Em relação à língua: postura no assoalho da boca, tônus diminuído e mobilidade normal.PURPOSE: to characterize lips and tongue posture, tone and mobility of mouth breathing children. METHOD: the subjects of this study, conducted in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were 40 mouth breathing children, 26 (65% male and 14 (35% female, aging between 7 and 10-year old. MBGR protocol was used to evaluate the aforementioned aspects. RESULTS: the following results were obtained

  9. Increased oxygen load in the prefrontal cortex from mouth breathing: a vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Masahiro; Sano, Sayaka; Oka, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Kayoko; Kato, Toshinori

    2013-12-01

    Individuals who habitually breathe through the mouth are more likely than nasal breathers to have sleep disorders and attention deficit hyperactive disorder. We hypothesized that brain hemodynamic responses in the prefrontal cortex might be different for mouth and nasal breathing. To test this hypothesis, we measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex during mouth breathing and nasal breathing in healthy adults (n=9) using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. The angle k, calculated from changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin and indicating the degree of oxygen exchange, was significantly higher during mouth breathing (PMouth breathing also caused a significant increase in deoxyhemoglobin, but oxyhemoglobin did not increase. This difference in oxygen load in the brain arising from different breathing routes can be evaluated quantitatively using vector-based near-infrared spectroscopy. Phase responses could help to provide an earlier and more reliable diagnosis of a patient's habitual breathing route than a patient interview.

  10. Intraoral pH and temperature during sleep with and without mouth breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J E; Waddell, J N; Lyons, K M; Kieser, J A

    2016-05-01

    To measure and compare the intraoral pH and temperature of individuals during sleep with and without mouth breathing. Ten healthy participants [mean age = 25·8 (± 4·3)] wore a custom-made appliance fitted with a pH probe and thermocouple for two sets of 48 h. Continuous pH and temperature measurements were taken from the palatal aspect of the upper central incisors. To simulate mouth breathing during sleep, participants wore a nose clip for two nights of the four, with the first group (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the first night and the rest (n = 5) wearing the nose clip during the second night of sleep to balance any potential bias from the wearing sequence. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted. The mean intraoral pH during daytime was 7·3 (± 0·4) and during sleep was 7·0 (± 0·5). The mean intraoral pH during sleep with mouth breathing was 6·6 (± 0·5), which was statistically significant compared with the normal sleep condition (P mouth breathing, intraoral pH showed a greater fall over a longer period of time. The mean intraoral temperature was 33·1 °C (± 5·2) during daytime and 33·3 °C (± 6·1) during sleep, with no statistical significance between sleep with and without mouth breathing (P > 0·05). The results suggest that mouth breathing during sleep is related to a decrease in intraoral pH compared with normal breathing during sleep, and this has been proposed as a causal factor for dental erosion and caries.

  11. Estudo das medidas antropométricas e das proporções orofaciais em crianças respiradoras nasais e orais de diferentes etiologias Study of anthropometric measurements and orofacial proportions of nasal- and mouth-breathing children from different etiologies

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    Geovana de Paula Bolzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar e comparar as medidas e proporções orofaciais de crianças respiradoras nasais, orais obstrutivas e orais viciosas, com dentição mista. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 57 crianças, 32 meninas e 25 meninos, leucodermas, com idades entre sete anos e cinco meses e 11 anos e dez meses. Os participantes realizaram triagem fonoaudiológica e avaliação otorrinolaringológica para diagnóstico do modo respiratório e etiologia da respiração oral. As avaliações possibilitaram a classificação das crianças em três grupos: 15 respiradores nasais; 22 respiradores orais obstrutivos; e 20 respiradores orais viciosos. Foi realizada avaliação antropométrica orofacial, com paquímetro digital. As medidas e proporções orofaciais de cada grupo estudado foram descritas. Medidas antropométricas e proporções orofaciais dos grupos foram comparadas, num nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: Não foram verificadas diferenças nas medidas antropométricas e proporções orofaciais de respiradores nasais e respiradores orais obstrutivos e viciosos. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o modo respiratório e as diferentes etiologias da respiração oral não determinam diferenças nas medidas e proporções orofaciais em crianças no período de dentição mista.PURPOSE: To verify and compare the orofacial measurements and proportions of children with nasal breathing, obstructive mouth breathing and habitual mouth breathing, with mixed dentition. METHODS: Fifty-seven children, 32 girls and 25 boys, caucasian, with ages varying from seven years and five months to 11 years and ten months, participated in this study. The participants carried out a Speech-Language Pathology screening and an otolaryngological evaluation, in order to diagnose the breathing mode and the mouth breathing etiology. Based on the evaluations, the children were classified into three groups: 15 nasal breathers; 22 obstructive mouth breathers; and

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Veronique Sousa; Maria Paço; Teresa Pinho

    2017-01-01

    .... Changes in any of the parts may lead to a general postural imbalance. Purpose: To verify if there is a relation between breathing pattern and swallowing with posture, dental occlusion and harmful oral habits of the sample under study...

  13. Association between breastfeeding and breathing pattern in children: a sectional study

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    Teresinha S.P. Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. METHODS: this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutritive sucking. To determine the breathing patterns that the children had developed, medical history and clinical examination were used. Statistical analysis was conducted to examine the effects of exposure on the primary outcome (mouth breathing, and the prevalence ratio was calculated with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: of the total sample, 43.1% of the children were mouth breathers, 48.4% had been breastfed exclusively until six months of age or more, and 27.4% had non-nutritive sucking habits. Statistically significant associations were found for bottle-feeding (p < 0.001 and oral habits of non-nutritive sucking (p = 0.009, with an increased likelihood of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern. A statistically significant association was also observed between a longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding and a nasal breathing pattern presented by children. CONCLUSION: an increased duration of exclusive breastfeeding lowers the chances of children exhibiting a predominantly oral breathing pattern.

  14. Association Between Breastfeeding And Breathing Pattern In Children: A Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Teresinha S.P. Lopes; Moura, Lúcia F A D; Lima, Maria C M P

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine the prevalence of mouth breathing and to associate the history of breastfeeding with breathing patterns in children. Methods this was an observational study with 252 children of both genders, aged 30 to 48 months, who participated in a dental care program for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to the children's mothers assessing the form and duration of breastfeeding and the oral habits of non-nutr...

  15. Prevalência e fatores associados à respiração oral em escolares participantes do projeto Santo Amaro-Recife,2005 Prevalence and factors related to mouth breathing in school children at the Santo Amaro project-Recife,2005

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    Valdenice Aparecida De Menezes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar prevalência de crianças portadoras de respiração oral inscritas no Projeto Santo Amaro/ ESEF/ UPE e verificar as principais alterações faciais e comportamentais associadas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Estudo transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Amostra de 150 crianças de 8 a 10 anos. Dados coletados mediante aplicação de questionário e exames clínicos. Para o diagnóstico da respiração foram feitos dois testes. Teste 1, observado no espelho, vapor decorrente da respiração, e teste 2, a permanência de água na boca com os lábios em contato pelo tempo de 3 minutos. RESULTADOS: Prevalência de respiração oral foi de 53,3%. Não se comprovou diferença significante entre gênero, faixa etária, tipo de respiração. As alterações faciais da respiração oral foram: selamento labial inadequado (58,8% x 5,7%, olhos caídos (40,0% x 1,4%, palato ogival (38,8% x 2,9%, mordida aberta anterior (60,0% x 30,0%, lábios hipotônicos (23,8% x 0,0% e olheiras (97,5% x 77,1%. CONCLUSÃO: Prevalência de respiração oral elevada sem diferença estatística entre os gêneros, faixa etária e tipo de respiração oral. Não houve associação entre características comportamentais e o tipo de respiração. Houve diferença significante entre as características físicas e o padrão de respiração.AIM: To determine the prevalence of mouth breathing children at the santo amaro project/ esef/ upe, and study their main facial and behavior alterations. STUDY DESIGN: transversal study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: there were 150 children in the sample, with ages ranging from 8 to 10 years. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire and clinical examinations. As for their breathing assessment, two tests were carried out: test 1- breath steam against a mirror; and test 2 -water remains in the mouth with lips closed for 3 minutes. RESULTS: mouth breathing prevalence was of 53.3%. There was no significant difference between gender, age and type of

  16. Mouth breathing children have cephalometric patterns similar to those of adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome Crianças respiradoras bucais apresentam padrão cefalométrico semelhante àquele observado em pacientes adultos com síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono

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    Maria Ligia Juliano

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether mouth breathing children present the same cephalometric patterns as patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. METHOD: Cephalometric variables were traced and measured on vertical lateral cephalometric radiographs. The cephalometric measurements of 52 mouth and 90 nose breathing children were compared with apneic patients. The children had not undergone adenoidectomy or tonsillectomy and had not had or were not receiving orthodontic or orthopedic treatment. RESULTS: Mouth breathing children showed same cephalometric pattern observed in patients with OSAS: a tendency to have a retruded mandible (p=0.05, along with greater inclination of the mandibular and occlusal planes (pOBJETIVO: Determinar se crianças respiradoras bucais apresentam o mesmo padrão cefalométrico que os pacientes que tem síndrome da apnéia obstrutiva do sono (SAOS. MÉTODO: Foram traçadas radiografias laterais verticais da cabeça para a mensuração das variáveis cefalométricas. As medidas cefalométricas de 52 crianças respiradoras bucais e de 90 crianças respiradoras nasais foram comparadas à de pacientes com apnéia. Foram excluídas as crianças que haviam sido submetidas à cirurgia de remoção de amídalas ou adenóides, ou que haviam recebido tratamento ortodôntico prévio ou em andamento. RESULTADOS: As crianças respiradoras bucais apresentaram o mesmo padrão cefalométrico observado em pacientes com SAOS: tendência a ter retrusão de mandíbula (p=0,05, assim como uma maior inclinação dos planos mandibular e oclusal (p<0,01 e tendência a ter maior inclinação dos incisivos superiores (p=0,08. O espaço da nasofaringe e o espaço aéreo posterior se apresentaram muito diminuídos nas crianças respiradoras bucais, como é observado em pacientes com SAOS (p<0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Crianças respiradoras bucais apresentam padrão cefalométrico alterado e sua morfologia craniofacial é semelhante àquela observada

  17. Interrelation between orthodontics and phonoaudiology in the clinical decision-making of individuals with mouth breathing

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    Rúbia Vezaro Vanz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the decision making of orthodontists of Passo Fundo district - Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil, in the Orthodontics/Speech Therapy interdisciplinary treatment of mouth breathing individuals. METHODS: The present study is a quantitative approach and the design is descriptive, using as instrument data collection of a questionnaire sent to 22 orthodontists practicing in the above-mentioned district. The project was approved the the Ethics in Research Committee and all individuals signed a free informed consent. RESULTS: All professionals considered the inter-relation between Orthodontics and Speech Therapy necessary, but divergences were found in situations where a associated therapy may exist, considering that 54.5% trust the inter-relation to develop aspects associated to language, orofacial motricity and habits. In cases of associated treatment, the results obtained were considered satisfactory by 73.7% of professionals, even though they consider that only 6 to 20% of their patients collaborate with treatment. CONCLUSION: In relation to decision-making in treatment of mouth breathing individuals, the orthodontists in Passo Fundo/RS agree that there is need for speech therapy. The full vision of the individual in a multidisciplinary team is of fundamental importance in the treatment of patients with mouth breathing syndrome.

  18. [Nasal obstruction and mouth breathing: the ENT's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboulanger, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive diseases of children's upper airways are frequent, mostly caused by tonsils and adenoids hypertrophy. A nasal septum deviation or a lower turbinate hypertrophy may also cause a significant obstruction. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy must be performed in case of clinical obstruction, sometimes documented by a sleep study. A tonsils' hypertrophy without significant obstruction and clinical symptoms is not an indication of adenotonsillectomy, even in case of snoring or if an orthodontic treatment is planned.

  19. Relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais The relationship between excursion of the diaphragm and curvatures of the spinal column in mouth breathing children

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    Liu Chiao Yi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a relação entre a excursão do músculo diafragma e as curvaturas da coluna vertebral em crianças respiradoras bucais. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 52 crianças de 5 a 12 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. Por meio de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, foram divididas em dois grupos: respiradores bucais e respiradores nasais. Todos os participantes foram submetidos a exame de videofluoroscopia do músculo diafragma e a avaliação postural. A excursão do diafragma foi analisada pelo programa Adobe Photoshop®, e a avaliação postural através de fotografias em norma lateral esquerda, sendo analisadas pelo Software de Avaliação Postural. RESULTADOS: Os grupos estudados apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significante quanto ao comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral (lordose cervical: p = 0,003; lordose lombar: p = 0,001; cifose torácica: p = 0,002; posição da pelve: p = 0,001 e da excursão do músculo diafragma (diafragma lado direito: p = 0,001; diafragma lado esquerdo: p = 0,001. O grupo respirador bucal apresentou diminuição da lordose cervical, aumento da cifose torácica, aumento da lordose lombar e anteversão da posição da pelve. A distância excursionada pelo músculo diafragma em crianças respiradoras bucais é menor que em crianças respiradoras nasais. Não houve significância estatística ao relacionar o comportamento das curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma. CONCLUSÃO: Não há relação entre as curvaturas da coluna vertebral com a excursão do músculo diafragma nos grupos estudados.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between excursion of the diaphragm muscle and spinal curvatures in mouth breathing children. METHODS: A total of 52 children of both sexes, aged from 5 to 12 years, were studied. After otorhinolaryngological assessment, the children were divided into two groups: mouth breathers and nose breathers. All of the children underwent

  20. The influence of snoring, mouth breathing and apnoea on facial morphology in late childhood: a three-dimensional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Ali, Ala; Richmond, Stephen; Popat, Hashmat; Playle, Rebecca; Pickles, Timothy; Zhurov, Alexei I; Marshall, David; Rosin, Paul L; Henderson, John; Bonuck, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and face shape morphology in a large cohort of 15-year-old children. Design Observational longitudinal cohort study Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), South West of England. Participants Three-dimensional surface laser scans were taken for 4784 white British children from the ALSPAC during a follow-up clinic. A total of 1724 children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and 1862 healthy children were identified via parents’ report of sleep disordered symptoms for their children. We excluded from the original cohort all children identified as having congenital abnormalities, diagnoses associated with poor growth and children with adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. Main outcome measures Parents in the ALSPAC reported sleep disordered symptoms (snoring, mouth breathing and apnoea) for their children at 6, 18, 30, 42, 57, 69 and 81 months. Average facial shells were created for children with and without SDB in order to explore surface differences. Results Differences in facial measurements were found between the children with and without SDB throughout early childhood. The mean differences included an increase in face height in SDB children of 0.3 mm (95% CI −0.52 to −0.05); a decrease in mandibular prominence of 0.9° (95% CI −1.30 to −0.42) in SDB children; and a decrease in nose prominence and width of 0.12 mm (95% CI 0.00 to 0.24) and 0.72 mm (95% CI −0.10 to −0.25), respectively, in SDB children. The odds of children exhibiting symptoms of SDB increased significantly with respect to increased face height and mandible angle, but reduced with increased nose width and prominence. Conclusions The combination of a long face, reduced nose prominence and width, and a retrognathic mandible may be diagnostic facial features of SBD that may warrant a referral to specialists for the evaluation of other clinical symptoms of

  1. Estudio cefalométrico del hueso hioides en niños respiradores bucales de 11 años.: Segunda parte Cephalometry study of hyoid bone in children aged 11 mouth-breathing (second part

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    Dariel Carulla Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una correlación entre el comportamiento de la posición del hioides con el crecimiento del maxilar y de la mandíbula, los ángulos cérvico-basio-hioideo y el espacio aéreo póstero-inferior, desde el punto de vista cefalométrico, a un grupo de pacientes respiradores bucales. Se analizaron las historias clínicas de 60 pacientes, de 11 años de edad, que acudieron a la consulta de Ortodoncia en el área de salud de la Facultad de Estomatología. Se utilizaron matrices de coeficiente de correlación lineal de Pearson, para evaluar la posición del hioides con respecto a dichas variables. Se encontró descenso del hueso, y relaciones significativas con las variables que reflejan el crecimiento maxilar y mandibular, así como la posición de la columna vertebral (segmento cervical y de la cabeza, además del espacio aéreo posterior de la faringe, con un nivel de significación del 5 %.A correlation between the behavior of hyoid bone location and the maxilla and the mandible growth, the cérvico-basio-hyoid angles and the lower posterior aerial space from the cephalometry point of view in a group of patients mouth-breathing. The medical records from 60 patients aged 11 seen in the Orthodontics consultation from the health area of Stomatology Faculty were reviewed. We used matrix of Pearson's linear correlation to assess the hyoid bone location regarding such variables; noting a bone drop and significant relations with above variables reflecting the maxillary and mandibular growth, the spinal column position (cervical segment and the head; as well ass the posterior aerial space of the pharynx with a 5 % significance level.

  2. Replacement of Missing Anterior Teeth in a Patient with Chronic Mouth Breathing and Tongue Thrusting

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    Satheesh B. Haralur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature.

  3. Replacement of missing anterior teeth in a patient with chronic mouth breathing and tongue thrusting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralur, Satheesh B; Al-Qahtani, Ali Saad

    2013-01-01

    The loss of anterior teeth has serious functional, esthetic disabilities, in addition to compromising the patients' quality of life. Various etiologies can be attributed to the anterior tooth loss, including trauma, caries, and periodontal diseases. The chronic mouth breathing due to nasal adenoids is known to enhance the gingival and periodontal diseases. The dental literature proves the association of nasal breathing, tongue thrusting, and anterior open bite. Arch shape and tooth position are primarily determined by the equilibrium of the forces from tongue and perioral musculature. Increased force from tongue musculature in the tongue thrusting patient leads to flaring of anterior teeth, making them susceptible for periodontal and traumatic tooth loss. Replacement of the anterior teeth in this patient will also help in restoration of anterior guidance, which is critical for the health of temporomandibular joint, posterior teeth, and musculature.

  4. Análise comparativa da mastigação de crianças respiradoras nasais e orais com dentição decídua Comparative analysis of mastication in children with nasal and mouth breathing with first teething

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    Marta Assumpção de Andrada e Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar as possíveis alterações, causadas pelo modo respiratório, na mastigação de crianças com dentição decídua completa, respiradoras orais e nasais. MÉTODOS: participaram da pesquisa 46 crianças (23 respiradoras nasais - RN e 23 respiradoras orais - RO matriculadas em duas escolas públicas de Educação Infantil de São Caetano do Sul. Foi aplicado um questionário aos pais para coletar dados sobre a respiração das crianças, os quais foram relacionados aos achados da avaliação oromiofuncional que constatou o modo respiratório. A amostra foi dividida nos grupos RO e RN e realizada avaliação da mastigação de pão francês (por meio de observação direta e análise de vídeo-gravação. RESULTADOS: foi encontrada mordida frontal em 91,3% dos RN e 82,6% dos RO; mastigação bilateral alternada em 78,3% dos RN e 87,0% dos RO; movimentos verticais e rotatórios em 95,7% dos RN e 100% dos RO; tempo médio de mastigação de 24,10 seg. nos RN e 15,92 seg. nos RO; volume médio ingerido em 73,9% para ambos os grupos; ausência de alimento no vestíbulo bucal em 73,9% dos RN e 39,1% dos RO; ausência de ruído em 91,3% dos RN e 60,9% dos RO; lábios abertos em 4,3% dos RN e 56,5% dos RO; simetria dos músculos masseter e temporal em 100% nos dois grupos. CONCLUSÃO: houve diferença estatisticamente significante na comparação dos modos respiratórios evidenciando que o modo interfere negativamente na mastigação do respirador oral quanto aos aspectos: tempo mastigatório, sobras de alimento na cavidade oral, postura dos lábios e ruído durante a mastigação.PURPOSE: to investigate the possible alterations caused by breathing modus in mastication in a group of children with complete first teething, nasal and mouth breathing. Method: 46 children took part in this investigation (23 children were nasal breathing- NB and 23 children mouth breathing- MB. Children were enrolled in two public kindergartens in S

  5. The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Joong; Choi, Ji Ho; Kim, Kang Woo; Kim, Tae Hoon; Lee, Sang Hag; Lee, Heung Man; Shin, Chol; Lee, Ki Yeol; Lee, Seung Hoon

    2011-04-01

    Open-mouth breathing during sleep is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and is associated with increased disease severity and upper airway collapsibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of open-mouth breathing on the upper airway space in patients with OSA using three-dimensional multi-detector computed tomography (3-D MDCT). The study design included a case-control study with planned data collection. The study was performed at a tertiary medical center. 3-D MDCT analysis was conducted on 52 patients with OSA under two experimental conditions: mouth closed and mouth open. Under these conditions, we measured the minimal cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and retroglossal regions (mXSA-RP, mXSA-RG), as well as the upper airway length (UAL), defined as the vertical dimension from hard palate to hyoid. We also computed the volume of the upper airway space by 3-D reconstruction of both conditions. When the mouth was open, mXSA-RP and mXSA-RG significantly decreased and the UAL significantly increased, irrespective of the severity of OSA. However, between the closed- and open-mouth states, there was no significant change in upper airway volume at any severity of OSA. Results suggest that the more elongated and narrow upper airway during open-mouth breathing may aggravate the collapsibility of the upper airway and, thus, negatively affect OSA severity.

  6. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

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    Maria Christina Thomé Pacheco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB while 167 (24.3% were mouth breathers (MB; 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB.

  7. Craniofacial changes and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in healthy children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Maria Christina Thomé; Fiorott, Bruna Santos; Finck, Nathalia Silveira; de Araújo, Maria Teresa Martins

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The main cause of mouth breathing and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood is associated with upper airway narrowing to varying degrees. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of morphological and functional craniofacial changes and the main clinical symptoms of SDB in healthy children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. A sample comprising 687 healthy schoolchildren, aged 7-12 years old and attending public schools, was assessed by medical history, clinical medical and dental examination, and respiratory tests. The self-perceived quality of life of mouth breathing children was obtained by a validated questionnaire. RESULTS: Out of the total sample, 520 children were nose breathers (NB) while 167 (24.3%) were mouth breathers (MB); 32.5% had severe hypertrophy of the palatine tonsils, 18% had a Mallampati score of III or IV, 26.1% had excessive overjet and 17.7% had anterior open bite malocclusion. Among the MB, 53.9% had atresic palate, 35.9% had lip incompetence, 33.5% reported sleepiness during the day, 32.2% often sneezed, 32.2% had a stuffy nose, 19.6% snored, and 9.4% reported having the feeling to stop breathing while asleep. However, the self-perception of their quality of life was considered good. CONCLUSION: High prevalence of facial changes as well as signs and symptoms of mouth breathing were found among health children, requiring early diagnosis and treatment to reduce the risk of SDB. PMID:26154460

  8. Efeito da fisioterapia sobre os parâmetros ventilatórios e a dinâmica tóraco-abdominal de crianças respiradoras bucais Effects of the physical therapy on ventilatory parameters and thoracoabdominal dynamics of mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana dos Santos Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da fisioterapia nos parâmetros ventilatórios e na dinâmica tóraco-abdominal de crianças respiradoras bucais. Dez crianças respiradoras bucais foram submetidas a um programa de reeducação respiratória e correção postural durante 20 sessões de exercícios de alongamento e fortalecimento muscular sobre a bola suíça, estimulação diafragmática e alongamento dos músculos acessórios da inspiração. Os dados coletados foram as medidas de pressões inspiratórias e expiratórias máximas (PIM e PEM, capacidade inspiratória (CI, pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, mobilidade torácica por meio do coeficiente respiratório (Cr nos níveis axilar (CrA, xifoide (CrX e umbilical (CrU e análise biofotogramétrica do ângulo de Charpy. Estes foram verificados antes e após 10 e 20 atendimentos. Os dados foram submetidos a uma análise de variância (ANOVA e, nas diferenças encontradas entre as médias, aplicou-se o Teste de Tukey com nível de significância de 5% (pThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of the physiotherapy on the ventilatory parameters and thoracoabdominal dynamics of mouth breathing children. Ten mouth breathing children were undergone to 20 sessions of respiratory reeducation and postural correction through stretching and strengthening exercises on Swiss ball, diaphragmatic stimulation and stretching of the inspiratory accessory muscles. The data collected were measurements of the maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, inspiratory capacity (IC, peak expiratory flow (PEF, the chest wall mobility measured by the respiratory coefficient (Rc at the levels of the axillary (RcA, xiphosternal (RcX and umbilical (RcU regions and biophotogrametry analysis of the Charpy angle. These were measured before and after 10 and 20 sessions. A 1-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to determine differences in variables among the three evaluations. Post

  9. Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Maria Elaine; Boufleur, Jalusa; Soares, Juliana Corrêa; Haygert, Carlos Jesus Pereira; Ries, Lilian Gerdi Kittel; Corrêa, Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the electromyographic activity of the accessory inspiratory muscles and the diaphragmatic amplitude (DA) in nasal and mouth-breathing adults. The study evaluated 38 mouth-breathing (MB group) and 38 nasal-breathing (NB group) adults, from 18 to 30years old and both sexes. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was used to evaluate the amplitude and symmetry (POC%) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius (UT) muscles at rest, during nasal slow inspiration at Lung Total Capacity (LTC) and, during rapid and abrupt inspiration: Sniff, Peak Nasal Inspiratory Flow (PNIF) and Maximum Inspiratory Pressure (MIP). M-mode ultrasonography assessed the right diaphragm muscle amplitude in three different nasal inspirations: at tidal volume (TV), Sniff and inspiration at LTC. The SCM activity was significantly lower in the MB group during Sniff, PNIF (pMouth breathing reflected on lower recruitment of the accessory inspiratory muscles during fast inspiration and lower diaphragmatic amplitude, compared to nasal breathing.

  10. Qualidade de vida em sujeitos respiradores orais e oronasais Life quality for mouth and oronasal breathing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Hideko Nagae

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar a qualidade de vida de sujeitos com respiração oral ou oronasal. MÉTODO: compuseram a amostra 49 voluntários, distribuídos em dois grupos: grupo de respiradores orais com 24 sujeitos e grupo de respiradores oronasais com 25 sujeitos, com faixa etária ente 18 e 38 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos. O protocolo utilizado foi o WHOQOL-BREF (versão em português e o registro e análise dos dados foi realizado pelo sistema Statistical Analysis System. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos foram submetidos aos testes de qui-quadrado de Mantel-Haenszele análise de variância. A qualidade de vida dos respiradores mistos se revelou inferior nos domínios ambiental, físico e psicológico em relação aos respiradores orais. CONCLUSÃO: com a detecção das diferenças obtidas, o estudo chama a atenção para a necessidade de aprofundar investigações sobre o perfil dos respiradores oronasais e sua relevância. Para que condutas como desconsiderar o grupo de respiradores oronasais ou agrupá-los como respiradores orais não sejam adotadas de forma inadequada.PURPOSE: to investigate the life quality of subjects with mouth or oronasal breathing. METHOD: the sampling was composed of 49 volunteers distributed into 2 groups: mouth breathing subjects’ group with 24 subjects and oronasal breathing subjects’ group (mouth and nose with 25 subjects, within the 18-38 age group, both genders. The WHOQOL-BREF (Portuguese version protocol was used and the data analysis and recording were carried out using the Statistical Analysis System. RESULTS: the obtained results underwent Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test and variance analysis. Life quality in oronasal breathing subjects was demonstrated to be better in environmental, physical and psychological domain in relation to mouth breathing subjects. CONCLUSION: considering the obtained differences, the study draws attention to the need for better investigating the profile of oronasal breathing

  11. [Could mouth breathing lead to obstructive sleep apnea syndromes. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, S; Limme, M; Poirrier, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary work is to determine an easy method to diagnose "buccal breather" children and "nasal breather" children. Then, to establish a possible connection with the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. 22 children agreed to participate. Clinical, orthophonic, orthodontic, postural and polysomnographical exams have been carried out. The proposed clinical exam turns out to be a good means of diagnosing between buccal breathers and nasal breathers. The aerophonoscope reveals velar inadequacies in buccal breathers. The latter also present osseous discrepancies mainly in the mandible. The polysomnography reveals a higher apnea/hypopnea index and more agitated sleep in buccal breathers. Mandibular lowering movements are more frequent and similar to those of adults suffering from apnea. These elements similar to those encountered in adults suffering from apnea make us think that buccal breathing could be the origin of obstructive sleep apnea, several decades later.

  12. Relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing%异常吞咽对口呼吸影响初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孟武; 李洪发; 王秋锐; 许皓; 贺竞男

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing.Methods Thirty-eight patients with abnormal swallowing and 38 patients with normal swallowing were selected.All patients presented with no airway constriction.The age range of the patients was 11-14 years old.The number of patients with mouth breathing was calculated.Statistical analysis (x2 test) was performed.Results The number of patients with mouth breathing in the abnormal swallowing group (17,45%) was significantly higher than that in the normal swallowing group (5,13%) (x2 =9.212,P =0.002).Conclusions Abnormal swallowing was related to mouth breathing.%目的 通过比较正常和异常吞咽错(牙合)畸形患者口呼吸人数的差异,探讨异常吞咽对口呼吸的影响.方法 选择11~14岁无上气道狭窄或阻塞的异常吞咽和正常吞咽正畸患者各38例,分别记录2组患者口呼吸人数,并进行卡方检验.结果 异常吞咽组口呼吸人数[17(45%)]多于正常吞咽组[5(13%)],差异有统计学意义(x2 =9.212,P=0.002).结论 异常吞咽对口呼吸有影响.

  13. Postural alterations in children with mouth breathing assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry Alterações posturais em crianças portadoras de síndrome da respiração bucal, avaliadas através do método da biofotogrametria computadorizada

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    Luciane Capelasso de Oliveira Lima

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the posture of children with obstructive (OMB and functional mouth breathing (FMB and children with nasal breathing (NB using computerized biophotogrammetry, as well as to determine the viability and efficacy of this method. METHODS: Evaluative and personalized methods were used for the capture and analysis of angle images obtained from 19 NB, 26 FMB and 17 OMB children of either gender aged 8 to 10 years on anterior, posterior and profile views. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to analyze the three groups as a whole and the Mann-Whitney test was used for pairwise comparison of the groups (p = 0.05. RESULTS: The angle related to the lateral knee condyle, lateral ankle malleolus and 5th metatarsal diaphysis (KAM was significantly greater in NB than in FMB children. With respect to the angle related to the nasal external acoustic meatus and pogonion (GMM, nasal external acoustic meatus and manubrium (GME, and 2nd cervical vertebra, major cervical curvature point and 7th cervical vertebra (C2C7, significantly higher values were observed for the OMB group compared to NB children. The angle formed by the 2nd thoracic vertebra, the major prominent thoracic point and the 9th thoracic vertebra (T2T9 was significantly greater in FMB than in OMB children. CONCLUSIONS: Computerized biophotogrammetry was found to e a safe and reliable technique, allowing comparison between the children analyzed, as well as the detection of postural alterations in mouth breathing children.OBJETIVOS: Mensurar e comparar a postura de crianças respiradoras bucais obstrutivas (RBO e funcionais (RBF, entre si e com crianças respiradoras nasais (RN, através da biofotogrametria computadorizada e verificar a viabilidade e a eficácia da utilização deste método. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se métodos avaliativos e personalizados de captação e análise das imagens angulares de 19 crianças RN, 26 RBF e 17 RBO, de 8 a 10 anos de

  14. O impacto do tratamento fonoaudiológico no controle da asma e da rinite alérgica em crianças e adolescentes respiradores orais The impact of speech therapy on asthma and allergic rhinitis control in mouth breathing children and adolescents

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    Silvia M. A. Campanha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Detectar o impacto do tratamento fonoaudiológico no controle da asma e da rinite alérgica em crianças e adolescentes respiradores orais. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de um estudo quase-experimental; foram randomizados 24 pacientes com asma, rinite alérgica e respiração oral, idade de 6 a 15 anos. Todos os pacientes usavam dipropionato beclometasona inalação oral. No momento em que aceitaram participar da pesquisa, a inalação oral foi substituída pela inalação exclusivamente nasal na inspiração e, após 1 mês, associou-se ao tratamento fonoaudiológico em metade dos pacientes. Esses receberam 16 sessões de tratamento fonoaudiológico em 8 semanas, além do dipropionato de beclometasona inalação exclusivamente nasal (grupo DBF. O grupo de comparação recebeu somente dipropionato beclometasona inalação exclusivamente nasal (grupo DBI. Os dois grupos foram avaliados em cinco tempos. Utilizou-se o escore clínico da rinite alérgica, da asma, o protocolo de avaliação miofuncional orofacial adaptado de Marchesan (2003, a observação dos responsáveis, dados de espirometria, de pico de fluxo inspiratório e de pico de fluxo expiratório. RESULTADOS: Houve melhora significativa do grupo DBF: escores clínicos da asma no tempo 5 (p = 0,046; valores do pico de fluxo inspiratório no tempo 4 (p = 0,030; pico de fluxo expiratório no tempo 3 (p = 0,008; modo respiratório e postura de lábios (p = 0,000 a partir do tempo 3; observação dos responsáveis, no tempo 2, tempo 4 e tempo 5 (p = 0,010; p = 0,027; p = 0,030. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento fonoaudiológico associado ao dipropionato beclometasona por inalação exclusivamente nasal promoveu um controle clínico e funcional mais precoce e duradouro da asma, da rinite alérgica e da respiração oral entre os grupos estudados.OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of speech therapy on asthma and allergic rhinitis control in mouth breathing children and adolescents. METHODS: This was a

  15. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Seyed Esfandiar Akhavan; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shakiba, Bijan; Fakhimi, Ali; Dehpour, Ahamd Reza

    2008-08-01

    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which play a crucial role in the function of the central nervous system (CNS), for example, in modulating seizure threshold. Thus, in the study described here, we examined whether mouth breathing, induced by surgical ligation of nostrils, could affect the seizure threshold induced by pentylenetetrazole in male NMRI mice. Using the selective K(ATP) channel opener (diazoxide) and blocker (glibenclamide), we also evaluated the possible role of K(ATP) channels in this process. Our data revealed that seizure threshold was increased 6 to 72 hours after nasal obstruction, reaching a peak 48 hours afterward, compared with either control or sham-operated mice (Pmouth breathing, which could result in respiratory acidosis, increases seizure threshold in mice and K(ATP) channels may play a role in this effect.

  16. Estudo comparativo radiológico e nasofibroscópico do volume adenoideano em crianças respiradoras orais Comparison between radiological and nasopharyngolaryngoscopic assessment of adenoid tissue volume in mouth breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    2005-02-01

    frequent and one of the oldest surgical procedures performed in children and young adults. The criteria for tonsillectomy, its effect on patient's immunological integrity and the surgical risks are widely controversial. Image study using paranasal sinuses x-ray is a very simple, easy and comfortable method to evaluate the sizes of adenoids and the grade of upper airway obstruction. Cohen et al. supported that paranasal sinuses x-ray is the best way to determine pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy. On the other hand, nasopharyngolaryngoscopy can provide more accurate data on the nasopharynx, as it can dynamically reveal its structures and the obstruction status of the upper airway. This study compared the grade of adenoid hypertrophy, as well as upper airway obstruction, using the above-mentioned approaches in children ranging from 3 to 10 years old. The study came to the conclusion that nasopharyngolaryngoscopy is a much more accurate diagnostic procedure than radiological evaluation of the nasopharynx.

  17. Influences of the breathing route on upper airway dynamics properties in normal awake subjects with constant mouth opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Verin, Eric; Sériès, Frédéric

    2006-11-01

    MB (mouth breathing) promotes the occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing even in non-apnoeic subjects. Considering that MO (mouth opening) contributes to an increase in UA (upper airway) collapsibility independently of MB, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of breathing route on UA dynamics in the presence of MO. Bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation was performed 2 s after expiratory onset in 12 healthy male subjects during wakefulness (age, 50+/-5 years; body mass index, 27.8+/-2.4 kg/m(2)) during MB through a mouthpiece and during exclusive NB (nasal breathing) with the same mouthpiece in place. Twitch-induced V(I) (instantaneous flow), P(ph) and P(es) (pharyngeal and oesophageal pressures respectively) were recorded and the corresponding resistances were measured. A polynomial regression model, V(I)=k(1)P(d)+k(2)P(d)(2), was used to characterize flow-pressure relationship and to determine the P(d) value at which UA collapses. There was no difference in UA dynamic properties between NB and MB when UA collapse occurred above the pharyngeal catheter. For twitches where UA collapse occurred lower in the UA, pharyngeal resistance decreased from NB to MB (2.0+/-0.3 and 1.5+/-0.2 cmH(2)Oxl(-1)xs respectively; P=0.02; values are means+/-S.D.), whereas closing pressure increased (-25.7+/-10.1 and -18.0+/-3.0 cmH(2)O respectively; P=0.04). We conclude that (i) in the presence of MO the dynamic properties of the proximal UA free of phasic activity do not differ between NB and MB, and (ii) MB decreases the upstream resistance and increases collapsibility of the distal UA.

  18. Cephalometric Evaluation of Children with Allergic Rhinitis and Mouth Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Helena Afonso; Furtado, Ivo Ãlvares; Silva, Francisco Salvado; Ustrell Torrent, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Introdução: Os ortodontistas tratam frequentemente crianças com respiração oral. O objectivo deste estudo foi avaliar as posições dentárias, efeitos esqueléticos e espaço aéreo da faringe, causados pela respiração bucal em crianças com rinite alérgica crónica, comparando com grupo de controlo de padrão respiratório normal.Material e Métodos: Foram avaliadas setenta crianças caucasianas do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria (Lisboa), entre Setembro/ 2009 e Fevereiro/2013. O grupo de estudo compreendia 35 crianças com rinite alérgica crónica de ambos os géneros, idades entre 5 e 14 anos, reação positiva a aeroalergénios, respiração bucal e má-oclusão dentária. O grupo controlo incluiu 35 crianças, da mesma idade, ambos os géneros, com respiração nasal e má-oclusão dentária, que recorreram ao departamento de ortodontia. Utilizaram-semedidas de Ricketts, Steiner e análise de McNamara. Foi aplicado teste estatístico t de Student.Resultados: Verificaram-se diferenças estatísticas significativas entre respiradores orais e nasais, respectivamente quanto à altura facial inferior (49,1/45,9 mm), ângulo entre o plano de Frankfurt e o plano mandibular (30,1/26,9º), ângulo entre a linha Sela-Nasion e o plano oclusal (17,3/15º), comprimento maxilar (78,4/82,4 mm) e mandibular (102,4/107 mm), overbite (0,8/3,1mm) e overjet (4/4,7 mm).Discussão: A comparação entre os grupos demonstrou que as crianças com rinite alérgica e respiração oral apresentam maior altura facial inferior, maior ângulo entre o plano de Frankfurt e o plano mandibular e maior ângulo entre a linha Sela-Nasion e o plano oclusal. Este grupo apresentou também menor comprimento da maxila e da mandíbula, menor overbite e diminuição do espaço aéreo respiratório superior.Conclusões: As crianças com rinite alérgica e respiração oral têm faces mais longas, maxilas e mandíbulas mais curtas e espaço aéreo faríngeo menor. Não existem diferenças estatísticas significativas entre grupos nas bases ósseas (plano sagital) ou inclinações dentárias.

  19. Oximetry in obese children with sleep-disordered breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelisti, Melania; Shafiek, Hanaa; Rabasco, Jole; Forlani, Martina; Montesano, Marilisa; Barreto, Mario; Verhulst, Stijn; Villa, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Obesity is an important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and obese children with OSAS have frequently shown oxygen desaturations when compared with normal-weight children. The aim of our study was to investigate the oximetry characteristics in children with obesity and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods: Children referred for suspected OSAS were enrolled in the study. All children underwent sleep clinical record (SCR), pulse oximetry, and p...

  20. The Effects of Athletic Mouth Protectors upon Work of Breathing during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    procedures. For instance, mouth protectors used as temporary covers can simplify oral surgery in patients with orthodontic appliances by preventing...confidential. If we publis the results of the study in a scientific journal or book, you will r.t be identified in any way. Your ecision to take part in...protectors for football players. J. Am. Dent. Assoc., 66:354-355. 10. Illinois Dental Journal . 1970. News from Sangamon County. Society issues mouth

  1. O impacto da asma, da rinite alérgica e da respiração oral na qualidade de vida de crianças e adolescentes Impact of asthma, allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing in life quality of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Márcia Andrade Campanha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: qualidade de vida em pacientes com doenças respiratórias. OBJETIVO: rever a literatura enfocando o impacto da asma, da rinite alérgica e da respiração oral na qualidade de vida do paciente, as relações entre essas morbidades e medidas que possam diminuir esse impacto. CONCLUSÃO: há consenso na literatura de que existe inter-relação dessas co-morbidades. O impacto da asma, rinite alérgica e respiração oral afetam diretamente a qualidade de vida do indivíduo não só pela alteração respiratória, mas, também pelos prejuízos comportamentais, funcionais e físicos que ocasionam. O controle dessas morbidades é um tema usual na literatura. Novas propostas terapêuticas englobam o envolvimento de equipes multiprofissionais. Há programas de saúde estruturados com essa visão e objetivam não só melhorar a condição respiratória, mas, também propõem medidas que analisam a qualidade de vida e possibilitam avaliação global do paciente.BACKGROUND: quality of life for patient with breathing illnesses. PURPOSE: to review specialized literature focusing on the impact of asthma, allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing on patient's life quality, the relationship between these illnesses and measures that can reduce this impact. CONCLUSION: it is a consensus in the specialized literature that there is a relationship between these illnesses. Asthma, allergic rhinitis and mouth breathing affect the person's life quality not only producing breathing disorder but also causing behavioral, functional and physical damage. Controlling these illnesses is a usual subject in the specialized literature. New therapeutic proposals include the involvement of multiprofessional teams. There are health programs whose goals are not only the improvement of respiratory condition. They also propose measures that analyze life quality and make possible patient's global evaluation.

  2. A study on the relationship between mouth breathing and facial morphological pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Ana Paula; Guedes, Zelita Caldeira Ferreira; Vieira, Marilena Manno

    2007-01-01

    Breathing is responsible for facial and cranial morphology development. investigate in order to see if there is any relationship between oral breathing and facial type. 119 male and female teenagers, with ages ranging between 15 and 18 years. The sample was separated in two groups: A-50 teenage oral breathers, 28 males and 22 females; and group B- 69 teenage nasal breathers, 37 males and 32 females. The sample was collected at the Centro de Atendimento e Apoio ao Adolescente do Departamento de Pediatria da UNIFESP/ EPM. We evaluated breathing and facial measures. by means of anthropometric indexes we classified facial types and associated them with the persons breathing type, Hypereuriprosopic (Total=0; oral breathers 0%; nasal breathers 0%; Euriprosopic (Total=14; oral breathers 2.52%, nasal breathers 9.24%;Mesoprosope (Total=20; oral breathers 19.32%; nasal breathers 21.01%, Leptoprosopic (Total=37; oral breathers 14.29%; nasal breathers 16.81%; Hyperleptoprosopic (Total =48; oral breathers 5.89% nasal breathers 10.92%). The mesoprosopic facial type was found in 48 teenagers (40.33%) of whom 25 (21.01%) were oral breathers and 23 (19.32%) were nasal breathers. it was not possible to prove the existence of an association between oral breathing and facial type.

  3. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust.

  4. Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength in Mouth Breathers: Clinical Evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Renata Andrade da

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The child who chronically breathes through the mouth may develop a weakness of the respiratory muscles. Researchers and clinical are seeking for methods of instrumental evaluation to gather complementary data to clinical evaluations. With this in mind, it is important to evaluate breathing muscles in the child with Mouth Breathing. Objective To develop a review to investigate studies that used evaluation methods of respiratory muscle strength in mouth breathers. Data Synthesis  The authors were unanimous in relation to manovacuometry method as a way to evaluate respiratory pressures in Mouth Breathing children. Two of them performed with an analog manovacuometer and the other one, digital. The studies were not evaluated with regard to the method efficacy neither the used instruments. Conclusion There are few studies evaluating respiratory muscle strength in Mouth Breathing people through manovacuometry and the low methodological rigor of the analyzed studies hindered a reliable result to support or refuse the use of this technique.

  5. Influência do biofeedback respiratório associado ao padão quiet breathing sobre a função pulmonar e hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais Influence of respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern on the pulmonary function and habits of functional mouth breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EF Barbiero

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos da utilização do biofeedback respiratório (BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing sobre a perimetria torácica, função pulmonar, força dos músculos respiratórios e os seguintes hábitos de respiradores bucais funcionais (RBF: vigília de boca aberta, boca aberta durante o sono, baba no travesseiro, despertar difícil, ronco e sono inquieto. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 20 crianças RBF, as quais foram submetidas a 15 sessões de BR por meio do biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1.0, o qual proporciona o biofeedback dos movimentos tóraco-abdominais. Perimetria torácica, espirometria e medidas das pressões respiratórias máximas estáticas foram realizadas antes e após a terapia. Questões respondidas pelos responsáveis foram utilizadas para avaliar os hábitos dos RBF. Os dados foram analisados por meio de teste t de Student para dados pareados e testes não paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O uso do BR associado ao padrão quiet breathing não produziu alterações significativas na perimetria torácica e nos valores de volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo (VEF1, capacidade vital forçada (CVF, pico de fluxo expiratório (PFE, índice de Tiffeneau (IT e na pressão expiratória máxima (PEmáx. Entretanto, a pressão inspiratória máxima (PImáx apresentou diferença estatisticamente significativa (-53,6 ± 2,9 cmH2O vs. -65,0 ± 6,0 cmH2O; pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of using respiratory biofeedback associated with a quiet breathing pattern, on chest circumference, pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and the following functional mouth-breathing habits: watching things with mouth open, sleeping with mouth open, dribbling on the pillow, difficulty in waking up, snoring and restlessness during sleep. METHOD: Twenty functional mouth-breathing children were evaluated. They underwent 15 sessions of respiratory biofeedback by means of the biofeedback pletsmovent (MICROHARD® V1

  6. Estudo da função muscular peribucal, do grau de inclinação vestíbulo-lingual e da discrepância de modelo dos incisivos inferiores permanentes em crianças respiradoras nasais e bucais com oclusão normal e má oclusão de Classe I A perioral muscles activity, buccal-lingual inclination and space discrepancy of the lower incisors study, in mouth or nasal breathing children with normal or Class I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine W. Vieira

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a existência de correlação entre o modo respiratório bucal, o comportamento dos músculos orbicular inferior da boca e mentoniano e a determinação de características oclusais específicas, na região anterior do arco dentário inferior. A amostra constituiu-se de 88 crianças brasileiras, leucodermas, sendo 49 do gênero masculino e 39 do gênero feminino, com média de idade de 6 anos e 11 meses, dividida em 4 subgrupos, portadores de: oclusão normal e modo respiratório nasal (ONRN; oclusão normal e modo respiratório bucal (ONRB; má oclusão de Classe I e modo respiratório nasal (CLIRN e má oclusão de Classe I e modo respiratório bucal (CLIRB. Foram realizados 22 testes eletromiográficos, avaliação do grau de inclinação vestíbulo-lingual (FMIA e da discrepância de modelo (DM dos incisivos inferiores permanentes. Após terem sido submetidos à análise estatística os resultados indicaram que, quando comparados os subgrupos, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa para as variáveis dentárias e para a maioria das variáveis eletromiográficas avaliadas. Desta forma, a alteração do modo respiratório não pôde ser relacionada às características oclusais e aos comportamentos musculares estudados.The purpose of this study was to verify the existence of any correlation between the mouth breathing, the inferior orbicularis oris and mentalis muscles activity and specific dental features in the anterior area of the lower dental arch. A sample formed by 88 leucodermas brazilian children, 49 boys and 39 girls, with a medium age of 6 years and 11 months, was divided into 4 subgroups according to the oclusal type and breathing mode presented: normal occlusion and nasal breathing (ONRN, normal occlusion and mouth breathing (ONRB, Class I malocclusion and nasal breathing (CLIRN and Class I malocclusion and mouth breathing (CLIRB. This research involved the performance of 22

  7. BREATHING EXERCISE RELAXATION INCREASE PHSYCOLOGICAL RESPONSE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being hospitalize will be made the children become stress. Hospitalization response of the child particularly is afraid sense regard to painfull procedure and increase to attack the invasive procedure. The aimed of this study was to describe the influence of breathing exercise relaxation technique regarded to phsycological receiving responses in the preeliminary school chidren while they were receiving invasive procedure. Method: A quasy experimental purposive sampling design was used in this study. There were 20 respondents who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the breathing exercise relaxation technique and the dependent variable was phsycological receiving responses. Data for phsylogical response were collected by using observation form then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Mann Whitney U Test with significance level α≤0.05. Result :  The result showed that breathing exercise relaxation technique had significance influence to phsycological response (p=0.000. Discussion: It,s can be concluded that breathing exercise relaxation technique has an effect to increase pshycological response in preeliminary school children who received invasive procedure.

  8. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask...... tidal breathing in young children....

  9. Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3–18 Months Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura H. Kwong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3–18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3–6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6–12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12–18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor. Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children’s exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries.

  10. A randomized clinical trial of salivary substitute as an adjunct to scaling and root planing for management of periodontal inflammation in mouth breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anu; Sharma, Rajinder K; Tewari, Shikha; Narula, Satish C

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the outcome of conventional periodontal treatment in mouth breathing patients with chronic periodontitis, and compared the efficacy of applying salivary substitute to the anterior sextants as an adjunct to conventional treatment in such patients. In this randomized, investigator-blind, clinical study involving parallel groups, 40 mouth breathing patients were divided into two groups: a control group (CG, n = 20) comprising patients who received scaling and root planing (SRP), and a test group (TG, n = 20) who received salivary substitute as an adjunct to SRP for treatment of chronic periodontitis. The patients were followed up at various time intervals, and improvement of the gingival index (GI) was examined as the primary outcome. Student's t-test, repeated-measures ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U test were applied for statistical analysis. Although periodontal parameters were improved in both groups after 8 weeks of follow-up, the test group showed better improvement in terms of GI and percentage bleeding on probing. Within the limits of this study, our results suggest that the use of salivary substitute has a beneficial adjunctive effect for improvement of periodontal parameters in mouth breathing patients with chronic periodontitis.

  11. Concentrations of some metabolites in the breath of healthy children aged 7-18 years measured using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderby, B; Lenney, W; Brady, M; Emmett, C; Spaněl, P; Smith, D

    2009-09-01

    Using selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), measurements have been made of the levels of several metabolites in the exhaled breath of 200 healthy school children. Thus, concentration distributions of each metabolite have been obtained for the first time in the paediatric age range. The median values (in parentheses) of the concentrations in parts per billion, ppb, were ammonia (628), acetone (297), methanol (193), ethanol (187), isoprene (37), propanol (16), acetaldehyde (23) and pentanol (15). Hydrogen cyanide was not present in the breath above the detection limit of 2 ppb in the majority of subjects. The water vapour level (humidity) of the breath samples was routinely measured as a check on the sample integrity. Such data are essential if SIFT-MS breath analyses are to be used as a clinical tool to aid diagnosis and/or as a monitor of disease in children. The levels of metabolites usually followed a log-normal distribution and the levels of some compounds were similar to those obtained previously in adults. Lower values were found in the levels of acetone, ammonia, methanol and isoprene. There were no major variations in relation to gender. Some metabolites showed significant variation in relation to age and body mass index. To our knowledge, these are the first measurements of exhaled mouth breath pentanol levels. The median ammonia levels in mouth-exhaled breath of these children decreased with age, whereas in older adults, ammonia has been shown to increase with age. Breath acetone levels were significantly increased for those who had not eaten for more than 6 h prior to providing the breath sample, although dietary control was not a mandatory aspect of the protocol.

  12. Clinical Efficacy of Piracetam on Breath Holding Spells in Children

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    F. Ashrafzadeh

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells (BHS is a type of syncope in children , most commonly encontered in the early years of life. Although these athacks don't damage the brain , if these are frequent or prolonged cause , parents frighten , so physician should intervent. In this study we evaluated clinical efficacy of piracetam on B.H.S of children in Mashhad Ghaem Hospital during 2001-2002.In this double blind placebo control study , piracetam or placebo on a randomized basis was administered to children with 40 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 2 months. From the 41 children that were enrolled , 21 cases received piracetam and 20 cases received placebo. Parents denoted the numbers of spells two months before and two months after taking drug. Control of breath holding spells were observed in 90.5% of patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 40% in the group taking placebo (P = 0.002. Of the all patients 10 cases had iron deficiency anemia so they had taken elemental Fe too. The side effects were the same in these two groups. The results of this study indicated that piracetam was efficient for the treatment of children with B.H.S without greater incidence adverse effects than placebo.

