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Sample records for mouse reference genome

  1. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  2. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  3. Insights from Human/Mouse genome comparisons

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    Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-03-30

    Large-scale public genomic sequencing efforts have provided a wealth of vertebrate sequence data poised to provide insights into mammalian biology. These include deep genomic sequence coverage of human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, and two pufferfish (Fugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis) (Aparicio et al. 2002; Lander et al. 2001; Venter et al. 2001; Waterston et al. 2002). In addition, a high-priority has been placed on determining the genomic sequence of chimpanzee, dog, cow, frog, and chicken (Boguski 2002). While only recently available, whole genome sequence data have provided the unique opportunity to globally compare complete genome contents. Furthermore, the shared evolutionary ancestry of vertebrate species has allowed the development of comparative genomic approaches to identify ancient conserved sequences with functionality. Accordingly, this review focuses on the initial comparison of available mammalian genomes and describes various insights derived from such analysis.

  4. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource: Genetic, Genomic, and Biological Knowledgebase for the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T

    2017-07-01

    The Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Resource supports basic, translational, and computational research by providing high-quality, integrated data on the genetics, genomics, and biology of the laboratory mouse. MGI serves a strategic role for the scientific community in facilitating biomedical, experimental, and computational studies investigating the genetics and processes of diseases and enabling the development and testing of new disease models and therapeutic interventions. This review describes the nexus of the body of growing genetic and biological data and the advances in computer technology in the late 1980s, including the World Wide Web, that together launched the beginnings of MGI. MGI develops and maintains a gold-standard resource that reflects the current state of knowledge, provides semantic and contextual data integration that fosters hypothesis testing, continually develops new and improved tools for searching and analysis, and partners with the scientific community to assure research data needs are met. Here we describe one slice of MGI relating to the development of community-wide large-scale mutagenesis and phenotyping projects and introduce ways to access and use these MGI data. References and links to additional MGI aspects are provided. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Differential DNA Methylation Analysis without a Reference Genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Klughammer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide DNA methylation mapping uncovers epigenetic changes associated with animal development, environmental adaptation, and species evolution. To address the lack of high-throughput methods for DNA methylation analysis in non-model organisms, we developed an integrated approach for studying DNA methylation differences independent of a reference genome. Experimentally, our method relies on an optimized 96-well protocol for reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS, which we have validated in nine species (human, mouse, rat, cow, dog, chicken, carp, sea bass, and zebrafish. Bioinformatically, we developed the RefFreeDMA software to deduce ad hoc genomes directly from RRBS reads and to pinpoint differentially methylated regions between samples or groups of individuals (http://RefFreeDMA.computational-epigenetics.org. The identified regions are interpreted using motif enrichment analysis and/or cross-mapping to annotated genomes. We validated our method by reference-free analysis of cell-type-specific DNA methylation in the blood of human, cow, and carp. In summary, we present a cost-effective method for epigenome analysis in ecology and evolution, which enables epigenome-wide association studies in natural populations and species without a reference genome.

  6. The value of new genome references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Kim C; Richards, Stephen; Rogers, Jeffrey

    2017-09-15

    Genomic information has become a ubiquitous and almost essential aspect of biological research. Over the last 10-15 years, the cost of generating sequence data from DNA or RNA samples has dramatically declined and our ability to interpret those data increased just as remarkably. Although it is still possible for biologists to conduct interesting and valuable research on species for which genomic data are not available, the impact of having access to a high quality whole genome reference assembly for a given species is nothing short of transformational. Research on a species for which we have no DNA or RNA sequence data is restricted in fundamental ways. In contrast, even access to an initial draft quality genome (see below for definitions) opens a wide range of opportunities that are simply not available without that reference genome assembly. Although a complete discussion of the impact of genome sequencing and assembly is beyond the scope of this short paper, the goal of this review is to summarize the most common and highest impact contributions that whole genome sequencing and assembly has had on comparative and evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A Reference Genome for US Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of reference genomes for rice has served as means for understanding the allelic diversity and genetic structure of a cereal grain that feeds half of the world. It has long been understood that Oryza sativa diverged into two major sub-populations Indica and Japonica, over 400 K years ...

  8. Genomes of the Mouse Collaborative Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Anuj; Morgan, Andrew P; Najarian, Maya L; Sarsani, Vishal Kumar; Sigmon, J Sebastian; Shorter, John R; Kashfeen, Anwica; McMullan, Rachel C; Williams, Lucy H; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Ferris, Martin T; Sullivan, Patrick; Hock, Pablo; Miller, Darla R; Bell, Timothy A; McMillan, Leonard; Churchill, Gary A; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel

    2017-06-01

    The Collaborative Cross (CC) is a multiparent panel of recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains derived from eight founder laboratory strains. RI panels are popular because of their long-term genetic stability, which enhances reproducibility and integration of data collected across time and conditions. Characterization of their genomes can be a community effort, reducing the burden on individual users. Here we present the genomes of the CC strains using two complementary approaches as a resource to improve power and interpretation of genetic experiments. Our study also provides a cautionary tale regarding the limitations imposed by such basic biological processes as mutation and selection. A distinct advantage of inbred panels is that genotyping only needs to be performed on the panel, not on each individual mouse. The initial CC genome data were haplotype reconstructions based on dense genotyping of the most recent common ancestors (MRCAs) of each strain followed by imputation from the genome sequence of the corresponding founder inbred strain. The MRCA resource captured segregating regions in strains that were not fully inbred, but it had limited resolution in the transition regions between founder haplotypes, and there was uncertainty about founder assignment in regions of limited diversity. Here we report the whole genome sequence of 69 CC strains generated by paired-end short reads at 30× coverage of a single male per strain. Sequencing leads to a substantial improvement in the fine structure and completeness of the genomes of the CC. Both MRCAs and sequenced samples show a significant reduction in the genome-wide haplotype frequencies from two wild-derived strains, CAST/EiJ and PWK/PhJ. In addition, analysis of the evolution of the patterns of heterozygosity indicates that selection against three wild-derived founder strains played a significant role in shaping the genomes of the CC. The sequencing resource provides the first description of tens of thousands of

  9. A report from the Sixth International Mouse Genome Conference

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    Brown, S. [Saint Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics

    1992-12-31

    The Sixth Annual Mouse Genome Conference was held in October, 1992 at Buffalo, USA. The mouse is one of the primary model organisms in the Human Genome Project. Through the use of gene targeting studies the mouse has become a powerful biological model for the study of gene function and, in addition, the comparison of the many homologous mutations identified in human and mouse have widened our understanding of the biology of these two organisms. A primary goal in the mouse genome program has been to create a genetic map of STSs of high resolution (<1cM) that would form the basis for the physical mapping of the whole mouse genome. Buffalo saw substantial new progress towards the goal of a very high density genetic map and the beginnings of substantive efforts towards physical mapping in chromosome regions with a high density of genetic markers.

  10. Meeting Report: The Twelfth International Mouse Genome Conference

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    Manolakou, Katerina; Cross, Sally H.; Simpson, Eleanor H.; Jackson, Ian J.

    1998-10-01

    The annual International Mouse Genome Conference (IMGC) is where, scientifically speaking, classical mouse genetics meets the relative newcomer of genomics. The 12th meeting took place last October in the delightful Bavarian village of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and we were greeted by the sight on the mountains of the first snowfall of the season. However the discussions left little time for exploration. Minds of participants in Garmisch were focused by a recent document produced by the NIH and by discussions within other funding agencies worldwide. If implemented, the proposals will further enhance the status of the mouse as the principal model for study of the function of the human genome.

  11. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Human · mouse genome analysis and radiation biology. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Tada-aki

    1994-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented at the 25th NIRS symposium on Human, Mouse Genome Analysis and Radiation Biology. The 14 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  13. Generation of Knock-in Mouse by Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Knock-in mice are useful for evaluating endogenous gene expressions and functions in vivo. Instead of the conventional gene-targeting method using embryonic stem cells, an exogenous DNA sequence can be inserted into the target locus in the zygote using genome editing technology. In this chapter, I describe the generation of epitope-tagged mice using engineered endonuclease and single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide through the mouse zygote as an example of how to generate a knock-in mouse by genome editing.

  14. Multiple Whole Genome Alignments Without a Reference Organism

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    Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexander; Kislyuk, Andrey; Brudno, Michael

    2009-01-16

    Multiple sequence alignments have become one of the most commonly used resources in genomics research. Most algorithms for multiple alignment of whole genomes rely either on a reference genome, against which all of the other sequences are laid out, or require a one-to-one mapping between the nucleotides of the genomes, preventing the alignment of recently duplicated regions. Both approaches have drawbacks for whole-genome comparisons. In this paper we present a novel symmetric alignment algorithm. The resulting alignments not only represent all of the genomes equally well, but also include all relevant duplications that occurred since the divergence from the last common ancestor. Our algorithm, implemented as a part of the VISTA Genome Pipeline (VGP), was used to align seven vertebrate and sixDrosophila genomes. The resulting whole-genome alignments demonstrate a higher sensitivity and specificity than the pairwise alignments previously available through the VGP and have higher exon alignment accuracy than comparable public whole-genome alignments. Of the multiple alignment methods tested, ours performed the best at aligning genes from multigene families?perhaps the most challenging test for whole-genome alignments. Our whole-genome multiple alignments are available through the VISTA Browser at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista/index.shtml.

  15. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Is the International Resource for Information on the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, MeiYee; Shaw, David R

    2018-01-01

    Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www.informatics.jax.org/ ) web resources provide free access to meticulously curated information about the laboratory mouse. MGI's primary goal is to help researchers investigate the genetic foundations of human diseases by translating information from mouse phenotypes and disease models studies to human systems. MGI provides comprehensive phenotypes for over 50,000 mutant alleles in mice and provides experimental model descriptions for over 1500 human diseases. Curated data from scientific publications are integrated with those from high-throughput phenotyping and gene expression centers. Data are standardized using defined, hierarchical vocabularies such as the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology, Mouse Developmental Anatomy and the Gene Ontologies (GO). This chapter introduces you to Gene and Allele Detail pages and provides step-by-step instructions for simple searches and those that take advantage of the breadth of MGI data integration.

  16. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data - that of a......Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data...... that regardless of the reference genome choice, most evolutionary genomic analyses yield qualitatively similar results, including those exploring the structure between the wolves and dogs using admixture and principal component analysis. However, we do observe differences in the genomic coverage of re-mapped...

  17. Mouse IDGenes: a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthes, Michaela; Preusse, Martin; Zhang, Jingzhong; Schechter, Julia; Mayer, Daniela; Lentes, Bernd; Theis, Fabian; Prakash, Nilima; Wurst, Wolfgang; Trümbach, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    The study of developmental processes in the mouse and other vertebrates includes the understanding of patterning along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial- lateral axis. Specifically, neural development is also of great clinical relevance because several human neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism disorders or drug addiction and also brain malformations are thought to have neurodevelopmental origins, i.e. pathogenesis initiates during childhood and adolescence. Impacts during early neurodevelopment might also predispose to late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. The neural tube develops from its precursor tissue, the neural plate, in a patterning process that is determined by compartmentalization into morphogenetic units, the action of local signaling centers and a well-defined and locally restricted expression of genes and their interactions. While public databases provide gene expression data with spatio-temporal resolution, they usually neglect the genetic interactions that govern neural development. Here, we introduce Mouse IDGenes, a reference database for genetic interactions in the developing mouse brain. The database is highly curated and offers detailed information about gene expressions and the genetic interactions at the developing mid-/hindbrain boundary. To showcase the predictive power of interaction data, we infer new Wnt/β-catenin target genes by machine learning and validate one of them experimentally. The database is updated regularly. Moreover, it can easily be extended by the research community. Mouse IDGenes will contribute as an important resource to the research on mouse brain development, not exclusively by offering data retrieval, but also by allowing data input. http://mouseidgenes.helmholtz-muenchen.de. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Schmutz, Jeremy; Wang, Hao; Percifield, Ryan; Hawkins, Jennifer; Pontaroli, Ana C; Estep, Matt; Feng, Liang; Vaughn, Justin N; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; Hellsten, Uffe; Deshpande, Shweta; Wang, Xuewen; Wu, Xiaomei; Mitros, Therese; Triplett, Jimmy; Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chu-Yu; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Wang, Lin; Li, Pinghua; Sharma, Manoj; Sharma, Rita; Ronald, Pamela C; Panaud, Olivier; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Brutnell, Thomas P; Doust, Andrew N; Tuskan, Gerald A; Rokhsar, Daniel; Devos, Katrien M

    2012-05-13

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  19. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Schmutz, Jeremy [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Wang, Hao [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Percifield, Ryan [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Hawkins, Jennifer [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Pontaroli, Ana C. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Estep, Matt [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Feng, Liang [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Vaughn, Justin N [ORNL; Grimwood, Jane [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Jenkins, Jerry [Hudson Alpha Institute of Biotechnology; Barry, Kerrie [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lindquist, Erika [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Hellsten, Uffe [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Deshpande, Shweta [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Wang, Xuewen [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Wu, Xiaomei [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Mitros, Therese [University of California, Berkeley; Triplett, Jimmy [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita [Oklahoma State University; Wang, Lin [Cornell University; Li, Pinghua [Cornell University; Sharma, Manoj [University of California, Davis; Sharma, Rita [University of California, Davis; Ronald, Pamela [University of California, Davis; Panaud, Olivier [Universite de Perpignan, Perpignan, France; Kellogg, Elizabeth A. [University of Missouri, St. Louis; Brutnell, Thomas P. [Cornell University; Doust, Andrew N. [Oklahoma State University; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Rokhsar, Daniel [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Devos, Katrien M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ~400-Mb assembly covers ~80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  20. Reference genome sequence of the model plant Setaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Ye, Chuyu [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The {approx}400-Mb assembly covers {approx}80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to facilitate expression analyses. We also sequenced Setaria viridis, the ancestral wild relative of S. italica, and identified regions of differential single-nucleotide polymorphism density, distribution of transposable elements, small RNA content, chromosomal rearrangement and segregation distortion. The genus Setaria includes natural and cultivated species that demonstrate a wide capacity for adaptation. The genetic basis of this adaptation was investigated by comparing five sequenced grass genomes. We also used the diploid Setaria genome to evaluate the ongoing genome assembly of a related polyploid, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).

  1. Genomic Locus Modulating IOP in the BXD RI Mouse Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca King

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is the primary risk factor for developing glaucoma, yet little is known about the contribution of genomic background to IOP regulation. The present study leverages an array of systems genetics tools to study genomic factors modulating normal IOP in the mouse. The BXD recombinant inbred (RI strain set was used to identify genomic loci modulating IOP. We measured the IOP in a total of 506 eyes from 38 different strains. Strain averages were subjected to conventional quantitative trait analysis by means of composite interval mapping. Candidate genes were defined, and immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR (qPCR were used for validation. Of the 38 BXD strains examined the mean IOP ranged from a low of 13.2mmHg to a high of 17.1mmHg. The means for each strain were used to calculate a genome wide interval map. One significant quantitative trait locus (QTL was found on Chr.8 (96 to 103 Mb. Within this 7 Mb region only 4 annotated genes were found: Gm15679, Cdh8, Cdh11 and Gm8730. Only two genes (Cdh8 and Cdh11 were candidates for modulating IOP based on the presence of non-synonymous SNPs. Further examination using SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant analysis revealed that the SNPs in Cdh8 (Cadherin 8 were predicted to not change protein function; while the SNPs in Cdh11 (Cadherin 11 would not be tolerated, affecting protein function. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CDH11 is expressed in the trabecular meshwork of the mouse. We have examined the genomic regulation of IOP in the BXD RI strain set and found one significant QTL on Chr. 8. Within this QTL, there is one good candidate gene, Cdh11.

  2. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse reprocessed for GRCh38 and GRCm38 genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Noguchi, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Akira; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lizio, Marina; Severin, Jessica; Carninci, Piero; Kawaji, Hideya; Kasukawa, Takeya

    2017-08-29

    The FANTOM5 consortium described the promoter-level expression atlas of human and mouse by using CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) with single molecule sequencing. In the original publications, GRCh37/hg19 and NCBI37/mm9 assemblies were used as the reference genomes of human and mouse respectively; later, the Genome Reference Consortium released newer genome assemblies GRCh38/hg38 and GRCm38/mm10. To increase the utility of the atlas in forthcoming researches, we reprocessed the data to make them available on the recent genome assemblies. The data include observed frequencies of transcription starting sites (TSSs) based on the realignment of CAGE reads, and TSS peaks that are converted from those based on the previous reference. Annotations of the peak names were also updated based on the latest public databases. The reprocessed results enable us to examine frequencies of transcription initiations on the recent genome assemblies and to refer promoters with updated information across the genome assemblies consistently.

  3. Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Almeida, Mathieu; Juncker, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences. We demonstrate the method on data from 396 human gut microbiome samples and identify 7,381 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs), including 741 metagenomic species (MGS). We use these to assemble 238 high-quality microbial genomes and identify...

  4. The genomic landscape shaped by selection on transposable elements across 18 mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellåker, Christoffer; Keane, Thomas M; Yalcin, Binnaz; Wong, Kim; Agam, Avigail; Belgard, T Grant; Flint, Jonathan; Adams, David J; Frankel, Wayne N; Ponting, Chris P

    2012-06-15

    Transposable element (TE)-derived sequence dominates the landscape of mammalian genomes and can modulate gene function by dysregulating transcription and translation. Our current knowledge of TEs in laboratory mouse strains is limited primarily to those present in the C57BL/6J reference genome, with most mouse TEs being drawn from three distinct classes, namely short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and the endogenous retrovirus (ERV) superfamily. Despite their high prevalence, the different genomic and gene properties controlling whether TEs are preferentially purged from, or are retained by, genetic drift or positive selection in mammalian genomes remain poorly defined. Using whole genome sequencing data from 13 classical laboratory and 4 wild-derived mouse inbred strains, we developed a comprehensive catalogue of 103,798 polymorphic TE variants. We employ this extensive data set to characterize TE variants across the Mus lineage, and to infer neutral and selective processes that have acted over 2 million years. Our results indicate that the majority of TE variants are introduced though the male germline and that only a minority of TE variants exert detectable changes in gene expression. However, among genes with differential expression across the strains there are twice as many TE variants identified as being putative causal variants as expected. Most TE variants that cause gene expression changes appear to be purged rapidly by purifying selection. Our findings demonstrate that past TE insertions have often been highly deleterious, and help to prioritize TE variants according to their likely contribution to gene expression or phenotype variation.

  5. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, G; Ma, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Wiggans, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S

    2016-06-01

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference

  6. The Release 6 reference sequence of the Drosophila melanogaster genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Roger A; Carlson, Joseph W; Wan, Kenneth H; Park, Soo; Mendez, Ivonne; Galle, Samuel E; Booth, Benjamin W; Pfeiffer, Barret D; George, Reed A; Svirskas, Robert; Krzywinski, Martin; Schein, Jacqueline; Accardo, Maria Carmela; Damia, Elisabetta; Messina, Giovanni; Méndez-Lago, María; de Pablos, Beatriz; Demakova, Olga V; Andreyeva, Evgeniya N; Boldyreva, Lidiya V; Marra, Marco; Carvalho, A Bernardo; Dimitri, Patrizio; Villasante, Alfredo; Zhimulev, Igor F; Rubin, Gerald M; Karpen, Gary H; Celniker, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Drosophila melanogaster plays an important role in molecular, genetic, and genomic studies of heredity, development, metabolism, behavior, and human disease. The initial reference genome sequence reported more than a decade ago had a profound impact on progress in Drosophila research, and improving the accuracy and completeness of this sequence continues to be important to further progress. We previously described improvement of the 117-Mb sequence in the euchromatic portion of the genome and 21 Mb in the heterochromatic portion, using a whole-genome shotgun assembly, BAC physical mapping, and clone-based finishing. Here, we report an improved reference sequence of the single-copy and middle-repetitive regions of the genome, produced using cytogenetic mapping to mitotic and polytene chromosomes, clone-based finishing and BAC fingerprint verification, ordering of scaffolds by alignment to cDNA sequences, incorporation of other map and sequence data, and validation by whole-genome optical restriction mapping. These data substantially improve the accuracy and completeness of the reference sequence and the order and orientation of sequence scaffolds into chromosome arm assemblies. Representation of the Y chromosome and other heterochromatic regions is particularly improved. The new 143.9-Mb reference sequence, designated Release 6, effectively exhausts clone-based technologies for mapping and sequencing. Highly repeat-rich regions, including large satellite blocks and functional elements such as the ribosomal RNA genes and the centromeres, are largely inaccessible to current sequencing and assembly methods and remain poorly represented. Further significant improvements will require sequencing technologies that do not depend on molecular cloning and that produce very long reads. © 2015 Hoskins et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Invited review: Genetic and genomic mouse models for livestock research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arends

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the function and functioning of single or multiple interacting genes is of the utmost significance for understanding the organism as a whole and for accurate livestock improvement through genomic selection. This includes, but is not limited to, understanding the ontogenetic and environmentally driven regulation of gene action contributing to simple and complex traits. Genetically modified mice, in which the functions of single genes are annotated; mice with reduced genetic complexity; and simplified structured populations are tools to gain fundamental knowledge of inheritance patterns and whole system genetics and genomics. In this review, we briefly describe existing mouse resources and discuss their value for fundamental and applied research in livestock.

  8. A reference genome of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bagdevi; Gupta, Deepak K; Pfenninger, Markus; Hickler, Thomas; Langer, Ewald; Nam, Bora; Paule, Juraj; Sharma, Rahul; Ulaszewski, Bartosz; Warmbier, Joanna; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Thines, Marco

    2018-06-01

    The European beech is arguably the most important climax broad-leaved tree species in Central Europe, widely planted for its valuable wood. Here, we report the 542 Mb draft genome sequence of an up to 300-year-old individual (Bhaga) from an undisturbed stand in the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park in central Germany. Using a hybrid assembly approach, Illumina reads with short- and long-insert libraries, coupled with long Pacific Biosciences reads, we obtained an assembled genome size of 542 Mb, in line with flow cytometric genome size estimation. The largest scaffold was of 1.15 Mb, the N50 length was 145 kb, and the L50 count was 983. The assembly contained 0.12% of Ns. A Benchmarking with Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis retrieved 94% complete BUSCO genes, well in the range of other high-quality draft genomes of trees. A total of 62,012 protein-coding genes were predicted, assisted by transcriptome sequencing. In addition, we are reporting an efficient method for extracting high-molecular-weight DNA from dormant buds, by which contamination by environmental bacteria and fungi was kept at a minimum. The assembled genome will be a valuable resource and reference for future population genomics studies on the evolution and past climate change adaptation of beech and will be helpful for identifying genes, e.g., involved in drought tolerance, in order to select and breed individuals to adapt forestry to climate change in Europe. A continuously updated genome browser and download page can be accessed from beechgenome.net, which will include future genome versions of the reference individual Bhaga, as new sequencing approaches develop.

  9. Identification and assembly of genomes and genetic elements in complex metagenomic samples without using reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H Bjørn; Almeida, Mathieu; Juncker, Agnieszka Sierakowska; Rasmussen, Simon; Li, Junhua; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Plichta, Damian R; Gautier, Laurent; Pedersen, Anders G; Le Chatelier, Emmanuelle; Pelletier, Eric; Bonde, Ida; Nielsen, Trine; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Batto, Jean-Michel; Quintanilha Dos Santos, Marcelo B; Blom, Nikolaj; Borruel, Natalia; Burgdorf, Kristoffer S; Boumezbeur, Fouad; Casellas, Francesc; Doré, Joël; Dworzynski, Piotr; Guarner, Francisco; Hansen, Torben; Hildebrand, Falk; Kaas, Rolf S; Kennedy, Sean; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kultima, Jens Roat; Léonard, Pierre; Levenez, Florence; Lund, Ole; Moumen, Bouziane; Le Paslier, Denis; Pons, Nicolas; Pedersen, Oluf; Prifti, Edi; Qin, Junjie; Raes, Jeroen; Sørensen, Søren; Tap, Julien; Tims, Sebastian; Ussery, David W; Yamada, Takuji; Renault, Pierre; Sicheritz-Ponten, Thomas; Bork, Peer; Wang, Jun; Brunak, Søren; Ehrlich, S Dusko

    2014-08-01

    Most current approaches for analyzing metagenomic data rely on comparisons to reference genomes, but the microbial diversity of many environments extends far beyond what is covered by reference databases. De novo segregation of complex metagenomic data into specific biological entities, such as particular bacterial strains or viruses, remains a largely unsolved problem. Here we present a method, based on binning co-abundant genes across a series of metagenomic samples, that enables comprehensive discovery of new microbial organisms, viruses and co-inherited genetic entities and aids assembly of microbial genomes without the need for reference sequences. We demonstrate the method on data from 396 human gut microbiome samples and identify 7,381 co-abundance gene groups (CAGs), including 741 metagenomic species (MGS). We use these to assemble 238 high-quality microbial genomes and identify affiliations between MGS and hundreds of viruses or genetic entities. Our method provides the means for comprehensive profiling of the diversity within complex metagenomic samples.

  10. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Macrae (Sheila L.); Q. Zhang (Quanwei); C. Lemetre (Christophe); I. Seim (Inge); R.B. Calder (Robert B.); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); Y. Suh (Yousin); V.N. Gladyshev (Vadim N.); A. Seluanov (Andrei); V. Gorbunova (Vera); J. Vijg (Jan); Z.D. Zhang (Zhengdong D.)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGenome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM

  11. VERSE: a novel approach to detect virus integration in host genomes through reference genome customization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingguo; Jia, Peilin; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    Fueled by widespread applications of high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and urgent need to counter threats of pathogenic viruses, large-scale studies were conducted recently to investigate virus integration in host genomes (for example, human tumor genomes) that may cause carcinogenesis or other diseases. A limiting factor in these studies, however, is rapid virus evolution and resulting polymorphisms, which prevent reads from aligning readily to commonly used virus reference genomes, and, accordingly, make virus integration sites difficult to detect. Another confounding factor is host genomic instability as a result of virus insertions. To tackle these challenges and improve our capability to identify cryptic virus-host fusions, we present a new approach that detects Virus intEgration sites through iterative Reference SEquence customization (VERSE). To the best of our knowledge, VERSE is the first approach to improve detection through customizing reference genomes. Using 19 human tumors and cancer cell lines as test data, we demonstrated that VERSE substantially enhanced the sensitivity of virus integration site detection. VERSE is implemented in the open source package VirusFinder 2 that is available at http://bioinfo.mc.vanderbilt.edu/VirusFinder/.

  12. Genome characterization of the selected long- and short-sleep mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Robin; Odell, Aaron; Richmond, Phillip; Malmer, Daniel; Halper-Stromberg, Eitan; Bennett, Beth; Larson, Colin; Leach, Sonia; Radcliffe, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    The Inbred Long- and Short-Sleep (ILS, ISS) mouse lines were selected for differences in acute ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting response (LORR) as the selection trait. The lines show an over tenfold difference in LORR and, along with a recombinant inbred panel derived from them (the LXS), have been widely used to dissect the genetic underpinnings of acute ethanol sensitivity. Here we have sequenced the genomes of the ILS and ISS to investigate the DNA variants that contribute to their sensitivity difference. We identified ~2.7 million high-confidence SNPs and small indels and ~7000 structural variants between the lines; variants were found to occur in 6382 annotated genes. Using a hidden Markov model, we were able to reconstruct the genome-wide ancestry patterns of the eight inbred progenitor strains from which the ILS and ISS were derived, and found that quantitative trait loci that have been mapped for LORR were slightly enriched for DNA variants. Finally, by mapping and quantifying RNA-seq reads from the ILS and ISS to their strain-specific genomes rather than to the reference genome, we found a substantial improvement in a differential expression analysis between the lines. This work will help in identifying and characterizing the DNA sequence variants that contribute to the difference in ethanol sensitivity between the ILS and ISS and will also aid in accurate quantification of RNA-seq data generated from the LXS RIs.

  13. Multiple reference genomes and transcriptomes for Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Xiangchao

    2011-08-28

    Genetic differences between Arabidopsis thaliana accessions underlie the plants extensive phenotypic variation, and until now these have been interpreted largely in the context of the annotated reference accession Col-0. Here we report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the genomes of 18 natural A. thaliana accessions, and their transcriptomes. When assessed on the basis of the reference annotation, one-third of protein-coding genes are predicted to be disrupted in at least one accession. However, re-annotation of each genome revealed that alternative gene models often restore coding potential. Gene expression in seedlings differed for nearly half of expressed genes and was frequently associated with cis variants within 5 kilobases, as were intron retention alternative splicing events. Sequence and expression variation is most pronounced in genes that respond to the biotic environment. Our data further promote evolutionary and functional studies in A. thaliana, especially the MAGIC genetic reference population descended from these accessions. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiple reference genomes and transcriptomes for Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Gan, Xiangchao; Stegle, Oliver; Behr, Jonas; Steffen, Joshua G.; Drewe, Philipp; Hildebrand, Katie L.; Lyngsoe, Rune; Schultheiss, Sebastian J.; Osborne, Edward J.; Sreedharan, Vipin T.; Kahles, André ; Bohnert, Regina; Jean, Gé raldine; Derwent, Paul; Kersey, Paul; Belfield, Eric J.; Harberd, Nicholas P.; Kemen, Eric; Toomajian, Christopher; Kover, Paula X.; Clark, Richard M.; Rä tsch, Gunnar; Mott, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Genetic differences between Arabidopsis thaliana accessions underlie the plants extensive phenotypic variation, and until now these have been interpreted largely in the context of the annotated reference accession Col-0. Here we report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the genomes of 18 natural A. thaliana accessions, and their transcriptomes. When assessed on the basis of the reference annotation, one-third of protein-coding genes are predicted to be disrupted in at least one accession. However, re-annotation of each genome revealed that alternative gene models often restore coding potential. Gene expression in seedlings differed for nearly half of expressed genes and was frequently associated with cis variants within 5 kilobases, as were intron retention alternative splicing events. Sequence and expression variation is most pronounced in genes that respond to the biotic environment. Our data further promote evolutionary and functional studies in A. thaliana, especially the MAGIC genetic reference population descended from these accessions. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome-wide identification of estrogen receptor alpha-binding sites in mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Hui; Fält, Susann; Sandelin, Albin

    2007-01-01

    We report the genome-wide identification of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-binding regions in mouse liver using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiled microarrays that cover all nonrepetitive sequences in the mouse genome. This analysis identified 5568 ERalpha-binding regions...... genes. The majority of ERalpha-binding regions lie in regions that are evolutionarily conserved between human and mouse. Motif-finding algorithms identified the estrogen response element, and variants thereof, together with binding sites for activator protein 1, basic-helix-loop-helix proteins, ETS...... signaling in mouse liver, by characterizing the first step in this signaling cascade, the binding of ERalpha to DNA in intact chromatin....

  16. Impact of Relationships between Test and Reference Animals and between Reference Animals on Reliability of Genomic Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoping; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Sun, Dongxiao

    This study investigated reliability of genomic prediction in various scenarios with regard to relationship between test and reference animals and between animals within the reference population. Different reference populations were generated from EuroGenomics data and 1288 Nordic Holstein bulls...... as a common test population. A GBLUP model and a Bayesian mixture model were applied to predict Genomic breeding values for bulls in the test data. Result showed that a closer relationship between test and reference animals led to a higher reliability, while a closer relationship between reference animal...... resulted in a lower reliability. Therefore, the design of reference population is important for improving the reliability of genomic prediction. With regard to model, the Bayesian mixture model in general led to slightly a higher reliability of genomic prediction than the GBLUP model...

  17. High-Resolution Maps of Mouse Reference Populations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimeček, Petr; Forejt, Jiří; Williams, R. W.; Shiroishi, T.; Takada, T.; Lu, L.; Johnson, T. E.; Bennett, B.; Deschepper, C. F.; Scott-Boyer, M.P.; de Villena, F.P.M.; Churchill, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 10 (2017), s. 3427-3434 ISSN 2160-1836 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-01969S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015040; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : chromosome substitution strains * recombinant inbred strains * mouse diversity genotyping array * gene conversions Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2016

  18. Dioxin induces genomic instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merja Korkalainen

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation and certain other exposures have been shown to induce genomic instability (GI, i.e., delayed genetic damage observed many cell generations later in the progeny of the exposed cells. The aim of this study was to investigate induction of GI by a nongenotoxic carcinogen, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (C3H10T1/2 were exposed to 1, 10 or 100 nM TCDD for 2 days. Micronuclei (MN and expression of selected cancer-related genes were assayed both immediately and at a delayed point in time (8 days. For comparison, similar experiments were done with cadmium, a known genotoxic agent. TCDD treatment induced an elevated frequency of MN at 8 days, but not directly after the exposure. TCDD-induced alterations in gene expression were also mostly delayed, with more changes observed at 8 days than at 2 days. Exposure to cadmium produced an opposite pattern of responses, with pronounced effects immediately after exposure but no increase in MN and few gene expression changes at 8 days. Although all responses to TCDD alone were delayed, menadione-induced DNA damage (measured by the Comet assay, was found to be increased directly after a 2-day TCDD exposure, indicating that the stability of the genome was compromised already at this time point. The results suggested a flat dose-response relationship consistent with dose-response data reported for radiation-induced GI. These findings indicate that TCDD, although not directly genotoxic, induces GI, which is associated with impaired DNA damage response.

  19. The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kerstin; Clark, Matthew D.; Torroja, Carlos F.; Torrance, James; Berthelot, Camille; Muffato, Matthieu; Collins, John E.; Humphray, Sean; McLaren, Karen; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Sealy, Ian; Caccamo, Mario; Churcher, Carol; Scott, Carol; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Koch, Romke; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; White, Simon; Chow, William; Kilian, Britt; Quintais, Leonor T.; Guerra-Assunção, José A.; Zhou, Yi; Gu, Yong; Yen, Jennifer; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk; Eyre, Tina; Redmond, Seth; Banerjee, Ruby; Chi, Jianxiang; Fu, Beiyuan; Langley, Elizabeth; Maguire, Sean F.; Laird, Gavin K.; Lloyd, David; Kenyon, Emma; Donaldson, Sarah; Sehra, Harminder; Almeida-King, Jeff; Loveland, Jane; Trevanion, Stephen; Jones, Matt; Quail, Mike; Willey, Dave; Hunt, Adrienne; Burton, John; Sims, Sarah; McLay, Kirsten; Plumb, Bob; Davis, Joy; Clee, Chris; Oliver, Karen; Clark, Richard; Riddle, Clare; Eliott, David; Threadgold, Glen; Harden, Glenn; Ware, Darren; Mortimer, Beverly; Kerry, Giselle; Heath, Paul; Phillimore, Benjamin; Tracey, Alan; Corby, Nicole; Dunn, Matthew; Johnson, Christopher; Wood, Jonathan; Clark, Susan; Pelan, Sarah; Griffiths, Guy; Smith, Michelle; Glithero, Rebecca; Howden, Philip; Barker, Nicholas; Stevens, Christopher; Harley, Joanna; Holt, Karen; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Lovell, Jamieson; Beasley, Helen; Henderson, Carl; Gordon, Daria; Auger, Katherine; Wright, Deborah; Collins, Joanna; Raisen, Claire; Dyer, Lauren; Leung, Kenric; Robertson, Lauren; Ambridge, Kirsty; Leongamornlert, Daniel; McGuire, Sarah; Gilderthorp, Ruth; Griffiths, Coline; Manthravadi, Deepa; Nichol, Sarah; Barker, Gary; Whitehead, Siobhan; Kay, Michael; Brown, Jacqueline; Murnane, Clare; Gray, Emma; Humphries, Matthew; Sycamore, Neil; Barker, Darren; Saunders, David; Wallis, Justene; Babbage, Anne; Hammond, Sian; Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Maryam; Barr, Lucy; Martin, Sancha; Wray, Paul; Ellington, Andrew; Matthews, Nicholas; Ellwood, Matthew; Woodmansey, Rebecca; Clark, Graham; Cooper, James; Tromans, Anthony; Grafham, Darren; Skuce, Carl; Pandian, Richard; Andrews, Robert; Harrison, Elliot; Kimberley, Andrew; Garnett, Jane; Fosker, Nigel; Hall, Rebekah; Garner, Patrick; Kelly, Daniel; Bird, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Gehring, Ines; Berger, Andrea; Dooley, Christopher M.; Ersan-Ürün, Zübeyde; Eser, Cigdem; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Karotki, Lena; Kirn, Anette; Konantz, Judith; Konantz, Martina; Oberländer, Martina; Rudolph-Geiger, Silke; Teucke, Mathias; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Rapp, Amanda; Widaa, Sara; Langford, Cordelia; Yang, Fengtang; Carter, Nigel P.; Harrow, Jennifer; Ning, Zemin; Herrero, Javier; Searle, Steve M. J.; Enright, Anton; Geisler, Robert; Plasterk, Ronald H. A.; Lee, Charles; Westerfield, Monte; de Jong, Pieter J.; Zon, Leonard I.; Postlethwait, John H.; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Hubbard, Tim J. P.; Crollius, Hugues Roest; Rogers, Jane; Stemple, Derek L.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function1,2. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease3–5. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes6, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination. PMID:23594743

  20. The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kerstin; Clark, Matthew D; Torroja, Carlos F; Torrance, James; Berthelot, Camille; Muffato, Matthieu; Collins, John E; Humphray, Sean; McLaren, Karen; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Sealy, Ian; Caccamo, Mario; Churcher, Carol; Scott, Carol; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Koch, Romke; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; White, Simon; Chow, William; Kilian, Britt; Quintais, Leonor T; Guerra-Assunção, José A; Zhou, Yi; Gu, Yong; Yen, Jennifer; Vogel, Jan-Hinnerk; Eyre, Tina; Redmond, Seth; Banerjee, Ruby; Chi, Jianxiang; Fu, Beiyuan; Langley, Elizabeth; Maguire, Sean F; Laird, Gavin K; Lloyd, David; Kenyon, Emma; Donaldson, Sarah; Sehra, Harminder; Almeida-King, Jeff; Loveland, Jane; Trevanion, Stephen; Jones, Matt; Quail, Mike; Willey, Dave; Hunt, Adrienne; Burton, John; Sims, Sarah; McLay, Kirsten; Plumb, Bob; Davis, Joy; Clee, Chris; Oliver, Karen; Clark, Richard; Riddle, Clare; Elliot, David; Eliott, David; Threadgold, Glen; Harden, Glenn; Ware, Darren; Begum, Sharmin; Mortimore, Beverley; Mortimer, Beverly; Kerry, Giselle; Heath, Paul; Phillimore, Benjamin; Tracey, Alan; Corby, Nicole; Dunn, Matthew; Johnson, Christopher; Wood, Jonathan; Clark, Susan; Pelan, Sarah; Griffiths, Guy; Smith, Michelle; Glithero, Rebecca; Howden, Philip; Barker, Nicholas; Lloyd, Christine; Stevens, Christopher; Harley, Joanna; Holt, Karen; Panagiotidis, Georgios; Lovell, Jamieson; Beasley, Helen; Henderson, Carl; Gordon, Daria; Auger, Katherine; Wright, Deborah; Collins, Joanna; Raisen, Claire; Dyer, Lauren; Leung, Kenric; Robertson, Lauren; Ambridge, Kirsty; Leongamornlert, Daniel; McGuire, Sarah; Gilderthorp, Ruth; Griffiths, Coline; Manthravadi, Deepa; Nichol, Sarah; Barker, Gary; Whitehead, Siobhan; Kay, Michael; Brown, Jacqueline; Murnane, Clare; Gray, Emma; Humphries, Matthew; Sycamore, Neil; Barker, Darren; Saunders, David; Wallis, Justene; Babbage, Anne; Hammond, Sian; Mashreghi-Mohammadi, Maryam; Barr, Lucy; Martin, Sancha; Wray, Paul; Ellington, Andrew; Matthews, Nicholas; Ellwood, Matthew; Woodmansey, Rebecca; Clark, Graham; Cooper, James D; Cooper, James; Tromans, Anthony; Grafham, Darren; Skuce, Carl; Pandian, Richard; Andrews, Robert; Harrison, Elliot; Kimberley, Andrew; Garnett, Jane; Fosker, Nigel; Hall, Rebekah; Garner, Patrick; Kelly, Daniel; Bird, Christine; Palmer, Sophie; Gehring, Ines; Berger, Andrea; Dooley, Christopher M; Ersan-Ürün, Zübeyde; Eser, Cigdem; Geiger, Horst; Geisler, Maria; Karotki, Lena; Kirn, Anette; Konantz, Judith; Konantz, Martina; Oberländer, Martina; Rudolph-Geiger, Silke; Teucke, Mathias; Lanz, Christa; Raddatz, Günter; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Rapp, Amanda; Widaa, Sara; Langford, Cordelia; Yang, Fengtang; Schuster, Stephan C; Carter, Nigel P; Harrow, Jennifer; Ning, Zemin; Herrero, Javier; Searle, Steve M J; Enright, Anton; Geisler, Robert; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Lee, Charles; Westerfield, Monte; de Jong, Pieter J; Zon, Leonard I; Postlethwait, John H; Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Hubbard, Tim J P; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Rogers, Jane; Stemple, Derek L

    2013-04-25

    Zebrafish have become a popular organism for the study of vertebrate gene function. The virtually transparent embryos of this species, and the ability to accelerate genetic studies by gene knockdown or overexpression, have led to the widespread use of zebrafish in the detailed investigation of vertebrate gene function and increasingly, the study of human genetic disease. However, for effective modelling of human genetic disease it is important to understand the extent to which zebrafish genes and gene structures are related to orthologous human genes. To examine this, we generated a high-quality sequence assembly of the zebrafish genome, made up of an overlapping set of completely sequenced large-insert clones that were ordered and oriented using a high-resolution high-density meiotic map. Detailed automatic and manual annotation provides evidence of more than 26,000 protein-coding genes, the largest gene set of any vertebrate so far sequenced. Comparison to the human reference genome shows that approximately 70% of human genes have at least one obvious zebrafish orthologue. In addition, the high quality of this genome assembly provides a clearer understanding of key genomic features such as a unique repeat content, a scarcity of pseudogenes, an enrichment of zebrafish-specific genes on chromosome 4 and chromosomal regions that influence sex determination.