  13. Mouthing of Soil Contaminated Objects is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiko; Perin, Jamie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Akter, Mahmuda; Talukder, Kaisar A; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Faruque, Abu G; George, Christine Marie

    2017-06-01

    To characterise childhood mouthing behaviours and to investigate the association between object-to-mouth and food-to-mouth contacts, diarrhoea prevalence and environmental enteropathy. A prospective cohort study was conducted of 216 children ≤30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Mouthing contacts with soil and food and objects with visible soil were assessed by 5-h structured observation. Stool was analysed for four faecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin and calprotectin. Overall 82% of children were observed mouthing soil, objects with visible soil, or food with visible soil during the structured observation period. Sixty two percent of children were observed mouthing objects with visible soil, 63% were observed mouthing food with visible soil, and 18% were observed mouthing soil only. Children observed mouthing objects with visible soil had significantly elevated faecal calprotectin concentrations (206.81 μg/g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.27, 407.36). There was also a marginally significant association between Escherichia coli counts in soil from a child's play space and the prevalence rate of diarrhoea (diarrhoea prevalence ratio: 2.03, 95% CI 0.97, 4.25). These findings provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that childhood mouthing behaviour in environments with faecal contamination can lead to environmental enteropathy in susceptible paediatric populations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that young children mouthing objects with soil, which occurred more frequently than soil directly (60% vs. 18%), was an important exposure route to faecal pathogens and a risk factor for environmental enteropathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Relação entre má oclusão e hábitos em respiradores orais Relationship between malocclusion and oral habits in mouth breathing

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    Flávia Leães de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a relação entre má oclusão e hábitos orais deletérios em um grupo de respiradores orais. MÉTODOS: estudo retrospectivo realizado por meio da análise de dados dos prontuários de 41 crianças, com idades entre sete e 12 anos, sendo 21 do sexo masculino e 20 do sexo feminino, todas respiradoras orais. As informações coletadas foram organizadas em um Banco de Dados no programa Excel, considerando-se as variáveis: idade, sexo, presença e tipo de hábito oral, e presença e tipo de má oclusão. RESULTADOS: todas as crianças apresentavam algum tipo de má oclusão, com predomínio de classe II de Angle, e sobressaliência acentuada; entre os hábitos, o mais incidente foi o de colocação de objetos na boca, embora todas as crianças tenham apresentado um, ou mais hábitos deletérios; no cruzamento das variáveis, a única relação estatisticamente significante encontrada foi entre o hábito de lamber lábios e a sobressaliência acentuada. CONCLUSÃO: conclui-se que, nessa amostra, a presença de hábitos deletérios não foi determinante para a instalação das más oclusões, que a respiração oral pode ter desencadeado as más oclusões nesse grupo e que, a associação dos hábitos deletérios com a respiração oral, pode ter agido como fator agravante para a instalação, ou desenvolvimento das más oclusões nessas crianças.PURPOSE: to check the relationship between malocclusion and deleterious oral habits in a group of mouth breathing. METHODS: this study was accomplished through data analysis of 41 children handbooks, with ages between 7 and 12 years, being 21 of masculine gender and 20 of feminine gender, all mouth breathing. The collected information was organized in a database using an Excel program, considering the variables: age, gender, presence and type of oral habit, and presence and type of malocclusion. RESULTS: all children presented some type of malocclusion, with prevalence of class II of

  15. Dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma : a rare but relevant comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperventilation and other clinical manifestations of dysfunctional breathing have been reported in childhood, but the prevalence is unknown. In adults, dysfunctional breathing may be a relevant comorbidity in asthma. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in children with a

  16. Dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma : a rare but relevant comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Eric P.; Duiverman, Eric J.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Hyperventilation and other clinical manifestations of dysfunctional breathing have been reported in childhood, but the prevalence is unknown. In adults, dysfunctional breathing may be a relevant comorbidity in asthma. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in children with

  17. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  18. EFFECT OF BICLOTYMOL ON MOUTH CAVITY MUCOSAL MICROBIOTA IN CHILDREN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. K. Katosova; A. V. Lazareva; O. A. Ponomarenko

    2014-01-01

    ...: we revealed that antibacterial effect of biclotymol on mouth cavity microbiota manifests itself with elimination of such species and genera of opportunistic microflora as Staphylococcus aureus...

  19. Adenotonsillectomy and neurocognitive deficits in children with Sleep Disordered Breathing.

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    Mark J Kohler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB is a common childhood disorder that encompasses a range of sleep-related upper airway obstruction. Children with SDB demonstrate significant neurocognitive deficits. Adenotonsillectomy is the first line of treatment for SDB and whilst this improves respiratory disturbance, it remains to be established whether neurocognitive gains also result. METHODS: A total of 44 healthy snoring children aged 3-12 years awaiting adenotonsillectomy (SDB group, and 48 age and gender matched non-snoring controls from the general community, completed the study. All children underwent polysomnography and neurocognitive assessment at baseline and after a 6-month follow-up (after surgery in the snoring group. Our primary aim was to determine whether neurocognitive deficits in snoring children were significantly improved following adenotonsillectomy. RESULTS: Wide ranging neurocognitive deficits were found at baseline in SDB children compared to controls, most notably a 10 point IQ difference (P<.001 and similar deficits in language and executive function. Whilst adenotonsillectomy improved respiratory parameters and snoring frequency at 6 months post surgery, neurocognitive performance did not improve relative to controls. CONCLUSION: Adenotonsillectomy successfully treated the respiratory effects of SDB in children. However, neurocognitive deficits did not improve 6-months post-operatively.

  20. Nasal Contribution to Breathing and Fine Particle Deposition in Children Versus Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the route of breathing, nasal versus oral, and the effectiveness of the nose to filter inhaled, fine particles may differ between children and adults. This study compared (1) the nasal contribution to breathing at rest and during mild to moderate exercise in children (age 6–...

  1. Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amon, Krestina L.; Campbell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated "The Journey to Wild Divine" as a biofeedback management tool teaching breathing and relaxation skills to children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD). The children played the game by manipulating their heart rate using breathing techniques taught in the game, measured through three finger sensors. Parents…

  2. Tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy versus non-surgical management for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, Roderick P; Hearne, Benjamin J; Chandrasekharan, Deepak; Blackshaw, Helen; Lim, Jerome; Schilder, Anne G M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) is a condition that encompasses breathing problems when asleep, due to an obstruction of the upper airways, ranging in severity from simple snoring to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). It affects both children and adults. In children,

  3. Clinical efficacy of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and a commercially available breath-freshening dentifrice in reducing mouth-odor-causing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Joe; Pilch, Shira; Williams, Malcolm I; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    The objective of this double-blind clinical study was to compare the long-lasting overnight (10- to 12-hour) and 4-hour effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh toothpaste to a commercial fluoridated breath-freshening dentifrice in controlling the level of mouth-odor-causing bacteria. Thirty-two adult men and women from New Jersey participated in the randomized, crossover design clinical study. After a 1-week "washout" period of brushing with a regular fluoride dentifrice, subjects refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking in preparation for the morning visit. After providing a baseline salivary sample, subjects were issued a soft-bristled toothbrush and instructed to brush their teeth twice a day (once in the morning and once before bed) for 1 minute with the assigned test dentifrice. After a 7-day product use cycle, the subjects returned to the test site, having refrained from dental hygiene, eating, and drinking. Subjects provided an overnight salivary sample (10 to 12 hours postbrushing). Subjects then ate, brushed for 1 minute with the assigned dentifrice, and returned for 2- and 4-hour postbrushing evaluations. Subjects refrained from dental hygiene, eating, or drinking during the 4-hour evaluation period. To collect the oral microflora samples, subjects rinsed with 10 mL of sterile water for 10 seconds and deposited their samples into sterile tubes. Each collected sample was serially diluted in sterile phosphate-buffered saline and duplicate-plated onto lead acetate agar. When plated onto this medium, mouth-odor-causing bacteria that produce hydrogen sulfide appear as dark pigmented colonies. After 96 hours of incubation, hydrogen-sulfide-producing bacteria were counted, expressed as log colony-forming units per milliliter, and reduction from baseline was calculated. The results of this clinical study support the conclusion that Colgate Total Advanced Fresh provides a significantly greater reduction in mouth-odor-causing bacteria than a commercial

  4. Dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma: a rare but relevant comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Eric P; Duiverman, Eric J; Brand, Paul L P

    2013-05-01

    Hyperventilation and other clinical manifestations of dysfunctional breathing have been reported in childhood, but the prevalence is unknown. In adults, dysfunctional breathing may be a relevant comorbidity in asthma. We aimed to determine the prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in children with asthma and its impact on asthma control. We performed a cross-sectional survey in 203 asthmatic children (aged 5-18 years), using the Nijmegen Questionnaire and the paediatric Asthma Control Questionnaire. Dysfunctional breathing was found in 11 (5.3%) children; more females (eight (12.9%) out of 62) than males (three (2.1%) out 144, p=0.002). There was a dose-dependent relationship between increasing Nijmegen Questionnaire scores (increased risk of dysfunctional breathing) and poorer asthma control. Poor asthma control was more common in patients with dysfunctional breathing (10 (90.9%) out of 11 children) than in children without (65 (32.3%) out of 192 children; OR 19.3, 95% CI 3.14-430.70; pbreathing was higher (median (range) 2.00 (1.50-3.17)) than in children without (0.50 (0.17-1.17); pbreathing in children and adolescents referred to a hospital-based paediatric asthma clinic for severe or difficult-to-control asthma is 5%. The association between dysfunctional breathing and asthma control suggests that this may be a clinically relevant comorbidity in paediatric asthma.

  5. [Effect of mouth breathing on the severity of morphological and functional changes of dental system in patients with otolaryngologic pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenina, O I; Piksaikina, K G; Popova, A V; Popova, N V

    2014-01-01

    The study included 282 patients aged 5 to 14 years with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil. Diagnostic algorithm is presented. The study results allowed elaboration of complex rehabilitation of nasal breathing and miodynamic equilibrium in the maxillofacial region by means of elastopositioner.

  6. Lactulose Breath Test Assessment in Children with Upper Gastrointestinal Pathology and Correction of Violations by Laktiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Marushko

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions. The use of lactulose hydrogen breath test indicates the possibility of improving treatment and preventive measures in children with gastroduodenal pathology. Probiotic Laktiale is an effective drug that helps normalize intestinal flora.

  7. Sintomas e sinais de respiração predominantemente oral em adolescentes com transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade e queixa de prejuízo escolar Symptoms and signs of mouth breathing in teenagers with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and with complaints about school underachievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Leonel da Silva Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: caracterizar sintomas e sinais da Respiração Predominantemente Oral em adolescentes com Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade e queixa de prejuízo escolar e relacionar as características com os Tipos do Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade, gênero e faixa etária. MÉTODOS: realizada no ADOLESCENTRO, instituição pública do Distrito Federal, com 115 adolescentes de ambos os gêneros, faixa etária 10-18 anos, apresentando queixa de prejuízo escolar e Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade. Histórico dos sintomas diurnos e noturnos dos dois aos doze anos foi analisado e sinais da Respiração Predominantemente Oral. RESULTADOS: alta ocorrência (86,95% de sintomas e sinais da Respiração Predominantemente Oral. Registrou-se associação entre amigdalite e tipos do Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade com maior frequência no Tipo II hiperativo (60%, sialorreia no travesseiro com gênero predominando o masculino (65,5% e respiração oral diurna (64,7%, respiração oral noturna (82,4% e sialorreia no travesseiro (64,7% todas estas com a faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos. Houve associação entre lábios (54,3% e língua (54,3% não funcionais e faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos. Encontrou-se diferença estatisticamente significante para expulsões (20%, suspensões (70%, advertências (100% e tipos de Transtorno de Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade com maior freqüência no Tipo II hiperativo. CONCLUSÃO: avaliação da respiração em pacientes com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção/Hiperatividade e queixa de prejuízo escolar é fundamental, pois dificuldades escolares podem estar associadas à história pregressa de respiração oral e Distúrbios Respiratórios do Sono comuns nestes quadros.PURPOSE: to characterize symptoms and signs of Mouth Breathing in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and with complaints about school underachievement. The specific

  8. Comparison of the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus colony count changes in saliva following chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse, combination mouth rinse, and green tea extract (0.5% mouth rinse in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul J Hegde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compounds present in green tea have been shown to inhibit the growth and activity of bacteria associated with oral infections. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse and combination (chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouth rinse to that of green tea extract (0.5% mouth rinse in reducing the salivary count of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in children. Materials and Methods: The sample for the study consisted of 75 school children aged 8–12 years with four or more (decay component of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Children were divided randomly into three equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. Nonstimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected at baseline and postrinsing and tested for the colony forming units of S. mutans and Lactobacillus. Results: The results of the study indicate that there was a statistically significant reduction in S. mutans and lactobacilli count in all the three study groups. The statistically significant reduction in the mean S. mutans and lactobacilli counts were more in 0.12% chlorhexidine group than in the combination mouth rinse and 0.5% green tea mouth rinse group. There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of S. mutans and lactobacilli count between combination mouth rinse group and 0.5% green tea mouth rinse group. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be a promising preventive therapy worldwide for the prevention of dental caries.

  9. Cardiac Repolarization Changes in the Children with Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoozgar, Hamid; Saleh, Fazl; Farhani, Nahal; Rafiei, Mohammad; Inaloo, Soroor; Asadipooya, Ali-Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Objective Breath-holding spells are known as benign attacks, frequencies of which decrease by the development of the autonomic nervous system. The present study aims to compare the electrocardiographic repolarization in children with breath-holding spells. Methods In this study, QT dispersion, QTc dispersion, T peak to T end dispersion, and P wave dispersion of the twelve-lead surface electrocardiography of fifty children who had breath-holding spells were measured and compared with normal children from April 2011 to August 2012. Findings Forty-four (88%) patients had cyanotic spells, while 6 (12%) had pallid spells. QTc dispersion was increased in the patients with breath-holding spells (148.2±33.1) compared to the healthy children (132±27.3) and the difference was statically significant (P = 0.01). Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between the patients and the control subjects regarding the other parameters (P > 0.05). Conclusion QTc dispersion was significantly increased in the patients with breath-holding spells compared to normal children and this is a sign of cardiac repolarization abnormality as well as the increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia in patients with breath-holding spells. PMID:24910749

  10. Measurement of oxygen consumption in children undergoing cardiac catheterization: comparison between mass spectrometry and the breath-by-breath method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Long; Cui, Yong; Pharis, Scott; Walsh, Mark; Atallah, Joseph; Tan, Meng-Wei; Rutledge, Jennifer; Coe, J Y; Adatia, Ian

    2014-06-01

    Accurate measurement of oxygen consumption (VO2) is important to precise calculation of blood flow using the Fick equation. This study aimed to validate the breath-by-breath method (BBBM) of measuring oxygen consumption VO2 compared with respiratory mass spectroscopy (MS) for intubated children during cardiac catheterization. The study used MS and BBBM to measure VO2 continuously and simultaneously for 10 min in consecutive anesthetized children undergoing cardiac catheterization who were intubated with a cuffed endotracheal tube, ventilated mechanically, and hemodynamically stable, with normal body temperature. From 26 patients, 520 data points were obtained. The mean VO2 was 94.5 ml/min (95 % confidence interval [CI] 65.7-123.3 ml/min) as measured by MS and 91.4 ml/min (95 % CI 64.9-117.9 ml/min) as measured by BBBM. The mean difference in VO2 measurements between MS and BBBM (3.1 ml/min; 95 % CI -1.7 to +7.9 ml/min) was not significant (p = 0.19). The MS and BBBM VO2 measurements were highly correlated (R (2) = 0.98; P measure VO2 in anesthetized intubated children undergoing cardiac catheterization. The two methods demonstrated excellent agreement. However, BBBM may be more suited to clinical use with children.

  11. Breath hydrogen test in infants and children with blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, O; Kai, H; Harada, T; Ogawa, M; Maki, I; Tajiri, H; Kanaya, S; Kimura, S; Shimizu, K; Yabuuchi, H

    1984-06-01

    Breath hydrogen production after oral lactose loading was examined in infants and children with stagnant loop syndrome, blind loop syndrome, or both. All six infants under 3 years of age had bacteriological evidence of small intestinal colonization. The characteristics of the breath hydrogen test in this syndrome are: (a) extremely high basal excretion of breath hydrogen (after overnight fasting); (b) an earlier and greater breath hydrogen value (0.293 +/- 0.201 ml/min/m2: mean +/- SD) after oral lactose administration than formed in lactose malabsorption alone (0.050 +/- 0.041 ml/min/m2); and (c) the observation of a sustained hydrogen rise over several hours. This investigation demonstrated that the breath hydrogen test is a promising and noninvasive tool for diagnosing blind (or stagnant) loop syndrome.

  12. Parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in Caucasian and Hispanic children – the Tucson children's assessment of sleep apnea study

    OpenAIRE

    Fregosi Ralph F; Kaemingk Kris L; Goodwin James L; Rosen Gerald M; Morgan Wayne J; Smith Terry; Quan Stuart F

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. Although there have been several cross-sectional and clinical studies of parasomnias in children, there have been no large, population-based studies using full polysomnography to examine the association between parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing. The Tucson Ch...

  13. EFFECT OF BICLOTYMOL ON MOUTH CAVITY MUCOSAL MICROBIOTA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Katosova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Biclotymol [bis(chloro-4-thymolmethyl] is a biphenol derivative used for local treatment of pharyngeal inflammatory diseases. It is an antiseptic drug with bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. Objective: evaluation of the drug’s antibacterial activity towards opportunistic and normal oropharyngeal microflora and identification of its minimum bactericidal concentration for the main bacterial pathogens of the upper respiratory tract. Results: we revealed that antibacterial effect of biclotymol on mouth cavity microbiota manifests itself with elimination of such species and genera of opportunistic microflora as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemophilus spp. and anginosus streptococci. We also revealed antibacterial activity of biclotymol against normal microbiota representatives, which included viridans streptococci. Out of this group of streptococci, only 1/3 of the initial amount of Streptococcus salivarius remained in place. Alongside identification of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of biclotymol against opportunistic microflora we revealed the most sensitive bacteria requiring the lesser drug concentration for the antibacterial effect to take place – Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae; intermediate – Moraxella catarrhalis, S. pyogenes and S. aureus; and resistant – non-pathogenic Neisseria species. Among the strains that survived biclotymol exposure, MIC was the highest in Neisseria spp. – 20 mg/ml after a 30‑minute-long exposure. Conclusions: results of a study of antibacterial effect of a topical antiseptic containing biclotymol demonstrated that the drug’s bactericidal activity is primarily aimed at gram-positive cocci represented both by opportunistic and non-pathogenic microbes. Non-pathogenic Neisseria species abundantly inhabiting mouth cavity mucosae and gram-negative rod-like microbes, which are uncharacteristic of the biotope under study, appeared to be

  14. Free-breathing motion-corrected late-gadolinium-enhancement imaging improves image quality in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Laura; Cross, Russell; O'Brien, Kendall J; Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Hansen, Michael S

    2016-06-01

    The value of late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging in the diagnosis and management of pediatric and congenital heart disease is clear; however current acquisition techniques are susceptible to error and artifacts when performed in children because of children's higher heart rates, higher prevalence of sinus arrhythmia, and inability to breath-hold. Commonly used techniques in pediatric LGE imaging include breath-held segmented FLASH (segFLASH) and steady-state free precession-based (segSSFP) imaging. More recently, single-shot SSFP techniques with respiratory motion-corrected averaging have emerged. This study tested and compared single-shot free-breathing LGE techniques with standard segmented breath-held techniques in children undergoing LGE imaging. Thirty-two consecutive children underwent clinically indicated late-enhancement imaging using intravenous gadobutrol 0.15 mmol/kg. Breath-held segSSFP, breath-held segFLASH, and free-breathing single-shot SSFP LGE sequences were performed in consecutive series in each child. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the quality of the images and rated them on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = superior) based on blood pool-myocardial definition, presence of cardiac motion, presence of respiratory motion artifacts, and image acquisition artifact. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare groups. Patients ranged in age from 9 months to 18 years, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of 13.3 +/- 4.8 years. R-R interval at the time of acquisition ranged 366-1,265 milliseconds (ms) (47-164 beats per minute [bpm]), mean +/- SD of 843+/-231 ms (72+/-21 bpm). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for long-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.1+/-0.9, 3.4+/-0.9 and 4.0+/-0.9, respectively (P quality ratings for short-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.4+/-1, 3.8+/-0.9 and 4.3+/-0.7, respectively (P quality ratings than standard breath-held techniques. Use of free-breathing

  15. Considerações teóricas sobre a relação entre respiração oral e disfonia Theoretical considerations on the relationship between mouth breathing and dysphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gomes Tavares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sabe-se que a respiração oral pode ocasionar diversas alterações ósseas, posturais, musculares e funcionais, como também, alterações na qualidade e/ou comportamento vocal. Estas alterações podem comprometer a comunicação oral, na qual a voz não consegue desempenhar seu papel básico de transmissão da mensagem verbal e emocional do indivíduo. O indivíduo com respiração oral pode apresentar ressonância nasalizada e a voz pode apresentar alterações no traço de sonoridade, hiper ou hiponasal, ou rouca. A partir de pesquisa nas bases de dados LILACS, SciELO, livros, revistas especializadas sobre o tema, buscamos fazer uma revisão na literatura sobre a relação entre respiração oral e disfonia, analisando a influência das alterações causadas pela respiração oral na qualidade e/ou comportamento vocal. No entanto, foi possível observar que a respiração oral promove uma série de alterações estruturais significativas que refletem nas funções estomatognáticas, interferindo também na fonação. Contudo, poucos autores relatam a possível correlação entre esses dois parâmetros (respiração oral e disfonia.It is known that mouth breathing can lead to several bone, postural, muscular and functional alterations, and also changes on vocal quality and/or vocal behavior. These alterations can compromise oral communication, in which the voice cannot perform its basic role on the transmission of an individual's verbal and emotional message. Individuals with mouth breathing can present hiper or hiponasal resonance, changes on voicing features and hoarseness. From researches on LILACS and SciELO databases, books and specialized magazines about the subject, it was carried a literature review about the relationship between mouth breathing and dysphonia, analyzing the influence of alterations caused by mouth breathing on vocal quality and/or vocal behavior. It was possible observe that mouth breathing promotes several

  16. Clinical application of inert gas Multiple Breath Washout in children and adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserloot, Annelies; Fuchs, Susanne I; Müller, Christina; Bisdorf, Kornelia; Gappa, Monika

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Children with asthma often have normal spirometry despite significant disease. The pathology of the small airways in asthma may be assessed using Multiple Breath Washout (MBW) and calculating the Lung Clearance Index (LCI). There are only few studies using MBW in children with asthma a

  17. Feasibility of a new method to collect exhaled breath condensate in pre-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosias, Philippe P. R.; Robroeks, Charlotte M.; van de Kant, Kim D.; Rijkers, Ger T.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; van Schayck, Constant P.; Heynens, Jan W.; Jobsis, Quirijn; Dompeling, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a promising non-invasive method to assess respiratory inflammation in adults and children with lung disease. Especially in pre-school children, condensate collection is hampered by long sampling times because of open-ended collection systems. We aimed to assess the

  18. Efficacy of two commonly available mouth rinses used as preprocedural rinses in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: There are many studies on the effect of preprocedural mouth rinses in adults, but there is a dearth of the literature on the effects of these mouth rinses in children. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of two commercially available brands, one containing chlorhexidine 0.12% (Colgate Periogard and the other containing cetylpyridinium chloride 0.05% (Johnson and Johnson′s Reach used as preprocedural mouth rinses in children. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 18 patients in the age group of 10-15 years. A crossover design was used with the random assignment of the first rinse tested and a wash out period of at least 1 week before the second rinse was used. The saliva samples were collected prerinse, 2 min, 30 min, and 60 min after rinsing with the solution. The samples were inoculated and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. After 48 h, the resultant bacterial colonies were counted. Results: Statistical analysis was done using Wilcoxon′s signed rank test, ANOVA, and Newman-Keul′s studentized range test. Periogard had the highest percentage reduction in both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms followed by Reach and the least effective was normal saline which was used as a control. Conclusions: Periogard is comparatively better as a preprocedural mouth rinse than Reach.

  19. Evaluation of changes in sleep breathing patterns after primary palatoplasty in cleft children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Wynne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a need to more clearly understand the characteristics of breathing patterns in children with cleft palate in the first year of life, as there is little data available to guide current practice. Pierre Robin patients are known to have a higher incidence, however we hypothesised sleep breathing disturbance is not confined to this sub-group of cleft patient. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of sleep disordered breathing patterns in a cohort of infants with oro-nasal clefts (cleft palate with or without cleft lip to describe the spectrum of sleep breathing patterns both pre and post palate repair. Sleep breathing studies were performed pre- and post-operatively in sequential infants referred to a regional cleft lip and palate unit. Results of sleep breathing studies were analysed according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine scoring guidelines and correlated with clinical history and details of peri-operative respiratory compromise. The degree of sleep disordered breathing was characterised using desaturation indices (number of desaturations from baseline SpO2 of >=4%, per hour. Results: Thirty-nine infants were included in this study, twenty-five female and fourteen male. Twelve had isolated Cleft Palate as part of an associated syndrome. Patients were categorised into Isolated Cleft Palate, Isolated Cleft Palate in the context of Pierre Robin Sequence, and those with Cleft Lip and Palate. All groups demonstrated some degree of sleep breathing abnormality. Not unsurprisingly the eight infants with Pierre Robin Sequence had a significantly higher desaturation index before surgical intervention (p=0.043, and were more likely to require a pre-operative airway intervention (p=0.009. Palate repair in this group did not alter the relative distribution of patients in each severity category of sleep disorder breathing. Surgical repair of the secondary palate in the remaining children was associated with some

  20. Assessment of heart rate variability in breath holding children by 24 hour Holter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Osman; Ciftel, Murat; Ozturk, Kezban; Kilic, Omer; Kahveci, Hasan; Laloğlu, Fuat; Ceylan, Ozben

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism in children with breath holding may be generalised autonomic dysregulation. Thus, we performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability analyses using 24-hour Holter monitoring to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. We performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate analyses using 24-hour Holter monitors to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children during a breath-holding spell. Our study group consisted of 68 children with breath-holding spells - 56 cyanotic type and 12 pallid type - and 39 healthy controls. Clinical and heart rate variability results were compared between each spell type - cyanotic or pallid - and the control group; significant differences (p50 ms, and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals values were found between the pallid and cyanotic groups. Holter monitoring for 24 hours and heart rate variability parameters, particularly in children with pallid spells, are crucial for evaluation of cardiac rhythm changes.

  1. [The influence of breathing mode on the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtel, Anna; Klepacz, Robert; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nose breathing is one of the key factors in the proper development and functioning of the oral cavity. The air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified while dust and other particulate matter is removed. It is also important as far as bone formation is concerned. The obstruction or congestions of the upper respiratory tract may negatively affect the correct and most optimal (nasal) respiratory tract. The switch from nasal to mouth breathing may lead to serious clinical consequences. Children with the clinical diagnosis of mouth breathing are usually pale, apathetic and they lack concentration and often get tired. Disorders resulting from hypoxy may also be the reason from sleep disturbances, such as frequent waking-up, nocturia, difficulties falling aslee. The main clinical manifestations of mouth breathing appear in the craniofacial structures. Mouth breathers frequently suffer from dental malocclusions and craniofacial bone abnormalities. Chronic muscle tension around the oral cavity could result in the widening of cranio-vertebral angle, posterior position of mandibula and narrow maxillary arch. Among dental alterations the most common are class II malocclusion (total or partial) with the protrusion of the anterior teeth, cross bite (unilateral or bilateral), anterior open bite and primary crowded teeth. Apart from malocclusion, chronic gingivitis, periodontitis, candida infections and halitosis are frequently present in mouth--breathing patients.

  2. Avaliação da performance mastigatória em indivíduos respiradores nasais e orais Masticatory performance evaluation in patients with nasal and mouth breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosany Larissa Brito de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar, por meio da mastigação sequencial de uma "pastilha" artificial de Optosil, o desempenho mastigatório de indivíduos respiradores nasais e orais. MÉTODO: participaram sessenta sujeitos dentados na faixa etária de 14 a 22 anos. Uma "pastilha" de Optosil foi fornecida a cada participante, que executou 20 ciclos mastigatórios, os fragmentos foram colocados numa coluna de sete peneiras, sendo, posteriormente pesados numa balança de precisão. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise descritiva e inferencial (Teste T e ANOVA. RESULTADOS: os grupos respiradores nasais e respiradores orais foram constituídos de 30 jovens cada, com idade média de 17,87 e 17,83 anos respectivamente. Com relação ao gênero houve predominância do gênero feminino no grupo respirador oral e do gênero masculino no grupo respirador nasal Os cinco diagnósticos mais prevalentes no grupo respirador oral foram hipertrofia de adenóide, rinite alérgica, sinusite, asma e hipertrofia de amígdala. Por fim, ao ser realizado o Teste T, não foi encontrada diferença estatística na performance mastigatória nos respiradores orais e nasais (p>0,05. CONCLUSÃO: o padrão respiratório não foi um fator determinante na performance mastigatória.PURPOSE: the purpose is to evaluate, through the chewing sequence of an Optosil artificial "tablet", the masticatory performance in nasal breathing and mouth breathing. METHOD: we attended sixty dentate subjects aged 14-22 year old. An Optosil "tablet" was supplied to each participant, who executed 20 masticatory cycles, the Optosil fragments had been placed in a column with seven bolters, and the retained particles were weighed on a precision analytical balance and the masticatory efficiency value was calculated. The gotten data were submitted to the descriptive analysis and inferential analysis (test T and ANOVA. RESULTS: the nasal breathing and mouth breathing groups were composed by 30 young people each

  3. The single-breath diffusing capacity of CO and NO in healthy children of European descent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Astrid; Hanel, Birgitte; Marott, Jacob L;

    2014-01-01

    of 8-10 seconds (DL,CO). This method does not easily allow calculation of Dm and Vc. An alternative single-breath method (DL,CO,NO), involving simultaneous inhalation of carbon monoxide and nitric oxide, and traditionally a shorter breath hold, allows calculation of Dm and Vc and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio......, including the calculated outcomes Dm, Vc, and the DL,NO/DL,CO ratio, as well as to establish reference values for the outcomes of the traditional DL,CO method, with a 10 second breath hold in children. METHODS: DL,CO,NO and DL,CO were measured in healthy children, of European descent, aged 5-17 years using...

  4. Free-breathing motion-corrected late-gadolinium-enhancement imaging improves image quality in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, Laura; O' Brien, Kendall J. [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Cross, Russell [Children' s National Health System, Division of Cardiology, Washington, DC (United States); Xue, Hui; Kellman, Peter; Hansen, Michael S. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The value of late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) imaging in the diagnosis and management of pediatric and congenital heart disease is clear; however current acquisition techniques are susceptible to error and artifacts when performed in children because of children's higher heart rates, higher prevalence of sinus arrhythmia, and inability to breath-hold. Commonly used techniques in pediatric LGE imaging include breath-held segmented FLASH (segFLASH) and steady-state free precession-based (segSSFP) imaging. More recently, single-shot SSFP techniques with respiratory motion-corrected averaging have emerged. This study tested and compared single-shot free-breathing LGE techniques with standard segmented breath-held techniques in children undergoing LGE imaging. Thirty-two consecutive children underwent clinically indicated late-enhancement imaging using intravenous gadobutrol 0.15 mmol/kg. Breath-held segSSFP, breath-held segFLASH, and free-breathing single-shot SSFP LGE sequences were performed in consecutive series in each child. Two blinded reviewers evaluated the quality of the images and rated them on a scale of 1-5 (1 = poor, 5 = superior) based on blood pool-myocardial definition, presence of cardiac motion, presence of respiratory motion artifacts, and image acquisition artifact. We used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare groups. Patients ranged in age from 9 months to 18 years, with a mean +/- standard deviation (SD) of 13.3 +/- 4.8 years. R-R interval at the time of acquisition ranged 366-1,265 milliseconds (ms) (47-164 beats per minute [bpm]), mean +/- SD of 843+/-231 ms (72+/-21 bpm). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for long-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.1+/-0.9, 3.4+/-0.9 and 4.0+/-0.9, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Mean +/- SD quality ratings for short-axis imaging for segFLASH, segSSFP and single-shot SSFP were 3.4+/-1, 3.8+/-0.9 and 4.3+/-0.7, respectively (P < 0.01 by ANOVA). Single-shot late

  5. Increased Cerebral Blood Flow Velocity in Children with Mild Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine M.; Hogan, Alexandra M.; Onugha, Nwanneka; Harrison, Dawn; Cooper, Sara; McGrigor, Victoria J.; Datta, Avijit; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Sleep-disordered breathing describes a spectrum of upper airway obstruction in sleep from simple primary snoring, estimated to affect 10% of preschool children, to the syndrome of obstructive sleep apnea. Emerging evidence has challenged previous assumptions that primary snoring is benign. A recent report identified reduced attention and higher levels of social problems and anxiety/depressive symptoms in snoring children compared with controls. Uncertainty persists regarding clinical thresholds for medical or surgical intervention in sleep-disordered breathing, underlining the need to better understand the pathophysiology of this condition. Adults with sleep-disordered breathing have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease independent of atherosclerotic risk factors. There has been little focus on cerebrovascular function in children with sleep-disordered breathing, although this would seem an important line of investigation, because studies have identified abnormalities of the systemic vasculature. Raised cerebral blood flow velocities on transcranial Doppler, compatible with raised blood flow and/or vascular narrowing, are associated with neuropsychological deficits in children with sickle cell disease, a condition in which sleep-disordered breathing is common. We hypothesized that there would be cerebral blood flow velocity differences in sleep-disordered breathing children without sickle cell disease that might contribute to the association with neuropsychological deficits. Design Thirty-one snoring children aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from adenotonsillectomy waiting lists, and 17 control children were identified through a local Sunday school or as siblings of cases. Children with craniofacial abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, moderate or severe learning disabilities, chronic respiratory/cardiac conditions, or allergic rhinitis were excluded. Severity of sleep-disordered breathing in snoring children was categorized by attended

  6. Critique: Can Children with AD/HD Learn Relaxation and Breathing Techniques through Biofeedback Video Games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Conlon, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a critique on K. Amon and A. Campbell's "Can children with AD/HD learn relaxation and breathing techniques through biofeedback video games?". Amon and Campbell reported a successful trial of a commercially available biofeedback program, "The Wild Divine", in reducing symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)…

  7. Facial Expressions and Ability to Recognize Emotions From Eyes or Mouth in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guarnera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to contribute to the literature on the ability to recognize anger, happiness, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust and neutral emotions from facial information. By investigating children’s performance in detecting these emotions from a specific face region, we were interested to know whether children would show differences in recognizing these expressions from the upper or lower face, and if any difference between specific facial regions depended on the emotion in question. For this purpose, a group of 6-7 year-old children was selected. Participants were asked to recognize emotions by using a labeling task with three stimulus types (region of the eyes, of the mouth, and full face. The findings seem to indicate that children correctly recognize basic facial expressions when pictures represent the whole face, except for a neutral expression, which was recognized from the mouth, and sadness, which was recognized from the eyes. Children are also able to identify anger from the eyes as well as from the whole face. With respect to gender differences, there is no female advantage in emotional recognition. The results indicate a significant interaction ‘gender x face region’ only for anger and neutral emotions.

  8. Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli on healthy and carious teeth in the same mouth of children with and without dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, C. S.; Mogodiri, R.; Cleaton-Jones, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between mutans streptococci and lactobacilli contribute towards the microbial challenge of dental caries. A comparison was made between numbers of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli in plaque from primary teeth in healthy children and between caries-free teeth and carious lesions in the same mouth of children with caries. The study group comprised 107 nursery-school children with a clinically healthy dentition and 117 children with caries. After a dental examination with mirror...

  9. Lung function, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julliand, Sébastien; Boulé, Michèle; Baujat, Geneviève; Ramirez, Adriana; Couloigner, Vincent; Beydon, Nicole; Zerah, Michel; di Rocco, Federico; Lemerrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-08-01

    Children with achondroplasia are at risk of sleep-disordered breathing. The aim of the study was to evaluate lung function and sleep-disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia. An interview, clinical examination, lung function tests with blood gases, and a polygraphic sleep study were obtained as part of routine annual evaluation in consecutive children with achondroplasia. We included 30 children (median age 3.0 years, range: 0.4-17.1) over a period of 21 months. Habitual snoring and witnessed apneas were observed in 77% and 33% of the patients, respectively. Prior to the sleep study, 10/29 (34%) patients had undergone upper airway surgery and 5/29 (17%) craniocervical decompression operation. Arterial blood gases were abnormal in two (7%) patients. Sleep findings were abnormal in 28/30 (93%) patients. Eleven (37%) patients had an apnea index≥1 event/hr and 26 (87%) had an apnea-hypopnea index≥5 events/hr. The ≥3% desaturation index was >5/hr in 22 (73%) patients. Sixteen (53%) patients had a minimal pulse oximetry50 mmHg during sleep. As a consequence, the following therapeutic interventions were performed: upper airway surgery in four patients and noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in five other patients, resulting in an improvement in sleep studies in all nine patients. Systematic sleep studies are recommended in children with achondroplasia because of the high prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. Upper airway surgery and NPPV are effective treatments of sleep-disordered breathing. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of the discrepancy bone-teeth in children between 5 and 11 years with oral breathing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez; Raúl López Fernández; Ramón Ahmed Pérez García; Amaray Calzada Bandomo; Ileana Pérez Rodríguez; María de los Santos Haces Yanes

    2009-01-01

    .... The sample included 60 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years with oral breathing and Angle Class II and mixed dentition from the primary school "Guerrillero Heroico", Health Area II in Cienfuegos...

  11. Parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in Caucasian and Hispanic children – the Tucson children's assessment of sleep apnea study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fregosi Ralph F

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. Although there have been several cross-sectional and clinical studies of parasomnias in children, there have been no large, population-based studies using full polysomnography to examine the association between parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing. The Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study is a community-based cohort study designed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB in pre-adolescent children six to 11 years of age. This paper characterizes the relationships between parasomnias and SDB with its associated symptoms in these children. Methods Parents completed questionnaires pertaining to their child's sleep habits. Children had various physiological measurements completed and then were connected to the Compumedics PS-2 sleep recording system for full, unattended polysomnography in the home. A total of 480 unattended home polysomnograms were completed on a sample that was 50% female, 42.3% Hispanic, and 52.9% between the ages of six and eight years. Results Children with a Respiratory Disturbance Index of one or greater were more likely to have sleep walking (7.0% versus 2.5%, p p p Conclusions In this population-based cohort study, pre-adolescent school-aged children with SDB experienced more parasomnias than those without SDB. Parasomnias were associated with a higher prevalence of other sleep disturbances and learning problems. Clinical evaluation of children with parasomnias should include consideration of SDB.

  12. Serum cytokine profiles of children with human enterovirus 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Ying; Gan, Xing; Song, Juan; Sun, Peng; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Cytokine profiles may impact the pathogenicity and severity of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by human enterovirus (HEV) 71. In 91 severe or mild HEV 71-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease children, serum was collected between days 2 and 10 or day >10. Serum cytokines including Type 1 T helper (Th1) cytokines: interleukin (IL)-2, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-12, and IL-18, Type 1 T helper (Th2) cytokines: IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, proinflammatory cytokines: IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), were assessed during the early stage and recovery. In the patients with mild illness, the peaks of IL-8 and IL-10 were observed on day 6 and that of IL-18 was on day 4. In the patients with severe illness, all cytokines spiked on day 3 and peaked on day 11. All cytokines except IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-α were significantly correlated with immunoglobulin M levels by the end of the disease course. Cytokine profile variations between the patients with mild and severe illness may indicate prognosis and strain virulence, useful in clinical treatment of patients.

  13. Otolaryngologic findings in prepubertal obese children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate otolaryngologic findings in obese prepubertal children with sleep-disordered breathing. We prospectively evaluated 29 obese children referred by pediatric endocrinologist, complaining of snoring and without a history of nasal surgery or removal of the palatine tonsils and/or adenoids. Patients underwent ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, endoscopy, measurements of weight, height, calculation of body mass index (BMI), assessment of BMI z-score and polysomnography, from which were divided into two groups: those with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (nine children) and those with primary snoring (20 children). Then we proceeded to the statistical analysis of the data collected. The groups did not differ in age, gender, weight, height, BMI and BMI z-score. Among the findings of the ENT examination, the adenoid size was the only one that differed between the groups (p = 0.01). The evaluation of the adenoid size is an important in obese children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and is related to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Agreement between multiple-breath nitrogen washout systems in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncin, William; Singer, Florian; Aubriot, Anne-Sophie; Lebecque, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Comparability of multiple breath washout (MBW) systems has been little explored. We assessed agreement in lung clearance index (LCI) from two similar, commercial nitrogen MBW setups in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) and controls. The EasyOne Pro (NDD) and Exhalyzer D (EM) were randomly applied in 85 adults (34 with CF) and 97 children (47 with CF and normal forced expiratory volume in one second). We assessed differences between setups in LCI, lung volumes and breathing pattern and diagnostic performance for detecting abnormal lung function. Compared to NDD, EM measured higher LCI, functional residual capacity and cumulative expired volume while respiratory rate was lower. Mean difference (limits of agreement) in LCI was 1.30 (-2.34 to 4.94). In CF, prevalence of abnormal LCI was greater in children and similar in adults using EM compared to NDD. Agreement of MBW outcomes between setups is poor and explained by nitrogen measurement techniques and breathing pattern. Copyright © 2016 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment on serum indexes of children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guo; Ming-Hai Luo

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment on serum indexes of children with hand-foot-mouth disease.Methods:A total of 78 children with hand-foot-mouth disease who received pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment in our hospital from May 2013 to December 2015 were selected as the experimental group of the research, 84 children with hand-foot-mouth disease who received ribavirin monotherapy in our hospital from January 2012 to April 2013 were selected as the control group of the research. Serum inflammatory response indexes and biochemical indexes and immune function indexes of two groups were compared.Results: During the treatment, the maculopapule and herpes progression of experimental group were significantly better than those of control group; 7 day after treatment, CD3+CD4+CD8-T cell, CD3+CD4-CD8+T cell, CD19+B cell, CD14highCD16+monocyte and CD14lowCD16+ monocyte content in peripheral blood of experimental group were significantly higher than those of control group, serum CRP, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly lower than those of control group, and blood insulin, blood glucose, lactic acid, D-dimer and procalcitonin levels were significantly lower than those of control group. Conclusions:Pidotimod combined with ribavirin treatment can improve maculopapule and herpes, enhance immune function and reduce inflammatory reaction, and it is an ideal treatment for the treatment of children with hand-foot-mouth disease.

  16. Effect of green tea mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans in plaque and saliva in children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Goyal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of green tea catechin as a mouth wash on colony count of Streptococcus mutans in children. Materials and Methods: A sample size of thirty children was selected out of screened 290 children by simple random sampling between the age group of 7 and 12 years. The study was conducted over a period of 2 weeks. After 24 h of oral prophylaxis, the baseline samples were collected and each group was subjected to mouth rinsing with green tea mouth wash for 2 weeks and further plaque and saliva samples were collected at 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Microbiological analysis of plaque and saliva samples was done by Dentocult SM strip kit (Orion Diagnostica, Finland, and the results were statistically analyzed and tabulated. Results: Statistically, there was highly significant reduction in S. mutans count in plaque as well as in saliva for after 1- and 2-week intervals from baseline. Conclusion: Hence, finally, our study showed that green tea catechin is effective as a mouth wash against S. mutans and having better action in plaque as compared to saliva. It can be used as an adjunct to commercially available mouthwashes.

  17. The prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with asthma and its behavioral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Nira A; Aronin, Charlotte; Kantrowitz, Beth; Hershcopf, Ronald; Fishkin, Sherry; Lee, Haesoon; Weaver, Diana E; Yip, Candice; Liaw, Christine; Saadia, Tehila A; Abramowitz, Jason; Weedon, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children with asthma compared to non-asthmatic children and to determine if behavior problems are associated with asthma and SDB. Cross-Sectional. Parents of 263 children with asthma and 266 controls ages 2 to 15 years attending routine pediatric office visits completed the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Child Behavior Checklist. Asthma severity was classified based on NIH guidelines. The prevalence of snoring was significantly higher in asthmatic children (35.5%) than controls (15.7%) and the prevalence of a positive PSQ was significantly higher in asthmatic children (25.9%) than controls (10.6%) (P asthma was "dose-dependent" as children with more severe asthma had increased odds ratios for snoring and a positive PSQ. On multivariate analysis, there were significant interactions of gender with asthma and age with gender. A positive modified PSQ along with measures of socioeconomic status and age were the only independent predictors of abnormal Child Behavior Checklist scores and score classifications. There was a higher prevalence of SDB in asthmatic children compared to non-asthmatic children and the prevalence of SDB increased with increasing asthma severity. In multivariate analysis the role of asthma was much less clear as it predicted a positive PSQ in girls but not boys. SDB, but not asthma, was an independent predictor of behavioral problems. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Respiração bucal no contexto multidisciplinar: percepção de ortodontistas da cidade do Recife Mouth breathing within a multidisciplinary approach: perception of orthodontists in the city of Recife, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o conhecimento de cirurgiões-dentistas especialistas em Ortodontia da cidade de Recife/PE, Brasil, sobre respiração bucal, bem como verificar os seus protocolos de atendimento. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal mediante entrevista individual e estruturada com 90 profissionais inscritos na Sociedade Pernambucana de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial. O formulário contendo 14 perguntas foi testado pelo método de validação de "face". RESULTADOS: o sexo feminino foi prevalente (55,6%; para 78,9% dos pesquisados, a maior titulação foi a especialização; a maioria trabalhava apenas em clínica particular (67,8% e 38,9% dos entrevistados eram docentes. Os critérios de diagnóstico mais utilizados foram: postura corporal (97,8, vedamento labial (96,7 e olheiras (86,7%, com percentuais semelhantes entre os grupos quanto ao tempo de graduado; o uso da placa metálica de Glatzel foi baixo (3,3%. Com relação às sequelas da respiração bucal, os maiores percentuais foram para as alterações craniofaciais 94,4% (más oclusões e as corporais 37,8% (postura. O tempo de duração da respiração bucal (84,4% foi o item mais citado pelos pesquisados como associado a sequelas. Para nenhum dos itens avaliados verificou-se associação significativa com o tempo de graduado, ao nível de significância de 5%. Para a maioria dos entrevistados, tanto do serviço público como privado, o protocolo de atendimento do respirador bucal deve ser realizado por uma equipe multidisciplinar. CONCLUSÕES: a maioria dos entrevistados, independentemente da experiência profissional, tem conhecimento da síndrome do respirador bucal e da necessidade de um tratamento diferenciado dentro de uma visão abrangente de multidisciplinaridade.OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge of a mouth breathing pattern among orthodontists in the city of Recife, Brazil, and to examine their treatment protocols. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, members of the Orthodontics

  19. The Dependence of the Teeth Caries on the Level of the Mouth Cavity Hygiene of the First Form Children of Nizhny Novgorod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivulina G.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of the caries sicr rate of temporary and constant teeth on the level of the mouth cavity hygiene of the schoolchildren of the first form of the city of Nizhny Novgorod has been studied. The conclusions have been made concerning the dependence of the temporary teeth sick rate on the individual mouth cavity hygiene and the necessity in the pre-school age of the instruction and education of children of the mouth cavity care

  20. Use of LARA-urea Breath Test in diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Day

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in children currently relies upon histological assessment or culture of gastric biopsies obtained at endoscopy. Noninvasive testing would permit simpler assessment of children with dyspeptic symptoms. The primary aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate a novel urea breath testing method in children undergoing diagnostic assessment of dyspeptic symptoms and secondarily to consider the roles of other noninvasive tests in these children.

  1. Iron supplementation reduces the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks in non-anaemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Zehetner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron supplementation reduces the frequency and severity of breath-holding attacks (BHAs, particularly in children with iron deficiency. The issue of iron supplementation is less clear for Westernized children with BHAs who present to an outpatient community clinic and are not iron-deficient. This is the first reported case series of iron-replete children with frequent and disabling breath-holding attacks who have responded to a course of oral iron supplementation. This intervention is safe, improves quality of life for both child and carer, and is significantly cost-effective in terms of health resource utilization.

  2. Facial pattern categories of sleep breathing-disordered children using Ricketts analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Makoto; Higurashi, Naoki; Miyazaki, Soichiro; Itasaka, Yoshiaki; Chiba, Sintaro; Nezu, Hiroshi

    2002-06-01

    The facial patterns of 29 children under the age of 15 years with tonsil and/or adenoid and sleep disorder problems was analysed. The lateral-cephalograms of these patients was digitized in a zero-based computer program using Ricketts analysis to examine facial patterns. Results of the analysis were compared with the mean of the control group, n = 41 (9-year-old Japanese children). There were significant differences (P < 0.01-0.001) between the patient group and the control group when comparing the facial axis, lower facial height, mandibular arc, total facial height, and McNamara-Pogonion. The facial pattern of children with sleep breathing disorders was discovered to be the dolico facial pattern.

  3. Reference values of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy children 1-5 years using off-line tidal breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, H.H. van der; Brouwer, M.L.; Hoekstra, F.; Pol, P. van der; Merkus, P.J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a useful test to diagnose and/or monitor eosinophilic airway inflammation. The off-line tidal breathing method is used for measurements in young children, but reference values for preschool children are scarce. The objective of this study

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing in children with asthma: a systematic review on the impact of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Trinidad Sánchez,1 José A Castro-Rodríguez,2 Pablo E Brockmann2,3 1Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Pulmonology, Division of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, 3Sleep Medicine Center, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile Background: The objective was to perform a systematic review in order to describe the relationship between asthma and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in children, especially regarding the impact of treatment and management. Methods: We performed an electronic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS database. Study inclusion criteria were the following: 1 studies that examined the relationship between asthma/wheezing and SDB/obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; and 2 studies conducted in children <18 years of age. Primary outcomes were the prevalence of asthma and SDB, the tests used for diagnosis, and the influence of their treatment and management. Results: One thousand and twenty studies were identified, among which 32 were selected (n=143,343 children; 51% males; age [mean ± standard deviation] 8.4±2.5 years. Most studies (n=26 diagnosed SDB using questionnaires or clinical history. Nine studies performed a sleep study for diagnosing OSA. The diagnosis of asthma was based on clinical history (n=16, previous medical diagnosis (n=4, questionnaires (n=12, and spirometry (n=5. Children with asthma were more likely to develop habitual snoring and OSA, and children with SDB were more likely to develop asthma. Moreover, asthma was associated with more severe OSA, and the presence of SDB was associated with severe asthma. Treatment of SDB with adenotonsillectomy was associated with significant asthma improvement. Conclusion: The relationship between asthma and SDB appears to be bidirectional, and adenotonsillectomy appears to improve asthma control. Future trials on how asthma treatment could impact on SDB are needed

  5. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012 defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time, with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate, would be necessary to examine such changes.

  6. Cysteinyl leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of children with asthma exacerbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, E; Carraro, S; Alinovi, R; Pesci, A; Ghiro, L; Bodini, A; Piacentini, G; Zacchello, F; Zanconato, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Cysteinyl leukotrienes (Cys-LTs) and isoprostanes are inflammatory metabolites derived from arachidonic acid whose levels are increased in the airways of asthmatic patients. Isoprostanes are relatively stable and specific for lipid peroxidation, which makes them potentially reliable biomarkers for oxidative stress. A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a course of oral steroids on Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane levels in exhaled breath condensate of children with an asthma exacerbation. Methods: Exhaled breath condensate was collected and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and spirometric parameters were measured before and after a 5 day course of oral prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) in 15 asthmatic children with an asthma exacerbation. Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane concentrations were measured using an enzyme immunoassay. FENO was measured using a chemiluminescence analyser. Exhaled breath condensate was also collected from 10 healthy children. Results: Before prednisone treatment both Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane concentrations were higher in asthmatic subjects (Cys-LTs, 12.7 pg/ml (IQR 5.4–15.6); 8-isoprostane, 12.0 pg/ml (9.4–29.5)) than in healthy children (Cys-LTs, 4.3 pg/ml (2.0–5.7), p=0.002; 8-isoprostane, 2.6 pg/ml (2.1–3.0), p<0.001). After prednisone treatment there was a significant decrease in both Cys-LT (5.2 pg/ml (3.9–8.8), p=0.005) and 8-isoprostane (8.4 pg/ml (5.4–11.6), p=0.04) concentrations, but 8-isoprostane levels remained higher than in controls (p<0.001). FENO levels, which fell significantly after prednisone treatment (p<0.001), did not correlate significantly with either Cys-LT or 8-isoprostane concentrations. Conclusion: After a 5 day course of oral prednisone there is a reduction in Cys-LT and 8-isoprostane levels in EBC of children with an asthma exacerbation, although 8-isoprostane levels remain higher than in controls. This finding suggests that corticosteroids may not be fully effective in reducing oxidative stress

  7. Tonsillectomy versus tonsillotomy for sleep-disordered breathing in children: a meta analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Tonsillotomy has gained popular acceptance as an alternative to the traditional tonsillectomy in the management of sleep-disordered breathing in children. Many studies have evaluated the outcomes of the two techniques, but uncertainty remains with regard to the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus a traditional tonsillectomy. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy and complications of tonsillotomy versus tonsillectomy, in terms of the short- and long-term results.We collected data from electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library. The following inclusion criteria were applied: English language, children, and prospective studies that directly compared tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy in the management of sleep disordered breathing. Subgroup analysis was then performed.In total, 10 eligible studies with 1029 participants were included. Tonsillotomy was shown to be advantageous over tonsillectomy in short-term measures, such as a lower hemorrhage rate, shorter operation time, and faster pain relief. In long-term follow-up, there was no significant difference in resolution of upper-airway obstructive symptoms, the quality of life, or postoperative immune function between the tonsillotomy and tonsillectomy groups. The risk ratio of SDB recurrence was 3.33 (95% confidence interval = 1.62 6.82, P = 0.001, favoring tonsillectomy at an average follow-up of 31 months.Tonsillotomy may be advantageous over tonsillectomy in the short term measures and there are no significant difference of resolving obstructive symptoms, quality of life and postoperative immune function. For the long run, the dominance of tonsillotomy may be less than tonsillectomy with regard to the rate of sleep-disordered breathing recurrence.