  1. Endonucleases : new tools to edit the mouse genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijshake, Tobias; Baker, Darren J.; van de Sluis, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Mouse transgenesis has been instrumental in determining the function of genes in the pathophysiology of human diseases and modification of genes by homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem cells remains a widely used technology. However, this approach harbors a number of disadvantages, as it

  2. Fine-scale maps of recombination rates and hotspots in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschwig, Hadassa; Levi, Liat; Ben-David, Eyal; Williams, Robert W; Yakir, Benjamin; Shifman, Sagiv

    2012-07-01

    Recombination events are not uniformly distributed and often cluster in narrow regions known as recombination hotspots. Several studies using different approaches have dramatically advanced our understanding of recombination hotspot regulation. Population genetic data have been used to map and quantify hotspots in the human genome. Genetic variation in recombination rates and hotspots usage have been explored in human pedigrees, mouse intercrosses, and by sperm typing. These studies pointed to the central role of the PRDM9 gene in hotspot modulation. In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from whole-genome resequencing and genotyping studies of mouse inbred strains to estimate recombination rates across the mouse genome and identified 47,068 historical hotspots--an average of over 2477 per chromosome. We show by simulation that inbred mouse strains can be used to identify positions of historical hotspots. Recombination hotspots were found to be enriched for the predicted binding sequences for different alleles of the PRDM9 protein. Recombination rates were on average lower near transcription start sites (TSS). Comparing the inferred historical recombination hotspots with the recent genome-wide mapping of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in mouse sperm revealed a significant overlap, especially toward the telomeres. Our results suggest that inbred strains can be used to characterize and study the dynamics of historical recombination hotspots. They also strengthen previous findings on mouse recombination hotspots, and specifically the impact of sequence variants in Prdm9.

  3. Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daren C; Schield, Drew R; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Fujita, Matthew K; Andrew, Audra L; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fike, Jennifer A; Tomback, Diana F; Ruggiero, Robert P; Castoe, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (∼3.5-5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species (the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and the Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana). We used these data to estimate de novo genome assemblies and reference-guided assemblies, and compared the information content and completeness of these assemblies by comparing CEGMA gene set representation, repeat element content, simple sequence repeat content, and GC isochore structure among assemblies. Our results demonstrate that even lower-coverage genome sequencing projects are capable of producing informative and useful genomic resources, particularly through the use of reference-guided assemblies.

  4. Two low coverage bird genomes and a comparison of reference-guided versus de novo genome assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Daren C.; Schield, Drew R.; Reyes-Velasco, Jacobo; Fujita, Matthre K.; Andrew, Audra L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fike, Jennifer A.; Tomback, Diana F.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2014-01-01

    As a greater number and diversity of high-quality vertebrate reference genomes become available, it is increasingly feasible to use these references to guide new draft assemblies for related species. Reference-guided assembly approaches may substantially increase the contiguity and completeness of a new genome using only low levels of genome coverage that might otherwise be insufficient for de novo genome assembly. We used low-coverage (~3.5–5.5x) Illumina paired-end sequencing to assemble draft genomes of two bird species (the Gunnison Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus minimus, and the Clark's Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana). We used these data to estimate de novo genome assemblies and reference-guided assemblies, and compared the information content and completeness of these assemblies by comparing CEGMA gene set representation, repeat element content, simple sequence repeat content, and GC isochore structure among assemblies. Our results demonstrate that even lower-coverage genome sequencing projects are capable of producing informative and useful genomic resources, particularly through the use of reference-guided assemblies.

  5. Reference-quality genome sequence of Aegilops tauschii, the source of wheat D genome, shows that recombination shapes genome structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegilops tauschii is the diploid progenitor of the D genome of hexaploid wheat and an important genetic resource for wheat. A reference-quality sequence for the Ae. tauschii genome was produced with a combination of ordered-clone sequencing, whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and BioNano optical geno...

  6. Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Sheila L; Zhang, Quanwei; Lemetre, Christophe; Seim, Inge; Calder, Robert B; Hoeijmakers, Jan; Suh, Yousin; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Seluanov, Andrei; Gorbunova, Vera; Vijg, Jan; Zhang, Zhengdong D

    2015-04-01

    Genome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Characteristics of the mouse genomic histamine H1 receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Isao; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Kitamura, Daisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-08-15

    We report here the molecular cloning of a mouse histamine H1 receptor gene. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is composed of 488 amino acid residues with characteristic properties of GTP binding protein-coupled receptors. Our results suggest that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene is a single locus, and no related sequences were detected. Interspecific backcross analysis indicated that the mouse histamine H1 receptor gene (Hrh1) is located in the central region of mouse Chromosome 6 linked to microphthalmia (Mitfmi), ras-related fibrosarcoma oncogene 1 (Raf1), and ret proto-oncogene (Ret) in a region of homology with human chromosome 3p. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Improving genomic prediction for Danish Jersey using a joint Danish-US reference population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Guosheng; Nielsen, Ulrik Sander; Wiggans, G

    Accuracy of genomic prediction depends on the information in the reference population. Achieving an adequate sized reference population is a challenge for genomic prediction in small cattle populations. One way to increase the size of reference population is to combine reference data from different...... populations. The objective of this study was to assess the gain of genomic prediction accuracy when including US Jersey bulls in the Danish Jersey reference population. The data included 1,262 Danish progeny-tested bulls and 1,157 US progeny-tested bulls. Genomic breeding values (GEBV) were predicted using...... a GBLUP model from the Danish reference population and the joint Danish-US reference population. The traits in the analysis were milk yield, fat yield, protein yield, fertility, mastitis, longevity, body conformation, feet & legs, and longevity. Eight of the nine traits benefitted from the inclusion of US...

  9. Genome-wide identification of coding and non-coding conserved sequence tags in human and mouse genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Giorgio P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate detection of genes and the identification of functional regions is still an open issue in the annotation of genomic sequences. This problem affects new genomes but also those of very well studied organisms such as human and mouse where, despite the great efforts, the inventory of genes and regulatory regions is far from complete. Comparative genomics is an effective approach to address this problem. Unfortunately it is limited by the computational requirements needed to perform genome-wide comparisons and by the problem of discriminating between conserved coding and non-coding sequences. This discrimination is often based (thus dependent on the availability of annotated proteins. Results In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive comparison of human and mouse genomes performed with a new high throughput grid-based system which allows the rapid detection of conserved sequences and accurate assessment of their coding potential. By detecting clusters of coding conserved sequences the system is also suitable to accurately identify potential gene loci. Following this analysis we created a collection of human-mouse conserved sequence tags and carefully compared our results to reliable annotations in order to benchmark the reliability of our classifications. Strikingly we were able to detect several potential gene loci supported by EST sequences but not corresponding to as yet annotated genes. Conclusion Here we present a new system which allows comprehensive comparison of genomes to detect conserved coding and non-coding sequences and the identification of potential gene loci. Our system does not require the availability of any annotated sequence thus is suitable for the analysis of new or poorly annotated genomes.

  10. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Paul S; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Chasman, Daniel I

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G) for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In...

  11. Automated whole-genome multiple alignment of rat, mouse, and human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brudno, Michael; Poliakov, Alexander; Salamov, Asaf; Cooper, Gregory M.; Sidow, Arend; Rubin, Edward M.; Solovyev, Victor; Batzoglou, Serafim; Dubchak, Inna

    2004-07-04

    We have built a whole genome multiple alignment of the three currently available mammalian genomes using a fully automated pipeline which combines the local/global approach of the Berkeley Genome Pipeline and the LAGAN program. The strategy is based on progressive alignment, and consists of two main steps: (1) alignment of the mouse and rat genomes; and (2) alignment of human to either the mouse-rat alignments from step 1, or the remaining unaligned mouse and rat sequences. The resulting alignments demonstrate high sensitivity, with 87% of all human gene-coding areas aligned in both mouse and rat. The specificity is also high: <7% of the rat contigs are aligned to multiple places in human and 97% of all alignments with human sequence > 100kb agree with a three-way synteny map built independently using predicted exons in the three genomes. At the nucleotide level <1% of the rat nucleotides are mapped to multiple places in the human sequence in the alignment; and 96.5% of human nucleotides within all alignments agree with the synteny map. The alignments are publicly available online, with visualization through the novel Multi-VISTA browser that we also present.

  12. Genomic prediction by single-step genomic BLUP using cow reference population in Holstein crossbred cattle in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nayee, Nilesh Kumar; Su, Guosheng; Gajjar, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Advantages of genomic selection in breeds with limited numbers of progeny tested bulls have been demonstrated by adding genotypes of females to the reference population (Thomasen et al., 2014). The current study was conducted to explore the feasibility of implementing genomic selection in a Holst......Advantages of genomic selection in breeds with limited numbers of progeny tested bulls have been demonstrated by adding genotypes of females to the reference population (Thomasen et al., 2014). The current study was conducted to explore the feasibility of implementing genomic selection...... in a Holstein Friesian crossbred population with cows kept under small holder conditions using test day records and single step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). Milk yield records from 10,797 daughters sired by 258 bulls were used Of these 2194 daughters and 109 sires were genotyped with customized genotyping chip...

  13. Histological and reference system for the analysis of mouse intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vivian; Chan, Wilson C W; Leung, Victor Y L; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Sakai, Daisuke; McCann, Matthew R; Bedore, Jake; Séguin, Cheryle A; Chan, Danny

    2018-01-01

    A new scoring system based on histo-morphology of mouse intervertebral disc (IVD) was established to assess changes in different mouse models of IVD degeneration and repair. IVDs from mouse strains of different ages, transgenic mice, or models of artificially induced IVD degeneration were assessed. Morphological features consistently observed in normal, and early/later stages of degeneration were categorized into a scoring system focused on nucleus pulposus (NP) and annulus fibrosus (AF) changes. "Normal NP" exhibited a highly cellularized cell mass that decreased with natural ageing and in disc degeneration. "Normal AF" consisted of distinct concentric lamellar structures, which was disrupted in severe degeneration. NP/AF clefts indicated more severe changes. Consistent scores were obtained between experienced and new users. Altogether, our scoring system effectively differentiated IVD changes in various strains of wild-type and genetically modified mice and in induced models of IVD degeneration, and is applicable from the post-natal stage to the aged mouse. This scoring tool and reference resource addresses a pressing need in the field for studying IVD changes and cross-study comparisons in mice, and facilitates a means to normalize mouse IVD assessment between different laboratories. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:233-243, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The European dimension for the mouse genome mutagenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Auwerx, J.; Avner, P.; Baldock, R.; Ballabio, A.; Balling, R.; Barbacid, M.; Berns, A.; Bradley, A.; Brown, S.; Carmeliet, P.; Chambon, P.; Cox, R.; Davidson, D.; Davies, K.; Duboule, D.; Forejt, Jiří; Granucci, F.; Hastie, N.; Angelis, M. H. de; Jackson, I.; Kioussis, D.; Kollias, G.; Lathrop, M.; Lendahl, U.; Malumbres, M.; von Melchner, H.; Müller, W.; Partanen, J.; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, P.; Rigby, P.; Rosen, B.; Rosenthal, N.; Skarnes, B.; Stewart, A. F.; Thornton, J.; Tocchini-Valentini, G.; Wagner, E.; Wahli, W.; Wurst, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2004), s. 925-927 ISSN 1061-4036 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : The European Mouse Mutagenesis Consortium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 24.695, year: 2004

  15. A hybrid reference-guided de novo assembly approach for generating Cyclospora mitochondrion genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, G R; Cinar, H N; Murphy, H R; Durigan, M; Almeria, M; Tall, B D; DaSilva, A J

    2018-01-01

    Cyclospora cayetanensis is a coccidian parasite associated with large and complex foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Linking samples from cyclosporiasis patients during foodborne outbreaks with suspected contaminated food sources, using conventional epidemiological methods, has been a persistent challenge. To address this issue, development of new methods based on potential genomically-derived markers for strain-level identification has been a priority for the food safety research community. The absence of reference genomes to identify nucleotide and structural variants with a high degree of confidence has limited the application of using sequencing data for source tracking during outbreak investigations. In this work, we determined the quality of a high resolution, curated, public mitochondrial genome assembly to be used as a reference genome by applying bioinformatic analyses. Using this reference genome, three new mitochondrial genome assemblies were built starting with metagenomic reads generated by sequencing DNA extracted from oocysts present in stool samples from cyclosporiasis patients. Nucleotide variants were identified in the new and other publicly available genomes in comparison with the mitochondrial reference genome. A consolidated workflow, presented here, to generate new mitochondrion genomes using our reference-guided de novo assembly approach could be useful in facilitating the generation of other mitochondrion sequences, and in their application for subtyping C. cayetanensis strains during foodborne outbreak investigations.

  16. Chromosome-wise dissection of the genome of the extremely big mouse line DU6i

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R. Bevova (Marianna); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); G. Aksu (Guzide); U. Renne (Ulla); K. Brockmann

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe extreme high-body-weight-selected mouse line DU6i is a polygenic model for growth research, harboring many small-effect QTL. We dissected the genome of this line into 19 autosomes and the Y chromosome by the construction of a new panel of chromosome substitution strains (CSS). The

  17. Functional organization of the genome may shape the species boundary in the house mouse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, Václav; Munclinger, P.; Wang, L.; Teeter, K. C.; Tucker, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2015), s. 1208-1220 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : hybrid zone * mouse genome * speciation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 13.649, year: 2015

  18. Towards precision medicine-based therapies for glioblastoma: interrogating human disease genomics and mouse phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Bingcheng; Xu, Rong

    2016-08-22

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumors. It has poor prognosis even with optimal radio- and chemo-therapies. Since GBM is highly heterogeneous, drugs that target on specific molecular profiles of individual tumors may achieve maximized efficacy. Currently, the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) projects have identified hundreds of GBM-associated genes. We develop a drug repositioning approach combining disease genomics and mouse phenotype data towards predicting targeted therapies for GBM. We first identified disease specific mouse phenotypes using the most recently discovered GBM genes. Then we systematically searched all FDA-approved drugs for candidates that share similar mouse phenotype profiles with GBM. We evaluated the ranks for approved and novel GBM drugs, and compared with an existing approach, which also use the mouse phenotype data but not the disease genomics data. We achieved significantly higher ranks for the approved and novel GBM drugs than the earlier approach. For all positive examples of GBM drugs, we achieved a median rank of 9.2 45.6 of the top predictions have been demonstrated effective in inhibiting the growth of human GBM cells. We developed a computational drug repositioning approach based on both genomic and phenotypic data. Our approach prioritized existing GBM drugs and outperformed a recent approach. Overall, our approach shows potential in discovering new targeted therapies for GBM.

  19. Genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of mouse testis-specific genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bernett TK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes are not randomly distributed on a chromosome as they were thought even after removal of tandem repeats. The positional clustering of co-expressed genes is known in prokaryotes and recently reported in several eukaryotic organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. In order to further investigate the mode of tissue-specific gene clustering in higher eukaryotes, we have performed a genome-scale analysis of positional clustering of the mouse testis-specific genes. Results Our computational analysis shows that a large proportion of testis-specific genes are clustered in groups of 2 to 5 genes in the mouse genome. The number of clusters is much higher than expected by chance even after removal of tandem repeats. Conclusion Our result suggests that testis-specific genes tend to cluster on the mouse chromosomes. This provides another piece of evidence for the hypothesis that clusters of tissue-specific genes do exist.

  20. The wolf reference genome sequence (Canis lupus lupus) and its implications for Canis spp. population genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Samaniego Castruita, Jose Alfredo; Sinding, Mikkel Holger Strander

    2017-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data - that of a......Background An increasing number of studies are addressing the evolutionary genomics of dog domestication, principally through resequencing dog, wolf and related canid genomes. There is, however, only one de novo assembled canid genome currently available against which to map such data...

  1. A DNMT3A2-HDAC2 Complex Is Essential for Genomic Imprinting and Genome Integrity in Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengpeng Ma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal genomic imprints are established during oogenesis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs 1 and 2 are required for oocyte development in mouse, but their role in genomic imprinting is unknown. We find that Hdac1:Hdac2−/− double-mutant growing oocytes exhibit global DNA hypomethylation and fail to establish imprinting marks for Igf2r, Peg3, and Srnpn. Global hypomethylation correlates with increased retrotransposon expression and double-strand DNA breaks. Nuclear-associated DNMT3A2 is reduced in double-mutant oocytes, and injecting these oocytes with Hdac2 partially restores DNMT3A2 nuclear staining. DNMT3A2 co-immunoprecipitates with HDAC2 in mouse embryonic stem cells. Partial loss of nuclear DNMT3A2 and HDAC2 occurs in Sin3a−/− oocytes, which exhibit decreased DNA methylation of imprinting control regions for Igf2r and Srnpn, but not Peg3. These results suggest seminal roles of HDAC1/2 in establishing maternal genomic imprints and maintaining genomic integrity in oocytes mediated in part through a SIN3A complex that interacts with DNMT3A2.

  2. Genome-Wide Expression Profiling of Five Mouse Models Identifies Similarities and Differences with Human Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R.; Johnston, Andrew; Carbajal, Steve; Han, Gangwen; Wohn, Christian; Lu, Jun; Xing, Xianying; Nair, Rajan P.; Voorhees, John J.; Elder, James T.; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Sano, Shigetoshi; Prens, Errol P.; DiGiovanni, John; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Ward, Nicole L.; Gudjonsson, Johann E.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a suitable mouse model would facilitate the investigation of pathomechanisms underlying human psoriasis and would also assist in development of therapeutic treatments. However, while many psoriasis mouse models have been proposed, no single model recapitulates all features of the human disease, and standardized validation criteria for psoriasis mouse models have not been widely applied. In this study, whole-genome transcriptional profiling is used to compare gene expression patterns manifested by human psoriatic skin lesions with those that occur in five psoriasis mouse models (K5-Tie2, imiquimod, K14-AREG, K5-Stat3C and K5-TGFbeta1). While the cutaneous gene expression profiles associated with each mouse phenotype exhibited statistically significant similarity to the expression profile of psoriasis in humans, each model displayed distinctive sets of similarities and differences in comparison to human psoriasis. For all five models, correspondence to the human disease was strong with respect to genes involved in epidermal development and keratinization. Immune and inflammation-associated gene expression, in contrast, was more variable between models as compared to the human disease. These findings support the value of all five models as research tools, each with identifiable areas of convergence to and divergence from the human disease. Additionally, the approach used in this paper provides an objective and quantitative method for evaluation of proposed mouse models of psoriasis, which can be strategically applied in future studies to score strengths of mouse phenotypes relative to specific aspects of human psoriasis. PMID:21483750

  3. A common reference population from four European Holstein populations increases reliability of genomic predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens Sandø; de Ross, Sander PW; de Vries, Alfred G

    2011-01-01

    Background Size of the reference population and reliability of phenotypes are crucial factors influencing the reliability of genomic predictions. It is therefore useful to combine closely related populations. Increased accuracies of genomic predictions depend on the number of individuals added to...

  4. Genomic locus modulating corneal thickness in the mouse identifies POU6F2 as a potential risk of developing glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca King

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Central corneal thickness (CCT is one of the most heritable ocular traits and it is also a phenotypic risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. The present study uses the BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI strains to identify novel quantitative trait loci (QTLs modulating CCT in the mouse with the potential of identifying a molecular link between CCT and risk of developing POAG. The BXD RI strain set was used to define mammalian genomic loci modulating CCT, with a total of 818 corneas measured from 61 BXD RI strains (between 60-100 days of age. The mice were anesthetized and the eyes were positioned in front of the lens of the Phoenix Micron IV Image-Guided OCT system or the Bioptigen OCT system. CCT data for each strain was averaged and used to QTLs modulating this phenotype using the bioinformatics tools on GeneNetwork (www.genenetwork.org. The candidate genes and genomic loci identified in the mouse were then directly compared with the summary data from a human POAG genome wide association study (NEIGHBORHOOD to determine if any genomic elements modulating mouse CCT are also risk factors for POAG.This analysis revealed one significant QTL on Chr 13 and a suggestive QTL on Chr 7. The significant locus on Chr 13 (13 to 19 Mb was examined further to define candidate genes modulating this eye phenotype. For the Chr 13 QTL in the mouse, only one gene in the region (Pou6f2 contained nonsynonymous SNPs. Of these five nonsynonymous SNPs in Pou6f2, two resulted in changes in the amino acid proline which could result in altered secondary structure affecting protein function. The 7 Mb region under the mouse Chr 13 peak distributes over 2 chromosomes in the human: Chr 1 and Chr 7. These genomic loci were examined in the NEIGHBORHOOD database to determine if they are potential risk factors for human glaucoma identified using meta-data from human GWAS. The top 50 hits all resided within one gene (POU6F2, with the highest significance level of p = 10-6 for

  5. Genome-wide RNA-seq analysis of human and mouse platelet transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, Jesse W.; Oler, Andrew J.; Tolley, Neal D.; Hunter, Benjamin N.; Low, Elizabeth N.; Nix, David A.; Yost, Christian C.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Inbred mice are a useful tool for studying the in vivo functions of platelets. Nonetheless, the mRNA signature of mouse platelets is not known. Here, we use paired-end next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to characterize the polyadenylated transcriptomes of human and mouse platelets. We report that RNA-seq provides unprecedented resolution of mRNAs that are expressed across the entire human and mouse genomes. Transcript expression and abundance are often conserved between the 2 species. Several mRNAs, however, are differentially expressed in human and mouse platelets. Moreover, previously described functional disparities between mouse and human platelets are reflected in differences at the transcript level, including protease activated receptor-1, protease activated receptor-3, platelet activating factor receptor, and factor V. This suggests that RNA-seq is a useful tool for predicting differences in platelet function between mice and humans. Our next-generation sequencing analysis provides new insights into the human and murine platelet transcriptomes. The sequencing dataset will be useful in the design of mouse models of hemostasis and a catalyst for discovery of new functions of platelets. Access to the dataset is found in the “Introduction.” PMID:21596849

  6. Acquiring Reference Genomes from Uncultured Microbes by Micromanipulation and Low-complexity Metagenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Albertsen, Mads; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    A pre-requisite for many of the –omics approaches applied in environmental microbiology today are high quality reference genomes. Until recently such genomes have been difficult to obtain from unculturable, complex microbial communities. However, lately the ‘single cell genomics’ approach based...... on isolation and amplification of genomic DNA from a single or few clonal cells has proven efficient for this purpose although very tedious. The aim of this study was to apply the methodology of single cell genomics to filamentous organisms and microcolonies of specific species from microbial communities...

  7. Brucella abortus Strain 2308 Wisconsin Genome: Importance of the Definition of Reference Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Esquivel, Marcela; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Castillo-Zeledón, Amanda; Jiménez-Rojas, César; Roop II, R. Martin; Comerci, Diego J.; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Caswell, Clayton C.; Baker, Kate S.; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Moreno, Edgardo; Letesson, Jean J.; De Bolle, Xavier; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing analysis of the reference strain B. abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version through a link at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brucella#Genomics. Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised. PMID:27746773

  8. High quality reference genome of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.), a potential perennial crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Yang, ChengGuang; Yan, Liang; Wang, XuanJun; Shi, ChongYing; Xie, Jing; Dai, TianYi; Peng, Lei; Zeng Huan, Yu; Xu, AnNi; Huang, YeWei; Zhang, JiaJin; Ma, Xiao; Dong, Yang; Hao, ShuMei; Sheng, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is a perennial crop that has gained popularity in certain developing countries for its high-nutrition content and adaptability to arid and semi-arid environments. Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of M. oleifera. This assembly represents 91.78% of the estimated genome size and contains 19,465 protein-coding genes. Comparative genomic analysis between M. oleifera and related woody plant genomes helps clarify the general evolution of this species, while the identification of several species-specific gene families and positively selected genes in M. oleifera may help identify genes related to M. oleifera's high protein content, fast-growth, heat and stress tolerance. This reference genome greatly extends the basic research on M. oleifera, and may further promote applying genomics to enhanced breeding and improvement of M. oleifera.

  9. Extensive Mobilome-Driven Genome Diversification in Mouse Gut-Associated Bacteroides vulgatus mpk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Anna; Beier, Sina; Steimle, Alex; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Huson, Daniel H; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-04-25

    Like many other Bacteroides species, Bacteroides vulgatus strain mpk, a mouse fecal isolate which was shown to promote intestinal homeostasis, utilizes a variety of mobile elements for genome evolution. Based on sequences collected by Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing technology, we discuss the challenges of assembling and studying a bacterial genome of high plasticity. Additionally, we conducted comparative genomics comparing this commensal strain with the B. vulgatus type strain ATCC 8482 as well as multiple other Bacteroides and Parabacteroides strains to reveal the most important differences and identify the unique features of B. vulgatus mpk. The genome of B. vulgatus mpk harbors a large and diverse set of mobile element proteins compared with other sequenced Bacteroides strains. We found evidence of a number of different horizontal gene transfer events and a genome landscape that has been extensively altered by different mobilization events. A CRISPR/Cas system could be identified that provides a possible mechanism for preventing the integration of invading external DNA. We propose that the high genome plasticity and the introduced genome instabilities of B. vulgatus mpk arising from the various mobilization events might play an important role not only in its adaptation to the challenging intestinal environment in general, but also in its ability to interact with the gut microbiota. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  10. Leishmania naiffi and Leishmania guyanensis reference genomes highlight genome structure and gene evolution in the Viannia subgenus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Simone; Taylor, Ali Shirley; Feane, Eoghan; Sanders, Mandy; Schonian, Gabriele; Cotton, James A; Downing, Tim

    2018-04-01

    The unicellular protozoan parasite Leishmania causes the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis, affecting 12 million people in 98 countries. In South America, where the Viannia subgenus predominates, so far only L. ( Viannia ) braziliensis and L. ( V. ) panamensis have been sequenced, assembled and annotated as reference genomes. Addressing this deficit in molecular information can inform species typing, epidemiological monitoring and clinical treatment. Here, L. ( V. ) naiffi and L. ( V. ) guyanensis genomic DNA was sequenced to assemble these two genomes as draft references from short sequence reads. The methods used were tested using short sequence reads for L. braziliensis M2904 against its published reference as a comparison. This assembly and annotation pipeline identified 70 additional genes not annotated on the original M2904 reference. Phylogenetic and evolutionary comparisons of L. guyanensis and L. naiffi with 10 other Viannia genomes revealed four traits common to all Viannia : aneuploidy, 22 orthologous groups of genes absent in other Leishmania subgenera, elevated TATE transposon copies and a high NADH-dependent fumarate reductase gene copy number. Within the Viannia , there were limited structural changes in genome architecture specific to individual species: a 45 Kb amplification on chromosome 34 was present in all bar L. lainsoni , L. naiffi had a higher copy number of the virulence factor leishmanolysin, and laboratory isolate L. shawi M8408 had a possible minichromosome derived from the 3' end of chromosome 34 . This combination of genome assembly, phylogenetics and comparative analysis across an extended panel of diverse Viannia has uncovered new insights into the origin and evolution of this subgenus and can help improve diagnostics for leishmaniasis surveillance.

  11. Integration of mouse and human genome-wide association data identifies KCNIP4 as an asthma gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Himes, Blanca E.; Sheppard, Keith; Berndt, Annerose; Leme, Adriana S.; Myers, Rachel A.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Levin, Albert M.; Gauderman, W. James; Yang, James J.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Romieu, Isabelle; Torgerson, Dara G.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Klanderman, Barbara; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Szefler, Stanley J.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Strunk, Robert C.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Boushey, Homer; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Israel, Elliot; Mauger, David; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A. E.; Vonk, Judith M.; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Peters, Stephen P.; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; London, Stephanie J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Gilliland, Frank D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Burchard, Esteban G.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Paigen, Beverly; Churchill, Gary; Shapiro, Steve D.; Weiss, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The genetics of asthma have been widely studied in mouse and human, and homologous genomic regions have been associated with mouse AHR and human asthma-related phenotypes. Our goal was to identify

  12. New Approaches and Technologies to Sequence de novo Plant reference Genomes (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmutz, Jeremy

    2013-03-01

    Jeremy Schmutz of the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology on New approaches and technologies to sequence de novo plant reference genomes at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, CA.

  13. Identification of low-confidence regions in the pig reference genome (Sscrofa10.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eWarr

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many applications of high throughput sequencing rely on the availability of an accurate reference genome. Variant calling often produces large data sets that cannot be realistically validated and which may contain large numbers of false-positives. Errors in the reference assembly increase the number of false-positives. While resources are available to aid in the filtering of variants from human data, for other species these do not yet exist and strict filtering techniques must be employed which are more likely to exclude true-positives. This work assesses the accuracy of the pig reference genome (Sscrofa10.2 using whole genome sequencing reads from the Duroc sow whose genome the assembly was based on. Indicators of structural variation including high regional coverage, unexpected insert sizes, improper pairing and homozygous variants were used to identify low quality (LQ regions of the assembly. Low coverage (LC regions were also identified and analyzed separately. The LQ regions covered 13.85% of the genome, the LC regions covered 26.6% of the genome and combined (LQLC they covered 33.07% of the genome. Over half of dbSNP variants were located in the LQLC regions. Of CNVRs identified in a previous study, 86.3% were located in the LQLC regions. The regions were also enriched for gene predictions from RNA-seq data with 42.98% falling in the LQLC regions. Excluding variants in the LQ, LC or LQLC from future analyses will help reduce the number of false-positive variant calls. Researchers using WGS data should be aware that the current pig reference genome does not give an accurate representation of the copy number of alleles in the original Duroc sow’s genome.

  14. Estimation of genomic prediction accuracy from reference populations with varying degrees of relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Hong Lee

    Full Text Available Genomic prediction is emerging in a wide range of fields including animal and plant breeding, risk prediction in human precision medicine and forensic. It is desirable to establish a theoretical framework for genomic prediction accuracy when the reference data consists of information sources with varying degrees of relationship to the target individuals. A reference set can contain both close and distant relatives as well as 'unrelated' individuals from the wider population in the genomic prediction. The various sources of information were modeled as different populations with different effective population sizes (Ne. Both the effective number of chromosome segments (Me and Ne are considered to be a function of the data used for prediction. We validate our theory with analyses of simulated as well as real data, and illustrate that the variation in genomic relationships with the target is a predictor of the information content of the reference set. With a similar amount of data available for each source, we show that close relatives can have a substantially larger effect on genomic prediction accuracy than lesser related individuals. We also illustrate that when prediction relies on closer relatives, there is less improvement in prediction accuracy with an increase in training data or marker panel density. We release software that can estimate the expected prediction accuracy and power when combining different reference sources with various degrees of relationship to the target, which is useful when planning genomic prediction (before or after collecting data in animal, plant and human genetics.

  15. Functional role of a highly repetitive DNA sequence in anchorage of the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer-Nitsche, B; Lu, X N; Werner, D

    1988-09-12

    The major portion of the eukaryotic genome consists of various categories of repetitive DNA sequences which have been studied with respect to their base compositions, organizations, copy numbers, transcription and species specificities; their biological roles, however, are still unclear. A novel quality of a highly repetitive mouse DNA sequence is described which points to a functional role: All copies (approximately 50,000 per haploid genome) of this DNA sequence reside on genomic Alu I DNA fragments each associated with nuclear polypeptides that are not released from DNA by proteinase K, SDS and phenol extraction. By this quality the repetitive DNA sequence is classified as a member of the sub-set of DNA sequences involved in tight DNA-polypeptide complexes which have been previously shown to be components of the subnuclear structure termed 'nuclear matrix'. From these results it has to be concluded that the repetitive DNA sequence characterized in this report represents or comprises a signal for a large number of site specific attachment points of the mouse genome in the nuclear matrix.

  16. Translating human genetics into mouse: the impact of ultra-rapid in vivo genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida, Tomomi; Imahashi, Risa; Tanaka, Kohichi

    2014-01-01

    Gene-targeted mutant animals, such as knockout or knockin mice, have dramatically improved our understanding of the functions of genes in vivo and the genetic diversity that characterizes health and disease. However, the generation of targeted mice relies on gene targeting in embryonic stem (ES) cells, which is a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. The recent groundbreaking development of several genome editing technologies has enabled the targeted alteration of almost any sequence in any cell or organism. These technologies have now been applied to mouse zygotes (in vivo genome editing), thereby providing new avenues for simple, convenient, and ultra-rapid production of knockout or knockin mice without the need for ES cells. Here, we review recent achievements in the production of gene-targeted mice by in vivo genome editing. © 2013 The Authors Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  17. Brucella abortus strain 2308 Wisconsin genome: importance of the definition of reference strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Suárez-Esquivel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a bacterial infectious disease affecting a wide range of mammals and a neglected zoonosis caused by species of the genetically homogenous genus Brucella. As in most studies on bacterial diseases, research in brucellosis is carried out by using reference strains as canonical models to understand the mechanisms underlying host pathogen interactions. We performed whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis of the reference strain Brucella abortus 2308 routinely used in our laboratory, including manual curated annotation accessible as an editable version at www.wikipedia.Comparison of this genome with two publically available 2308 genomes showed significant differences, particularly indels related to insertional elements, suggesting variability related to the transposition of these elements within the same strain. Considering the outcome of high resolution genomic techniques in the bacteriology field, the conventional concept of strain definition needs to be revised.

  18. Draft genomes and reference transcriptomes extend the coding potential of the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D. Millar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Draft and complete genome sequences from bacteria are key tools to understand genetic determinants involved in pathogenesis in several disease models. Piscirickettsia salmonis is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome (SRS, a bacterial disease that threatens the sustainability of the Chilean salmon industry. In previous reports, complete and draft genome sequences have been generated and annotated. However, the lack of transcriptome data underestimates the genetic potential, does not provide information about transcriptional units and contributes to disseminate annotation errors. Results: Here we present the draft genome and transcriptome sequences of four P. salmonis strains. We have identified the transcriptional architecture of previously characterized virulence factors and trait-specific genes associated to cation uptake, metal efflux, antibiotic resistance, secretion systems and other virulence factors. Conclusions: This data has provided a refined genome annotation and also new insights on the transcriptional structures and coding potential of this fish pathogen.How to cite: Millar AD, Tapia P, Gomez FA, et al. Draft genomes and reference transcriptomes extend the coding potential of the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis. Electron J Biotechnol 2018;33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejbt.2018.04.002. Keywords: Bacterial genomes, Coding potential, Comparative analysis, Draft genome, Piscirickettsia salmonis, Reference transcriptome, Refined annotation, Salmon Rickettsial Syndrome, Salmonids

  19. Genotype Imputation for Latinos Using the HapMap and 1000 Genomes Project Reference Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi eGao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation is a vital tool in genome-wide association studies (GWAS and meta-analyses of multiple GWAS results. Imputation enables researchers to increase genomic coverage and to pool data generated using different genotyping platforms. HapMap samples are often employed as the reference panel. More recently, the 1000 Genomes Project resource is becoming the primary source for reference panels. Multiple GWAS and meta-analyses are targeting Latinos, the most populous and fastest growing minority group in the US. However, genotype imputation resources for Latinos are rather limited compared to individuals of European ancestry at present, largely because of the lack of good reference data. One choice of reference panel for Latinos is one derived from the population of Mexican individuals in Los Angeles contained in the HapMap Phase 3 project and the 1000 Genomes Project. However, a detailed evaluation of the quality of the imputed genotypes derived from the public reference panels has not yet been reported. Using simulation studies, the Illumina OmniExpress GWAS data from the Los Angles Latino Eye Study and the MACH software package, we evaluated the accuracy of genotype imputation in Latinos. Our results show that the 1000 Genomes Project AMR+CEU+YRI reference panel provides the highest imputation accuracy for Latinos, and that also including Asian samples in the panel can reduce imputation accuracy. We also provide the imputation accuracy for each autosomal chromosome using the 1000 Genomes Project panel for Latinos. Our results serve as a guide to future imputation-based analysis in Latinos.

  20. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals human-mouse regulatory landscape and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denas, Olgert; Sandstrom, Richard; Cheng, Yong; Beal, Kathryn; Herrero, Javier; Hardison, Ross C; Taylor, James

    2015-02-14

    Because species-specific gene expression is driven by species-specific regulation, understanding the relationship between sequence and function of the regulatory regions in different species will help elucidate how differences among species arise. Despite active experimental and computational research, relationships among sequence, conservation, and function are still poorly understood. We compared transcription factor occupied segments (TFos) for 116 human and 35 mouse TFs in 546 human and 125 mouse cell types and tissues from the Human and the Mouse ENCODE projects. We based the map between human and mouse TFos on a one-to-one nucleotide cross-species mapper, bnMapper, that utilizes whole genome alignments (WGA). Our analysis shows that TFos are under evolutionary constraint, but a substantial portion (25.1% of mouse and 25.85% of human on average) of the TFos does not have a homologous sequence on the other species; this portion varies among cell types and TFs. Furthermore, 47.67% and 57.01% of the homologous TFos sequence shows binding activity on the other species for human and mouse respectively. However, 79.87% and 69.22% is repurposed such that it binds the same TF in different cells or different TFs in the same cells. Remarkably, within the set of repurposed TFos, the corresponding genome regions in the other species are preferred locations of novel TFos. These events suggest exaptation of some functional regulatory sequences into new function. Despite TFos repurposing, we did not find substantial changes in their predicted target genes, suggesting that CRMs buffer evolutionary events allowing little or no change in the TFos - target gene associations. Thus, the small portion of TFos with strictly conserved occupancy underestimates the degree of conservation of regulatory interactions. We mapped regulatory sequences from an extensive number of TFs and cell types between human and mouse using WGA. A comparative analysis of this correspondence unveiled the

  1. Mapping of Micro-Tom BAC-End Sequences to the Reference Tomato Genome Reveals Possible Genome Rearrangements and Polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamizu, Erika; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Yano, Kentaro; Ariizumi, Tohru; Shibata, Daisuke; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    A total of 93,682 BAC-end sequences (BESs) were generated from a dwarf model tomato, cv. Micro-Tom. After removing repetitive sequences, the BESs were similarity searched against the reference tomato genome of a standard cultivar, “Heinz 1706.” By referring to the “Heinz 1706” physical map and by eliminating redundant or nonsignificant hits, 28,804 “unique pair ends” and 8,263 “unique ends” were selected to construct hypothetical BAC contigs. The total physical length of the BAC contigs was 495, 833, 423 bp, covering 65.3% of the entire genome. The average coverage of euchromatin and heterochromatin was 58.9% and 67.3%, respectively. From this analysis, two possible genome rearrangements were identified: one in chromosome 2 (inversion) and the other in chromosome 3 (inversion and translocation). Polymorphisms (SNPs and Indels) between the two cultivars were identified from the BLAST alignments. As a result, 171,792 polymorphisms were mapped on 12 chromosomes. Among these, 30,930 polymorphisms were found in euchromatin (1 per 3,565 bp) and 140,862 were found in heterochromatin (1 per 2,737 bp). The average polymorphism density in the genome was 1 polymorphism per 2,886 bp. To facilitate the use of these data in Micro-Tom research, the BAC contig and polymorphism information are available in the TOMATOMICS database. PMID:23227037

  2. Multilayered Genetic and Omics Dissection of Mitochondrial Activity in a Mouse Reference Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibo; Williams, Evan G.; Dubuis, Sébastien; Mottis, Adrienne; Jovaisaite, Virginija; Houten, Sander M.; Argmann, Carmen A.; Faridi, Pouya; Wolski, Witold; Kutalik, Zoltán; Zamboni, Nicola; Auwerx, Johan; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The manner by which genotype and environment affect complex phenotypes is one of the fundamental questions in biology. In this study, we quantified the transcriptome—a subset of the metabolome—and, using targeted proteomics, quantified a subset of the liver proteome from 40 strains of the BXD mouse genetic reference population on two diverse diets. We discovered dozens of transcript, protein, and metabolite QTLs, several of which linked to metabolic phenotypes. Most prominently, Dhtkd1 was identified as a primary regulator of 2-aminoadipate, explaining variance in fasted glucose and diabetes status in both mice and humans. These integrated molecular profiles also allowed further characterization of complex pathways, particularly the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). UPRmt shows strikingly variant responses at the transcript and protein level that are remarkably conserved among C. elegans, mice, and humans. Overall, these examples demonstrate the value of an integrated multilayered omics approach to characterize complex metabolic phenotypes. PMID:25215496

  3. A reference genome and methylome for the Plasmodium knowlesi A1-H.1 line

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest Diez

    2017-12-16

    Plasmodium knowlesi, a common parasite of macaques, is recognized as a significant cause of human malaria in Malaysia. The P. knowlesi A1H1 line has been adapted to continuous culture in human erythrocytes, successfully providing an in vitro model to study the parasite. We have assembled a reference genome for the PkA1-H.1 line using PacBio long read combined with Illumina short read sequence data. Compared with the H-strain reference, the new reference has improved genome coverage and a novel description of methylation sites. The PkA1-H.1 reference will enhance the capabilities of the in vitro model to improve the understanding of P. knowlesi infection in humans.

  4. A reference genome and methylome for the Plasmodium knowlesi A1-H.1 line

    KAUST Repository

    Benavente, Ernest Diez; de Sessions, Paola Florez; Moon, Robert W.; Grainger, Munira; Holder, Anthony A; Blackman, Michael J.; Roper, Cally; Drakeley, Christopher J.; Pain, Arnab; Sutherland, Colin J.; Hibberd, Martin L.; Campino, Susana; Clark, Taane G

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi, a common parasite of macaques, is recognized as a significant cause of human malaria in Malaysia. The P. knowlesi A1H1 line has been adapted to continuous culture in human erythrocytes, successfully providing an in vitro model to study the parasite. We have assembled a reference genome for the PkA1-H.1 line using PacBio long read combined with Illumina short read sequence data. Compared with the H-strain reference, the new reference has improved genome coverage and a novel description of methylation sites. The PkA1-H.1 reference will enhance the capabilities of the in vitro model to improve the understanding of P. knowlesi infection in humans.

  5. GATM, the human ortholog of the mouse imprinted Gatm gene, escapes genomic imprinting in placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The GATM gene encodes L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase, which catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine into guanidinoacetate, the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of creatine. Since, deficiencies in creatine synthesis and transport lead to certain forms of mental retardation in human, the human GATM gene appears to be involved in brain development. Recently it has been demonstrated that the mouse Gatm is expressed during development and is imprinted with maternal expression in the placenta and yolk sac, but not in embryonic tissues. We investigated the imprinting status of the human GATM by analyzing its expression in four human placentas. GATM was biallelically expressed, thus suggesting that this gene escapes genomic imprinting in placentas, differently from what has been reported in mouse extra-embryonic tissues.

  6. LEMONS - A Tool for the Identification of Splice Junctions in Transcriptomes of Organisms Lacking Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Levin

    Full Text Available RNA-seq is becoming a preferred tool for genomics studies of model and non-model organisms. However, DNA-based analysis of organisms lacking sequenced genomes cannot rely on RNA-seq data alone to isolate most genes of interest, as DNA codes both exons and introns. With this in mind, we designed a novel tool, LEMONS, that exploits the evolutionary conservation of both exon/intron boundary positions and splice junction recognition signals to produce high throughput splice-junction predictions in the absence of a reference genome. When tested on multiple annotated vertebrate mRNA data, LEMONS accurately identified 87% (average of the splice-junctions. LEMONS was then applied to our updated Mediterranean chameleon transcriptome, which lacks a reference genome, and predicted a total of 90,820 exon-exon junctions. We experimentally verified these splice-junction predictions by amplifying and sequencing twenty randomly selected genes from chameleon DNA templates. Exons and introns were detected in 19 of 20 of the positions predicted by LEMONS. To the best of our knowledge, LEMONS is currently the only experimentally verified tool that can accurately predict splice-junctions in organisms that lack a reference genome.

  7. AGORA : Organellar genome annotation from the amino acid and nucleotide references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Kim, Jong Im; Jeong, Young-Sik; Yi, Gangman

    2018-03-29

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have led to the accumulation of highthroughput sequence data from various organisms in biology. To apply gene annotation of organellar genomes for various organisms, more optimized tools for functional gene annotation are required. Almost all gene annotation tools are mainly focused on the chloroplast genome of land plants or the mitochondrial genome of animals.We have developed a web application AGORA for the fast, user-friendly, and improved annotations of organellar genomes. AGORA annotates genes based on a BLAST-based homology search and clustering with selected reference sequences from the NCBI database or user-defined uploaded data. AGORA can annotate the functional genes in almost all mitochondrion and plastid genomes of eukaryotes. The gene annotation of a genome with an exon-intron structure within a gene or inverted repeat region is also available. It provides information of start and end positions of each gene, BLAST results compared with the reference sequence, and visualization of gene map by OGDRAW. Users can freely use the software, and the accessible URL is https://bigdata.dongguk.edu/gene_project/AGORA/.The main module of the tool is implemented by the python and php, and the web page is built by the HTML and CSS to support all browsers. gangman@dongguk.edu.

  8. Genomic targets of Brachyury (T in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Evans

    Full Text Available The T-box transcription factor Brachyury (T is essential for formation of the posterior mesoderm and the notochord in vertebrate embryos. Work in the frog and the zebrafish has identified some direct genomic targets of Brachyury, but little is known about Brachyury targets in the mouse.Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation and mouse promoter microarrays to identify targets of Brachyury in embryoid bodies formed from differentiating mouse ES cells. The targets we identify are enriched for sequence-specific DNA binding proteins and include components of signal transduction pathways that direct cell fate in the primitive streak and tailbud of the early embryo. Expression of some of these targets, such as Axin2, Fgf8 and Wnt3a, is down regulated in Brachyury mutant embryos and we demonstrate that they are also Brachyury targets in the human. Surprisingly, we do not observe enrichment of the canonical T-domain DNA binding sequence 5'-TCACACCT-3' in the vicinity of most Brachyury target genes. Rather, we have identified an (AC(n repeat sequence, which is conserved in the rat but not in human, zebrafish or Xenopus. We do not understand the significance of this sequence, but speculate that it enhances transcription factor binding in the regulatory regions of Brachyury target genes in rodents.Our work identifies the genomic targets of a key regulator of mesoderm formation in the early mouse embryo, thereby providing insights into the Brachyury-driven genetic regulatory network and allowing us to compare the function of Brachyury in different species.

  9. Genomic localization of the Z/EG transgene in the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sophie; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Lobe, Corrinne; Larue, Lionel

    2010-02-01

    The Z/EG transgenic mouse line, produced by Novak et al., displays tissue-specific EGFP expression after Cre-mediated recombination. The autofluorescence of EGFP allows the visualization of cells of interest displaying Cre recombination. The initial construct was designed such that cells without Cre recombination express the beta-galactosidase marker, facilitating counterselection. We used inverse PCR to identify the site of integration of the Z/EG transgene, to improve the efficiency of homozygous Z/EG mouse production. Recombined cells produced large amounts of EGFP protein, resulting in higher levels of fluorescence and therefore greater contrast with nonrecombined cells. We mapped the transgene to the G1 region of chromosome 5. This random insertion was found to have occurred 230-bp upstream from the start codon of the Rasa4 gene. The insertion of the Z/EG transgene in the C57BL/6 genetic background had no effect on Rasa4 expression. Homozygous Z/EG mice therefore had no obvious phenotype. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Reliabilities of genomic prediction using combined reference data of the Nordic Red dairy cattle production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Rius-Vilarrasa, E; Strandén, I

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of increasing the reliability of direct genomic values (DGV) by combining reference opulations. The data were from 3,735 bulls from Danish, Swedish, and Finnish Red dairy cattle populations. Single nucleotide polymorphism markers were fitted as random varia...

  11. A high-quality human reference panel reveals the complexity and distribution of genomic structural variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hehir-Kwa, J.Y.; Marschall, T.; Kloosterman, W.P.; Francioli, L.C.; Baaijens, J.A.; Dijkstra, L.J.; Abdellaoui, A.; Koval, V.; Thung, D.T.; Wardenaar, R.; Renkens, I.; Coe, B.P.; Deelen, P.; de Ligt, J.; Lameijer, E.W.; Dijk, F.; Hormozdiari, F.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; van Duijn, C.M.; Eichler, E.E.; Bakker, P.I.W.; Swertz, M.A.; Wijmenga, C.; van Ommen, G.J.B; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; Schönhuth, A.; Ye, K.; Guryev, V.

    2016-01-01

    Structural variation (SV) represents a major source of differences between individual human genomes and has been linked to disease phenotypes. However, the majority of studies provide neither a global view of the full spectrum of these variants nor integrate them into reference panels of genetic

  12. Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of human genomes are now being sequenced to characterize genetic variation and use this information to augment association mapping studies of complex disorders and other phenotypic traits. Genetic variation is identified mainly by mapping short reads to the reference genome......-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set...... or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high...

  13. Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Hundreds of thousands of human genomes are now being sequenced to characterize genetic variation and use this information to augment association mapping studies of complex disorders and other phenotypic traits. Genetic variation is identified mainly by mapping short reads to the reference genome...... or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high......-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set...

  14. Novel mouse model recapitulates genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Nicole E; Padilla-Nash, Hesed M; Buishand, Floryne O; Hue, Yue; Ried, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Human colorectal carcinomas are defined by a nonrandom distribution of genomic imbalances that are characteristic for this disease. Often, these imbalances affect entire chromosomes. Understanding the role of these aneuploidies for carcinogenesis is of utmost importance. Currently, established transgenic mice do not recapitulate the pathognonomic genome aberration profile of human colorectal carcinomas. We have developed a novel model based on the spontaneous transformation of murine colon epithelial cells. During this process, cells progress through stages of pre-immortalization, immortalization and, finally, transformation, and result in tumors when injected into immunocompromised mice. We analyzed our model for genome and transcriptome alterations using ArrayCGH, spectral karyotyping (SKY), and array based gene expression profiling. ArrayCGH revealed a recurrent pattern of genomic imbalances. These results were confirmed by SKY. Comparing these imbalances with orthologous maps of human chromosomes revealed a remarkable overlap. We observed focal deletions of the tumor suppressor genes Trp53 and Cdkn2a/p16. High-level focal genomic amplification included the locus harboring the oncogene Mdm2, which was confirmed by FISH in the form of double minute chromosomes. Array-based global gene expression revealed distinct differences between the sequential steps of spontaneous transformation. Gene expression changes showed significant similarities with human colorectal carcinomas. Pathways most prominently affected included genes involved in chromosomal instability and in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our novel mouse model therefore recapitulates the most prominent genome and transcriptome alterations in human colorectal cancer, and might serve as a valuable tool for understanding the dynamic process of tumorigenesis, and for preclinical drug testing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Alignment of 1000 Genomes Project reads to reference assembly GRCh38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng-Bradley, Xiangqun; Streeter, Ian; Fairley, Susan; Richardson, David; Clarke, Laura; Flicek, Paul

    2017-07-01

    The 1000 Genomes Project produced more than 100 trillion basepairs of short read sequence from more than 2600 samples in 26 populations over a period of five years. In its final phase, the project released over 85 million genotyped and phased variants on human reference genome assembly GRCh37. An updated reference assembly, GRCh38, was released in late 2013, but there was insufficient time for the final phase of the project analysis to change to the new assembly. Although it is possible to lift the coordinates of the 1000 Genomes Project variants to the new assembly, this is a potentially error-prone process as coordinate remapping is most appropriate only for non-repetitive regions of the genome and those that did not see significant change between the two assemblies. It will also miss variants in any region that was newly added to GRCh38. Thus, to produce the highest quality variants and genotypes on GRCh38, the best strategy is to realign the reads and recall the variants based on the new alignment. As the first step of variant calling for the 1000 Genomes Project data, we have finished remapping all of the 1000 Genomes sequence reads to GRCh38 with alternative scaffold-aware BWA-MEM. The resulting alignments are available as CRAM, a reference-based sequence compression format. The data have been released on our FTP site and are also available from European Nucleotide Archive to facilitate researchers discovering variants on the primary sequences and alternative contigs of GRCh38. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Cre Fused with RVG Peptide Mediates Targeted Genome Editing in Mouse Brain Cells In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiyuan; Sun, Zhaolin; Li, Pan; Feng, Tao; Wu, Sen

    2016-12-14

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short peptides that can pass through cell membranes. CPPs can facilitate the cellular entry of proteins, macromolecules, nanoparticles and drugs. RVG peptide (RVG hereinafter) is a 29-amino-acid CPP derived from a rabies virus glycoprotein that can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter brain cells. However, whether RVG can be used for genome editing in the brain has not been reported. In this work, we combined RVG with Cre recombinase for bacterial expression. The purified RVG-Cre protein cut plasmids in vitro and traversed cell membranes in cultured Neuro2a cells. By tail vein-injecting RVG-Cre into Cre reporter mouse lines mTmG and Rosa26 lacZ , we demonstrated that RVG-Cre could target brain cells and achieve targeted somatic genome editing in adult mice. This direct delivery of the gene-editing enzyme protein into mouse brains with RVG is much safer than plasmid- or viral-based methods, holding promise for further applications in the treatment of various brain diseases.

  17. Zebrafish syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes revealed by radiation hybrid mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samonte, Irene E.

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model system for vertebrate developmental analysis and a new model for human disorders. In this study, however, zebrafish was used to determine its syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes using the zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel. The focus was on genes residing on chromosomes 6 and 17 of human and mouse, respectively, and some other genes of either immunologic or evolutionary importance. Gene sequences of interest and zebrafish expressed sequence tags deposited in the GenBank were used in identifying zebrafish homologs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning and subcloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were done to confirm the homology of the candidate genes in zebrafish. The promising markers were then tested in the 94 zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel cell lines and submitted for logarithm of the odds (LOD) score analysis to position genes on the zebrafish map. A total of 19 loci were successfully mapped to zebrafish linkage groups 1, 14, 15, 19, and 20. Four of these loci were positioned in linkage group 20, whereas, 3 more loci were added in linkage group 19, thus increasing to 34 loci the number of human genes syntenic to the group. With the sequencing of the zebrafish genome, about 20 more MHC genes were reported linked on the same group. (Author)

  18. The value of cows in reference populations for genomic selection of new functional traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Line Hjortø; Kargo, Morten; Berg, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Today, almost all reference populations consist of progeny tested bulls. However, older progeny tested bulls do not have reliable estimated breeding values (EBV) for new traits. Thus, to be able to select for these new traits, it is necessary to build a reference population. We used a deterministic...... of the direct genomic values (DGV) for a new functional trait, regardless of its heritability. For small-scale recording, we compared two scenarios where the reference population consisted of the 2000 cows with phenotypic records or the 30 sires of these cows in the first year with measurements of the new...... to achieve accuracies of the DGV that enable selection for new functional traits recorded on a large scale within 3 years from commencement of recording; and (iv) a higher heritability benefits a reference population of cows more than a reference population of bulls....

  19. Comparison of HapMap and 1000 Genomes Reference Panels in a Large-Scale Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S de Vries

    Full Text Available An increasing number of genome-wide association (GWA studies are now using the higher resolution 1000 Genomes Project reference panel (1000G for imputation, with the expectation that 1000G imputation will lead to the discovery of additional associated loci when compared to HapMap imputation. In order to assess the improvement of 1000G over HapMap imputation in identifying associated loci, we compared the results of GWA studies of circulating fibrinogen based on the two reference panels. Using both HapMap and 1000G imputation we performed a meta-analysis of 22 studies comprising the same 91,953 individuals. We identified six additional signals using 1000G imputation, while 29 loci were associated using both HapMap and 1000G imputation. One locus identified using HapMap imputation was not significant using 1000G imputation. The genome-wide significance threshold of 5×10-8 is based on the number of independent statistical tests using HapMap imputation, and 1000G imputation may lead to further independent tests that should be corrected for. When using a stricter Bonferroni correction for the 1000G GWA study (P-value < 2.5×10-8, the number of loci significant only using HapMap imputation increased to 4 while the number of loci significant only using 1000G decreased to 5. In conclusion, 1000G imputation enabled the identification of 20% more loci than HapMap imputation, although the advantage of 1000G imputation became less clear when a stricter Bonferroni correction was used. More generally, our results provide insights that are applicable to the implementation of other dense reference panels that are under development.

  20. The first draft reference genome of the American mink ( Neovison vison )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Zexi; Petersen, Bent; Sahana, Goutam

    2017-01-01

    The American mink (Neovison vison) is a semiaquatic species of mustelid native to North America. It’s an important animal for the fur industry. Many efforts have been made to locate genes influencing fur quality and color, but this search has been impeded by the lack of a reference genome. Here we...... present the first draft genome of mink. In our study, two mink individuals were sequenced by Illumina sequencing with 797 Gb sequence generated. Assembly yielded 7,175 scaffolds with an N50 of 6.3 Mb and length of 2.4 Gb including gaps. Repeat sequences constitute around 31% of the genome, which is lower...

  1. Diversity in non-repetitive human sequences not found in the reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Birte; Helgadottir, Anna; Melsted, Pall; Jonsson, Hakon; Helgason, Hannes; Jonasdottir, Adalbjörg; Jonasdottir, Aslaug; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gylfason, Arnaldur; Halldorsson, Gisli H; Kristmundsdottir, Snaedis; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Olafsson, Isleifur; Holm, Hilma; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Sulem, Patrick; Helgason, Agnar; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Halldorsson, Bjarni V; Stefansson, Kari

    2017-04-01

    Genomes usually contain some non-repetitive sequences that are missing from the reference genome and occur only in a population subset. Such non-repetitive, non-reference (NRNR) sequences have remained largely unexplored in terms of their characterization and downstream analyses. Here we describe 3,791 breakpoint-resolved NRNR sequence variants called using PopIns from whole-genome sequence data of 15,219 Icelanders. We found that over 95% of the 244 NRNR sequences that are 200 bp or longer are present in chimpanzees, indicating that they are ancestral. Furthermore, 149 variant loci are in linkage disequilibrium (r 2 > 0.8) with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) catalog marker, suggesting disease relevance. Additionally, we report an association (P = 3.8 × 10 -8 , odds ratio (OR) = 0.92) with myocardial infarction (23,360 cases, 300,771 controls) for a 766-bp NRNR sequence variant. Our results underline the importance of including variation of all complexity levels when searching for variants that associate with disease.

  2. An advanced reference genome of Trifolium subterraneum L. reveals genes related to agronomic performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaur, P.; Bayer, P.E.; Milec, Zbyněk; Vrána, Jan; Yuan, Y.; Appels, R.; Edwards, D.; Batley, J.; Nichols, P.; Erskine, W.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 8 (2017), s. 1034-1046 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : advanced reference assembly * BioNano * forage legumes * gene expression * Legume comparative genomics * transcriptome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Environmental biotechnology Impact factor: 7.443, year: 2016

  3. Effect of genotyped cows in the reference population on the genomic evaluation of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, Y; Osawa, T; Saburi, J

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the dependence of reliability and prediction bias on the prediction method, the contribution of including animals (bulls or cows), and the genetic relatedness, when including genotyped cows in the progeny-tested bull reference population. We performed genomic evaluation using a Japanese Holstein population, and assessed the accuracy of genomic enhanced breeding value (GEBV) for three production traits and 13 linear conformation traits. A total of 4564 animals for production traits and 4172 animals for conformation traits were genotyped using Illumina BovineSNP50 array. Single- and multi-step methods were compared for predicting GEBV in genotyped bull-only and genotyped bull-cow reference populations. No large differences in realized reliability and regression coefficient were found between the two reference populations; however, a slight difference was found between the two methods for production traits. The accuracy of GEBV determined by single-step method increased slightly when genotyped cows were included in the bull reference population, but decreased slightly by multi-step method. A validation study was used to evaluate the accuracy of GEBV when 800 additional genotyped bulls (POPbull) or cows (POPcow) were included in the base reference population composed of 2000 genotyped bulls. The realized reliabilities of POPbull were higher than those of POPcow for all traits. For the gain of realized reliability over the base reference population, the average ratios of POPbull gain to POPcow gain for production traits and conformation traits were 2.6 and 7.2, respectively, and the ratios depended on heritabilities of the traits. For regression coefficient, no large differences were found between the results for POPbull and POPcow. Another validation study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic relatedness between cows and bulls in the reference and test populations. The effect of genetic relationship among bulls in the reference

  4. Simulated space radiation-induced mutants in the mouse kidney display widespread genomic change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell S Turker

    Full Text Available Exposure to a small number of high-energy heavy charged particles (HZE ions, as found in the deep space environment, could significantly affect astronaut health following prolonged periods of space travel if these ions induce mutations and related cancers. In this study, we used an in vivo mutagenesis assay to define the mutagenic effects of accelerated 56Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, 151 keV/μm in the mouse kidney epithelium exposed to doses ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 Gy. These doses represent fluences ranging from 1 to 8 particle traversals per cell nucleus. The Aprt locus, located on chromosome 8, was used to select induced and spontaneous mutants. To fully define the mutagenic effects, we used multiple endpoints including mutant frequencies, mutation spectrum for chromosome 8, translocations involving chromosome 8, and mutations affecting non-selected chromosomes. The results demonstrate mutagenic effects that often affect multiple chromosomes for all Fe ion doses tested. For comparison with the most abundant sparsely ionizing particle found in space, we also examined the mutagenic effects of high-energy protons (1 GeV, 0.24 keV/μm at 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. Similar doses of protons were not as mutagenic as Fe ions for many assays, though genomic effects were detected in Aprt mutants at these doses. Considered as a whole, the data demonstrate that Fe ions are highly mutagenic at the low doses and fluences of relevance to human spaceflight, and that cells with considerable genomic mutations are readily induced by these exposures and persist in the kidney epithelium. The level of genomic change produced by low fluence exposure to heavy ions is reminiscent of the extensive rearrangements seen in tumor genomes suggesting a potential initiation step in radiation carcinogenesis.

  5. Simulated space radiation-induced mutants in the mouse kidney display widespread genomic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Mitchell S; Grygoryev, Dmytro; Lasarev, Michael; Ohlrich, Anna; Rwatambuga, Furaha A; Johnson, Sorrel; Dan, Cristian; Eckelmann, Bradley; Hryciw, Gwen; Mao, Jian-Hua; Snijders, Antoine M; Gauny, Stacey; Kronenberg, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to a small number of high-energy heavy charged particles (HZE ions), as found in the deep space environment, could significantly affect astronaut health following prolonged periods of space travel if these ions induce mutations and related cancers. In this study, we used an in vivo mutagenesis assay to define the mutagenic effects of accelerated 56Fe ions (1 GeV/amu, 151 keV/μm) in the mouse kidney epithelium exposed to doses ranging from 0.25 to 2.0 Gy. These doses represent fluences ranging from 1 to 8 particle traversals per cell nucleus. The Aprt locus, located on chromosome 8, was used to select induced and spontaneous mutants. To fully define the mutagenic effects, we used multiple endpoints including mutant frequencies, mutation spectrum for chromosome 8, translocations involving chromosome 8, and mutations affecting non-selected chromosomes. The results demonstrate mutagenic effects that often affect multiple chromosomes for all Fe ion doses tested. For comparison with the most abundant sparsely ionizing particle found in space, we also examined the mutagenic effects of high-energy protons (1 GeV, 0.24 keV/μm) at 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. Similar doses of protons were not as mutagenic as Fe ions for many assays, though genomic effects were detected in Aprt mutants at these doses. Considered as a whole, the data demonstrate that Fe ions are highly mutagenic at the low doses and fluences of relevance to human spaceflight, and that cells with considerable genomic mutations are readily induced by these exposures and persist in the kidney epithelium. The level of genomic change produced by low fluence exposure to heavy ions is reminiscent of the extensive rearrangements seen in tumor genomes suggesting a potential initiation step in radiation carcinogenesis.

  6. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  7. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingebjørg H Nymo

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  8. Impact of the choice of reference genome on the ability of the core genome SNV methodology to distinguish strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usongo, Valentine; Berry, Chrystal; Yousfi, Khadidja; Doualla-Bell, Florence; Labbé, Genevieve; Johnson, Roger; Fournier, Eric; Nadon, Celine; Goodridge, Lawrence; Bekal, Sadjia

    2018-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (S. Heidelberg) is one of the top serovars causing human salmonellosis. The core genome single nucleotide variant pipeline (cgSNV) is one of several whole genome based sequence typing methods used for the laboratory investigation of foodborne pathogens. SNV detection using this method requires a reference genome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the choice of the reference genome on the cgSNV-informed phylogenetic clustering and inferred isolate relationships. We found that using a draft or closed genome of S. Heidelberg as reference did not impact the ability of the cgSNV methodology to differentiate among 145 S. Heidelberg isolates involved in foodborne outbreaks. We also found that using a distantly related genome such as S. Dublin as choice of reference led to a loss in resolution since some sporadic isolates were found to cluster together with outbreak isolates. In addition, the genetic distances between outbreak isolates as well as between outbreak and sporadic isolates were overall reduced when S. Dublin was used as the reference genome as opposed to S. Heidelberg.

  9. Isolation of three novel rat and mouse papillomaviruses and their genomic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Schulz

    Full Text Available Despite a growing knowledge about the biological diversity of papillomaviruses (PV, only little is known about non-human PV in general and about PV mice models in particular. We cloned and sequenced the complete genomes of two novel PV types from the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus; RnPV2 and the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus; AsPV1 as well as a novel variant of the recently described MmuPV1 (originally designated as MusPV from a house mouse (Mus musculus; MmuPV1 variant. In addition, we conducted phylogenetic analyses using a systematically representative set of 79 PV types, including the novel sequences. As inferred from concatenated amino acid sequences of six proteins, MmuPV1 variant and AsPV1 nested within the Beta+Xi-PV super taxon as members of the Pi-PV. RnPV2 is a member of the Iota-PV that has a distant phylogenetic position from Pi-PV. The phylogenetic results support a complex scenario of PV diversification driven by different evolutionary forces including co-divergence with hosts and adaptive radiations to new environments. PV types particularly isolated from mice and rats are the basis for new animal models, which are valuable to study PV induced tumors and new treatment options.

  10. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E.

    2015-01-01

    North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster derive from both European and African source populations, but despite their importance for genetic research, patterns of ancestry along their genomes are largely undocumented. Here, I infer geographic ancestry along genomes of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the D. melanogaster reference genome, which may have implications for reference alignment, association mapping, and population genomic studies in Drosophila. Overall, the proportion of African ancestry was estimated to be 20% for the DGRP and 9% for the reference genome. Combining my estimate of admixture timing with historical records, I provide the first estimate of natural generation time for this species (approximately 15 generations per year). Ancestry levels were found to vary strikingly across the genome, with less African introgression on the X chromosome, in regions of high recombination, and at genes involved in specific processes (e.g., circadian rhythm). An important role for natural selection during the admixture process was further supported by evidence that many unlinked pairs of loci showed a deficiency of Africa–Europe allele combinations between them. Numerous epistatic fitness interactions may therefore exist between African and European genotypes, leading to ongoing selection against incompatible variants. By focusing on hubs in this network of fitness interactions, I identified a set of interacting loci that include genes with roles in sensation and neuropeptide/hormone reception. These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. PMID:26354524

  11. Reference genome-independent assessment of mutation density using restriction enzyme-phased sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monson-Miller Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of low cost sequencing has spurred its application to discovery and typing of variation, including variation induced by mutagenesis. Mutation discovery is challenging as it requires a substantial amount of sequencing and analysis to detect very rare changes and distinguish them from noise. Also challenging are the cases when the organism of interest has not been sequenced or is highly divergent from the reference. Results We describe the development of a simple method for reduced representation sequencing. Input DNA was digested with a single restriction enzyme and ligated to Y adapters modified to contain a sequence barcode and to provide a compatible overhang for ligation. We demonstrated the efficiency of this method at SNP discovery using rice and arabidopsis. To test its suitability for the discovery of very rare SNP, one control and three mutagenized rice individuals (1, 5 and 10 mM sodium azide were used to prepare genomic libraries for Illumina sequencers by ligating barcoded adapters to NlaIII restriction sites. For genome-dependent discovery 15-30 million of 80 base reads per individual were aligned to the reference sequence achieving individual sequencing coverage from 7 to 15×. We identified high-confidence base changes by comparing sequences across individuals and identified instances consistent with mutations, i.e. changes that were found in a single treated individual and were solely GC to AT transitions. For genome-independent discovery 70-mers were extracted from the sequence of the control individual and single-copy sequence was identified by comparing the 70-mers across samples to evaluate copy number and variation. This de novo "genome" was used to align the reads and identify mutations as above. Covering approximately 1/5 of the 380 Mb genome of rice we detected mutation densities ranging from 0.6 to 4 per Mb of diploid DNA depending on the mutagenic treatment. Conclusions The

  12. Exploiting a Reference Genome in Terms of Duplications: The Network of Paralogs and Single Copy Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Sangiovanni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis thaliana became the model organism for plant studies because of its small diploid genome, rapid lifecycle and short adult size. Its genome was the first among plants to be sequenced, becoming the reference in plant genomics. However, the Arabidopsis genome is characterized by an inherently complex organization, since it has undergone ancient whole genome duplications, followed by gene reduction, diploidization events and extended rearrangements, which relocated and split up the retained portions. These events, together with probable chromosome reductions, dramatically increased the genome complexity, limiting its role as a reference. The identification of paralogs and single copy genes within a highly duplicated genome is a prerequisite to understand its organization and evolution and to improve its exploitation in comparative genomics. This is still controversial, even in the widely studied Arabidopsis genome. This is also due to the lack of a reference bioinformatics pipeline that could exhaustively identify paralogs and singleton genes. We describe here a complete computational strategy to detect both duplicated and single copy genes in a genome, discussing all the methodological issues that may strongly affect the results, their quality and their reliability. This approach was used to analyze the organization of Arabidopsis nuclear protein coding genes, and besides classifying computationally defined paralogs into networks and single copy genes into different classes, it unraveled further intriguing aspects concerning the genome annotation and the gene relationships in this reference plant species. Since our results may be useful for comparative genomics and genome functional analyses, we organized a dedicated web interface to make them accessible to the scientific community.