  8. Terapia miofuncional orofacial em crianças respiradoras orais Myofunctional therapy in children with oral breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Gallo

    2009-01-01

    myofuncional therapy with emphasis on strengthening the muscles of the phonoarticulatoty organs and training of nasal breathing. METHODS: six children, 5 and 11-year old, who had performed screening at the Division of Phonoaudiological Therapy at Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de São Paulo, along the year 2007, who demonstrated oral or oronasal breathing and signals and symptoms that are characteristic to this alteration, and had not been submitted to previous phonoaudiological treatment. The patients underwent 10 sessions of miofuntional therapy, focused on strengthening the muscles of the phonoarticulatory organs and training of nasal breathing. After the sessions, a reassessment was carried out and the evolution of the patients was compared qualitatively. RESULTS: four (66.66% of the individuals were diagnosed with nasal obstruction. Three had been submitted to surgery previous to the phonoaudiological treatment. Two (33.33% had a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and were undergoing a treatment concomitantly to the sessions. All showed satisfactory improvement as for the worked issues. Three (50% of the individuals had dentofacial deformities and made progress, though limited by the dental condition. All individuals showed improvement in the possibility of mouth closure and nasal breathing. CONCLUSION: ten sessions of miofuntional therapy, with emphasis on strengthening the muscles of the phonoarticulatory organs and training of nasal breathing were sufficient to obtain the improvement of the patients. The small number of the samples does not allow us to generalize the conclusion for others. We suggest to make further studies with larger populations and different age groups.

  9. Cardiometabolic risk is associated with the severity of sleep-disordered breathing in children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Roche, Johanna; Quinart, Sylvain; Thivel, David; Gillet, Valérie; Nègre, Véronique; Mougin, Fabienne

    2017-03-01

    The alarming progression of pediatric obesity is associated with the development of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), and both exhibit similar adverse cardiometabolic health outcomes. Physical activity level (PAL) may counteract sleep and metabolic disturbances. The present study investigates i) the association between the metabolic syndrome in childhood obesity and SDB, ii) the impact of SDB severity on cardiometabolic risk scores and PAL in children with obesity. Maturation status (Tanner stages), anthropometric (height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, body adiposity index) and cardiometabolic characteristics (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, lipid and glycemic profiles) were assessed in 83 obese children (mean±SD, age: 10.7±2.7years). PAL and SDB were investigated with a step test and interviews, and an overnight sleep monitor, respectively. The presence or absence of metabolic syndrome (MS) was established and continuous cardiometabolic risk scores were calculated (MetScoreBMI and MetScoreWC). Obese children with (61.4%) and without (38.6%) MS present similar SDB. SDB severity is associated with increased insulin concentrations, MetScoreBMI and MetScoreWC (pobese children. There is no association between SDB and PAL. In a context where no consensus exists for SDB diagnosis in children, our results suggest the influence of SDB severity on cardiometabolic risk factors. Further studies are needed to explore the association between PAL and both metabolic and sleep alterations in obese children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide in healthy young children during tidal breathing through a facemask

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daniel, Peter F; Klug, Bent; Valerius, Niels H

    2007-01-01

    NO concentration and 95% CI was 3.9 (3.5-4.2) parts per billion (p.p.b.) for on-line measurements and 3.0 (2.7-3.3) p.p.b. for off-line measurements. Exhaled NO was independent of gender, age, height and weight. The 95% reference intervals (RI) for on-line and off-line measurements were 1.2-8.2 and 1.3-7.1 p......The aim of this study was to establish reference values and to examine day-to-day and within-day variations of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) during tidal breathing in healthy children using a newly described method. Exhaled NO was measured on-line and off-line during tidal breathing through a facemask.......p.b. respectively. Twenty-three children completed measurements of within-day and day-to-day variations, none of which showed significant variation. In conclusion, the established reference values and data on variability within and between days may facilitate the clinical application for measurement of eNO during...

  11. 牙周基础治疗对伴张口呼吸牙周病疗效的临床研究%Clinical Study on the Effect of Periodontal Basic Therapy in Treatment of Periodontal Disease With Mouth Breathing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金贤

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of periodontal basic therapy for the treatment of periodontal disease with mouth breathing.Methods 54 patients with periodontal disease who were received in our hospital from July 2012 to July 2014 as the research object. 54 patients were treated with periodontal basic therapy. Observed the changes of the plaque index,bleeding index and the depth of the diagnosis before and after treatment.Results After treatment,54 cases of patients with PLI,SBI and PD were significantly lower than before treatment,the difference was statisticaly significant,P<0.05.Conclusion Periodontal basic treatment for patients with periodontal disease associated with mouth breathing can reduce the number of dental plaque,improve the bleeding.%目的 探讨牙周基础治疗对伴张口呼吸牙周病的临床疗效.方法 选取54例于2012年7月~2014年7月在我院口腔科接受治疗的伴张口呼吸的牙周病患者作为本次的研究对象,54例患者均予以牙周基础治疗.观察患者治疗前后菌斑指数、出血指数及探诊深度等各项指标的变化情况.结果 治疗后54例患者的PLI、SBI及PD指数均低于治疗前,差异具有统计学意义,P<0.05.结论 对伴张口呼吸牙周病患者进行牙周基础治疗可以减少其口腔内菌斑数量、改善出血情况.

  12. Impact of obesity on cognitive outcome in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Ottavio; Tabarrini, Alessandra; Miano, Silvia; Rabasco, Jole; Pietropaoli, Nicoletta; Forlani, Martina; Parisi, Pasquale; Villa, Maria Pia

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on cognitive impairment, in children with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), children with OSA and obesity, and in normal controls. Thirty-six children with OSA (group 1), 38 children with OSA and obesity (group 2) and 58 normal controls (group 3) were studied. The Total intelligence quotient (T-IQ), Verbal IQ (V-IQ) and the Performance IQ (P-IQ) scores were obtained using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition Revised. All participants' parents filled out the questionnaire containing the attention deficit and hyperactive disorder rating scale to investigate symptoms of hyperactivity and attention deficit. Obese and non-obese children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) underwent polysomnography. T-QI and P-QI scores were significantly lower in group 2 with higher performance impairment at the subtest compared to other groups. In obese children, V-IQ was significantly correlated with age of onset (r = 0.335, p = 0.05) and duration of SDB (r = -0.362, p = 0.02), while P-IQ and T-IQ were correlated with body mass index (BMI) percentile (r = -0.341, p = 0.03) and respiratory disturbance index (RDI) (r = -0.321, p = 0.05), respectively. RDI and BMI negatively influenced T-IQ in obese children with OSA. No correlation was found between sleep parameters and IQ scores or subtest scores in all groups. Obese children with OSA showed higher cognitive impairment. Obesity has an additive and synergic action with that exerted by OSA, speeding up the onset of complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of Sleep-related Breathing Disorders in Children from 6 to 11 Years Old Prevalencia de los trastornos respiratorios asociados al sueño en escolares

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    Alexander Torres Molina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: For many authors the current prevalence of sleep-related breathing disorders is not totally clear. Nevertheless, it affects approximately from 2 to 13% of children and adolescents ranging from simple snoring child to those with clinical manifestations of obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To determine the prevalence of habitual snoring and major symptoms associated with sleep-related breathing disorders in school children from 6 to 11 years old. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in Moa, which included a sample of 1608 school children aged from 6 to11 years old. For epidemiologic data recollection, a questionnaire named TuCASA was used and in order to stratify patients according to clinical manifestations related to sleep-related breathing disorders the Brouillette score was used. Results: 13.55% of school children snore habitually and 36.01% occasionally. 14.31% of males and 12.65% of females snore regularly. Sore throat (44.95% and mouth breathing during the day (47.71% were common clinical manifestations in habitually snoring children. 91.61% of those with a score between -1 and 3.5 and 89.80% of those who had> 3.5 in Brouillette score were habitual snorers. Conclusions: A high percentage of schoolchildren are occasional or habitual snorers, which was most frequently observed in 8 to 9 years old male children. Clinical manifestations during the day and night compatible with sleep-related breathing disorders are more common in habitual snorers

    Fundamento: para muchos autores la prevalencia actual de los trastornos respiratorios asociados al sueño es imprecisa, sin embargo afecta aproximadamente del 2 al 13 % de niños y adolescentes. Abarcan desde el niño roncador simple, hasta aquellos con manifestaciones clínicas del síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño.

  14. Pulse rate variability compared with Heart Rate Variability in children with and without sleep disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Parastoo; Garde, Ainara; Karlen, Walter; Wensley, David; Ansermino, J Mark; Dumont, Guy A

    2013-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV), the variation of time intervals between heartbeats, is one of the most promising and widely used quantitative markers of autonomic activity. Traditionally, HRV is measured as the series of instantaneous cycle intervals obtained from the electrocardiogram (ECG). In this study, we investigated the estimation of variation in heart rate from a photoplethysmography (PPG) signal, called pulse rate variability (PRV), and assessed its accuracy as an estimate of HRV in children with and without sleep disordered breathing (SDB). We recorded raw PPGs from 72 children using the Phone Oximeter, an oximeter connected to a mobile phone. Full polysomnography including ECG was simultaneously recorded for each subject. We used correlation and Bland-Altman analysis for comparing the parameters of HRV and PRV between two groups of children. Significant correlation (r > 0.90, p < 0.05) and close agreement were found between HRV and PRV for mean intervals, standard deviation of intervals (SDNN) and the root-mean square of the difference of successive intervals (RMSSD). However Bland-Altman analysis showed a large divergence for LF/HF ratio parameter. In addition, children with SDB had depressed SDNN and RMSSD and elevated LF/HF in comparison to children without SDB. In conclusion, PRV provides the accurate estimate of HRV in time domain analysis but does not reflect precise estimation for parameters in frequency domain.

  15. Blood pressure regulation, autonomic control and sleep disordered breathing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Lauren C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R; Walter, Lisa M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2014-04-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) ranges in severity from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). In adults, SDB is associated with adverse cardiovascular consequences which are mediated, in part, by autonomic dysfunction. Although SDB is common in children, fewer paediatric studies have investigated these cardiovascular effects. Initial research focused on those with OSA, indeed children with PS were occasionally utilised as the comparison control group. However, it is essential to understand the ramifications of this disorder in all its severities, as currently the milder forms of SDB are often untreated. Methodologies used to assess autonomic function in children with SDB include blood pressure (BP), BP variability, baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, peripheral arterial tonometry and catecholamine assays. The aim of this review was to summarise the findings of paediatric studies to date and explore the relationship between autonomic dysfunction and SDB in children, paying particular attention to the roles of disease severity and/or age. This review found evidence of autonomic dysfunction in children with SDB during both wakefulness and sleep. BP dysregulation, elevated generalised sympathetic activity and impairment of autonomic reflexes occur in school-aged children and adolescents with SDB. The adverse effects of SDB seem somewhat less in young children, although more studies are needed. There is mounting evidence that the cardiovascular and autonomic consequences of SDB are not limited to those with OSA, but are also evident in children with PS. The severity of disease and age of onset of autonomic consequences may be important guides for the treatment of SDB.

  16. Profiling of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath as a strategy to find early predictive signatures of asthma in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Smolinska

    Full Text Available Wheezing is one of the most common respiratory symptoms in preschool children under six years old. Currently, no tests are available that predict at early stage who will develop asthma and who will be a transient wheezer. Diagnostic tests of asthma are reliable in adults but the same tests are difficult to use in children, because they are invasive and require active cooperation of the patient. A non-invasive alternative is needed for children. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs excreted in breath could yield such non-invasive and patient-friendly diagnostic. The aim of this study was to identify VOCs in the breath of preschool children (inclusion at age 2-4 years that indicate preclinical asthma. For that purpose we analyzed the total array of exhaled VOCs with Gas Chromatography time of flight Mass Spectrometry of 252 children between 2 and 6 years of age. Breath samples were collected at multiple time points of each child. Each breath-o-gram contained between 300 and 500 VOCs; in total 3256 different compounds were identified across all samples. Using two multivariate methods, Random Forests and dissimilarity Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, we were able to select a set of 17 VOCs which discriminated preschool asthmatic children from transient wheezing children. The correct prediction rate was equal to 80% in an independent test set. These VOCs are related to oxidative stress caused by inflammation in the lungs and consequently lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, we showed that VOCs in the exhaled breath predict the subsequent development of asthma which might guide early treatment.

  17. Desmineralização dentária de pacientes respiradores orais submetidos à expansão maxilar Demineralization of teeth in mouth-breathing patients undergoing maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fuerte Bakor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A respiração oral pode causar deformações na arcada dentária e representar risco a cáries e doenças periodontais, podendo ser agravado pela utilização de aparelhos fixos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o grau de mineralização do esmalte dentário e a microbiota cariogênica bucal de respiradores orais que utilizaram disjuntores maxilares. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo prospectivo com 20 pacientes respiradores orais com atresia maxilar, idades entre 9 e 13 anos. A mineralização do esmalte dentário foi medida pela técnica de fluorescência, antes da instalação do disjuntor maxilar e após sua remoção. A microbiota cariogênica foi avaliada pelo No Caries®. Na análise estatística utilizamos o teste "t" (pMouth breathing may cause deformities on the dental arch and be a risk factor for caries and periodontal disease; fixed orthodontic appliances compound the problem. AIM: to evaluate mineralization of tooth enamel and the oral cariogenic microbiota of mouth breathers that are using maxillary expanders. MATERIAL AND METHOD: a prospective study of 20 mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia, aged from 09 to 13 years. Enamel mineralization was measured using a fluorescence technique, before installing the expander and after its removal. The cariogenic microbiota was evaluated by the No Caries®. The t test (p<0.05 was applied for the statistical analysis, and the oral microbiota was analyzed by incidence. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the enamel mineralization level after maxillary expansion; the mean value was 3.08. The colorimetric test showed that the caries development potential was reduced in 45%, increased in 15%, and unaltered in 40% after maxillary expander use. CONCLUSION: there was a statistically significant difference in enamel mineralization after maxillary expansion; this difference was within the clinically normal range; the cariogenic potential increased in a small number of patients during

  18. 双伺服加温湿化器对张口呼吸病人气道湿化效果研究%Study on effect of dual servo heating humidifier for airway humidification of patients with open mouth breathing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵珺燕; 王永坤

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical effect of dual servo heating humidifier for airway humidification of pa-tients with open mouth breathing.Methods:A total of 100 patients with mouth breathing were randomly divid-ed into two groups.Test group cases used Fisher & Paykel dual servo heated humidifier (MR850)continuous humidification.Patients in control group used compression atomizing inhalation machine continuous inhalation. Oral mucosa humidification effect,airway score,sputum viscosity,the effect of airway humidification,breathing changes of blood gas analysis were observed and compared after 24 h.And the occurrence of airway adverse re-actions was observed at 24 h,48 h,72 h.Results:To compare differences of oral mucosa humidifying effect,spu-tum viscosity,pulmonary rales,irritating cough,PaO 2 of the test group with control,there were statistically sig-nificant differences(P <0.05 ).Conclusion:Dual servo heating humidifier played a good airway humidification effect for patients with open mouth breathing.Sputum drainage unobstructed.Formation of oral mucous sputum callus was significantly reduced.And blood gas analysis index improved.The risk of pulmonary complications reduced.It can lower the incidence of adverse reactions.%[目的]研究双伺服加温湿化器用于张口呼吸病人气道湿化的临床效果。[方法]将100例张口呼吸病人随机分为两组,试验组采用 Fisher & Paykel 双伺服加温湿化器(MR850)持续湿化,对照组采用压缩雾化吸入机持续雾化吸入,观察比较24 h 后口腔黏膜湿化效果、气道评分、痰液黏稠度、气道湿化效果、呼吸、血气分析变化,并观察24 h、48 h、72 h 气道不良反应发生情况。[结果]两组口腔黏膜湿化效果、痰液黏稠度、肺部啰音、刺激性咳嗽、PaO 2比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。[结论]双伺服加温湿化器对张口呼吸病人气道起到了良好的气道湿化效果,痰液引流通畅,口腔黏膜痰痂

  19. Exhaled breath temperature measurement and asthma control in children prescribed inhaled corticosteroids: A cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, Laura; Ferris, Kathryn; Kapande, Kirsty; McConaghy, Laura; Douglas, Isobel; McGovern, Vincent; Shields, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Exhaled breath temperature (EBT) reflects airways (both eosinophilic and neutrophilic) inflammation in asthma and thus may aid the management of children with asthma that are treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. A new EBT monitor has become available that is cheap and easy to use and may be a suitable monitoring device for airways inflammation. Little is known about how EBT relates to asthma treatment decisions, disease control, lung function, or other non-invasive measures of airways inflammation, such as exhaled nitric oxide (ENO). To determine the relationships between EBT and asthma treatment decision, current control, pulmonary function, and ENO. Cross-sectional prospective study on 159 children aged 5-16 years attending a pediatric respiratory clinic. EBT was compared with the clinician's decision regarding treatment (decrease, no change, increase), asthma control assessment (controlled, partial, uncontrolled), level of current treatment (according to British Thoracic Society guideline, BTS step), ENO, and spirometry. EBT measurement was feasible in the majority of children (25 of 159 could not perform the test) and correlated weakly with age (R = 0.33, P = asthma control assessment groups (P = 0.9), or the current asthma treatment BTS step (P = 0.57). EBT measurement was not related to measures of asthma control determined at the clinic. The routine intermittent monitoring of EBT in children prescribed inhaled corticosteroids who attend asthma clinics cannot be recommended for adjusting anti-inflammatory asthma therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [The use of Pantogam syrup in treating small children's breath holding spells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polskaya, A V; Chutko, L S; Jakovenko, E V

    To study the efficacy of pantogam syrup 10% (hopantenic acid) in the treatment of breath-holding spells (BHS). Sixty children, aged from 2 to 4 years, with BHS were studied. The evaluation of clinical manifestations and anxiety level was performed. Results of neurophysiological examination (long-term video-EEG-monitoring) were analyzed. Children were divided into 2 groups: main, in which the patients received pantogam syrup, and control group, in which only psychological methods were used. The results of the clinical and neurophysiological studies performed after the treatment, showed the clinical improvement in 73.3% of patients of the main group compared with similar data from the children in the control group (16.7%). The anxiety level significantly decreased after the neuroprotective therapy. A comparative analysis of electroencephalographic indicators demonstrated a significant (рrhythms and manifestations of functional immaturity of the brain in patients of the main group. These results give evidence for the high efficacy of pantogam syrup in the treatment of children with BHS.

  1. Sleep disordered breathing in infants and children: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanhoe, John R; Lefebvre, Carol A; Stockstill, John W

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this report was to review the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children and infants. English peer-reviewed SDB literature identified by MEDLINE and a manual search conducted between 1999 and 2006 was selected. The keywords used for the search included: (1) children; (2) sleep disorder; (3) snoring; and (4) obstructive sleep apnea. A total of 153 manuscripts was identified. A delay in treatment of SDB children may be caused by several factors and may result in serious but generally reversible problems, including: (1) impaired growth; (2) neurocognitive and behavioral dysfunction; and (3) cardiorespiratory failure. Adenotonsillectomy is the treatment of choice, and continuous positive airway pressure may be an option for patients who are not candidates for surgery or who do not respond to surgery. Minimal information is available concerning the dental treatment of these disorders. With the devastating effects sleep disorders can have on children and their families, dentists must recognize obvious symptoms and refer these patients for management by physicians.

  2. A study of volatile compounds in the breath of children with type 1 diabetes

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, S; Wei, C; Greenwood, R; Hamilton-Shield, J; Costello, B de Lacy; Ratcliffe, N; Probert, C

    2013-01-01

    A pilot study of exhaled volatile compounds and their correlation with blood glucose levels in eight children with type 1 diabetes is reported. Five paired blood and breath samples were obtained from each child over a 6 hour period. The blood glucose concentration ranged from 41.4 to 435.6 mg/dL. Breath samples were collected in Tedlar bags and immediately evacuated through thermal desorption tubes packed with Carbopack B and C. The VOCs were later recovered by thermal desorption and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The study identified 74 volatile compounds present in at least 10% of the patient samples. Of these 74 volatiles 36 were found in all patient samples tested. Further analysis of the 36 compounds found that none showed significant overall correlation with blood glucose levels. Isoprene showed a weak negative correlation with blood glucose levels. Acetone was found to have no correlation with blood glucose levels for the patients studied. Some patients showed significant individu...

  3. Efficacy of Four Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans in High Caries Risk Children – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhupathiraju, Prameela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries has been traditionally described as a multifactorial disease that involves the interaction of various factors like host, agent, substrate and time. Landmark studies have established the fact that Mutans Streptococci are the primary etiologic agents of dental caries. The prevention of dental caries by fluoride supplements in various vehicles, such as water and toothpaste, constitutes one of the most successful prevention measures. Aim The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical efficacy of four fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans in high caries risk children and also to check the efficacy of the ingredient Triclosan which is present in two of the four mouth rinses. Materials and Methods The study is double blinded, consisting of 1000 children in age group 6-14yrs who were screened from residential schools. Of the total, 200 children were categorized as high caries risk group based on caries risk assessment tool form given by American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD) guidelines 2011. Prior to the study, salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis to estimate Streptococcus mutans counts. Out of 200 salivary samples, 132 showed 106CFU of Streptococcus mutans and these children were included in the study. The 132 children from each group received the assigned mouth wash for 14 consecutive days. On 15th day the salivary samples were collected and sent for microbial analysis and the obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. Results All the mouth washes showed a significant reduction in Colony Forming Units (CFU) counts of Streptococcus mutans. Among the four groups Group D (S flo) showed greater percentage reduction of Streptococcus mutans followed by Group A (Act), B (Kidodent) and C (Zerocary). There was no stastically significance reduction of Streptococcus mutans among the Triclosan containing and non containing groups. Conclusion The mean pre rinse CFU was significantly

  4. Predicting the presence of sleep-disordered breathing in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehme, Joy; LaBerge, Robert; Pothos, Mary; Barrowman, Nick; Hoey, Lynda; Monsour, Andrea; Kukko, Madelaine; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-08-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in children with Down syndrome. Given the scarcity of resources and the presence of risk factors for SDB in this population, the objective of this study is to identify the clinical predictors of SDB, which would assist prioritization of children with Down syndrome for SDB evaluation. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on children enrolled in the Down syndrome clinic at CHEO who underwent polysomnography in 2004-2014. Total apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) or obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 5 events/hour was considered clinically significant. Associations between SDB and concurrent diagnoses, referral reasons, and sleep symptoms assessed by questionnaire were examined using Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the predictors of SDB. SDB was present in 42.9% of 119 children, with its highest prevalence at age 8 years. Symptoms were not significantly associated with AHI > 5 events/hour or OAHI > 5 events/hour. Gastroesophageal reflux was associated with lower odds of OAHI > 5 events/hour on univariate testing (odds ratio 0.16, 95% CI 0.04-0.72; p = 0.02) and multivariate analysis (odds ratio 0.05, 95% CI 0.0006-0.50; p = 0.002). SDB is highly prevalent at all ages in children with Down syndrome. Symptoms did not predict SDB in this population, although gastroesophageal reflux may mimic SDB, which indicates that clinicians should continue to perform ongoing surveillance for SDB throughout the lifespan of children with Down syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with blood pressure and carotid arterial stiffness in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagetti, Angela; Bonafini, Sara; Zaffanello, Marco; Benetti, Maria V; Vedove, Francesco Dalle; Gasperi, Emma; Cavarzere, Paolo; Gaudino, Rossella; Piacentini, Giorgio; Minuz, Pietro; Maffeis, Claudio; Antoniazzi, Franco; Fava, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Both sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and high blood pressure (BP) occur more frequently among obese children than among normal weight children, and this may be due to endothelial dysfunction and worsened arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible association between SDB and BP, and the possible role of endothelial function and local and systemic arterial stiffness in a sample of obese children asymptomatic for sleep disturbances. Thirty-nine obese children were included in the study. Children underwent overnight limited channel polysomnography, and the vascular measurements included the following: office and 24-h ambulatory BP; brachial flow-mediated dilatation, carotid intima-media thickness and carotid distensibility measured using ultrasound; and systemic arterial stiffness index measured using digital volume pulse analysis. Significant correlations between different BP measurements (both office and ambulatory BP monitoring and estimated by Z score) and SDB were found, including correlations involving the respiratory disturbance index, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the number of desaturations per hour and the mean peripheral saturation (r ranging between 0.330 and 0.474). Carotid distensibility was correlated with the AHI (r = -0.367; P = 0.030) and with the mean oxygen saturation (r = 0.401; P = 0.017). In contrast, there was no relationship among flow-mediated dilatation, stiffness index, carotid intima-media thickness and all the tested respiratory markers. In the multivariate analysis, the supine Z SBP remained independently associated with the number of desaturations per hour and the AHI, even after correction for carotid distensibility and BMI. Our data suggest that in obese children asymptomatic for sleep respiratory problems, SDB might worsen BP, in part, through an increase in arterial stiffness.

  6. The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate in children - clinical tools or scientific toys?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mastrigt, E; de Jongste, J C; Pijnenburg, M W

    2015-07-01

    Current monitoring strategies for respiratory diseases are mainly based on clinical features, lung function and imaging. As airway inflammation is the hallmark of many respiratory diseases in childhood, noninvasive methods to assess the presence and severity of airway inflammation might be helpful in both diagnosing and monitoring paediatric respiratory diseases. At present, the measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide is the only noninvasive method available to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate whether the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath (EB) and biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is helpful in diagnosing and monitoring respiratory diseases in children. An extensive literature search was conducted in Medline, Embase and PubMed on the analysis and applications of VOCs in EB and EBC in children. We retrieved 1165 papers, of which nine contained original data on VOCs in EB and 84 on biomarkers in EBC. These were included in this review. We give an overview of the clinical applications in childhood and summarize the methodological issues. Several VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC have the potential to distinguish patients from healthy controls and to monitor treatment responses. Lack of standardization of collection methods and analysis techniques hampers the introduction in clinical practice. The measurement of metabolomic profiles may have important advantages over detecting single markers. There is a lack of longitudinal studies and external validation to reveal whether EB and EBC analysis have added value in the diagnostic process and follow-up of children with respiratory diseases. In conclusion, the use of VOCs in EB and biomarkers in EBC as markers of inflammatory airway diseases in children is still a research tool and not validated for clinical use.

  7. Enteroviruses isolated from herpangina and hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Korean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park KwiSung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD and herpangina are commonly prevalent illness in young children. They are similarly characterized by lesions on the skin and oral mucosa. Both diseases are associated with various enterovirus serotypes. In this study, enteroviruses from patients with these diseases in Korea in 2009 were isolated and analyzed. Demographic data for patients with HFMD and herpangina were compared and all enterovirus isolates were amplified in the VP1 region by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. Among the enterovirus isolates, prevalent agents were coxsackievirus A16 in HFMD and coxsackievirus A5 in herpangina. More prevalent months for HFMD were June (69.2% and May (11.5%, and June (40.0% and July (24.0% for herpangina. Age prevalence of HFMD patients with enterovirus infection was 1 year (23.1%, 4 years (19.2%, and over 5 years (19.2%. However, the dominant age group of herpangina patients with enterovirus infection was 1 year (48.0% followed by 2 years (28.0%. Comparison of pairwise VP1 nucleotide sequence alignment of all isolates within the same serotypes revealed high intra-type variation of CVA2 isolates (84.6–99.3% nucleotide identity. HFMD and herpangina showed differences in demographic data and serotypes of isolated enteroviruses, but there was no notable difference in amino acid sequences by clinical syndromes in multiple comparison of the partial VP1 gene sequence.

  8. Sleep-disordered breathing: a new risk factor of suspected fatty liver disease in overweight children and adolescents?

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, S L; N. Schrauwen; D. Haentjens; R. P. Rooman; Van Gaal, L; W. A. De Backer; K. N. Desager

    2008-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood obesity is associated with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation and by these mechanisms, SDB could contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We, therefore, investigated if SDB was an independent predictor of suspected fatty liver disease in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Retrospective case study of consecutive overweight or obese children and adolescents attending a paediatric o...

  9. Obstructive sleep disordered breathing in 2- to 18-year-old children: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaditis, Athanasios G; Alonso Alvarez, Maria Luz; Boudewyns, An; Alexopoulos, Emmanouel I; Ersu, Refika; Joosten, Koen; Larramona, Helena; Miano, Silvia; Narang, Indra; Trang, Ha; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Vandenbussche, Nele; Villa, Maria Pia; Van Waardenburg, Dick; Weber, Silke; Verhulst, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This document summarises the conclusions of a European Respiratory Society Task Force on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in childhood and refers to children aged 2-18 years. Prospective cohort studies describing the natural history of SDB or randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials regarding its management are scarce. Selected evidence (362 articles) can be consolidated into seven management steps. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are present (step 1). Central nervous or cardiovascular system morbidity, growth failure or enuresis and predictors of SDB persistence in the long-term are recognised (steps 2 and 3), and SDB severity is determined objectively preferably using polysomnography (step 4). Children with an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >5 episodes·h(-1), those with an AHI of 1-5 episodes·h(-1) and the presence of morbidity or factors predicting SDB persistence, and children with complex conditions (e.g. Down syndrome and Prader-Willi syndrome) all appear to benefit from treatment (step 5). Treatment interventions are usually implemented in a stepwise fashion addressing all abnormalities that predispose to SDB (step 6) with re-evaluation after each intervention to detect residual disease and to determine the need for additional treatment (step 7).

  10. Exhaled breath temperature and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Diego G; Chinellato, Iolanda; Piazza, Michele; Zardini, Federica; Bodini, Alessandro; Olivieri, Francesca; Boner, Attilio L; Piacentini, Giorgio L

    2012-03-01

    It has been hypothesized that exhaled breath temperature (EBT) is related to the degree of airway inflammation/remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the level of airway response to exercise and EBT in a group of controlled or partly controlled asthmatic children. Fifty asthmatic children underwent measurements of EBT before and after a standardized exercise test. EBT was 32.92 ± 1.13 and 33.35 ± 0.95°C before and after exercise, respectively (P < 0.001). The % decrease in FEV(1) was significantly correlated with the increase in EBT (r = 0.44, P = 0.0013), being r = 0.49 (P < 0.005) in the children who were not receiving regular inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and 0.37 (n.s.) in those who were. This study further supports the hypothesis that EBT can be considered a potential composite tool for monitoring asthma.

  11. Ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos Occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: determinar a ocorrência de rinite, respiração oral e alterações orofaciais em adolescentes asmáticos. MÉTODO: estudo do tipo transversal, realizado com 155 adolescentes asmáticos de 12 a 15 anos e de ambos os sexos, atendidos no Instituto Materno Infantil Professor Fernando Figueira. O levantamento de dados consistiu de duas etapas: a primeira para análise dos prontuários dos pacientes e da realização de dois testes para avaliação adicional da função respiratória. Sendo um com o auxílio do espelho de Glatzel e o outro com a contagem do tempo de permanência da água na boca. A segunda por meio de exame clínico para identificação das alterações orofaciais. RESULTADOS: a frequência de rinite alérgica foi elevada (80,6%, não existindo diferença significante entre o sexo feminino (80,9% e o masculino (80,5%. Quanto ao padrão de respiração 32,9% dos asmáticos apresentaram respiração oronasal. As alterações faciais mais frequentes para o sexo masculino foram: olheiras (93,1%, palato ogival (82,8%, lábios ressecados (70,1%, selamento labial inadequado (77,0%, olhos caídos (62,1% e face alongada (57,5%. O sexo feminino apresentou as maiores frequências para as seguintes características: olheiras (91,2%, palato ogival (85,3%, selamento labial inadequado (67,6%, lábios ressecados (63,2% face alongada (66,2% e lábio superior estreito (57,4%. CONCLUSÃO: em adolescentes asmáticos a frequência de rinite alérgica foi alta, bem como a ocorrência de respiração oral e de alterações faciais.PURPOSE: to determine the occurrence of rhinitis, mouth breathing and orofacial alterations in adolescents with asthma. METHOD: cross-sectional study was conducted with 155 adolescents with asthma from 12 to 15 years old and both sexes, treated at the Institute Professor Fernando Figueira. The survey consisted of two phases: the first to review patients' records and carrying out two tests for further evaluation of

  12. Development of a screening tool for sleep disordered breathing in children using the phone Oximeter™.

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    Ainara Garde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB can lead to daytime sleepiness, growth failure and developmental delay in children. Polysomnography (PSG, the gold standard to diagnose SDB, is a highly resource-intensive test, confined to the sleep laboratory. AIM: To combine the blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 characterization and cardiac modulation, quantified by pulse rate variability (PRV, to identify children with SDB using the Phone Oximeter, a device integrating a pulse oximeter with a smartphone. METHODS: Following ethics approval and informed consent, 160 children referred to British Columbia Children's Hospital for overnight PSG were recruited. A second pulse oximeter sensor applied to the finger adjacent to the one used for standard PSG was attached to the Phone Oximeter to record overnight pulse oximetry (SpO2 and photoplethysmogram (PPG alongside the PSG. RESULTS: We studied 146 children through the analysis of the SpO2 pattern, and PRV as an estimate of heart rate variability calculated from the PPG. SpO2 variability and SpO2 spectral power at low frequency, was significantly higher in children with SDB due to the modulation provoked by airway obstruction during sleep (p-value <0.01. PRV analysis reflected a significant augmentation of sympathetic activity provoked by intermittent hypoxia in SDB children. A linear classifier was trained with the most discriminating features to identify children with SDB. The classifier was validated with internal and external cross-validation, providing a high negative predictive value (92.6% and a good balance between sensitivity (88.4% and specificity (83.6%. Combining SpO2 and PRV analysis improved the classification performance, providing an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 88%, beyond the 82% achieved using SpO2 analysis alone. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the implementation of this algorithm in the Phone Oximeter will provide an improved portable, at

  13. Correlações entre alterações de fala, respiração oral, dentição e oclusão Correlations between speech disorders, mouth breathing, dentition and occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Lopes de Castro Martinelli

    2011-02-01

    ção. CONCLUSÕES: o ceceio anterior está correlacionado a alterações de dentição e à Classe III de Angle; olheira, eversão do lábio inferior e lábios entreabertos no repouso são adaptações presentes na Classe II-1, não caracterizando respiração oral neste grupo; o acúmulo de saliva nas comissuras labiais foi o sinal de respiração oral que se correlacionou às alterações de dentição.PURPOSE: to check the correlations among speech disorders and mouth breathing symptoms with the type of dentition and occlusion, using video recordings. METHODS: a retrospective study with 397 patients, by studying the shooting script - ROF. Types of speech disorders and mouth breathing symptoms were assessed by Orofacial Motricity Specialist Speech and Language Pathologists and compared with the occlusal types proposed by Angle and with the dentition parameters, both evaluated by an Orthodontist. For the statistical analysis we used the program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 13.0. For analyzing Spearman correlation, all assessment data were matched and analyzed. The adopted significance level was 5%. RESULTS: Considering speech disorders and dentition and occlusion data, we noted parallelism between distortion and crossbite, imprecision and bone deviation of lower midline line, locking and overjet, locking and overbite, frontal lisp and Angle Class III malocclusion, frontal lisp and malocclusion, frontal lisp and open bite, frontal lisp and crossbite; and frontal lisp and lower midline deviation. We also noted correlated opposition between locking and openbite, locking and bone deviation of lower bone midline, frontal lisp and Angle Class II-1 malocclusion, frontal lisp and overjet; and frontal lisp and overbite. Considering mouth breathing symptoms and dentition and occlusion data, we noted a symptom of parallelism between the protrusion of lower lip and overjet, accumulation of saliva on the labial commissures and crossbite, accumulation of saliva on

  14. Mouth Growths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Article Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Biology of the Mouth (Video) Root Canal Additional Content Medical News Mouth Growths By David F. Murchison, DDS, MMS, Clinical Professor, Department of Biological Sciences;Clinical Professor, The University ...

  15. Alteration of serum high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) levels in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Weikun; Shi, Haifan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Jie; Jin, Longteng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-...

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep related breathing disorders in children: 2007 to 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A

    2015-03-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) have historically been under-recognised and under-treated. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) affects approximately 3% of children. In line with the increased recognition of SRBD there has been an increase in demand for diagnostic services. We determined the awareness of SRBD amongst Irish paediatricians, examined the provision of sleep services to children throughout the country between 2007 and 2011 and audited diagnostic sleep services in a tertiary centre in 2011. Amongst respondents there was an awareness of SRBD but a poor understanding of diagnostic evaluation with 31\\/46 (67) referring to inappropriate services. There has been a sharp increase in both diagnostic sleep tests (433-1793 [414]) and in the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) (31-186 [627]) for treatment of SRBD between 2007 and 2011. Paediatric sleep services are organized in an ad-hoc manner nationally with significant service variation. The use of domiciliary overnight oximetry reduced the requirement for more formal polysomnography by 70%.

  17. Occlusion in 6-12 year old mouth breathers of the Child’s Clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Antioquia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: the objective of this analysis was to determine the characteristics of occlusion in mouth breathing children, who are treated in the Child’s Clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Antioquia. Methods: a cross-sectional descriptive study in 100 6-12 year old mouth breathing patients, who went for the first time to the Child’s Clinic (iv to vii semester), who had no prior therapeutic surgeries, identified with a checklist. Upon a medical examination, the following ...

  18. Tidal breathing parameters measured using structured light plethysmography in healthy children and those with asthma before and after bronchodilator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmeidi, Hamzah; Motamedi-Fakhr, Shayan; Chadwick, Edward; Gilchrist, Francis J; Lenney, Warren; Iles, Richard; Wilson, Rachel C; Alexander, John

    2017-03-01

    Structured light plethysmography (SLP) is a light-based, noncontact technique that measures tidal breathing by monitoring displacements of the thoracoabdominal (TA) wall. We used SLP to measure tidal breathing parameters and their within-subject variability (v) in 30 children aged 7-16 years with asthma and abnormal spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1] displacement ratio (IE50SLP, calculated as TIF50SLP/TEF50SLP, where TIF50SLP is tidal inspiratory TA displacement rate at 50% of inspiratory displacement and TEF50SLP is tidal expiratory TA displacement rate at 50% of expiratory displacement). Median (m) IE50SLP and its variability (vIE50SLP) were both higher in children with asthma (prebronchodilator) compared with healthy children (mIE50SLP: 1.53 vs. 1.22, P < 0.001; vIE50SLP: 0.63 vs. 0.47, P < 0.001). After administration of bronchodilators to the asthma group, mIE50SLP decreased from 1.53 to 1.45 (P = 0.01) and vIE50SLP decreased from 0.63 to 0.60 (P = 0.04). SLP-measured tidal breathing parameters could differentiate between children with and without asthma and indicate a response to bronchodilator.

  19. Long-Term Improvements in Sleep and Respiratory Parameters in Preschool Children Following Treatment of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Lisa M.; Biggs, Sarah N.; Nisbet, Lauren C.; Weichard, Aidan J.; Hollis, Samantha L.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in preschool-aged children is common, but long-term outcomes have not been investigated. We aimed to compare sleep and respiratory parameters in preschool children to examine the effects of treatment or non-treatment after 3 years. Methods: Children (3–5 years) diagnosed with SDB (n = 45) and non-snoring controls (n = 30) returned for repeat overnight polysomnography (39% of original cohort), 3 years following baseline polysomnography. Children with SDB were grouped according to whether they had received treatment or not. SDB resolution was defined as an obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) ≤ 1 event/h, no snoring detected on polysomnography and habitual snoring not indicated by parents on questionnaire. Results: Fifty-one percent (n = 23) of the children with SDB were treated. Overall, SDB resolved in 49% (n = 22), either spontaneously (n = 8) or with treatment (n = 14). SDB remained unresolved in 39% (n = 9) of those treated and 64% (n = 14) of the children who were untreated. Two of the non-snoring controls developed SDB at follow-up. The treated group had significantly lower OAHI (p Anderson V, Nixon GM, Horne RS. Long-term improvements in sleep and respiratory parameters in preschool children following treatment of sleep disordered breathing. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1143–1151. PMID:26094933

  20. Carbon dioxide levels during polygraphy in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautrat, Jade; Khirani, Sonia; Boulé, Michèle; Ramirez, Adriana; Beydon, Nicole; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    The recent scoring rules of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) define hypoventilation in children as a carbon dioxide (CO2) level of >50 mmHg for >25 % of total sleep time (partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) > 50[>25 %]). As there is no validated level of nocturnal hypoventilation with regard to end-organ damage in children, we evaluated the prevalence of hypoventilation with the AASM definition but also with a lesser degree of elevated CO2 in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Transcutaneous CO2 (PtcCO2) was recorded during overnight polygraphy (PG). Hypoventilation was defined according to four definitions: the AASM score (PCO2 > 50[>25 %]), the peak value of PtcCO2 > 50 mmHg (PtcCO2 > 50[peak]), a percentage of PtcCO2 > 50 mmHg > 2 % of nighttime recording (PtcCO2 > 50[>2 %]) or a nocturnal PtcCO2 > 10 mmHg above waking baseline level (PtcCO2[>10 mmHg]). PtcCO2 indices were correlated to the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and oxygenation indices. PGs from 221 children with suspicion of obstructive sleep apnoea (72 %), neuromuscular diseases (21 %), and lung diseases (7 %) were analysed. The prevalence of hypoventilation according to PCO2 > 50[>25 %], PtcCO2 > 50[peak], PtcCO2 > 50[>2 %] and PtcCO2[>10 mmHg] were 16, 27, 31 and 52 %, respectively, and did not differ between the three diagnostic groups. Significant but weak correlations were observed between hypoventilation and AHI and oxygenation indices. Nocturnal hypoventilation occurs in a large number of children referred for SDB, independent of the underlying disease, when more stringent criteria than those of the AASM are used. The poor correlation between hypoventilation and AHI or oxygenation indices is in favour of CO2 being a supplemental index of SDB.

  1. Three-dimensional cine MRI in free-breathing infants and children with congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Achim; Fenchel, Michael C.; Kramer, Ulrich; Bretschneider, Christiane; Doering, Joerg; Claussen, Claus D.; Miller, Stephan [University of Tuebingen (Germany). Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Greil, Gerald F. [St. Thomas Hospital, Division of Imaging Sciences, King' s College London (United Kingdom); Martirosian, Petros [University of Tuebingen, Section of Experimental Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Sieverding, Ludger [University of Tuebingen, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    Patients with congenital heart disease frequently have complex cardiac and vascular malformations requiring detailed non-invasive diagnostic evaluation including functional parameters. To evaluate the morphological and functional information provided by a novel 3-D cine steady-state free-precession (SSFP) sequence. Twenty consecutive children (mean age 2.2 years, nine boys) were examined using a 1.5-T MR system including 2-D cine gradient-recalled-echo sequences, static 3-D SSFP and 3-D cine SSFP sequences. Measurement of ventricular structures and volumes showed close agreement between the 3-D cine SSFP sequence and the 2-D cine gradient-recalled-echo and static 3-D SSFP sequences (left ventricular volumes mean difference 1.0-1.9 ml and 8.8-11.4%, respectively; right ventricular volumes 1.7-2.1 ml and 9.9-16.9%, respectively). No systematic bias was observed. 3-D cine MRI provides anatomic as well as functional information with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution in free-breathing infants with congenital heart disease. (orig.)

  2. New camera-based microswitch technology to monitor small head and mouth responses of children with multiple disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Bellini, Domenico; Oliva, Doretta; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Green, Vanessa A; Furniss, Fred

    2014-06-01

    Assessing a new camera-based microswitch technology, which did not require the use of color marks on the participants' face. Two children with extensive multiple disabilities participated. The responses selected for them consisted of small, lateral head movements and mouth closing or opening. The intervention was carried out according to a multiple probe design across responses. The technology involved a computer with a CPU using a 2-GHz clock, a USB video camera with a 16-mm lens, a USB cable connecting the camera and the computer, and a special software program written in ISO C++ language. The new technology was satisfactorily used with both children. Large increases in their responding were observed during the intervention periods (i.e. when the responses were followed by preferred stimulation). The new technology may be an important resource for persons with multiple disabilities and minimal motor behavior.

  3. Children living near a sanitary landfill have increased breath methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in their intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Filho, Humberto Bezerra; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Mello, Carolina Santos; Melli, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher (P landfill (3.16 × 10(7) CFU/g of feces), comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05 × 10(6) CFU/g of feces) and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93 × 10(5) CFU/g of feces). The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing, obesity, and airway inflammation in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhulst, Stijn L; Aerts, Liselotte; Jacobs, Sarah; Schrauwen, Nancy; Haentjens, Dominique; Claes, Rita; Vaerenberg, Hilde; Van Gaal, Luc F; De Backer, Wilfried A; Desager, Kristine N

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) in overweight children and adolescents without asthma or atopy and to assess whether obesity per se is associated with increased airway inflammation. Consecutive overweight subjects without symptoms of asthma or allergy were recruited at a pediatric obesity clinic. A normal-weight control group without OSAS and asthma or allergy was also recruited. All subjects underwent polysomnography and two measurements of eNO (afternoon and morning after polysomnography). Controlling for age, the mean (+/- SD) afternoon eNO concentration was significantly higher in the snoring group (14.1 +/- 1.1 parts per billion [ppb]) compared with the normal-weight group (10.1 +/- 0.8 ppb; p = 0.03) and with the overweight group with normal polysomnography findings (8.9 +/- 0.8 ppb; p = 0.007). The afternoon eNO concentration was also different between the OSAS group (11.9 +/- 1.0 ppb) and the overweight group with normal polysomnography findings (p = 0.03). Morning eNO values were higher in the OSAS group (12.3 +/- 1.1 ppb) than in the normal weight group (9.9 +/- 0.8 ppb; p = 0.047) and in the overweight control group (9.7 +/- 0.7 ppb; p = 0.02). BMI z score was not significantly correlated with afternoon eNO concentration or with morning eNO concentration. This study illustrates that both habitual snoring and OSAS are associated with increased airway inflammation in overweight children as assessed by higher eNO levels. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that childhood obesity in the absence of sleep-disordered breathing is not associated with increased airway inflammation.

  5. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to breathe. Decrease work of breathing and promote airway clearance Positioning: Elevating the head of the bed. This ... to Breathing Changes.” Equipment to support ventilation and airway clearance: Portable suction units can help remove secretions from ...

  6. Mouth Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or difficulty in swallowing, speaking, or chewing; any wart-like mass; hoarseness that lasts for more than two weeks; or any numbness in the oral/facial region. Tips to prevent mouth sores •Stop smoking. •Reduce stress. •Avoid injury to the mouth caused by hard ...

  7. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atweh, Lamya A.; Dodd, Nicholas A.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Chu, Zili D. [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Pednekar, Amol [Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  8. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atweh, Lamya A; Dodd, Nicholas A; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Pednekar, Amol; Chu, Zili D; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh

    2016-05-01

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady--state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  9. Correlation between signs of temporomandibular (TMD) and cervical spine (CSD) disorders in asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Thaís Cristina; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Bertolli, Fabiana; Holtz, Amanda; Costa, Dirceu

    2005-01-01

    Neck accessory respiratory muscles and mouth breathing suggest a direct relationship among asthma, Temporomandibular (TMD) and Cervical Spine (CSD) Disorders. This study was performed to evaluate and correlate TMD, CSD in asthmatic and non-asthmatic. Thirty asthmatic children (7.1 +/- 2.6 years old), 30 non-asthmatic predominantly mouth breathing children (Mouth Breathing Group - MBG) (8.80 +/- 1.61 years) and 30 non-asthmatic predominantly nasal breathing children (Nasal breathing Group - NBG) (9.00 +/- 1.64 years) participated in this study and they were submitted to clinical index to evaluate stomatognathic and cervical systems. Spearman correlation test and Chi-square were used. The level of significance was set at p temporomandibular joint (TMJ), TMJ sounds, pain during cervical extension and rotation, palpatory tenderness of sternocleidomastoids and paravertabrae muscles and a severe reduction in cervical range of motion were observed in AG. Both AG and MBG groups demonstrated palpatory tenderness of posterior TMJ, medial and lateral pterygoid, and trapezius muscles when compared to NBG. Results showed a positive correlation between the severity of TMD and CSD signs in asthmatic children (r = 0.48). No child was considered normal to CSD and cervical mobility. The possible shortening of neck accessory muscles of respiration and mouth breathing could explain the relationship observed between TMD, CSD signs in asthmatic children and emphasize the importance of the assessment of temporomandibular and cervical spine regions in asthmatic children.

  10. The effect of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans count in 6- to 12-year-old school children: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraja R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Treating a carious tooth in children with high caries experience by providing a restoration does not cure the disease. If the unfavorable oral environment that caused the cavity persists so will the disease and more restorations will be required in future. Treating the oral infection by reducing the number of cariogenic microorganisms and establishing a favorable oral environment to promote predominantly remineralization of tooth structure over time will stop the caries process. The present study was conducted: (1 To evaluate the efficacy of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans when used as an adjunct to restoration. (2 To compare the anti-microbial effect of 1% povidone-iodine and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque S. mutans count. Study Design: Forty-five study participants in the age group of 6-12 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected from one government school in Bangalore city. They were divided into three groups after the restorative treatment. Group-A, Group-B, and Group-C received 1% povidone-iodine mouth rinse, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and placebo mouth rinse, respectively, twice daily for 14 days. The plaque sample was collected and S. mutans count was estimated at six phases: (1 Baseline, (2 3 weeks after restoration, (3 First day after mouth rinse therapy, (4 15 days after mouth rinse therapy, (5 1 month and (6 3 months after mouth rinse therapy Results: After the restoration the percentage change in S. mutans count was 28.4%. Immediately after mouth rinse therapy there was significant reduction in S. mutans count in all the three groups. After which the count started to increase gradually and after 3 months the bacterial counts in the povidone-iodine group and placebo group were almost near the postrestorative count. Conclusion: Mouth rinses can be used as adjunct to restoration for short duration as temporary measure in reduction of S

  11. Influence of the breathing pattern on the learning process: a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genef Caroline Andrade Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Mouth breathing leads to negative consequences on quality of life, especially in school-age children. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the breathing pattern influences children's learning process. METHODS: This systematic review was carried out according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA instructions, with no restrictions regarding the year of publication and language, created based on the clinical question formulation according to the Problem/Patient/Population, Intervention/Indicator, Comparison, Outcome (PICO strategy: "Is the mouth-breathing child more likely to have learning disabilities when compared to nasal breathers?" in the SciELO, PubMed, LILACS, and Scopus electronic databases. Google Scholar was used to search the gray literature. The keywords "learning," "mouth breathing," and their equivalent terms in Portuguese were used in an integrated manner. The studies included in the review were observational, conducted with schoolchildren aged 7-11 years. Afterwards, the studies were evaluated regarding their methodological quality. The research was performed by two eligible reviewers. RESULTS: A total of 357 records were obtained, of which 43 records were duplicate. After applying the eligibility criteria, ten articles were included in the research scope. Half of the studies used a control group and otorhinolaryngological assessment, whereas a minority used validated (20% and sample calculation protocols (10%. The evaluation procedures were varied. Overall, 80% of the articles showed a higher incidence of learning disabilities among mouth breathers. CONCLUSION: This systematic review has shown that mouth breathers are more likely to have learning difficulties than nasal breathers.