  13. Accuracy of genomic selection for alfalfa biomass yield in different reference populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annicchiarico, Paolo; Nazzicari, Nelson; Li, Xuehui; Wei, Yanling; Pecetti, Luciano; Brummer, E Charles

    2015-12-01

    Genomic selection based on genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data could accelerate alfalfa yield gains, if it displayed moderate ability to predict parent breeding values. Its interest would be enhanced by predicting ability also for germplasm/reference populations other than those for which it was defined. Predicting accuracy may be influenced by statistical models, SNP calling procedures and missing data imputation strategies. Landrace and variety material from two genetically-contrasting reference populations, i.e., 124 elite genotypes adapted to the Po Valley (sub-continental climate; PV population) and 154 genotypes adapted to Mediterranean-climate environments (Me population), were genotyped by GBS and phenotyped in separate environments for dry matter yield of their dense-planted half-sib progenies. Both populations showed no sub-population genetic structure. Predictive accuracy was higher by joint rather than separate SNP calling for the two data sets, and using random forest imputation of missing data. Highest accuracy was obtained using Support Vector Regression (SVR) for PV, and Ridge Regression BLUP and SVR for Me germplasm. Bayesian methods (Bayes A, Bayes B and Bayesian Lasso) tended to be less accurate. Random Forest Regression was the least accurate model. Accuracy attained about 0.35 for Me in the range of 0.30-0.50 missing data, and 0.32 for PV at 0.50 missing data, using at least 10,000 SNP markers. Cross-population predictions based on a smaller subset of common SNPs implied a relative loss of accuracy of about 25% for Me and 30% for PV. Genome-wide association analyses based on large subsets of M. truncatula-aligned markers revealed many SNPs with modest association with yield, and some genome areas hosting putative QTLs. A comparison of genomic vs. conventional selection for parent breeding value assuming 1-year vs. 5-year selection cycles, respectively, indicated over three-fold greater predicted yield gain per unit time for genomic selection

  14. Inclusion of Population-specific Reference Panel from India to the 1000 Genomes Phase 3 Panel Improves Imputation Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Meraj; Sinha, Anubhav; Ghosh, Sreya; Kumar, Vikrant; Davila, Sonia; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Chandak, Giriraj R

    2017-07-27

    Imputation is a computational method based on the principle of haplotype sharing allowing enrichment of genome-wide association study datasets. It depends on the haplotype structure of the population and density of the genotype data. The 1000 Genomes Project led to the generation of imputation reference panels which have been used globally. However, recent studies have shown that population-specific panels provide better enrichment of genome-wide variants. We compared the imputation accuracy using 1000 Genomes phase 3 reference panel and a panel generated from genome-wide data on 407 individuals from Western India (WIP). The concordance of imputed variants was cross-checked with next-generation re-sequencing data on a subset of genomic regions. Further, using the genome-wide data from 1880 individuals, we demonstrate that WIP works better than the 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel and when merged with it, significantly improves the imputation accuracy throughout the minor allele frequency range. We also show that imputation using only South Asian component of the 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel works as good as the merged panel, making it computationally less intensive job. Thus, our study stresses that imputation accuracy using 1000 Genomes phase 3 panel can be further improved by including population-specific reference panels from South Asia.

  15. Genetic localization of Cd63, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily, reveals two distinct loci in the mouse genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwynn, B.; Eicher, E.M.; Peters, L.L. [Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)

    1996-07-15

    The membrane protein CD63, a molecular marker for early stages of melanoma progression, has been associated with platelet storage pool deficiency disorders (SPD). CD63 localizes to the membranes of platelets, lysosomes, and melanosomes, all of which are affected in a specific subgroup of SPD. The cDNA encoding CD63 detects two closely related sequences that map to different regions of the mouse genome. One locus maps to mouse Chromosome (Chr) 10 in a region that shares linkage homology with the human chromosome encoding human CD63. The second locus maps to mouse Chr 18 in a region that bears no known human CD63-related genes. No SPD has been localized to these regions of either the mouse or the human chromosomes. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Evidence based selection of commonly used RT-qPCR reference genes for the analysis of mouse skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen C Thomas

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain accurate and reproducible data using quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR is limited by the process of data normalization. The use of 'housekeeping' or 'reference' genes is the most common technique used to normalize RT-qPCR data. However, commonly used reference genes are often poorly validated and may change as a result of genetic background, environment and experimental intervention. Here we present an analysis of 10 reference genes in mouse skeletal muscle (Actb, Aldoa, Gapdh, Hprt1, Ppia, Rer1, Rn18s, Rpl27, Rpl41 and Rpl7L1, which were identified as stable either by microarray or in the literature. Using the MIQE guidelines we compared wild-type (WT mice across three genetic backgrounds (R129, C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 as well as analyzing the α-actinin-3 knockout (Actn3 KO mouse, which is a model of the common null polymorphism (R577X in human ACTN3. Comparing WT mice across three genetic backgrounds, we found that different genes were more tightly regulated in each strain. We have developed a ranked profile of the top performing reference genes in skeletal muscle across these common mouse strains. Interestingly the commonly used reference genes; Gapdh, Rn18s, Hprt1 and Actb were not the most stable. Analysis of our experimental variant (Actn3 KO also resulted in an altered ranking of reference gene suitability. Furthermore we demonstrate that a poor reference gene results in increased variability in the normalized expression of a gene of interest, and can result in loss of significance. Our data demonstrate that reference genes need to be validated prior to use. For the most accurate normalization, it is important to test several genes and use the geometric mean of at least three of the most stably expressed genes. In the analysis of mouse skeletal muscle, strain and intervention played an important role in selecting the most stable reference genes.

  17. Generation of Mouse Haploid Somatic Cells by Small Molecules for Genome-wide Genetic Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Quan He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of derivation of mammalian haploid embryonic stem cells (haESCs has provided a powerful tool for large-scale functional analysis of the mammalian genome. However, haESCs rapidly become diploidized after differentiation, posing challenges for genetic analysis. Here, we show that the spontaneous diploidization of haESCs happens in metaphase due to mitotic slippage. Diploidization can be suppressed by small-molecule-mediated inhibition of CDK1 and ROCK. Through ROCK inhibition, we can generate haploid somatic cells of all three germ layers from haESCs, including terminally differentiated neurons. Using piggyBac transposon-based insertional mutagenesis, we generated a haploid neural cell library harboring genome-wide mutations for genetic screening. As a proof of concept, we screened for Mn2+-mediated toxicity and identified the Park2 gene. Our findings expand the applications of mouse haploid cell technology to somatic cell types and may also shed light on the mechanisms of ploidy maintenance.

  18. Genome editing in mouse spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells using engineered nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Fanslow

    Full Text Available Editing the genome to create specific sequence modifications is a powerful way to study gene function and promises future applicability to gene therapy. Creation of precise modifications requires homologous recombination, a very rare event in most cell types that can be stimulated by introducing a double strand break near the target sequence. One method to create a double strand break in a particular sequence is with a custom designed nuclease. We used engineered nucleases to stimulate homologous recombination to correct a mutant gene in mouse "GS" (germline stem cells, testicular derived cell cultures containing spermatogonial stem cells and progenitor cells. We demonstrated that gene-corrected cells maintained several properties of spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells including the ability to colonize following testicular transplantation. This proof of concept for genome editing in GS cells impacts both cell therapy and basic research given the potential for GS cells to be propagated in vitro, contribute to the germline in vivo following testicular transplantation or become reprogrammed to pluripotency in vitro.

  19. Genotyping cows for the reference increase reliability of genomic prediction in a small breed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that adding cows to the reference population in a breed with a small number of reference bulls would increase reliabilities of genomic breeding values and genetic gain. We tested this premise by comparing two strategies for maintaining the reference population for genetic gain......, inbreeding and reliabilities of genomic predictions: 1) Adding 60 progeny tested bulls each year (B), and 2) in addition to 60 progeny tested bulls, adding 2,000 genotyped cows per year (C). Two breeding schemes were tested: 1) A turbo scheme (T) with only genotyped young bulls used intensively, and 2...... compared to the H-B, at the same level of ∆F. T-C yielded 15% higher ∆G compared t o T-B. Changing the breeding scheme from H-B to H-C increased ∆G by 5.5%. The lowest ∆F was observed with genotyping of cows. Reliabilities of GEBV in the C schemes showed a steep increase in reliability during the first...

  20. Locus Reference Genomic sequences: An improved basis for describing human DNA variants

    KAUST Repository

    Dalgleish, Raymond; Flicek, Paul; Cunningham, Fiona; Astashyn, Alex; Tully, Raymond E; Proctor, Glenn; Chen, Yuan; McLaren, William M; Larsson, Pontus; Vaughan, Brendan W; Bé roud, Christophe; Dobson, Glen; Lehvä slaiho, Heikki; Taschner, Peter EM; den Dunnen, Johan T; Devereau, Andrew; Birney, Ewan; Brookes, Anthony J; Maglott, Donna R

    2010-01-01

    As our knowledge of the complexity of gene architecture grows, and we increase our understanding of the subtleties of gene expression, the process of accurately describing disease-causing gene variants has become increasingly problematic. In part, this is due to current reference DNA sequence formats that do not fully meet present needs. Here we present the Locus Reference Genomic (LRG) sequence format, which has been designed for the specifi c purpose of gene variant reporting. The format builds on the successful National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) RefSeqGene project and provides a single-fi le record containing a uniquely stable reference DNA sequence along with all relevant transcript and protein sequences essential to the description of gene variants. In principle, LRGs can be created for any organism, not just human. In addition, we recognize the need to respect legacy numbering systems for exons and amino acids and the LRG format takes account of these. We hope that widespread adoption of LRGs - which will be created and maintained by the NCBI and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) - along with consistent use of the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS)- approved variant nomenclature will reduce errors in the reporting of variants in the literature and improve communication about variants aff ecting human health. Further information can be found on the LRG web site (http://www.lrg-sequence.org). 2010 Dalgleish et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  1. Locus Reference Genomic sequences: An improved basis for describing human DNA variants

    KAUST Repository

    Dalgleish, Raymond

    2010-04-15

    As our knowledge of the complexity of gene architecture grows, and we increase our understanding of the subtleties of gene expression, the process of accurately describing disease-causing gene variants has become increasingly problematic. In part, this is due to current reference DNA sequence formats that do not fully meet present needs. Here we present the Locus Reference Genomic (LRG) sequence format, which has been designed for the specifi c purpose of gene variant reporting. The format builds on the successful National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) RefSeqGene project and provides a single-fi le record containing a uniquely stable reference DNA sequence along with all relevant transcript and protein sequences essential to the description of gene variants. In principle, LRGs can be created for any organism, not just human. In addition, we recognize the need to respect legacy numbering systems for exons and amino acids and the LRG format takes account of these. We hope that widespread adoption of LRGs - which will be created and maintained by the NCBI and the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) - along with consistent use of the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS)- approved variant nomenclature will reduce errors in the reporting of variants in the literature and improve communication about variants aff ecting human health. Further information can be found on the LRG web site (http://www.lrg-sequence.org). 2010 Dalgleish et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. RSEM: accurate transcript quantification from RNA-Seq data with or without a reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewey Colin N

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA-Seq is revolutionizing the way transcript abundances are measured. A key challenge in transcript quantification from RNA-Seq data is the handling of reads that map to multiple genes or isoforms. This issue is particularly important for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies in the absence of sequenced genomes, as it is difficult to determine which transcripts are isoforms of the same gene. A second significant issue is the design of RNA-Seq experiments, in terms of the number of reads, read length, and whether reads come from one or both ends of cDNA fragments. Results We present RSEM, an user-friendly software package for quantifying gene and isoform abundances from single-end or paired-end RNA-Seq data. RSEM outputs abundance estimates, 95% credibility intervals, and visualization files and can also simulate RNA-Seq data. In contrast to other existing tools, the software does not require a reference genome. Thus, in combination with a de novo transcriptome assembler, RSEM enables accurate transcript quantification for species without sequenced genomes. On simulated and real data sets, RSEM has superior or comparable performance to quantification methods that rely on a reference genome. Taking advantage of RSEM's ability to effectively use ambiguously-mapping reads, we show that accurate gene-level abundance estimates are best obtained with large numbers of short single-end reads. On the other hand, estimates of the relative frequencies of isoforms within single genes may be improved through the use of paired-end reads, depending on the number of possible splice forms for each gene. Conclusions RSEM is an accurate and user-friendly software tool for quantifying transcript abundances from RNA-Seq data. As it does not rely on the existence of a reference genome, it is particularly useful for quantification with de novo transcriptome assemblies. In addition, RSEM has enabled valuable guidance for cost

  3. An analysis of possible off target effects following CAS9/CRISPR targeted deletions of neuropeptide gene enhancers from the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Elizabeth Anne; Khalaf, Abdulla Razak; Marini, Pietro; Brown, Andrew; Heath, Karyn; Sheppard, Darrin; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2017-08-01

    We have successfully used comparative genomics to identify putative regulatory elements within the human genome that contribute to the tissue specific expression of neuropeptides such as galanin and receptors such as CB1. However, a previous inability to rapidly delete these elements from the mouse genome has prevented optimal assessment of their function in-vivo. This has been solved using CAS9/CRISPR genome editing technology which uses a bacterial endonuclease called CAS9 that, in combination with specifically designed guide RNA (gRNA) molecules, cuts specific regions of the mouse genome. However, reports of "off target" effects, whereby the CAS9 endonuclease is able to cut sites other than those targeted, limits the appeal of this technology. We used cytoplasmic microinjection of gRNA and CAS9 mRNA into 1-cell mouse embryos to rapidly generate enhancer knockout mouse lines. The current study describes our analysis of the genomes of these enhancer knockout lines to detect possible off-target effects. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the most likely putative off-target sites and to design PCR primers that would amplify these sequences from genomic DNA of founder enhancer deletion mouse lines. Amplified DNA was then sequenced and blasted against the mouse genome sequence to detect off-target effects. Using this approach we were unable to detect any evidence of off-target effects in the genomes of three founder lines using any of the four gRNAs used in the analysis. This study suggests that the problem of off-target effects in transgenic mice have been exaggerated and that CAS9/CRISPR represents a highly effective and accurate method of deleting putative neuropeptide gene enhancer sequences from the mouse genome. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome wide analysis of inbred mouse lines identifies a locus containing Ppar-gamma as contributing to enhanced malaria survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina E R Bopp

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The genetic background of a patient determines in part if a person develops a mild form of malaria and recovers, or develops a severe form and dies. We have used a mouse model to detect genes involved in the resistance or susceptibility to Plasmodium berghei malaria infection. To this end we first characterized 32 different mouse strains infected with P. berghei and identified survival as the best trait to discriminate between the strains. We found a locus on chromosome 6 by linking the survival phenotypes of the mouse strains to their genetic variations using genome wide analyses such as haplotype associated mapping and the efficient mixed-model for association. This new locus involved in malaria resistance contains only two genes and confirms the importance of Ppar-gamma in malaria infection.

  5. Maternal-foetal genomic conflict and speciation: no evidence for hybrid placental dysplasia in crosses between two house mouse subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáčková, L.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Gergelits, Václav; Forejt, Jiří; Reifová, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), s. 688-698 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : hybrid placental dysplasia * genomic conflicts * speciation * X chromosome * house mouse * Mus musculus musculus * Mus musculus domesticus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2015

  6. The Mosaic Ancestry of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel and the D. melanogaster Reference Genome Reveals a Network of Epistatic Fitness Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, John E

    2015-12-01

    North American populations of Drosophila melanogaster derive from both European and African source populations, but despite their importance for genetic research, patterns of ancestry along their genomes are largely undocumented. Here, I infer geographic ancestry along genomes of the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the D. melanogaster reference genome, which may have implications for reference alignment, association mapping, and population genomic studies in Drosophila. Overall, the proportion of African ancestry was estimated to be 20% for the DGRP and 9% for the reference genome. Combining my estimate of admixture timing with historical records, I provide the first estimate of natural generation time for this species (approximately 15 generations per year). Ancestry levels were found to vary strikingly across the genome, with less African introgression on the X chromosome, in regions of high recombination, and at genes involved in specific processes (e.g., circadian rhythm). An important role for natural selection during the admixture process was further supported by evidence that many unlinked pairs of loci showed a deficiency of Africa-Europe allele combinations between them. Numerous epistatic fitness interactions may therefore exist between African and European genotypes, leading to ongoing selection against incompatible variants. By focusing on hubs in this network of fitness interactions, I identified a set of interacting loci that include genes with roles in sensation and neuropeptide/hormone reception. These findings suggest that admixed D. melanogaster samples could become an important study system for the genetics of early-stage isolation between populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Chromosome-wise dissection of the genome of the extremely big mouse line DU6i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevova, Marianna R; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Aksu, Soner; Renne, Ulla; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2006-01-01

    The extreme high-body-weight-selected mouse line DU6i is a polygenic model for growth research, harboring many small-effect QTL. We dissected the genome of this line into 19 autosomes and the Y chromosome by the construction of a new panel of chromosome substitution strains (CSS). The DU6i chromosomes were transferred to a DBA/2 mice genetic background by marker-assisted recurrent backcrossing. Mitochondria and the X chromosome were of DBA/2 origin in the backcross. During the construction of these novel strains, >4000 animals were generated, phenotyped, and genotyped. Using these data, we studied the genetic control of variation in body weight and weight gain at 21, 42, and 63 days. The unique data set facilitated the analysis of chromosomal interaction with sex and parent-of-origin effects. All analyzed chromosomes affected body weight and weight gain either directly or in interaction with sex or parent of origin. The effects were age specific, with some chromosomes showing opposite effects at different stages of development.

  8. High-resolution comparative mapping among man, cattle and mouse suggests a role for repeat sequences in mammalian genome evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe François

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative mapping provides new insights into the evolutionary history of genomes. In particular, recent studies in mammals have suggested a role for segmental duplication in genome evolution. In some species such as Drosophila or maize, transposable elements (TEs have been shown to be involved in chromosomal rearrangements. In this work, we have explored the presence of interspersed repeats in regions of chromosomal rearrangements, using an updated high-resolution integrated comparative map among cattle, man and mouse. Results The bovine, human and mouse comparative autosomal map has been constructed using data from bovine genetic and physical maps and from FISH-mapping studies. We confirm most previous results but also reveal some discrepancies. A total of 211 conserved segments have been identified between cattle and man, of which 33 are new segments and 72 correspond to extended, previously known segments. The resulting map covers 91% and 90% of the human and bovine genomes, respectively. Analysis of breakpoint regions revealed a high density of species-specific interspersed repeats in the human and mouse genomes. Conclusion Analysis of the breakpoint regions has revealed specific repeat density patterns, suggesting that TEs may have played a significant role in chromosome evolution and genome plasticity. However, we cannot rule out that repeats and breakpoints accumulate independently in the few same regions where modifications are better tolerated. Likewise, we cannot ascertain whether increased TE density is the cause or the consequence of chromosome rearrangements. Nevertheless, the identification of high density repeat clusters combined with a well-documented repeat phylogeny should highlight probable breakpoints, and permit their precise dating. Combining new statistical models taking the present information into account should help reconstruct ancestral karyotypes.

  9. The Planteome database: an integrated resource for reference ontologies, plant genomics and phenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Laurel; Meier, Austin; Laporte, Marie-Angélique; Elser, Justin L; Mungall, Chris; Sinn, Brandon T; Cavaliere, Dario; Carbon, Seth; Dunn, Nathan A; Smith, Barry; Qu, Botong; Preece, Justin; Zhang, Eugene; Todorovic, Sinisa; Gkoutos, Georgios; Doonan, John H; Stevenson, Dennis W; Arnaud, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The Planteome project (http://www.planteome.org) provides a suite of reference and species-specific ontologies for plants and annotations to genes and phenotypes. Ontologies serve as common standards for semantic integration of a large and growing corpus of plant genomics, phenomics and genetics data. The reference ontologies include the Plant Ontology, Plant Trait Ontology and the Plant Experimental Conditions Ontology developed by the Planteome project, along with the Gene Ontology, Chemical Entities of Biological Interest, Phenotype and Attribute Ontology, and others. The project also provides access to species-specific Crop Ontologies developed by various plant breeding and research communities from around the world. We provide integrated data on plant traits, phenotypes, and gene function and expression from 95 plant taxa, annotated with reference ontology terms. The Planteome project is developing a plant gene annotation platform; Planteome Noctua, to facilitate community engagement. All the Planteome ontologies are publicly available and are maintained at the Planteome GitHub site (https://github.com/Planteome) for sharing, tracking revisions and new requests. The annotated data are freely accessible from the ontology browser (http://browser.planteome.org/amigo) and our data repository. PMID:29186578

  10. G-MAPSEQ – a new method for mapping reads to a reference genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciechowski Pawel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reads mapping to a reference genome is one of the most essential problems in modern computational biology. The most popular algorithms used to solve this problem are based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform and the FM-index. However, this causes some issues with highly mutated sequences due to a limited number of mutations allowed. G-MAPSEQ is a novel, hybrid algorithm combining two interesting methods: alignment-free sequence comparison and an ultra fast sequence alignment. The former is a fast heuristic algorithm which uses k-mer characteristics of nucleotide sequences to find potential mapping places. The latter is a very fast GPU implementation of sequence alignment used to verify the correctness of these mapping positions. The source code of G-MAPSEQ along with other bioinformatic software is available at: http://gpualign.cs.put.poznan.pl.

  11. HuH-7 reference genome profile: complex karyotype composed of massive loss of heterozygosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Fumio; Hirayama, Noriko; Ozawa, Midori; Satoh, Motonobu; Kohara, Arihiro

    2018-05-17

    Human cell lines represent a valuable resource as in vitro experimental models. A hepatoma cell line, HuH-7 (JCRB0403), has been used extensively in various research fields and a number of studies using this line have been published continuously since it was established in 1982. However, an accurate genome profile, which can be served as a reliable reference, has not been available. In this study, we performed M-FISH, SNP microarray and amplicon sequencing to characterize the cell line. Single cell analysis of metaphases revealed a high level of heterogeneity with a mode of 60 chromosomes. Cytogenetic results demonstrated chromosome abnormalities involving every chromosome in addition to a massive loss of heterozygosity, which accounts for 55.3% of the genome, consistent with the homozygous variants seen in the sequence analysis. We provide empirical data that the HuH-7 cell line is composed of highly heterogeneous cell populations, suggesting that besides cell line authentication, the quality of cell lines needs to be taken into consideration in the future use of tumor cell lines.

  12. Linkage Disequilibrium and Inversion-Typing of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome Reference Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, David; Márquez, Eladio J

    2015-06-10

    We calculated the linkage disequilibrium between all pairs of variants in the Drosophila Genome Reference Panel with minor allele count ≥5. We used r(2) ≥ 0.5 as the cutoff for a highly correlated SNP. We make available the list of all highly correlated SNPs for use in association studies. Seventy-six percent of variant SNPs are highly correlated with at least one other SNP, and the mean number of highly correlated SNPs per variant over the whole genome is 83.9. Disequilibrium between distant SNPs is also common when minor allele frequency (MAF) is low: 37% of SNPs with MAF inversions are highly correlated with somewhat larger numbers of SNPs, and these correlated SNPs are on average farther away, the probability that a SNP in such regions is highly correlated with at least one other SNP is very similar to SNPs outside inversions. Previous karyotyping of the DGRP lines has been inconsistent, and we used LD and genotype to investigate these discrepancies. When previous studies agreed on inversion karyotype, our analysis was almost perfectly concordant with those assignments. In discordant cases, and for inversion heterozygotes, our results suggest errors in two previous analyses or discordance between genotype and karyotype. Heterozygosities of chromosome arms are, in many cases, surprisingly highly correlated, suggesting strong epsistatic selection during the inbreeding and maintenance of the DGRP lines. Copyright © 2015 Houle and Márquez.

  13. De novo Transcriptome Assemblies of Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and Xenopus laevis Tadpole Livers for Comparative Genomics without Reference Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanc Birol

    Full Text Available In this work we studied the liver transcriptomes of two frog species, the American bullfrog (Rana (Lithobates catesbeiana and the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis. We used high throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data to assemble and annotate these transcriptomes, and compared how their baseline expression profiles change when tadpoles of the two species are exposed to thyroid hormone. We generated more than 1.5 billion RNA-seq reads in total for the two species under two conditions as treatment/control pairs. We de novo assembled these reads using Trans-ABySS to reconstruct reference transcriptomes, obtaining over 350,000 and 130,000 putative transcripts for R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, respectively. Using available genomics resources for X. laevis, we annotated over 97% of our X. laevis transcriptome contigs, demonstrating the utility and efficacy of our methodology. Leveraging this validated analysis pipeline, we also annotated the assembled R. catesbeiana transcriptome. We used the expression profiles of the annotated genes of the two species to examine the similarities and differences between the tadpole liver transcriptomes. We also compared the gene ontology terms of expressed genes to measure how the animals react to a challenge by thyroid hormone. Our study reports three main conclusions. First, de novo assembly of RNA-seq data is a powerful method for annotating and establishing transcriptomes of non-model organisms. Second, the liver transcriptomes of the two frog species, R. catesbeiana and X. laevis, show many common features, and the distribution of their gene ontology profiles are statistically indistinguishable. Third, although they broadly respond the same way to the presence of thyroid hormone in their environment, their receptor/signal transduction pathways display marked differences.

  14. Genomic organization and the tissue distribution of alternatively spliced isoforms of the mouse Spatial gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattei Marie-Geneviève

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stromal component of the thymic microenvironment is critical for T lymphocyte generation. Thymocyte differentiation involves a cascade of coordinated stromal genes controlling thymocyte survival, lineage commitment and selection. The "Stromal Protein Associated with Thymii And Lymph-node" (Spatial gene encodes a putative transcription factor which may be involved in T-cell development. In the testis, the Spatial gene is also expressed by round spermatids during spermatogenesis. Results The Spatial gene maps to the B3-B4 region of murine chromosome 10 corresponding to the human syntenic region 10q22.1. The mouse Spatial genomic DNA is organised into 10 exons and is alternatively spliced to generate two short isoforms (Spatial-α and -γ and two other long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε comprising 5 additional exons on the 3' site. Here, we report the cloning of a new short isoform, Spatial-β, which differs from other isoforms by an additional alternative exon of 69 bases. This new exon encodes an interesting proline-rich signature that could confer to the 34 kDa Spatial-β protein a particular function. By quantitative TaqMan RT-PCR, we have shown that the short isoforms are highly expressed in the thymus while the long isoforms are highly expressed in the testis. We further examined the inter-species conservation of Spatial between several mammals and identified that the protein which is rich in proline and positive amino acids, is highly conserved. Conclusions The Spatial gene generates at least five alternative spliced variants: three short isoforms (Spatial-α, -β and -γ highly expressed in the thymus and two long isoforms (Spatial-δ and -ε highly expressed in the testis. These alternative spliced variants could have a tissue specific function.

  15. Specificity control for read alignments using an artificial reference genome-guided false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Sven H; Zickmann, Franziska; Renard, Bernhard Y

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation, comparison and evaluation of read mapping error rates is a crucial step in the processing of next-generation sequencing data, as further analysis steps and interpretation assume the correctness of the mapping results. Current approaches are either focused on sensitivity estimation and thereby disregard specificity or are based on read simulations. Although continuously improving, read simulations are still prone to introduce a bias into the mapping error quantitation and cannot capture all characteristics of an individual dataset. We introduce ARDEN (artificial reference driven estimation of false positives in next-generation sequencing data), a novel benchmark method that estimates error rates of read mappers based on real experimental reads, using an additionally generated artificial reference genome. It allows a dataset-specific computation of error rates and the construction of a receiver operating characteristic curve. Thereby, it can be used for optimization of parameters for read mappers, selection of read mappers for a specific problem or for filtering alignments based on quality estimation. The use of ARDEN is demonstrated in a general read mapper comparison, a parameter optimization for one read mapper and an application example in single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery with a significant reduction in the number of false positive identifications. The ARDEN source code is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arden/.

  16. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative PCR analysis of the mouse uterus in the peri-implantation period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Lin

    Full Text Available The study of uterine gene expression patterns is valuable for understanding the biological and molecular mechanisms that occur during embryo implantation. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR is an extremely sensitive technique that allows for the precise quantification of mRNA abundance; however, selecting stable reference genes suitable for the normalization of qRT-PCR data is required to avoid the misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. This study employs several mouse models, including an early pregnancy, a pseudopregnancy, a delayed implantation and activation, an artificial decidualization and a hormonal treatment model; ten candidate reference genes (PPIA, RPLP0, HPRT1, GAPDH, ACTB, TBP, B2M, 18S, UBC and TUBA that are found in uterine tissues were assessed for their suitability as internal controls for relative qRT-PCR quantification. GeNorm(PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to evaluate these candidate reference genes, and all of these methods identified RPLP0 and GAPDH as the most stable candidates and B2M and 18S as the least stable candidates. However, when the different models were analyzed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels.

  17. Pathbase: A new reference resource and database for laboratory mouse pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, P. N.; Bard, J. B. L.; Boniver, J.; Covelli, V.; Delvenne, P.; Ellender, M.; Engstrom, W.; Goessner, W.; Gruenberger, M.; Hoefler, H.; Hopewell, J. W.; Mancuso, M.; Mothersill, C.; Quintanilla-Martinez, L.; Rozell, B.; Sariola, H.; Sundberg, J. P.; Ward, A.

    2004-01-01

    Pathbase (http:/www.pathbase.net) is a web accessible database of histopathological images of laboratory mice, developed as a resource for the coding and archiving of data derived from the analysis of mutant or genetically engineered mice and their background strains. The metadata for the images, which allows retrieval and inter-operability with other databases, is derived from a series of orthogonal ontologies, and controlled vocabularies. One of these controlled vocabularies, MPATH, was developed by the Pathbase Consortium as a formal description of the content of mouse histopathological images. The database currently has over 1000 images on-line with 2000 more under curation and presents a paradigm for the development of future databases dedicated to aspects of experimental biology. (authors)

  18. Pharmacokinetic and Genomic Effects of Arsenite in Drinking Water on Mouse Lung in a 30-Day Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Chilakapati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2 objectives of this subchronic study were to determine the arsenite drinking water exposure dependent increases in female C3H mouse liver and lung tissue arsenicals and to characterize the dose response (to 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm arsenite in drinking water for 30 days and a purified AIN-93M diet for genomic mouse lung expression patterns. Mouse lungs were analyzed for inorganic arsenic, monomethylated, and dimethylated arsenicals by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy. The total lung mean arsenical levels were 1.4, 22.5, 30.1, 50.9, 105.3, and 316.4 ng/g lung tissue after 0, 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively. At 85 ppm, the total mean lung arsenical levels increased 14-fold and 131-fold when compared to either the lowest noncontrol dose (0.05 ppm or the control dose, respectively. We found that arsenic exposure elicited minimal numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs; 77, 38, 90, 87, and 87 DEGs after 0.05, 0.25, 1, 10, and 85 ppm, respectively, which were associated with cardiovascular disease, development, differentiation, apoptosis, proliferation, and stress response. After 30 days of arsenite exposure, this study showed monotonic increases in mouse lung arsenical (total arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations but no clear dose-related increases in DEG numbers.

  19. Histone variant H3.3-mediated chromatin remodeling is essential for paternal genome activation in mouse preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingran; Banaszynski, Laura A; Geng, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Heng; O'Neill, Claire L; Yan, Peidong; Liu, Zhonghua; Shido, Koji; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Allis, C David; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev; Wen, Duancheng

    2018-03-09

    Derepression of chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression of paternal and maternal genomes is considered the first major step that initiates zygotic gene expression after fertilization. The histone variant H3.3 is present in both male and female gametes and is thought to be important for remodeling the paternal and maternal genomes for activation during both fertilization and embryogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using our H3.3B-HA-tagged mouse model, engineered to report H3.3 expression in live animals and to distinguish different sources of H3.3 protein in embryos, we show here that sperm-derived H3.3 (sH3.3) protein is removed from the sperm genome shortly after fertilization and extruded from the zygotes via the second polar bodies (PBII) during embryogenesis. We also found that the maternal H3.3 (mH3.3) protein is incorporated into the paternal genome as early as 2 h postfertilization and is detectable in the paternal genome until the morula stage. Knockdown of maternal H3.3 resulted in compromised embryonic development both of fertilized embryos and of androgenetic haploid embryos. Furthermore, we report that mH3.3 depletion in oocytes impairs both activation of the Oct4 pluripotency marker gene and global de novo transcription from the paternal genome important for early embryonic development. Our results suggest that H3.3-mediated paternal chromatin remodeling is essential for the development of preimplantation embryos and the activation of the paternal genome during embryogenesis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of GRCh38 and de novo haploid genome assemblies demonstrates the enduring quality of the reference assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Valerie A; Graves-Lindsay, Tina; Howe, Kerstin; Bouk, Nathan; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Kitts, Paul A; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Albracht, Derek; Fulton, Robert S; Kremitzki, Milinn; Magrini, Vincent; Markovic, Chris; McGrath, Sean; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz; Auger, Kate; Chow, William; Collins, Joanna; Harden, Glenn; Hubbard, Timothy; Pelan, Sarah; Simpson, Jared T; Threadgold, Glen; Torrance, James; Wood, Jonathan M; Clarke, Laura; Koren, Sergey; Boitano, Matthew; Peluso, Paul; Li, Heng; Chin, Chen-Shan; Phillippy, Adam M; Durbin, Richard; Wilson, Richard K; Flicek, Paul; Eichler, Evan E; Church, Deanna M

    2017-05-01

    The human reference genome assembly plays a central role in nearly all aspects of today's basic and clinical research. GRCh38 is the first coordinate-changing assembly update since 2009; it reflects the resolution of roughly 1000 issues and encompasses modifications ranging from thousands of single base changes to megabase-scale path reorganizations, gap closures, and localization of previously orphaned sequences. We developed a new approach to sequence generation for targeted base updates and used data from new genome mapping technologies and single haplotype resources to identify and resolve larger assembly issues. For the first time, the reference assembly contains sequence-based representations for the centromeres. We also expanded the number of alternate loci to create a reference that provides a more robust representation of human population variation. We demonstrate that the updates render the reference an improved annotation substrate, alter read alignments in unchanged regions, and impact variant interpretation at clinically relevant loci. We additionally evaluated a collection of new de novo long-read haploid assemblies and conclude that although the new assemblies compare favorably to the reference with respect to continuity, error rate, and gene completeness, the reference still provides the best representation for complex genomic regions and coding sequences. We assert that the collected updates in GRCh38 make the newer assembly a more robust substrate for comprehensive analyses that will promote our understanding of human biology and advance our efforts to improve health. © 2017 Schneider et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Syntenic block overlap multiplicities with a panel of reference genomes provide a signature of ancient polyploidization events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunfang; Santos Muñoz, Daniella; Albert, Victor A; Sankoff, David

    2015-01-01

    Following whole genome duplication (WGD), there is a compact distribution of gene similarities within the genome reflecting duplicate pairs of all the genes in the genome. With time, the distribution broadens and loses volume due to variable decay of duplicate gene similarity and to the process of duplicate gene loss. If there are two WGD, the older one becomes so reduced and broad that it merges with the tail of the distributions resulting from more recent events, and it becomes difficult to distinguish them. The goal of this paper is to advance statistical methods of identifying, or at least counting, the WGD events in the lineage of a given genome. For a set of 15 angiosperm genomes, we analyze all 15 × 14 = 210 ordered pairs of target genome versus reference genome, using SynMap to find syntenic blocks. We consider all sets of B ≥ 2 syntenic blocks in the target genome that overlap in the reference genome as evidence of WGD activity in the target, whether it be one event or several. We hypothesize that in fitting an exponential function to the tail of the empirical distribution f (B) of block multiplicities, the size of the exponent will reflect the amount of WGD in the history of the target genome. By amalgamating the results from all reference genomes, a range of values of SynMap parameters, and alternative cutoff points for the tail, we find a clear pattern whereby multiple-WGD core eudicots have the smallest (negative) exponents, followed by core eudicots with only the single "γ" triplication in their history, followed by a non-core eudicot with a single WGD, followed by the monocots, with a basal angiosperm, the WGD-free Amborella having the largest exponent. The hypothesis that the exponent of the fit to the tail of the multiplicity distribution is a signature of the amount of WGD is verified, but there is also a clear complicating factor in the monocot clade, where a history of multiple WGD is not reflected in a small exponent.