  12. Clinical and Etiological Characteristics of Atypical Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease in Children from Chongqing, China: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD is a disease that had similar manifestations to chickenpox, impetigo, and measles, which is easy to misdiagnose and subsequently causes delayed therapy and subsequent epidemic. To date, no study has been conducted to report the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of atypical HFMD. Methods. 64 children with atypical HFMD out of 887 HFMD children were recruited, stool was collected, and viral VP1 was detected. Results. The atypical HFMD accounted for 7.2% of total HFMD in the same period (64/887 and there were two peaks in its prevalence in nonepidemic seasons. Ten children (15.6% had manifestations of neurologic involvement, of whom 4 (6.3% were diagnosed with severe HFMD and 1 with critically severe HFMD, but all recovered smoothly. Onychomadesis and desquamation were found in 14 patients (21.9% and 15 patients (23.4%, respectively. The most common pathogen was coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6 which accounted for 67.2%, followed by nontypable enterovirus (26.6%, enterovirus 71 (EV-A71 (4.7%, and coxsackievirus A16 (A16 (1.5%. Conclusions. Atypical HFMD has seasonal prevalence. The manifestations of neurologic involvement in atypical HFMD are mild and usually have a good prognosis. CV-A6 is a major pathogen causing atypical HFMD, but not a major pathogen in Chongqing, China.

  13. Comparison of active cycle of breathing and high-frequency oscillation jacket in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gillian E; Pike, Sarah E; Jaffé, Adam; Bush, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    High-frequency chest compressions (HFCC) have been suggested as an alternative to conventional chest physiotherapy to aid sputum clearance in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We aimed to compare the active cycle of breathing techniques (ACBT) with the Hayek Oscillator Cuirass, performing HFCC on secretion clearance in children with CF during an exacerbation. Ten children (7 males; median age, 14 years; range, 9-16) received either two supervised sessions using HFCC or two self-treatment ACBT sessions in random order on successive days. Baseline pulmonary function was similar prior to treatments. Sputum weight increased significantly with ACBT compared with HFCC during treatment (5.2 g vs. 1.1 g, P HFCC. Compared with ACBT, HFCC by Hayek Cuirass is not an effective airway clearance treatment modality for children with CF during an infective exacerbation.

  14. Breath-holding spells: Prevalence and risk factors in under 6-year old children at south of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tootoonchi

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available To determine breath- holding spells (BHS prevalence and risk factors in under 6- year- old children, we interviewed mothers of 400 children in a cross- sectional study in 5 health centers at south of Tehran in autumn 1999. 33 children (8.25% had history of BHS (Male: 19, Female: 14 25 cases were between 2-4 years old (mean: 40±17 months. Seventy percent of cases (23 had onset of attacks after 6 months of age (mean: 10 monthis and the commonest frequency was one spell per month (78.79%. Painful experience and falling and striking the head wee the common triggering factors (79% and 76% respectively and there was significant association between BHS and history of fallin and severe striking of the head. There was no significant associations between BHS and sex, birth weight, birth order, delivery method, type of labor initiating and duration of labor.

  15. Avaliação de atopia em crianças respiradoras bucais atendidas em centro de referência Evaluation of atopy among mouth-breathing pediatric patients referred for treatment to a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. C. Barros

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Respirador bucal é o indivíduo que utiliza a cavidade oral como principal via aérea durante a respiração. Trata-se de síndrome de múltiplas etiologias, dentre as quais a rinite alérgica merece destaque por sua alta prevalência. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a presença de atopia entre respiradores bucais encaminhados a serviço de referência da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal e descritivo, realizado no Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Foram incluídos pacientes de 2 a 12 anos de idade, com período de admissão entre novembro de 2002 e abril de 2004. Os responsáveis responderam a um questionário completo, e os pacientes foram submetidos a teste alérgico cutâneo para inalantes. Houve 140 participantes do estudo. Foram classificados como atópicos aqueles que apresentaram teste positivo para, no mínimo, um alérgeno. As análises estatísticas foram feitas no programa SPSS, usando análises univariadas seguidas pela regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Entre os 140 pacientes, 44,3% (62/140 tiveram teste alérgico positivo. Ácaros foram os alérgenos predominantes, apresentando positividade em 100% dos atópicos. Em análise multivariada, atopia esteve significativamente associada ao sexo masculino (p = 0,05, presença de asma (p = 0,014, menor número de pessoas dormindo no mesmo cômodo que o paciente (p = 0,005, ausência de tabagismo passivo (p = 0,005 e ausência de apnéia noturna (p = 0,003. CONCLUSÃO: A alta prevalência de positividade no teste alérgico enfatiza a importância da investigação alergológica em respiradores bucais, pois a alergia tem formas específicas de tratamento que podem reduzir a morbidade desses pacientes quando adequadamente utilizadas.OBJECTIVE: A mouth breather is someone who uses his/her oral cavity as main airway during breathing. This is a syndrome with several etiologies, but allergic rhinitis plays a

  16. The frequency of sleep-disordered breathing in children with asthma and its effects on asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Tayfur; Akcan, Fatih Alper; Capanoglu, Murat; Toyran, Muge; Ersu, Refika; Kocabas, Can Naci; Civelek, Ersoy

    2017-05-01

    The presence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children with asthma may cause difficult to control asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of SDB in children with asthma, to evaluate its effects on asthma control and to assess the risk factors associated with the presence of SDB. Parents of children who Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Childhood Asthma Control Test (C-ACT). Asthma control level was assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Same ear-nose-throat (ENT) specialist evaluated all patients. A 4-point tonsil grading method and adenoid-nasopharynx ratio were used to categorize tonsil and adenoid size, respectively. A total of 408 children (275 male, 67.4%) with a mean age of 8.1 ± 3.2 years were included. Nearly 40% of asthmatic children were not-well-controlled according to GINA and 34.6% of all patients had SDB according to PSQ. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that coexistence of SDB [OR: 6.62, 95% CI (4.21-10.41); p asthma in asthmatic children after other established contributors to asthma control were adjusted. Our study showed that SDB is a strong risk factor for not-well-controlled asthma in asthmatic children independent of other confounders. In addition, tonsillar hypertrophy may have a role in the association between SDB and not-well-controlled asthma in childhood.

  17. Mouth Sores

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contains fluoride. Note that whitening toothpastes may contain hydrogen peroxide, which can irritate sore mouths. Remove and ... Life Events College Relay For Life Donate a Car Ways to Give Memorial Giving Planned Giving Leadership ...

  18. Mouth ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A ... chap 22. Read More Canker sore Cellulitis Gingivostomatitis Leukoplakia Lichen planus Mouth sores Oral cancer Tooth abscess ...

  19. Mouth Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rich in fruits and vegetables. The vitamins and antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables may help reduce your risk of mouth cancer. Avoid excessive sun exposure to your lips. Protect the skin on your lips from the sun by staying ...

  20. Mouth Rinses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with more severe oral problems, such as cavities, periodontal disease, gum inflammation, and xerostomia (dry mouth). Therapeutic rinses ... are not much more effective against plaque and gum disease than rinsing with water. Most dentists are skeptical ...

  1. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Stephanie; Chamley, Carol

    2013-03-01

    This is the first part of two articles exploring oral health problems and treatments for children receiving palliative care, successful management of which can improve considerably the quality of life for this group of children and young people. Part one includes an adapted oral health assessment tool for use in children and young people with complex and palliative healthcare needs that has the potential to help nurses identify and monitor oral health problems and prevent or minimise oral problems from developing. Part two--to be published next month--focuses on basic oral hygiene and the management of specific oral health problems.

  2. Different breathing patterns in healthy and asthmatic children : Responses to an arithmetic task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, DS; Maarsingh, EJW; van Eykern, LA; van Aalderen, WMC

    2006-01-01

    Asthma patients have been reported to be sensitive to breathlessness, independent of the degree of airway obstruction. Paying attention and task performance may induce changes in breathing pattern and these in turn may mediate such a feeling. The present experiment investigates whether strained brea

  3. Biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate indicate presence and severity of cystic fibrosis in children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robroeks, C.M.; Rosias, P.P.; Vliet, D van; Jobsis, Q.; Yntema, J.L.; Brackel, H.J.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Hartog, GM den; Wodzig, W.K.; Dompeling, E.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is present in cystic fibrosis (CF). Non-invasive inflammometry may be useful in disease management. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate: (i) the ability of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and inflammatory markers (IM) [exhaled breath condensate

  4. Different breathing patterns in healthy and asthmatic children : Responses to an arithmetic task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, DS; Maarsingh, EJW; van Eykern, LA; van Aalderen, WMC

    Asthma patients have been reported to be sensitive to breathlessness, independent of the degree of airway obstruction. Paying attention and task performance may induce changes in breathing pattern and these in turn may mediate such a feeling. The present experiment investigates whether strained

  5. Oral Breathing Challenge in Participants with Vocal Attrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasankar, Mahalakshmi; Fisher, Kimberly V.

    2003-01-01

    Vocal folds undergo osmotic challenge by mouth breathing during singing, exercising, and loud speaking. Just 15 min of obligatory oral breathing, to dry the vocal folds, increases phonation threshold pressure (P[subscript th]) and expiratory vocal effort in healthy speakers (M. Sivasankar & K. Fisher, 2002). We questioned whether oral breathing is…

  6. Human respiratory deposition of particles during oronasal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, David L.; Proctor, Donald F.

    Deposition of particles in the tracheobronchial and pulmonary airways is computed as a function of particle size, correcting for deposition in the parallel nasal and oral airways with oronasal breathing. Thoracic deposition is lower at all sizes for oronasal breathing than for mouth breathing via tube, and is negligible for aerodynamic equivalent diameters of 10 μm or larger.

  7. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  8. Breathing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting enough air. Sometimes you can have mild breathing problems because of a stuffy nose or intense ... panic attacks Allergies If you often have trouble breathing, it is important to find out the cause.

  9. The Changes of Upper Airway Structure and Sleep-breathing Parameters in Teenagers with Class I Molar Relationship and Mouth-breathing After Orthodontic Treatment%青少年Ⅰ类口呼吸患者矫治前后上气道结构及睡眠呼吸参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 马艳丽; 林川

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究青少年Ⅰ类磨牙关系的口呼吸患者矫治后上气道结构及睡眠通气情况改变.方法 根据纳入和排除标准,在正畸初诊患者中筛选出22例口呼吸患者,选择不同的矫治方式进行矫治,测量矫治前后X线头影侧位片上气道矢状结构骨性鼻咽段、腭咽段、舌咽段、喉咽段的变化及睡眠呼吸指数的改变,采用SPSS19.0统计软件进行矫治前后样本配对检验.结果 矫治后,骨性鼻咽(PNS-Ba)、中腭咽段的软腭后与软腭后咽壁点连线距离(SPP-SPPW)均增宽且有统计学意义(P0.05);CL (UC-LC), PNS-R decreased slightly (P>0.05);AHI decreased;AveO2 and MiniO2 increased (P<0.05). Conclusions The orthodontic treatment leads to the increase of the nasopharynx and pharyngeal segment of upper airway and the improvement of sleep respiratory ventilation in teenagers with Class Ⅰ molar relationship and mouth-breathing.

  10. Putting your money where your mouth is: parents' valuation of good oral health of their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaire, J H; van Exel, N J A; van Loveren, C; Brouwer, W B F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the parental willingness to invest in good oral health for their child in terms of money and time and to relate this to oral health related knowledge and behavioral aspects. 290 parents of 6-year-old children, participating in a RCT on caries preventive strategies in The Netherlands were asked to provide information on education, oral health habits, dietary habits, knowledge on dental topics, willingness to pay and perceived resistance against investing in preventive oral health actions for their children. Despite the fact that parents overall valued oral health for their child highly, still 12% of the parents were unwilling to spend any money, nor to invest any time by brushing their children's teeth to maintain good oral health for their child. Additionally, they indicated that they were unwilling to visit the dentist for preventive measures more than once a year. These children may certainly be considered at higher risk of developing oral diseases because worse oral hygiene habits and dietary habits were found in this group. Given the results, it may be necessary to differentiate in allocating caries prevention programmes to target parents or (school-based) children directly.

  11. CORRECTION OF THE DISORDERS OF THE MOUTH CAVITY BIOCENOSIS AMONG THE CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC TONSILLITIS, AIDED BY THE TOPICAL BACTERIAL LYSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Foshina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the impact of the Imudon bacterial lysate on the status of the tonsil microbiocenosis among the children with chronic tonsillitis in remission. They revealed a certain reduction in the level of pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic microflora carriage, as well as intensity of the tonsil colonization after 20-day sublingual application of topical bacterial lysate. The medication may be recommended for the preventive practices among the children with chronic tonsillitis to reduce the bacterial contamination of the pharyngeal tonsils.Key words: chronic tonsillitis, children, bacterial lysates, microbiocenosis of the mouth cavity.

  12. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Dental Association: Dry Mouth Related Consumer Updates Depression: FDA-Approved Medications May Help More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  13. Avaliação objetiva das forças axiais produzidas pela língua de crianças respiradoras orais Objective evaluation of axial forces produced by the tongue of oral breathing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas de Castro Perilo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Quantificar e comparar as forças produzidas pela língua de crianças respiradoras orais pré-cirúrgicas, respiradoras orais em tratamento fonoaudiológico e respiradoras nasais, além de comparar os achados da avaliação objetiva com os dados da avaliação clínica. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 15 crianças, de ambos os gêneros, com idades entre oito e 12 anos, sendo cinco respiradoras orais pré-cirúrgicas (Grupo 1, cinco respiradoras orais em tratamento fonoaudiológico (Grupo 2 e cinco respiradoras nasais (Grupo 3. Foi realizada uma avaliação clínica das características linguais das crianças e, em seguida, uma avaliação objetiva da força axial da língua por meio de equipamento desenvolvido na Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Os resultados foram analisados de forma descritiva por meio das medidas de tendência central e dispersão. RESULTADOS: A média dos valores das forças médias encontrada nos Grupos 1, 2 e 3, respectivamente, foi de 5,6, 6,0 e 7,3N. Já a média dos valores de força máxima foi de 8,2, 9,2 e 10,4N. Obtiveram os maiores valores de força média (7,0N e máxima (10,3N os indivíduos que apresentaram tensão adequada de língua na avaliação clínica e os valores mais baixos (3,5N e 2,0N aqueles cuja avaliação subjetiva indicou hipotensão lingual. A análise estatística indicou dados heterogêneos nos Grupos 1 e 2, tendendo a homogêneos no Grupo 1. CONCLUSÕES: A média das forças foi maior nos indivíduos respiradores nasais, seguidos pelos respiradores orais em tratamento fonoaudiológico e, por fim, os respiradores orais pré-cirúrgicos. Houve concordância entre os resultados das avaliações objetiva e clínica.PURPOSE: To quantify and to compare the forces produced by the tongues of pre-surgical mouth-breathing children, oral-breathing children enrolled in therapy and nasal-breathing children, and also to compare the findings of objective and clinical evaluations. METHODS

  14. SERS detection of pneumonia in breath of children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Rikke Kragh; Molin, Søren

    colonisation, if it can be detected in the breath. It was investigated if a nanopillar substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), developed in the Nanoprobes group, could be optimised for gas phase detection of HCN. The project consisted of 3 steps, of which the first was to establish a chemical...... substrate, which was then measured, to see if HCN was detected when a new P. aeruginosa colonisation occurred; and data was correlated to culturing of sputum from the patient’s lungs. The SERS substrate was optimised, and setups were developed for HCN(g) detection, for SERS detection of HCN from bacterial...... volatiles, and for collection and SERS substrate exposure to human breath. Five ppm HCN was successfully detected in gas phase, and KCN was detected down to 10-6 M. HCN detection was demonstrated from cultures of P. aeruginosa wild types, starting from the end of exponential / beginning of stationary growth...

  15. 住院患儿手足口病的护理进展%The nursing progress of inpatients children with hand - foot - mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉兰

    2010-01-01

    对手足口病患儿从消毒隔离、饮食营养、皮肤黏膜、发热护理方面的研究现状进行综述,为临床护理人员对手足口病患儿采取针对性的护理干预提供借鉴,以提高手足口病患儿的护理质量,促进患儿早日康复.%This article reviewed the status of isolation, nutrition, skin and mucous membrane, fever nursing of hand - foot - mouth disease children patients. It aimed to improve the nursing quality of hand-foot-mouth children, and promote them recovery soon.

  16. From the Mouths of Babes: Children in Recent Indonesian Film and Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Allen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A noticeable trend in recent Indonesian fiction and film has been the use of children as protagonists. This paper examines the role of children in Andrea Hirata’s 2005 novel Laskar Pelangi (Rainbow Warriors and the 2006 film Denias, directed by John de Rantau. I argue that, like the German Bildungsromane, these texts belong to a genre that might be called ‘coming of age’ or quest narratives. And yet, importantly, they are not just about the personal experience of finding one’s place in the world; the young protagonists of these texts also carry the weight of nation-building on their slender shoulders. The texts are not, therefore, simple derivations from European Bildungsromane, but are shaped by colonialism and globalization

  17. Distribution of enteroviruses in hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease and relationship between pathogens and nervous system complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Wei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore the relationship between enteroviruses and hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD complicated with nervous system disease. 234 hospitalized HFMD patients treated in Shengjing Hospital, Liaoning Province were analyzed retrospectively. Based on the presence and severity of nervous system disease, the patients were grouped as follows: general patients, severely ill patients, critically ill patients and fatal patients. Based on the detected pathogen, the patients were grouped as follows: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection, coxsackie A16 (CA16 infection and other enterovirus (OE infection. Results Of the 423 hospitalized patients, most were admitted in July 2010(129/423, 30.5%. Enteroviruses were detected in 177(41.8%. 272/423 patients were male (64.3%, and fatal patients had the greatest proportion of male patients (p p p p p p Conclusion The disease progresses faster in EV71-infected HFMD patients. These patients are more likely to suffer nervous system damage, neurogenic pulmonary edema, severe sequelae or death. CA16 and other enteroviruses can also cause HFMD with severe nervous system complications.

  18. Combined Electrocardiography- and Respiratory-Triggered CT of the Lung to Reduce Respiratory Misregistration Artifacts between Imaging Slabs in Free-Breathing Children: Initial Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Allmendinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac and respiratory motion artifacts degrade the image quality of lung CT in free-breathing children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory triggering on respiratory misregistration artifacts on lung CT in free-breathing children. In total, 15 children (median age 19 months, range 6 months-8 years; 7 boys), who underwent free-breathing ECG-triggered lung CT with and without respiratory-triggering were included. A pressure-sensing belt of a respiratory gating system was used to obtain the respiratory signal. The degree of respiratory misregistration artifacts between imaging slabs was graded on a 4-point scale (1, excellent image quality) on coronal and sagittal images and compared between ECG-triggered lung CT studies with and without respiratory triggering. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Lung CT with combined ECG and respiratory triggering showed significantly less respiratory misregistration artifacts than lung CT with ECG triggering only (1.1 ± 0.4 vs. 2.2 ± 1.0, p = 0.003). Additional respiratory-triggering reduces respiratory misregistration artifacts on ECG-triggered lung CT in free-breathing children.

  19. Chest physical therapy, breathing techniques and exercise in children with CF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwaine, Maggie

    2007-03-01

    Chest physiotherapy in the form of airway clearance techniques and exercise has played an important role in the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Until the 1990s the primary airway clearance technique used was postural drainage combined with percussion and vibration (PD&P). It was introduced into the treatment of CF with little evidence to support its efficacy and once established, it has been difficult ethically to perform a study comparing PD&P to no treatment. A common question, yet unanswered is when should it be commenced, especially for the newly diagnosed asymptomatic CF patient? Recently, the technique of PD&P has been modified to include only non-dependant head-down positioning due to the detrimental effects of placing a person in a Trendelenburg position. In the 1990s other airway clearance techniques gained popularity, in that they could be performed independently, in a sitting position and avoided many of the detrimental effects of PD&P. These techniques include the Active cycle of breathing technique, formally called the Forced expiration technique and Autogenic drainage. Both these breathing techniques aim at using expiratory airflow to mobilize secretions up the airways and incorporate breathing strategies to assist in the homogeneity of ventilation. Studies suggest that both these techniques are as effective if not more effective than as PD&P and offer many advantages over PD&P. It has been suggested that exercise can be used as an airway clearance technique; however the literature does not support this. Rather, when exercise is used in addition to an airway clearance technique there is enhanced secretion removal and an overall benefit to the patient. Further research needs to be directed at assessing the effects of an airway clearance technique on the individual patient using appropriate outcome measures.

  20. Prolonged exclusive breastfeeding, autumn birth and increased gestational age are associated with lower risk of fever in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Q; Li, Y; Li, N; Han, Q; Liu, Z; Li, Z; Qiu, J; Zhang, G; Li, F; Tian, N

    2012-09-01

    Epidemics of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) have been emerging and reemerging in recent years. This study aims to investigate whether breastfeeding and other factors may affect the profile of fever and disease course in children with HFMD. Three hundred seventy-two preschool children with HFMD were included. The demographics, environmental factors, and delivery- and feeding-associated factors in the children were obtained and their effects on the profile of fever and disease course were analyzed. Of the 372 children, 139 (37.37%) had fever during the disease course. Gender, breastfeeding pattern, birth season and gestational age were significantly different between the children with and without fever (p = 0.034, p fever.

  1. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  2. Extent of tooth decay in the mouth and increased need for replacement of dental restorations: the New England Children's Amalgam Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, Felicia; Maserejian, Nancy Nairi; Tavares, Mary; Soncini, Jennifer Ann; Hayes, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between baseline caries experience and the restoration replacement rate in children. The 5-year New England Children's Amalgam Trial recruited 534 6- to 10-year-old children with 2 or more carious posterior teeth. The association between decoy and longevity of restorations was assessed. Restorations with no follow-up (N = 391) were excluded from analysis. The average follow-up was 3.0 +/- 1.6 years in 489 children. Restorations with follow-up (N = 3,604) were placed in mouths with a median of 15 dfs/DFS and 8 dft/DFT. The need for replacement increased significantly (P or = 14 dfs/DFS needed replacement, compared to 9% for 2 to 5 dfs/DFS. Comparing dft/DFT after 5 years of follow-up, there was a 23% replacement rate for > or = 12 dft/DFT compared to 10% for 2 to 3 dft/DFT. Decoy in the mouth had a greater association with the need for replacement due to new caries compared to replacement due to recurrent caries. Children with more decoy at the time of restoration placement were at higher risk for replacement of restorations.

  3. Immediate and Sustained Improvement in Behavior and Life Quality by Adenotonsillectomy in Children With Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Song, Jae-Jin; Ahn, Jae-Cheul; Kong, Il Gyu; Kim, Jae-Won; Park, Gyeong-Hun; Won, Tae-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate longitudinal changes in behavior and quality-of-life (QoL) in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) after adenotonsillectomy (AT). Methods This study prospectively enrolled 148 children who underwent AT for SDB. Caregivers filled out Korean attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (K-ARS) and Korean version of the obstructive sleep apnea-18 (KOSA-18) at preoperative 1 day, postoperative 1 month, and postoperative 6 months. Longitudinal changes in K-ARS and KOSA-18 were evaluated and compared among subgroups. Results Both K-ARS and KOSA-18 scores improved immediately at postoperative 1 month and were maintained at postoperative 6 months. The mean preoperative K-ARS scores of the non-ADHD, ADHD-trait, and overt-ADHD groups showed uniformly immediate and sustained improvements. Also, the mean preoperative KOSA-18 scores of the small, moderate, and large impact groups were significantly improved both at postoperative 1 month and 6 months. The changes in behavior and QoL showed no significant differences with regard to the aforementioned factors. Conclusion After AT, we may expect immediate and sustained improvements in behavior and QoL in children with SDB regardless of preoperative symptom severity. Moreover, by performing AT, improvements in behavior and QoL are expected regardless of sex, age, allergic trait, or concurrent coblation-assisted turbinoplasty. These findings may help our colleague physicians counselling pediatric SDB patients and their caregivers. PMID:27090276

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing: a new risk factor of suspected fatty liver disease in overweight children and adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Verhulst

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB in childhood obesity is associated with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and inflammation and by these mechanisms, SDB could contribute to development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We, therefore, investigated if SDB was an independent predictor of suspected fatty liver disease in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children and adolescents. Retrospective case study of consecutive overweight or obese children and adolescents attending a paediatric obesity clinic. Suggestive fatty liver disease was defined as a serum alanine aminotransferase >40 U·L–1 and/or a hyperechoic liver on abdominal ultrasound. Subjects with suggestive fatty liver disease presented with higher waist circumference, more circulating peripheral leukocytes and a lower % of total sleep time with SaO2 95% than their peers with a normal liver evaluation. Multiple logistic regression (stepwise forward selected waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval = 1.00–1.10; p = 0.06 and SaO2nadir (odds ratio = 0.87; 95% confidence interval = 0.76–0.99; p = 0.03 as predictors of suggestive fatty liver disease. This study suggests an association between the severity of SDB and suspected fatty liver disease in a clinical sample of overweight and obese children and adolescents. We strongly recommend more and carefully designed research on the influence of SDB on the development of fatty liver disease and on the effect of treating sleep apnoea on liver function parameters.

  5. MRI and associated clinical characteristics of EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Hongwu; Gan, Yungen [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Shenzhen (China); Wen, Feiqiu [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurology, Shenzhen (China); Huang, Wenxian [Shenzhen Children' s Hospital, Department of Respiratory, Shenzhen (China)

    2012-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate MRI and associated clinical characteristics of brainstem encephalitis induced by enterovirus 71 (EV71) in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). We analyzed clinical and imaging data from 42 HFMD cases with EV71-induced brainstem encephalitis. All patients underwent plain and enhanced MRI cranial scans and were placed into one of two groups according to MRI enhancement results, an enhanced group or a nonenhanced group. Thirty-two cases were positive on MRI exam. The primary location of the lesion for brainstem encephalitis was the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata (32 cases), followed by the cerebellar dentate nucleus (8 cases), midbrain (5 cases), and thalamus (2 cases). Plain T1-weighted images showed isointense or hypointense signals, and T2-weighted images showed isointense and hyperintense signals. Enhanced MRI scans showed that 12 cases had slight to moderate enhancement; 4 of these were normal on plain scan. The time from MRI examination to disease onset was statistically different between the enhanced (n = 12) and nonenhanced (n = 21) groups with a mean of 7.67 days (SD = 1.07) vs 11.95 days (SD = 5.33), respectively. The most common neurological symptoms for brainstem encephalitis were myoclonus and tremor. The greater the area of affected brain, the more severe the clinical symptoms were. The locations of EV71-induced HFMD-associated brainstem encephalitis lesions are relatively specific. Enhanced MRI scans could also identify the lesions missed by early plain scans. MRI scans can provide important information for clinical evaluation and treatment. (orig.)

  6. Biokinetics and radiation doses for carbon-14 urea in adults and children undergoing the Helicobacter pylori breath test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leide-Svegborn, S.; Olofsson, M.; Mattsson, S.; Nosslin, B.; Pau, K. [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Stenstroem, K.; Erlandsson, B.; Hellborg, R. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, L. [Department of Clinical Physiology, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden); Johansson, L. [Department of Radiation Physics, Umeaa University, Umeaa University Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden); Skog, G. [Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Department of Quaternary Geology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden)

    1999-06-01

    The long-term biokinetics and dosimetry of carbon-14 were studied in nine adults and eight children undergoing carbon-14 urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. The elimination of {sup 14}C via exhaled air and urine was measured with the liquid scintillation counting technique and with accelerator mass spectrometry. After the subjects had been given 110 kBq {sup 14}C-urea (children: 55 kBq) orally, samples of exhaled air were taken up to 180 days after administration and samples of urine were collected up to 40 days. Sixteen of the subjects were found to be HP-negative. In these subjects a total of 91.1%{+-}3.9% (mean of adults and children {+-} standard error of the mean) of the administered {sup 14}C activity was recovered. The majority of the administered activity, 88.3%{+-}6.2% in adults and 87.7%{+-}5.0% in children, was excreted via the urine within 72 h after administration. A smaller fraction was exhaled. In adults 4.6%{+-}0.6% of the activity was exhaled within 20 days and in children 2.6%{+-}0.3%. Uncertainties in the biokinetic results are mainly due to assumptions concerning endogenous CO{sub 2} production and urinary excretion rate and are estimated to be less than 30%. The absorbed dose to various organs and the effective dose were calculated using the ICRP model for urea and CO{sub 2}. The urinary bladder received the highest absorbed dose: in adults, 0.15{+-}0.01 mGy/MBq and in children of various ages (7-14 years), 0.14-0.36 mGy/MBq. The findings indicate that an investigation with {sup 14}C-urea gives an effective dose to adults of 2.1{+-}0.1 {mu}Sv (for 110 kBq) and to children of 0.9-2.5 {mu}Sv (for 55 kBq). From a radiation protection point of view, there is thus no reason for restrictions on even repeated screening investigations with {sup 14}C-urea in whole families, including children. (orig.) With 5 figs., 4 tabs., 32 refs.

  7. Global impact of asthma on children and adolescents' daily lives : The room to breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)

  8. Global impact of asthma on children and adolescents' daily lives : The room to breathe survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildhaber, Johannes; Carroll, William D.; Brand, Paul L. P.

    Objective: To establish children and adolescents' perspectives regarding their asthma and its impact upon their daily lives. Design: A 14-item questionnaire. Setting: Canada, Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and South Africa. Participants: Children/adolescents (aged 8-15 years)

  9. 小儿手足口病的护理体会%Children with Hand Foot and Mouth Disease Nursing Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱萍

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarize the main points of HFMD care, quarantine measures and preventive measures to promote the speedy recovery of children. Methods Take care measures corresponding to 15 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease children, summed care characteristics. Results 15 cases of children with careful y targeted treatment and after care satisfactory outcome without complications and nosocomial infection treatments. Conclusion Foot and mouth disease in children grasp care characteristics that can improve the cure rate and reduce mortality.%目的:总结手足口病的护理要点、隔离措施和预防对策。促进患儿的早日康复。方法对15例手足口病患儿采取相对应护理措施,总结护理特点。结果15例患儿经精心治疗和针对性的护理后疗效满意,无护理并发症和院内感染发生。结论掌握小儿手足口病护理特点,可以提高治愈率,降低病死率。

  10. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh Kumar, K K; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Yaddanapudi, Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2-8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The children were induced with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. TPZ or JT was performed after 1 min of start of sevoflurane and then every 20 s till the test was negative, when end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration was noted. Classic LMA of requisite size was inserted by a blinded anesthetist and conditions at the insertion of LMA, insertion time, and the number of attempts of LMA insertion were recorded. The mean LMA insertion time was significantly longer (P < 0.001) for TPZ (145 ± 28.7 sec) compared to JT group (111.8 ± 31.0 sec). ET sevoflurane concentration at the time of LMA insertion was comparable in the two groups. LMA insertion conditions were similar in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups regarding total number of attempts of LMA insertion. Heart rate (HR) decreased in both groups after LMA insertion (P < 0.001) but TPZ group had significantly lower HR compared with the JT group up to 5 min after LMA insertion (P = 0.03). Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test.

  11. Oral habits in children--a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, S R; Munshi, A K

    1998-06-01

    This epidemiological study was conducted upon 4,590 school children to find the prevalence of oral habits in Mangalore in relation to their age and sex and to find the correlation, if any, between the habits and the malocclusion status. We noted that 29.7% of the population had habits of which 3. 1% had digit sucking, 4.6% mouth breathing, 3.02% tongue thrusting, 6.2% bruxism, 6% lip/cheek biting, 12.7% nail biting, 9.8% pencil biting and 0. 09% masochistic habits respectively. Digit sucking, pencil biting and tongue thrust were highly prevalent among Group 1 (3-6 years) children. Mouth breathing and bruxism were significant in Group 2 (7-12 years) cases whereas lip/cheek biting and nail biting were more common in Group 3 (13-16 years) cases. Digit sucking, tongue thrust, mouth breathing and bruxism were more prevalent among the boys whereas lip/cheek biting, nail biting and pencil biting were more prevalent among the girls. 28.95% of the children in Group 2 and 3 with habits had malocclusion. There was a significant correlation between class I type 2, class II div 1 and tongue thrust and mouth breathing whereas children with digit sucking showed a high correlation with class I type 2 malocclusion.

  12. Can Walking Ability Enhance the Effectiveness of Breathing Exercise in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hye Young; Kim, Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare differences in respiratory pressure and pulmonary function and the effectiveness of respiratory feedback training according to walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP...

  13. Fast and Accurate Exhaled Breath Ammonia Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A.; Risby, Terence H.

    2014-01-01

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Toge...

  14. [Occurrence of the protozoa, Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in the mouths of children and adolescents with hyperplastic gingivitis caused by phenytoin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vráblic, J; Tomová, S; Catár, G

    1992-03-01

    The oral protozoa Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax do not occur in small children and are rarely found in older ones. In adolescents their occurrence rate keeps increasing with age. They parasitize in an oral cavity changed by inflammation, yet also in a healthy mouth. Their highest occurrence rate has been recorded in adults with periodontosis and atrophy of the periodontium, a somewhat lower one in adults with gingivitis. The authors addressed the question whether the presumed low occurrence rate of oral protozoa in children becomes increased in drug-induced gingivitis after treatment with the antiepileptic 5,5-diphenylhydantoin. Cultivation for oral protozoa was performed in 231 children and adolescents. Of these 59 were epileptics. Drug-induced gingivitis was present in 66% of the epileptics. Drug-induced gingivitis did not increase the occurrence rate of oral protozoa as compared to the findings in the rest of the series studied. (Tab. 9, Ref. 7.).

  15. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah N Biggs

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35 and non-snoring controls (N = 25, underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35 of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20. 43% (15/35 were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15 had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype.

  16. Long-Term Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes following Resolution of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Walter, Lisa M.; Jackman, Angela R.; Nisbet, Lauren C.; Weichard, Aidan J.; Hollis, Samantha L.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the long term effects of resolution of SDB in preschool children, either following treatment or spontaneous recovery, on cognition and behavior. Children diagnosed with SDB at 3-5y (N = 35) and non-snoring controls (N = 25), underwent repeat polysomnography (PSG) and cognitive and behavioral assessment 3 years following a baseline study. At follow-up, children with SDB were grouped into Resolved and Unresolved. Resolution was defined as: obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI) ≤1 event/h; no snoring detected on PSG; and no parental report of habitual snoring. 57% (20/35) of children with SDB received treatment, with SDB resolving in 60% (12/20). 43% (15/35) were untreated, of whom 40% (6/15) had spontaneous resolution of SDB. Cognitive reduced between baseline and follow-up, however this was not related to persistent disease, with no difference in cognitive outcomes between Resolved, Unresolved or Control groups. Behavioral functioning remained significantly worse in children originally diagnosed with SDB compared to control children, regardless of resolution. Change in OAHI did not predict cognitive or behavioral outcomes, however a reduction in nocturnal arousals, irrespective of full resolution, was associated with improvement in attention and aggressive behavior. These results suggest that resolution of SDB in preschool children has little effect on cognitive or behavioral outcomes over the long term. The association between sleep fragmentation and behavior appears independent of SDB, however may be moderated by concomitant SDB. This challenges the assumption that treatment of SDB will ameliorate associated cognitive and behavioural deficits and supports the possibility of a SDB phenotype. PMID:26418065

  17. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF UREA BREATH TEST FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION IN CHILDREN WITH DYSPEPSIA IN COMPARISON TO HISTOPATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HONAR

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Helicobacter pylori infection is the gram negative bacillus with the close association with chronic antral gastritis. Objective - In this study, we evaluate the accuracy of urea breath test (UBT with carbon isotope 13 in comparison with histopathology of gastric antrum for detection of H. pylori infection in children with dyspepsia. Methods - This cross-sectional study was performed at specialized laboratory of Shiraz Gastroenterohepatology Research Center and Nemazee Hospital, Iran, during a 12-months period. This study investigated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of UBT in comparison with biopsy-based tests. We included a consecutive selection of 60 children who fulfilled Rome III criteria for dyspepsia. All children were referred for performing UBT with carbon isotope 13 (C13 as well as endoscopy. Biopsies were taken from antrum of stomach and duodenum. The pathologic diagnosis was considered as the standard test. Results - The mean age of the participants was 10.1±2.6 (range 7-17 years. From our total 60 patients, 28 (46.7% had positive UBT results and 32 (53.3% had negative UBT results. Pathologic report of 16 (57.1% out of 28 patients who had positive UBT were positive for H. pylori and 12 (42.9% ones were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Conclusion - Sensitivity and specificity of C13-UBT for detection of H. pylori infection were 76.2% and 69.2% respectively. Another multicenter study from our country is recommended.

  18. Complete genome sequence analysis of enterovirus 71 isolated from children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Thailand, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauleekoonphairoj, John; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Puenpa, Jiratchaya; Korkong, Sumeth; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The complete genomic sequences of 14 enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains isolated from children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Thailand from 2012 to 2014 were determined and compared to enterovirus group A prototypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 13 strains resembled the B5 subgroup, while one strain from a fatal case designated THA_1219 belonged to the C4 subgroup. Similarity plot and bootscan analyses suggested that THA_1219 underwent recombination in the P2 and P3 regions. Full-genome data from this work will contribute to the study of evolution dynamics of EV71.

  19. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure in children with sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Raouf S; Carroll, John L; Jeffries, Jenny L; Grone, Charles; Bean, Judy A; Chini, Barbara; Bokulic, Ronald; Daniels, Stephen R

    2004-04-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent elevation of systemic blood pressure (BP) during sleep. To determine whether obstructive apnea in children has a tonic effect on diurnal BP, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained from 60 children with mean age of 10.8 +/- 3.5 years. Thirty-nine children had obstructive apnea and 21 had primary snoring. Children with obstructive apnea had significantly greater mean BP variability during wakefulness and sleep, a higher night-to-day systolic BP, and a smaller nocturnal dipping of mean BP. Variability of mean arterial pressure during wakefulness was predicted by the desaturation, body mass, and arousal indices, whereas variability during sleep was predicted by apnea-hypopnea and body mass indices. Nocturnal BP dipping was predicted by the desaturation index. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic, or mean arterial BP during sleep between the groups. Diastolic BP during wakefulness was significantly different between the groups and correlated negatively with apnea-hypopnea index. We conclude that obstructive apnea in children is associated with 24-hour BP dysregulation and that, independent of obesity, the frequency of obstructive apnea, oxygen desaturation, and arousal contributes to abnormal BP control.

  20. A relação da postura corporal, da respiração oral e do estado nutricional em crianças: uma revisão de literatura Relation of body posture, oral breath and nutritional status in children: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Girarde Machado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available TEMA: a relação entre o estado nutricional, a respiração oral e a postura corporal. Uma alimentação balanceada capaz de proporcionar um adequado estado nutricional, certamente, contribui para uma desejável condição postural e a respiração nasal do indivíduo. Sob o aspecto respiratório, em crianças respiradoras orais por haver maior alteração no sono, diminuição da ingestão de carboidratos e aumento da ingestão de lipídeos, pode haver a associação entre a respiração oral e o estado nutricional também. OBJETIVO:apresentar as possíveis relações entre estado nutricional, respiração oral e a postura corporal em crianças, por meio de um estudo teórico. CONCLUSÃO: segundo os artigos pesquisados é a obesidade, dentre os distúrbios nutricionais, o que gera maior número de problemas musculoesqueléticos, pois dificulta o controle da postura corporal. Conclui-se que apesar de haver fortes argumentos teóricos buscando explicar uma possível influência da respiração oral sobre o estado nutricional, os estudos de campo até o momento não conseguiram confirmar tal hipótese, por esta razão torna-se relevante continuar pesquisando sobre estas relações.BACKGROUND: the relationship between nutritional status, oral breathing and body posture. A balanced diet can provide adequate nutritional status that certainly contributes to a desirable condition of posture and nasal breathing for the subject. With regard the respiratory and breathing in children, since there is more change in sleep, decreased carbohydrate intake and increased intake of lipids, there may be also an association between oral breathing and nutritional status. PURPOSE: to illustrate the possible relationships between nutritional status, body posture and oral breathing in children, through a theoretical study. CONCLUSION: according to the reviewed studies, it is obesity, among nutritional disturbances, which generates a larger number of musculoskeletal

  1. Anti-microbial efficacy of green tea and chlorhexidine mouth rinses against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida albicans in children with severe early childhood caries: A randomized clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green tea is a beverage which is consumed worldwide and is reported to have anti-cariogenic effect. So, if it was as effective as chlorhexidine (CHX mouth rinse against cariogenic microbes it could be considered a natural, economical alternative. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the anti-microbial efficacy of 0.5% green tea and 0.2% CHX mouth rinses against Streptococcus Mutans, Lactobacilli spp. and Candida Albicans. Materials and Methods: 30 children aged 4-6 years with S-ECC (based ondefs score were selected. Children were divided randomly into 2 equal groups and were asked to rinse with the prescribed mouth rinse once daily for 2 weeks after breakfast under supervision. A base-line and post rinsing non-stimulated whole salivary sample (2 ml was collected and tested for the number of colony forming units. The data was statistically analyzed using SPSS v16.0 software with one-way ANOVA and Tukey′sPOSTHOC test. Results: A statistically significant fall in colony count was found with both the mouth rinses in Streptococcus Mutans (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 and lactobacilli (P < 0.001, P < 0.001 but not against Candida albicans (P = 0.264, P = 0.264. Against Streptococcus Mutans, green tea mouth rinse was found to be significantly better than CHX mouth rinse (P = 0.005. Against lactobacilli spp, CHX mouth rinse was significantly better than green tea mouth rinse (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Green tea mouth rinse can be considered safe, economical and used without much concern. However, further studies are recommended.

  2. Relationships between deprivation and duration of children's emergency admissions for breathing difficulty, feverish illness and diarrhoea in North West England: an analysis of hospital episode statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom there has been a long term pattern of increases in children's emergency admissions and a substantial increase in short stay unplanned admissions. The emergency admission rate (EAR per thousand population for breathing difficulty, feverish illness and diarrhoea varies substantially between children living in different Primary Care Trusts (PCTs. However, there has been no examination of whether disadvantage is associated with short stay unplanned admissions at PCT-level. The aim of this study was to determine whether differences between emergency hospital admission rates for breathing difficulty, feverish illness and diarrhoea are associated with population-level measures of multiple deprivation and child well-being, and whether there is variation by length of stay and age. Methods Analysis of hospital episode statistics and secondary analysis of Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD 2007 and Local Index of Child Well-being (CWI 2009 in ten adjacent PCTs in North West England. The outcome measure for each PCT was the emergency admission rate to hospital for breathing difficulty, feverish illness and diarrhoea. Results 23,496 children aged 0-14 were discharged following emergency admission for breathing difficulty, feverish illness and/or diarrhoea during 2006/07. The emergency admission rate ranged from 27.9 to 62.7 per thousand. There were no statistically significant relationships between shorter (0 to 3 day hospitalisations and the IMD or domains of the CWI. The rate for hospitalisations of 4 or more days was associated with the IMD (Kendall's taub = 0.64 and domains of the CWI: Environment (taub = 0.60; Crime (taub = 0.56; Material (taub = 0.51; Education (taub = 0.51; and Children in Need (taub = 0.51. This pattern was also evident in children aged under 1 year, who had the highest emergency admission rates. There were wide variations between the proportions of children discharged on the day of admission

  3. Camera-based microswitch technology to monitor mouth, eyebrow, and eyelid responses of children with profound multiple disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancioni, G.E.; Bellini, D.; Oliva, D.; Singh, N.N.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Sigafoos, J.; Lang, R.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    A camera-based microswitch technology was recently used to successfully monitor small eyelid and mouth responses of two adults with profound multiple disabilities (Lancioni et al., Res Dev Disab 31:1509-1514, 2010a). This technology, in contrast with the traditional optic microswitches used for thos

  4. Impact of pre-hospital care on the outcome of children arriving with agonal breathing to a pediatric emergency service in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Das Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on the prehospital interventions received by critically ill children at arrival to Paediatric Emergency Services (PES is limited in developing countries. This study aims to describe the pre-hospital care scenario, transport and their impact on outcome in non-traumatic, acutely ill children presenting in PES with agonal breathing. Methods: Prospective observational study done on children aged below 15 years arriving in PES with agonal breathing due to non-trauma related causes. Results: Out of 75 children studied, 69% were infants. The duration of illness among 65% of them (75 was less than 3 days. Majority of them (81% had received treatment prior to arrival. Government sector physicians (72%, half of them (51% being pediatricians were the major treating doctors. 37% of the children had arrived to the Emergency in an ambulance. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR was given to 27% on arrival in PES. Other interventions included fluid boluses to correct shock (92% and inotrope infusion (56%. Sepsis (24% and pneumonia (24% were the most common diagnoses. Out of 75, 57 (76% children who were stabilized and shifted to PICU and among them 27 (47% survived to discharge. Normal blood pressure (p=0.0410 and non-requirement of CPR (0.0047 and inotropic infusion (0.0459 in PES were associated with a higher chance of survival. Conclusion: 36% (27/75 of children who arrived to our PES with agonal breathing survived to hospital discharge. Survival was significantly better among those who did not need CPR.

  5. 104 cases Clinical Analysis of Children with Severe Foot and Mouth Disease%104例儿童重症手足口病临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新琼; 沙比拉; 娜依; 丁芳; 古丽尼沙; 格灵

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解乌鲁木齐儿童医院2012年1月~7月收治的104例重症手足口病患儿临床特征。方法回顾性分析重症手足口病住院患儿临床特征及实验室检查。结果本组重症手足口病合并神经系统损伤患儿主要发生在3岁以下;表现易惊、肢体抖动、震颤最早出现;出现不同程度的意识障碍、抽搐、颅高压、脑膜刺激征、弛缓性麻痹、尿潴留等神经系统受损的表现;少数患儿合并神经源性肺水肿;周围血WBC增多,中性粒细胞、淋巴细胞同步升高,空腹血糖升高。结论对于合并中枢神经系统损伤的重症患儿、极危重症患儿及神经源性肺水肿的患儿,采取多项综合治疗。%Objective to understand the children's hospitallof urumqi between January 2012 and July of 104 cases of children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease clinicallfeatures. Methods children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease in hospitallwere retrospectively analyzed the clinicallfeatures and laboratory examination. Results this group of children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease with nervous system damage mainly occurs under 3 years old; Yi jing, limb jit er, tremor first appeared; Appear dif erent degree of disturbance of consciousness, convulsions, craniallpressure and meningeallstimulation, flaccid paralysis, urinary retention and other nervous system impaired performance; A smallnumber of children with neurogenic pulmonary edema; Peripherallblood WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte synchronous rise, elevated fasting glucose. Conclusion for the merger of the centrallnervous system damage critically illchildren, are critically illchildren and children with neurogenic pulmonary edema, take a number of comprehensive treatment.

  6. Transtornos de aprendizagem em presença de respiração oral em indivíduos com diagnóstico de transtornos de défcit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDAH Learning disabilities and mouth breathing in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnosis

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    Cleiva Flamia Diniz Vera

    2006-12-01

    Neurological Outpatient Clinic at ABC Medicine University were evaluated with LD diagnoses. Adapted protocols were used for respiratory evaluation. Subtypes of ADHD were classified by DSM-IV. Thus, the subjects were grouped in ADHD subtypes 1 (inattentive, 2 (hyperactivity / impulsive and 3 (combined; LD presence / absence; and nasal, mouth breathing and mixed respiratory modes. "Dual Proportion Equality Test", "ANOVA" and "Confidence Interval Technique for Proportion / Average" were used. RESULTS: ADHD prevalence was noted in men, ADHD combined subtype, children's of elementary and intermediate school. There was high occurrence of LD (62.3% with complaint of school difficulties (87%. There was statistical difference for LD presence, school difficulties and not repeater (61%. There was high occurrence of altered respiration (71.4% which in association with LD, it was 41.6%. There was LD and mixed respiratory advantage for gender and ADHD types. Type 1 was older in average age (12.4 years old than type 3 (10.63. CONCLUSION: ADHD appeared rather in boys among 7 and 13-year old, type 3 with high prevalence and comorbidity with LD in association with mixed respiratory mode. Complaint about school difficulties showed correlation with LD. There was association among ADHD, low school efficiency and presence of mixed respiratory due to high appearance of comorbidity with LD, regardless of gender, age or ADHD subtype.

  7. Identification of the discrepancy bone-teeth in children between 5 and 11 years with oral breathing

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    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The correct proportion between teeth arches and size is crucial, thus there are different methods to measure dental size. Objective: To apply the method Moyer-Jenkin and its modification in mixed dentition. Method: Analytical, cross-sectional design, developed in the period January-April, 2007. The sample included 60 children between the ages of 5 and 11 years with oral breathing and Angle Class II and mixed dentition from the primary school "Guerrillero Heroico", Health Area II in Cienfuegos. Microsoft Word and SPSS 15.0 in English were used to process data. The studied variables were: measures and time. Results: The measurements of bone-teeth discrepancies for both maxillas were similar for both methods, without statistical significant differences. Regarding the discrepancy level, there was a moderated discrepancy in the studied group, with a marked increase in the mandible. There was a prevalence of normal incisive index and a reduction of macrodontism in negative discrepancies. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the modified method was proved, related with the reduction of the application time compared with Moyers-Jenkin method.

  8. Seasonal Changes in Endotoxin Exposure and Its Relationship to Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Exhaled Breath Condensate pH Levels in Atopic and Healthy Children.

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    Gwo-Hwa Wan

    Full Text Available Endotoxin, a component of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria, is a contaminant in organic dusts (house dust and aerosols. In humans, small amounts of endotoxin may cause a local inflammatory response. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO levels, an inflammation indicator, are associated with the pH values of exhaled breath condensate (EBC. This study evaluated seasonal changes on indoor endotoxin concentrations in homes and the relationships between endotoxin exposure and eNO/EBC pH levels for healthy children and children with allergy-related respiratory diseases. In total, 34 children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and 24 healthy children were enrolled. Indoor air quality measurements and dust sample analysis for endotoxin were conducted once each season inside 58 surveyed homes. The eNO, EBC pH levels, and pulmonary function of the children were also determined. The highest endotoxin concentrations were on kitchen floors of homes of children with allergy-related respiratory diseases and healthy children, and on bedroom floors of homes of asthmatic children and healthy children. Seasonal changes existed in endotoxin concentrations in dust samples from homes of children with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma, and in EBC pH values among healthy children and those with allergy-related respiratory diseases. Strong relationships existed between endotoxin exposure and EBC pH values in children with allergic rhinitis.

  9. EFFECTS OF ORAL HYGIENE UPON THE QUALITY OF BREATHING IN CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

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    Mona Olar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, bronchial asthma represents a major public health problem. SCOPE: The study discusses the effects of bacterial plaque control upon the quality of respiration in a group of ashtmatic children previously subjected to professional dental scaling and brushing, comparatively with a similar group, whose habits of oral hygiene had not been influenced. In both groups, the indices of bacterial plaque and gingival bleeding were calculated, respiratory functional samples were taken, the number of eosinophylls, the concentration of seric IgE and salivary sIgA were analyzed, and bacterial concentration and morphology of the dental plaque were determined. Statistically, the quality of respiration has been significantly improved in the children whose dental plaque had been controlled. Correlations have been evidenced among asthma symptomatology, indices of oral health, immunological markers and the bacterial profile of the dental plaque.

  10. Sleep disordered breathing and autonomic function in overweight and obese children and adolescents

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    Annelies Van Eyck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA, common in children with obesity, is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Autonomic dysfunction has been suggested to be a key player in the development of these complications. We investigated the relationship between obesity, OSA and sympathetic activity in children. 191 children with obesity were included and distributed into two groups: 131 controls and 60 with OSA. Beat-to-beat RR interval data were extracted from polysomnography for heart rate variability analysis. Urinary free cortisol levels were determined. Urinary free cortisol did not differ between groups and was not associated with OSA, independent of the level of obesity. Differences in heart rate variability measures were found: mean RR interval decreased with OSA, while low/high-frequency band ratio and mean heart rate increased with OSA. Heart rate variability measures correlated with OSA, independent of obesity parameters and age: oxygen desaturation index correlated with mean heart rate (r=0.19, p=0.009 and mean RR interval (r= −0.18, p=0.02, while high-frequency bands and low/high-frequency band ratio correlated with arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2 (r= −0.20, p=0.008 and r= −0.16, p=0.04 and SpO2 nadir (r=0.23, p=0.003 and r= −0.19, p=0.02. These results suggest that sympathetic heart activity is increased in children with obesity and OSA. Measures of hypoxia were related to increased sympathetic tone, suggesting that intermittent hypoxia is involved in autonomic dysfunction.