  2. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Stéphane; Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Lee, Ming-Chun; Bringel, Françoise; Lajus, Aurélie; Zhou, Yang; Gourion, Benjamin; Barbe, Valérie; Chang, Jean; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Dossat, Carole; Gillett, Will; Gruffaz, Christelle; Haugen, Eric; Hourcade, Edith; Levy, Ruth; Mangenot, Sophie; Muller, Emilie; Nadalig, Thierry; Pagni, Marco; Penny, Christian; Peyraud, Rémi; Robinson, David G; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoé; Saenampechek, Channakhone; Salvignol, Grégory; Vallenet, David; Wu, Zaining; Marx, Christopher J; Vorholt, Julia A; Olson, Maynard V; Kaul, Rajinder; Weissenbach, Jean; Médigue, Claudine; Lidstrom, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared. The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm) gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau) gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17) that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid). These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the adaptive mechanisms which allow bacterial lineages to acquire methylotrophic

  3. Which individuals to choose to update the reference population? Minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in animal genomic selection programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eynard, Sonia E.; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P.L.; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-01

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a

  4. Waxholm space: an image-based reference for coordinating mouse brain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G Allan; Badea, Alexandra; Brandenburg, Jeffrey; Cofer, Gary; Fubara, Boma; Liu, Song; Nissanov, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    We describe an atlas of the C57BL/6 mouse brain based on MRI and conventional Nissl histology. Magnetic resonance microscopy was performed on a total of 14 specimens that were actively stained to enhance tissue contrast. Images were acquired with three different MR protocols yielding contrast dependent on spin lattice relaxation (T1), spin spin relaxation (T2), and magnetic susceptibility (T2*). Spatial resolution was 21.5 mum (isotropic). Conventional histology (Nissl) was performed on a limited set of these same specimens and the Nissl images were registered (3D-to-3D) to the MR data. Probabilistic atlases for 37 structures are provided, along with average atlases. The availability of three different MR protocols, the Nissl data, and the labels provides a rich set of options for registration of other atlases to the same coordinate system, thus facilitating data-sharing. All the data is available for download via the web. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  6. Routine Whole-Genome Sequencing for Outbreak Investigations of Staphylococcus aureus in a National Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Durand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The French National Reference Center for Staphylococci currently uses DNA arrays and spa typing for the initial epidemiological characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains. We here describe the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS to investigate retrospectively four distinct and virulent S. aureus lineages [clonal complexes (CCs: CC1, CC5, CC8, CC30] involved in hospital and community outbreaks or sporadic infections in France. We used a WGS bioinformatics pipeline based on de novo assembly (reference-free approach, single nucleotide polymorphism analysis, and on the inclusion of epidemiological markers. We examined the phylogeographic diversity of the French dominant hospital-acquired CC8-MRSA (methicillin-resistant S. aureus Lyon clone through WGS analysis which did not demonstrate evidence of large-scale geographic clustering. We analyzed sporadic cases along with two outbreaks of a CC1-MSSA (methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clone containing the Panton–Valentine leukocidin (PVL and results showed that two sporadic cases were closely related. We investigated an outbreak of PVL-positive CC30-MSSA in a school environment and were able to reconstruct the transmission history between eight families. We explored different outbreaks among newborns due to the CC5-MRSA Geraldine clone and we found evidence of an unsuspected link between two otherwise distinct outbreaks. Here, WGS provides the resolving power to disprove transmission events indicated by conventional methods (same sequence type, spa type, toxin profile, and antibiotic resistance profile and, most importantly, WGS can reveal unsuspected transmission events. Therefore, WGS allows to better describe and understand outbreaks and (inter-national dissemination of S. aureus lineages. Our findings underscore the importance of adding WGS for (inter-national surveillance of infections caused by virulent clones of S. aureus but also substantiate the fact that technological optimization at

  7. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  8. Long-term response to genomic selection: effects of estimation method and reference population structure for different genetic architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaansen, John W M; Coster, Albart; Calus, Mario P L; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2012-01-24

    Genomic selection has become an important tool in the genetic improvement of animals and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of breeding value estimation method, reference population structure, and trait genetic architecture, on long-term response to genomic selection without updating marker effects. Three methods were used to estimate genomic breeding values: a BLUP method with relationships estimated from genome-wide markers (GBLUP), a Bayesian method, and a partial least squares regression method (PLSR). A shallow (individuals from one generation) or deep reference population (individuals from five generations) was used with each method. The effects of the different selection approaches were compared under four different genetic architectures for the trait under selection. Selection was based on one of the three genomic breeding values, on pedigree BLUP breeding values, or performed at random. Selection continued for ten generations. Differences in long-term selection response were small. For a genetic architecture with a very small number of three to four quantitative trait loci (QTL), the Bayesian method achieved a response that was 0.05 to 0.1 genetic standard deviation higher than other methods in generation 10. For genetic architectures with approximately 30 to 300 QTL, PLSR (shallow reference) or GBLUP (deep reference) had an average advantage of 0.2 genetic standard deviation over the Bayesian method in generation 10. GBLUP resulted in 0.6% and 0.9% less inbreeding than PLSR and BM and on average a one third smaller reduction of genetic variance. Responses in early generations were greater with the shallow reference population while long-term response was not affected by reference population structure. The ranking of estimation methods was different with than without selection. Under selection, applying GBLUP led to lower inbreeding and a smaller reduction of genetic variance while a similar response to selection was

  9. Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato: integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Bolser, Daniel; de Boer, Jan; Sønderkær, Mads; Amoros, Walter; Carboni, Martin Federico; D'Ambrosio, Juan Martín; de la Cruz, German; Di Genova, Alex; Douches, David S; Eguiluz, Maria; Guo, Xiao; Guzman, Frank; Hackett, Christine A; Hamilton, John P; Li, Guangcun; Li, Ying; Lozano, Roberto; Maass, Alejandro; Marshall, David; Martinez, Diana; McLean, Karen; Mejía, Nilo; Milne, Linda; Munive, Susan; Nagy, Istvan; Ponce, Olga; Ramirez, Manuel; Simon, Reinhard; Thomson, Susan J; Torres, Yerisf; Waugh, Robbie; Zhang, Zhonghua; Huang, Sanwen; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B; Sagredo, Boris; Feingold, Sergio E; Orjeda, Gisella; Veilleux, Richard E; Bonierbale, Merideth; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Milbourne, Dan; Martin, David Michael Alan; Bryan, Glenn J

    2013-11-06

    The genome of potato, a major global food crop, was recently sequenced. The work presented here details the integration of the potato reference genome (DM) with a new sequence-tagged site marker-based linkage map and other physical and genetic maps of potato and the closely related species tomato. Primary anchoring of the DM genome assembly was accomplished by the use of a diploid segregating population, which was genotyped with several types of molecular genetic markers to construct a new ~936 cM linkage map comprising 2469 marker loci. In silico anchoring approaches used genetic and physical maps from the diploid potato genotype RH89-039-16 (RH) and tomato. This combined approach has allowed 951 superscaffolds to be ordered into pseudomolecules corresponding to the 12 potato chromosomes. These pseudomolecules represent 674 Mb (~93%) of the 723 Mb genome assembly and 37,482 (~96%) of the 39,031 predicted genes. The superscaffold order and orientation within the pseudomolecules are closely collinear with independently constructed high density linkage maps. Comparisons between marker distribution and physical location reveal regions of greater and lesser recombination, as well as regions exhibiting significant segregation distortion. The work presented here has led to a greatly improved ordering of the potato reference genome superscaffolds into chromosomal "pseudomolecules".

  10. Swine transcriptome characterization by combined Iso-Seq and RNA-seq for annotating the emerging long read-based reference genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    PacBio long-read sequencing technology is increasingly popular in genome sequence assembly and transcriptome cataloguing. Recently, a new-generation pig reference genome was assembled based on long reads from this technology. To finely annotate this genome assembly, transcriptomes of nine tissues fr...

  11. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Buset, J.; Neefs, M.; Vankerkom, J.; Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H.; Hildebrandt, G.; Baatout, S.

    2010-01-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  12. Transgenerational developmental effects and genomic instability after X-irradiation of preimplantation embryos: Studies on two mouse strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P., E-mail: pjacquet@sckcen.be [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Buset, J.; Neefs, M. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Vankerkom, J. [Division of Environmental Research, VITO, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Benotmane, M.A.; Derradji, H. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Hildebrandt, G. [Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, University of Leipzig, Stephanstrasse 9a, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, University of Rostock, Suedring 75, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Baatout, S. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, Institute for Environment, Health and Safety, SCK.CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    2010-05-01

    Recent results have shown that irradiation of a single cell, the zygote or 1-cell embryo of various mouse strains, could lead to congenital anomalies in the fetuses. In the Heiligenberger strain, a link between the radiation-induced congenital anomalies and the development of a genomic instability was also suggested. Moreover, further studies showed that in that strain, both congenital anomalies and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation. The aim of the experiments described in this paper was to investigate whether such non-targeted transgenerational effects could also be observed in two other radiosensitive mouse strains (CF1 and ICR), using lower radiation doses. Irradiation of the CF1 and ICR female zygotes with 0.2 or 0.4 Gy did not result in a decrease of their fertility after birth, when they had reached sexual maturity. Moreover, females of both strains that had been X-irradiated with 0.2 Gy exhibited higher rates of pregnancy, less resorptions and more living fetuses. Additionally, the mean weight of living fetuses in these groups had significantly increased. Exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in CF1 fetuses issued from control and X-irradiated females. In the control group of that strain, polydactyly and limb deformity were also found. The yields of abnormal fetuses did not differ significantly between the control and X-irradiated groups. Polydactyly, exencephaly and dwarfism were observed in fetuses issued from ICR control females. In addition to these anomalies, gastroschisis, curly tail and open eye were observed at low frequencies in ICR fetuses issued from X-irradiated females. Again, the frequencies of abnormal fetuses found in the different groups did not differ significantly. In both CF1 and ICR mouse strains, irradiation of female zygotes did not result in the development of a genomic instability in the next generation embryos. Overall, our results suggest that, at the moderate doses used, developmental defects

  13. Assembly of the Lactuca sativa, L. cv. Tizian draft genome sequence reveals differences within major resistance complex 1 as compared to the cv. Salinas reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwaaijen, Bart; Wibberg, Daniel; Nelkner, Johanna; Gordin, Miriam; Rupp, Oliver; Winkler, Anika; Bremges, Andreas; Blom, Jochen; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2018-02-10

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) is an important annual plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The commercial lettuce cultivar Tizian has been used in various scientific studies investigating the interaction of the plant with phytopathogens or biological control agents. Here, we present the de novo draft genome sequencing and gene prediction for this specific cultivar derived from transcriptome sequence data. The assembled scaffolds amount to a size of 2.22 Gb. Based on RNAseq data, 31,112 transcript isoforms were identified. Functional predictions for these transcripts were determined within the GenDBE annotation platform. Comparison with the cv. Salinas reference genome revealed a high degree of sequence similarity on genome and transcriptome levels, with an average amino acid identity of 99%. Furthermore, it was observed that two large regions are either missing or are highly divergent within the cv. Tizian genome compared to cv. Salinas. One of these regions covers the major resistance complex 1 region of cv. Salinas. The cv. Tizian draft genome sequence provides a valuable resource for future functional and transcriptome analyses focused on this lettuce cultivar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Integration of mouse and human genome-wide association data identifies KCNIP4 as an asthma gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca E Himes

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR. The genetics of asthma have been widely studied in mouse and human, and homologous genomic regions have been associated with mouse AHR and human asthma-related phenotypes. Our goal was to identify asthma-related genes by integrating AHR associations in mouse with human genome-wide association study (GWAS data. We used Efficient Mixed Model Association (EMMA analysis to conduct a GWAS of baseline AHR measures from males and females of 31 mouse strains. Genes near or containing SNPs with EMMA p-values <0.001 were selected for further study in human GWAS. The results of the previously reported EVE consortium asthma GWAS meta-analysis consisting of 12,958 diverse North American subjects from 9 study centers were used to select a subset of homologous genes with evidence of association with asthma in humans. Following validation attempts in three human asthma GWAS (i.e., Sepracor/LOCCS/LODO/Illumina, GABRIEL, DAG and two human AHR GWAS (i.e., SHARP, DAG, the Kv channel interacting protein 4 (KCNIP4 gene was identified as nominally associated with both asthma and AHR at a gene- and SNP-level. In EVE, the smallest KCNIP4 association was at rs6833065 (P-value 2.9e-04, while the strongest associations for Sepracor/LOCCS/LODO/Illumina, GABRIEL, DAG were 1.5e-03, 1.0e-03, 3.1e-03 at rs7664617, rs4697177, rs4696975, respectively. At a SNP level, the strongest association across all asthma GWAS was at rs4697177 (P-value 1.1e-04. The smallest P-values for association with AHR were 2.3e-03 at rs11947661 in SHARP and 2.1e-03 at rs402802 in DAG. Functional studies are required to validate the potential involvement of KCNIP4 in modulating asthma susceptibility and/or AHR. Our results suggest that a useful approach to identify genes associated with human asthma is to leverage mouse AHR association data.

  15. Genomics of Compositae crops: reference transcriptome assemblies and evidence of hybridization with wild relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Lai, Zhao; Oliveira, Luiz O; Still, David W; Scascitelli, Moira; Barker, Michael S; Kane, Nolan C; Dempewolf, Hannes; Kozik, Alex; Kesseli, Richard V; Burke, John M; Michelmore, Richard W; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2014-01-01

    Although the Compositae harbours only two major food crops, sunflower and lettuce, many other species in this family are utilized by humans and have experienced various levels of domestication. Here, we have used next-generation sequencing technology to develop 15 reference transcriptome assemblies for Compositae crops or their wild relatives. These data allow us to gain insight into the evolutionary and genomic consequences of plant domestication. Specifically, we performed Illumina sequencing of Cichorium endivia, Cichorium intybus, Echinacea angustifolia, Iva annua, Helianthus tuberosus, Dahlia hybrida, Leontodon taraxacoides and Glebionis segetum, as well 454 sequencing of Guizotia scabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Parthenium argentatum and Smallanthus sonchifolius. Illumina reads were assembled using Trinity, and 454 reads were assembled using MIRA and CAP3. We evaluated the coverage of the transcriptomes using BLASTX analysis of a set of ultra-conserved orthologs (UCOs) and recovered most of these genes (88-98%). We found a correlation between contig length and read length for the 454 assemblies, and greater contig lengths for the 454 compared with the Illumina assemblies. This suggests that longer reads can aid in the assembly of more complete transcripts. Finally, we compared the divergence of orthologs at synonymous sites (Ks) between Compositae crops and their wild relatives and found greater divergence when the progenitors were self-incompatible. We also found greater divergence between pairs of taxa that had some evidence of postzygotic isolation. For several more distantly related congeners, such as chicory and endive, we identified a signature of introgression in the distribution of Ks values. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome patterns of selection and introgression of haplotypes in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Staubach

    Full Text Available General parameters of selection, such as the frequency and strength of positive selection in natural populations or the role of introgression, are still insufficiently understood. The house mouse (Mus musculus is a particularly well-suited model system to approach such questions, since it has a defined history of splits into subspecies and populations and since extensive genome information is available. We have used high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing arrays to assess genomic patterns of positive selection and introgression of alleles in two natural populations of each of the subspecies M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. Applying different statistical procedures, we find a large number of regions subject to apparent selective sweeps, indicating frequent positive selection on rare alleles or novel mutations. Genes in the regions include well-studied imprinted loci (e.g. Plagl1/Zac1, homologues of human genes involved in adaptations (e.g. alpha-amylase genes or in genetic diseases (e.g. Huntingtin and Parkin. Haplotype matching between the two subspecies reveals a large number of haplotypes that show patterns of introgression from specific populations of the respective other subspecies, with at least 10% of the genome being affected by partial or full introgression. Using neutral simulations for comparison, we find that the size and the fraction of introgressed haplotypes are not compatible with a pure migration or incomplete lineage sorting model. Hence, it appears that introgressed haplotypes can rise in frequency due to positive selection and thus can contribute to the adaptive genomic landscape of natural populations. Our data support the notion that natural genomes are subject to complex adaptive processes, including the introgression of haplotypes from other differentiated populations or species at a larger scale than previously assumed for animals. This implies that some of the admixture found in inbred strains of mice

  18. MutSpec: a Galaxy toolbox for streamlined analyses of somatic mutation spectra in human and mouse cancer genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardin, Maude; Cahais, Vincent; Castells, Xavier; Bouaoun, Liacine; Byrnes, Graham; Herceg, Zdenko; Zavadil, Jiri; Olivier, Magali

    2016-04-18

    The nature of somatic mutations observed in human tumors at single gene or genome-wide levels can reveal information on past carcinogenic exposures and mutational processes contributing to tumor development. While large amounts of sequencing data are being generated, the associated analysis and interpretation of mutation patterns that may reveal clues about the natural history of cancer present complex and challenging tasks that require advanced bioinformatics skills. To make such analyses accessible to a wider community of researchers with no programming expertise, we have developed within the web-based user-friendly platform Galaxy a first-of-its-kind package called MutSpec. MutSpec includes a set of tools that perform variant annotation and use advanced statistics for the identification of mutation signatures present in cancer genomes and for comparing the obtained signatures with those published in the COSMIC database and other sources. MutSpec offers an accessible framework for building reproducible analysis pipelines, integrating existing methods and scripts developed in-house with publicly available R packages. MutSpec may be used to analyse data from whole-exome, whole-genome or targeted sequencing experiments performed on human or mouse genomes. Results are provided in various formats including rich graphical outputs. An example is presented to illustrate the package functionalities, the straightforward workflow analysis and the richness of the statistics and publication-grade graphics produced by the tool. MutSpec offers an easy-to-use graphical interface embedded in the popular Galaxy platform that can be used by researchers with limited programming or bioinformatics expertise to analyse mutation signatures present in cancer genomes. MutSpec can thus effectively assist in the discovery of complex mutational processes resulting from exogenous and endogenous carcinogenic insults.

  19. Finding Nemo's Genes: A chromosome-scale reference assembly of the genome of the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula

    KAUST Repository

    Lehmann, Robert; Lightfoot, Damien J; Schunter, Celia Marei; Michell, Craig T; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Foret, Sylvain; Berumen, Michael L.; Miller, David J; Aranda, Manuel; Gojobori, Takashi; Munday, Philip L; Ravasi, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    The iconic orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, is a model organism for studying the ecology and evolution of reef fishes, including patterns of population connectivity, sex change, social organization, habitat selection and adaptation to climate change. Notably, the orange clownfish is the only reef fish for which a complete larval dispersal kernel has been established and was the first fish species for which it was demonstrated that anti-predator responses of reef fishes could be impaired by ocean acidification. Despite its importance, molecular resources for this species remain scarce and until now it lacked a reference genome assembly. Here we present a de novo chromosome-scale assembly of the genome of the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula. We utilized single-molecule real-time sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences to produce an initial polished assembly comprised of 1,414 contigs, with a contig N50 length of 1.86 Mb. Using Hi-C based chromatin contact maps, 98% of the genome assembly were placed into 24 chromosomes, resulting in a final assembly of 908.8 Mb in length with contig and scaffold N50s of 3.12 and 38.4 Mb, respectively. This makes it one of the most contiguous and complete fish genome assemblies currently available. The genome was annotated with 26,597 protein coding genes and contains 96% of the core set of conserved actinopterygian orthologs. The availability of this reference genome assembly as a community resource will further strengthen the role of the orange clownfish as a model species for research on the ecology and evolution of reef fishes.

  20. Finding Nemo's Genes: A chromosome-scale reference assembly of the genome of the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula

    KAUST Repository

    Lehmann, Robert

    2018-03-08

    The iconic orange clownfish, Amphiprion percula, is a model organism for studying the ecology and evolution of reef fishes, including patterns of population connectivity, sex change, social organization, habitat selection and adaptation to climate change. Notably, the orange clownfish is the only reef fish for which a complete larval dispersal kernel has been established and was the first fish species for which it was demonstrated that anti-predator responses of reef fishes could be impaired by ocean acidification. Despite its importance, molecular resources for this species remain scarce and until now it lacked a reference genome assembly. Here we present a de novo chromosome-scale assembly of the genome of the orange clownfish Amphiprion percula. We utilized single-molecule real-time sequencing technology from Pacific Biosciences to produce an initial polished assembly comprised of 1,414 contigs, with a contig N50 length of 1.86 Mb. Using Hi-C based chromatin contact maps, 98% of the genome assembly were placed into 24 chromosomes, resulting in a final assembly of 908.8 Mb in length with contig and scaffold N50s of 3.12 and 38.4 Mb, respectively. This makes it one of the most contiguous and complete fish genome assemblies currently available. The genome was annotated with 26,597 protein coding genes and contains 96% of the core set of conserved actinopterygian orthologs. The availability of this reference genome assembly as a community resource will further strengthen the role of the orange clownfish as a model species for research on the ecology and evolution of reef fishes.

  1. KoVariome: Korean National Standard Reference Variome database of whole genomes with comprehensive SNV, indel, CNV, and SV analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungeun; Weber, Jessica A; Jho, Sungwoong; Jang, Jinho; Jun, JeHoon; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Yumi; Chung, OkSung; Kim, Chang Geun; Lee, HyeJin; Kim, Byung Chul; Han, Kyudong; Koh, InSong; Chae, Kyun Shik; Lee, Semin; Edwards, Jeremy S; Bhak, Jong

    2018-04-04

    High-coverage whole-genome sequencing data of a single ethnicity can provide a useful catalogue of population-specific genetic variations, and provides a critical resource that can be used to more accurately identify pathogenic genetic variants. We report a comprehensive analysis of the Korean population, and present the Korean National Standard Reference Variome (KoVariome). As a part of the Korean Personal Genome Project (KPGP), we constructed the KoVariome database using 5.5 terabases of whole genome sequence data from 50 healthy Korean individuals in order to characterize the benign ethnicity-relevant genetic variation present in the Korean population. In total, KoVariome includes 12.7M single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), 1.7M short insertions and deletions (indels), 4K structural variations (SVs), and 3.6K copy number variations (CNVs). Among them, 2.4M (19%) SNVs and 0.4M (24%) indels were identified as novel. We also discovered selective enrichment of 3.8M SNVs and 0.5M indels in Korean individuals, which were used to filter out 1,271 coding-SNVs not originally removed from the 1,000 Genomes Project when prioritizing disease-causing variants. KoVariome health records were used to identify novel disease-causing variants in the Korean population, demonstrating the value of high-quality ethnic variation databases for the accurate interpretation of individual genomes and the precise characterization of genetic variations.

  2. SEQUENCING AND DE NOVO DRAFT ASSEMBLIES OF A FATHEAD MINNOW (Pimpehales promelas) reference genome

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset provides the URLs for accessing the genome sequence data and two draft assemblies as well as fathead minnow genotyping data associated with estimating...

  3. Methylobacterium genome sequences: a reference blueprint to investigate microbial metabolism of C1 compounds from natural and industrial sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Vuilleumier

    Full Text Available Methylotrophy describes the ability of organisms to grow on reduced organic compounds without carbon-carbon bonds. The genomes of two pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophic bacteria of the Alpha-proteobacterial genus Methylobacterium, the reference species Methylobacterium extorquens strain AM1 and the dichloromethane-degrading strain DM4, were compared.The 6.88 Mb genome of strain AM1 comprises a 5.51 Mb chromosome, a 1.26 Mb megaplasmid and three plasmids, while the 6.12 Mb genome of strain DM4 features a 5.94 Mb chromosome and two plasmids. The chromosomes are highly syntenic and share a large majority of genes, while plasmids are mostly strain-specific, with the exception of a 130 kb region of the strain AM1 megaplasmid which is syntenic to a chromosomal region of strain DM4. Both genomes contain large sets of insertion elements, many of them strain-specific, suggesting an important potential for genomic plasticity. Most of the genomic determinants associated with methylotrophy are nearly identical, with two exceptions that illustrate the metabolic and genomic versatility of Methylobacterium. A 126 kb dichloromethane utilization (dcm gene cluster is essential for the ability of strain DM4 to use DCM as the sole carbon and energy source for growth and is unique to strain DM4. The methylamine utilization (mau gene cluster is only found in strain AM1, indicating that strain DM4 employs an alternative system for growth with methylamine. The dcm and mau clusters represent two of the chromosomal genomic islands (AM1: 28; DM4: 17 that were defined. The mau cluster is flanked by mobile elements, but the dcm cluster disrupts a gene annotated as chelatase and for which we propose the name "island integration determinant" (iid.These two genome sequences provide a platform for intra- and interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and for investigations of the adaptive mechanisms which allow bacterial lineages to acquire

  4. Genomic organization of the mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leif K; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Mandrup, Susanne

    2002-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta is ubiquitously expressed, but the level of expression differs markedly between different cell types. In order to determine the molecular mechanisms governing PPARbeta/delta gene expression, we have isolated and characterized the mouse...

  5. Prophylactic role of melatonin against radiation induced damage in mouse cerebellum with special reference to Purkinje cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Kumari, Seema; Verma, Rajesh Kumar; Bhatia, A L [Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302004 (India)

    2006-06-15

    Melatonin, a hormone with a proven antioxidative efficacy, crosses all morphophysiological barriers, including the blood-brain barrier, and distributes throughout the cell. The present study is an attempt to investigate the prophylactic influence of a chronic low level of melatonin against an acute radiation induced oxidative stress in the cerebellum of Swiss albino mice, with special reference to Purkinje cells. After 15 days of treatment the mice were sacrificed at various intervals from 1 to 30 days. Biochemical parameters included lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) levels as the endpoints. The quantitative study included alterations in number and volume of Purkinje cells. Swiss albino mice were orally administered a very low dose of melatonin (0.25 mg/mouse/day) for 15 consecutive days before single exposure to 4 Gy gamma radiation. Melatonin checked the augmented levels of LPO, by approximately 55%, by day 30 day post-exposure. Radiation induced depleted levels of GSH could be raised by 68.9% by day 30 post-exposure. Radiation exposure resulted in a reduction of the volume of Purkinje cells and their total number. The administration of melatonin significantly protected against the radiation induced decreases in Purkinje cell volume and number. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin resulting in its prophylactic property against radiation induced biochemical and cellular alterations in the cerebellum. The findings support the idea that melatonin may be used as an anti-irradiation drug due to its potent free radical scavenging and antioxidative efficacy.

  6. Sequence relationships between the genome and the intracellular RNA species 1,3,6 and 7 of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Spaan, W.J.M.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der

    1982-01-01

    We have shown by T1 oligonucleotide fingerprinting that the genome of mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 and its intracellular RNA 1 have identical fingerprints and that RNA 1 and the subgenomic RNAs 3, 6, and 7 contain common sequences. To localize the homologous region between the RNAs, we compared

  7. Genome Editing in Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Lines Using TALEN and Double-Nicking CRISPR/Cas9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs can be cultured for multiplication and maintained for long periods while preserving their spermatogenic ability. Although the cultured SSCs, named germline stem (GS cells, are targets of genome modification, this process remains technically difficult. In the present study, we tested TALEN and double-nicking CRISPR/Cas9 on GS cells, targeting Rosa26 and Stra8 loci as representative genes dispensable and indispensable in spermatogenesis, respectively. Harvested GS cell colonies showed a high targeting efficiency with both TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9. The Rosa26-targeted GS cells differentiated into fertility-competent sperm following transplantation. On the other hand, Stra8-targeted GS cells showed defective spermatogenesis following transplantation, confirming its prime role in the initiation of meiosis. TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9, when applied in GS cells, will be valuable tools in the study of spermatogenesis and for revealing the genetic mechanism of spermatogenic failure.

  8. Genome-wide mapping in a house mouse hybrid zone reveals hybrid sterility loci and Dobzhansky-Muller interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; Harr, Bettina

    2014-12-09

    Mapping hybrid defects in contact zones between incipient species can identify genomic regions contributing to reproductive isolation and reveal genetic mechanisms of speciation. The house mouse features a rare combination of sophisticated genetic tools and natural hybrid zones between subspecies. Male hybrids often show reduced fertility, a common reproductive barrier between incipient species. Laboratory crosses have identified sterility loci, but each encompasses hundreds of genes. We map genetic determinants of testis weight and testis gene expression using offspring of mice captured in a hybrid zone between M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. Many generations of admixture enables high-resolution mapping of loci contributing to these sterility-related phenotypes. We identify complex interactions among sterility loci, suggesting multiple, non-independent genetic incompatibilities contribute to barriers to gene flow in the hybrid zone.

  9. Genome rearrangements detected by SNP microarrays in individuals with intellectual disability referred with possible Williams syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel M Pani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual disability (ID affects 2-3% of the population and may occur with or without multiple congenital anomalies (MCA or other medical conditions. Established genetic syndromes and visible chromosome abnormalities account for a substantial percentage of ID diagnoses, although for approximately 50% the molecular etiology is unknown. Individuals with features suggestive of various syndromes but lacking their associated genetic anomalies pose a formidable clinical challenge. With the advent of microarray techniques, submicroscopic genome alterations not associated with known syndromes are emerging as a significant cause of ID and MCA.High-density SNP microarrays were used to determine genome wide copy number in 42 individuals: 7 with confirmed alterations in the WS region but atypical clinical phenotypes, 31 with ID and/or MCA, and 4 controls. One individual from the first group had the most telomeric gene in the WS critical region deleted along with 2 Mb of flanking sequence. A second person had the classic WS deletion and a rearrangement on chromosome 5p within the Cri du Chat syndrome (OMIM:123450 region. Six individuals from the ID/MCA group had large rearrangements (3 deletions, 3 duplications, one of whom had a large inversion associated with a deletion that was not detected by the SNP arrays.Combining SNP microarray analyses and qPCR allowed us to clone and sequence 21 deletion breakpoints in individuals with atypical deletions in the WS region and/or ID or MCA. Comparison of these breakpoints to databases of genomic variation revealed that 52% occurred in regions harboring structural variants in the general population. For two probands the genomic alterations were flanked by segmental duplications, which frequently mediate recurrent genome rearrangements; these may represent new genomic disorders. While SNP arrays and related technologies can identify potentially pathogenic deletions and duplications, obtaining sequence information

  10. Sequencing and de novo assembly of 150 genomes from Denmark as a population reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maretty, Lasse; Jensen, Jacob Malte; Petersen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    or by performing local assembly. However, these approaches are biased against discovery of structural variants and variation in the more complex parts of the genome. Hence, large-scale de novo assembly is needed. Here we show that it is possible to construct excellent de novo assemblies from high......-coverage sequencing with mate-pair libraries extending up to 20 kilobases. We report de novo assemblies of 150 individuals (50 trios) from the GenomeDenmark project. The quality of these assemblies is similar to those obtained using the more expensive long-read technology. We use the assemblies to identify a rich set...

  11. Genomic predictions for dry matter intake using the international reference population of gDMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Hulsegge, B.; Spurlock, D.M.; Berry, D.P.; Wall, E.; Lovendahl, P.; Weigel, K.; MacDonald, K.; Miglior, F.; Krattenmacher, N.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated that using dry matter intake (DMI) phenotypes from multiplecountries increases the accuracy of genomic breeding values for this important trait, provided a multi-trait approach is used. Data from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands,New

  12. A High-Quality Reference Genome for the Invasive Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Using a Chicago Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffberg, Sandra L; Troendle, Nicholas J; Glenn, Travis C; Mahmud, Ousman; Louha, Swarnali; Chalopin, Domitille; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Mauricio, Rodney

    2018-04-27

    The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, is a freshwater poecilid fish native to the southeastern United States but with a global distribution due to widespread human introduction. Gambusia affinis has been used as a model species for a broad range of evolutionary and ecological studies. We sequenced the genome of a male G. affinis to facilitate genetic studies in diverse fields including invasion biology and comparative genetics. We generated Illumina short read data from paired-end libraries and in vitro proximity-ligation libraries. We obtained 54.9× coverage, N50 contig length of 17.6 kb, and N50 scaffold length of 6.65 Mb. Compared to two other species in the Poeciliidae family, G. affinis has slightly fewer genes that have shorter total, exon, and intron length on average. Using a set of universal single-copy orthologs in fish genomes, we found 95.5% of these genes were complete in the G. affinis assembly. The number of transposable elements in the G. affinis assembly is similar to those of closely related species. The high-quality genome sequence and annotations we report will be valuable resources for scientists to map the genetic architecture of traits of interest in this species. Copyright © 2018, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  13. Sequencing and De novo Draft Assemblies of the Fathead Minnow (Pimphales promelas)Reference Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was undertaken to develop genome-scale resources for the fathead minnow (Pimphales promelas) an important model organism widely used in both aquatic ecotoxicology research and in regulatory toxicity testing. We report on the first sequencing and two draft assemblies fo...

  14. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia E. Eynard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations.

  15. Which Individuals To Choose To Update the Reference Population? Minimizing the Loss of Genetic Diversity in Animal Genomic Selection Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynard, Sonia E; Croiseau, Pascal; Laloë, Denis; Fritz, Sebastien; Calus, Mario P L; Restoux, Gwendal

    2018-01-04

    Genomic selection (GS) is commonly used in livestock and increasingly in plant breeding. Relying on phenotypes and genotypes of a reference population, GS allows performance prediction for young individuals having only genotypes. This is expected to achieve fast high genetic gain but with a potential loss of genetic diversity. Existing methods to conserve genetic diversity depend mostly on the choice of the breeding individuals. In this study, we propose a modification of the reference population composition to mitigate diversity loss. Since the high cost of phenotyping is the limiting factor for GS, our findings are of major economic interest. This study aims to answer the following questions: how would decisions on the reference population affect the breeding population, and how to best select individuals to update the reference population and balance maximizing genetic gain and minimizing loss of genetic diversity? We investigated three updating strategies for the reference population: random, truncation, and optimal contribution (OC) strategies. OC maximizes genetic merit for a fixed loss of genetic diversity. A French Montbéliarde dairy cattle population with 50K SNP chip genotypes and simulations over 10 generations were used to compare these different strategies using milk production as the trait of interest. Candidates were selected to update the reference population. Prediction bias and both genetic merit and diversity were measured. Changes in the reference population composition slightly affected the breeding population. Optimal contribution strategy appeared to be an acceptable compromise to maintain both genetic gain and diversity in the reference and the breeding populations. Copyright © 2018 Eynard et al.

  16. A High-Quality Reference Genome for the Invasive Mosquitofish Gambusia affinis Using a Chicago Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Hoffberg

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, is a freshwater poecilid fish native to the southeastern United States but with a global distribution due to widespread human introduction. Gambusia affinis has been used as a model species for a broad range of evolutionary and ecological studies. We sequenced the genome of a male G. affinis to facilitate genetic studies in diverse fields including invasion biology and comparative genetics. We generated Illumina short read data from paired-end libraries and in vitro proximity-ligation libraries. We obtained 54.9× coverage, N50 contig length of 17.6 kb, and N50 scaffold length of 6.65 Mb. Compared to two other species in the Poeciliidae family, G. affinis has slightly fewer genes that have shorter total, exon, and intron length on average. Using a set of universal single-copy orthologs in fish genomes, we found 95.5% of these genes were complete in the G. affinis assembly. The number of transposable elements in the G. affinis assembly is similar to those of closely related species. The high-quality genome sequence and annotations we report will be valuable resources for scientists to map the genetic architecture of traits of interest in this species.

  17. Improving amphibian genomic resources: a multitissue reference transcriptome of an iconic invader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark F; Sequeira, Fernando; Selechnik, Daniel; Carneiro, Miguel; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Reid, Jack G; West, Andrea J; Crossland, Michael R; Shine, Richard; Rollins, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Cane toads (Rhinella marina) are an iconic invasive species introduced to 4 continents and well utilized for studies of rapid evolution in introduced environments. Despite the long introduction history of this species, its profound ecological impacts, and its utility for demonstrating evolutionary principles, genetic information is sparse. Here we produce a de novo transcriptome spanning multiple tissues and life stages to enable investigation of the genetic basis of previously identified rapid phenotypic change over the introduced range. Using approximately 1.9 billion reads from developing tadpoles and 6 adult tissue-specific cDNA libraries, as well as a transcriptome assembly pipeline encompassing 100 separate de novo assemblies, we constructed 62 202 transcripts, of which we functionally annotated ∼50%. Our transcriptome assembly exhibits 90% full-length completeness of the Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs data set. Robust assembly metrics and comparisons with several available anuran transcriptomes and genomes indicate that our cane toad assembly is one of the most complete anuran genomic resources available. This comprehensive anuran transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for investigation of genes under selection during invasion in cane toads, but will also greatly expand our general knowledge of anuran genomes, which are underrepresented in the literature. The data set is publically available in NCBI and GigaDB to serve as a resource for other researchers. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Mouse genome-wide association and systems genetics identify Asxl2 as a regulator of bone mineral density and osteoclastogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Farber

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in the discovery of genes affecting bone mineral density (BMD; however, our understanding of its genetic basis remains incomplete. In the current study, genome-wide association (GWA and co-expression network analysis were used in the recently described Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel (HMDP to identify and functionally characterize novel BMD genes. In the HMDP, a GWA of total body, spinal, and femoral BMD revealed four significant associations (-log10P>5.39 affecting at least one BMD trait on chromosomes (Chrs. 7, 11, 12, and 17. The associations implicated a total of 163 genes with each association harboring between 14 and 112 genes. This list was reduced to 26 functional candidates by identifying those genes that were regulated by local eQTL in bone or harbored potentially functional non-synonymous (NS SNPs. This analysis revealed that the most significant BMD SNP on Chr. 12 was a NS SNP in the additional sex combs like-2 (Asxl2 gene that was predicted to be functional. The involvement of Asxl2 in the regulation of bone mass was confirmed by the observation that Asxl2 knockout mice had reduced BMD. To begin to unravel the mechanism through which Asxl2 influenced BMD, a gene co-expression network was created using cortical bone gene expression microarray data from the HMDP strains. Asxl2 was identified as a member of a co-expression module enriched for genes involved in the differentiation of myeloid cells. In bone, osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells of myeloid origin, suggesting that Asxl2 may play a role in osteoclast differentiation. In agreement, the knockdown of Asxl2 in bone marrow macrophages impaired their ability to form osteoclasts. This study identifies a new regulator of BMD and osteoclastogenesis and highlights the power of GWA and systems genetics in the mouse for dissecting complex genetic traits.

  19. Identification, characterization and metagenome analysis of oocyte-specific genes organized in clusters in the mouse genome

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    Vaiman Daniel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes specifically expressed in the oocyte play key roles in oogenesis, ovarian folliculogenesis, fertilization and/or early embryonic development. In an attempt to identify novel oocyte-specific genes in the mouse, we have used an in silico subtraction methodology, and we have focused our attention on genes that are organized in genomic clusters. Results In the present work, five clusters have been studied: a cluster of thirteen genes characterized by an F-box domain localized on chromosome 9, a cluster of six genes related to T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma protein 1 (Tcl1 on chromosome 12, a cluster composed of a SPErm-associated glutamate (E-Rich (Speer protein expressed in the oocyte in the vicinity of four unknown genes specifically expressed in the testis on chromosome 14, a cluster composed of the oocyte secreted protein-1 (Oosp-1 gene and two Oosp-related genes on chromosome 19, all three being characterized by a partial N-terminal zona pellucida-like domain, and another small cluster of two genes on chromosome 19 as well, composed of a TWIK-Related spinal cord K+ channel encoding-gene, and an unknown gene predicted in silico to be testis-specific. The specificity of expression was confirmed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization for eight and five of them, respectively. Finally, we showed by comparing all of the isolated and clustered oocyte-specific genes identified so far in the mouse genome, that the oocyte-specific clusters are significantly closer to telomeres than isolated oocyte-specific genes are. Conclusion We have studied five clusters of genes specifically expressed in female, some of them being also expressed in male germ-cells. Moreover, contrarily to non-clustered oocyte-specific genes, those that are organized in clusters tend to map near chromosome ends, suggesting that this specific near-telomere position of oocyte-clusters in rodents could constitute an evolutionary advantage. Understanding the biological

  20. Annotation Of Novel And Conserved MicroRNA Genes In The Build 10 Sus scrofa Reference Genome And Determination Of Their Expression Levels In Ten Different Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo; Nielsen, Mathilde; Hedegaard, Jakob

    The DNA template used in the pig genome sequencing project was provided by a Duroc pig named TJ Tabasco. In an effort to annotate microRNA (miRNA) genes in the reference genome we have conducted deep sequencing to determine the miRNA transcriptomes in ten different tissues isolated from Pinky......, a genetically identical clone of TJ Tabasco. The purpose was to generate miRNA sequences that are highly homologous to the reference genome sequence, which along with computational prediction will improve confidence in the genomic annotation of miRNA genes. Based on homology searches of the sequence data...... against miRBase, we identified more than 600 conserved known miRNA/miRNA*, which is a significant increase relative to the 211 porcine miRNA/miRNA* deposited in the current version of miRBase. Furthermore, the genome-wide transcript profiles provided important information on the relative abundance...