  11. 经鼻蝶垂体瘤切除术前两种方法训练用口呼吸对患者生命体征及心理的影响%Effect of two training Methods of mouth breathing on vital signs and psychology of patients before transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection

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    马青华; 贾平; 廖天芬; 安莉

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较两种方法训练用口呼吸对经鼻蝶入路垂体瘤切除术患者生命体征、血氧饱和度、心理方面的影响.方法 选取经鼻蝶入路垂体瘤切除患者53例,按手术的先后顺序间断分为对照组(26例)和试验组(27例).对照组术前采取用手捏鼻的方法训练患者用口呼吸;试验组术前采用纱条填塞患者鼻腔训练患者用口呼吸.比较两组患者生命体征变化情况及患者的心理反应.结果 两组患者呼吸频率变化差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);对照组65.4%患者对纱条填塞鼻腔产生焦虑;试验组25.9%患者对纱条填塞鼻腔产生焦虑,差异有统计学意义(x2=8.32,P<0.05).结论 用纱条填塞患者鼻腔来训练患者用口呼吸的方法较传统的捏鼻方法效果佳,值得推广.%Objective To compare the effect of two training methods on the vital signs, saturation of blood oxygen, and psychology of patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection. Methods Fifty-three patients undergoing transsphenoidal pituitary tumor resection were orderly assigned to the experimental group (26 cases) and the control group (27 cases). Patients in control group were trained to hold their nose and breathe by mouth. In experimental group, patients also breathed by mouth and blocked their nasal cavity with gauze. We compared the vital signs and psychic reaction of the patients in two groups. Results There were significant difference between the patients in two groups in breathing frequency (P < 0. 05). In control group,65. 4% of the patients showed anxiety due to nose blocking with gauze,and 25. 9% of the patients in experimental group showed the same problem. There was significant difference between the two groups ( P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Gauze leads hand in blocking nasal cavity, which is worth promoting.

  12. Cochrane Corner: Extracts from The Cochrane Library: Tonsillectomy or Adenotonsillectomy versus Non-Surgical Management for Obstructive Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children.

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    Burton, Martin J; Goldstein, Nira A; Rosenfeld, Richard M

    2016-04-01

    The "Cochrane Corner" is a section in the journal that highlights systematic reviews relevant to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, with invited commentary to aid clinical decision making. This installment features a Cochrane Review on tonsillectomy for obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB) in children, which finds moderate-quality evidence that surgery improves symptoms, behavior, and quality of life compared to nonsurgical management. The results apply to nonsyndromic children with SDB confirmed by polysomnography and must be balanced against a favorable natural history in many cases.

  13. Progress in SIFT-MS: breath analysis and other applications.

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    Spaněl, Patrik; Smith, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, is described from its inception as the modified very large SIFT instruments used to demonstrate the feasibility of SIFT-MS as an analytical technique, towards the smaller but bulky transportable instruments and finally to the current smallest Profile 3 instruments that have been located in various places, including hospitals and schools to obtain on-line breath analyses. The essential physics and engineering principles are discussed, which must be appreciated to design and construct a SIFT-MS instrument. The versatility and sensitivity of the Profile 3 instrument is illustrated by typical mass spectra obtained using the three precursor ions H(3)O(+), NO(+) and O(2)(+)·, and the need to account for differential ionic diffusion and mass discrimination in the analytical algorithms is emphasized to obtain accurate trace gas analyses. The performance of the Profile 3 instrument is illustrated by the results of several pilot studies, including (i) on-line real time quantification of several breath metabolites for cohorts of healthy adults and children, which have provided representative concentration/population distributions, and the comparative analyses of breath exhaled via the mouth and nose that identify systemic and orally-generated compounds, (ii) the enhancement of breath metabolites by drug ingestion, (iii) the identification of HCN as a marker of Pseudomonas colonization of the airways and (iv) emission of volatile compounds from urine, especially ketone bodies, and from skin. Some very recent developments are discussed, including the quantification of carbon dioxide in breath and the combination of SIFT-MS with GC and ATD, and their significance. Finally, prospects for future SIFT-MS developments are alluded to.

  14. Is there a correlation between sleep disordered breathing and foramen magnum stenosis in children with achondroplasia?

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    White, Klane K; Parnell, Shawn E; Kifle, Yemiserach; Blackledge, Marcella; Bompadre, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Children with achondroplasia have midface hypoplasia, frontal bossing, spinal stenosis, rhizomelia, and a small foramen magnum. Central sleep apnea, with potential resultant sudden death, is thought to be related to compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction in these patients. Screening polysomnography and/or cervical spine MRI are often performed for infants with achondroplasia. Decompressive suboccipital craniectomy has been performed in selected cases. We aim to better delineate the relationship between polysomnography, cervical spine MRI, and indications for surgical decompression in achondroplasia.We retrospectively review electronic medical records of all children with achondroplasia in our IRB-approved skeletal dysplasia registry who had received screening polysomnography and cervical spine MRI examination was performed. We explored correlations of polysomnography, MRI parameters, and need for decompressive surgery. Seventeen patients with both polysomnography and MRI of the cervical spine met inclusion criteria. The average age at time of the sleep study was 2.4 ± 3.6 years. An abnormal apnea-hypopnea index was found in all patients, with central sleep apnea found in 6/17. Five patients (29%) required foramen magnum decompression. We found no statistically significant correlation between central sleep apnea and abnormal MRI findings suggestive of foramen magnum stenosis. Screening polysomnography is an important tool but does not appear to correlate with MRI findings of foramen magnum stenosis. Cord compression, with either associated T2 cord signal abnormality or clinical findings of clonus, was most predictive of subsequent surgical decompression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Children of rural-to-urban migrant workers in China are at a higher risk of contracting severe hand, foot and mouth disease and EV71 infection: a hospital-based study.

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    Zeng, Mei; Pu, Dongbo; Mo, Xiaowei; Zhu, Chaomin; Gong, Sitang; Xu, Yi; Lin, Guangyu; Wu, Beiyan; He, Suli; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiangshi; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qianqian; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2013-10-01

    The incidence and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease have increased in mainland China since 2008. Therapies and vaccines are currently at different stages of development. This study aimed to determine the social factors associated with the outbreaks and severity of the disease in Chinese children. A multicentre, prospective, case-controlled study was conducted in Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou and Shantou to identify the sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors for hand, foot and mouth disease. Children hospitalized for hand, foot and mouth disease were randomly enrolled from April to November 2011. Stool samples were collected to test for the presence of enterovirus 71 (EV71). A total of 443 children between 1.6 and 68 months of age were enrolled; 304 were uncomplicated cases and 139 were severe cases with central nervous system involvement. The overall detection rate of EV71 was 54.2%, and the positivity rate of EV71 was significantly higher in the severe group than in the uncomplicated group (82.0% versus 40.9%, odds ratio (OR): 8.35, P=0.000). The children of migrant workers (OR: 3.014, P=0.000) and children attending kindergarten (OR: 2.133, P=0.002) were significantly associated with a severe outcome of the disease (OR: 1.765, P=0.026). Our findings indicate that kindergarten attendance and migrant worker parents are the major risk factors associated with severe hand, foot and mouth disease in children migrant workers.

  16. Intestinal detoxifi cation time of hand-foot-and-mouth disease in children with EV71 infection and the related factors

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    Shu Teng; Yi Wei; Shi-Yong Zhao; Xian-Yao Lin; Qi-Min Shao; Juan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric infectious disease caused by a variety of intestinal viruses. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the primary pathogen that might cause severe symptoms and even death in children with HFMD. This study aimed to investigate the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection and its related factors. Methods: Sixty-five HFMD children with EV71 infection were followed up. Their stool samples were collected once every 4 to 7 days. Viral nucleic acids were detected byfl uorescent polymerase chain reaction until the results became negative. The positive rates of viral nucleic acids were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Log-rank test and Cox-Mantel test were used to analyze factors affecting the HFMD children with EV71 infection. Results: On the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 10th week, the positive rates of viral nucleic acids in stool samples of the 65 children were 94.6%, 48.1%, 17.2% and 0, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the intestinal detoxifi cation time of the children were related to gender, pre-admission disease course, severity of disease, and use of steroids or gamma globulin (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the severity of disease was an independent factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time (P<0.05), with a relative risk of 2.418. Conclusions: The longest intestinal detoxifi cation time of HFMD children with EV71 infection was 10 weeks. The severity of disease was an important factor affecting the intestinal detoxification time of HFMD children with EV71 infection. Severe HFMD children with EV71 infection had a longer intestinal detoxifi cation time.

  17. 小儿手足口病125例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 125 cases with young children hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施建琴

    2012-01-01

      Objective To study the clinical characteristics and treatment of young children hand-foot-mouth disease. Methods To study 125 cases which were diagnosed from January of 2010 to January of 2011 retrospectively. Results Clinical symptoms of children with HFMD were rash (100%), persistent fever (high fever 16.00%, moderate fever 25.60%, low fever 58.40%), limb shaking weakness (41.60%) and hypertension (18.40%).Anti-viral treatment combined with symptomatic treatment had a better therapeutic effect. Conclusion Children with hand-foot-mouth disease has significant clinical features, and it is needed to strengthen the diagnosis and treatment early.%  目的研究小儿手足口病的临床特点和治疗方法.方法采用回顾性分析的方法,对2010年1月~2011年1月在笔者所在医院诊治为手足口病的患儿临床资料进行收集和整理.结果小儿手足口病的临床症状主要有皮疹(100%)、持续发热(高热16.00%,中等热25.60%,低热58.40%)、肢体抖动无力(41.60%)、血压升高(18.40%)等,采取抗病毒治疗同时辅以对症治疗具有较好的治疗效果.结论小儿手足口病的具有显著的临床特点,要加强早期诊断和治疗.

  18. Fractionated breath condensate sampling: H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to asthma control in children

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    Trischler Jordis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways but recent studies have shown that alveoli are also subject to pathophysiological changes. This study was undertaken to compare hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung using a new technique of fractioned breath condensate sampling. Methods In 52 children (9-17 years, 32 asthmatic patients, 20 controls measurements of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO, lung function, H2O2 in exhaled breath condensate (EBC and the asthma control test (ACT were performed. Exhaled breath condensate was collected in two different fractions, representing mainly either the airways or the alveoli. H2O2 was analysed in the airway and alveolar fractions and compared to clinical parameters. Results The exhaled H2O2 concentration was significantly higher in the airway fraction than in the alveolar fraction comparing each single pair (p = 0.003, 0.032 and 0.040 for the whole study group, the asthmatic group and the control group, respectively. Asthma control, measured by the asthma control test (ACT, correlated significantly with the H2O2 concentrations in the alveolar fraction (r = 0.606, p = 0.004 but not with those in the airway fraction in the group of children above 12 years. FENO values and lung function parameters did not correlate to the H2O2 concentrations of each fraction. Conclusion The new technique of fractionated H2O2 measurement may differentiate H2O2 concentrations in different parts of the lung in asthmatic and control children. H2O2 concentrations of the alveolar fraction may be related to the asthma control test in children.

  19. Estudo da relação entre a respiração oral e o tipo facial A study on the relationship between mouth breathing and facial morphological pattern

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    Ana Paula Bianchini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A respiração é responsável pelo desenvolvimento da morfologia crânio facial. OBJETIVO: verificar a existência de relação entre respiração oral e tipo facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 119 adolescentes dos sexos masculino e feminino, com idade entre 15 e 18 anos. A amostra foi separada em dois grupos: A-50 adolescentes respiradores orais sendo 28 do sexo masculino e 22 feminino e o grupo B- 69 adolescentes respiradores nasais sendo 37 do sexo masculino e 32 feminino. A amostra foi coletada no Centro de Atendimento e Apoio ao Adolescente do Departamento de Pediatria da UNIFESP/ EPM. Foram realizadas avaliação da respiração e das medidas faciais. RESULTADOS: através do emprego de índices antropométricos foram classificados os tipos faciais e relacionados com o modo respiratório, Hipereuriprósopo (Total=0; respiradores orais 0%; respiradores nasais 0%; Euriprósopo (Total=14; respiradores orais 2.52%, respiradores nasais 9.24%;Mesoprósopo (Total=20; respiradores orais 19.32%; respiradores nasais 21.01%, Leptoprósopo (Total=37; respiradores orais 14.29%; respiradores nasais 16.81%; Hiperleptoprósopo (Total =48; respiradores orais 5.89% respiradores nasais 10.92%. O tipo facial mesoprósopo foi encontrado em 48 adolescentes (40.33% dos quais 25 (21.01% eram respiradores orais e 23 (19.32% eram respiradores nasais. CONCLUSÃO: não foi possível comprovar existência de uma relação entre a respiração oral e o tipo facial.Breathing is responsible for facial and cranial morphology development. AIM: investigate in order to see if there is any relationship between oral breathing and facial type. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 119 male and female teenagers, with ages ranging between 15 and 18 years. The sample was separated in two groups: A-50 teenage oral breathers, 28 males and 22 females; and group B- 69 teenage nasal breathers, 37 males and 32 females. The sample was collected at the Centro de Atendimento e Apoio ao Adolescente do

  20. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

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    del Sel Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71 can cause Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD with neurological complications, which may rapidly progress to fulminant cardiorespiratory failure, and death. Early recognition of children at risk is the key to reduce acute mortality and morbidity. Methods We examined data collected through a prospective clinical study of HFMD conducted between 2000 and 2006 that included 3 distinct outbreaks of HEV71 to identify risk factors associated with neurological involvement in children with HFMD. Results Total duration of fever ≥ 3 days, peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C and history of lethargy were identified as independent risk factors for neurological involvement (evident by CSF pleocytosis in the analysis of 725 children admitted during the first phase of the study. When they were validated in the second phase of the study, two or more (≥ 2 risk factors were present in 162 (65% of 250 children with CSF pleocytosis compared with 56 (30% of 186 children with no CSF pleocytosis (OR 4.27, 95% CI2.79–6.56, p rd or later day of febrile illness, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of ≥ 2 risk factors predictive of CSF pleocytosis were 75%(57/76, 59%(27/46, 75%(57/76 and 59%(27/46, respectively. Conclusion Three readily elicited clinical risk factors were identified to help detect children at risk of neurological involvement. These risk factors may serve as a guide to clinicians to decide the need for hospitalization and further investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid examination, and close monitoring for disease progression in children with HFMD.

  1. 儿童重症手足口病危险因素分析%Analysis of risk factors on children with severe hand foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树林

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate independent risk factors of causing hand foot and mouth disease exacerbations in children,in order to provide the basis for early warning of severe illness.Methods:225 children with hand foot and mouth disease were selected. They were divided into normal group(170 cases)and severe group(55 cases) accorde to the clinical manifestations.We analyzed the datas of severe diagnosis index of them by retrospective analysis method.Results:Age9mmol/L,more than 3 days the temperature>39℃ ,peripheral white blood cell count>12 × 109/L,stiff neck,the above 9 factors between the two groups were statistically significant(P39℃,nerve conduction abnormalities,blood glucose level>9mmol/L were independent risk factors of severe hand foot mouth disease children,it has the early warning function.Conclusion:We should highly monitor the development of the hand foot and mouth disease children for age<3 years old,with neurological symptoms,mental abnormalities and continuous high fever,so we could make the effective treatment to prevent disease progression in early.%目的:探讨导致手足口病患儿病情加重的独立危险因素,为病情重症化早期预警提供依据。方法:收治手足口病患儿225例,按照临床表现分为普通组(170例)和重症组(55例)。采用回顾性分析的方法,收集以上患儿重症诊断指标,进行统计学分析。结果:年龄<3岁、抽搐、意识障碍、精神状态差、神经传导异常、血糖水平>9mmol/L、3天以上体温>39℃、外周白细胞计数>12×109/L、颈抵抗,以上9个因素两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);对其进行多因素Logistic回归分析显示,年龄<3岁、精神状态差、3天以上体温>39℃、神经传导异常、血糖水平>9mmol/L,为重症儿童手足口病的独立危险因素,具有早期预警作用。结论:对于年龄<3岁,有神经系统症状、精神异常、持续高热的手足口病患儿要

  2. Clinical profile of hand, foot, and mouth disease and its associated complications among children in Shimoga City, southern Karnataka: A hospital-based study

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    Vikram S Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD is one of the important public health problems. It has become a common childhood illness in our part of the country. In most instances, this is a mild self-limiting illness. The affected children are often given outpatient care. However, over the last decade, HFMD has emerged as a growing health problem in Asian countries following frequent outbreaks of deaths associated with HFMD caused by a more virulent member of human enterovirus (HEV, namely, HEV71. A hospital-based descriptive study about the clinical presentations and complications of HFMD at the hospitals of Shimoga city between March 2013 and August 2013 is documented and presented here. HFMD was more common in the 1-3-year old age group, with aseptic meningitis being the most common complication. Surveillance of HFMD must be maintained as there is no effective chemoprophylaxis or vaccine available.

  3. Alteration of serum high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) levels in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weikun; Shi, Haifan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Jie; Jin, Longteng

    2017-04-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-induced HFMD, although some related research has been reported so far. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an inflammatory cytokine that can upregulate other inflammatory factors through its receptors, such as Toll-like receptors and the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts.We prospectively investigated the alteration of serum HMGB1, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels before and after treatment in 82 children with HFMD.We found that the serum HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were significantly increased in EV71-induced HFMD, and that these changes were more serious in the severe and critical HMFD groups; however, there was no significant difference in the HMGB1 level between the normal control and mild HMFD groups. Moreover, the serum HMGB1 level was positively correlated with the alteration of serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations.These results suggest that HMGB1 is involved in the inflammatory pathogenesis of EV71-induced HFMD and that the serum level of HMGB1 could be applied as a clinical indicator for the severity of HFMD, and also a sign for the recovery prognosis of HFMD.

  4. Effect of creatine phosphate sodium combined with spleen amino peptide on hand-foot-mouth disease in children with myocardial damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Zhi Ye; Ai-Fen Ma; Xiao-Hong Xu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of creatine phosphate sodium combined with spleen aminopeptide on treatment of hand-foot-mouth disease in children with myocardial damage. Methods:A total of 86 cases with hand-foot-mouth disease combined with cardiac damage in our hospital from January 2012 to July 2014 were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 43 cases in each group. Patients in the control group received conventional treatment while observation group patients were treated with creatine phosphate sodium combined with spleen amino peptide treatment. Hs-CRP, myocardial enzymes indexes, serum cytokines, NT-proBNP, PCT, endotoxin, D-lactate and immune related indicators were compared between two groups of children after treatment.Results:In observation group patients' serum IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were lower than those of of the control group after treatment (P < 0.05) while IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). In observation group patients' NT-proBNP, PCT, endotoxin and D-lactate levels were lower than those of the control group after treatment (P < 0.05). In observation group patients’ CD3+, CD4+ T lymphocytes, IgA, IgM and IgG levels were higher than those of the control group after treatment while CD8+ T lymphocyte level was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Creatine phosphate sodium combined with spleen amino peptide treatment can effectively protect myocardial and regulate immune as well as optimize systemic inflammatory state.

  5. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2016-09-26

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  6. Study on the anesthetic effect of combined intravenous-inhalation general anesthesia under nasopharyngeal airway-mask spontaneous breathing for laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the anesthetic effect of combined intravenous-inhalation general anesthesia under nasopharyngeal airway-mask spontaneous breathing for laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery in children.Methods:A total of118 cases of children with inguinal hernia who received laparoscopic surgery in our hospital from August 2012 to August 2014 were enrolled as research subjects and randomly divided into observation group 59 cases and control group 59 cases. Control group received conventional tracheal intubation intravenous general anesthesia, observation group received combined intravenous-inhalation general anesthesia under nasopharyngeal airway-mask spontaneous breathing, and then differences in respiratory and circulatory indicators, awareness-related indicators, G-6PD, PFK and inflammatory factor levels and oxidative stress levels between two groups were compared.Results:HR and MAP values of observation group at T1 and T2 were lower than those of control group, and SpO2 value was higher than that of control group; intraoperative Ppeak, Pplat, Raw, D(A-a)O2 and RI levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, and levels of Cdyn and OI were higher than those of control group; intraoperative G-6PD, PFK, CRP and IL-6 levels of observation group were lower than those of control group, and IL-10 level was higher than that of control group; intraoperative NO, SOD and GSH levels of observation group were higher than those of control group, and levels of ET-1, CAT and blood glucose were lower than those of control group.Conclusion:Combined intravenous-inhalation general anesthesia under nasopharyngeal airway-mask spontaneous breathing for laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery in children can effectively stabilize respiratory and circulatory level, reduce intraoperative systemic inflammation and oxidative stress state and contribute to early postoperative rehabilitation.

  7. Controlled Frequency Breathing Reduces Inspiratory Muscle Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtch, Alex R; Ogle, Ben T; Sims, Patrick A; Harms, Craig A; Symons, Thorburn B; Folz, Rodney J; Zavorsky, Gerald S

    2016-08-16

    Controlled frequency breathing (CFB) is a common swim training modality involving holding one's breath for about 7 to 10 strokes before taking another breath. We sought to examine the effects of CFB training on reducing respiratory muscle fatigue. Competitive college swimmers were randomly divided into either the CFB group that breathed every 7 to 10 strokes, or a control group that breathed every 3-4 strokes. Twenty swimmers completed the study. The training intervention included 5-6 weeks (16 sessions) of 12x50-m repetitions with breathing 8-10 breaths per 50m (control group), or 2-3 breaths per 50-m (CFB group). Inspiratory muscle fatigue was defined as the decrease in maximal inspiratory mouth-pressure (MIP) between rest and 46s after a 200 yard free-style swimming race [115s (SD 7)]. Aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy were also measured pre and post-training. Pooled results demonstrated a 12% decrease in MIP at 46s post-race [-15 (SD 14) cm H2O, Effect size = -0.48, p training, only the CFB group prevented a decline in MIP values pre to 46 s post-race [-2 (13) cm H2O, p > 0.05]. However, swimming performance, aerobic capacity, pulmonary diffusing capacity, and running economy did not improve (p > 0.05) post-training in either group. In conclusion, CFB training appears to prevent inspiratory muscle fatigue yet no difference was found in performance outcomes.

  8. Cognition and behavior in pre-pubertal children with Prader-Willi syndrome and associations with sleep-related breathing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festen, Dederieke A M; Wevers, Maaike; de Weerd, Al W; van den Bossche, Renilde A S; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2008-12-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hypotonia, hypogonadism, obesity, and short stature. Neurobehavioral abnormalities, cognitive impairment, and sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common. In the general population associations between neurobehavioral and cognitive abnormalities and SRBD have been found. We investigated cognition, behavior, and SRBD in children with PWS. Thirty-one pre-pubertal PWS children were evaluated (5 with paternal deletion, 14 with maternal disomy, 4 with imprinting-center mutation, and in 8 the defect was not specified). Cognition was assessed by Wechsler scale subtests, and behavior by parent-questionnaires. Polysomnography was performed. Cognition, behavior, and associations with SRBD were evaluated. All cognitive subtests were significantly below O SDS, with the lowest median (interquartile range) scores for the Block design subtest (-2.7 SDS (-3.0 to -0.3)). In 60%, verbal subtests were less affected than performance subtests. Parents reported problem behavior related to "emotions/behavior not adapted to the social situation" and "insensitivity to social information." All children had SRBD, with an Apnea Hypopnea Index of 4.1/hr (2.6-7.9). One performance subtest score was significantly higher in children with better sleep efficiency, and daytime sleepiness was associated with more autistic-like social impairment. In contrast to our expectations, behavior was worse in children with better sleep-related breathing. In pre-pubertal PWS children, cognition is impaired. Neurobehavioral abnormalities are common, particularly autistic-like social impairment. Sleep efficiency was associated with better performance on one of the performance subtests, and neurobehavioral abnormalities were associated with daytime sleepiness. In contrast, we could not confirm a positive association of neurobehavioral abnormalities with SRBD in PWS. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Changes of T lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulin, and zinc levels, and their clinical significance in children with hand-foot-mouth disease merged with neurogenic pulmonary edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Guo; Liang Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the changes of peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulin, and zinc levels, and their clinical significance in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) merged with neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE).Methods:A total of 68 children with severe HFMD who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and divided into NPE group (n=25) and severe group (n=43) according to whether being complicated with NPE or not. The peripheral blood T lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulin, and erythrocyte zinc levels 1, 3, and 5d after admission in the two groups were detected.Results: CD3+ and CD4+ levels in NPE group were significantly lower than those in the severe group, while CD8+ level was significantly higher than that in the severe group (P0.05). With the disease progression, zinc level in NPE group was significantly reduced (P<0.05). Zinc level at each timing point in NPE group was significantly lower than that in the severe group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The immune dysfunction is an important mechanism for causing NPE in children with HFMD. Detection of erythrocyte zinc concentration can help estimate the severity degree.

  10. Coordination of mastication, swallowing and breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Matsuo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth; it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing.

  11. Coordination of Mastication, Swallowing and Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Koichiro; Palmer, Jeffrey B

    2009-05-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx serve multiple functions in breathing, speaking, mastication and swallowing. Thus, the fine temporal coordination of feeding among breathing, mastication and swallowing is essential to provide proper food nutrition and to prevent pulmonary aspiration. This review paper will review the temporo-spatial coordination of the movements of oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures during mastication and swallowing, and temporal coordination between breathing, mastication, and swallowing.

  12. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment and Oral Health > Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Chemotherapy and Your Mouth Main Content Are You Being ... Problems Too? Remember Are You Being Treated With Chemotherapy for Cancer? If so, this booklet can help ...

  13. 某区儿童手足口病发病影响因素分析%Analysis of Influence Factor of Incidence of Hand-foot-mouth Disease in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    保长荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To research the influence factor of incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease in children. Methods 186 cases of children whose month age was not more than 36 were extracted by the stratified cluster sampling method, the inci-dence of hand-foot-mouth disease in children was surveyed, the difference between the disease children and the healthy children was analyzed, and calculated by the Logistic regression equation, and the influence factors of hand-foot-mouth dis-ease in children were analyzed. Results Hand-foot-mouth disease occurred to 38 cases in the selected children, accounting for 20.97%,and the comparison of general data showed that there were differences in the age, breast feeding, premature in-fants, feeding bottle disinfection, contact history of hand-foot-mouth disease, recent vaccine inoculation, hand hygiene of breeders and cultural level of breeders (P<0.05), the above differences were substituted into the Logistic regression equa-tion, and the results showed that the age, breast feeding, premature infants, feeding bottle disinfection, contact history of hand-foot-mouth disease, recent vaccine inoculation, hand hygiene of breeders and cultural level of breeders were the influ-ence factors of hand-foot-mouth disease in children. Conclusion The influence factors of hand-foot-mouth disease in chil-dren are more, and we should adopt targeted measures for children in clinic and positively prevent the occurrence of hand-foot-mouth disease and reduce the incidence rate.%目的:研究儿童手足口病发病的影响因素。方法对该区儿童进行抽样调查,抽取186例月龄不超过36个月的儿童,对儿童手足口病发病情况进行调查。分析患病儿童与健康儿童的差异,采用Logistic回归方程进行计算,分析儿童手足口病发病的影响因素。结果所选儿童中39例发生手足口病,占20.97%。对比患病和未患病儿童一般资料发现,两组儿童在年龄、母乳喂养

  14. [Clinical study of post-operative pain following coblation tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy in children with sleep-disordered breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenyun; Liu, Dabo; Zhong, Jianwen; Liu, Shaofeng; Qiu, Shuyao; Wei, Wei; Xu, Jiajian; Shao, Jianbo; Zhong, Jie

    2013-06-01

    To explore the characteristics of post-operative pain following coblation tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and explore the correlation between the first day post-operative pain scores and age and operating time. 1) A total of 113 SDB children scheduled to undergo coblation tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy were recruited. 113 children were divided into two groups according to the method of operation, children who underwent coblation tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy were enrolled in study group one and children who underwent coblation adenoidectomy only were in study group two. Be sides, children of study group one with a history of chronic tonsillitis were in chronic tonsillitis group, children without a history of chronic tonsillitis were in non-chronic tonsillitis group. 2) The parents scored pain in their children on a VAS (anchored by "no pain" at 0 and "worst pain" at 10) in the morning, before using any analgesics and having breakfast, over the first 3 and the seventh post-operative days. 3) Post-operative pain scores were compared between both the study group one and two and chronic tonsillitis group and non-chronic tonsillitis group. Futhermore, the correlation between the first day post-operative pain scores and age and operating time were also analysed. 1) The difference of post-operative pain scores over the first 3 and the seventh post-operative days were significant between the study group one and group two (Pchronic tonsillitis group were significantly less painful than chronic tonsillitis group on day 1, day 2 and day 7 (z=-2.004, -2.059, -2.334, P0.05). 3) The first day post-operative pain scores was correlated with age (r=0.273, PChildren with a history of chronic tonsillitis were more painful than children without the history.

  15. Increases in overweight after adenotonsillectomy in overweight children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing are associated with decreases in motor activity and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Barkley, Jacob E; D'Andrea, Lynn; Nikova, Margarita; Rogol, Alan D; Carskadon, Mary A; Suratt, Paul M

    2006-02-01

    To examine the effect of adenotonsillectomy (T&A) in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing on growth, hyperactivity, and sleep and waking motor activity. We studied 54 children who were aged 6 to 12 years and had adenotonsillar hypertrophy and an obstructive apnea-hypopnea index of > or =1 before and 12 months after they all received adenotonsillectomy (T&A). We measured their height, weight, percentage overweight (patient BMI - BMI at 50th percentile)/BMI at 50th percentile x 100) and obtained a hyperactivity score from parent report on a standardized behavior questionnaire scale. A subset of 21 of these children were also studied for motor activity by wrist actigraphy for 7 consecutive days and nights before and 12 months after T&A. After T&A, mean obstructive apnea-hypopnea index decreased from 7.6 to 0.6. Height percentile did not change, but weight percentile increased; as a consequence, percentage overweight increased from 32.0% to 36.3%. Hyperactivity scores and total daily motor activity were reduced after T&A. From linear regression, the reduction in hyperactivity scores predicted an increase in percentage overweight. Reduced motor activity was correlated with increased percentage overweight. An increase in percentage overweight after T&A in children with obstructive sleep-disordered breathing is correlated to decreased child hyperactivity scores and to decreased measured motor activity in the subset studied. These associations suggest that the increase in overweight may be attributable to reductions in physical activity and fidgeting energy expenditure.

  16. Progress in study of sleep disordered breathing in children%儿童睡眠呼吸障碍研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 赵恬; 张佐; 李天宇; 虎伟娟

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,the growing incidence of sleep disordered breathing in children,children with sleep problems gradually attracted peoples attention,it has become a pediatric respiratory department of internal medicine,Department of ENT, Department of internal medicine,Department of traditional Chinese medicine,Department of Stomatology,nerves and other disci-plines to study the focus of.Sleep disordered breathing in children mainly manifested as recurrent sleep apnea and hypopnea,resul-ting in hypoxemia and hypercapnia,prolonged seizures can cause children with craniofacial abnormalities,growth retardation,per-sonality,behavior,and even the emergence of system of high blood pressure,pulmonary heart disease,serious even can cause sud-den death.Now,we will research progress of the disease were reviewed in this paper.%儿童睡眠呼吸障碍主要表现为睡眠时反复发生呼吸暂停和低通气,引起低氧血症和高碳酸血症,长期发作可导致患儿出现颅面发育异常、生长发育迟缓、性格行为异常,甚至出现系统性高血压,肺源性心脏病等,严重者甚至可以引起碎死。现将其研究进展进行综述。

  17. Effects of Oral Breathing on the Nutritional Status: Why does it Happen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha, Daniele Andrade da

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some children who breathe through the mouth and present nocturnal obstructive apnea can present a delay in the pondero-statural growth. Objective: The objective of this article is to analyze the orofacial myofunctional alterations found in oral breathers and the effects on their nutritional status. It focuses on the importance of the interdisciplinary team following up with the overall oral breathing alterations. Method: The used method was a literature's revision based on articles published in indexed scientific magazines, books and post-graduation works. Most articles were identified on LILACS, MEDLINE, and SCIELO databases. Results: A relation between oral breathing and an alteration in the general feeding process is noticeable and associated with difficulties in smelling, tasting, and orofacial myofunctional disorders, what comes to have an effect on the nutritional status. Final commentaries: The wide range of causes involved in oral breathing requires an interdisciplinary team trained to identify such alterations, enabling preventive measures to be undertaken, in order to avoid alterations in the general health, regular development of the face, as well as in the nutritional status in these individuals' relevant growth stages.

  18. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  19. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking Chronic obstructive ...

  20. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  1. Clinical analysis of hand foot mouth disease in children in Langzhong city%阆中地区小儿手足口病发病情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the hand foot mouth disease in children in Langzhong City. Methods 128 children with hand foot and mouth disease were included from Jan. 2014 to Jan. 2015 in Langzhong Maternal and Child Health Hospital. Results In our research,2 - 4 years old children were significantly more than others groups,with symptom of rash and / or fever. More than 98% cases were cured after treat-ment. Conclusion Children hand foot mouth disease,early diagnosis and treatment in time,pay at ention to monitoring of vital signs and symp-toms and signs of change,take measures in time,the prognosis is bet er.%目的:对阆中地区小儿手足口病临床诊治情况进行分析。方法2014年1月至2015年1月阆中妇保院就诊的手足口患儿128例资料进行分析。结果2~4岁年龄段患儿居多,以皮疹、发热情况入院治疗,经治疗后痊愈率98%以上。结论小儿手足口病容易在群体中传播,应加大基层宣传力度,及时、早期诊断治疗。

  2. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile in a Room with three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Ines; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where the ex...

  3. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile with Three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where the ex...

  4. Is Hydrogen Breath Test with Lactulose Feasible for Measuring Gastrocecal Transit in Critically Ill Children? Pilot Study about Modification of the Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C.; González, R.; Solana, M. J.; Urbano, J.; Tolín, M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Gastrocecal transit time (GCTT) can be measured by exhaled hydrogen after lactulose intake (lactulose-eH2 test). The objectives were to assess whether it is possible to carry out this test in critically ill children with and without mechanical ventilation (MV) and to analyze whether the results are consistent with clinical findings. Methods. Patients admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) for more than 3 days were included. Those with gastrointestinal disease prior to admission were excluded. A modified technique to obtain eH2 from the ventilator tubes was performed. Results. Sixteen patients (37.5% boys) with a median age of 19 (5–86.5) months were included. Five patients (31.2%) were breathing spontaneously but lactulose-eH2 test could not be performed while it could be performed successfully in the 11 patients with MV. Seven patients (63.3%) did not show an eH2 peak. The other 4 showed a median time of 130 min (78.7–278.7 min) from lactulose intake to a 10 ppm eH2 peak. Children with an eH2 peak had intestinal movements earlier [6.5 (1.5–38.5) versus 44 (24–72) hours p = 0.545]. Conclusion. Although the designed adaption is useful for collecting breath samples, lactulose-eH2 test may not be useful for measuring GCTT in critically ill children. PMID:28246601

  5. Can We Predict Oral Antibiotic Treatment Failure in Children with Fast-Breathing Pneumonia Managed at the Community Level? A Prospective Cohort Study in Malawi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina King

    Full Text Available Pneumonia is the leading cause of infectious death amongst children globally, with the highest burden in Africa. Early identification of children at risk of treatment failure in the community and prompt referral could lower mortality. A number of clinical markers have been independently associated with oral antibiotic failure in childhood pneumonia. This study aimed to develop a prognostic model for fast-breathing pneumonia treatment failure in sub-Saharan Africa.We prospectively followed a cohort of children (2-59 months, diagnosed by community health workers with fast-breathing pneumonia using World Health Organisation (WHO integrated community case management guidelines. Cases were followed at days 5 and 14 by study data collectors, who assessed a range of pre-determined clinical features for treatment outcome. We built the prognostic model using eight pre-defined parameters, using multivariable logistic regression, validated through bootstrapping.We assessed 1,542 cases of which 769 were included (32% ineligible; 19% defaulted. The treatment failure rate was 15% at day 5 and relapse was 4% at day 14. Concurrent malaria diagnosis (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.47 and moderate malnutrition (OR: 1.88; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.26 were associated with treatment failure. The model demonstrated poor calibration and discrimination (c-statistic: 0.56.This study suggests that it may be difficult to create a pragmatic community-level prognostic child pneumonia tool based solely on clinical markers and pulse oximetry in an HIV and malaria endemic setting. Further work is needed to identify more accurate and reliable referral algorithms that remain feasible for use by community health workers.

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alev Çınar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT. Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA. Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years of whom 62 (12.4% were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6% were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp was positive in 245 (49% cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34% had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51% had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8% children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family.

  7. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  8. The Prevalence of Malocclusion and Oral Habits among 5–7-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kasparaviciene, Kristina; Sidlauskas, Antanas; Zasciurinskiene, Egle; Vasiliauskas, Arunas; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Sidlauskas, Mantas; Marmaite, Ugne

    2014-01-01

    Background Digit sucking, tongue thrust swallowing, and mouth breathing are potential risk factors for development of malocclusion. The purpose of this study was to verify the prevalence of different occlusal traits among 5–7-year-old children and assess their relationship with oral habits. Material/Methods The study included 503 pre-school children (260 boys and 243 girls) with a mean age of 5.95 years. Different occlusal traits were verified by intraoral examination. Oral habits were diagno...

  9. Coordination of mastication, swallowing and breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Matsuo; Palmer, Jeffrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The pathways for air and food cross in the pharynx. In breathing, air may flow through either the nose or the mouth, it always flows through the pharynx. During swallowing, the pharynx changes from an airway to a food channel. The pharynx is isolated from the nasal cavity and lower airway by velopharyngeal and laryngeal closure during the pharyngeal swallow. During mastication, the food bolus accumulates in the pharynx prior to swallow initiation. The structures in the oral cavity, pharynx an...

  10. Children of rural-to-urban migrant workers in China are at a higher risk of contracting severe hand, foot and mouth disease and EV71 infection: a hospital-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Mei; Pu, Dongbo; Mo, Xiaowei; ZHU, CHAOMIN; Gong, Sitang; Xu, Yi; Lin, Guangyu; Wu, Beiyan; He, Suli; Jiao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiangshi; Wang, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qianqian; Altmeyer, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and severity of hand, foot and mouth disease have increased in mainland China since 2008. Therapies and vaccines are currently at different stages of development. This study aimed to determine the social factors associated with the outbreaks and severity of the disease in Chinese children. A multicentre, prospective, case-controlled study was conducted in Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangzhou and Shantou to identify the sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors for hand, foot and m...

  11. Demonstration of the reproducibility of free-breathing diffusion-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in children with solid tumours: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Keiko; Jerome, Neil P.; Collins, David J.; Orton, Matthew R.; D' Arcy, James A.; Leach, Martin O. [Cancer Research UK Cancer Imaging Centre at The Institute of Cancer Research, London (United Kingdom); Wallace, Toni; Koh, Dow-Mu [Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London, England (United Kingdom); Moreno, Lucas [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Divisions of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Clinical Research Programme, Madrid (Spain); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Pearson, Andrew D.J.; Marshall, Lynley V.; Carceller, Fernando; Zacharoulis, Stergios [The Institute of Cancer Research, Paediatric Drug Development Team, Divisions of Cancer Therapeutics and Clinical Studies, London (United Kingdom); The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Paediatric Drug Development Unit, Children and Young People' s Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    The objectives are to examine the reproducibility of functional MR imaging in children with solid tumours using quantitative parameters derived from diffusion-weighted (DW-) and dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE-) MRI. Patients under 16-years-of age with confirmed diagnosis of solid tumours (n = 17) underwent free-breathing DW-MRI and DCE-MRI on a 1.5 T system, repeated 24 hours later. DW-MRI (6 b-values, 0-1000 sec/mm{sup 2}) enabled monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient estimation using all (ADC{sub 0-1000}) and only ≥100 sec/mm{sup 2} (ADC{sub 100-1000}) b-values. DCE-MRI was used to derive the transfer constant (K{sup trans}), the efflux constant (k{sub ep}), the extracellular extravascular volume (v{sub e}), and the plasma fraction (v{sub p}), using a study cohort arterial input function (AIF) and the extended Tofts model. Initial area under the gadolinium enhancement curve and pre-contrast T{sub 1} were also calculated. Percentage coefficients of variation (CV) of all parameters were calculated. The most reproducible cohort parameters were ADC{sub 100-1000} (CV = 3.26 %), pre-contrast T{sub 1} (CV = 6.21 %), and K{sup trans} (CV = 15.23 %). The ADC{sub 100-1000} was more reproducible than ADC{sub 0-1000}, especially extracranially (CV = 2.40 % vs. 2.78 %). The AIF (n = 9) derived from this paediatric population exhibited sharper and earlier first-pass and recirculation peaks compared with the literature's adult population average. Free-breathing functional imaging protocols including DW-MRI and DCE-MRI are well-tolerated in children aged 6 - 15 with good to moderate measurement reproducibility. (orig.)

  12. 儿童睡眠呼吸障碍及其相关因素调查%SLEEP RELATED BREATHING DISORDERS IN CHILDREN AND ITS RELATED FACTORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣黔

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究儿童睡眠呼吸障碍(阻塞性睡眠呼吸低或暂停综合征)的发病特征同时探讨其相关因素的作用.[方法]选择某院2009年5月~2011年5月儿科收治的112例患有睡眠呼吸障碍的儿童作为观察组,同时选择210例体检正常儿童做为对照组,所有观察对象均进行相应OSA阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停疾病特异性问卷调查、血常规、动脉血气分析,并拍摄鼻咽部X线片同时采用监测仪对其进行整夜多导睡眠监测( Polysomnography,PSG),并分析患儿呼吸暂停同期指数血氧饱和、睡眠效率与疾病的相关性.[结果]观察组儿童的OSA评分、呼吸暂停通气指数、血氧饱和度、睡眠效率明显低于对照组儿童,而体重指数与扁桃体肿大程度显著高于对照组儿童.50%的患儿生活质量受到严重影响,另外扁桃体增大(OR=2.51,P<0.01)与腺样体大(OR=4.41,P<0.01)以及肥胖(OR=20.54,P<0.01)均是儿童睡眠呼吸障碍的危险因素.OSA评分与呼吸暂停通气指数、儿童体重及扁桃体肿大程度呈明显正相关(r=0.351,0.311,0.592,P< 0.01),与血氧饱和度呈负相关(r=-0.384,P<0.01).[结论]儿童睡眠呼吸障碍严重影响儿童的生活质量,且其发病因素与儿童扁桃体增大、腺体大,肥胖间具有一定的关系,可以通过从病因着手控制儿童睡眠呼吸障碍的发生.%To study the sleep-related breathing disorders in children (obstructive sleep apnea low or apnea syndrome) disease characteristics and explore its related factors. [Methods] In the pediatric Department of our hospital from May 2009 to May 2011, 112 cases with sleep breathing disorders in children were recruited as the observation group, while 210 cases medical normal children were selected as control group. All of the observed objects were investigated with the correspond-ing OSA obstructive sleep apnea disease specific questionnaire, including blood, arterial blood gas analysis, and shoot the

  13. Impact of constant and breath-synchronized nebulization on inhaled mass of nebulized budesonide in infants and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikander, K; Bisgaard, H

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the output of a breath-synchronized jet nebulizer to a conventional constant output nebulizer over a fixed period of time in terms of inhaled mass of budesonide, i.e., the amount of budesonide deposited on a filter interposed between the nebulizer...... the nebulizer as an aerosol, the inhaled mass ranged from 34.6-48.6%. Thus, 51.4-65.4% of the total output was deposited on the expiratory filter. With 5 min of breath-synchronized nebulization, the mean inhaled mass ranged from 10.5-14.9% of the nominal dose. For the youngest patients less than 3-4 years...... of age, it was approximately 80-90% of the total output. For the older patients the inhaled mass was approximately 95% of the total output, i.e., only small amounts of budesonide were deposited on the expiratory filter. For both modes of nebulization the between-subject variation in inhaled mass...

  14. 危重症手足口病30例诊治体会%Clinical analysis of 30 children with severe hand,foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小燕; 邓慧玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To analyse the clinical manifestations of severe hand ,foot and mouth disease,summarize the diagnostic basis ,and explore the efficient methods of earlier detection, positive intervention and blocking the development of the disease on high risk factor . Methods : The clinical data of 30 child patients with HFMD in our hospital from April 2008 to July 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Except the skin rash on hand ,foot and mouth, the mainly manifestations were:patients under 3 year-old, constant fever, short of vigor, vomiting, limb myoclonus, weakness of limbs, convulsion, respiration and tachycardia augmented, cold sweat, poar peripheral circulation, obvious increase of hypertension or hypotensian peripheral leukocyte count,blood glucose elevation, phlegm sound in throat, failed to speak, cohesive eye , ?uvula skew , Shoaling nasolabial fold, deflected mouth , quick abnormal chest dynamic change; All of the 30 children had the symptom of pulmonary edema, 17 had evehigh risk factors wich was found in time and cured after taking effective treatments, 7 died , 6 given up treatment. and the given-up cases all died after then. Conclusion: Clinieal doctors must pay serious attention to high risk factors and select the patients with high risk factors ,carry out the intervention therapy , it is the key to increase cure rate , once pulmonary edema appeared , the death rate will be high .%目的:探讨危重症手足口病(HFMD)的早期临床表现、诊断、高危因素及治疗方法.方法:对30例危重症手足口病患儿的临床表现及治疗方法进行回顾性分析.结果:本组30例中,3岁以内占96.7%,持续发热,精神差、呕吐、肢体肌阵挛、呼吸、心率增快各占100%;白细胞增高(WBC≥10×109)、胸部X线片示肺水肿也占100%;肢体无力、血压升高、T淋巴细胞转化率<60%、心肌酶异常、EV71-RNA(+)也达到50%以上.给予抗病毒、退热、大剂量免疫球蛋白(IVIG)、甲基强的松

  15. Fast and accurate exhaled breath ammonia measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew L; Spacek, Lisa A; Risby, Terence H

    2014-06-11

    This exhaled breath ammonia method uses a fast and highly sensitive spectroscopic method known as quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) that uses a quantum cascade based laser. The monitor is coupled to a sampler that measures mouth pressure and carbon dioxide. The system is temperature controlled and specifically designed to address the reactivity of this compound. The sampler provides immediate feedback to the subject and the technician on the quality of the breath effort. Together with the quick response time of the monitor, this system is capable of accurately measuring exhaled breath ammonia representative of deep lung systemic levels. Because the system is easy to use and produces real time results, it has enabled experiments to identify factors that influence measurements. For example, mouth rinse and oral pH reproducibly and significantly affect results and therefore must be controlled. Temperature and mode of breathing are other examples. As our understanding of these factors evolves, error is reduced, and clinical studies become more meaningful. This system is very reliable and individual measurements are inexpensive. The sampler is relatively inexpensive and quite portable, but the monitor is neither. This limits options for some clinical studies and provides rational for future innovations.

  16. Investigation and study of family factors of children with dissemination hand foot and mouth disease in Zhongshan city%中山市散发手足口病患儿家庭因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄月霞; 曾洁; 罗序峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨儿童手足口病发生的主要家庭因素。方法2012年1~12月在本院住院的1~3岁的手足口病患儿100例,其中农村,城区儿童各50例,同时选取同期在儿童保健科进行体检的健康儿童城区、农村各50例作为对照。进行问卷调查,调查问卷以:卫生情况、家庭卫生意识、家庭人数、卫生条件、主要照顾者文化程度、心理状况、居住环境、是否受过手足口病相关教育、主要照顾者年龄9个家庭因素,比较两者的差别。结果城区手足口病与城区健康儿童比较:家庭人数、主要照顾者年龄、主要照顾者文化程度无统计学意义(P>0.05)。将农村手足口病与农村健康儿童比较:主要照顾者年龄,主要照顾者文化程度无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论家庭因素对手足口病患儿有一定影响,城区与农村手足口病的影响的家庭因素不尽相同。%Objective To explore the main families factors of children with hand foot and mouth disease.Methods 100 cases of 1 year old to 3 years old children with hand foot mouth disease,of which 50 cases were in rural and 50 cases were in urban areas,were in our hospital from 2012 January to December.At the same time,healthy children were selected for examination as the control,of which 50 cases were in rural and 50 cases were in urban areas.Patients were conducted a questionnaire survey.The questionnaire contained nine factors:health condition,family health awareness,family size,sanitation,culture level of primary caregiver,mental status,living environment,whether related education of hand foot and mouth disease,age of primary caregiver.The differences were compared.ResultsFamily size, age of caregiver,and culture degree of caregivers had no statistical significance between children with hand foot mouth disease and healthy children in urban area (P>0.05).Age of caregiver and culture degree of caregivers had no statistical

  17. Healthy Mouth for Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > A Healthy Mouth for Your Baby A ...

  18. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reading Is Your Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: ... in this article? Basic Anatomy of the Mouth and Teeth Normal Development of the Mouth and Teeth What the Mouth ...

  19. Influência do padrão respiratório na morfologia craniofacial Breathing mode influence in craniofacial development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Campos Rosetti Lessa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar por meio de análise cefalométrica as diferenças nas proporções faciais de crianças respiradoras bucais e nasais. FORMA DE ESTUDO: coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas 60 crianças entre 6 e 10 anos que, após avaliação otorrinolaringológica para o diagnóstico do tipo de respiração, foram divididas em dois grupos: grupo I, constituído de crianças respiradoras bucais, com elevado grau de obstrução das vias aéreas e grupo II, composto de crianças respiradoras nasais. Os pacientes foram submetidos à avaliação ortodôntica por meio de radiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral, a fim de avaliar as proporções faciais, através das seguintes medidas cefalométricas: SN.GoGn, ArGo.GoMe, N-Me, N-ENA, ENA-Me, S-Go, S-Ar, Ar-Go; e os seguintes índices: iAF=S-Go / N-Me, iAFA=ENA-Me / N-Me e iPFA=N-ENA / ENA-Me. RESULTADO: Foi constatada que a inclinação do plano mandibular (SN.GoGn nos pacientes respiradores bucais foi estatisticamente maior que nos respiradores nasais, enquanto que a proporção da altura facial posterior e anterior (iAF, e da altura facial anterior superior e inferior (iPFA foram estatisticamente menores nos pacientes bucais, indicando altura facial posterior menor que a anterior e altura facial anterior inferior aumentada nesses pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: Pode-se concluir, então, que os respiradores bucais tendem a apresentar maior inclinação mandibular e padrão de crescimento vertical, evidenciando a influência da função respiratória no desenvolvimento craniofacial.AIM: the aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in facial proportions of nose and mouth breathing children using cephalometric analysis. STUDY DESIGN: transversal cohort. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Sixty cephalometric radiographs from pediatric patients aged 6 to 10 years were used. After otorhinolaryngological evaluation, patients were divided into two groups: Group I

  20. Comparative study of the cytokine/chemokine response in children with differing disease severity in enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection can lead to a rapidly progressing, life-threatening, and severe neurological disease in young children, including the development of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD. This study aims to further characterize the specific immunological features in EV71-mediated HFMD patients presenting with differing degrees of disease severity. METHODOLOGY: Comprehensive cytokine and chemokine expression were broadly evaluated by cytokine antibody array in EV71-infected patients hospitalized for HFMD compared to Coxsackievirus A16-infected patients and age-matched healthy controls. More detailed analysis using Luminex-based cytokine bead array was performed in EV71-infected patients stratified into diverse clinic outcomes. Additionally, immune cell frequencies in peripheral blood and EV71-specific antibodies in plasma were also examined. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression of several cytokines and chemokines were significantly increased in plasma from EV71-infected patients compared to healthy controls, which further indicated that: (1 GM-CSF, MIP-1β, IL-2, IL-33, and IL-23 secretion was elevated in patients who rapidly developed disease and presented with uncomplicated neurological damage; (2 G-CSF and MCP-1 were distinguishably secreted in EV71 infected very severe patients presenting with acute respiratory failure; (3 IP-10, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF levels were much higher in cerebrospinal fluid than in plasma from patients with neurological damage; (4 FACS analysis revealed that the frequency of CD19(+HLADR(+ mature B cells dynamically changed over time during the course of hospitalization and was accompanied by dramatically increased EV71-specific antibodies. Our data provide a panoramic view of specific immune mediator and cellular immune responses of HFMD and may provide useful immunological profiles for monitoring the progress of EV71-induced fatal neurological symptoms with acute respiratory failure.

  1. Experiments on the Microenvironment and Breathing of a Person in Isothermal and Stratified Surroundings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Litewnicki, Michal;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation. Experiments are performed on a breathing thermal manikin in a test room. The manikin is heated, and an artificial lung is used to generate varying air flows with specific flow rates and temperatures for breathing. Smoke visualisation...... is used to show the formation, movement and disappearance of the exhalation jets from both nose and mouth. The exhalation of breathing without ventilation in the room, and with stratified surroundings (displacement ventilation) is analysed....