  1. Microarray-based comparative genomic profiling of reference strains and selected Canadian field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacInnes Janet I

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen that causes severe losses to the swine industry worldwide. Current commercially-available vaccines are of limited value because they do not induce cross-serovar immunity and do not prevent development of the carrier state. Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridizations (M-CGH were used to estimate whole genomic diversity of representative Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains. Our goal was to identify conserved genes, especially those predicted to encode outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins because of their potential for the development of more effective vaccines. Results Using hierarchical clustering, our M-CGH results showed that the majority of the genes in the genome of the serovar 5 A. pleuropneumoniae L20 strain were conserved in the reference strains of all 15 serovars and in representative field isolates. Fifty-eight conserved genes predicted to encode for outer membrane proteins or lipoproteins were identified. As well, there were several clusters of diverged or absent genes including those associated with capsule biosynthesis, toxin production as well as genes typically associated with mobile elements. Conclusion Although A. pleuropneumoniae strains are essentially clonal, M-CGH analysis of the reference strains of the fifteen serovars and representative field isolates revealed several classes of genes that were divergent or absent. Not surprisingly, these included genes associated with capsule biosynthesis as the capsule is associated with sero-specificity. Several of the conserved genes were identified as candidates for vaccine development, and we conclude that M-CGH is a valuable tool for reverse vaccinology.

  2. Modeling genome-wide dynamic regulatory network in mouse lungs with influenza infection using high-dimensional ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shuang; Liu, Zhi-Ping; Qiu, Xing; Wu, Hulin

    2014-01-01

    The immune response to viral infection is regulated by an intricate network of many genes and their products. The reverse engineering of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) using mathematical models from time course gene expression data collected after influenza infection is key to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in controlling influenza infection within a host. A five-step pipeline: detection of temporally differentially expressed genes, clustering genes into co-expressed modules, identification of network structure, parameter estimate refinement, and functional enrichment analysis, is developed for reconstructing high-dimensional dynamic GRNs from genome-wide time course gene expression data. Applying the pipeline to the time course gene expression data from influenza-infected mouse lungs, we have identified 20 distinct temporal expression patterns in the differentially expressed genes and constructed a module-based dynamic network using a linear ODE model. Both intra-module and inter-module annotations and regulatory relationships of our inferred network show some interesting findings and are highly consistent with existing knowledge about the immune response in mice after influenza infection. The proposed method is a computationally efficient, data-driven pipeline bridging experimental data, mathematical modeling, and statistical analysis. The application to the influenza infection data elucidates the potentials of our pipeline in providing valuable insights into systematic modeling of complicated biological processes.

  3. ATM-deficiency increases genomic instability and metastatic potential in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosos, Yiannis; Escobar, David; Chiang, Ming-Yi; Roys, Kathryn; Valentine, Virginia; Valentine, Marc B; Rehg, Jerold E; Sahai, Vaibhav; Begley, Lesa A; Ye, Jianming; Paul, Leena; McKinnon, Peter J; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz

    2017-09-11

    Germline mutations in ATM (encoding the DNA-damage signaling kinase, ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated) increase Familial Pancreatic Cancer (FPC) susceptibility, and ATM somatic mutations have been identified in resected human pancreatic tumors. Here we investigated how Atm contributes to pancreatic cancer by deleting this gene in a murine model of the disease expressing oncogenic Kras (Kras G12D ). We show that partial or total ATM deficiency cooperates with Kras G12D to promote highly metastatic pancreatic cancer. We also reveal that ATM is activated in pancreatic precancerous lesions in the context of DNA damage and cell proliferation, and demonstrate that ATM deficiency leads to persistent DNA damage in both precancerous lesions and primary tumors. Using low passage cultures from primary tumors and liver metastases we show that ATM loss accelerates Kras-induced carcinogenesis without conferring a specific phenotype to pancreatic tumors or changing the status of the tumor suppressors p53, p16 Ink4a and p19 Arf . However, ATM deficiency markedly increases the proportion of chromosomal alterations in pancreatic primary tumors and liver metastases. More importantly, ATM deficiency also renders murine pancreatic tumors highly sensitive to radiation. These and other findings in our study conclusively establish that ATM activity poses a major barrier to oncogenic transformation in the pancreas via maintaining genomic stability.

  4. Comparative evolutionary genomics of Corynebacterium with special reference to codon and amino acid usage diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shilpee; Sarkar, Indrani; Roy, Ayan; Mohapatra, Pradeep K Das; Mondal, Keshab C; Sen, Arnab

    2018-02-01

    The present study has been aimed to the comparative analysis of high GC composition containing Corynebacterium genomes and their evolutionary study by exploring codon and amino acid usage patterns. Phylogenetic study by MLSA approach, indel analysis and BLAST matrix differentiated Corynebacterium species in pathogenic and non-pathogenic clusters. Correspondence analysis on synonymous codon usage reveals that, gene length, optimal codon frequencies and tRNA abundance affect the gene expression of Corynebacterium. Most of the optimal codons as well as translationally optimal codons are C ending i.e. RNY (R-purine, N-any nucleotide base, and Y-pyrimidine) and reveal translational selection pressure on codon bias of Corynebacterium. Amino acid usage is affected by hydrophobicity, aromaticity, protein energy cost, etc. Highly expressed genes followed the cost minimization hypothesis and are less diverged at their synonymous positions of codons. Functional analysis of core genes shows significant difference in pathogenic and non-pathogenic Corynebacterium. The study reveals close relationship between non-pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic Corynebaterium as well as between molecular evolution and survival niches of the organism.

  5. Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix Armero

    Full Text Available The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L. is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq is the main protagonist of the oil market. In this study, we present a workflow that exploits the comparative genomics between a target species (coconut and a reference species (oil palm to improve the transcriptomic data, providing a proteome useful to answer functional or evolutionary questions. This workflow reduces redundancy and fragmentation, two inherent problems of transcriptomic data, while preserving the functional representation of the target species. Our approach was validated in Arabidopsis thaliana using Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella as references species. This analysis showed the high sensitivity and specificity of our strategy, relatively independent of the reference proteome. The workflow increased the length of proteins products in A. thaliana by 13%, allowing, often, to recover 100% of the protein sequence length. In addition redundancy was reduced by a factor greater than 3. In coconut, the approach generated 29,366 proteins, 1,246 of these proteins deriving from new contigs obtained with the BRANCH software. The coconut proteome presented a functional profile similar to that observed in rice and an important number of metabolic pathways related to secondary metabolism. The new sequences found with BRANCH software were enriched in functions related to biotic stress. Our strategy can be used as a complementary step to de novo transcriptome assembly to get a representative proteome of a target species. The results of the current analysis are available on the website PalmComparomics (http://palm-comparomics.southgreen.fr/.

  6. Improving transcriptome de novo assembly by using a reference genome of a related species: Translational genomics from oil palm to coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armero, Alix; Baudouin, Luc; Bocs, Stéphanie; This, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The palms are a family of tropical origin and one of the main constituents of the ecosystems of these regions around the world. The two main species of palm represent different challenges: coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is a source of multiple goods and services in tropical communities, while oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) is the main protagonist of the oil market. In this study, we present a workflow that exploits the comparative genomics between a target species (coconut) and a reference species (oil palm) to improve the transcriptomic data, providing a proteome useful to answer functional or evolutionary questions. This workflow reduces redundancy and fragmentation, two inherent problems of transcriptomic data, while preserving the functional representation of the target species. Our approach was validated in Arabidopsis thaliana using Arabidopsis lyrata and Capsella rubella as references species. This analysis showed the high sensitivity and specificity of our strategy, relatively independent of the reference proteome. The workflow increased the length of proteins products in A. thaliana by 13%, allowing, often, to recover 100% of the protein sequence length. In addition redundancy was reduced by a factor greater than 3. In coconut, the approach generated 29,366 proteins, 1,246 of these proteins deriving from new contigs obtained with the BRANCH software. The coconut proteome presented a functional profile similar to that observed in rice and an important number of metabolic pathways related to secondary metabolism. The new sequences found with BRANCH software were enriched in functions related to biotic stress. Our strategy can be used as a complementary step to de novo transcriptome assembly to get a representative proteome of a target species. The results of the current analysis are available on the website PalmComparomics (http://palm-comparomics.southgreen.fr/).

  7. Biological Parameters and Molecular Markers of Clone CL Brener - The Reference Organism of the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project

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    Bianca Zingales

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Clone CL Brener is the reference organism used in the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project. Some biological parameters of CL Brener were determined: (a the doubling time of epimastigote forms cultured in liver infusion-tryptose (LIT medium at 28oC is 58±13 hr; (b differentiation of epimastigotes to metacyclic trypomastigotes is obtained by incubation in LIT-20% Grace´s medium; (c trypomastigotes infect mammalian cultured cells and perform the complete intracellular cycle at 33 and 37oC; (d blood forms are highly infective to mice; (e blood forms are susceptible to nifurtimox and benznidazole. The molecular typing of CL Brener has been determined: (a isoenzymatic profiles are characteristic of zymodeme ZB; (b PCR amplification of a 24Sa ribosomal RNA sequence indicates it belongs to T. cruzi lineage 1; (c schizodeme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and DNA fingerprinting analyses were performed

  8. The Transcriptome of the Reference Potato Genome Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja Clone DM1-3 516R44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Alicia N.; Childs, Kevin L.; Lin, Haining; Bryan, Glenn J.; Giuliano, Giovanni; Buell, C. Robin

    2011-01-01

    Advances in molecular breeding in potato have been limited by its complex biological system, which includes vegetative propagation, autotetraploidy, and extreme heterozygosity. The availability of the potato genome and accompanying gene complement with corresponding gene structure, location, and functional annotation are powerful resources for understanding this complex plant and advancing molecular breeding efforts. Here, we report a reference for the potato transcriptome using 32 tissues and growth conditions from the doubled monoploid Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja clone DM1-3 516R44 for which a genome sequence is available. Analysis of greater than 550 million RNA-Seq reads permitted the detection and quantification of expression levels of over 22,000 genes. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses captured the biological variability that accounts for gene expression differences among tissues suggesting tissue-specific gene expression, and genes with tissue or condition restricted expression. Using gene co-expression network analysis, we identified 18 gene modules that represent tissue-specific transcriptional networks of major potato organs and developmental stages. This information provides a powerful resource for potato research as well as studies on other members of the Solanaceae family. PMID:22046362

  9. The detailed 3D multi-loop aggregate/rosette chromatin architecture and functional dynamic organization of the human and mouse genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Tobias A; Wachsmuth, Malte; Kepper, Nick

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dynamic three-dimensional chromatin architecture of genomes and its co-evolutionary connection to its function-the storage, expression, and replication of genetic information-is still one of the central issues in biology. Here, we describe the much debated 3D architecture...... of the human and mouse genomes from the nucleosomal to the megabase pair level by a novel approach combining selective high-throughput high-resolution chromosomal interaction capture (T2C), polymer simulations, and scaling analysis of the 3D architecture and the DNA sequence. RESULTS: The genome is compacted...... into a chromatin quasi-fibre with ~5 ± 1 nucleosomes/11 nm, folded into stable ~30-100 kbp loops forming stable loop aggregates/rosettes connected by similar sized linkers. Minor but significant variations in the architecture are seen between cell types and functional states. The architecture and the DNA sequence...

  10. Correlation between sequence conservation and structural thermodynamics of microRNA precursors from human, mouse, and chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengqi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that microRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs have considerably more stable secondary structures than other native RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA and artificial RNA sequences. However, pre-miRNAs with ultra stable secondary structures have not been investigated. It is not known if there is a tendency in pre-miRNA sequences towards or against ultra stable structures? Furthermore, the relationship between the structural thermodynamic stability of pre-miRNA and their evolution remains unclear. Results We investigated the correlation between pre-miRNA sequence conservation and structural stability as measured by adjusted minimum folding free energies in pre-miRNAs isolated from human, mouse, and chicken. The analysis revealed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNA sequences had structures with similar average stabilities. However, the relatively ultra stable and unstable pre-miRNAs were more likely to be non-conserved than pre-miRNAs with moderate stability. Non-conserved pre-miRNAs had more G+C than A+U nucleotides, while conserved pre-miRNAs contained more A+U nucleotides. Notably, the U content of conserved pre-miRNAs was especially higher than that of non-conserved pre-miRNAs. Further investigations showed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNAs exhibited different structural element features, even though they had comparable levels of stability. Conclusions We proposed that there is a correlation between structural thermodynamic stability and sequence conservation for pre-miRNAs from human, mouse, and chicken genomes. Our analyses suggested that pre-miRNAs with relatively ultra stable or unstable structures were less favoured by natural selection than those with moderately stable structures. Comparison of nucleotide compositions between non-conserved and conserved pre-miRNAs indicated the importance of U nucleotides in the pre-miRNA evolutionary process. Several characteristic structural elements were

  11. The importance of information on relatives for the prediction of genomic breeding values and the implications for the makeup of reference data sets in livestock breeding schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Samuel A; Hickey, John M; Daetwyler, Hans D; van der Werf, Julius H J

    2012-02-09

    The theory of genomic selection is based on the prediction of the effects of genetic markers in linkage disequilibrium with quantitative trait loci. However, genomic selection also relies on relationships between individuals to accurately predict genetic value. This study aimed to examine the importance of information on relatives versus that of unrelated or more distantly related individuals on the estimation of genomic breeding values. Simulated and real data were used to examine the effects of various degrees of relationship on the accuracy of genomic selection. Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (gBLUP) was compared to two pedigree based BLUP methods, one with a shallow one generation pedigree and the other with a deep ten generation pedigree. The accuracy of estimated breeding values for different groups of selection candidates that had varying degrees of relationships to a reference data set of 1750 animals was investigated. The gBLUP method predicted breeding values more accurately than BLUP. The most accurate breeding values were estimated using gBLUP for closely related animals. Similarly, the pedigree based BLUP methods were also accurate for closely related animals, however when the pedigree based BLUP methods were used to predict unrelated animals, the accuracy was close to zero. In contrast, gBLUP breeding values, for animals that had no pedigree relationship with animals in the reference data set, allowed substantial accuracy. An animal's relationship to the reference data set is an important factor for the accuracy of genomic predictions. Animals that share a close relationship to the reference data set had the highest accuracy from genomic predictions. However a baseline accuracy that is driven by the reference data set size and the overall population effective population size enables gBLUP to estimate a breeding value for unrelated animals within a population (breed), using information previously ignored by pedigree based BLUP methods.

  12. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels and selection of reference genes in mouse and naked mole rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhmacher, Laura-Nadine; Smith, Ewan St John

    2016-12-13

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a family of ion channels comprised of six subunits encoded by four genes and they are expressed throughout the peripheral and central nervous systems. ASICs have been implicated in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes: pain, breathing, synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Unlike mice and humans, naked mole-rats do not perceive acid as a noxious stimulus, even though their sensory neurons express functional ASICs, likely an adaptation to living in a hypercapnic subterranean environment. Previous studies of ASIC expression in the mammalian nervous system have often not examined all subunits, or have failed to adequately quantify expression between tissues; to date there has been no attempt to determine ASIC expression in the central nervous system of the naked mole-rat. Here we perform a geNorm study to identify reliable housekeeping genes in both mouse and naked mole-rat and then use quantitative real-time PCR to estimate the relative amounts of ASIC transcripts in different tissues of both species. We identify RPL13A (ribosomal protein L13A) and CANX (calnexin), and β-ACTIN and EIF4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4a) as being the most stably expressed housekeeping genes in mouse and naked mole-rat, respectively. In both species, ASIC3 was most highly expressed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), and ASIC1a, ASIC2b and ASIC3 were more highly expressed across all brain regions compared to the other subunits. We also show that ASIC4, a proton-insensitive subunit of relatively unknown function, was highly expressed in all mouse tissues apart from DRG and hippocampus, but was by contrast the lowliest expressed ASIC in all naked mole-rat tissues.

  13. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D'Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg; however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new “Free-ITR” qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  14. Practical utilization of recombinant AAV vector reference standards: focus on vector genomes titration by free ITR qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Susan; Blouin, Veronique; Broucque, Frederic; Penaud-Budloo, Magalie; François, Achille; Perez, Irene C; Le Bec, Christine; Moullier, Philippe; Snyder, Richard O; Ayuso, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have demonstrated efficacy and a good safety profile. Although the field is advancing quickly, vector analytics and harmonization of dosage units are still a limitation for commercialization. AAV reference standard materials (RSMs) can help ensure product safety by controlling the consistency of assays used to characterize rAAV stocks. The most widely utilized unit of vector dosing is based on the encapsidated vector genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is now the most common method to titer vector genomes (vg); however, significant inter- and intralaboratory variations have been documented using this technique. Here, RSMs and rAAV stocks were titered on the basis of an inverted terminal repeats (ITRs) sequence-specific qPCR and we found an artificial increase in vg titers using a widely utilized approach. The PCR error was introduced by using single-cut linearized plasmid as the standard curve. This bias was eliminated using plasmid standards linearized just outside the ITR region on each end to facilitate the melting of the palindromic ITR sequences during PCR. This new "Free-ITR" qPCR delivers vg titers that are consistent with titers obtained with transgene-specific qPCR and could be used to normalize in-house product-specific AAV vector standards and controls to the rAAV RSMs. The free-ITR method, including well-characterized controls, will help to calibrate doses to compare preclinical and clinical data in the field.

  15. Genomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, T. A. (Terence A.)

    2002-01-01

    ... of genome expression and replication processes, and transcriptomics and proteomics. This text is richly illustrated with clear, easy-to-follow, full color diagrams, which are downloadable from the book's website...

  16. Genome engineering via homologous recombination in mouse embryonic stem (ES cells: an amazingly versatile tool for the study of mammalian biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABINET CHARLES

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to introduce genetic modifications in the germ line of complex organisms has been a long-standing goal of those who study developmental biology. In this regard, the mouse, a favorite model for the study of the mammals, is unique: indeed not only is it possible since the late seventies, to add genes to the mouse genome like in several other complex organisms but also to perform gene replacement and modification. This has been made possible via two technological breakthroughs: 1 the isolation and culture of embryonic stem cells (ES, which have the unique ability to colonize all the tissues of an host embryo including its germ line; 2 the development of methods allowing homologous recombination between an incoming DNA and its cognate chromosomal sequence (gene ''targeting''. As a result, it has become possible to create mice bearing null mutations in any cloned gene (knock-out mice. Such a possibility has revolutionized the genetic approach of almost all aspects of the biology of the mouse. In recent years, the scope of gene targeting has been widened even more, due to the refinement of the knock-out technology: other types of genetic modifications may now be created, including subtle mutations (point mutations, micro deletions or insertions, etc. and chromosomal rearrangements such as large deletions, duplications and translocations. Finally, methods have been devised which permit the creation of conditional mutations, allowing the study of gene function throughout the life of an animal, when gene inactivation entails embryonic lethality. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods and scenarios used for the programmed modification of mouse genome, and we underline their enormous interest for the study of mammalian biology.

  17. Mapping whole genome shotgun sequence and variant calling in mammalian species without their reference genomes [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2x3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Kalbfleisch

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomics research in mammals has produced reference genome sequences that are essential for identifying variation associated with disease.  High quality reference genome sequences are now available for humans, model species, and economically important agricultural animals.  Comparisons between these species have provided unique insights into mammalian gene function.  However, the number of species with reference genomes is small compared to those needed for studying molecular evolutionary relationships in the tree of life.  For example, among the even-toed ungulates there are approximately 300 species whose phylogenetic relationships have been calculated in the 10k trees project.  Only six of these have reference genomes:  cattle, swine, sheep, goat, water buffalo, and bison.  Although reference sequences will eventually be developed for additional hoof stock, the resources in terms of time, money, infrastructure and expertise required to develop a quality reference genome may be unattainable for most species for at least another decade.  In this work we mapped 35 Gb of next generation sequence data of a Katahdin sheep to its own species’ reference genome (Ovis aries Oar3.1 and to that of a species that diverged 15 to 30 million years ago (Bos taurus UMD3.1.  In total, 56% of reads covered 76% of UMD3.1 to an average depth of 6.8 reads per site, 83 million variants were identified, of which 78 million were homozygous and likely represent interspecies nucleotide differences. Excluding repeat regions and sex chromosomes, nearly 3.7 million heterozygous sites were identified in this animal vs. bovine UMD3.1, representing polymorphisms occurring in sheep.  Of these, 41% could be readily mapped to orthologous positions in ovine Oar3.1 with 80% corroborated as heterozygous.  These variant sites, identified via interspecies mapping could be used for comparative genomics, disease association studies, and ultimately to understand

  18. The dose of HBV genome contained plasmid has a great impact on HBV persistence in hydrodynamic injection mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Yun; Yang, Lu; Zhou, Di; Yang, Yan; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang; Song, Jingjiao

    2017-10-25

    Hydrodynamic injection (HI) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mouse model is an useful tool for HBV related research in vivo. However, only 40% of C57/BL6 mice injected with 10 μg HBV genome contained plasmid (pAAV-HBV1.2), serum HBsAg more than 6 months and none of the BALB/c mice injected with 10 μg pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA, serum HBsAg positive more than 4 weeks in the previous study. In this study, C57/BL6 and BALB/c mice were hydrodynamic injected with different doses of pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA. HBV related serum markers were detected by ELISA. ALT levels in the serum were measured using full automated biochemistry analyzer. HBcAg positive cells in the liver were detected by immunohistochemical staining. The mRNA levels of IRF3, ISGs including ISG15, OAS, PKR and immune factors including IFNγ, TNFα, TGFβ, IL-6, IL-10, PDL1 in liver of the mice were quantified by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the mice injected with 100 μg high-concentration or 1 μg low-concentration of pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA did not excert dominant influence on HBV persistence. In contrast, injection of 5 μg intermediate-dose of pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA led to significant prolonged HBsAg expression and HBV persistence in both C57/BL6 (80% of the mice with HBsAg positive more than 6 months) and BALB/c (60% of the mice with HBsAg positive more than 3 months) mice. IFNγ was significant up-regulated in liver of the mice injected with 1 μg or 100 μg pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA. TNFα was up-regulated significantly in liver of the mice injected with 100 μg pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA. Moreover, PDL1 was significant up-regulated in liver of the mice injected with 5 μg pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA. In this paper we demonstrated that, in the HBV HI mouse model, the concentration of injected pAAV-HBV1.2 plasmid DNA contributes to the diverse kinetics of HBsAg and HBeAg in the serum as well as HBcAg expression level in the liver, which then determined the HBV persisternce, while the antiviral

  19. Genome-Wide Profiling of Liver X Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α in Mouse Liver Reveals Extensive Sharing of Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boergesen, Michael; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Gross, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    and correlate with an LXR-dependent hepatic induction of lipogenic genes. To further investigate the roles of RXR and LXR in the regulation of hepatic gene expression, we have mapped the ligand-regulated genome-wide binding of these factors in mouse liver. We find that the RXR agonist bexarotene primarily......The liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and are important regulators of lipid metabolism in the liver. We have recently shown that RXR agonist-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis in mice are dependent on LXRs...

  20. Dysregulation of mitotic machinery genes precedes genome instability during spontaneous pre-malignant transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Urzúa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based in epidemiological evidence, repetitive ovulation has been proposed to play a role in the origin of ovarian cancer by inducing an aberrant wound rupture-repair process of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE. Accordingly, long term cultures of isolated OSE cells undergo in vitro spontaneous transformation thus developing tumorigenic capacity upon extensive subcultivation. In this work, C57BL/6 mouse OSE (MOSE cells were cultured up to passage 28 and their RNA and DNA copy number profiles obtained at passages 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, 23, 25 and 28 by means of DNA microarrays. Gene ontology, pathway and network analyses were focused in passages earlier than 20, which is a hallmark of malignancy in this model. Results At passage 14, 101 genes were up-regulated in absence of significant DNA copy number changes. Among these, the top-3 enriched functions (>30 fold, adj p < 0.05 comprised 7 genes coding for centralspindlin, chromosome passenger and minichromosome maintenance protein complexes. The genes Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1, Birc5 (Survivin, Nusap1 and Kif23 were the most recurrent in over a dozen GO terms related to the mitotic process. On the other hand, Pten plus the large non-coding RNAs Malat1 and Neat1 were among the 80 down-regulated genes with mRNA processing, nuclear bodies, ER-stress response and tumor suppression as relevant terms. Interestingly, the earliest discrete segmental aneuploidies arose by passage 18 in chromosomes 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19. By passage 23, when MOSE cells express the malignant phenotype, the dysregulated gene expression repertoire expanded, DNA imbalances enlarged in size and covered additional loci. Conclusion Prior to early aneuploidies, overexpression of genes coding for the mitotic apparatus in passage-14 pre-malignant MOSE cells indicate an increased proliferation rate suggestive of replicative stress. Concomitant down-regulation of nuclear bodies and RNA processing related genes

  1. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-01-01

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species. PMID:29538491

  2. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-03-12

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  3. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  4. Development of a Method to Implement Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing of cfDNA from Cancer Patients and a Mouse Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C. Maggi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop a method for whole genome cell-free DNA (cfDNA methylation analysis in humans and mice with the ultimate goal to facilitate the identification of tumor derived DNA methylation changes in the blood. Plasma or serum from patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors or lung cancer, and plasma from a murine model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma was used to develop a protocol for cfDNA isolation, library preparation and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of ultra low quantities of cfDNA, including tumor-specific DNA. The protocol developed produced high quality libraries consistently generating a conversion rate >98% that will be applicable for the analysis of human and mouse plasma or serum to detect tumor-derived changes in DNA methylation.

  5. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

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    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  6. Stability of Reference Genes for Messenger RNA Quantification by Real-Time PCR in Mouse Dextran Sodium Sulfate Experimental Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Eissa

    Full Text Available Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR. No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE in DSS-experimental murine colitis.Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice using DSS5% for 5 days, control group received water. RNA was extracted from inflamed and non-inflamed colon. Using RT-qPCR, comparative analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria and relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression was determined by calculating the difference in the threshold cycle.Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh, β-actin (Actb, or β2-microglobulin (β2m showed the highest variability within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2 were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. Normalization of colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used. Depending on the genes used to normalize the data, statistical significance varied from significant when TBP / Eef2 were used to non-significant when Gapdh, Actb or β2m were used.This study highlights the appropriate choice of RGE to ensure adequate normalization of RT-qPCR data when using this model. Suboptimal RGE may explain controversial results from published studies. We recommend using Tbp and Eef2 instead of Gapdh, Actb or β2m as reference genes.

  7. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  8. Reference genes for real-time PCR quantification of messenger RNAs and microRNAs in mouse model of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Hanušová, Veronika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing health problem worldwide. Among other ways, nutritional intervention using phytochemicals is important method for treatment and prevention of this disease. Recent studies have shown that certain phytochemicals could alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity. For study of the obesity and its treatment, monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mice with developed central obesity, insulin resistance and liver lipid accumulation are frequently used animal models. To understand the mechanism of phytochemicals action in obese animals, the study of selected genes expression together with miRNA quantification is extremely important. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and reproducible method, but it depends on proper normalization entirely. The aim of present study was to identify the appropriate reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in MSG mice treated with green tea catechins, potential anti-obesity phytochemicals. Two sets of reference genes were tested: first set contained seven commonly used genes for normalization of messenger RNA, the second set of candidate reference genes included ten small RNAs for normalization of miRNA. The expression stability of these reference genes were tested upon treatment of mice with catechins using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. Selected normalizers for mRNA quantification were tested and validated on expression of quinone oxidoreductase, biotransformation enzyme known to be modified by catechins. The effect of selected normalizers for miRNA quantification was tested on two obesity- and diabetes- related miRNAs, miR-221 and miR-29b, respectively. Finally, the combinations of B2M/18S/HPRT1 and miR-16/sno234 were validated as optimal reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in liver and 18S/RPlP0/HPRT1 and sno234/miR-186 in small intestine of MSG mice. These

  9. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of Nocardia seriolae UTF1, the causative agent of fish nocardiosis: The first reference genome sequence of the fish pathogenic Nocardia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Nakamura, Yoji; Fujiwara, Atushi; Shimahara, Yoshiko; Kamaishi, Takashi; Yoshida, Terutoyo; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Katoh, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    Nocardiosis caused by Nocardia seriolae is one of the major threats in the aquaculture of Seriola species (yellowtail; S. quinqueradiata, amberjack; S. dumerili and kingfish; S. lalandi) in Japan. Here, we report the complete nucleotide genome sequence of N. seriolae UTF1, isolated from a cultured yellowtail. The genome is a circular chromosome of 8,121,733 bp with a G+C content of 68.1% that encodes 7,697 predicted proteins. In the N. seriolae UTF1 predicted genes, we found orthologs of virulence factors of pathogenic mycobacteria and human clinical Nocardia isolates involved in host cell invasion, modulation of phagocyte function and survival inside the macrophages. The virulence factor candidates provide an essential basis for understanding their pathogenic mechanisms at the molecular level by the fish nocardiosis research community in future studies. We also found many potential antibiotic resistance genes on the N. seriolae UTF1 chromosome. Comparative analysis with the four existing complete genomes, N. farcinica IFM 10152, N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and N. cyriacigeorgica GUH-2 and N. nova SH22a, revealed that 2,745 orthologous genes were present in all five Nocardia genomes (core genes) and 1,982 genes were unique to N. seriolae UTF1. In particular, the N. seriolae UTF1 genome contains a greater number of mobile elements and genes of unknown function that comprise the differences in structure and gene content from the other Nocardia genomes. In addition, a lot of the N. seriolae UTF1-specific genes were assigned to the ABC transport system. Because of limited resources in ocean environments, these N. seriolae UTF1 specific ABC transporters might facilitate adaptation strategies essential for marine environment survival. Thus, the availability of the complete N. seriolae UTF1 genome sequence will provide a valuable resource for comparative genomic studies of N. seriolae isolates, as well as provide new insights into the ecological and functional diversity of

  10. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

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    Patrícia Beldade

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of

  11. Reference Genome-Directed Resolution of Homologous and Homeologous Relationships within and between Different Oat Linkage Maps

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    Juan J. Gutierrez-Gonzalez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Genome research on oat ( L. has received less attention than wheat ( L. and barley ( L. because it is a less prominent component of the human food system. To assess the potential of the model grass (L P. Beauv. as a surrogate for oat genome research, the whole genome sequence (WGS of was employed for comparative analysis with oat genetic linkage maps. Sequences of mapped molecular markers from one diploid spp. and two hexaploid oat maps were aligned to the WGS to infer syntenic relationships. Diploid and exhibit a high degree of synteny with 18 syntenic blocks covering 87% of the oat genome, which permitted postulation of an ancestral spp. chromosome structure. Synteny between oat and was also prevalent, with 50 syntenic blocks covering 76.6% of the ‘Kanota’ × ‘Ogle’ linkage map. Coalignment of diploid and hexaploid maps to helped resolve homeologous relationships between different oat linkage groups but also revealed many major rearrangements in oat subgenomes. Extending the analysis to a second oat linkage map (Ogle × ‘TAM O-301’ allowed identification of several putative homologous linkage groups across the two oat populations. These results indicate that the genome sequence will be a useful resource to assist genetics and genomics research in oat. The analytical strategy employed here should be applicable for genome research in other temperate grass crops with modest amounts of genomic data.

  12. Reference quality assembly of the 3.5 Gb genome of Capsicum annuum form a single linked-read library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linked-Read sequencing technology has recently been employed successfully for de novo assembly of multiple human genomes, however the utility of this technology for complex plant genomes is unproven. We evaluated the technology for this purpose by sequencing the 3.5 gigabase (Gb) diploid pepper (Cap...

  13. Rapid Evolutionary Rates and Unique Genomic Signatures Discovered in the First Reference Genome for the Southern Ocean Salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jue, Nathaniel K; Batta-Lona, Paola G; Trusiak, Sarah; Obergfell, Craig; Bucklin, Ann; O'Neill, Michael J; O'Neill, Rachel J

    2016-10-30

    A preliminary genome sequence has been assembled for the Southern Ocean salp, Salpa thompsoni (Urochordata, Thaliacea). Despite the ecological importance of this species in Antarctic pelagic food webs and its potential role as an indicator of changing Southern Ocean ecosystems in response to climate change, no genomic resources are available for S. thompsoni or any closely related urochordate species. Using a multiple-platform, multiple-individual approach, we have produced a 318,767,936-bp genome sequence, covering >50% of the estimated 602 Mb (±173 Mb) genome size for S. thompsoni Using a nonredundant set of predicted proteins, >50% (16,823) of sequences showed significant homology to known proteins and ∼38% (12,151) of the total protein predictions were associated with Gene Ontology functional information. We have generated 109,958 SNP variant and 9,782 indel predictions for this species, serving as a resource for future phylogenomic and population genetic studies. Comparing the salp genome to available assemblies for four other urochordates, Botryllus schlosseri, Ciona intestinalis, Ciona savignyi and Oikopleura dioica, we found that S. thompsoni shares the previously estimated rapid rates of evolution for these species. High mutation rates are thus independent of genome size, suggesting that rates of evolution >1.5 times that observed for vertebrates are a broad taxonomic characteristic of urochordates. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed a small number of genes with sites undergoing rapid evolution, including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and metabolic and immune process that may be reflective of both adaptation to polar, planktonic environments as well as the complex life history of the salps. Finally, we performed an initial survey of small RNAs, revealing the presence of known, conserved miRNAs, as well as novel miRNA genes; unique piRNAs; and mature miRNA signatures for varying developmental stages. Collectively, these

  14. Analyses of Tissue Culture Adaptation of Human Herpesvirus-6A by Whole Genome Deep Sequencing Redefines the Reference Sequence and Identifies Virus Entry Complex Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedy, Joshua G; Escriva, Eric; Topf, Maya; Gompels, Ursula A

    2017-12-31

    Tissue-culture adaptation of viruses can modulate infection. Laboratory passage and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)mid cloning of human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, resulted in genomic deletions and rearrangements altering genes encoding the virus entry complex, which affected cellular tropism, virulence, and vaccine development. Here, we analyse these effects on the reference genome for related betaherpesviruses, Roseolovirus, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) strain U1102. This virus is also naturally "cloned" by germline subtelomeric chromosomal-integration in approximately 1% of human populations, and accurate references are key to understanding pathological relationships between exogenous and endogenous virus. Using whole genome next-generation deep-sequencing Illumina-based methods, we compared the original isolate to tissue-culture passaged and the BACmid-cloned virus. This re-defined the reference genome showing 32 corrections and 5 polymorphisms. Furthermore, minor variant analyses of passaged and BACmid virus identified emerging populations of a further 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 loci, half non-synonymous indicating cell-culture selection. Analyses of the BAC-virus genome showed deletion of the BAC cassette via loxP recombination removing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based selection. As shown for HCMV culture effects, select HHV-6A SNPs mapped to genes encoding mediators of virus cellular entry, including virus envelope glycoprotein genes gB and the gH/gL complex. Comparative models suggest stabilisation of the post-fusion conformation. These SNPs are essential to consider in vaccine-design, antimicrobial-resistance, and pathogenesis.