  2. 118例危重症儿童手足口病的临床特征分析%Analysis of clinical feature of 118 children with critical illness hand foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁宇峰; 杨鎰宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinical features and treatment protocols of children with critical hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Methods 118 patients with HFMD who were treated in Children's Hospital District of Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center from August 2011 to January 2014 were chosen as research objects. Their symp-tomatic features were analyzed retrospectively. A lot of auxiliary examinations including blood routine, blood biochem-istry, chest film, electrocardiogram, cranial MRI or CT, EEG, BAEP were carried among the research objects. They were treated with positive early intervention measures and given mechanical ventilation when necessary. The long out-comes were observed and recorded for 1 year. Results The clinical features of critical HFMD:most of the patients aged under three and had high fever; they had neurological manifestations like limbs tremor, short of vigour, dysphoria and pavor and often accompanied with increased blood glucose and blood pressure, pulmonary edema and pulmonary hem-orrhage; BAEP and cranial MRI showed abnormal; 110 patients received mechanical ventilation. 105 cases were cured or discharged from hospital with improvement with obsolete mental retardation, secondary epilepsy and limb paralysis after 1 year follow-up. Of 13 death cases, 2 cases of patients died from withdrawing breathing machine because their family members gave up treatment. Conclusion The changes of condition in children with HFMD should be closely monitored. Analyzing of the symptomatic characteristics of patients and related auxiliary examination is helpful for i-dentify the high risk factors of children with critical HFMD and take positive early intervention measures. All these have critical effect on reducing severe sequela of children with critical HFMD, decreasing disability rate and death rate to the upmost and improving the prognosis.%目的:总结分析危重症手足口病(HFMD)患儿的临床表现特点,研究早期干

  3. Clinical characteristics of severe hand-foot-mouth diseases in children%手足口病重症病例临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄瑞娟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze clinical characteristics of severe hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in children,provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Method Retrospectively analyzed clinical features of severe HFMD in children who were hospitalized in our hospital from January 1,2011 to December 31,2014.Results 1.The infection rate of enterovirus EV71 was 43.4%,which is the highest in all severe HFMD in children.2.Clinical manifestation of enterovirus EV71 associated HFMD in children was more complex than those of enterovirus CoxA16 and EV,mainly manifested as positive urine acetone bodies,continuous reduction of platelet,coffee sample vomitus,white blood cells reduction,hyperglycemia.3.Negative cases of three etiological examination should be paid attention to,the incidences of hyperpyrexia,cold hands and feet,shaking limbs,convulsions,vomit,neurolysis,rapid pulse,increased blood pressure,white blood cells and CRP in whom were not lower than those in EV71 associated HFMD.Conclusion Enterovirus EV71 is the most common pathogen associated with HFMD.Patients' condition of Enterovirus EV71 associated HFMD is more serious.Negative cases of three etiological examination should not be ignored.%目的 总结手足口病(HFMD)重型病例的临床特点,为临床诊治提供依据.方法 通过对2011年1月1日至2014年12月31日在广州市番禺区中心医院住院治疗的手足口病重症病例的临床表现进行回顾性分析,得出结论.结果 ①所有手足口病重症病例中,肠道病毒EV71感染率最高,达43.4%.②肠道病毒EV71感染引起的手足口病,临床表现较CoxA 16、EV病毒感染复杂.尿酮体阳性、血小板进行性下降、呕吐咖啡样物、白细胞降低、血糖升高为EV71感染区别于CoxA 16、EV病毒感染的一些特征性临床表现.③三项病原学检查均阴性的病例也需注意,高热、手足冰凉、四肢抖动、惊扎、呕吐、精神疲倦、脉搏增快、血压升高、白细胞升

  4. Study of the correlations between fractional exhaled nitric oxide in exhaled breath and atopic status, blood eosinophils, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen-Thi-Bich H

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanh Nguyen-Thi-Bich,1 Huong Duong-Thi-Ly,2 Vu Thi Thom,2 Nhung Pham-Thi-Hong,2 Long Doan Dinh,2 Huong Le-Thi-Minh,1 Timothy John Craig,3 Sy Duong-Quy3,4 1Department of Immunology, Allergology, and Rheumatology, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam; 2School of Medicine and Pharmacy, Vietnam National University Hanoi, Vietnam; 3Department of Medicine, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, USA; 4Department of Respiratory Diseases, Lam Dong Medical College, Dalat, Vietnam Introduction: Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO is a biomarker of airway inflammation in asthma. The measurement of FENO is utilized to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of children with asthma, especially for those treated with inhaled corticosteroids. Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the correlations between FENO and atopic status, blood eosinophil levels, FCER2 mutation, and asthma control in Vietnamese children. Subjects and methods: This was a prospective and descriptive study approved by the local Ethical Board. All children with uncontrolled asthma, seen in the National Hospital of Pediatrics (Hanoi, Vietnam, were included. Exhaled breath FENO, blood eosinophils, skin prick test, total IgE, asthma control test (ACT, and FCER2 gene polymorphism were performed at inclusion. They were followed up at 3 months to evaluate clinical status, FENO levels, and ACT. Results: Forty-two children with uncontrolled asthma with a mean age of 10±3 years (6–16 years were included. The male/female ratio was 2.5/1. The mean FENO levels were 26±25 ppb. FENO was significantly higher in patients with a positive skin prick test for respiratory allergens (P<0.05. FENO was significantly correlated with blood eosinophil levels (r=0.5217; P=0.0004. Five of the 32 subjects (15.6% had a mutation of FCER2 gene (rs28364072 SNP. In this group, the levels of FENO were highest (37±10 ppb; P<0.05. The levels of FENO were significantly decreased after 3 months of

  5. Efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance on sleep-disordered breathing in children: a study protocol of a crossover randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Idris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB varies from habitual snoring to partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway and can be found in up to 10% of children. SDB can significantly affect children’s wellbeing, as it can cause growth disorders, educational and behavioral problems, and even life-threatening conditions, such as cardiorespiratory failure. Adenotonsillectomy represents the primary treatment for pediatric SDB where adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy is indicated. For those with craniofacial anomalies, or for whom adenotonsillectomy or other treatment modalities have failed, or surgery is contra-indicated, mandibular advancement splints (MAS may represent a viable treatment option. Whilst the efficacy of these appliances has been consistently demonstrated in adults, there is little information about their effectiveness in children.Aims: To determine the efficacy of mandibular advancement appliances for the management of SDB and related health problems in children. Methods/design: The study will be designed as a single-blind crossover randomized controlled trial with administration of both an ‘Active MAS’ (Twin-block and a ‘Sham MAS’. Eligible participants will be children aged 8 to 12 years whose parents report they snore ≥ 3 nights per week. Sixteen children will enter the full study after confirming other inclusion criteria, particularly Skeletal class I or class II confirmed by lateral cephalometric radiograph. Each child will be randomly assigned to either a treatment sequence starting with the Active or the Sham MAS. Participants will wear the appliances for three weeks separated by a two-week washout period. For each participant, home-based polysomnographic data will be collected four times; once before and once after each treatment period. The Apnea Hypopnea Index (AHI will represent the main outcome variable. Secondary outcomes will include, snoring frequency, masseter muscle activity, sleep symptoms, quality

  6. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? A A A en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  7. Estudo das dimensões transversais da face, em telerradiografias póstero-anteriores em indivíduos respiradores bucais com oclusão normal e má oclusão classe I de angle A study of facial transverse dimensions, in postero-anterior teleradiography in mouth breather individuals with normal occlusion and malloclusion classe I of angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemári Fistarol Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A respiração bucal vem sendo estudada há mais de 100 anos, na tentativa de entender os reais envolvimentos com as más oclusões. Este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar as dimensões transversais da face em 60 crianças, 32 do gênero feminino e 28 do masculino, com idades entre 6 anos e 1 mês e 8 anos e 2 meses, com má oclusão Classe I de Angle, com respiração nasal ou bucal. Foram selecionadas aleatoriamente 60 telerradiografias em norma frontal póstero-anterior e realizados os traçados cefalométricos para a obtenção das 26 variáveis de interesse. A avaliação do padrão respiratório de cada criança foi realizada por meio de um exame clínico específico. Após o diagnóstico do modo respiratório, a amostra foi dividida em subgrupos de oclusão normal e respiração nasal (14 crianças, oclusão normal e respiração bucal (11 crianças, Classe I de Angle e respiração nasal (6 crianças, Classe I de Angle e respiração bucal (29 crianças. Os resultados encontrados indicam que não existem diferenças estatisticamente significativas nas dimensões transversais da face entre os grupos. Além disso, não foi encontrada correlação entre o modo respiratório bucal e a mordida cruzada dentária posterior.Mouth breathing has been studied for more than 100 years, trying to search the real relationship with the malocclusions. The aim of this study is to assess the transversal facial dimensions of 60 children: 32 females and 28 males, whose had Angle Class I malocclusion with mouth and nasal breathing. 60 teleradiographies were outlined and selected in posteroanterior frontal norm to attainment of the 26 variables to the study. The evaluation of the respiratory pattern of each child was realized by a visual examination, to register the labial posture and, by a questionnaire answered by the parents of the child, which had data concerning medical history and respiratory pattern. After the diagnosis of respiratory mode, the sample

  8. Nursing intervention on clinical efficacy in children with hand, foot and mouth disease%护理干预对小儿手足口病临床疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晶儿; 刘倩如; 莫宝妹; 陈少英; 廖华; 张翠琼

    2012-01-01

      Objective:Nursing intervention on children with hand, foot and mouth disease clinical efficacy. Method:Children with hand, foot and mouth disease children in our hospital, were randomly divided into observation group and control group. After relevant checks, two groups were given routine care, observation group were integrated care intervention program based on the clinical efficacy of the two groups were compared .results: compared with the control group, the observation group were markedly ratio and total efficiency has improved significantly the to invalid ratio decreased, the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:to carefully care and closely illness observed, can improve the hand, foot and mouth disease cure rate reduce complications and improve clinical outcomes.%  目的:探讨护理干预对小儿手足口病临床疗效的影响.方法:选择我院收治的小儿手足口病患儿,随机分为观察组和对照组.2组患儿经相关检查后均给予常规护理,而观察组患儿则在此基础上采用综合护理干预方案,对2组患儿的临床疗效进行比较.结果:与对照组相比,观察组患儿显效比率和总有效率明显提高,无效比率明显下降,差别均具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:经过精心护理和密切病情观察,可提高手足口病治愈率减少并发症,提高临床疗效.

  9. Oral breathing: dentomaxillofacial irregularities associated with nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde de la Caridad Mora Pérez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human beings are conditioned to breathe through the nose and feed through the mouth, when this physiological mechanism is interrupted facial and general growth is also affected. Objective: To characterize Angle´s Class II malocclusions in oral breathers with nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions. Method: A correlational, observational and descriptive study was developed from December 2004 to November 2005 including clinical examination of 833 children out of which 60 were selected to take part in this study. Each case was analyzed in Orthodontia, Orthopedics and Otolaryngology consultations. The studied variables were: age, sex, nasorespiratory disorders, orthopedic dysfunctions, dental-maxillofacial irregularities. Results: The mot frequent dental-maxillofacial irregularities were: bilabial incompetence, transversal micrognathism, vestibular version, overjet and overbite. The most important nasorespiratory dysfunctions found in these children were adenoiditis, and tonsil hypertrophy. The most outstanding orthopedic dysfunction was ciphosis. Conclusion: It is conclusive to state that there is a high relationship between dentomaxillofacial anomalies and nasorespiratory and orthopedic dysfunctions.

  10. Cognitive impairment in children with sleep-disordered breathing%儿童睡眠呼吸障碍与认知功能损害

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易阳; 董选

    2015-01-01

    目的 综述儿童睡眠呼吸障碍对儿童认知损害的特征、机制及相关脑结构和功能的变化.方法 检索时间2002~2014年.检索数据库为美国国立医学图书馆和维普中文期刊数据库,检索词为:自由词:睡眠呼吸障碍(sleep-disordered breathing,SDB)、认知(cognitive);主题词:睡眠暂停综合征(sleep apnea syndromes)、神经行为表现(neurobehavioral manifestations)、睡眠剥夺(sleep deprivation)、影像(image)、睡眠暂停综合征/流行病学(sleep apnea syndromes/epidemiology).结果 最终纳入外文文献52篇,中文文献1篇,相对国内文献较少,文献主要为对比研究、临床试验、评估性研究、控制性临床试验、随机对照试验、多中心研究文章.结论 有关SDB引起认知损害特征、发病机理及相关脑功能改变的特征及定位,目前仍缺乏充分的研究,特别是儿童.临床评估认知损害多采用量表,仍缺乏相应的定量指标.临床如何做到早期诊断、量化评估其认知功能,探索认知损害的分子机制及脑功能的损害与定位研究,均是临床需解决的问题.%Objective To review the characteristics,mechanism,the brain structural and functional changes of cognitive impairment induced by sleep-disordered breathing in children.Methods The retrieve time was from 2002 to 2014 and the retrieve databases were the US.national library of medicine and Weipu Chinese journal databases.Search word included sleep disorders breathing, cognitive, sleep apnea syndrome, neurobehavioralmanifestations,image,sleep deprivation.Results 52 English literature and 1 Chinese literature were accepted.Most literatures were clinical trial, comparative study, multicenter study, randomized controlled trial, controlled clinical trial.Conclusion The study in the cognitive impairment and characteristics change of the brain function and structure in children with SDB is not enough.Most cognitive assessments are completed by scale.How to

  11. Are frequency and severity of sleep-disordered breathing in obese children and youth with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalitin, Shlomit; Tauman, Riva; Meyerovitch, Joseph; Sivan, Yakov

    2014-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults. Data in children are limited. The aim was to study the frequency and severity of OSA and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in obese children and adolescents with and without T2DM. In this prospective cross-sectional study, obese children and adolescents with and without T2DM underwent polysomnography and blood tests for fasting lipids, insulin, glucose, liver functions, and C-reactive protein. All participants completed a questionnaire on past and present sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Results were compared between T2DM and obese non-diabetic controls matched for body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and also according to the glycemic status: T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and normal glycemic control. Eleven patients with T2DM (age 15.9 ± 3.6 years) and 30 BMI-SDS matched non-diabetic subjects (age 12.7 ± 3.0 years) were studied. Among the entire cohort, 45 % had a history of snoring, 26 % reported apneic episodes during sleep, and 65 % had daytime fatigue. There were no significant between-group differences in SDB history or abnormal polysomnographic results [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >5/h]. The percentage of subjects with AHI >5/h was 45.5 % in T2DM patients, 25 % in obese patients with IGT, and 18.2 % in obese patients without IGT, although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.25). Plasma C-reactive protein levels were related to both glycemic status and OSA severity. The severity of OSA in obese children and adolescents is unrelated to the presence of diabetes. OSA may play a minor role in the development and progression of T2DM in children and adolescents. Further studies in larger cohorts are required.

  12. Non-invasive detection of low-intestinal lactase activity in children by use of a combined (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, HA; Stellaard, F; Bijleveld, CMA; Elzinga, H; Boverhof, R; van der Meer, R; Vonk, RJ; Sauer, PJJ

    1999-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to diagnose hypolactasia with a higher accuracy than with the traditional H-2 breath test. Methods: We used a combined C-13-lactose (CO2)-C-13/H-2 breath test, which was performed in 33 patients in whom lactase activity was measured. Results: Lactase activity was

  13. Improved abdominal MRI in non-breath-holding children using a radial k-space sampling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun Hae; Shin, Su Mi; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One

    2015-06-01

    Radial k-space sampling techniques have been shown to reduce motion artifacts in adult abdominal MRI. To compare a T2-weighted radial k-space sampling MRI pulse sequence (BLADE) with standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric abdominal imaging. Axial BLADE and respiratory-triggered turbo spin echo sequences were performed without fat suppression in 32 abdominal MR examinations in children. We retrospectively assessed overall image quality, the presence of respiratory, peristaltic and radial artifact, and lesion conspicuity. We evaluated signal uniformity of each sequence. BLADE showed improved overall image quality (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 2.59 ± 0.59, P sampling technique improved the quality and reduced respiratory motion artifacts in young children compared with conventional respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequences.

  14. Breathing mode influence on craniofacial development and head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambi-Rocha, Annel; Cabrera-Domínguez, Mª Eugenia; Domínguez-Reyes, Antonia

    2017-08-14

    The incidence of abnormal breathing and its consequences on craniofacial development is increasing, and is not limited to children with adenoid faces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cephalometric differences in craniofacial structures and head posture between nasal breathing and oral breathing children and teenagers with a normal facial growth pattern. Ninety-eight 7-16 year-old patients with a normal facial growth pattern were clinically and radiographically evaluated. They were classified as either nasal breathing or oral breathing patients according to the predominant mode of breathing through clinical and historical evaluation, and breathing respiratory rate predomination as quantified by an airflow sensor. They were divided in two age groups (G1: 7-9) (G2: 10-16) to account for normal age-related facial growth. Oral breathing children (8.0±0.7 years) showed less nasopharyngeal cross-sectional dimension (MPP) (p=0.030), whereas other structures were similar to their nasal breathing counterparts (7.6±0.9 years). However, oral breathing teenagers (12.3±2.0 years) exhibited a greater palate length (ANS-PNS) (p=0.049), a higher vertical dimension in the lower anterior face (Xi-ANS-Pm) (p=0.015), and a lower position of the hyoid bone with respect to the mandibular plane (H-MP) (p=0.017) than their nasal breathing counterparts (12.5±1.9 years). No statistically significant differences were found in head posture. Even in individuals with a normal facial growth pattern, when compared with nasal breathing individuals, oral breathing children present differences in airway dimensions. Among adolescents, these dissimilarities include structures in the facial development and hyoid bone position. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. [Historical study on traditional Chinese formulations and crude drugs used for bad breath].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Megumi; Murata, Kazuya; Matsuda, Hideaki; Honda, Mami; Honda, Shun-Ichi; Tani, Tadato

    2011-01-01

    Bad breath is a topic of general interest. In this study, the treatment for bad breath in traditional Chinese medicine was reviewed with a special focus on pathologic diagnosis and crude drug prescriptions. It was shown that bad breath developed based on both systemic and local diseases. Some systemic conditions, including nasal, paranasal, pulmonary and digestive diseases, are considered to cause bad breath. The morbid state of a patient with bad breath has been recognized as being based on "heat syndrome" and "Qi-stagnation syndrome." Bad breath based on "heat syndrome" is manifested as thirst and ulceration of the oral cavity, and has been treated with crude drugs such as Coptis rhizome, Scutellaria root and gypsum. One case study reported that bad breath resulting from a dry mouth was treated with byakkokaninjinto, a Kampo formulation containing gypsum. "Qi" is considered to be the vital energy of all life forms including for the functioning of organs and mental and emotional activity. "Qi-stagnation syndrom," referring to the dysfunction of organs, is manifested as psychosomatic symptoms such as irritability, a flushed face and restlessness. Bad breath based on "Qi-stagnation syndrome" has been treated with crude drugs such as Cnidium rhizome, clove and cinnamon bark. Modern dental and medical treatment both accept the participation of psychogenic agents in the development of bad breath. Bad breath also develops based on periodontal and oral diseases. This type of bad breath has been treated with mouth-wash (collutorium) containing Asiasarum root, Angelica dahurica root and Cnidium rhizome. This historical evidence regarding crude drug prescriptions contributes to the development of mouth care products for preventing and treating bad breath.

  16. Analysis on humoral immunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease%手足口病患儿体液免疫分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉刚; 薛扬; 张利

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the function of humoral immunity in children with hand-foot-mouth disease(HFMD). Methods 625 HFMD children(mild group=551:severe group=74)were selected and studied from patients in hospital from November first 2011 to July thirty-first 2013. The level of serum IgG, IgA, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 were detected on the admission day, and then the results were compared. At the same time, clinical facture and out-comes were studied according to the two groups, respectively. Results The level of serum IgG, IgA, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 were not significantly different between the mild group and severe group.Conclusions The levels of IgG,IgA, IgM, complement C3 and complement C4 in patients with HFMD were not directly related between mild and severe cases.%目的:观察和分析手足口病患儿体液免疫状况。方法汇总分析2011年11月1日到2013年7月31日期间出院手足口病患儿体液免疫检测结果、临床表现及预后。期间共收治住院手足口病患儿859例,选取其中有体液免疫检测结果的完整病例625例,轻症551例,重症及危重症74例(死亡4例)。结果轻症组手足口病患儿血清IgG、IgA、IgM、C3及C4值分别为:8.61±2.33、0.76±0.32、1.53±0.47、1.34±0.14及0.25±0.07;重症及危重症组各项分别为:8.53±2.28、0.75±0.36、1.46±0.53、1.27±0.19及0.26±0.08;两组之间比较差异无统计学意义。结论手足口病患儿血清IgA、IgM、IgG及补体C3、C4水平变化与病情轻重无直接相关性。

  17. 手足口病患儿心肌酶谱和全血细胞计数变化分析%Change analysis of myocardial enzyme spectrum and complete blood count of children with hand, foot and mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明江

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study change of myocardial enzyme spectrum and complete blood count of children with hand, foot and mouth disease. Methods 60 children with hand, foot and mouth disease were selected by sampling as the research objects, and set as observation group. 60 healthy children were selected as control group at the same period. Serum AST, LDH, CK, CK-MB, HBDH and CBC content changes of children of two groups were compared. Results Neutrophils, basophil, acidophil counting contents of children of two groups were of no significant difference, and there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). But count contents of white blood cells, lymphatic lymph and mononuclear cell in observation group increased significantly, and compared with control group, there was statistically significant difference (P0.05)。但是观察组患儿的白细胞、淋巴细胞、单核细胞计数含量却明显升高,与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组患儿的AST、LDH、CK、CK-MB、HBDH含量明显升高,相比对照组健康小儿,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论心肌酶谱和全血细胞计数变化对于手足口病患儿的诊断和预后极具指导价值。

  18. 小儿重型手足口病312例临床分析%Clinical analysis of 312 children of severe hand-foot-mouth diseasey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易冬玲; 罗海霞; 张小平; 张朝勇; 张亦维; 蓝英; 曾现芬

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重型手足口病患儿的临床特点,特别是神经系统的早期表现,以提高早期诊断率.方法 回顾性分析2011年1~12月收治的312例重型手足口病患儿的临床表现、检查结果及诊断情况.结果 67.6%的患儿为1 ~3岁.97.1%的患儿在病程1~5天发展成重症,尤以病程2~4天(77.2%)更明显.绝大部分患儿出现精神差(99.0%)、惊跳(95.8%)、激惹(94.9%)、呕吐(38.5%)、肢体抖动(30.1%)、嗜睡(10.6%)、头痛(8.3%)、惊厥(2.2%)、颈阻阳性(16.0%),巴氏征阳性(11.9%)、膝反射活跃或亢进或减弱(16.6%)、心率增快(83.3%)、血压增高(42.3%);61.2%的患儿外周血白细胞计数增高,34%的患儿血糖增高,34.6%的患儿血乳酸增高;脑脊液检查(34/40例)阳性率高,为病毒性脑炎改变;脑CT(0/21例)、脑MRI(0/11例)检查阳性率低.312例均临床治愈,无1例发展为危重型及死亡,结论 重型手足口病早期临床表现较隐匿,精神差、惊跳、激惹为神经系统最主要表现,呕吐、肢体抖动提示病情较重,头痛不是神经系统主要表现,较少出现惊厥、昏迷.持续发热、心率增快、血压增高、外周血白细胞计数增高、血糖增高、血乳酸增高为诊断重型手足口病的重要依据,神经系统体征、脑CT、脑MRI检查不能作为诊断依据.早期诊断,及时治疗,则预后良好.%Objective To analyze the clinical feature and test result of severe care children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) , especially the early performance of the nervous system for timely diagnosis. Methods 312 severe care children with HFMD in our department from Jan 2011 to December 2011 were analyzed. Results 67. 6 percent of these children with HFMD were around 1-3 year old, only very small numbers of children were more than 5 years old. 97. 1% of these children became critical patients in the course of the first five days, especially in the course of 2 to

  19. Effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on mouth to caecum transit time in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Ladas, S D; Frydas, A; Papadopoulos, A.; S. A. Raptis

    1992-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol have been successfully used to control postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. They probably work by slowing carbohydrate digestion and absorption, but their effect on mouth to caecum transit time has not been studied. The effect acarbose (100 mg), miglitol (100 mg), and placebo on mouth to caecum transit time (380 kcal breakfast with 20 g of lactulose) was investigated in 18 normal volunteers using breath hydrogen analysis. Both miglit...

  20. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.;

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  1. An Experimental Study of Human Exhalation during Breathing and Coughing in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Lia, Yuguo; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation during breathing and coughing. Experiments employing one breathing thermal manikin are conducted in a full-scale test room with a mixing ventilation system. Two artificial lungs are used to generate discontinuous airflows with specific...... flow rates and temperatures for breathing and coughing, respectively. Smoke visualizations are conducted to show the formation, movement and vanishing of the exhalation jets from nose and mouth separately. The transient velocity distribution generated by breathing and coughing in different places...

  2. Coronary artery visibility in free-breathing young children on non-gated chest CT: impact of temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridoux, Alexandre; Hutt, Antoine; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Pagniez, Julien; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [CHRU et Universite de Lille, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), 59037 Lille Cedex (France); Flohr, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare, Department of Research and Development in CT, Forchheim (Germany); Duhamel, Alain [Universite de Lille, Department of Biostatistics, Lille (France)

    2015-11-15

    Dual-source CT allows scanning of the chest with high pitch and high temporal resolution, which can improve the detection of proximal coronary arteries in infants and young children when scanned without general anesthesia, sedation or beta-blockade. To compare coronary artery visibility between higher and standard temporal resolution. We analyzed CT images in 93 children who underwent a standard chest CT angiographic examination with reconstruction of images with a temporal resolution of 75 ms (group 1) and 140 ms (group 2). The percentage of detected coronary segments was higher in group 1 than in group 2 when considering all segments (group 1: 27%; group 2: 24%; P = 0.0004) and proximal segments (group 1: 37%; group 2: 32%; P = 0.0006). In both groups, the highest rates of detection were observed for the left main coronary artery (S1) (group 1: 65%; group 2: 58%) and proximal left anterior descending coronary artery (S2) (group 1: 43%; group 2: 42%). Higher rates of detection were seen in group 1 for the left main coronary artery (P = 0.03), proximal right coronary artery (P = 0.01), proximal segments of the left coronary artery (P = 0.02) and proximal segments of the left and right coronary arteries (P = 0.0006). Higher temporal resolution improved the visibility of proximal coronary arteries in pediatric chest CT. (orig.)

  3. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  4. Improved abdominal MRI in non-breath-holding children using a radial k-space sampling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Hyuk; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Hyun Hae; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One [Seoul National University Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su Mi [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Radial k-space sampling techniques have been shown to reduce motion artifacts in adult abdominal MRI. To compare a T2-weighted radial k-space sampling MRI pulse sequence (BLADE) with standard respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) in pediatric abdominal imaging. Axial BLADE and respiratory-triggered turbo spin echo sequences were performed without fat suppression in 32 abdominal MR examinations in children. We retrospectively assessed overall image quality, the presence of respiratory, peristaltic and radial artifact, and lesion conspicuity. We evaluated signal uniformity of each sequence. BLADE showed improved overall image quality (3.35 ± 0.85 vs. 2.59 ± 0.59, P < 0.001), reduced respiratory motion artifact (0.51 ± 0.56 vs. 1.89 ± 0.68, P < 0.001), and improved lesion conspicuity (3.54 ± 0.88 vs. 2.92 ± 0.77, P = 0.006) compared to respiratory triggering turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. The bowel motion artifact scores were similar for both sequences (1.65 ± 0.77 vs. 1.79 ± 0.74, P = 0.691). BLADE introduced a radial artifact that was not observed on the respiratory triggering-TSE images (1.10 ± 0.85 vs. 0, P < 0.001). BLADE was associated with diminished signal variation compared with respiratory triggering-TSE in the liver, spleen and air (P < 0.001). The radial k-space sampling technique improved the quality and reduced respiratory motion artifacts in young children compared with conventional respiratory-triggered turbo spin-echo sequences. (orig.)

  5. Oral breathing and dental malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicari, A M; Albani, F; Ntrekou, P; Rugiano, A; Duse, M; Mattei, A; Marzo, G

    2009-06-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate existing correlations between oral breathing and dental malocclusions. The study was conducted on a paediatric group of 71 oral breathers selected at the Allergology and Paediatric Immunology Department of Umberto I General Hospital, University of Rome "La Sapienza" (Italy). The children were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Children aged 6 to 12 years with no history of craniofacial malformations or orthodontic treatment were included. The results were compared with a control group composed of 71 patient aged 6 to 12 years with nasal breathing. After their medical history was recorded, all patients underwent orthodontic/otolaryngological clinical examinations. The following diagnostic procedures were then performed: latero-lateral projection teleradiography, orthopantomogram, dental impressions, anterior rhinomanometry before and after administering a local vasoconstrictor, nocturnal home pulse oximetry (NHPO) recording, spirometry test, skin prick test, study cast evaluation and cephalometric analysis following Tweed's principles. The intraoral examination assessed: dental class type, overbite, overjet, midlines, crossbite, and presence of parafunctional oral habits such as atypical swallowing, labial incompetence, finger sucking and sucking of the inner lip. Evaluation of the study casts involved arch perimeter and transpalatal width assessment, and space analysis. The results showed a strong correlation between oral breathing and malocclusions, which manifests itself with both dentoskeletal and functional alterations, leading to a dysfunctional malocclusive pattern. According to the authors' results, dysfunctional malocclusive pattern makes it clear that the association between oral breathing and dental malocclusions represents a self-perpetuating vicious circle in which it is difficult to establish if the primary alteration is respiratory or maxillofacial. Regardless, the problem needs to be addressed and

  6. Diseases of the mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Hugh

    2014-03-01

    Oral pathologic abnormality is common and can be potentially serious. There are many diseases of the mouth that medical personnel must be able to diagnose and initiate management. The most prevalent lesions can be categorized as infectious, inflammatory, and common benign and malignant lesions. This article discusses prevalence, cause, diagnosis, and management of lesions such as stomatitis, candidiasis, caries, oral cancers, and bony tori.

  7. Mouth and dental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baat, C.; van der Waal, I.; Jackson, S.H.D.; Jansen, P.A.F.; Mangoni, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary This chapter contains sections titled: • Introduction • Periodontal disease • Dental caries • Odontogenic infections • Alveolar osteitis • Xerostomia and hyposalivation • Candidiasis • Angular cheilitis • Denture stomatitis • Burning mouth syndrome • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis • Recurrent

  8. 重症手足口病患儿并发肺水肿的胸部X线表现分析%Chest X-ray Manifestation Analysis of Severe Hand Foot Mouth Ddisease with Pulmonary Edeman in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程军林; 刘凯; 汪欢; 徐子魁

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨重症手足口病(hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)患儿并发肺水肿的胸部X线表现.资料与方法 对14例临床确诊为重症HFMD并发肺水肿患儿的胸部X线平片进行回顾性分析.结果 重症HFMD患儿并发肺水肿的胸部X线表现为双肺广泛分布的实变影,病变密度多样,可分布于肺野的内、中、外带,肺尖和/或肋膈角区域较少累及或累及程度较轻;随着病情的变化,肺水肿易反复,表现为加重与消散交替变化.结论 重症HFMD患儿并发肺水肿的胸部X线表现能够反映病情变化,对指导临床治疗及判断预后具有重要参考价值.%Objective To investigate the X-ray manifestation of severe hand foot mouth disease with pulmonary edeman in children. Materials and Methods Clinical data of 14 patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results The chest X-ray of severe hand foot mouth disease showed that there were diffuse infiltrative shadows or even patchy consolidations over both lung fields. The density of the lesion was diversify ,it could be dispersed inside ,in central or outside the lung fields, apex and costo phrenic angle was invaded rarely. As the disease progress,the edema would aggravate or disappear,and the density and the ambit of the manifest changed. Conclusion The chest X-ray manifestation of severe hand foot mouth disease with pulmonary edema in children can reflect the patient' s condition. It is very worth to guide the clinic treatment and the prognosis.

  9. 打鼾儿童睡眠中矛盾呼吸的临床意义初探%A clinical study on paradoxical breathing during sleep in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娟; 张亚梅; 刘世琳; 张杰; 安嘉清

    2010-01-01

    Objective Abnormal breathing during sleep included many patterns. In this study, we investigated paradoxical breathing patterns during sleep in children using standard polysomnography (PSG).Methods Children who come to the ENT because of snoring were included into the study consecutively.Those who had craniofacial anomalies, diabetes, chronic lung diseases, and neuromuscular diseases were excluded. At the same time -no sleep snoring children were include as controls. Thirty-eight snoring children and twenty-six no snoring children were recruited. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on all subjects.We determined the frequency of paradoxical breathing patterns during sleep through blind analysis of polysomnograms obtained in all subjects and compared the difference between children with snoring and normal controls. Results The appearance of paradoxical breathing was assessed in all subjects. Among children with snoring, the apparent amount of paradoxical breathing time and the percent of paradoxical breathing time spent in total sleep time ((-x) ± s) were (70. 1 ± 40. 4) min and 17.9% ± 11.0% respectively.Comparing with control group ( 28. 2 ± 25.7 ) min and 7. 3% ± 6. 8%, there was obvious difference ( paradoxical breathing time t = 5. 060, percent of paradoxical breathing time t = 4. 767, P < 0. 05 ). Thirtyeight snoring children were divided into normal-mild group ( eighteen children) and moderate-severe group (twenty children). The children whose PSG results were normal and mild had more paradoxical breathing time and the percent of paradoxical breathing time than moderate-severe group. The apparent amount of paradoxical breathing time of normal-mild group, moderate-severe group and control group were (85.9 ±31.7)min, ( 55.8 ± 42. 7 ) min and ( 28. 2 ± 25.7 ) min. Among the three groups, there was obvious difference ( F = 15. 897, P < 0. 05 ). The percent of paradoxical breathing time of the three groups were 22.0% ±10.2%,14.1% ±10.5% and 7. 3% ±6

  10. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  11. Effect of Herbal and Fluoride Mouth Rinses on Streptococcus mutans and Dental Caries among 12–15-Year-Old School Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy Panchmal, Ganesh; Kumar, Vijaya; Jodalli, Praveen S.; Sonde, Laxminarayan

    2017-01-01

    To assess and compare the effect of herbal and fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, a parallel group placebo controlled randomized trial was conducted among 240 schoolchildren (12–15 years old). Participants were randomly divided and allocated into Group I (0.2% fluoride group), Group II (herbal group), and Group III (placebo group). All received 10 ml of respective mouth rinses every fortnight for a period of one year. Intergroup and intragroup comparison were done for Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries. Streptococcus mutans count showed a statistically significant difference between Group I and Group III (p = 0.035) and also between Group II and Group III (p = 0.039). Glucan concentration levels showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024) between Group II and Group III at 12th month. Mean DMF scores showed no statistical difference between the three groups (p = 0.139). No difference in the level of significance was seen in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. The present study showed that both herbal and fluoride mouth rinses, when used fortnightly, were equally effective and could be recommended for use in school-based health education program to control dental caries. Trial registration number is CTRI/2015/08/006070. PMID:28352285

  12. 凝结芽孢杆菌活菌制剂在手足口病中的应用%Bacillus coagulans tablets in treatment of children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏红娟; 赵红立; 任尚申; 李晶; 吴春燕; 陈英才

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察和评价凝结芽孢杆菌活菌制剂治疗手足口病的临床疗效.方法 将64例手足口病患儿随机分为治疗组(31例)和对照组(33例),两组均给予对症支持治疗,其中治疗组同时加用凝结芽孢杆菌活菌片,≤1岁,0.70 g/次,>1岁,1.05 g/次,3次/d.对两组患儿的疱疹、食欲、体温等变化情况进行统计和分析.结果 治疗组患儿疱疹好转、消失时间,食欲和体温恢复正常时间均显著短于对照组;痊愈率、总有效率高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(P均< 0.05).结论 凝结芽孢杆菌活菌片辅助治疗手足口病疗效显著.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of bacillus coagulans tablets in treatment of children with hand-foot-mouth disease. Methods Sixty-four children with hand-foot-mouth disease were randomly divided into two groups, treatment group (n = 31) and control group (n = 33). All children received symptomatic treatment. In treatment group. Bacillus coagulans tablets was administered in doses of 0.70 g (under 1 year old) or 1.05 g (1 year old or older) three times a day. Results Compared to the control group, the healing time of herpes in treatment group was significantly reduced, the recovery time of appetite and temperature wsa also significantly shorter, and cure rate and total effective rate were significantly higher (all P < 0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that Bacillus coagulans tablets as a adjuvant theropy may have a beneficial effect in children with hand-foot-mouth disease.

  13. Foot-and-Mouth Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Foot‐and‐mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important, highly contagious disease of cloven‐hoofed animals characterised by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in, and around, the mouth. The causative agent, foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV), was the first mammalian virus...

  14. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  15. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  16. Fluoride varnish or fluoride mouth rinse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, M K; Klausen, B J; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In many Danish communities, school-based fluoride programs are offered to children with high caries risk in adjunct to tooth brushing. The purpose of this field trial was to compare the caries-preventive effectiveness of two different fluoride programs in 6-12 year olds. BASIC RESEARCH...... different schools were enrolled after informed consent and their class unit was randomly allocated to one of two fluoride programs. INTERVENTIONS: One group received a semi-annual fluoride varnish applications (FV) and the other group continued with an existing program with fluoride mouth rinses once per...... in caries development over two years among children participating in a school-based fluoride varnish or mouth rinse program....

  17. From breathing to respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitting, Jean-William

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of breathing remained an enigma for a long time. The Hippocratic school described breathing patterns but did not associate breathing with the lungs. Empedocles and Plato postulated that breathing was linked to the passage of air through pores of the skin. This was refuted by Aristotle who believed that the role of breathing was to cool the heart. In Alexandria, breakthroughs were accomplished in the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system. Later, Galen proposed an accurate description of the respiratory muscles and the mechanics of breathing. However, his heart-lung model was hampered by the traditional view of two non-communicating vascular systems - veins and arteries. After a period of stagnation in the Middle Ages, knowledge progressed with the discovery of pulmonary circulation. The comprehension of the purpose of breathing progressed by steps thanks to Boyle and Mayow among others, and culminated with the contribution of Priestley and the discovery of oxygen by Lavoisier. Only then was breathing recognized as fulfilling the purpose of respiration, or gas exchange. A century later, a controversy emerged concerning the active or passive transfer of oxygen from alveoli to the blood. August and Marie Krogh settled the dispute, showing that passive diffusion was sufficient to meet the oxygen needs.

  18. Clinical Observation on46 Cases of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease in Children Treated with Tanreqing Injection%痰热清治疗手足口病46例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉玲; 崔旭凤

    2012-01-01

      目的观察痰热清治疗儿童手足口病的临床疗效.方法将84例手足口病患儿随机分成2组.治疗组为痰热清注射液静脉滴注组,共46例;对照组为利巴韦林注射液静脉滴注组,共38例.2组均辅助水溶性维生素静脉滴注,连续治疗7d 后,观察热退、皮疹消退的时间.结果治疗组热退、皮疹消退的时间明显少于对照组;治疗组总有效率为97.83%,高于对照组86.84%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论痰热清治疗儿童手足口病效果显著,无明显不良反应,值得临床推广使用.%  Objective To study the effect of Tanreqing in the treatment of hand, foot and mouth disease in children.Methods 84 children with Hand, foot and mouth disease were randomly divided into treatment group (46 cases) and control group (38 cases). The treatment group was given Tanreqing injection, the control group was given ribavirin injection, and both groups were given vitamins injection for seven days. The time of fever and skin eruption left were observed. Results The time of fever and skin eruption left of the treatment group was obviously shorter than that of the control group. The total efficiency of treatment and control group was 97.83%and 86.84% respectively. The difference beteween the two groups was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Tanreqing injection is markedly effective in the treatment of Hand, foot and mouth disease in children. It is a safe treatment without toxic side effect.

  19. Airway Nursing of Children with Hand-foot-mouth Disease and Pulmonary Edema%手足口病合并肺水肿患儿的呼吸道护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旭女

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨机械通气治疗手足口病合并肺水肿患儿的护理方法.方法 回顾性分析并总结浙江省慈溪市人民医院收治的9例重症手足口病合并肺水肿患儿的临床资料.结果 9例患儿中,治愈出院7例,进行进一步康复治疗1例,病死1例.结论 高质量的精心护理有利于提高机械通气治疗手足口病合并肺水肿患儿的抢救成功率.%Objective To summarize the nursing experience of mechanical ventilation treatment in children with hand-foot- mouth disease (HFMD) complicated with pulmonary edema. Methods The clinical data of 9 children with HFMD complicated with severe pulmonary edema in the hospital were analyzed retrospectively. Results Of the 9 children, 7 were cured and discharged, 1 required continued rehabilitation therapy, and 1 died. Conclusion The meticulous and high quality nursing and timely implementation of mechanical ventilation can definitely improve the rescue success rate of children with HFMD complicated with pulmonary edema.

  20. Non-enhanced ECG-gated respiratory-triggered 3-D steady-state free-precession MR angiography with slab-selective inversion: initial experience in visualisation of renal arteries in free-breathing children without renal artery abnormality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klee, Dirk; Lanzman, Rotem Shlomo; Blondin, Dirk; Antoch, Gerald; Schaper, Joerg [University Duesseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Duesseldorf (Germany); Schmitt, Peter [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Oh, Jun [University Children' s Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics, Duesseldorf (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Nephrology, Hamburg (Germany); Salgin, Burak; Mayatepek, Ertan [University Children' s Hospital Duesseldorf, Department of General Pediatrics, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-07-15

    ECG-gated non-enhanced balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MR angiography requires neither breath-holding nor administration of contrast material. To investigate the image quality of free-breathing ECG-gated non-enhanced bSSFP MR angiography of renal arteries in children. Fourteen boys and seven girls (mean age, 9.7 years; range, 7 weeks-17 years) with no history of renovascular disease were included. MRI was performed at 1.5 T. Subjective image quality of axial and coronal maximum-intensity-projection reconstructions of four segments (I, aorta and renal artery ostium; II, main renal artery; III, segmental branches; IV, intrarenal vessels) was evaluated using a 4-point scale (4 = excellent, 3 = good, 2 = acceptable, 1 = non-diagnostic). Image quality was excellent for segments I (mean {+-} SD, 3.9 {+-} 0.3) and II (4.0 {+-} 0.1), good for segment III (3.4 {+-} 0.9) and acceptable for segment IV (2.3 {+-} 1.1). Mean image quality did not differ between sedated and non-sedated children. bSSFP MR angiography enables visualisation of renal arteries in children. (orig.)

  1. The air-breathing cycle of Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828)(Siluriformes: Callichthyidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Jucá-Chagas; Lilian Boccardo

    2006-01-01

    Hoplosternum littorale is a continuous air breather, which uses a portion of its intestine to extract oxygen from inspired air. Its air-breathing behavior occurs in four phases: 1) ascent to the water surface; 2) mouth emergence with expansion of the oral cavity for air inspiration; 3) downward swimming and oral cavity compression resulting in air swallowing and the expiration of old air from the anus; 4) return to bottom. The time required to complete the air-breathing cycle was significantl...

  2. Effects of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors on mouth to caecum transit time in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, S D; Frydas, A; Papadopoulos, A; Raptis, S A

    1992-09-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors acarbose and miglitol have been successfully used to control postprandial hyperglycaemia in diabetics. They probably work by slowing carbohydrate digestion and absorption, but their effect on mouth to caecum transit time has not been studied. The effect acarbose (100 mg), miglitol (100 mg), and placebo on mouth to caecum transit time (380 kcal breakfast with 20 g of lactulose) was investigated in 18 normal volunteers using breath hydrogen analysis. Both miglitol and acarbose significantly increased breath hydrogen excretion (F2,34 = 6.31, p = 0.005) and shortened the mouth to caecum transit time (F2,34 = 3.49, p = 0.04) after breakfast compared with placebo. There was a significant negative correlation between breath hydrogen excretion and mouth to caecum transit time suggesting that with shorter transit times significantly more carbohydrates were spilled into the colon. These results indicate that alpha-glucosidase inhibitors accelerate mouth to caecum transit time by inducing carbohydrate malabsorption.

  3. 鼻镜下经口动力系统与传统手术治疗儿童OSAHS的对比研究%Comparative Study of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome Breathing in Children Treated with Dynamical Cutterbar via Nasal Endoscope and Rout Curettage of Adenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷彬; 王东海

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较鼻内镜监视下经口动力系统和传统手术方式治疗儿童阻塞性呼吸睡眠暂停综合征的临床疗效及对心理行为的改善情况.方法 将370例患者随机分为传统手术组160例(A组),鼻内镜监视下经口动力系统组210例(B组),对经两种手术方法治疗的患儿术后的临床症状和心理行为异常等情况进行分析和比较.结果 A组术后平均随访14个月,B组平均随访16个月.两组手术后对患儿临床症状均有改善.B组在睡眠打鼾、鼻塞、鼻漏、听力、上课注意力不集中、多动等症状改善方面明显优于A组(P<0.05).结论 鼻内镜下经口动力系统腺样体切除及扁桃体部分切除术对儿童阻塞性呼吸睡眠暂停综合征的治疗效果明显优于传统手术方法.%Objective The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effectiveness and the improvement of the mentality and behavior of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome breathing( OSAHS )in children of dynamical system cutterbar via nasal endoscope for adenoidectomy and part of tonsillectomy ( group B 210cases ) and rout curettage of adenoids( group A 160cases ). Methods Clinical date of 370 patients who had accepted the surgery therapy in two ways,were retrospectively analyzed. To compare their clinical symptoms and the improvement of the mentality and behavior of OSAHS in children. Results The post-operation patients of two groups have significantly different in the symptomatic improvement. It showed that group B had significantly greater improvements in aspects of Sleep snoring, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea, hearing, inattention in class,and restlessness than that in group A. Conclusion Dynamical system cutterbar via nasal endoscope for adenoidectomy and part of tonsillectomy by mouth is the best way to cure OSAHS in children in present time.

  4. Minimizing Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also placed on proper use of the abdominal muscles to better control episodes of shortness of breath, ... Treatment & Programs Health Insights Doctors & Departments Research & Science Education & Training Make a Donation Make an Appointment Contact ...

  5. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth, you shouldn't have bad breath. The truth is that most people only brush their teeth ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  6. Take a Deep Breath

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Everyone involved in Beijing’s Olympic Games held their breath last week, not because of the city’s famously polluted air , but in anticipation of the results of an experiment that could help to clean it up.

  7. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... short of breath. Considerations This is a common complaint in people with some types of heart or ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  8. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shortness of breath with physical exertion beyond your customary activity such as when climbing stairs. Allergic Reactions ... 75231 Copyright © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc. All rights reserved. Print ISSN: 0009-7322. Online ISSN: 1524- ...

  9. Prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and its association with parafunctional habits among senior-secondary school children of Lucknow, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporomandibular disorders (TMD are defined as heterogeneous group of psychological disorders, commonly characterized by orofacial pain, chewing dysfunction, or both. Aim: To determine the prevalence of TMD and to describe the association between parafunctional habits and signs and symptoms of TMD among 15–17-year-old school children in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: This study followed a cross-sectional design, with a sample of 407 school children aged 15–17-year-old. A single, trained, calibrated investigator interviewed the participants according to Fonseca's Anamnestic Questionnaire-1994, which provided information on the prevalence of TMD, followed by the clinical examination of temporomandibular joint (TMJ according to WHO (1997. Chi-square test and Univariate and Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis were used. Results: The prevalence of TMD was (22.4%. There was no statistically significant association was found between age, (P = 0.81 gender (P = 0.09 and TMD. Nail-biting (88.3% was the most common habit, followed by clenching/grinding (68.4% and mouth breathing (53.4%. However, habits and TMJ symptoms were found statistically significant P < 0.01 or P < 0.001 associated to TMD. Further, adjusted (age and gender logistic regression analysis revealed that digit-sucking, mouth breathing, nail biting, and clenching has made a significant contribution to prediction (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The habits especially digit-sucking, mouth breathing, nail biting, and clenching had statistically significantly associated with TMD.

  10. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease:a report of 89 cases%重症手足口病脑脊液与脑电图89例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘华

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To observe the examination results and characteristics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and electroencephalogram (EEC,) in children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) within I to 2 days afler admission. Methods:The white blood cell count, protein, sugar and chloride in the CSF of 89 children with HFMD were monitored;at the same time, EEC, examination was canried out. Results:The CSF of severe HFMD conformed to that of viral encephalitis, and the abnormal rate was 74. 16%. There was no significant difference in the CSF cell count and biochemical examination in cases with severe HFMD and grave HFMD receiving ventilator treatment ( P > 0.05 ). The EEC, of 57 children with HFMD was abnormal. The abnormal rate of CSF was higher than that of EEC,. Conclusions:There is a high abnormal rate of CSF and EEC, in HFMD children with neurological symptoms, so early CSF and EEC, examinations are recommended.%目的:观察重症手足口病(hand,foot and mouth disease,HFMD)患儿入院1~2天内脑脊液(CSF)和脑电图(EEG)的结果和特点.方法:对89例重症HFMD患儿CSF进行白细胞计数、蛋白、糖和氯化物测定,并进行EEG检查.结果:重症HFMD患儿CSF基本符合病毒性脑炎CSF特点,异常率为74.16%.一般重症患儿与行呼吸机治疗的13例危重HFMD患儿在CSF细胞数及生化检测上差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).其中57例HFMD患儿出现EEG异常.CSF异常率高于EEG.结论:有神经系统体征的重症HFMD患儿CSF和EEG异常率较高,因此宜及早联合进行CSF和EEG检查.

  11. Effect of xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Prevention of dental caries is one of the main strategies in contemporary pediatric dental practice. Mouth rinses are widely used as an adjunct to maintain oral hygiene. It is important for these products to be effective and safe for regular use in children. Objective : The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a newly introduced xylitol, sodium fluoride and triclosan containing mouth rinse in reducing levels of plaque Streptococcus mutans and to compare it with that of a 0.12% chlorhexidine mouth rinse. Materials and Methods : Thirty children were randomly divided into two groups of 15 children each. Group I (study group was given a mouth rinse containing xylitol (5%, sodium fluoride (0.05% and triclosan (0.03% and Group II (control group was given a chlorhexidine (0.12% mouth rinse. Both mouth rinses were alcohol free. Mouth rinsing was carried out twice daily, half an hour after breakfast and half an hour following dinner, for a period of 21 days under the supervision of the investigator. Results: In both groups, there was a significant reduction in the mean S. mutans count at the end of 21 days (P < 0.001. No significant difference was observed between the two mouth rinses. Conclusion: The use of a low fluoride-xylitol based mouth rinse appears to be a suitable choice for regular use in children.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in children%儿童睡眠呼吸障碍性疾病的诊断和治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏苗赏; 李昌崇

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing has attracted wide attention from clinicians with the development of children's sleep medicine in recent years.This review will focus on the updated classification of sleep disorders in children and sleep staging,new rules for sleep respiratory events,etiological classification and epidemiological characteristics,and clinical diagnosis and treatment.%随着近年来儿童睡眠医学的快速发展,睡眠呼吸障碍已引起临床医师的广泛关注.本文将儿童睡眠障碍的最新分类和睡眠分期、睡眠呼吸事件的判读新规则、病因分类和流行病特点,以及临床诊断和治疗进展作一综述.

  13. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO/sub 2/ if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications.

  14. Impact of breathing on the thermal plume above a human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew;

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of the thermal plume above a human body should be well-defined in order to properly design the indoor environment and allow correct simulation of the indoor conditions by CFD or experimentally. The objective of the presented study was to investigate the influence of breathing....... A thermal manikin with female body shape equipped with an artificial lung was used to simulate the dry heat loss and breathing process of a sitting occupant. Three cases were examined: non-breathing, exhalation through nose, and exhalation through mouth. Measurements of the air temperature and speed...

  15. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Obeid, Andy; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D

    2013-09-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min(-1). A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min(-1), and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn.