  15. Comparison of the permeability of metoprolol and labetalol in rat, mouse, and Caco-2 cells: use as a reference standard for BCS classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incecayir, Tuba; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2013-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to investigate labetalol as a potential high permeability reference standard for the application of Biopharmaceutics Classification Systems (BCS). Permeabilities of labetalol and metoprolol were investigated in animal intestinal perfusion models and Caco-2 cell monolayers. After isolating specific intestinal segments, in situ single-pass intestinal perfusions (SPIP) were performed in rats and mice. The effective permeabilities (Peff) of labetalol and metoprolol, an FDA standard for the low/high Peff class boundary, were investigated in two different segments of rat intestine (proximal jejunum and distal ileum) and in the proximal jejunum of mouse. No significant difference was found between Peff of metoprolol and labetalol in the jejunum and ileum of rat (0.33 ± 0.11 × 10(-4) vs 0.38 ± 0.06 × 10(-4) and 0.57 ± 0.17 × 10(-4) vs 0.64 ± 0.30 × 10(-4) cm/s, respectively) and in the jejunum of mouse (0.55 ± 0.05 × 10(-4) vs 0.59 ± 0.13 × 10(-4) cm/s). However, Peff of metoprolol and labetalol were 1.7 and 1.6 times higher in the jejunum of mouse, compared to the jejunum of rat, respectively. Metoprolol and labetalol showed segmental-dependent permeability through the rat intestine, with increased Peff in the distal ileum in comparison to the proximal jejunum. Most significantly, Peff of labetalol was found to be concentration-dependent. Decreasing concentrations of labetalol in the perfusate resulted in decreased Peff compared to Peff of metoprolol. The intestinal epithelial permeability of labetalol was lower than that of metoprolol in Caco-2 cells at both apical pH 6.5 and 7.5 (5.96 ± 1.96 × 10(-6) vs 9.44 ± 3.44 × 10(-6) and 15.9 ± 2.2 × 10(-6) vs 23.2 ± 7.1 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively). Labetalol exhibited higher permeability in basolateral to apical (BL-AP) compared to AP-BL direction in Caco-2 cells at 0.1 times the highest dose strength (HDS) (46.7 ± 6.5 × 10(-6) vs 14.2 ± 1.5 × 10(-6) cm/s). The P

  16. A novel genome-wide microsatellite resource for species of Eucalyptus with linkage-to-physical correspondence on the reference genome sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattapaglia, Dario; Mamani, Eva M C; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B; Faria, Danielle A

    2015-03-01

    Keystone species in their native ranges, eucalypts, are ecologically and genetically very diverse, growing naturally along extensive latitudinal and altitudinal ranges and variable environments. Besides their ecological importance, eucalypts are also the most widely planted trees for sustainable forestry in the world. We report the development of a novel collection of 535 microsatellites for species of Eucalyptus, 494 designed from ESTs and 41 from genomic libraries. A selected subset of 223 was evaluated for individual identification, parentage testing, and ancestral information content in the two most extensively studied species, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus globulus. Microsatellites showed high transferability and overlapping allele size range, suggesting they have arisen still in their common ancestor and confirming the extensive genome conservation between these two species. A consensus linkage map with 437 microsatellites, the most comprehensive microsatellite-only genetic map for Eucalyptus, was built by assembling segregation data from three mapping populations and anchored to the Eucalyptus genome. An overall colinearity between recombination-based and physical positioning of 84% of the mapped microsatellites was observed, with some ordering discrepancies and sporadic locus duplications, consistent with the recently described whole genome duplication events in Eucalyptus. The linkage map covered 95.2% of the 605.8-Mbp assembled genome sequence, placing one microsatellite every 1.55 Mbp on average, and an overall estimate of physical to recombination distance of 618 kbp/cM. The genetic parameters estimates together with linkage and physical position data for this large set of microsatellites should assist marker choice for genome-wide population genetics and comparative mapping in Eucalyptus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Evidence-based design and evaluation of a whole genome sequencing clinical report for the reference microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Anamaria; McKee, Geoffrey; Munzner, Tamara; Gardy, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Microbial genome sequencing is now being routinely used in many clinical and public health laboratories. Understanding how to report complex genomic test results to stakeholders who may have varying familiarity with genomics-including clinicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and researchers-is critical to the successful and sustainable implementation of this new technology; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines for designing such a report in the pathogen genomics domain. Here, we describe an iterative, human-centered approach to creating a report template for communicating tuberculosis (TB) genomic test results. We used Design Study Methodology-a human centered approach drawn from the information visualization domain-to redesign an existing clinical report. We used expert consults and an online questionnaire to discover various stakeholders' needs around the types of data and tasks related to TB that they encounter in their daily workflow. We also evaluated their perceptions of and familiarity with genomic data, as well as its utility at various clinical decision points. These data shaped the design of multiple prototype reports that were compared against the existing report through a second online survey, with the resulting qualitative and quantitative data informing the final, redesigned, report. We recruited 78 participants, 65 of whom were clinicians, nurses, laboratorians, researchers, and epidemiologists involved in TB diagnosis, treatment, and/or surveillance. Our first survey indicated that participants were largely enthusiastic about genomic data, with the majority agreeing on its utility for certain TB diagnosis and treatment tasks and many reporting some confidence in their ability to interpret this type of data (between 58.8% and 94.1%, depending on the specific data type). When we compared our four prototype reports against the existing design, we found that for the majority (86.7%) of design comparisons, participants preferred the

  18. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2009-01-18

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization. During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.

  19. Quantitative RNA-Seq analysis in non-model species: assessing transcriptome assemblies as a scaffold and the utility of evolutionary divergent genomic reference species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornett Emily A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How well does RNA-Seq data perform for quantitative whole gene expression analysis in the absence of a genome? This is one unanswered question facing the rapidly growing number of researchers studying non-model species. Using Homo sapiens data and resources, we compared the direct mapping of sequencing reads to predicted genes from the genome with mapping to de novo transcriptomes assembled from RNA-Seq data. Gene coverage and expression analysis was further investigated in the non-model context by using increasingly divergent genomic reference species to group assembled contigs by unique genes. Results Eight transcriptome sets, composed of varying amounts of Illumina and 454 data, were assembled and assessed. Hybrid 454/Illumina assemblies had the highest transcriptome and individual gene coverage. Quantitative whole gene expression levels were highly similar between using a de novo hybrid assembly and the predicted genes as a scaffold, although mapping to the de novo transcriptome assembly provided data on fewer genes. Using non-target species as reference scaffolds does result in some loss of sequence and expression data, and bias and error increase with evolutionary distance. However, within a 100 million year window these effect sizes are relatively small. Conclusions Predicted gene sets from sequenced genomes of related species can provide a powerful method for grouping RNA-Seq reads and annotating contigs. Gene expression results can be produced that are similar to results obtained using gene models derived from a high quality genome, though biased towards conserved genes. Our results demonstrate the power and limitations of conducting RNA-Seq in non-model species.

  20. Genome-wide Analysis of RARβ Transcriptional Targets in Mouse Striatum Links Retinoic Acid Signaling with Huntington's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiadomska-Cimicka, Anna; Krzyżosiak, Agnieszka; Ye, Tao; Podleśny-Drabiniok, Anna; Dembélé, Doulaye; Dollé, Pascal; Krężel, Wojciech

    2017-07-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling through retinoic acid receptors (RARs), known for its multiple developmental functions, emerged more recently as an important regulator of adult brain physiology. How RAR-mediated regulation is achieved is poorly known, partly due to the paucity of information on critical target genes in the brain. Also, it is not clear how reduced RA signaling may contribute to pathophysiology of diverse neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the first genome-wide analysis of RAR transcriptional targets in the brain. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing and transcriptomic analysis of RARβ-null mutant mice, we identified genomic targets of RARβ in the striatum. Characterization of RARβ transcriptional targets in the mouse striatum points to mechanisms through which RAR may control brain functions and display neuroprotective activity. Namely, our data indicate with statistical significance (FDR 0.1) a strong contribution of RARβ in controlling neurotransmission, energy metabolism, and transcription, with a particular involvement of G-protein coupled receptor (p = 5.0e -5 ), cAMP (p = 4.5e -4 ), and calcium signaling (p = 3.4e -3 ). Many identified RARβ target genes related to these pathways have been implicated in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's disease (HD), raising the possibility that compromised RA signaling in the striatum may be a mechanistic link explaining the similar affective and cognitive symptoms in these diseases. The RARβ transcriptional targets were particularly enriched for transcripts affected in HD. Using the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of HD, we show that partial sequestration of RARβ in huntingtin protein aggregates may account for reduced RA signaling reported in HD.

  1. Genome-wide and phase-specific DNA-binding rhythms of BMAL1 control circadian output functions in mouse liver.

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    Guillaume Rey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian clock uses interlocked negative feedback loops in which the heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BMAL1/CLOCK is a master regulator. While there is prominent control of liver functions by the circadian clock, the detailed links between circadian regulators and downstream targets are poorly known. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing we obtained a time-resolved and genome-wide map of BMAL1 binding in mouse liver, which allowed us to identify over 2,000 binding sites, with peak binding narrowly centered around Zeitgeber time 6. Annotation of BMAL1 targets confirms carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as the major output of the circadian clock in mouse liver. Moreover, transcription regulators are largely overrepresented, several of which also exhibit circadian activity. Genes of the core circadian oscillator stand out as strongly bound, often at promoter and distal sites. Genomic sequence analysis of the sites identified E-boxes and tandem E1-E2 consensus elements. Electromobility shift assays showed that E1-E2 sites are bound by a dimer of BMAL1/CLOCK heterodimers with a spacing-dependent cooperative interaction, a finding that was further validated in transactivation assays. BMAL1 target genes showed cyclic mRNA expression profiles with a phase distribution centered at Zeitgeber time 10. Importantly, sites with E1-E2 elements showed tighter phases both in binding and mRNA accumulation. Finally, analyzing the temporal profiles of BMAL1 binding, precursor mRNA and mature mRNA levels showed how transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation contribute differentially to circadian expression phase. Together, our analysis of a dynamic protein-DNA interactome uncovered how genes of the core circadian oscillator crosstalk and drive phase-specific circadian output programs in a complex tissue.

  2. Evidence-based design and evaluation of a whole genome sequencing clinical report for the reference microbiology laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Anamaria; McKee, Geoffrey; Munzner, Tamara

    2018-01-01

    Background Microbial genome sequencing is now being routinely used in many clinical and public health laboratories. Understanding how to report complex genomic test results to stakeholders who may have varying familiarity with genomics—including clinicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and researchers—is critical to the successful and sustainable implementation of this new technology; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines for designing such a report in the pathogen genomics domain. Here, we describe an iterative, human-centered approach to creating a report template for communicating tuberculosis (TB) genomic test results. Methods We used Design Study Methodology—a human centered approach drawn from the information visualization domain—to redesign an existing clinical report. We used expert consults and an online questionnaire to discover various stakeholders’ needs around the types of data and tasks related to TB that they encounter in their daily workflow. We also evaluated their perceptions of and familiarity with genomic data, as well as its utility at various clinical decision points. These data shaped the design of multiple prototype reports that were compared against the existing report through a second online survey, with the resulting qualitative and quantitative data informing the final, redesigned, report. Results We recruited 78 participants, 65 of whom were clinicians, nurses, laboratorians, researchers, and epidemiologists involved in TB diagnosis, treatment, and/or surveillance. Our first survey indicated that participants were largely enthusiastic about genomic data, with the majority agreeing on its utility for certain TB diagnosis and treatment tasks and many reporting some confidence in their ability to interpret this type of data (between 58.8% and 94.1%, depending on the specific data type). When we compared our four prototype reports against the existing design, we found that for the majority (86.7%) of design

  3. Evidence-based design and evaluation of a whole genome sequencing clinical report for the reference microbiology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Crisan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Microbial genome sequencing is now being routinely used in many clinical and public health laboratories. Understanding how to report complex genomic test results to stakeholders who may have varying familiarity with genomics—including clinicians, laboratorians, epidemiologists, and researchers—is critical to the successful and sustainable implementation of this new technology; however, there are no evidence-based guidelines for designing such a report in the pathogen genomics domain. Here, we describe an iterative, human-centered approach to creating a report template for communicating tuberculosis (TB genomic test results. Methods We used Design Study Methodology—a human centered approach drawn from the information visualization domain—to redesign an existing clinical report. We used expert consults and an online questionnaire to discover various stakeholders’ needs around the types of data and tasks related to TB that they encounter in their daily workflow. We also evaluated their perceptions of and familiarity with genomic data, as well as its utility at various clinical decision points. These data shaped the design of multiple prototype reports that were compared against the existing report through a second online survey, with the resulting qualitative and quantitative data informing the final, redesigned, report. Results We recruited 78 participants, 65 of whom were clinicians, nurses, laboratorians, researchers, and epidemiologists involved in TB diagnosis, treatment, and/or surveillance. Our first survey indicated that participants were largely enthusiastic about genomic data, with the majority agreeing on its utility for certain TB diagnosis and treatment tasks and many reporting some confidence in their ability to interpret this type of data (between 58.8% and 94.1%, depending on the specific data type. When we compared our four prototype reports against the existing design, we found that for the majority (86.7% of

  4. Genome-wide ENU mutagenesis in combination with high density SNP analysis and exome sequencing provides rapid identification of novel mouse models of developmental disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Caruana

    Full Text Available Mice harbouring gene mutations that cause phenotypic abnormalities during organogenesis are invaluable tools for linking gene function to normal development and human disorders. To generate mouse models harbouring novel alleles that are involved in organogenesis we conducted a phenotype-driven, genome-wide mutagenesis screen in mice using the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU.ENU was injected into male C57BL/6 mice and the mutations transmitted through the germ-line. ENU-induced mutations were bred to homozygosity and G3 embryos screened at embryonic day (E 13.5 and E18.5 for abnormalities in limb and craniofacial structures, skin, blood, vasculature, lungs, gut, kidneys, ureters and gonads. From 52 pedigrees screened 15 were detected with anomalies in one or more of the structures/organs screened. Using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based linkage analysis in conjunction with candidate gene or next-generation sequencing (NGS we identified novel recessive alleles for Fras1, Ift140 and Lig1.In this study we have generated mouse models in which the anomalies closely mimic those seen in human disorders. The association between novel mutant alleles and phenotypes will lead to a better understanding of gene function in normal development and establish how their dysfunction causes human anomalies and disease.

  5. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera) and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders. Mecoptera was recovered as the

  6. Comparative mitogenomics of Braconidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera and the phylogenetic utility of mitochondrial genomes with special reference to Holometabolous insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Min

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal mitochondrial genomes are potential models for molecular evolution and markers for phylogenetic and population studies. Previous research has shown interesting features in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes. Here, we conducted a comparative study of mitochondrial genomes of the family Braconidae, one of the largest families of Hymenoptera, and assessed the utility of mitochondrial genomic data for phylogenetic inference at three different hierarchical levels, i.e., Braconidae, Hymenoptera, and Holometabola. Results Seven mitochondrial genomes from seven subfamilies of Braconidae were sequenced. Three of the four sequenced A+T-rich regions are shown to be inverted. Furthermore, all species showed reversal of strand asymmetry, suggesting that inversion of the A+T-rich region might be a synapomorphy of the Braconidae. Gene rearrangement events occurred in all braconid species, but gene rearrangement rates were not taxonomically correlated. Most rearranged genes were tRNAs, except those of Cotesia vestalis, in which 13 protein-coding genes and 14 tRNA genes changed positions or/and directions through three kinds of gene rearrangement events. Remote inversion is posited to be the result of two independent recombination events. Evolutionary rates were lower in species of the cyclostome group than those of noncyclostomes. Phylogenetic analyses based on complete mitochondrial genomes and secondary structure of rrnS supported a sister-group relationship between Aphidiinae and cyclostomes. Many well accepted relationships within Hymenoptera, such as paraphyly of Symphyta and Evaniomorpha, a sister-group relationship between Orussoidea and Apocrita, and monophyly of Proctotrupomorpha, Ichneumonoidea and Aculeata were robustly confirmed. New hypotheses, such as a sister-group relationship between Evanioidea and Aculeata, were generated. Among holometabolous insects, Hymenoptera was shown to be the sister to all other orders

  7. Genome of Leptomonas pyrrhocoris: a high-quality reference for monoxenous trypanosomatids and new insights into evolution of Leishmania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flegontov, P.; Butenko, A.; Firsov, Sergei; Kraeva, N.; Eliáš, M.; Field, M.C.; Filatov, D.; Flegontova, Olga; Gerasimov, E. S.; Hlaváčová, J.; Ishemgulova, A.; Jackson, A. P.; Kelly, S.; Kostygov, A.Y.; Logacheva, M.D.; Maslov, D. A.; Opperdoes, F. R.; O'Reilly, A.; Sádlová, J.; Ševčíková, T.; Venkatesh, D.; Vlček, Čestmír; Volf, P.; Votýpka, Jan; Záhonová, K.; Yurchenko, V.; Lukeš, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, MAR 29 (2016), č. článku 23704. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-23986S; GA ČR GA13-24983S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : amino-acid sites * leader rna gene * insect trypanosomatids * phylogenetic analysis * functional genomics * eukaryotic genomes * positive selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  8. Complete genome characterisation and phylogenetic position of Tigray hantavirus from the Ethiopian white-footed mouse, Stenocephalemys albipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Těšíková, Jana; Meheretu, Y.; Čížková, Dagmar; Bryjová, Anna; Leirs, H.; Bryja, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, November (2016), s. 242-245 ISSN 1567-1348 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP502/11/J070 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hantavirus * Murinae * Ethiopia * High throughput sequencing * Genomics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  9. Development and Integration of Genome-Wide Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers onto a Reference Linkage Map for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Chickpea.

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    Yash Paul Khajuria

    Full Text Available The identification of informative in silico polymorphic genomic and genic microsatellite markers by comparing the genome and transcriptome sequences of crop genotypes is a rapid, cost-effective and non-laborious approach for large-scale marker validation and genotyping applications, including construction of high-density genetic maps. We designed 1494 markers, including 1016 genomic and 478 transcript-derived microsatellite markers showing in-silico fragment length polymorphism between two parental genotypes (Cicer arietinum ICC4958 and C. reticulatum PI489777 of an inter-specific reference mapping population. High amplification efficiency (87%, experimental validation success rate (81% and polymorphic potential (55% of these microsatellite markers suggest their effective use in various applications of chickpea genetics and breeding. Intra-specific polymorphic potential (48% detected by microsatellite markers in 22 desi and kabuli chickpea genotypes was lower than inter-specific polymorphic potential (59%. An advanced, high-density, integrated and inter-specific chickpea genetic map (ICC4958 x PI489777 having 1697 map positions spanning 1061.16 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.625 cM was constructed by assigning 634 novel informative transcript-derived and genomic microsatellite markers on eight linkage groups (LGs of our prior documented, 1063 marker-based genetic map. The constructed genome map identified 88, including four major (7-23 cM longest high-resolution genomic regions on LGs 3, 5 and 8, where the maximum number of novel genomic and genic microsatellite markers were specifically clustered within 1 cM genetic distance. It was for the first time in chickpea that in silico FLP analysis at genome-wide level was carried out and such a large number of microsatellite markers were identified, experimentally validated and further used in genetic mapping. To best of our knowledge, in the presently constructed genetic map, we mapped

  10. Developmental defects and genomic instability after x-irradiation of wild-type and genetically modified mouse pre-implantation and early post-implantation embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P

    2012-01-01

    Results obtained from the end of the 1950s suggested that ionizing radiation could induce foetal malformations in some mouse strains when administered during early pre-implantation stages. Starting in 1989, data obtained in Germany also showed that radiation exposure during that period could lead to a genomic instability in the surviving foetuses. Furthermore, the same group reported that both malformations and genomic instability could be transmitted to the next generation foetuses after exposure of zygotes to relatively high doses of radiation. As such results were of concern for radiation protection, we investigated this in more detail during recent years, using mice with varying genetic backgrounds including mice heterozygous for mutations involved in important cellular processes like DNA repair, cell cycle regulation or apoptosis. The main parameters which were investigated included morphological development, genomic instability and gene expression in the irradiated embryos or their own progeny. The aim of this review is to critically reassess the results obtained in that field in the different laboratories and to try to draw general conclusions on the risks of developmental defects and genomic instability from an exposure of early embryos to moderate doses of ionizing radiation. Altogether and in the range of doses normally used in diagnostic radiology, the risk of induction of embryonic death and of congenital malformation following the irradiation of a newly fertilised egg is certainly very low when compared to the ‘spontaneous’ risks for such effects. Similarly, the risk of radiation induction of a genomic instability under such circumstances seems to be very small. However, this is not a reason to not apply some precaution principles when possible. One way of doing this is to restrict the use of higher dose examinations on all potentially pregnant women to the first ten days of their menstrual cycle when conception is very unlikely to have occurred

  11. Orthologous microRNA genes are located in cancer-associated genomic regions in human and mouse.

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    Igor V Makunin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that regulate differentiation and development in many organisms and play an important role in cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a public database of mapped retroviral insertion sites from various mouse models of cancer we demonstrate that MLV-derived retroviral inserts are enriched in close proximity to mouse miRNA loci. Clustered inserts from cancer-associated regions (Common Integration Sites, CIS have a higher association with miRNAs than non-clustered inserts. Ten CIS-associated miRNA loci containing 22 miRNAs are located within 10 kb of known CIS insertions. Only one CIS-associated miRNA locus overlaps a RefSeq protein-coding gene and six loci are located more than 10 kb from any RefSeq gene. CIS-associated miRNAs on average are more conserved in vertebrates than miRNAs associated with non-CIS inserts and their human homologs are also located in regions perturbed in cancer. In addition we show that miRNA genes are enriched around promoter and/or terminator regions of RefSeq genes in both mouse and human. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We provide a list of ten miRNA loci potentially involved in the development of blood cancer or brain tumors. There is independent experimental support from other studies for the involvement of miRNAs from at least three CIS-associated miRNA loci in cancer development.

  12. Genomic organization and phylogenetic utility of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus lymphotoxin-alpha and lymphotoxin-beta

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    Prescott Joseph

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus are among the most common mammals in North America and are important reservoirs of several human pathogens, including Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV. SNV can establish a life-long apathogenic infection in deer mice, which can shed virus in excrement for transmission to humans. Patients that die from hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS have been found to express several proinflammatory cytokines, including lymphotoxin (LT, in the lungs. It is thought that these cytokines contribute to the pathogenesis of HCPS. LT is not expressed by virus-specific CD4+ T cells from infected deer mice, suggesting a limited role for this pathway in reservoir responses to hantaviruses. Results We have cloned the genes encoding deer mouse LTα and LTβ and have found them to be highly similar to orthologous rodent sequences but with some differences in promoters elements. The phylogenetic analyses performed on the LTα, LTβ, and combined data sets yielded a strongly-supported sister-group relationship between the two murines (the house mouse and the rat. The deer mouse, a sigmodontine, appeared as the sister group to the murine clade in all of the analyses. High bootstrap values characterized the grouping of murids. Conclusion No conspicuous differences compared to other species are present in the predicted amino acid sequences of LTα or LTβ; however, some promoter differences were noted in LTβ. Although more extensive taxonomic sampling is required to confirm the results of our analyses, the preliminary findings indicate that both genes (analyzed both separately and in combination hold potential for resolving relationships among rodents and other mammals at the subfamily level.

  13. Semi-supervised learning for genomic prediction of novel traits with small reference populations: an application to residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chen; Zhu, Xiaojin; Weigel, Kent A

    2016-11-07

    Genomic prediction for novel traits, which can be costly and labor-intensive to measure, is often hampered by low accuracy due to the limited size of the reference population. As an option to improve prediction accuracy, we introduced a semi-supervised learning strategy known as the self-training model, and applied this method to genomic prediction of residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle. We describe a self-training model that is wrapped around a support vector machine (SVM) algorithm, which enables it to use data from animals with and without measured phenotypes. Initially, a SVM model was trained using data from 792 animals with measured RFI phenotypes. Then, the resulting SVM was used to generate self-trained phenotypes for 3000 animals for which RFI measurements were not available. Finally, the SVM model was re-trained using data from up to 3792 animals, including those with measured and self-trained RFI phenotypes. Incorporation of additional animals with self-trained phenotypes enhanced the accuracy of genomic predictions compared to that of predictions that were derived from the subset of animals with measured phenotypes. The optimal ratio of animals with self-trained phenotypes to animals with measured phenotypes (2.5, 2.0, and 1.8) and the maximum increase achieved in prediction accuracy measured as the correlation between predicted and actual RFI phenotypes (5.9, 4.1, and 2.4%) decreased as the size of the initial training set (300, 400, and 500 animals with measured phenotypes) increased. The optimal number of animals with self-trained phenotypes may be smaller when prediction accuracy is measured as the mean squared error rather than the correlation between predicted and actual RFI phenotypes. Our results demonstrate that semi-supervised learning models that incorporate self-trained phenotypes can achieve genomic prediction accuracies that are comparable to those obtained with models using larger training sets that include only animals with

  14. UGbS-Flex, a novel bioinformatics pipeline for imputation-free SNP discovery in polyploids without a reference genome: finger millet as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Peng; Gimode, Davis; Saha, Dipnarayan; Schröder, Stephan; Chakraborty, Debkanta; Wang, Xuewen; Dida, Mathews M; Malmberg, Russell L; Devos, Katrien M

    2018-06-15

    Research on orphan crops is often hindered by a lack of genomic resources. With the advent of affordable sequencing technologies, genotyping an entire genome or, for large-genome species, a representative fraction of the genome has become feasible for any crop. Nevertheless, most genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) methods are geared towards obtaining large numbers of markers at low sequence depth, which excludes their application in heterozygous individuals. Furthermore, bioinformatics pipelines often lack the flexibility to deal with paired-end reads or to be applied in polyploid species. UGbS-Flex combines publicly available software with in-house python and perl scripts to efficiently call SNPs from genotyping-by-sequencing reads irrespective of the species' ploidy level, breeding system and availability of a reference genome. Noteworthy features of the UGbS-Flex pipeline are an ability to use paired-end reads as input, an effective approach to cluster reads across samples with enhanced outputs, and maximization of SNP calling. We demonstrate use of the pipeline for the identification of several thousand high-confidence SNPs with high representation across samples in an F 3 -derived F 2 population in the allotetraploid finger millet. Robust high-density genetic maps were constructed using the time-tested mapping program MAPMAKER which we upgraded to run efficiently and in a semi-automated manner in a Windows Command Prompt Environment. We exploited comparative GBS with one of the diploid ancestors of finger millet to assign linkage groups to subgenomes and demonstrate the presence of chromosomal rearrangements. The paper combines GBS protocol modifications, a novel flexible GBS analysis pipeline, UGbS-Flex, recommendations to maximize SNP identification, updated genetic mapping software, and the first high-density maps of finger millet. The modules used in the UGbS-Flex pipeline and for genetic mapping were applied to finger millet, an allotetraploid selfing species

  15. Advantages of using the CRISPR/Cas9 system of genome editing to investigate male reproductive mechanisms using mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Samantha A M; Aitken, R John; Ikawa, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    Gene disruption technology has long been beneficial for the study of male reproductive biology. However, because of the time and cost involved, this technology was not a viable method except in specialist laboratories. The advent of the CRISPR/Cas9 system of gene disruption has ushered in a new era of genetic investigation. Now, it is possible to generate gene-disrupted mouse models in very little time and at very little cost. This Highlight article discusses the application of this technology to study the genetics of male fertility and looks at some of the future uses of this system that could be used to reveal the essential and nonessential genetic components of male reproductive mechanisms.

  16. Genomic sequences of murine gamma B- and gamma C-crystallin-encoding genes: promoter analysis and complete evolutionary pattern of mouse, rat and human gamma-crystallins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, J; Liebstein, A; Pietrowski, D; Schmitt-John, T; Werner, T

    1993-12-22

    The murine genes, gamma B-cry and gamma C-cry, encoding the gamma B- and gamma C-crystallins, were isolated from a genomic DNA library. The complete nucleotide (nt) sequences of both genes were determined from 661 and 711 bp, respectively, upstream from the first exon to the corresponding polyadenylation sites, comprising more than 2650 and 2890 bp, respectively. The new sequences were compared to the partial cDNA sequences available for the murine gamma B-cry and gamma C-cry, as well as to the corresponding genomic sequences from rat and man, at both the nt and predicted amino acid (aa) sequence levels. In the gamma B-cry promoter region, a canonical CCAAT-box, a TATA-box, putative NF-I and C/EBP sites were detected. An R-repeat is inserted 366 bp upstream from the transcription start point. In contrast, the gamma C-cry promoter does not contain a CCAAT-box, but some other putative binding sites for transcription factors (AP-2, UBP-1, LBP-1) were located by computer analysis. The promoter regions of all six gamma-cry from mouse, rat and human, except human psi gamma F-cry, were analyzed for common sequence elements. A complex sequence element of about 70-80 bp was found in the proximal promoter, which contains a gamma-cry-specific and almost invariant sequence (crygpel) of 14 nt, and ends with the also invariant TATA-box. Within the complex sequence element, a minimum of three further features specific for the gamma A-, gamma B- and gamma D/E/F-cry genes can be defined, at least two of which were recently shown to be functional. In addition to these four sequence elements, a subtype-specific structure of inverted repeats with different-sized spacers can be deduced from the multiple sequence alignment. A phylogenetic analysis based on the promoter region, as well as the complete exon 3 of all gamma-cry from mouse, rat and man, suggests separation of only five gamma-cry subtypes (gamma A-, gamma B-, gamma C-, gamma D- and gamma E/F-cry) prior to species separation.

  17. Sequences within both the 5' UTR and Gag are required for optimal in vivo packaging and propagation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV genomic RNA.

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    Farah Mustafa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study mapped regions of genomic RNA (gRNA important for packaging and propagation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. MMTV is a type B betaretrovirus which preassembles intracellularly, a phenomenon distinct from retroviruses that assemble the progeny virion at cell surface just before budding such as the type C human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV. Studies of FIV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV, a type D betaretrovirus with similar intracellular virion assembly processes as MMTV, have shown that the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR and 5' end of gag constitute important packaging determinants for gRNA. METHODOLOGY: Three series of MMTV transfer vectors containing incremental amounts of gag or 5' UTR sequences, or incremental amounts of 5' UTR in the presence of 400 nucleotides (nt of gag were constructed to delineate the extent of 5' sequences that may be involved in MMTV gRNA packaging. Real time PCR measured the packaging efficiency of these vector RNAs into MMTV particles generated by co-transfection of MMTV Gag/Pol, vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G Env, and individual transfer vectors into human 293T cells. Transfer vector RNA propagation was monitored by measuring transduction of target HeLaT4 cells following infection with viral particles containing a hygromycin resistance gene expression cassette on the packaged RNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MMTV requires the entire 5' UTR and a minimum of ~120 nucleotide (nt at the 5' end of gag for not only efficient gRNA packaging but also propagation of MMTV-based transfer vector RNAs. Vector RNAs without the entire 5' UTR were defective for both efficient packaging and propagation into target cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results reveal that the 5' end of MMTV genome is critical for both gRNA packaging and propagation, unlike the recently delineated FIV and MPMV packaging determinants that have been shown to be of bipartite nature.

  18. Site-specific modification of genome with cell-permeable Cre fusion protein in preimplantation mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Kim, Hwain; Lee, Daekee

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific recombination (SSR) by Cre recombinase and its target sequence, loxP, is a valuable tool in genetic analysis of gene function. Recently, several studies reported successful application of Cre fusion protein containing protein transduction peptide for inducing gene modification in various mammalian cells including ES cell as well as in the whole animal. In this study, we show that a short incubation of preimplantation mouse embryos with purified cell-permeable Cre fusion protein results in efficient SSR. X-Gal staining of preimplantation embryos, heterozygous for Gtrosa26 tm1Sor , revealed that treatment of 1-cell or 2-cell embryos with 3 μM of Cre fusion protein for 2 h leads to Cre-mediated excision in 70-85% of embryos. We have examined the effect of the concentration of the Cre fusion protein and the duration of the treatment on embryonic development, established a condition for full term development and survival to adulthood, and demonstrated the germ line transmission of excised Gtrosa26 allele. Potential applications and advantages of the highly efficient technique described here are discussed.

  19. The PRC2-binding long non-coding RNAs in human and mouse genomes are associated with predictive sequence features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Shiqi; Yuan, Guo-Cheng; Shao, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an important class of molecules involved in many cellular processes. One of their primary functions is to shape epigenetic landscape through interactions with chromatin modifying proteins. However, mechanisms contributing to the specificity of such interactions remain poorly understood. Here we took the human and mouse lncRNAs that were experimentally determined to have physical interactions with Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and systematically investigated the sequence features of these lncRNAs by developing a new computational pipeline for sequences composition analysis, in which each sequence is considered as a series of transitions between adjacent nucleotides. Through that, PRC2-binding lncRNAs were found to be associated with a set of distinctive and evolutionarily conserved sequence features, which can be utilized to distinguish them from the others with considerable accuracy. We further identified fragments of PRC2-binding lncRNAs that are enriched with these sequence features, and found they show strong PRC2-binding signals and are more highly conserved across species than the other parts, implying their functional importance.

  20. Comprehensive profiling of retroviral integration sites using target enrichment methods from historical koala samples without an assembled reference genome

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    Pin Cui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Retroviral integration into the host germline results in permanent viral colonization of vertebrate genomes. The koala retrovirus (KoRV is currently invading the germline of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus and provides a unique opportunity for studying retroviral endogenization. Previous analysis of KoRV integration patterns in modern koalas demonstrate that they share integration sites primarily if they are related, indicating that the process is currently driven by vertical transmission rather than infection. However, due to methodological challenges, KoRV integrations have not been comprehensively characterized. Results. To overcome these challenges, we applied and compared three target enrichment techniques coupled with next generation sequencing (NGS and a newly customized sequence-clustering based computational pipeline to determine the integration sites for 10 museum Queensland and New South Wales (NSW koala samples collected between the 1870s and late 1980s. A secondary aim of this study sought to identify common integration sites across modern and historical specimens by comparing our dataset to previously published studies. Several million sequences were processed, and the KoRV integration sites in each koala were characterized. Conclusions. Although the three enrichment methods each exhibited bias in integration site retrieval, a combination of two methods, Primer Extension Capture and hybridization capture is recommended for future studies on historical samples. Moreover, identification of integration sites shows that the proportion of integration sites shared between any two koalas is quite small.

  1. Genome-wide screen for salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1(r mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1-5, prophages (Gifsy-1 and -2 and remnant, and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that

  2. Genome-wide analysis of DHEA- and DHT-induced gene expression in mouse hypothalamus and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qianxing; Lu, Shifang; Garippa, Carrie; Brownstein, Michael J; Simon, Neal G

    2009-04-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is the most abundant steroid in humans and a multi-functional neuroactive steroid that has been implicated in a variety of biological effects in both the periphery and central nervous system. Mechanistic studies of DHEA in the periphery have emphasized its role as a prohormone and those in the brain have focused on effects exerted at cell surface receptors. Recent results demonstrated that DHEA is intrinsically androgenic. It competes with DHT for binding to androgen receptor (AR), induces AR-regulated reporter gene expression in vitro, and exogenous DHEA administration regulates gene expression in peripheral androgen-dependent tissues and LnCAP prostate cancer cells, indicating genomic effects and adding a level of complexity to functional models. The absence of information about the effect of DHEA on gene expression in the CNS is a significant gap in light of continuing clinical interest in the compound as a hormone replacement therapy in older individuals, patients with adrenal insufficiency, and as a treatment that improves sense of well-being, increases libido, relieves depressive symptoms, and serves as a neuroprotective agent. In the present study, ovariectomized CF-1 female mice, an established model for assessing CNS effects of androgens, were treated with DHEA (1mg/day), dihydrotestosterone (DHT, a potent androgen used as a positive control; 0.1mg/day) or vehicle (negative control) for 7 days. The effects of DHEA on gene expression were assessed in two regions of the CNS that are enriched in AR, hypothalamus and hippocampus, using DNA microarray, real-time RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry. RIA of serum samples assessed treatment effects on circulating levels of major steroids. In hypothalamus, DHEA and DHT significantly up-regulated the gene expression of hypocretin (Hcrt; also called orexin), pro-melanin-concentrating hormone (Pmch), and protein kinase C delta (Prkcd), and down-regulated the expression of deleted in bladder

  3. Genome-wide mouse mutagenesis reveals CD45-mediated T cell function as critical in protective immunity to HSV-1.

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    Grégory Caignard

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE is a lethal neurological disease resulting from infection with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1. Loss-of-function mutations in the UNC93B1, TLR3, TRIF, TRAF3, and TBK1 genes have been associated with a human genetic predisposition to HSE, demonstrating the UNC93B-TLR3-type I IFN pathway as critical in protective immunity to HSV-1. However, the TLR3, UNC93B1, and TRIF mutations exhibit incomplete penetrance and represent only a minority of HSE cases, perhaps reflecting the effects of additional host genetic factors. In order to identify new host genes, proteins and signaling pathways involved in HSV-1 and HSE susceptibility, we have implemented the first genome-wide mutagenesis screen in an in vivo HSV-1 infectious model. One pedigree (named P43 segregated a susceptible trait with a fully penetrant phenotype. Genetic mapping and whole exome sequencing led to the identification of the causative nonsense mutation L3X in the Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase C gene (Ptprc(L3X, which encodes for the tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Expression of MCP1, IL-6, MMP3, MMP8, and the ICP4 viral gene were significantly increased in the brain stems of infected Ptprc(L3X mice accounting for hyper-inflammation and pathological damages caused by viral replication. Ptprc(L3X mutation drastically affects the early stages of thymocytes development but also the final stage of B cell maturation. Transfer of total splenocytes from heterozygous littermates into Ptprc(L3X mice resulted in a complete HSV-1 protective effect. Furthermore, T cells were the only cell population to fully restore resistance to HSV-1 in the mutants, an effect that required both the CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cells and could be attributed to function of CD4⁺ T helper 1 (Th1 cells in CD8⁺ T cell recruitment to the site of infection. Altogether, these results revealed the CD45-mediated T cell function as potentially critical for infection and viral spread to the

  4. Structural basis of genomic RNA (gRNA) dimerization and packaging determinants of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Suriya J; Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Ali, Lizna M; Jabeen, Ayesha; Kalloush, Rawan M; Richer, Delphine; Mustafa, Farah; Marquet, Roland; Rizvi, Tahir A

    2014-11-14

    One of the hallmarks of retroviral life cycle is the efficient and specific packaging of two copies of retroviral gRNA in the form of a non-covalent RNA dimer by the assembling virions. It is becoming increasingly clear that the process of dimerization is closely linked with gRNA packaging, and in some retroviruses, the latter depends on the former. Earlier mutational analysis of the 5' end of the MMTV genome indicated that MMTV gRNA packaging determinants comprise sequences both within the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and the beginning of gag. The RNA secondary structure of MMTV gRNA packaging sequences was elucidated employing selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE). SHAPE analyses revealed the presence of a U5/Gag long-range interaction (U5/Gag LRI), not predicted by minimum free-energy structure predictions that potentially stabilizes the global structure of this region. Structure conservation along with base-pair covariations between different strains of MMTV further supported the SHAPE-validated model. The 5' region of the MMTV gRNA contains multiple palindromic (pal) sequences that could initiate intermolecular interaction during RNA dimerization. In vitro RNA dimerization, SHAPE analysis, and structure prediction approaches on a series of pal mutants revealed that MMTV RNA utilizes a palindromic point of contact to initiate intermolecular interactions between two gRNAs, leading to dimerization. This contact point resides within pal II (5' CGGCCG 3') at the 5' UTR and contains a canonical "GC" dyad and therefore likely constitutes the MMTV RNA dimerization initiation site (DIS). Further analyses of these pal mutants employing in vivo genetic approaches indicate that pal II, as well as pal sequences located in the primer binding site (PBS) are both required for efficient MMTV gRNA packaging. Employing structural prediction, biochemical, and genetic approaches, we show that pal II functions as a primary point of contact between

  5. Did androgen-binding protein paralogs undergo neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp gene region expanded in the mouse genome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Robert C; Chung, Amanda G; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis during Tomato Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Bian, Wuying; Pang, Xin; Yu, Jiahong; Ahammed, Golam J; Zhou, Guozhi; Wang, Rongqing; Ruan, Meiying; Li, Zhimiao; Ye, Qingjing; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in tomato fruit has drawn increasing attention nowadays. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. In qPCR operation, reliability of results largely depends on the choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs). Although tomato is a model for fruit biology study, few RGs for qPCR analysis in tomato fruit had yet been developed. In this study, we initially identified 38 most stably expressed genes based on tomato transcriptome data set, and their expression stabilities were further determined in a set of tomato fruit samples of four different fruit developmental stages (Immature, mature green, breaker, mature red) using qPCR analysis. Two statistical algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder, concordantly determined the superiority of these identified putative RGs. Notably, SlFRG05 (Solyc01g104170), SlFRG12 (Solyc04g009770), SlFRG16 (Solyc10g081190), SlFRG27 (Solyc06g007510), and SlFRG37 (Solyc11g005330) were proved to be suitable RGs for tomato fruit development study. Further analysis using geNorm indicate that the combined use of SlFRG03 (Solyc02g063070) and SlFRG27 would provide more reliable normalization results in qPCR experiments. The identified RGs in this study will be beneficial for future qPCR analysis of tomato fruit developmental study, as well as for the potential identification of optimal normalization controls in other plant species.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR Analysis during Tomato Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression analysis in tomato fruit has drawn increasing attention nowadays. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. In qPCR operation, reliability of results largely depends on the choice of appropriate reference genes (RGs. Although tomato is a model for fruit biology study, few RGs for qPCR analysis in tomato fruit had yet been developed. In this study, we initially identified 38 most stably expressed genes based on tomato transcriptome data set, and their expression stabilities were further determined in a set of tomato fruit samples of four different fruit developmental stages (Immature, mature green, breaker, mature red using qPCR analysis. Two statistical algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder, concordantly determined the superiority of these identified putative RGs. Notably, SlFRG05 (Solyc01g104170, SlFRG12 (Solyc04g009770, SlFRG16 (Solyc10g081190, SlFRG27 (Solyc06g007510, and SlFRG37 (Solyc11g005330 were proved to be suitable RGs for tomato fruit development study. Further analysis using geNorm indicate that the combined use of SlFRG03 (Solyc02g063070 and SlFRG27 would provide more reliable normalization results in qPCR experiments. The identified RGs in this study will be beneficial for future qPCR analysis of tomato fruit developmental study, as well as for the potential identification of optimal normalization controls in other plant species.