  16. The impact of nursing intervention on clinical outcomes in children with severeheavy hand, foot and mouth disease%护理干预对重症重型手足口患儿临床转归的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒广

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨护理干预措施对重症重型手足口病患儿的临床转归的影响,为重症重型手足口病患儿护理方案的制定提供依据.方法 将2010年1月1日至2011年7月31日在我院儿科住院治疗的104例重症重型手足口病患儿随机分成观察组56例,对照组48例.观察组根据重症重型手足口患儿的临床特征制定加强护理干预措施,并实施护理干预.对照组按儿科常规护理.观察两组患儿主要症状消失时间、住院时间、并发症发生率及死亡率.结果 观察组住院时间及主要症状消失时间均显著少于对照组(P<0.01);观察组转入ICU例数显著少于对照组(P<0.01).结论 加强护理干预措施可有效促进重症重型手足口患者康复,降低严重并发症及死亡的发生率.%Objective To explore the impact of nursing intervention on clinical outcomes in children with severe heavy hand,foot and mouth disease,provide the basis for the enactment of the child care program for severe heavy hand,foot and mouth disease.Methods A total of 104 children with severe heavy hand,foot and mouth disease in our hospital pediatric hospitalization January 1,2010 to July 2011 were divided into the observation group with 56 cases,the control group with 48 cases.The observation group implemented nursing intervention.The control group adopted routine pediatric care.The major symptoms disappearance time,hospitalization time,morbidity and mortality of two groups were observed.Results Hospitalization time and the major symptoms disappearance time of the observation group were significantly less than those of the control group,P < 0.01 ; The number of patients transferred to 1CU of the observation group was significantly less than that of the control group,P < 0.01.Conclusions Strengthening nursing interventions can effectively promote the rehabilitation of patients with severe heavy hand,foot and mouth disease,reduce the incidence of serious complications and

  17. The effect of suturing medial umbilical fold purse combined with inner mouth mouth high ligation of laparoscopic on children with huge inguinal hernia%腹腔镜下脐内侧襞荷包缝合联合内环口高位结扎治疗小儿巨大腹股沟疝的效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文清

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨腹腔镜下脐内侧襞荷包缝合联合内环口高位结扎治疗小儿巨大腹股沟疝的临床效果。方法选择我院2012年2月~2014年6月收治的单侧巨大腹股沟疝患儿80例,按照随机数字法分为两组,各40例,对照组实施开放疝囊高位结扎或修补术,观察组实施腹腔镜双荷包加缝脐内侧襞内环口高位结扎术。对所有患儿随访1年,比较两组手术时间、术中出血量及总住院时间,统计两组并发症情况、术后肛门排气时间、下床时间及术后复发情况。结果观察组手术时间短于对照组(P﹤0.05),术中出血量少于对照组(P﹤0.05),总住院时间短于对照组(P﹤0.05),观察组发生术后腹膜后血肿、鞘膜积液、阴囊肿胀及皮下气肿等的总发生率显著低于对照组(P﹤0.05),观察组术后肛门排气时间、下床时间均早于对照组(P﹤0.05),术后复发率显著低于对照组(P﹤0.05)。结论腹腔镜下双荷包加缝脐内侧襞内环口高位结扎术治疗小儿巨大腹股沟疝,手术时间短,术中出血少,且能显著减少并发症,提高患者术后恢复效率,尤其适用于巨大腹股沟疝患儿。%Objective To evaluate the effect of suturing medial umbilical fold purse combined with inner mouth mouth high ligation of laparoscopic on children with huge inguinal hernia.Methods 80 cases with pediatric huge unilateral in-guinal hernia in our hospital from February 2012 to June 2014 were randomly divided into two groups according to the method of random numbers,with each group 40 cases.In the control group were implemented with open high ligation of hernia sac or neoplasty,in the observation group laparoscopic double slit pockets plus medial umbilical fold with inner mouth high ligation were used.All patients were followed for one year,then operative time,intraoperatve blood loss and total hospitalization time were compared,complications,postoperative anal exhaust

  18. Burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K A Kamala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is multifactorial in origin which is typically characterized by burning and painful sensation in an oral cavity demonstrating clinically normal mucosa. Although the cause of BMS is not known, a complex association of biological and psychological factors has been identified, suggesting the existence of a multifactorial etiology. As the symptom of oral burning is seen in various pathological conditions, it is essential for a clinician to be aware of how to differentiate between symptom of oral burning and BMS. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this study was to provide the practitioner with an understanding of the local, systemic, and psychosocial factors which may be responsible for oral burning associated with BMS, and review of treatment modalities, therefore providing a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of BMS.

  19. [Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (glossalgia) is manifested by oral pin and tingling sensations, numbness and even burning and severe pains, more frequently in the tongue. Unpleasant sensations may involve the anterior two thirds of the tongue or be extended to the front part of the hard palate and the mucous membrane of the lower lip. This condition is characterized by "mirror" and "food dominant" symptoms, disordered salivation, dysgeusia, or psychological disorders. The disease shows a chronic course. Its etiology may be multifactorial. There are no universally accepted diagnostic criteria; the diagnosis of glossalgia is made to rule out all other causes. A thorough examination should be conducted to establish a differential diagnosis. Glossalgia occurs primarily in middle-aged and elderly people. Women get sick much more frequently than men of the same age. Glossalgia remains difficult to treat. Continuous symptomatic treatment and follow-up help relieve its symptoms.

  20. Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: an experimental study in healthy children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissler, Jenny; Gudmundsson, Anders; Nicklasson, Hanna; Swietlicki, Erik; Wollmer, Per; Löndahl, Jakob

    2017-04-08

    Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood. In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition. A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.

  1. Metano no ar expirado de crianças com constipação crônica funcional Breath methane in children with chronic constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Fontenele SOARES

    2002-03-01

    with functional chronic constipation aged from 3 to 13 years were studied. Methane concentration in the expired air was determined using a gas chromatograph (Quintron, model 12i. Methane production was considered present if the breath methane concentration was equal or greater than 3 ppm. Results -Methane production was present in 44 (86,3% of 51 patients with constipation and fecal soiling versus only 7 (29,2% of 24 patients with constipation without fecal soiling. After six weeks of therapy for constipation, the number of methane producers decreased by 65,2%. None of the 10 children with normal intestinal habit produced methane. Expired air methane concentration was determined before and after a bowel movement induced by a phosphate enema in 20 patients with impacted stool. From these 20 patients, 12 were methane producers. The median (percentiles 25 and 75 between parenthesis of methane concentration decreased from 21.5 (15.0-25.5 ppm before to 11.0 (4.0-12.5 ppm after the bowel movement. Conclusion - Methane production was associated with chronic constipation with soiling and decreased when impacted stool decreased.

  2. 手足口病住院患儿合并医院感染25例临床观察%Clinical observation of nosocomial infections in 25 children with hand,foot and mouth diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田茂强; 顾琼

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical characteristics and the related factors for nosocomial infections in hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth disease. METHODS The clinical data of 512 hospitalized children with hand, foot and mouth diseases from Jan 2009 to Oct were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS Of 512 hospitalized pediatric patients investigated, nosocomial infections occurred in 25 cases with the infection rate of 4. 88% ; the main infection site was respiratory tract (44. 0%) , followed by gastrointestinal tract (20. 0%), skin (16. 0%),upper respiratory tract (12. 0%)and urinary tract (%); the main pathogens causing nosocomial infections were coagulase-negative Staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus, accounting for 81. 0% and 19. 0% , respectively; in addition to the age and the hospital stay, the causes of nosocomial infections included the lax ward isolation, lack of publicity, and weak awareness of prevention as so on. CONCLUSION The incidence rate of nosocomial infections in the hospitalized children with hand,foot and mouth diseases is so high that it is necessary to take corresponding prevention measures according to the related factors so as to reduce nosocomial infections.%目的 探讨儿科手足口病住院患儿合并医院感染的临床特征及相关因素.方法 回顾性分析2009年1月-2011年10月512例手足口病住院患儿的临床资料.结果 512例住院患儿中有25例发生医院感染,感染率为4.88%;感染部位以下呼吸道为主占44.0%,其次为消化道占20.0%,再次为皮肤、上呼吸道和尿道,分别占16.0%、12.0%和8.0%;感染的病原菌主要是凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌,分别占81.0%和19.0%;引起医院感染的原因除与年龄、住院时间有关外,还与病区隔离不严、宣传力度不够、预防意识薄弱等有关.结论 手足口病住院患儿合并医院感染发生率较高,应针对相关因素采取相应的预防措施,以降低医院感染的发生率.

  3. [Lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)--controversies in emergency medicine: lay-rescuer CPR with or without mouth-to-mouth ventilation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcke, Benno

    2013-09-01

    An analysis of literature results reveals differences concerning the need for rescue breathing in lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR). Observational studies on large registries have shown improved survival rates with standard CPR (chest compressions and rescue breathing) compared to continuous chest compressions (CCC). This applies especially for cardiac arrests of non-cardiac origin or prolonged EMS-arrival times. In contrast a public program for lay-rescuers focusing on CCC lead to improved success rates of bystander-CPR, followed by improved survival rates. The 2010 ERC guidelines have resolved this controversy by integrating both aspects. CCC is recommended for everyone. Trained bystanders should use standard-CPR as method of choice. For dispatcher-assisted CPR the results are clear. Giving instructions for mouth-to-mouth ventilation is too complicated and time consuming, thus impairing survival rates. Therefore CCC is recommended for dispatcher-assisted CPR. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Copyright © 2013 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. Background: Dysfunctional breathing/hyperventilation syndrome (DB/HVS) is a respiratory disorder, psychologically or physiologically based, involving breathing too deeply and/or too rapidly (hyperventilation) or erratic breathing interspersed with breath-holding or sighing (DB). DB/HVS can result in significant patient morbidity and an array of symptoms including breathlessness, chest tightness, dizziness, tre...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of preventing dental caries and full mouth dental reconstructions among Alaska Native children in the Yukon–Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Charisma Y.; Thomas, Timothy K.; Lenaker, Dane; Day, Gretchen M.; Hennessy, Thomas W.; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of five specific dental interventions to help guide resource allocation. Methods We developed a spreadsheet-based tool, from the healthcare payer perspective, to evaluate the cost effectiveness of specific dental interventions that are currently used among Alaska Native children (6-60 months). Interventions included: water fluoridation, dental sealants, fluoride varnish, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, and conducting initial dental exams on children children received caries treatments completed by a dental provider in the dental chair, while 161 children received FMDRs completed by a dental surgeon in an operating room. The average cost of treating dental caries in the dental chair was $1,467 (~258,000 per year); while the cost of treating FMDRs was $9,349 (~1.5 million per year). All interventions were shown to prevent caries and FMDRs; however tooth brushing prevented the greatest number of caries at minimum and maximum effectiveness with 1,433 and 1,910, respectively. Tooth brushing also prevented the greatest number of FMDRs (159 and 211) at minimum and maximum effectiveness. Conclusions All of the dental interventions evaluated were shown to produce cost savings. However, the level of that cost saving is dependent on the intervention chosen. PMID:26990678

  6. Clinical efficacy analysis of thymosin treatment for 84 children with hand-foot-and-mouth disease%胸腺肽辅助治疗手足口病患儿的临床效果评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚家骏

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨胸腺肽在小儿手足口病治疗中的临床应用价值.方法 将84例手足口病患儿随机分成2组:实验组42例,对照组42例.对照组采用常规基础+利巴韦林静脉滴注治疗;实验组在对照组的基础上给予胸腺肽α1皮下/肌肉注射治疗.观察比较两组的临床疗效、住院时间和症状体征缓解时间、血液指标检测结果.结果 实验组的总有效率高于对照组(P<0.05);实验组患儿平均住院时间、发热消退时间、手足皮疹消失时间、口腔疱疹消失时间、流涎改善时间、食欲恢复正常时间均明显短于对照组(P<0.05);实验组治疗后IgM、hs-CRP指标水平较对照组显著降低(P<0.05);实验组治疗后IgA、IgG指标水平较对照组显著升高(P<0.05).结论 临床应用胸腺肽α1注射液辅助治疗小儿手足口病效果显著.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of thymosin α1 treatment for children with hand-foot-and-mouth disease. Methods 84 hand-foot-and-mouth disease patients were randomly divided into two groups: control group( n =42 )and treatment group( n =42 ). Control group was given conventional basic treatment and ribavi-rin,on the basis of the control group therapy,treatment group was treated with thymosin α1. The clinical effects,average hospitalization days, remission time of symptoms and signs, and the results blood index test in the two groups was observed and compared. Results The total effective rate in treatment group was significantly higher than that in control group( P < 0. 05 ); the average hospitalization days, time of fever subsiding, foot and skin rash disappearing, oral herpes disappearing, salivation disappearing, and the appetite returning in the treatment group after treatment were significantly shorter than those in control group( P <0. 05 );the index value of hs-CRP, IgM in treatment group reduced more significantly than that in control group( P < 0. 05 ); the index value of IgA, Ig

  7. The Air We Breathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Dina

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include NASA mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery and aeronautics research; the role of Earth's atmosphere, atmospheric gases, layers of the Earth's atmosphere, ozone layer, air pollution, effects of air pollution on people, the Greenhouse Effect, and breathing on the International Space Station.

  8. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  9. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  10. Lactose malabsorption during gastroenteritis, assessed by the hydrogen breath test.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardiner, A J; Tarlow, M J; Sutherland, I T; Sammons, H G

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants and young children with gastroenteritis were investigated for lactose malabsorption. Each of them was given an oral lactose load of either 0.5 g/kg or 2 g/kg after which breath hydrogen excretion was measured, and each was observed to see if he had clinical symptoms of lactose intolerance. Only one patient, given 2 g/kg lactose, had clinical intolerance. His breath hydrogen excretion however was negative. Three of 18 patients given 0.5 g/kg lactose had positive breath hyd...

  11. 10-minute consultation Dry mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Taubert; Eleanor M R Davies; Ian Back

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 67 year old man presents with a six week history of dry mouth (xerostomia). He has prostate cancer, which has spread to his spine, and he takes opiates for pain relief. Recently, he started taking an antidepressant.

  12. Epiglottic movements during breathing in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amis, T C; O'Neill, N; Di Somma, E; Wheatley, J R

    1998-01-01

    Using X-ray fluoroscopy we measured antero-posterior (A–P) and cranio-caudal (C–C) displacements of the epiglottic tip (ET), corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone in seven seated, normal human subjects (age 34 ± 3 years; mean ±s.e.m.; 4 males, 3 females) breathing via a nasal mask or mouthpiece with (RL) and without (UB) a fixed resistive load.During UB, via either mouth or nose, there were no significant A-P ET movements. During RL via the nose the ET at peak expiratory flow was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm cranial to its position at peak inspiratory flow (P <0.05, ANOVA). C–C movements of the ET correlated strongly with C-C movements of the corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone.The ET, corniculate cartilage and hyoid bone (at zero airflow) were situated more caudally during oral UB than for any other condition.When present, epiglottic movements during breathing do not appear to be independent of those of the larynx and hyoid. Furthermore, epiglottic position may be related to the level of upper airway resistance. PMID:9729637

  13. Analysis of body posture in children with mild to moderate asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Juliana Fernanda Canhadas; Chaves, Thaís Cristina; de Oliveira, Anamaria Siriani; Grossi, Débora Bevilaqua

    2009-10-01

    The mechanical alterations related to the excessive use of accessory respiratory muscles and the mouth breathing observed in children with asthma may lead to the development of alterations in head posture, shoulders, thoracic region and, consequently, in alterations of body posture. The purpose of this study was to assess body posture changes of children with asthma compared to a non-asthmatic control group matched for gender, age, weight, and height. Thirty children with asthma and 30 non-asthmatic children aged 7 to 12 years were enrolled in this study. Digital photographic records were obtained for analysis of the body posture of the children by computed photogrammetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Student's t test (p postural alterations compared to non-asthmatic controls since the only angle for which there was a significant difference between groups showed weak reproducibility. The findings of this study do not support the notion that children with asthma present alterations in body posture.

  14. Extrathoracic and intrathoracic removal of O3 in tidal-breathing humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrity, T.R.; Weaver, R.A.; Berntsen, J.; House, D.E.; O' Neil, J.J.

    1988-07-01

    We measured the efficiency of O3 removal from inspired air by the extrathoracic and intrathoracic airways in 18 healthy, nonsmoking, young male volunteers. Removal efficiencies were measured as a function of O3 concentration (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 ppm), mode of breathing (nose only, mouth only, and oronasal), and respiration frequency (12 and 24 breaths/min). Subjects were placed in a controlled environmental chamber into which O3 was introduced. A small polyethylene tube was then inserted into the nose of each subject, with the tip positioned in the posterior pharynx. Samples of air were collected from the posterior pharynx through the tube and into a rapidly responding O3 analyzer yielding inspiratory and expiratory O3 concentrations in the posterior pharynx. The O3 removal efficiency of the extrathoracic airways was computed with the use of the inspiratory concentration and the chamber concentration, and intrathoracic removal efficiency was computed with the use of the inspiratory and expiratory concentrations. The mean extrathoracic removal efficiency for all measurements was 39.6 +/- 0.7% (SE), and the mean intrathoracic removal efficiency was 91.0 +/- 0.5%. Significantly less O3 was removed both extrathoracically and intrathoracically when subjects breathed at 24 breaths/min compared with 12 breaths/min (P less than 0.001). O3 concentration had no effect on extrathoracic removal efficiency, but there was a significantly greater intrathoracic removal efficiency at 0.4 ppm than at 0.1 ppm (P less than 0.05). Mode of breathing significantly affected extrathoracic removal efficiency, with less O3 removed during nasal breathing than during either mouth breathing or oronasal breathing (P less than 0.01).

  15. Bionator矫治器治疗对口呼吸儿童舌骨位置的影响%Effects of Bionator appliance on hyoid position with mouth breathing children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚霜; 刘晓君; 杨霜; 杨苹; 王文红; 徐明

    2004-01-01

    目的通过比较正畸治疗前后口呼吸儿童舌骨位置的变化,来评价Bionator矫治器对口呼吸所致安Ⅱ1错牙合患者的疗效.方法对13例替牙早期口呼吸所致安Ⅱ1错牙合患者,以Bionator矫治器治疗,用图像数字化X线头颅定位摄片仪,于治疗前、后拍摄头颅侧定位片,对其中的舌及舌骨位置在治疗前、后的变化值作对比分析,并进行统计学检验.结果舌骨至下颌平面(N-MP)、眼耳平面(N-FH)和舌骨至蝶鞍的垂直距离(H-S ver)等测量值较治疗前分别增加 3.95mm、 2.53mm、 2.21mm;而舌骨相对于第三颈椎的水平距(H-C3 hor)和相对于颏棘点的水平距均(H-RGn)较治疗前明显增加,其变化有显著性差异.结论 Bionator矫治器在改变上下颌位置关系的同时,能使知舌位置向前向上移位,有效维持了口咽部气道的通畅.

  16. Bionator矫治器对口呼吸儿童上气道周围结构的影响%Effects of Bionator appliance on vicinal structure ofupper airway in mouth breathing children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚霜; 刘晓君; 杨霜; 杨苹

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察Bionator矫治器对口呼吸儿童上气道周围结构的影响,寻求有效的治疗手段.方法 对20例替牙期伴口呼吸的安Ⅱ类1分类错合患者,以Bionator矫治器治疗,于治疗前、后拍摄头颅侧定位片,对其中的上气道周围结构的形态学变化值作对比分析,并进行统计学检验.结果 患者鼻咽部的骨性鼻咽(PNS-Ba)和软腭至软腭后咽壁距(SPP-SPPW)与治疗前比较增大了2.37mm和2.46mm.悬雍垂尖—中咽壁距(U-MPW)、舌咽部最小距离(P-T)和后气道间隙(TB-TPPW)与治疗前相比较都有明显增加,其变化有统计学意义.软腭与舌接触长度(UC-LC)、舌体长(V-T)和舌体高(TD-VT)也分别较治疗前明显增加.而软腭至腭平面角(PNS-U/PP)则较治疗前减小(P<0.05);舌骨至下颌平面(H-MP)、眼耳平面(H-FH)和蝶鞍的垂直距离(H-Sver)等测量值减少.而舌骨相对于第三颈椎的水平距(H-C3hor)明显增加,其变化有显著性差异.结论 Bionator矫治器通过下颌骨的向前移位和对舌肌的训练,能改变舌低位,并能使舌骨向前向上移位,咽部矢状径扩大,有利于口呼吸方式向鼻呼吸方式的转变.加,其变有统计学意义.软腭与舌接触长度(UC-LC)、舌体长(V-T)和舌体高(TD-VT)也分别较治疗前明显增加.而软腭至腭平面角(PNS-U/PP)则较治疗前减小(P<0.05);舌骨至下颌平面(H-MP)、眼耳平面(H-FH)和蝶鞍的垂直距离(H-Sver)等测量值减少.而舌骨相对于第三颈椎的水平距(H-C3hor)明显增加,其变化有显著性差异.结论 Bionator矫治器通过下颌骨的向前移位和对舌肌的训练,能改变舌低位,并能使舌骨向前向上移位,咽部矢状径扩大,有利于口呼吸方式向鼻呼吸方式的转变.加,其变有统计学意义.软腭与舌接触长度(UC-LC)、舌体长(V-T)和舌体高(TD-VT)也分别较治疗前明显增加.而软腭至腭平面角(PNS-U/PP)则较治疗前减

  17. Effects of Bionator appliance on sagittal dimensions in upper airway by mouth breathing children%Bionator矫治器对口呼吸儿童上气道矢状径的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚霜; 刘晓君; 杨霜; 杨苹; 徐明; 王文红

    2004-01-01

    目的:观察Bionator矫治器对口呼吸儿童上气道矢状径的影响.方法:13例替牙期口呼吸所致安Ⅱ1错牙合病例,以Bionator矫治器矫治,于治疗前、后拍摄头颅侧位定位片,对其中的上气道矢状径在治疗前、后的变化值作对比分析.结果:患者的骨性鼻咽(PNS-Ba)、Mcnamara线和软腭至软腭后咽壁距(SPP-SPPW)与治疗前比较明显增大.舌咽部最小距离(P-T)、后气道间隙(TB-TPPW)和喉咽部的V-LPW距分别比治疗前增加1.92 mm、1.67 mm和2.63 mm,其变化有统计学意义.结论:Bionator矫治器在改变上下颌位置关系的同时,能使口呼吸儿童的上气道矢状径明显增加.

  18. 手足口病二次复发的临床特点分析%Clinical Features of the First Relapse of Hand-foot-mouth Disease in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文; 张雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical features and treatment of the first relapse of hand-foot-mouth disease ( HFMD ) in children. Methods Clinical data, laboratory results and radiological findings of 50 pediatric patients with the first relapse of HFMD were retrospectively analyzed. Results All the 50 patients presented acute onset of symptoms, especially respiratory symptoms. The initial symptoms included salivation, snuffles, cough and fever. Spotted papula and/or water blisters appeared on the palm and foot bottom. Subsequently, dark gray spot papula and water blister appeared on mouth, hip, trunk and knee. Some of them showed scaling. Laboratory examinations showed increased white blood cells. The positive rate of virus was low. Chest X-ray showed thickened pulmonary markings with unclear edges. Conclusion Compared with the first onset, the first relapse of HFMD tends to be more atypical, with more complications and lower detection rate of virus. Early identification and diagnosis are the key sfor the successful treatment of HFMD.%目的 探讨手足口病二次复发的临床特点及诊治体会.方法 回顾性分析资料完整的50例手足口病患儿二次复发的临床表现、实验室检查及影像学资料.结果 50例患儿均急性起病,均有呼吸道感染症状.首发症状为流涎、流涕、咳嗽、低热,手掌及足底部皮肤出现散在斑丘疹,部分为小水疱.继而口腔、臀部、躯干部及膝部出现数个至数十个斑丘疹及水疱,色泽灰暗,部分脱屑.实验室检查:以白细胞计数升高为主.病毒阳性率低.X线胸片显示肺纹理增粗,边缘欠清.结论 与第一次发病相比,手足口病患儿二次复发时临床表现不典型,并发症多,病毒检出率低;早期识别和早期诊断是治疗关键.

  19. 2011年度慈溪市儿童手足口病病原学特征分析%Etiological diagnosis and analysis of children hand-foot-mouth disease in Cixi in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑迪; 吴建根; 罗莹; 王四全

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究2011年慈溪市儿童手足口病(hand-foot-mouth disease,HFMD)病原学特征,了解本地区HFMD流行趋势. [方法]收集监测哨点医院上送的临床诊断为HFMD病例标本,应用实时荧光(Real-time) RT-PCR 法检测标本中的人肠道病毒(HEV)、肠道病毒71型(EV71)和柯萨奇病毒A组16型(CVA16)特异性核酸. [结果]289例标本中检出总肠道病毒阳性病例260例(89.97%),其中EV71占总阳性率的58.46%,CVA16占总阳性率的22.31%,肠道其他型19.23%;病例年龄集中在1~5岁;男女性阳性比例为1.49∶1;住院病例EV71阳性率为68.97%.[结论]EV71和CVA16为本地手足口病的主要病原体,EV71是引起重症和住院病例的优势毒株型,在局部区域内CVA16型占主导.%[Objective] To study the pathogenic characterization of the hand-foot-mouth diseases (HFMD) in Cixi in 2011,and to understood the HFMD epidemic trend. [Method] Sentinel hospital surveillance for clinical diagnosis of HFMD case specimens were collected. Real-time fluorescence (Real-time) RT-PCR assay was used to detect human enteric viruses (HEV) ,enterovirus 71 (EV71)and Coxsackie virus group A type 16 (CVA16) of specific nucleic acid. [Results] Positive rate of total intestinal virus specimen was 89. 97% in 289 cases; Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackie A16 were 58. 46% and 22. 31% respectively,other type accounted for 19. 23%. High positive rate was found in 1~5 years old and male children patients; EV71 positive rate of hospitalized cases was 68. 97%. [Conclusion] EV71 and CVA16 are the major pathogens of HFMD in Cixi,EV71 infection is much likely to cause severe cases and inpatients,in some area CVA16 is the dominant species.

  20. Prevalence of oral habits in homeless children under care of Yayasan Bahtera Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gildasya Gildasya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral habits, comprising of thumb and lip sucking, lip and nail biting, tongue thrusting and mouth breathing are commonly caused by disturbance in mental development. These persistent habits may lead to disturbance in physical growth, causing disorders such as malocclusion. Homeless children are prone to this condition. The purpose of this descriptive research was to present the prevalence of oral habits in homeless children under care of Yayasan Bahtera Bandung, by survey technique. The sample consisted of 92 children collected by purposive sampling. This research was conducted through interviews and clinical examnations of the oral cavity to elucidate signs of oral habits. The result showed 50% of homeless children performed oral habits, consisting of 26 boys (55,32% and 20 girls (44.44%. The prevalence of thumb sucking habit was 21.74%, lip sucking or biting was 17.37%, tongue thrusting was 4,35%, nail biting and mouth breathing tied at 3,26%. The research concluded that a part of homeless children had oral habits, with boys as slight majority, and thumb sucking was the most performed.

  1. Oral habits in school going children of Delhi: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, O P; Sidhu, S S; Sundaram, K; Shukla, D K

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted on 5554 children aged 5-13 years old with the objectives of recording the prevalence of oral habits among North Indian children according to sex. These children were selected from the schools of Delhi. The sample represented the entire school-going population of Delhi in the age group of 5-13 years. Statistical analysis was carried out using BMDP software and sex differences were calculated by using Fisher's exact test. The results showed that the prevalence of oral habits in Delhi school going children was 25.5%. Tongue thrust was the commonest habit (18.1%) followed by mouth breathing (6.6%). Thumb sucking was relatively less common habit and seen in only 0.7% of children. There were no significant differences between boys and girls for the prevalence of oral habits. However, for the specific habit types there was a sex difference. Thumb sucking was more common in girls (1.0%) when compared with boys (0.4%) and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.001). There was a reverse trend for the mouth breathing, which was more common (P < 0.001) in boys (7.8%) than girls (5.3%). There were no differences for tongue thrust habit between boys (17.5%) and girls (18.6%).

  2. Comparison of soft-tissue, dental, and skeletal characteristics in children with and without tongue thrusting habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma B Dixit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tongue thrusting habit is a condition in which the tongue makes contact with any teeth anterior to the molars during swallowing. Abnormal positioning of tongue may result in dental and skeletal abnormalities. Objective: The aim of the present study was to study and compare soft-tissue, dental, and skeletal morphologic characteristics in children with and without tongue thrusting habit. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 children with tongue thrusting habit and 21 children without any habit between age 10 and 14 years were selected for the study. Various soft-issue, dental and cephalometric parameters were measured and compared statistically. Results: Significantly, higher number of children with tongue thrusting showed lip incompetency (86% vs. 14%, mouth-breathing habit (38% vs. none, hyperactive mentalis muscle activity (24% vs. none, Open-bite (52% vs. none and lisping (86% vs. none when compared to children without tongue thrust. Children with tongue thrust showed increased upper lip thickness and proclination of maxillary incisors No differences were found in angulation of mandibular incisors, inter-premolar or inter-molar widths and all the skeletal parameters studied. Conclusions: Tongue thrust seemed to affect some of the soft-tissue and dental characteristics causing lip incompetency, mouth-breathing habit, and hyperactive mentalis muscle activity, lisping, open-bite, and proclination of maxillary incisors; however, no significant skeletal changes were observed.

  3. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  4. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  5. Breath Figures Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guadarrama-Cetina, J.; González-Viñas, W

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental observations of Breath Figures (BF) which are formed by the dew of water when it condenses on a cold surface. The experiments were done in specific conditions and configurations of temperature, surfaces and mixes in controlled concentration of miscibles and immiscibles substances like the salt saturated solution, alcohol and silicon oil (C_6H_18O_2Si). The hydrophobic surfaces used on those observations are thin glasses coated with ITO (Indium Tin Oxide), 3M ECG-1700 w...

  6. Two models of high frequency chest compression therapy: interaction of jacket pressure and mouth airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Wan; Lee, Jongwon; Warwick, Warren J

    2007-01-01

    High frequency chest compression (HFCC) therapy assists clearing the secretions in the lung. This paper presents two mathematical models: 1) HFCC jacket function model (JFM) and 2) respiratory function model (RFM). JFM predicts the variation of the jacket pressure (Pj) from the respiratory pattern of mouth airflow (Fm). RFM predicts the HFCC induced mouth airflow (Fm) from the HFCC pulse pressures at the jacket (Pj). Fm and Pj were measured from a healthy subject during HFCC therapy. JFM, which was implemented with 2nd order system using prediction error method, shows the existence of breathing pattern at Pj. RFM, which was implemented with amplitude modulation technique, shows how the HFCC pulses affects to the Fm. JFM calculations match 78% of the measured respiratory pattern of Pj>. RFM calculations match 90% of measured HFCC induced Fm. These models can be used to test new breathing patterns before designing studies on patients having chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.

  7. 柠檬提取物漱口液在儿童牙菌斑中的应用效果%Effect of Lemon peel Extract Mouth Rinses in Children's Dental plaques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姬长兰; 张向宇; 王玉芝; 余志芬; 汪大照

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the effect of lemon peel extract mouth rinses on children's dental plaques. Methods A total of 120 children with dental caries aged 5-8 years who visited Tianjin Children's Hospital from March 2011 to March 2013 were divided randomly into groups A,B,C,40 in each. Group A were given lemon peel extract mouth rinse,group B given compound chlorhexidine acetate mouthwash,group C given pure water. Dental plaque index( PI)and adverse reactions re-lated to the treatments were recorded before treatment and in weeks 1,2,3 after treatment. Results There was significant difference in PI among 3 groups before treatment and in weeks 1,2,3 after treatment(Ftime =21. 670,Fgroup =3. 430,Ftotal =7. 329;Ptime =0. 001,Pgroup =0. 036,Ptotal =0. 001),there was significant difference in groups A,B and group C,but no difference between group A and B. PI decreased in groups A,B after treatment,reduced at first and then increased gradually in group C in week 1 after treatment. There was no difference in incidence of adverse reaction among 3 groups(2/40 in group A, 3/40 in group B,0/40 in group C;χ2 =2. 922,P=0. 232). Conclusion Lemon peel extract mouth rinse and compound chlorhexidine acetate mouthwash effect well on child dental plaques with good safety.%目的:探讨柠檬提取物漱口液在儿童牙菌斑中的应用效果。方法选取2011年3月-2013年3月在天津市儿童医院口腔科门诊和病房就诊的龋齿病患儿120例,按照随机数字表法分为A、B、C 3组,每组40例。A组给予柠檬提取物漱口液漱口,B组给予复方醋酸氯己定漱口水漱口,C组给予康师傅纯净水漱口。记录3组患儿治疗前及治疗后1、2、3周时牙菌斑指数( PI)及治疗相关不良反应。结果3组患儿治疗前及治疗后1、2、3周时PI比较,差异有统计学意义(F时间=21.670,F组间=3.430,F交互=7.329;P时间=0.001,P组间=0.036,P交互=0.001),其中治疗后1、2、3周时A、B组PI均

  8. Prevalência de sintomas de distúrbios respiratórios do sono em escolares brasileiros The prevalence of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing in Brazilian schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carine Petry

    2008-04-01

    questionnaires were completed. The parents of 27.6% of the children reported habitual snoring, while 0.8% reported apnea, 15.5% described daytime mouth breathing and 7.8% complained of excessive daytime sleepiness. Children with excessive daytime sleepiness were at greater risk of habitual snoring (OR = 2.7; 95%CI 1.4-5.4, apnea (OR = 9.9; 95%CI 1.2-51, mouth breathing (OR = 13.1; 95%CI 6.2-27.4 and learning difficulties (OR = 9.9; 95%CI 1.9-51.0. Rhinitis, maternal smoking and positive allergy skin test results were significantly associated with habitual snoring and daytime mouth breathing. CONCLUSIONS: There is an elevated prevalence of symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing among children from 9 to 14 in the city of Uruguaiana. The prevalence of habitual snoring was almost twice that described in this age group in other populations. Children with excessive daytime sleepiness appear to have almost 10 times the risk of learning difficulties.

  9. FeNO measured at fixed exhalation flow rate during controlled tidal breathing in children from the age of 2 yr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, F; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    it with NO in mixed exhaled air collected in a bag (FeNO [mixed]). Sixty-seven children were studied: 16 school children and 51 children aged 2-5 yr; 14 of the young children were healthy, 22 had asthma treated with regular inhaled budesonide, and 15 had mild episodic wheeze treated with inhaled terbutaline...... as necessary. FeNO (controlled) showed good agreement with FeNO(SBOL) (factor difference 0.7-1.4), whereas FeNO(mixed) showed poor agreement with FeNO(SBOL) (factor difference 0.51-5.37). FeNO(controlled) (mean [95% confidence interval]) was 6 ppb (4-8 ppb) in young children with asthma, 5 ppb (3-7 ppb......) in young children with mild episodic wheeze, and 3 ppb (2-4 ppb) in healthy control subjects (asthma versus control subjects: p = 0.006; episodic wheeze versus control subjects: p = 0.057). FeNO(controlled) increased from 4 ppb (2-7 ppb) to 13 ppb (10-18 ppb) (p

  10. Effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children: An ultrasonographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das U

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the functions of the facial muscle can establish changes in facial skeleton and in the development of occlusion. The effect of mouth breathing on the facial morphology is probably greatest during the growth period. Removal of nasal obstruction, adenoids, and tonsils have not given beneficial results in the reversion of the habit unless intercepted with various muscle exercises. Hence, this study was conducted to ultrasonographically evaluate the effectiveness of circumoral muscle exercises in the developing dentofacial morphology in adenotonsillectomized children.

  11. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and it contains enzymes that aid in the digestion of carbohydrates. Once food has been converted into a soft, moist mass, it's pushed into the throat (or pharynx) at the back of the mouth and is swallowed. When we swallow, the soft ...

  12. Análise quantitativa do palato duro em diferentes tipologias faciais de respiradores nasais e orais Quantitative analysis of the hard palate in different facial typologies in nasal and mouth breathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cristina Berwig

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: comparar as dimensões do palato duro em diferentes tipologias faciais de crianças respiradoras nasais e orais. MÉTODO: a amostra foi constituída por 54 crianças, na faixa etária entre sete e 11 anos, distribuídas em grupos conforme o tipo facial e o modo respiratório. O tipo facial foi obtido por meio da análise cefalométrica de Ricketts, e o modo respiratório foi determinado a partir da avaliação fonoaudiológica e do diagnóstico otorrinolaringológico. Para realização de medidas transversais, verticais e do comprimento anteroposterior do palato duro, foram obtidos modelos em gesso do arco dental maxilar. Para comparação das dimensões do palato duro entre os grupos, foram utilizados testes paramétricos e não paramétricos, ao nível de significância de 5%. RESULTADOS: não foi verificada diferença estatisticamente significante nas medidas do palato duro entre as crianças braquifaciais, mesofaciais e dolicofaciais. Verificou-se diferença estatisticamente significante na distância entre os segundos pré-molares nos diferentes tipos faciais das crianças respiradoras nasais e orais, sendo que esta diferença não foi detectada nas comparações múltiplas. CONCLUSÃO: as dimensões do palato duro não diferiram quando analisadas em diferentes tipos faciais independente do modo respiratório. Porém, evidenciou-se diferença na distância entre os segundos pré-molares quando o tipo facial foi analisado nos respiradores nasais e orais.PURPOSE: to compare the hard palate dimensions in nasal and mouth breathing children of different facial typologies. METHOD: the sample comprised 54 children between seven and 11 year old, divided in two groups according to the facial type and breathing mode. The facial type was obtained through the Ricketts cephalometric analysis, and the breathing mode was determined from speech-language evaluation and otorhynolaryngologic diagnosis. In order to measure the transverse, vertical

  13. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  14. The air-breathing cycle of Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828(Siluriformes: Callichthyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jucá-Chagas

    Full Text Available Hoplosternum littorale is a continuous air breather, which uses a portion of its intestine to extract oxygen from inspired air. Its air-breathing behavior occurs in four phases: 1 ascent to the water surface; 2 mouth emergence with expansion of the oral cavity for air inspiration; 3 downward swimming and oral cavity compression resulting in air swallowing and the expiration of old air from the anus; 4 return to bottom. The time required to complete the air-breathing cycle was significantly shorter for small fish compared to large fish.

  15. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile in a Room with three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Ines; Nielsen, Peter V.; de Adana, Manuel Ruiz

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where...... the exhalation airflow was analyzed. In order to simulate the gaseous exhaled substances in human breathing, N2O was used as a tracer gas. The concentration of N2O and the velocity of the exhaled flow were measured in the center line of the exhalation flow. The velocity decay of the exhalation flow versus...

  16. 42 CFR 84.81 - Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.81 Compressed breathing gas and liquefied breathing gas containers; minimum requirements. (a) Compressed breathing gas...

  17. Association of asthma with serum IgE and skin test reactivity to allergens among children living at high altitude. Tickling the dragon's breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporik, R; Ingram, J M; Price, W; Sussman, J H; Honsinger, R W; Platts-Mills, T A

    1995-05-01

    Asthma in children and young adults is strongly associated with immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, notably those derived from the house dust mite. In addition, outdoor air pollution is considered to aggravate existing asthma. We investigated the prevalence of asthma and the pattern of allergen sensitization in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution. A total of 567 children aged between 12 and 14 attending Los Alamos Middle School, NM (altitude 7,200 feet) were screened using a respiratory questionnaire; 120 children (53 control children) underwent allergen skin testing and serum IgE measurement, and their bronchial reactivity to histamine was measured. Dust was collected from 111 homes and the level of indoor mite and cat allergen measured. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high (13%), and from the detailed testing it was estimated that 6.3% of the children had asthma (defined as symptomatic bronchial reactivity). Children with asthma had elevated IgE, 367 (179 to 755) versus 38 (23 to 61), and predominant sensitization to cat, 68 versus 20% (p < 0.001). A high number of households (77%) had a pet cat or dog. The concentration of mite allergen was very low (mean 0.18 micrograms Der p milligrams sieved house dust), whereas that of cat allergen was high in homes with a cat (80.8 micrograms Fel d milligrams) but also in homes with no cat (3.2 micrograms Fel d milligrams). The results show that in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution, asthma was still a major cause of morbidity among schoolchildren.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Assisted breathing preterm children associated pneumonia clinical features and risk factors%回顾性分析早产儿辅助呼吸相关性肺炎的临床特点及危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李好兰; 宋兆东; 孙艳红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of preterm children after ventilator-assisted breathing cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) clinical features and risk factors.Methods Application of our hospital ventilator-assisted breathing lead to premature children after clinical data were retrospectively analyzed VAP,the risk factors in mechanically ventilated patients with VAP groups were compared,for better screening independence multivariate factors Logistic regression analysis,summarized the clinical features lead to preterm children and the risk factors for VAP.Results Compared with patients without VAP,VAP children with lower gestational age,low birth weight,longer duration of mechanical ventilation,longer indwelling stomach tube,endotracheal intubation more frequently,the differences were statistically significant (x2 =6.93,all P <0.05).Logistic regression analysis indicated that the heavier birth weight,the lower the incidence of VAP,duration of mechanical ventilation longer intubation more times higher incidence of VAP group (x2 =8.49,all P <0.05).Conclusions Gestational age,birth weight,duration of mechanical ventilation,indwelling stomach tube time,the number of endotracheal intubation is a risk factor for VAP in premature children.%目的 探讨早产儿应用呼吸机辅助呼吸后导致呼吸机相关性肺炎(VAP)的临床特点及危险因素.方法 对我院收治的应用呼吸机辅助呼吸后导致VAP的早产儿临床资料进行回顾性分析,对两组机械通气患者发生VAP的危险因素进行比较,对筛选出独立性较好的因素进行多因素逐步Logistic回归分析,总结导致早产儿VAP的临床特点及危险因素.结果 与无VAP患儿比较,VAP患儿胎龄较低、出生体质量较低、机械通气时间较长、留置胃管时间较长、气管插管次数较多,差异均有统计学意义(x2 =6.93,P值均<0.05).Logistic回归分析示,出生体质量越重,VAP发生率越低,机械通气时间越

  19. 手足口病患儿肠道菌群结构特征的分析%Construction characteristics of gut microbiota in children with hand-foot-mouth disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓康; 马超锋; 余鹏博; 陈海龙; 尹佳锋; 杜毛绳; 武海滨; 邓慧玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of gut microbiota in children with hand-foot-mouth disease ( HFMD) and investigate the correlation between gut microbiota and the disease.Methods Bacterial DNAs were extracted from the faecal samples of 32 patient children with HFMD and 14 healthy children, and PCR amplification was performed at 16SrDNA-V.Finger printing and sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ( DGGE) were used to analyze the composition, diversity and similarity of gut microbiota in patients with HFMD.Results Compared to healthy children, the number of DGGE bands and the Shannon-Wiener index of patients with HFMD were both significantly declined (t value was 3.92 and 3.24, respectively, both P<0.05), and the diversity of gut microbiota decreased. Comparison of the similarity coefficient and the accumulative distribution curves of dice similarity coefficient of both groups indicated that the similarity in HFMD group was declining (Z=-9.12,P<0.05), and the construction of gut microbiota was different.The results of splitting predominant gel bands and sequencing also revealed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes were mainly represented in patients with HFMD, and that the dominant bacterial genera might change.Conclusion The composition and construction of gut microbiota in patients with HFMD have changed, which suggests that the occurrence of the disease has the correlation with gut microbiota.%目的 探索手足口病患儿肠道菌群结构特征,了解肠道菌群与疾病的相关性. 方法 收集手足口病住院患儿32例和健康儿童14例粪便样本,提取肠道菌群总脱氧核糖核酸( DNA) ,16SrDNA-V3区聚合酶链反应( PCR)扩增,利用变性梯度凝胶电泳( DGGE)分子指纹图谱和测序技术,分析手足口病患儿肠道菌群组成结构、多样性、相似性等生态学特征. 结果 手足口病患儿与健康儿童相比,DGGE指纹图谱的条带数和Shannon-Wiener指数均显著降低(t=3.92,P

  20. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  1. 合肥市农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病危险因素调查%Survey on risk factors for hand foot and mouth disease of rural children under five years old in Hefei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 王茜; 朱鹏; 张秀军

    2011-01-01

    Objective To identify the primary risk factors of hand foot and mouth disease of children under five years old in Hefei rural area. Methods Information about the general characteristics, family environment and life style of 83 cases and 83 controls was obtained through telephone interview. Results The positive rate of EV71 and CoxA16 in 83 children with hand foot and mouth disease was 40.3 % and 37.7 %, respectively multiple Logistic regression model showed that scattered inhabiting children, lower education of guardian, skin eruption, history of contact with patients, no habit of washing hands before meals or after using the restroom, faces piling up around house environment were the main risk factors of hand foot and mouth disease of rural children under five years old. Conclusions Poor living environment and bad living habits were main risk factors for hand foot and mouth disease of rural children under five years old.%目的 了解农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病的主要危险因素.方法 采用电话访谈形式,对83名手足口病患儿和83名对照儿童的家长进行儿童一般情况、家庭环境及生活习惯的问卷调查.结果 83名病例中,EV71和CoxA16的阳性率分别为40.3%和37.7%.多因素Logistic回归模型显示,散居儿童、监护人教育程度低、发病前出现过皮疹、有手足口病接触史、没有饭前便后洗手习惯、居住环境有人粪堆积6个因素是农村地区5岁以下儿童患手足口病的主要危险因素.结论 居住环境差和生活习惯不良是农村地区5岁以下儿童手足口病的主要危险因素.

  2. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses.

  3. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  4. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  5. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  6. Efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini P

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Probiotic technology represents a breakthrough approach to maintaining oral health by utilizing natural beneficial bacteria commonly found in healthy mouths to provide a natural defense against those bacteria thought to be harmful to teeth and gums. However, data are still sparse on the probiotic action in the oral cavity. The review article on probiotics in children published by Twetman and Stecksen- Blicks in 2008 showed only one study of dental interest on probiotics in children. Aim and Objectives: The present study evaluated clinically the efficacy of a probiotic and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingival accumulation in children. The trial design is a double-blind parallel group, 14 days comparative study between a probiotic mouth rinse and a chlorhexidine mouth rinse, which included 45 healthy children in the age group of 6-8 years. Results: The Probiotic and Chlorhexidine groups had less plaque accumulations compared with the Control group at the end of 14 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively. But, unlike the plaque score, there was a significant difference in the Gingival Index between the Probiotic and the Chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.009, Probiotic group being better than the Chlorhexidine group (mean = 0.2300 and 0.6805, respectively. Conclusion: The Probiotic mouth rinse was found effective in reducing plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation. Therefore, probiotic mouth rinse obviously has a potential therapeutic value and further long-term study is recommended to determine its efficacy.

  7. prevalence of sleep disorders in khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    azam Mohsenzadeh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The most important consequence of sleep disorders in children is cognitive dysfunction that leads to study, family and social disturbances. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in Khorramabad 7-12 year old elementary school children in school year 2006-2007. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 364 students were selected randomly in both sexes male and female with equal numbers. Data were collected using TUCASA questionnaire. Results: Results showed the revalence of sleep disorders as follows: mouth breathing 35/7%, sleep talking 24/7%, habitual snoring 20/3%, nightmare 19/8%, sleep teeth grinding 15/9%, secondary enuresis 8/2%, primary nocturnal enuresis 7/1%, sleep apnea 6/6%, sleep walking 6/6% and excessive daytime sleepiness 10%. Statistical tests showed that there is a significant relation between primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis and male sex, and both disorders were more in boys (p-value=0. 004. Between other disorders, and sex and age there was not significant relation. In this study between teeth grinding and snoring, sleep apnea and snoring, open mouth breathing and snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep apnea, sleep duration and time of sleep of parents, there was significant relation (p-value<0. 001. Conclusion: According to findings, mouth breathing was the most common sleep disorder in our subjects and had a significant relation with sleep snoring. So due to treating ability of nonmedical therapy in sleep disorders, it is recommended to increase parents information about necessity of medication and its effect on children cognition.

  8. Effects of ozone exposure: a comparison between oral and nasal breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynes, B.; Silverman, F.; Cole, P.; Corey, P.

    1988-09-01

    Mode of inhalation, by nose or by mouth, as a determinant of pulmonary toxicity to acute inhalant exposure has been investigated incompletely. This communication addresses whether there are significant differences in toxic pulmonary responses to acute ozone (O/sub 3/) exposure between differing modes of inhalation (nasal vs. oral breathing). Changes in the results of pulmonary function tests and symptomatology of healthy young adults were compared following both exclusive nose and exclusive mouth breathing during a 30-min exposure to approximately 0.4 ppm O/sub 3/ under conditions of moderate continuous exercise. In this single-blind, randomized, crossover study, no significant differences in either the results of pulmonary function tests or in symptomatology were found between the two modes of inhalation.

  9. Comparison of the analytical capabilities of the BAC Datamaster and Datamaster DMT forensic breath testing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinn, Michele; Adatsi, Felix; Curtis, Perry

    2011-11-01

    The State of Michigan uses the Datamaster as an evidential breath testing device. The newest version, the DMT, will replace current instruments in the field as they are retired from service. The Michigan State Police conducted comparison studies to test the analytical properties of the new instrument and to evaluate its response to conditions commonly cited in court defenses. The effects of mouth alcohol, objects in the mouth, and radiofrequency interference on paired samples from drinking subjects were assessed on the DMT. The effects of sample duration and chemical interferents were assessed on both instruments, using drinking subjects and wet-bath simulators, respectively. Our testing shows that Datamaster and DMT results are essentially identical; the DMT gave accurate readings as compared with measurements made using simulators containing standard ethanol solutions and that the DMT did not give falsely elevated breath alcohol results from any of the influences tested.

  10. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  11. Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løfgren, Bo; Adelborg, Kasper; Dalgas, Christian

    Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study.......Mouth-to-mouth ventilation reduces interruptions in chest compressions during lifeguard CPR: A randomized manikin study....

  12. Piracetam in severe breath holding spells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Matloob; Bhatti, Nasera; Shahab, Naheed

    2008-01-01

    Breath holding spells (BHS) are apparently frightening events occurring in otherwise healthy children. Generally, no medical treatment is recommended and parental reassurance is believed to be enough, however, severe BHS can be very stressful for the parents and a pharmacological agent may be desired in some of these children. In this prospective study aim was to determine the usefulness of piracetam as prophylactic treatment for severe BHS. Children were recruited from Neurology Clinic in Children's Hospital, Islamabad between January 2002 to December 2004. Diagnosis of BHS was based on characteristic history and normal physical examination. Piracetam was prescribed to those children who were diagnosed as severe BHS in a dose ranging from 50-100 mg/kg/day. Iron supplements were added if hemoglobin was less than 10 gm%. Patients were seen at 2-4 weeks interval and follow-up was continued until 3 months after the cessation of drug therapy. Fifty-two children were enrolled in the study, 34 boys and 18 girls. Ages ranged from 4 weeks to 5 years with mean age of 17 months. In 81% of children, spells disappeared completely and in 9% frequency was reduced to less than one per month and of much lesser intensity. Prophylaxis was given for 3-6 months (mean 5) duration. Piracetam is an effective prophylactic treatment for severe BHS.

  13. Mouth Problems in Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nav nav, .header-9#header-section #main-nav, #overlay-menu nav, #mobile-menu, #one-page-nav li . ... as GINGIVITIS or PERIODONTITIS, usually caused by poor DENTAL HYGIENE.Self CareTake your child to the dentist. ...

  14. 重症手足口病并心肌损伤的临床特征%Clinical Features of Severe Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease Combined with Myocardial Damage in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娇甜; 祝益民; 卢秀兰; 曾德斌

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨手足口病(HFMD)并心肌损伤患儿的临床特征及预后.方法 选择2010年4-6月在湖南省儿童医院ICU住院治疗的HFMD重症及危重症患儿为研究对象,了解HFMD患儿心肌损伤的发生率,对其临床特征和辅助检查结果进行总结分析,比较心肌酶学异常组和心肌酶学正常组神经、呼吸和循环系统表现,以及辅助检查结果的差异,明确HFMD并心肌损伤患儿的预后.结果 共369例患儿纳入分析,血清CK-MB和(或)心肌肌钙蛋白Ⅰ(cTnⅠ)升高者247例(66.9%).心肌酶学异常组(包括cTnⅠ升高组、CK-MB升高组及cTnⅠ、CK-MB均升高组)平均热程,抽搐、肢体瘫痪、意识改变和脑神经受累的发生率,心率增快或减慢、血压异常、毛细血管充盈时间(CRT) >3 s、心力衰竭、呼吸节律改变的发生率及血管活性药物的使用率,CRP及血乳酸升高发生率均显著高于心肌酶学正常组.心肌酶学异常组危重症、神经源性肺水肿和肺出血的发生率及病死率均显著高于心肌酶学正常组.结论 HFMD患儿心肌损伤的发生率高,心肌酶谱、cTnⅠ、CRP及血清乳酸水平的升高提示心肌损伤的发生;心肌酶学异常的HFMD患儿更易出现中枢神经系统受累的表现,病情更严重,预后更差.%Objective To explore the clinical features, incidence and prognosis of children with severe hand — foot - mouth disease (HFMD) combined with myocardial damage. Methods The children with severe HFMD treated in Intensive Care Unit of Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital from Apr. to Jun. in 2010,were recruited and divided into the abnormal myocardial enzyme group,with their cardiac tropo-nin-I(cTnl) elevated,MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB) elevated and cTnI,CK-MB both elevated;and the normal myocardial enzyme group. The data related to fever and clinical manifestations of nervous,respiratory and circulatory systems,and the laboratory examinations were summarized

  15. The mandible advancement may alter the coordination between breathing and the non-nutritive swallowing reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuse, T; Ayuse, T; Ishitobi, S; Yoshida, H; Nogami, T; Kurata, S; Hoshino, Y; Oi, K

    2010-05-01

    The coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing serves as a protective reflex against potentially asphyxiating material, i.e. saliva and secretions, entering the respiratory tract. Although this protective reflex is influenced by positional changes in the head and body, the effect of mandible position on this reflex is not fully understood. We examined the effect of mandible advancement associated with mouth opening on the coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing induced by continuous infusion of distilled water into the pharyngeal cavity. The combination of mandible advancement and mouth opening increased the duration of swallowing apnoea and submental electromyographic burst duration. When the mandible was advanced with the mouth open, the duration of swallowing apnoea increased significantly compared with the centric position (0.79 +/- 0.23 vs. 0.64 +/- 0.12 s, P swallowing and the timing of swallow in relation to respiratory cycle phase. We conclude that mandible re-positioning may strongly influence the coordination between nasal breathing and non-nutritive swallowing by altering respiratory parameters and by inhibiting movement of the tongue-jaw complex.

  16. Hand, Foot and Mouth disease in northeastern part of Romania in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Chiriac

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD is an acute viral infection that occurs usually among children in summer. This paper reports a high incidence of HFMD in children and adults, occurred in summer-autumn 2012 in the northeastern part of Romania. We present a few cases with some atypical clinical manifestations.

  17. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid maxillary expansion (RME is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal.

  18. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Lorusso, Paola; Caprioglio, Alberto; Magnani, Augusta; Diaféria, Giovana; Bittencourt, Lia; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones) is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique) and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal. PMID:26483933

  19. Study of the Human Breathing Flow Profile with Three Different Ventilation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of human exhalation through the mouth with three different ventilation strategies: displacement ventilation, mixing ventilation and without ventilation. Experiments were conducted with one breathing thermal manikin in a full scale test room where...... the exhalation airflow was analyzed. In order to simulate the gaseous exhaled substances in human breathing, N2O was used as a tracer gas. The concentration of N2O and the velocity of the exhaled flow were measured in the center line of the exhalation flow. The velocity decay of the exhalation flow versus...... distance was analyzed for the three ventilation strategies. The relationship between gas concentration values and distance from the manikin was also examined. The measurements showed that the exhalation flow of breathing depends to some extent on the air distribution system. Two equations could be applied...

  20. [The relationship between oral habits, oronasopharyngeal alterations, and malocclusion in preschool children in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Adauto; Fonseca, Luiza; Elias, Ana Maria; de Medeiros, Urubatan Vieira

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of malocclusion and associated variables such as deleterious habits (DH) and oronasopharyngeal alterations (OA), mouth breathing, atypical phonation, and atypical swallowing in three-year-old children in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. The sample included 291 children of both sexes enrolled in a Children's Educational Center and selected through probability sampling by conglomerates. Logistic regression indicated a high relative risk (RR) in children with altered overjet, open bite, and cross-bite to present mouth breathing (RR = 1.89; CI: 1.56-2.03), (RR = 2.46; CI: 2.00-3.02), (RR = 1.45; CI: 1.23-1.72); atypical swallowing (RR = 2.57; CI: 1.87-3.52), (RR = 3.49; CI: 2.53-4.81), (RR = 1.86; CI: 1.46-2.39); and atypical phonation (RR = 2.25; CI: 1.66-3.05), (RR = 3.18; CI: 2.38-4.25), (RR = 1.71; CI: 1.32-2.22), respectively. An association was shown between finger or pacifier sucking and altered overjet (p < 0.001), and between pacifier sucking and open bite (p < 0.001). Such results indicate that the prevalence of malocclusions is associated with DH and OA.

  1. 重症手足口病患儿血清去甲肾上腺素水平变化及其他相关因素分析%Change of Serum Norepinephrine in Children with Severe Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease and Analysis of Other Related Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 张少丹; 高艳霞; 商爱江

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨去甲肾上腺素(NE)在重症手足口病(HFMD)病理生理过程中的作用机制,寻找重症HFMD患儿病情进展的早期预警指标.方法 以304例重症HFMD患儿及19例因HFMD死亡患儿(共323例)为研究对象,所有病例分为3组:重症组、危重症组及死亡组,所有患儿入院后在其病程急性期测定血清NE水平,同时行血常规、血糖、心肌酶及病原学等常规检查.应用SPSS13.0软件对各组数据进行分析.结果 HFMD≤3岁患儿288例,占89.2%.318例(98.5%)患儿有发热症状,322例(99.7%)患儿有不同部位的皮疹,1例无皮疹者为死亡病例.3组血清NE水平均明显高于正常值,且随病情进展NE有增高趋势;随病情进展呼吸、心率逐渐增快,血压逐渐增高,3组比较差异均有统计学意义(Pa<0.01);血糖、白细胞、脑脊液蛋白、CK-MB随病情进展亦有增高趋势,死亡组明显高于其他2组(P<0.01,0.05);107例患儿实验室病原学检查阳性,其中EV71感染患儿75例(70.1%).结论 血清NE水平增高、EV71病原学阳性、脑脊液蛋白及血中CK-MB增高,均是重症HFMD病例的早期识别指标.%Objective To explore the pathophysiological mechanism of norepinephrine( NE)in order to investigate the predictors for severe hand - foot - mouth disease ( HFMD). Methods Three hundred and four cases of children who were diagnosed as HFMD and 19 cases of children who died of HFMD (all 323 cases) were selected in this study. The subjects were divided into 3 groups;severe HFMD group,critical HFMD group and death group. Venous blood samples were collected after the patients were admitted to the hospital. NE level was detected. All the data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0. Results The children less than 3 years old (including 3 years) were 288 cases and they accounted for 89.2% of the subjects,318 cases (98. 5% ) had fever symptom,322(99. 7% ) cases had rash at different sites, and 1 case in death group had no rash. NE levels

  2. Investigation of different approaches to reduce allergens in asthmatic children's homes--the Breath of Fresh Air Project, Cornwall, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Susan Ann; Richardson, George

    2011-09-01

    During 2001 to 2004, a study was conducted to assess the indoor environmental and health impact of installing allergen-reducing interventions in the homes of asthmatic children. Based on the results of a pilot study, to determine an intervention that would provide improved symptom scores and a reduction in house dust mite allergen (Der p 1), mechanical ventilation and heat recovery (MVHR) systems were installed in 16 homes. Environmental and respiratory health assessments were conducted before and after the installation of the MVHR systems. The results indicated that the installation of MVHR systems reduced Der p 1 concentrations in living room carpets and mattresses. There were significant reductions in symptom scores for breathlessness during exercise, wheezing, and coughing during the day and night. Although, there was not a parallel control group for the main study, the lack of change in the pilot study control group (who did not receive an intervention), indicated that the changes in symptom scores were in part to do with the intervention. Larger scale trials are needed to determine the efficacy of MVHR systems in homes to improve indoor air quality and reduce asthma symptoms.

  3. [Hand, foot and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriere, H; Berger, M; Billaudel, S

    1976-11-16

    Two characteristic cases encountered in young adults led the authors to present the hand foot and mouth syndrome. They report the characteristic distribution and vesicular appearance of the lesions. The course was benign. The viral origin of the disease was more or less easily confirmed by cell culture, inoculation in new born mice and demonstration of antibodies. Usually the virus was a Coxackie A 16. However in one of the authors cases, an Echo 11 was demonstrated. The apparent rareness of the disease may be explained by lack of recognition.

  4. Pediatras e os distúrbios respiratórios do sono na criança Pediatricians and sleep-disordered breathing in the child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2005-04-01

    state of São Paulo, Brazil. A survey mailed to them included questions regarding: their professional profile, knowledge about SDB in childhood, opinions and practices for diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. RESULTS: 112 anonymous completed surveys were returned (21.7%. The teaching of SDB during medical school and pediatric residency raining was considered unsatisfactory respectively by 65.2% and 34.8% of the pediatricians. Forty-nine respondents (43.8% rated their knowledge about SDB in children as regular, 39 (34.8% as good and 17 (15.2% as unsatisfactory. The most important sleep-related questions were: mouth breathing, breathing pauses, sleep amount, excessive daytime sleepiness and nocturnal wheezing. Clinical aspects regarded as the most significant for suspecting obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS were: breathing pauses, adenoid hypertrophy, mouth breathing, craniofacial anomaly and snoring. The most frequent practices for evaluation of OSAS in children were: cavum radiography with referral to an otorhinolarnygologist (25% and nocturnal pulse oximetry (14.2%. Only 11.6% of pediatricians recommended overnight polysomnography and 4.5%, nap polysomnography. The most effective practices for SDB were considered to be: adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy, parents counseling, weight loss and sleep hygiene. CONCLUSIONS: there is a gap between research on SDB in childhood and pediatric practice.

  5. Standardization of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) collection using a feedback regulated breathing pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collection of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) fluid by cooling of expired breath is a potentially valuable approach for the detection of biomarkers associated with disease or exposure to xenobiotics. EBC is generally collected using unregulated breathing patterns, perceived to el...

  6. MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni S. D.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mouth dissolving Tablets disintegrate and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva extremely fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Mouth or Fast dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric and bedridden patients and in the many elderly persons will have difficulties in taking conventional oral dosage forms because of hand tremors and dysphagia. The technologies used for manufacturing fast-dissolving tablets are freeze-drying, spray-drying, molding, sublimation, sugar-based excipients, compression, and disintegration addition. As a result of increased life expectancy, the elderly constitute a large portion of the worldwide population today. These people eventually will experience deterioration of their physiological and physical abilities.

  7. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function...

  8. Different aspects of respiration: relationships between the upper and lower respiratory tracts, and the middle ear cleft, nasal versus oral breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, S; Vande Vannet, B; Watelet, J B; Gordts, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the normal functioning of the child's upper airway: defending the lower airway by means of air conditioning, filtration, initiation of inflammatory reactions or immune responses. We investigate the hypothetical mechanisms that explain the influence of, and interrelations between, mouth breathing and obstructive sleep apnoea on craniofacial development. We advise orthodontic diagnosis and/or intervention at a young age.

  9. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...

  10. Microsoft Kinect Visual and Depth Sensors for Breathing and Heart Rate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Procházka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to a new method of using Microsoft (MS Kinect sensors for non-contact monitoring of breathing and heart rate estimation to detect possible medical and neurological disorders. Video sequences of facial features and thorax movements are recorded by MS Kinect image, depth and infrared sensors to enable their time analysis in selected regions of interest. The proposed methodology includes the use of computational methods and functional transforms for data selection, as well as their denoising, spectral analysis and visualization, in order to determine specific biomedical features. The results that were obtained verify the correspondence between the evaluation of the breathing frequency that was obtained from the image and infrared data of the mouth area and from the thorax movement that was recorded by the depth sensor. Spectral analysis of the time evolution of the mouth area video frames was also used for heart rate estimation. Results estimated from the image and infrared data of the mouth area were compared with those obtained by contact measurements by Garmin sensors (www.garmin.com. The study proves that simple image and depth sensors can be used to efficiently record biomedical multidimensional data with sufficient accuracy to detect selected biomedical features using specific methods of computational intelligence. The achieved accuracy for non-contact detection of breathing rate was 0.26% and the accuracy of heart rate estimation was 1.47% for the infrared sensor. The following results show how video frames with depth data can be used to differentiate different kinds of breathing. The proposed method enables us to obtain and analyse data for diagnostic purposes in the home environment or during physical activities, enabling efficient human–machine interaction.

  11. Microsoft Kinect Visual and Depth Sensors for Breathing and Heart Rate Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procházka, Aleš; Schätz, Martin; Vyšata, Oldřich; Vališ, Martin

    2016-06-28

    This paper is devoted to a new method of using Microsoft (MS) Kinect sensors for non-contact monitoring of breathing and heart rate estimation to detect possible medical and neurological disorders. Video sequences of facial features and thorax movements are recorded by MS Kinect image, depth and infrared sensors to enable their time analysis in selected regions of interest. The proposed methodology includes the use of computational methods and functional transforms for data selection, as well as their denoising, spectral analysis and visualization, in order to determine specific biomedical features. The results that were obtained verify the correspondence between the evaluation of the breathing frequency that was obtained from the image and infrared data of the mouth area and from the thorax movement that was recorded by the depth sensor. Spectral analysis of the time evolution of the mouth area video frames was also used for heart rate estimation. Results estimated from the image and infrared data of the mouth area were compared with those obtained by contact measurements by Garmin sensors (www.garmin.com). The study proves that simple image and depth sensors can be used to efficiently record biomedical multidimensional data with sufficient accuracy to detect selected biomedical features using specific methods of computational intelligence. The achieved accuracy for non-contact detection of breathing rate was 0.26% and the accuracy of heart rate estimation was 1.47% for the infrared sensor. The following results show how video frames with depth data can be used to differentiate different kinds of breathing. The proposed method enables us to obtain and analyse data for diagnostic purposes in the home environment or during physical activities, enabling efficient human-machine interaction.

  12. Language Abstraction in Word of Mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.C. Schellekens (Gaby)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn word of mouth, consumers talk about their experiences with products and services with other consumers. These conversations are important sources of information for consumers. While word of mouth has fascinated researchers and practitioners for many years, little attention has been pai

  13. Influence of mandibular length on mouth opening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PU; Hof, AL; Stegenga, B; De Bont, LGM

    1999-01-01

    Theoretically, mouth opening not only reflects the mobility of the temporomandibular joints (TMJs) but also the mandibular length. Clinically, the exact relationship between mouth opening, mandibular length, and mobility of TMJs is unclear. To study this relationship 91 healthy subjects, 59 women an

  14. Language Abstraction in Word of Mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.C. Schellekens (Gaby)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn word of mouth, consumers talk about their experiences with products and services with other consumers. These conversations are important sources of information for consumers. While word of mouth has fascinated researchers and practitioners for many years, little attention has been pai

  15. Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Organ or Stem Cell Transplant and Your Mouth Main Content Key Points​ ... Your Dentist Before Transplant Before an organ or stem cell transplant, have a dental checkup. Your mouth should ...

  16. Taking a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Renato Zacharias

    2012-12-01

    be paid to language revision and reference citation. Together with its authors and readers, IJHDR contributes to the development of a kind of knowledge close to the borders of science. Therefore, to establish a valid scientific background, the articles must be clearly written, and based on sound assumptions. High-visibility for articles is a fundamental aspect desired by all authors. As an open and free access journal, IJHDR meets that condition, and we are planning to make our influence and visibility even wider. Inclusion in the major databases has paramount importance in the academic milieu, however, it should be considered as a consequence, rather than a goal. In 2013, IJHDR will chair a collaborative project with several research institutions aiming to deliver information everywhere, increasing the visibility of the published articles. Thus, now it is the time to take a deep breath, relax, and prepare you for the forthcoming work! See you in 2013!

  17. Clinical Observation of Effects of Kangganliyan Spray Aerosol on Children with Hand-foot-mouth Disease%抗感利咽喷雾剂雾化吸入治疗小儿手足口病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effects of Kangganliyan Spray on children with hand-foot-mouth disease. Methods:80 cases of children with Hand-foot-mouth disease were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n=40 cases) was given intravenously ribavirin. In addition to ribavirin, the experimental group was inhaled with aerosol of Kangganliyan. The course of treatment in both groups was 5 days. The improvement of clinical symptoms and signs in two groups were observed. Results:The total effective rate of the treatment in the experiment group was 95%, which was 77.5%higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). The defervescence time, relieving time of oral herpes and appetite improved time of the experimental group were less than those of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion:Aerosol inhalation with Kangganliyan Spray can significantly improve the clinical symptoms and signs of children with hand-foot-and-mouth disease and worthy of promotion in clinic practice.%目的:观察抗感利咽喷雾剂雾化吸入治疗小儿手足口病的临床疗效。方法:80例手足口病患儿随机分成两组,对照组(n=40例)仅给予利巴韦林静脉滴注治疗;治疗组(n=40例)在此基础上加用抗感利咽喷雾剂雾化吸入治疗。两组疗程均为5天。观察和比较两组疗效和各项临床症状体征改善情况。结果:治疗组总有效率(95%)明显高于对照组(77.5%)(P<0.05);治疗组退热时间、口腔疱疹消退时间和食欲改善时间均短于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:抗感利咽喷雾剂雾化吸入治疗小儿手足口病疗效显著,可明显改善临床症状体征,值得临床推广应用。

  18. Detection of Torque Teno Virus DNA in Exhaled Breath by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawanishi,Satoshi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether exhaled breath contains Torque teno virus (TTV or not, we tested exhaled breath condensate (EBC samples by semi-nested PCR assay. We detected TTV DNA in 35% (7/20 of EBC samples collected from the mouth of one of the authors, demonstrating that TTV DNA is excreted in exhaled breath with moderate frequency. TTV DNA was detected also in oral EBC samples from 4 of 6 other authors, indicating that TTV DNA excretion in exhaled breath is not an exception but rather a common phenomenon. Furthermore, the same assay could amplify TTV DNA from room air condensate (RAC samples collected at distances of 20 and 40cm from a human face with 40 (8/20 and 35% (7/20 positive rates, respectively. TTV transmission has been reported to occur during infancy. These distances seem equivalent to that between an infant and its household members while caring for the infant. Taken together, it seems that exhaled breath is one of the possible transmission routes of TTV. We also detected TTV DNA in 25% (10/40 of RAC samples collected at a distance of more than 180cm from any human face, suggesting the risk of airborne infection with TTV in a room.

  19. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy as a risk factor of dentofacial abnormality in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Kyu; Rhee, Chae Seo; Yun, Pil-Young; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2015-11-01

    No studies for the role of adenotonsillar hypertrophy in development of dentofacial abnormalities have been performed in Asian pediatric population. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between adenotonsillar hypertrophy and dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children. The present study included consecutive children who visited a pediatric clinic for sleep-disordered breathing due to habitual mouth breathing, snoring or sleep apnea. Their palatine tonsils and adenoids were graded by oropharyngeal endoscopy and lateral cephalometry. Anterior open bite, posterior crossbite, and Angle's class malocclusions were evaluated for dentofacial abnormality. The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify age cutoffs to predict dentofacial abnormality. A total of 1,083 children were included. The presence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy was significantly correlated with the prevalence of dentofacial abnormality [adjusted odds ratio = 4.587, 95% CI (2.747-7.658)] after adjusting age, sex, body mass index, allergy, and Korean version of obstructive sleep apnea-18 score. The cutoff age associated with dentofacial abnormality was 5.5 years (sensitivity = 75.5%, specificity = 67%) in the children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy and 6.5 years (sensitivity = 70.6%, specificity = 57%) in those without adenotonsillar hypertrophy. In conclusion, adenotonsillar hypertrophy may be a risk factor for dentofacial abnormalities in Korean children and early surgical intervention could be considered with regards to dentofacial abnormality.

  20. [Onychomadesis associated with mouth, hand and foot disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Bruno; Taliercio, Vanina; Hornos, Lorena; Luna, Paula; Abad, María Eugenia; Larralde, Margarita

    2013-12-01

    Onychomadesis is the spontaneous, complete shedding of the nail from its proximal side, without pain or inflammation, following nail matrix arrest. This disorder is uncommon in children and it can occur in fingernails, toenails or both. It may be secondary to systemic disorders, Kawasaki disease, bullous dermatoses, drugs, paronychia, stress and radiotherapy. Since 2000, Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease (HFMD) has been described as a cause of onychomadesis, and has been associated with outbreaks of this condition in different regions of the world. HFMD is an infection characterized by vesicular and erosive stomatitis in combination with a vesicular eruption in palms and soles. It occurs in small children during summer and autumn months, and it is caused by coxsackie virus. We present a study that reflects the current situation of onychomadesis in Argentinian children and shows a strong association between this disorder and HFMD, suggesting that onychomadesis is a new manifestation of a previously known disease.

  1. Submarines, Spacecraft, and Exhaled Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled b...

  2. Effect of resistive load on the inspiratory work and power of breathing during exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Powell

    Full Text Available The resistive work of breathing against an external load during inspiration (WR(I was measured at the mouth, during sub-maximal exercise in healthy participants. This measure (which excludes the elastic work component allows the relationship between resistive work and power, ventilation and exercise modality to be explored. A total of 45 adult participants with healthy lung function took part in a series of exercise protocols, in which the relationship between WR(I, power of breathing, PR(I and minute ventilation, [Formula: see text] were assessed during rest, while treadmill walking or ergometer cycling, over a range of exercise intensities (up to 150 Watts and ventilation rates (up to 48 L min(-1 with applied constant resistive loads of 0.75 and 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1. Resting WR(I was 0.12 JL(-1 and PR(I was 0.9 W. At each resistive load, independent of the breathing pattern or exercise mode, the WR(I increased in a linear fashion at 20 mJ per litre of [Formula: see text], while PR(I increased exponentially. With increasing resistive load the work and power at any given [Formula: see text] increased exponentially. Calculation of the power to work ratio during loaded breathing suggests that loads above 1.5 kPa.L.sec(-1 make the work of resistive breathing become inhibitive at even a moderate [Formula: see text] (>30 L sec(-1. The relationship between work done and power generated while breathing against resistive loads is independent of the exercise mode (cycling or walking and that ventilation is limited by the work required to breathe, rather than an inability to maintain or generate power.

  3. Functional Analysis and Intervention for Breath Holding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lee; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A functional analysis of breath-holding episodes in a 7-year-old girl with severe mental retardation and Cornelia-de-Lange syndrome indicated that breath holding served an operant function, primarily to gain access to attention. Use of extinction, scheduled attention, and a picture card communication system decreased breath holding. (Author/SW)

  4. Breath-holding and its breakpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, M J

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the basic properties of breath-holding in humans and the possible causes of the breath at breakpoint. The simplest objective measure of breath-holding is its duration, but even this is highly variable. Breath-holding is a voluntary act, but normal subjects appear unable to breath-hold to unconsciousness. A powerful involuntary mechanism normally overrides voluntary breath-holding and causes the breath that defines the breakpoint. The occurrence of the breakpoint breath does not appear to be caused solely by a mechanism involving lung or chest shrinkage, partial pressures of blood gases or the carotid arterial chemoreceptors. This is despite the well-known properties of breath-hold duration being prolonged by large lung inflations, hyperoxia and hypocapnia and being shortened by the converse manoeuvres and by increased metabolic rate. Breath-holding has, however, two much less well-known but important properties. First, the central respiratory rhythm appears to continue throughout breath-holding. Humans cannot therefore stop their central respiratory rhythm voluntarily. Instead, they merely suppress expression of their central respiratory rhythm and voluntarily 'hold' the chest at a chosen volume, possibly assisted by some tonic diaphragm activity. Second, breath-hold duration is prolonged by bilateral paralysis of the phrenic or vagus nerves. Possibly the contribution to the breakpoint from stimulation of diaphragm muscle chemoreceptors is greater than has previously been considered. At present there is no simple explanation for the breakpoint that encompasses all these properties.

  5. Neural mechanisms underlying breathing complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Hess

    Full Text Available Breathing is maintained and controlled by a network of automatic neurons in the brainstem that generate respiratory rhythm and receive regulatory inputs. Breathing complexity therefore arises from respiratory central pattern generators modulated by peripheral and supra-spinal inputs. Very little is known on the brainstem neural substrates underlying breathing complexity in humans. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to decipher these mechanisms in healthy humans and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. COPD is the most frequent chronic lung disease in the general population mainly due to tobacco smoke. In patients, airflow obstruction associated with hyperinflation and respiratory muscles weakness are key factors contributing to load-capacity imbalance and hence increased respiratory drive. Unexpectedly, we found that the patients breathed with a higher level of complexity during inspiration and expiration than controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we scanned the brain of the participants to analyze the activity of two small regions involved in respiratory rhythmogenesis, the rostral ventro-lateral (VL medulla (pre-Bötzinger complex and the caudal VL pons (parafacial group. fMRI revealed in controls higher activity of the VL medulla suggesting active inspiration, while in patients higher activity of the VL pons suggesting active expiration. COPD patients reactivate the parafacial to sustain ventilation. These findings may be involved in the onset of respiratory failure when the neural network becomes overwhelmed by respiratory overload We show that central neural activity correlates with airflow complexity in healthy subjects and COPD patients, at rest and during inspiratory loading. We finally used a theoretical approach of respiratory rhythmogenesis that reproduces the kernel activity of neurons involved in the automatic breathing. The model reveals how a chaotic activity in

  6. Halitosis: could it be more than mere bad breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Giuseppina; Musciotto, Anna; Di Fede, Olga; Di Marco, Vito; Craxì, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Halitosis is a generic term used to describe unpleasant odor emanating from the mouth air and breath, independent of the source where the odor substances originate. It affects between 50 and 65% of the population, but despite its frequency, this problem is often unaccepted and declared as taboo. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes: a small, but important percentage, of oral malodor cases have an extra-oral etiology, very often falling into the category of "blood-borne halitosis". Several systemic diseases have been found to provoke malodor or to be a cofactor; bad breath may be an early sign of a serious local or systemic condition. A psychogenic halitosis also exists including the variant "pseudo-halitosis", when the oral malodor does not exist, but the patient believes he or she is suffering severely from it, and the halitophobia, when, instead, there is an exaggerated fear of having halitosis. The aims of this paper are to review both oral and extra-oral causes of halitosis, especially those related to underlying systemic diseases, and to provide the primary care clinician a helpful means for its diagnosis and management. In fact, it is important to determine quickly whether the odor comes from an oral cause or not: if so, it requires referral to a dentist; if not (extra-oral origin alone or combined), its management requires the treatment of the underlying causes. Extra-oral disorders can be the cause in up to 15% of cases.

  7. Bimaxillary expansion therapy for pediatric sleep-disordered breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quo, Stacey D; Hyunh, Nelly; Guilleminault, Christian

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of bimaxillary expansion as a treatment option for pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. Forty-five children, aged 3-14 years, with sleep-disordered breathing underwent bimaxillary expansion. They were subjected to baseline clinical evaluations, cephalometric X-rays, and polygraphic sleep studies. Three to six months after bimaxillary expansion, posttreatment sleep studies were performed. Data were analyzed with nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Spearman's correlations were performed to correlate cephalometric facial structures to the effectiveness of treatment. The majority of the children (n = 30) showed improvement in their sleep scores and symptoms after bimaxillary expansion. The initial severity of the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) indicated by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was a much better predictor of positive results. However, in the "mild OSA" group, patients with smaller MP-SN or counterclockwise mandibular growth, worsened with bimaxillary expansion, while patients with clockwise mandibular growth showed greater improvement; in the "severe OSA" group, patients who initially had shorter mandibular base lengths showed lesser AHI improvements. Bimaxillary expansion can be a treatment option for improving respiratory parameters in children with sleep-disordered breathing. This study also suggests that retrognathia in an anterior growth rotation pattern may not respond to efforts of bimaxillary expansion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The cyanide gasp and spontaneous deep breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, M; Richardson, P S

    1973-01-01

    Stimulation of the carotid body chemoreceptors with cyanide in anaesthetized rabbits usually causes a deep breath or gasp, but only if the vagus nerves are intact. This gasp has several similarities with spontaneous deep breaths in eupnoea. In paralysed rabbits, artificially ventilated, chemoreceptor stimulation induces an augmented discharge in the phrenic nerve equivalent to a gasp. In spontaneously breathing rabbits spontaneous deep breaths are more frequent with hypoxia than with normoxia. The results are interpreted in relation to (i) positive feedback from the lungs and (ii) summation of chemoreceptor and tonic vagal drive causing augmented deep breaths.

  9. 肠道病毒71型和柯萨奇病毒A组16型感染的手足口病患儿的相关特征对比研究%Comparisons of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease caused by Enterovirus 71 and Coxackievirus A16

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾蕾; 赵成松; 张莉; 李爽; 张代涛; 刘白薇; 王全意; 黎新宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences of epidemiological and clinical characteristics in children with hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) caused by Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and Enterovirus 71 ( EV71 ). Methods The samples of vesicle fluid and throat swabs of 108 children with HFMD were collected and detected for enterovirus by RTPCR. The clinical data of children with EV71 and CA16 infection were retrospectively reviewed and compared. Results The total positive rate of enterovirus was 97.2% ( 105/108 ). Of the 105 cases, 56 cases were positive for EV71 (51.9%), 39 cases were positive for CA16 (36.1% ), 2 cases were positive for other enterovirus ( 1.9% ), and 8 cases were co-infected by EV71 and CA16 (7.4%). There were no significant differences in age and sex between EV71 and CV16 infected cases. The univariate analysis showed that the incidences of herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running in children infected by CA16 were higher than in those infected by EV71. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the HFMD children who had erythra of knees had higher probability of CA16 infection. Conclusions EV71 should be considered as the pathogen in children with HFMD who have no herpes of mouth, erythra of knees, and nose running.%目的 比较由肠道病毒71型(EV71)和柯萨奇病毒A组16型(CA16)感染的手足口病(HFMD)患儿流行病学情况及临床特征的差异.方法 采集108名临床诊断HFMD患儿疱疹液和咽拭子标本,使用RT-PCR进行肠道病毒检测,对EV71和CA16感染患儿的临床资料进行回顾性分析并比较.结果 108名患儿的肠道病毒总阳性率为97.2%(105/108),其中EV71、CA16、其他肠道病毒及EV71和CA16混合感染分别占51.9%(56/108),36.1%(39/108),1.9%(2/108),7.4%(8/108).EV71感染患儿和CA16感染患儿两组间年龄、性别差异无统计学意义.单因素分析显示,CA16感染患儿口腔疱疹、膝部皮疹、流涕的发生比率高于EV71感染患儿.进一步

  10. Automatic Mouth Localization Using Edge Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rizon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presented algorithms to detect mouth from color and intensity images. Approach: First, this algorithm detected the face region in the image and extracts intensity valleys from the face region. Next, the algorithm extracted iris candidates from the valleys and computed the costs for each pair of iris candidates. Finally, a pair of iris candidates was selected as irises by using the computed costs. Projection based method had been used to detect mouth corresponding to irises location. Results: By experiment, the proposed algorithm detected 90% of full mouth region for South East Asian database and 74% for European database. Conclusion: The algorithm was considered successful to detect mouth detection under variation of pose, illumination and orientation. For future improvement, more preprocessing steps might be needed to enhance and eliminate the effect of beard, moustache and illumination.

  11. Dry Mouth: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Do about Dry Mouth? (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research) Clinical Trials ClinicalTrials.gov: Xerostomia (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  12. The impact of health education on the anxiety state of family members of children with severe hand foot and mouth disease%健康教育对手足口病重症患儿家属焦虑状态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利红; 张虹; 任莉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence health education on the anxiety state of family members of children with severe hand foot and mouth disease.Methods:110 patients with hand foot and mouth disease were selected.They were randomly assigned into two groups with 55cases in each group.The control group received conventional health education,while the observation group received health education interventions,including cognitive education,mental health education and stress response education. Results:The scores of anxiety and depression of family members of children in the observation group with intervention were significantly lower than that of the control group,the total recovery rate of children was better than that of the control group,the hospitalized time was significantly lower than that of control group.Conclusion:Health education intervention can help resolve the anxiety and depression of family members of children,and promote the rehabilitation of infants.%目的:探讨健康教育对手足口病重症患儿家属焦虑状态的影响.方法:选取手足口病患儿家属110例,采用随机数字表法分为两组,各55例,对照组给予常规健康教育,观察组给予健康教育干预,包括认知教育、心理健康教育以及应激反应教育.结果:观察组患儿家属干预后焦虑评分、抑郁评分明显低于对照组;患儿总有效率明显高于对照组;患儿住院时间明显少于对照组.结论:健康教育干预有助于化解手足口病重症患儿家属焦虑、抑郁情绪,促进患儿早日康复.

  13. [Stahl, Leibniz, Hoffmann and breathing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvallo, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    At the beginning of the XVIII th century, Wilhelm Gottfried Leibniz and Friedrich Hoffmann criticize Georg Ernst Stahl's medical theory. They differenciate between unsound and true reasonings. Namely, they validate Stahl's definition of breath but extracting it from its animist basis and placing it in an epistemology obeying to the principle of sufficient reason and to the mechanical model. The stahlian discovery consists in understanding breath as a calorific ventilation against the ancient conception; the iatromechanists recognize its accuracy, but they try then to transpose it to a mechanical model of ventilation. Using it in a different epistemological context implies that they analyze the idea of discovery "true" in its contents, but "wrong" in its hypothesis. It impels to examine the epistemology of medical knowledge, as science and therapeutics, and in its links with the other scientific theories. Thus, if Leibniz as philosopher and Hoffmann as doctor consider Stahl's animism so important, it is because its discoveries question the fundamental principles of medicine.

  14. Influence of different breathing frequencies on the severity of inspiratory muscle fatigue induced by high-intensity front crawl swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; McConnell, Alison K

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of 2 different breathing frequencies on the magnitude of inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity front crawl swimming. The influence of different breathing frequencies on postexercise blood lactate ([La]) and heart rate (HR) was also examined. Ten collegiate swimmers performed 2 x 200-m front crawl swims at 90% of race pace with the following breathing frequencies: 1) 1 breath every second stroke (B2), and 2) 1 breath every fourth stroke (B4). Maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) was measured at the mouth from residual volume before (baseline) and after swimming, in a standing position. The HR and [La] were assessed at rest and immediately at the cessation of swimming. The PImax decreased by 21% after B4 and by 11% after B2 compared with baseline (p inspiratory muscle fatigue after high-intensity swimming. Inspiratory muscle fatigue is, however, greater when breathing frequency is reduced during high-intensity front crawl swimming. Respiratory muscle training should be used to improve respiratory muscle strength and endurance in swimmers.

  15. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  16. Effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on pulmonary function in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Min-Sik; Lee, Hae-Yong; Lee, Yun-Seob

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study investigated effects of diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise on respiratory function. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one subjects were randomly assigned to two groups; the feedback breathing exercise group and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group. The feedback breathing exercise group was asked to breathe with feedback breathing device, and the maneuver-diaphragm exercise group was asked to perform diaphragm respiration. Respiratory function was evaluated when a subject sat on a chair comfortably. [Results] There was a significant difference in the functional vital capacity and slow vital capacity before and after all breathing exercises. There was a significant between-group difference in functional vital capacity. However, no between-group difference was found in slow vital capacity. [Conclusion] Diaphragm breathing exercise and feedback breathing exercise can affect respiratory function.

  17. The effect of oral habits in the oral cavity of children and its treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirina Gartika

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral habits include habit which is continuously done and has the potential to cause defects in teeth and perioral tissues. Some of the oral habits are finger/thumb sucking, lip sucking/biting, nail biting, bruxism, abnormal swallowing and mouth breathing. The etiology of oral habits includes the disharmonious relationship between parents and children, dissatisfaction in oral phase, premature weaning, emotional disturbance, anomaly, and diseases. Oral habits will influence the development of occlusion and perioral structures in children in the growing and development process. The treatment of oral habits can be done with or without appliances. The non-appliance treatment consists of psychological approach, medical approach and myofunctional therapy while the appliance treatment will include the use of orthodontic appliances.

  18. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  19. INFLUENCE OF GRAVITY NASOGASTRIC FEEDING ON RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATION FUNCTION IN THE CHILDREN WITH HAND, FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION%重力鼻饲喂养对手足口病机械通气患儿呼吸循环功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马秀玲; 戴秀华; 田庆玲; 李燕; 郭淑慧

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨重力鼻饲喂养时手足口病机械通气患儿呼吸循环功能的影响.方法 将102例手足口病机械通气患儿随机分为观察组(重力鼻饲喂养组)和对照组(间断鼻饲喂养组)各51例,分别观察从喂养至喂养操作后1min患儿的心率、呼吸频率、血氧饱和度的变化情况及患儿喂养时有无喂养不耐受、消化道出血及呼吸机相关性肺炎的发生.结果 观察组患儿心率、呼吸频率、血氧饱和度的变化幅度小,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);观察组呼吸机相关性肺炎发生率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组喂养不耐受及消化道出血发生率均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 重力鼻饲喂养有利于手足口病机械通气患儿喂养时心率、呼吸频率、血氧饱和度的稳定,患儿的喂养不耐受、消化道出血、呼吸机相关性肺炎的发生率低,有利于营养物质的吸收,机械通气并发症的发生率降低,促进患儿康复.%Objective To investigate the effects of gravity nasogastric feeding for hand,foot and mouth disease of mechanical ventilation in children with respiratory and circulation function.Methods Totally 102 cases of hand,foot and mouth disease children with mechanical ventilation were randomly divided into observation group (gravity nasogastric feeding group) and control group (intermittent nasogastric feeding group),were observed from feed to feed operation 1 minute after the patient's heart rate (HR),respiratory (R),the change of SpO2 and children have no feeding feeding intolerance,gastrointestinal bleeding and the occurrence of ventilator associated pneumonia.Results In the observation group,the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia was lower than the control group,the difference was statistically significant (P< 0.05);Feeding intolerance and the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding in the observation group were lower than the control group

  20. Experimental Study Abour How the Thermal Plume Affects the Air Quality a Person Breathes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olmedo, Inés; Nielsen, Peter V.; Ruiz de Adana, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    of this research is to increase the knowledge of how the thermal plume generated by a person affects the PME and therefore the concentration of contaminants in the inhalation area. An experimental study in a displacement ventilation room was carried out. Experiments were developed in a full scale test chamber 4.......10 m (length), 3.2 m (width), 2.7 m (height). The incoming air is distributed through a wall-mounted displacement diffuser. A breathing thermal manikin exhaling through the mouth and inhaling through the nose was used. A tracer gas, N2O, was used to simulate the gaseous substances, which might......, the concentration is significantly reduced in the case with 120 W, especially in the breathing area....

  1. Lung function measurement in awake young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint) and transcu......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint......, with suspected asthma. Measurements with each technique were repeated after each challenge step. A special face-mask was developed with an integrated mouthpiece which ensured mouth breathing during the measurements. The order of sensitivity of the techniques to assess methacholine-induced changes in lung...... to methacholine in young children aged 4-6 yrs. This implies that ZIOS, Rint and Ptc,O2 provide convenient indices of changes in lung function. Their combined use will be useful for monitoring airway diseases of young children....

  2. Physiology of the mouth and pharynx, Waldeyer's ring, taste and smell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, M; Deggoujf, N; Huart, C; Hupin, C; Laureyns, G; Lemkens, P; Rombaux, P; Ten Bosch, J van Der Werff; Gordts, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the contribution of the different parts of the oral cavity and the pharynx to the basic physiology of breathing, phonation, speech, swallowing, and of Waldeyer's ring to the functioning of the immune system. We discuss the development of taste and smell, as well as possibilities for chemosensory testing in children.

  3. 13C-labeled mixed triglyceride breath test (13C MTG-BT) in healthy children and children with cystic fibrosis (CF) under pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT): a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Denise C; Delvin, Edgard E; Albert, Caroline; Marcotte, Jacques E; Pelletier, Véronique A; Seidman, Ernest G

    2008-12-01

    The MTG-BT estimates the hydrolysis of triacyl-glycerols by pancreatic lipase, and appears attractive for monitoring exogenous lipase requirements in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. To assess the test's discrimination capacity and repeatability, 9 CF patients with PERT and 10 healthy children underwent the (13)C-MTG-BT twice, at a 2- to 4-week interval. The test distinguished well between patients with severe exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (SEPI) and healthy subjects. However, within-subject variability for postprandial per thousand(13)C-enrichment and postprandial % dose recovery (PDR) was high in both groups. Therefore, the (13)C-MTG-BT seems useful to distinguish between SEPI and normal exocrine pancreatic function, but requires further development to improve its repeatability.

  4. Word of Mouth Marketing in Mouth and Dental Health Centers towards Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Ekiyor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influencing the shopping style of others by passing on the experiences of goods purchased or services received is a way of behavior that has its roots in history. The main objective of th is research is to analyze the effects of demographic factors within the scope of word of mouth marketing on the choices of mouth and dental health services. Consumers receiving service from mouth and dental health centers of the Turkish Republic Ministry o f Health constitute the environment of the research. The research conducted in order to determine the mouth and dental health center selection of consumers within the scope of word of mouth marketing. The research has been conducted in Ankara through simpl e random sampling. The sample size has been determined as 400. In terms of word of mouth marketing which has been determined as the third hypothesis of the study, as a result of the analysis of the statistical relationship between mouth and dental health c enter preference and demographic factor groups, it has been determined that there is a meaningful difference in terms of age, level of education, level of income and some dimensions of marital status and that no meaningful difference has been found in term s of gender. It has been attempted to determine the importance of word of mouth marketing in healthcare services

  5. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya YOKOI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3 ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017. After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05. Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume.

  6. Relationship between acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air and tongue coating volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOKOI, Aya; MARUYAMA, Takayuki; YAMANAKA, Reiko; EKUNI, Daisuke; TOMOFUJI, Takaaki; KASHIWAZAKI, Haruhiko; YAMAZAKI, Yutaka; MORITA, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acetaldehyde is the first metabolite of ethanol and is produced in the epithelium by mucosal ALDH, while higher levels are derived from microbial oxidation of ethanol by oral microflora such as Candida species. However, it is uncertain whether acetaldehyde concentration in human breath is related to oral condition or local production of acetaldehyde by oral microflora. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between physiological acetaldehyde concentration and oral condition in healthy volunteers. Material and Methods Sixty-five volunteers (51 males and 14 females, aged from 20 to 87 years old) participated in the present study. Acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was measured using a portable monitor. Oral examination, detection of oral Candida species and assessment of alcohol sensitivity were performed. Results Acetaldehyde concentration [median (25%, 75%)] in mouth air was 170.7 (73.5, 306.3) ppb. Acetaldehyde concentration in participants with a tongue coating status score of 3 was significantly higher than in those with a score of 1 (p<0.017). After removing tongue coating, acetaldehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Acetaldehyde concentration was not correlated with other clinical parameters, presence of Candida species, smoking status or alcohol sensitivity. Conclusion Physiological acetaldehyde concentration in mouth air was associated with tongue coating volume. PMID:25760268

  7. 血清NT-proBNP对危重手足口病儿童病情与生存状况的评估价值%The Evaluate Value of Serum NT-proBNP in the Assessment of Disease and Living Conditions for Children with Severe Hand-foot-mouth Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢中勇; 姚丰洁; 钟文清; 卢远达

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the value of serum N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) level in children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease.Method:From June 2014 to December 2015,68 cases of critical hand-foot-mouth disease children in our hospital were selected as the research objects, they were divided into the observation group of 26 cases (NT-proBNP>550 pg/mL) and the control group of 42 cases (NT-proBNP≤550 pg/mL).The laboratory indexes,incidence of complications in two groups were compared and NT-proBNP prediction of survival in children were analyzed.Result:The incidence of complications,mortality and laboratory indexes in the observation group were higher than the control group,and the pediatric critical illness score (PCIS) was lower than the control group,the differences were statistically significant(P550 pg/mL are very easy to occur pulmonary edema,circulatory failure and other serious complications,even death.%目的:探讨危重手足口病儿童血清氨基末端脑钠肽前体(NT-proBNP)水平对患儿病情与生存状况的评估价值。方法:选取2014年6月-2015年12月本院收治的68例危重手足口病儿童作为研究对象,根据入院时患儿NT-proBNP水平分为观察组(NT-proBNP>550 pg/mL)26例和对照组(NT-proBNP≤550 pg/mL)42例。比较两组患儿实验室指标、并发症发生率及分析NT-proBNP对患儿生存的预测情况。结果:观察组各项并发症发生率、死亡率和实验室指标水平均高于对照组,小儿危重病例评分(PCIS)低于对照组,比较差异均有统计学意义(P550 pg/mL的重症手足口病患儿极易发生肺水肿、循环衰竭等严重并发症,甚至死亡。

  8. TR-BREATH: Time-Reversal Breathing Rate Estimation and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Han, Yi; Chen, Yan; Lai, Hung-Quoc; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Liu, K J Ray

    2017-04-28

    In this paper, we introduce TR-BREATH, a timereversal (TR) based contact-free breathing monitoring system. It is capable of breathing detection and multi-person breathing rate estimation within a short period of time using off-the-shelf WiFi devices. The proposed system exploits the channel state information (CSI) to capture the miniature variations in the environment caused by breathing. To magnify the CSI variations, TRBREATH projects CSIs into the TR resonating strength (TRRS) feature space and analyzes the TRRS by the Root-MUSIC and affinity propagation algorithms. Extensive experiment results indoor demonstrate a perfect detection rate of breathing. With only 10 seconds of measurement, a mean accuracy of 99% can be obtained for single-person breathing rate estimation under the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) scenario. Furthermore, it achieves a mean accuracy of 98:65% in breathing rate estimation for a dozen people under the line-of-sight (LOS) scenario and a mean accuracy of 98:07% in breathing rate estimation of 9 people under the NLOS scenario, both with 63 seconds of measurement. Moreover, TR-BREATH can estimate the number of people with an error around 1. We also demonstrate that TR-BREATH is robust against packet loss and motions. With the prevailing of WiFi, TR-BREATH can be applied for in-home and real-time breathing monitoring.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of neurogenic pulmonary edema in children with severe hand, foot and mouth disease%重症手足口病神经源性肺水肿的诊治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆国平

    2011-01-01

    Severe hand foot and mouth disease can lead to death when accompanied by neurogenic pulmonary edema. Early identifying involvement of central nervous system, focusing on the evidences of excited sympathetic nerve tension and high risks of neurogenic pulmonary edema, monitoring respiratory rate,dyspnea, cyanosis, fine and medium rales in lungs are critical to prognosis. Managing fluid loading strictly, decreasing intracranial hypertension, supporting actively respiratory function and strengthening airway management are key points for the treatment of neurogenic pulmonary edema.%重症手足口病可并发神经源性肺水肿,严重者导致死亡.应早期识别神经系统表现,密切关注交感神经亢进表现及神经源性肺水肿的高危因素,监测呼吸频率,及时发现呼吸困难、紫绀和肺部啰音等危重症前兆或表现.严格控制液体负荷、降低颅内压、抑制交感神经功能、保护心脏功能、积极呼吸支持、加强呼吸道管理是治疗神经源性肺水肿的关键.

  10. Alterações no modo respiratório, na oclusão e na fala em escolares: ocorrências e relações Alterations in breathing mode, occlusion and speech in school-age children: occurrences and relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Cristina Berwig

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a ocorrência de alterações no modo respiratório, má oclusão e distúrbio articulatório, bem como a relação entre as mesmas, em crianças de escolas públicas do município de Santa Maria/Rio Grande do Sul. MÉTODOS: 308 crianças de ambos os sexos, com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, foram submetidas às avaliações fonoaudiológica e ortodôntica, sendo selecionadas 235, de acordo com critérios de inclusão e exclusão. Das informações coletadas nas avaliações, consideraram-se o modo respiratório, a classificação da oclusão segundo Angle e as alterações oclusais vertical e transversal, bem como o distúrbio articulatório. RESULTADOS: 60,43% crianças apresentaram alterações no modo respiratório; 97,02% más oclusões de Angle; 28,94% alteração oclusal vertical e transversal e 14,89% apresentaram distúrbio articulatório. Relações significativas foram encontradas entre distúrbio articulatório e alteração oclusal vertical e transversal, modo respiratório e má oclusão de Angle e entre má oclusão de Angle e alteração oclusal vertical e transversal. CONCLUSÃO: as más oclusões e as alterações do modo respiratório foram frequentes no grupo de escolares estudados. As relações verificadas reforçam a ideia de que existe uma estreita relação entre as estruturas e funções do sistema estomatognático, razão pela qual merecem atenção de diversos profissionais da área da saúde.PURPOSE: to check the occurrence of articulation disorders, alterations in breathing mode and malocclusion as well as the relation among theses variables in public-school children. METHODS: 308 female and male children aged between 6 and 11 years were submitted to speech pathologic and orthodontic evaluations, being selected 235. From the information collected in the evaluations, we considered: breathing mode, malocclusion by Angle's classification and transverse alterations, as well as articulation disorder

  11. Evaluation of the mineralization degree of the vestibular surface of the upper central incisors with a 655-nm diode laser in mouth breathers: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Ladalardo, Thereza C. C. G.; Cappellette, Mario, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Anthero de Azevedo, Ramiro; Pignatari, Shirley; Weckx, Luc L. M.

    2003-06-01

    Mouth breathing unbalances the physiological mechanisms of the dental surface hydration by compromising lip closure, and, very often, causing the vestibular positioning of upper incisors. That variance leads to the interruption of the dental demineralization and remineralization feedback, prevailing a demineralized condition of the dental surface which increases caries risk. The laser fluorescence examination allows an early demineralization diagnosis, thus it makes possible through preventive measures to minimize the risk factor - dental mineral structure loss - in the bacterial infection of the demineralized area, and hence, preventing invasive therapeutical procedures. A DIAGNOdent apparatus was used to evaluate the mineralization degree of the upper central incisors in 40 patients - twenty of them with a mouth breathing diagnosis; the remaining twenty were nasal breathers (control group). Age ranging from 6 to 12 years, both male and female. To measure the vestibular surface of the incisors, it was divided into 3 segments: cervical, medial and incisal. The average of the results pertaining to the mouth breathing patients was as follows: tooth 11 cervical third - 5.45, medial third - 7.15, incisal third - 7.95, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 5.95, medial third - 7.25, incisal third - 8.15. The control patients, nasal breathers, presented the following results: tooth 11 cervical third - 1.75, medial third - 2.30, incisal third - 1.85, and tooth 21 - cervical third - 1.80, medial third - 2.20, incisal third - 2.15. The mouth breathing patients showed demineralization in the teeth examined at the initial stage, subclinical, comparing with the control patients, nasal breathers, who did not present any mineral deficit in these teeth.

  12. [Breath-analysis tests in gastroenetrological diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspary, W F

    1975-12-01

    The introduction of a simple method for analysis of 14CO2 in breath allowed a more widely application of breath-tests in the diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases. During a breath-test a 14C-labelled compound is administered orally and 14CO2 is subsequently measured in breath by discontinuous samplings of 14CO2 by virtue of a trapping solution (hyamine hydroxide). Most helpful tests in gastroenterology are the 14C-glycyl-cholate breath test for detecting increased deconjugation of bile acids due to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or bile acid malabsorption in ileal resection or Crohn's disease of the ileum, the 14C-lactose breath test in lactase deficiency, whereas the 14C-tripalmitin test seems less helpful in the diagnosis of fat malabsorption. A 14C-aminopyrine breath test may turn out to be a simple and valuable liver function test. Oral loading tests with breath analysis of H2 have shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, determination of intestinal transit time and intestinal gas production. Due to technical reasons (gas-chromatographie analysis) H2-breath analysis is still limited to research centers. Despite low radiation doses after oral administration of 14C-labelled compounds oral loading tests with H2- or 13C-analysis might be preferable in the future.

  13. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  14. Analysis of brainstem auditory evoked potential changes and follow-up outcomes in children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease%重症手足口病脑干听觉诱发电位变化及随访结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆彦; 汤昔康; 刘春华

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application value of brainstem auditory evoked potential (BA-EP)in children diagnosed with severe hand-foot-mouth disease by assessing the BAEP changes and follow-up outcomes. Methods Eighty six children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease were assigned into the observa-tion group,and 50 children undergoing physical examination were recruited into the control group. The BAEPs were statistically compared between two groups. According to the Hall classification of the BAEPs upon admis-sion,86 affected children were divided into the normal and abnormal BAEP groups. The children in the abnor-mal BAEP group were further classified into the early and late recovery groups based upon the re-examination results at the 2nd week of course of diseases. Clinical features and prognosis were statistically compared among all groups. Results Among 86 children with severe hand-foot-mouth disease,32 cases (37%)were manifes-ted as abnormal BAEPs including 23 of brain stem type,5 of inner ear type and 4 of mixed type. Compared with the control group,the PL ofⅠ,Ⅲ,Ⅴwave and IPL ofⅠ~Ⅲ,Ⅲ~Ⅴand Ⅰ~Ⅴwere significantly prolonged (all P0.05 ). The incidence of nervous system sequela and abnormal rate of head MRI in the late recovery group was considerably higher compared with that in the early recovery group (both P0.05 ). Conclusions A majority of children with hand-foot-mouth disease are complicated with abnormal BAEP. Those complicated with BAEP abnormality present with severe clinical mani-festations. Along with the alleviation of the disease,BAEP may return to normal level in most cases. For those with persistent BAEP abnormality,the incidence of neurological sequela is relatively high.%目的:通过检测脑干听觉诱发电位(BAEP)在重症手足口病的变化及随访结果,评价BAEP在重症手足口病的应用价值。方法收集重症手足口病患儿86例为观察组,以同期50名健康体检儿童为对照组,比较2

  15. 42 CFR 84.79 - Breathing gas; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas; minimum requirements. 84.79 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.79 Breathing gas; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing gas used to supply... respiratory tract irritating compounds. (c) Compressed, gaseous breathing air shall meet the...

  16. 42 CFR 84.72 - Breathing tubes; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. 84.72...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.72 Breathing tubes; minimum requirements. Flexible breathing tubes used in conjunction with breathing apparatus shall be designed and constructed to prevent: (a)...

  17. 42 CFR 84.85 - Breathing bags; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing bags; minimum requirements. 84.85 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.85 Breathing bags; minimum requirements. (a) Breathing bags shall have.... (b) Breathing bags shall be constructed of materials which are flexible and resistant to...

  18. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 1