  8. Mouse ENU Mutagenesis to Understand Immunity to Infection: Methods, Selected Examples, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Caignard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are responsible for over 25% of deaths globally, but many more individuals are exposed to deadly pathogens. The outcome of infection results from a set of diverse factors including pathogen virulence factors, the environment, and the genetic make-up of the host. The completion of the human reference genome sequence in 2004 along with technological advances have tremendously accelerated and renovated the tools to study the genetic etiology of infectious diseases in humans and its best characterized mammalian model, the mouse. Advancements in mouse genomic resources have accelerated genome-wide functional approaches, such as gene-driven and phenotype-driven mutagenesis, bringing to the fore the use of mouse models that reproduce accurately many aspects of the pathogenesis of human infectious diseases. Treatment with the mutagen N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU has become the most popular phenotype-driven approach. Our team and others have employed mouse ENU mutagenesis to identify host genes that directly impact susceptibility to pathogens of global significance. In this review, we first describe the strategies and tools used in mouse genetics to understand immunity to infection with special emphasis on chemical mutagenesis of the mouse germ-line together with current strategies to efficiently identify functional mutations using next generation sequencing. Then, we highlight illustrative examples of genes, proteins, and cellular signatures that have been revealed by ENU screens and have been shown to be involved in susceptibility or resistance to infectious diseases caused by parasites, bacteria, and viruses.

  9. MSeqDR mvTool: A mitochondrial DNA Web and API resource for comprehensive variant annotation, universal nomenclature collation, and reference genome conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lishuang; Attimonelli, Marcella; Bai, Renkui; Lott, Marie T; Wallace, Douglas C; Falk, Marni J; Gai, Xiaowu

    2018-06-01

    Accurate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variant annotation is essential for the clinical diagnosis of diverse human diseases. Substantial challenges to this process include the inconsistency in mtDNA nomenclatures, the existence of multiple reference genomes, and a lack of reference population frequency data. Clinicians need a simple bioinformatics tool that is user-friendly, and bioinformaticians need a powerful informatics resource for programmatic usage. Here, we report the development and functionality of the MSeqDR mtDNA Variant Tool set (mvTool), a one-stop mtDNA variant annotation and analysis Web service. mvTool is built upon the MSeqDR infrastructure (https://mseqdr.org), with contributions of expert curated data from MITOMAP (https://www.mitomap.org) and HmtDB (https://www.hmtdb.uniba.it/hmdb). mvTool supports all mtDNA nomenclatures, converts variants to standard rCRS- and HGVS-based nomenclatures, and annotates novel mtDNA variants. Besides generic annotations from dbNSFP and Variant Effect Predictor (VEP), mvTool provides allele frequencies in more than 47,000 germline mitogenomes, and disease and pathogenicity classifications from MSeqDR, Mitomap, HmtDB and ClinVar (Landrum et al., 2013). mvTools also provides mtDNA somatic variants annotations. "mvTool API" is implemented for programmatic access using inputs in VCF, HGVS, or classical mtDNA variant nomenclatures. The results are reported as hyperlinked html tables, JSON, Excel, and VCF formats. MSeqDR mvTool is freely accessible at https://mseqdr.org/mvtool.php. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dispersed repetitive sequences in eukaryotic genomes and their possible biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, G.P.; Kramerov, D.A.; Ryskov, A.P.; Skryabin, K.G.; Lukanidin, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper is described the properties of a novel mouse mdg-like element, the A2 sequence, which is the most abundant repetitive sequence. We also characterized an ubiquitous B2 sequence that represents, after B1, the dominant family among the short interspersed repeats of the mouse genome. The existence of some putative transposition intermediates was shown for repeats of both A and B types of the mouse genome. These are closed circular DNA of the A type and small polyadenylated B + RNAs. The fundamental question that arises is whether these sequences are simply selfish DNA capable of transpositions or do they fulfill some useful biological functions within the genome. 66 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  11. Combined genome-wide expression profiling and targeted RNA interference in primary mouse macrophages reveals perturbation of transcriptional networks associated with interferon signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craigon Marie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferons (IFNs are potent antiviral cytokines capable of reprogramming the macrophage phenotype through the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs. Here we have used targeted RNA interference to suppress the expression of a number of key genes associated with IFN signalling in murine macrophages prior to stimulation with interferon-gamma. Genome-wide changes in transcript abundance caused by siRNA activity were measured using exon-level microarrays in the presence or absence of IFNγ. Results Transfection of murine bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs with a non-targeting (control siRNA and 11 sequence-specific siRNAs was performed using a cationic lipid transfection reagent (Lipofectamine2000 prior to stimulation with IFNγ. Total RNA was harvested from cells and gene expression measured on Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Exon 1.0 ST Arrays. Network-based analysis of these data revealed six siRNAs to cause a marked shift in the macrophage transcriptome in the presence or absence IFNγ. These six siRNAs targeted the Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2 transcripts. The perturbation of the transcriptome by the six siRNAs was highly similar in each case and affected the expression of over 600 downstream transcripts. Regulated transcripts were clustered based on co-expression into five major groups corresponding to transcriptional networks associated with the type I and II IFN response, cell cycle regulation, and NF-KB signalling. In addition we have observed a significant non-specific immune stimulation of cells transfected with siRNA using Lipofectamine2000, suggesting use of this reagent in BMDMs, even at low concentrations, is enough to induce a type I IFN response. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that the type I IFN response in murine BMDMs is dependent on Ifnb1, Irf3, Irf5, Stat1, Stat2 and Nfkb2, and that siRNAs targeted to these genes results in perturbation of key transcriptional networks associated

  12. 9. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This conference was held November 12--16, 1995 in Ann Arbor, Michigan. The purpose of this conference was to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on genetic mapping in mice. This report contains abstracts of presentations, focusing on the following areas: mutation identification; comparative mapping; informatics and complex traits; mutagenesis; gene identification and new technology; and genetic and physical mapping.

  13. Exploring Other Genomes: Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the importance of genomes other than the human genome project and provides information on the identified bacterial genomes Pseudomonas aeuroginosa, Leprosy, Cholera, Meningitis, Tuberculosis, Bubonic Plague, and plant pathogens. Considers the computer's use in genome studies. (Contains 14 references.) (YDS)

  14. Usability of human Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for mouse DNA methylation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needhamsen, Maria; Ewing, Ewoud; Lund, Harald; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Harris, Robert Adam; Kular, Lara; Jagodic, Maja

    2017-11-15

    The advent of array-based genome-wide DNA methylation methods has enabled quantitative measurement of single CpG methylation status at relatively low cost and sample input. Whereas the use of Infinium Human Methylation BeadChips has shown great utility in clinical studies, no equivalent tool is available for rodent animal samples. We examined the feasibility of using the new Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip for studying DNA methylation in mouse. In silico, we identified 19,420 EPIC probes (referred as mEPIC probes), which align with a unique best alignment score to the bisulfite converted reference mouse genome mm10. Further annotation revealed that 85% of mEPIC probes overlapped with mm10.refSeq genes at different genomic features including promoters (TSS1500 and TSS200), 1st exons, 5'UTRs, 3'UTRs, CpG islands, shores, shelves, open seas and FANTOM5 enhancers. Hybridization of mouse samples to Infinium Human MethylationEPIC BeadChips showed successful measurement of mEPIC probes and reproducibility between inter-array biological replicates. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of mEPIC probes for data exploration such as hierarchical clustering. Given the absence of cost and labor convenient genome-wide technologies in the murine system, our findings show that the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip platform is suitable for investigation of the mouse methylome. Furthermore, we provide the "mEPICmanifest" with genomic features, available to users of Infinium Human MethylationEPIC arrays for mouse samples.

  15. Ageing, chronic alcohol consumption and folate are determinants of genomic DNA methylation, p16 promoter methylation and the expression of p16 in the mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  16. Aging and chronic alcohol consumption are determinants of p16 gene expression, genomic DNA methylation and p16 promoter methylation in the mouse colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder age and chronic alcohol consumption are important risk factors for the development of colon cancer. Each factor can alter genomic and gene-specific DNA methylation. This study examined the effects of aging and chronic alcohol consumption on genomic and p16-specific methylation, and p16 express...

  17. Quantitative LC-MS Provides No Evidence for m6 dA or m4 dC in the Genome of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffers, Sarah; Ebert, Charlotte; Rahimoff, René; Kosmatchev, Olesea; Steinbacher, Jessica; Bohne, Alexandra-Viola; Spada, Fabio; Michalakis, Stylianos; Nickelsen, Jörg; Müller, Markus; Carell, Thomas

    2017-09-04

    Until recently, it was believed that the genomes of higher organisms contain, in addition to the four canonical DNA bases, only 5-methyl-dC (m 5 dC) as a modified base to control epigenetic processes. In recent years, this view has changed dramatically with the discovery of 5-hydroxymethyl-dC (hmdC), 5-formyl-dC (fdC), and 5-carboxy-dC (cadC) in DNA from stem cells and brain tissue. N 6 -methyldeoxyadenosine (m 6 dA) is the most recent base reported to be present in the genome of various eukaryotic organisms. This base, together with N 4 -methyldeoxycytidine (m 4 dC), was first reported to be a component of bacterial genomes. In this work, we investigated the levels and distribution of these potentially epigenetically relevant DNA bases by using a novel ultrasensitive UHPLC-MS method. We further report quantitative data for m 5 dC, hmdC, fdC, and cadC, but we were unable to detect either m 4 dC or m 6 dA in DNA isolated from mouse embryonic stem cells or brain and liver tissue, which calls into question their epigenetic relevance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  19. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Koh; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ayako; Kawamura, Shingo; Sakurai, Nozomu; Suda, Kunihiro; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tsugane, Taneaki; Watanabe, Manabu; Ooga, Kazuhide; Torii, Maiko; Narita, Takanori; Shin-I, Tadasu; Kohara, Yuji; Yamamoto, Naoki; Takahashi, Hideki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Egusa, Mayumi; Kodama, Motoichiro; Ichinose, Yuki; Kikuchi, Mari; Fukushima, Sumire; Okabe, Akiko; Arie, Tsutomu; Sato, Yuko; Yazawa, Katsumi; Satoh, Shinobu; Omura, Toshikazu; Ezura, Hiroshi; Shibata, Daisuke

    2010-03-30

    The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs) was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706) was estimated to be 0.061%. The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the tomato whole-genome sequence and aid in tomato functional

  20. Large-scale analysis of full-length cDNAs from the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cultivar Micro-Tom, a reference system for the Solanaceae genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Mari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae family includes several economically important vegetable crops. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum is regarded as a model plant of the Solanaceae family. Recently, a number of tomato resources have been developed in parallel with the ongoing tomato genome sequencing project. In particular, a miniature cultivar, Micro-Tom, is regarded as a model system in tomato genomics, and a number of genomics resources in the Micro-Tom-background, such as ESTs and mutagenized lines, have been established by an international alliance. Results To accelerate the progress in tomato genomics, we developed a collection of fully-sequenced 13,227 Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs. By checking redundant sequences, coding sequences, and chimeric sequences, a set of 11,502 non-redundant full-length cDNAs (nrFLcDNAs was generated. Analysis of untranslated regions demonstrated that tomato has longer 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions than most other plants but rice. Classification of functions of proteins predicted from the coding sequences demonstrated that nrFLcDNAs covered a broad range of functions. A comparison of nrFLcDNAs with genes of sixteen plants facilitated the identification of tomato genes that are not found in other plants, most of which did not have known protein domains. Mapping of the nrFLcDNAs onto currently available tomato genome sequences facilitated prediction of exon-intron structure. Introns of tomato genes were longer than those of Arabidopsis and rice. According to a comparison of exon sequences between the nrFLcDNAs and the tomato genome sequences, the frequency of nucleotide mismatch in exons between Micro-Tom and the genome-sequencing cultivar (Heinz 1706 was estimated to be 0.061%. Conclusion The collection of Micro-Tom nrFLcDNAs generated in this study will serve as a valuable genomic tool for plant biologists to bridge the gap between basic and applied studies. The nrFLcDNA sequences will help annotation of the

  1. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli EC958: a high quality reference sequence for the globally disseminated multidrug resistant E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M Forde

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli ST131 is now recognised as a leading contributor to urinary tract and bloodstream infections in both community and clinical settings. Here we present the complete, annotated genome of E. coli EC958, which was isolated from the urine of a patient presenting with a urinary tract infection in the Northwest region of England and represents the most well characterised ST131 strain. Sequencing was carried out using the Pacific Biosciences platform, which provided sufficient depth and read-length to produce a complete genome without the need for other technologies. The discovery of spurious contigs within the assembly that correspond to site-specific inversions in the tail fibre regions of prophages demonstrates the potential for this technology to reveal dynamic evolutionary mechanisms. E. coli EC958 belongs to the major subgroup of ST131 strains that produce the CTX-M-15 extended spectrum β-lactamase, are fluoroquinolone resistant and encode the fimH30 type 1 fimbrial adhesin. This subgroup includes the Indian strain NA114 and the North American strain JJ1886. A comparison of the genomes of EC958, JJ1886 and NA114 revealed that differences in the arrangement of genomic islands, prophages and other repetitive elements in the NA114 genome are not biologically relevant and are due to misassembly. The availability of a high quality uropathogenic E. coli ST131 genome provides a reference for understanding this multidrug resistant pathogen and will facilitate novel functional, comparative and clinical studies of the E. coli ST131 clonal lineage.

  2. Ultrafast comparison of personal genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mauldin, Denise; Hood, Leroy; Robinson, Max; Glusman, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    We present an ultra-fast method for comparing personal genomes. We transform the standard genome representation (lists of variants relative to a reference) into 'genome fingerprints' that can be readily compared across sequencing technologies and reference versions. Because of their reduced size, computation on the genome fingerprints is fast and requires little memory. This enables scaling up a variety of important genome analyses, including quantifying relatedness, recognizing duplicative s...

  3. Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus saerimneri 30a (Formerly Lactobacillus sp. Strain 30a), a Reference Lactic Acid Bacterium Strain Producing Biogenic Amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, Andrea; Trip, Hein; Campbell-Sills, Hugo; Bouchez, Olivier; Sherman, David; Lolkema, Juke S.; Lucas, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus sp. strain 30a (Lactobacillus saerimneri) produces the biogenic amines histamine, putrescine, and cadaverine by decarboxylating their amino acid precursors. We report its draft genome sequence (1,634,278 bases, 42.6% G+C content) and the principal findings from its annotation, which

  4. Ensembl Genomes 2016: more genomes, more complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersey, Paul Julian; Allen, James E; Armean, Irina; Boddu, Sanjay; Bolt, Bruce J; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Christensen, Mikkel; Davis, Paul; Falin, Lee J; Grabmueller, Christoph; Humphrey, Jay; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Khobova, Julia; Aranganathan, Naveen K; Langridge, Nicholas; Lowy, Ernesto; McDowall, Mark D; Maheswari, Uma; Nuhn, Michael; Ong, Chuang Kee; Overduin, Bert; Paulini, Michael; Pedro, Helder; Perry, Emily; Spudich, Giulietta; Tapanari, Electra; Walts, Brandon; Williams, Gareth; Tello-Ruiz, Marcela; Stein, Joshua; Wei, Sharon; Ware, Doreen; Bolser, Daniel M; Howe, Kevin L; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Maslen, Gareth; Staines, Daniel M

    2016-01-04

    Ensembl Genomes (http://www.ensemblgenomes.org) is an integrating resource for genome-scale data from non-vertebrate species, complementing the resources for vertebrate genomics developed in the context of the Ensembl project (http://www.ensembl.org). Together, the two resources provide a consistent set of programmatic and interactive interfaces to a rich range of data including reference sequence, gene models, transcriptional data, genetic variation and comparative analysis. This paper provides an update to the previous publications about the resource, with a focus on recent developments. These include the development of new analyses and views to represent polyploid genomes (of which bread wheat is the primary exemplar); and the continued up-scaling of the resource, which now includes over 23 000 bacterial genomes, 400 fungal genomes and 100 protist genomes, in addition to 55 genomes from invertebrate metazoa and 39 genomes from plants. This dramatic increase in the number of included genomes is one part of a broader effort to automate the integration of archival data (genome sequence, but also associated RNA sequence data and variant calls) within the context of reference genomes and make it available through the Ensembl user interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Mouse Resource Browser-a database of mouse databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M.; Schofield, Paul N.; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the

  6. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses

    OpenAIRE

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesi...

  7. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  8. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  9. The Mouse Lemur, a Genetic Model Organism for Primate Biology, Behavior, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezran, Camille; Karanewsky, Caitlin J; Pendleton, Jozeph L; Sholtz, Alex; Krasnow, Maya R; Willick, Jason; Razafindrakoto, Andriamahery; Zohdy, Sarah; Albertelli, Megan A; Krasnow, Mark A

    2017-06-01

    Systematic genetic studies of a handful of diverse organisms over the past 50 years have transformed our understanding of biology. However, many aspects of primate biology, behavior, and disease are absent or poorly modeled in any of the current genetic model organisms including mice. We surveyed the animal kingdom to find other animals with advantages similar to mice that might better exemplify primate biology, and identified mouse lemurs ( Microcebus spp.) as the outstanding candidate. Mouse lemurs are prosimian primates, roughly half the genetic distance between mice and humans. They are the smallest, fastest developing, and among the most prolific and abundant primates in the world, distributed throughout the island of Madagascar, many in separate breeding populations due to habitat destruction. Their physiology, behavior, and phylogeny have been studied for decades in laboratory colonies in Europe and in field studies in Malagasy rainforests, and a high quality reference genome sequence has recently been completed. To initiate a classical genetic approach, we developed a deep phenotyping protocol and have screened hundreds of laboratory and wild mouse lemurs for interesting phenotypes and begun mapping the underlying mutations, in collaboration with leading mouse lemur biologists. We also seek to establish a mouse lemur gene "knockout" library by sequencing the genomes of thousands of mouse lemurs to identify null alleles in most genes from the large pool of natural genetic variants. As part of this effort, we have begun a citizen science project in which students across Madagascar explore the remarkable biology around their schools, including longitudinal studies of the local mouse lemurs. We hope this work spawns a new model organism and cultivates a deep genetic understanding of primate biology and health. We also hope it establishes a new and ethical method of genetics that bridges biological, behavioral, medical, and conservation disciplines, while

  10. The phylogenetic relationships of insectivores with special reference to the lesser hedgehog tenrec as inferred from the complete sequence of their mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikaido, Masato; Cao, Ying; Okada, Norihiro; Hasegawa, Masami

    2003-02-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec Echinops telfairi was determined in this study. It is an endemic African insectivore that is found specifically in Madagascar. The tenrec's back is covered with hedgehog-like spines. Unlike other spiny mammals, such as spiny mice, spiny rats, spiny dormice and porcupines, lesser hedgehog tenrecs look amazingly like true hedgehogs (Erinaceidae). However, they are distinguished morphologically from hedgehogs by the absence of a jugal bone. We determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of a lesser hedgehog tenrec and analyzed the results phylogenetically to determine the relationships between the tenrec and other insectivores (moles, shrews and hedgehogs), as well as the relationships between the tenrec and endemic African mammals, classified as Afrotheria, that have recently been shown by molecular analysis to be close relatives of the tenrec. Our data confirmed the afrotherian status of the tenrec, and no direct relation was recovered between the tenrec and the hedgehog. Comparing our data with those of others, we found that within-species variations in the mitochondrial DNA of lesser hedgehog tenrecs appear to be the largest recognized to date among mammals, apart from orangutans, which might be interesting from the view point of evolutionary history of tenrecs on Madagascar.

  11. Identification and characterization of microRNAs in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) responsive to infection with the pathogenic fungus Verticillium longisporum using Brassica AA (Brassica rapa) and CC (Brassica oleracea) as reference genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan; Suhrkamp, Ina; Wang, Yu; Liu, Shenyi; Menkhaus, Jan; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander; Fan, Longjiang; Cai, Daguang

    2014-11-01

    Verticillium longisporum, a soil-borne pathogenic fungus, causes vascular disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus). We proposed that plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the plant-V. longisporum interaction. To identify oilseed rape miRNAs, we deep-sequenced two small RNA libraries made from V. longisporum infected/noninfected roots and employed Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea genomes as references for miRNA prediction and characterization. We identified 893 B. napus miRNAs representing 360 conserved and 533 novel miRNAs, and mapped 429 and 464 miRNAs to the AA and CC genomes, respectively. Microsynteny analysis with the conserved miRNAs and their flanking protein coding sequences revealed 137 AA-CC genome syntenic miRNA pairs and 61 AA and 42 CC genome-unique miRNAs. Sixty-two miRNAs were responsive to the V. longisporum infection. We present data for specific interactions and simultaneously reciprocal changes in the expression levels of the miRNAs and their targets in the infected roots. We demonstrate that miRNAs are involved in the plant-fungus interaction and that miRNA168-Argonaute 1 (AGO1) expression modulation might act as a key regulatory module in a compatible plant-V. longisporum interaction. Our results suggest that V. longisporum may have evolved a virulence mechanism by interference with plant miRNAs to reprogram plant gene expression and achieve infection. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Ensembl 2002: accommodating comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamp, M; Andrews, D; Barker, D; Bevan, P; Cameron, G; Chen, Y; Clark, L; Cox, T; Cuff, J; Curwen, V; Down, T; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Gilbert, J; Hammond, M; Hubbard, T; Kasprzyk, A; Keefe, D; Lehvaslaiho, H; Iyer, V; Melsopp, C; Mongin, E; Pettett, R; Potter, S; Rust, A; Schmidt, E; Searle, S; Slater, G; Smith, J; Spooner, W; Stabenau, A; Stalker, J; Stupka, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Vastrik, I; Birney, E

    2003-01-01

    The Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org/) database project provides a bioinformatics framework to organise biology around the sequences of large genomes. It is a comprehensive source of stable automatic annotation of human, mouse and other genome sequences, available as either an interactive web site or as flat files. Ensembl also integrates manually annotated gene structures from external sources where available. As well as being one of the leading sources of genome annotation, Ensembl is an open source software engineering project to develop a portable system able to handle very large genomes and associated requirements. These range from sequence analysis to data storage and visualisation and installations exist around the world in both companies and at academic sites. With both human and mouse genome sequences available and more vertebrate sequences to follow, many of the recent developments in Ensembl have focusing on developing automatic comparative genome analysis and visualisation.

  13. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  14. A reference gene set for sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, based on genome and transcriptome digital gene expression analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Hong, Duan-Yang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Xing-Liang; Zuo, Ling-Hua; Tang, Xian-Fu; Xu, Wei-Ming; He, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Female moths synthesize species-specific sex pheromone components and release them to attract male moths, which depend on precise sex pheromone chemosensory system to locate females. Two types of genes involved in the sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation pathways play essential roles in this important moth behavior. To understand the function of genes in the sex pheromone pathway, this study investigated the genome-wide and digital gene expression of sex pheromone biosynthesis and degradation genes in various adult tissues in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, which is a notorious vegetable pest worldwide. A massive transcriptome data (at least 39.04 Gb) was generated by sequencing 6 adult tissues including male antennae, female antennae, heads, legs, abdomen and female pheromone glands from DBM by using Illumina 4000 next-generation sequencing and mapping to a published DBM genome. Bioinformatics analysis yielded a total of 89,332 unigenes among which 87 transcripts were putatively related to seven gene families in the sex pheromone biosynthesis pathway. Among these, seven [two desaturases (DES), three fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) one acetyltransferase (ACT) and one alcohol dehydrogenase (AD)] were mainly expressed in the pheromone glands with likely function in the three essential sex pheromone biosynthesis steps: desaturation, reduction, and esterification. We also identified 210 odorant-degradation related genes (including sex pheromone-degradation related genes) from seven major enzyme groups. Among these genes, 100 genes are new identified and two aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), one aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), five carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs), five UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs), eight cytochrome P450 (CYP) and three glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) displayed more robust expression in the antennae, and thus are proposed to participate in the degradation of sex pheromone components and plant volatiles. To date, this is the most

  15. Optimizing the Targeting of Mouse Parvovirus 1 to Murine Melanoma Selects for Recombinant Genomes and Novel Mutations in the Viral Capsid Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Marr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining virus-enhanced immunogenicity with direct delivery of immunomodulatory molecules would represent a novel treatment modality for melanoma, and would require development of new viral vectors capable of targeting melanoma cells preferentially. Here we explore the use of rodent protoparvoviruses targeting cells of the murine melanoma model B16F10. An uncloned stock of mouse parvovirus 1 (MPV1 showed some efficacy, which was substantially enhanced following serial passage in the target cell. Molecular cloning of the genes of both starter and selected virus pools revealed considerable sequence diversity. Chimera analysis mapped the majority of the improved infectivity to the product of the major coat protein gene, VP2, in which linked blocks of amino acid changes and one or other of two apparently spontaneous mutations were selected. Intragenic chimeras showed that these represented separable components, both contributing to enhanced infection. Comparison of biochemical parameters of infection by clonal viruses indicated that the enhancement due to changes in VP2 operates after the virus has bound to the cell surface and penetrated into the cell. Construction of an in silico homology model for MPV1 allowed placement of these changes within the capsid shell, and revealed aspects of the capsid involved in infection initiation that had not been previously recognized.

  16. The Sycp1 loci of the mouse genome: successive retropositions of a meiotic gene during the recent evolution of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, J; Yuan, L; Martin, L; Mattei, M G; Guénet, J L; Liu, J G; Hoög, C; Rassoulzadegan, M; Cuzin, F

    1997-08-15

    The murine Sycp1 gene is expressed at the early stages of meiosis. We show that it is composed of a number of small exons and localized on mouse chromosome 3. In the laboratory strains, two retrogenes were also identified. The first one (Sycp1-ps1), on chromosome 7, has accumulated point mutations and deletions and is not transcribed. A second retrogene (Sycp1-ps2), on chromosome 8, is inserted within the continuity of a moderately repeated element, in an intron of another gene (Cad11). The two retroposition events can be dated to distinct periods in the evolution of the Muridae. Sycp1-ps2 has kept features indicative of a relatively recent origin, namely a nearly intact coding region, a poly(A) tail, and 14-bp terminal repeats. Its recent origin was confirmed by the fact that it is found in all the laboratory strains of mice, but neither in a recent isolate from Mus musculus domesticus wild stocks nor in the closely related subspecies M. musculus musculus, M. m. molossinus, M. m. castaneus, and M. m. bactrianus. Appearance of the more ancient Sycp1-ps1 retrogene is concomitant with the radiation of the genus. It is present in various Mus species (M. spretus, M. spicilegus, M. macedonicus, and M. cookii), but neither in the rat nor in the more closely related Pyromis genus. Transposition of retrotranscripts during meiosis and their hereditary establishment thus appear to occur relatively frequently. They may, therefore, play a significant role in the evolutionary process.

  17. Genome Editing a Mouse Locus Encoding a Variant Histone, H3.3B, to Report on its Expression in Live Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Duancheng; Noh, Kyung-Min; Goldberg, Aaron D.; Allis, C. David; Rosenwaks, Zev; Rafii, Shahin; Banaszynski, Laura A.

    2018-01-01

    Summary Chromatin remodeling via incorporation of histone variants plays a key role in the regulation of embryonic development. The histone variant H3.3 has been associated with a number of early events including formation of the paternal pronucleus upon fertilization. The small number of amino acid differences between H3.3 and its canonical counterparts (H3.1 and H3.2) has limited studies of the developmental significance of H3.3 deposition into chromatin due to difficulties in distinguishing the H3 isoforms. To this end, we used zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) mediated gene editing to introduce a small C-terminal hemagglutinin (HA) tag to the endogenous H3.3B locus in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), along with an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and a separately translated fluorescent reporter of expression. This system will allow detection of expression driven by the reporter in cells, animals, and embryos, and will facilitate investigation of differential roles of paternal and maternal H3.3 protein during embryogenesis that would not be possible using variant-specific antibodies. Further, the ability to monitor endogenous H3.3 protein in various cell lineages will enhance our understanding of the dynamics of this histone variant over the course of development. genesis PMID:25262655

  18. Sex-specific mouse liver gene expression: genome-wide analysis of developmental changes from pre-pubertal period to young adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conforto Tara L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early liver development and the transcriptional transitions during hepatogenesis are well characterized. However, gene expression changes during the late postnatal/pre-pubertal to young adulthood period are less well understood, especially with regards to sex-specific gene expression. Methods Microarray analysis of male and female mouse liver was carried out at 3, 4, and 8 wk of age to elucidate developmental changes in gene expression from the late postnatal/pre-pubertal period to young adulthood. Results A large number of sex-biased and sex-independent genes showed significant changes during this developmental period. Notably, sex-independent genes involved in cell cycle, chromosome condensation, and DNA replication were down regulated from 3 wk to 8 wk, while genes associated with metal ion binding, ion transport and kinase activity were up regulated. A majority of genes showing sex differential expression in adult liver did not display sex differences prior to puberty, at which time extensive changes in sex-specific gene expression were seen, primarily in males. Thus, in male liver, 76% of male-specific genes were up regulated and 47% of female-specific genes were down regulated from 3 to 8 wk of age, whereas in female liver 67% of sex-specific genes showed no significant change in expression. In both sexes, genes up regulated from 3 to 8 wk were significantly enriched (p p Ihh; female-specific Cdx4, Cux2, Tox, and Trim24 and may contribute to the developmental changes that lead to global acquisition of liver sex-specificity by 8 wk of age. Conclusions Overall, the observed changes in gene expression during postnatal liver development reflect the deceleration of liver growth and the induction of specialized liver functions, with widespread changes in sex-specific gene expression primarily occurring in male liver.

  19. GMATA: An Integrated Software Package for Genome-Scale SSR Mining, Marker Development and Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuewen; Wang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), also referred to as microsatellites, are highly variable tandem DNAs that are widely used as genetic markers. The increasing availability of whole-genome and transcript sequences provides information resources for SSR marker development. However, efficient software is required to efficiently identify and display SSR information along with other gene features at a genome scale. We developed novel software package Genome-wide Microsatellite Analyzing Tool Package (GMATA) integrating SSR mining, statistical analysis and plotting, marker design, polymorphism screening and marker transferability, and enabled simultaneously display SSR markers with other genome features. GMATA applies novel strategies for SSR analysis and primer design in large genomes, which allows GMATA to perform faster calculation and provides more accurate results than existing tools. Our package is also capable of processing DNA sequences of any size on a standard computer. GMATA is user friendly, only requires mouse clicks or types inputs on the command line, and is executable in multiple computing platforms. We demonstrated the application of GMATA in plants genomes and reveal a novel distribution pattern of SSRs in 15 grass genomes. The most abundant motifs are dimer GA/TC, the A/T monomer and the GCG/CGC trimer, rather than the rich G/C content in DNA sequence. We also revealed that SSR count is a linear to the chromosome length in fully assembled grass genomes. GMATA represents a powerful application tool that facilitates genomic sequence analyses. GAMTA is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gmata/?source=navbar.

  20. The history of human populations in the Japanese Archipelago inferred from genome-wide SNP data with a special reference to the Ainu and the Ryukyuan populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinam, Timothy; Nishida, Nao; Hirai, Momoki; Kawamura, Shoji; Oota, Hiroki; Umetsu, Kazuo; Kimura, Ryosuke; Ohashi, Jun; Tajima, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Toshimichi; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Mano, Shuhei; Suto, Yumiko; Kaname, Tadashi; Naritomi, Kenji; Yanagi, Kumiko; Niikawa, Norio; Omoto, Keiichi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Saitou, Naruya

    2012-12-01

    The Japanese Archipelago stretches over 4000 km from north to south, and is the homeland of the three human populations; the Ainu, the Mainland Japanese and the Ryukyuan. The archeological evidence of human residence on this Archipelago goes back to >30 000 years, and various migration routes and root populations have been proposed. Here, we determined close to one million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the Ainu and the Ryukyuan, and compared these with existing data sets. This is the first report of these genome-wide SNP data. Major findings are: (1) Recent admixture with the Mainland Japanese was observed for more than one third of the Ainu individuals from principal component analysis and frappe analyses; (2) The Ainu population seems to have experienced admixture with another population, and a combination of two types of admixtures is the unique characteristics of this population; (3) The Ainu and the Ryukyuan are tightly clustered with 100% bootstrap probability followed by the Mainland Japanese in the phylogenetic trees of East Eurasian populations. These results clearly support the dual structure model on the Japanese Archipelago populations, though the origins of the Jomon and the Yayoi people still remain to be solved.

  1. Genome-Wide Constitutively Expressed Gene Analysis and New Reference Gene Selection Based on Transcriptome Data: A Case Study from Poplar/Canker Disease Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaping Zhao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A number of transcriptome datasets for differential expression (DE genes have been widely used for understanding organismal biology, but these datasets also contain untapped information that can be used to develop more precise analytical tools. With the use of transcriptome data generated from poplar/canker disease interaction system, we describe a methodology to identify candidate reference genes from high-throughput sequencing data. This methodology will improve the accuracy of RT-qPCR and will lead to better standards for the normalization of expression data. Expression stability analysis from xylem and phloem of Populus bejingensis inoculated with the fungal canker pathogen Botryosphaeria dothidea revealed that 729 poplar transcripts (1.11% were stably expressed, at a threshold level of coefficient of variance (CV of FPKM < 20% and maximum fold change (MFC of FPKM < 2.0. Expression stability and bioinformatics analysis suggested that commonly used house-keeping (HK genes were not the most appropriate internal controls: 70 of the 72 commonly used HK genes were not stably expressed, 45 of the 72 produced multiple isoform transcripts, and some of their reported primers produced unspecific amplicons in PCR amplification. RT-qPCR analysis to compare and evaluate the expression stability of 10 commonly used poplar HK genes and 20 of the 729 newly-identified stably expressed transcripts showed that some of the newly-identified genes (such as SSU_S8e, LSU_L5e, and 20S_PSU had higher stability ranking than most of commonly used HK genes. Based on these results, we recommend a pipeline for deriving reference genes from transcriptome data. An appropriate candidate gene should have a unique transcript, constitutive expression, CV value of expression < 20% (or possibly 30% and MFC value of expression <2, and an expression level of 50–1,000 units. Lastly, when four of the newly identified HK genes were used in the normalization of expression data for 20

  2. Consensus coding sequence (CCDS) database: a standardized set of human and mouse protein-coding regions supported by expert curation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujar, Shashikant; O'Leary, Nuala A; Farrell, Catherine M; Loveland, Jane E; Mudge, Jonathan M; Wallin, Craig; Girón, Carlos G; Diekhans, Mark; Barnes, If; Bennett, Ruth; Berry, Andrew E; Cox, Eric; Davidson, Claire; Goldfarb, Tamara; Gonzalez, Jose M; Hunt, Toby; Jackson, John; Joardar, Vinita; Kay, Mike P; Kodali, Vamsi K; Martin, Fergal J; McAndrews, Monica; McGarvey, Kelly M; Murphy, Michael; Rajput, Bhanu; Rangwala, Sanjida H; Riddick, Lillian D; Seal, Ruth L; Suner, Marie-Marthe; Webb, David; Zhu, Sophia; Aken, Bronwen L; Bruford, Elspeth A; Bult, Carol J; Frankish, Adam; Murphy, Terence; Pruitt, Kim D

    2018-01-04

    The Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) project provides a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assembly in genome annotations produced independently by NCBI and the Ensembl group at EMBL-EBI. This dataset is the product of an international collaboration that includes NCBI, Ensembl, HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Mouse Genome Informatics and University of California, Santa Cruz. Identically annotated coding regions, which are generated using an automated pipeline and pass multiple quality assurance checks, are assigned a stable and tracked identifier (CCDS ID). Additionally, coordinated manual review by expert curators from the CCDS collaboration helps in maintaining the integrity and high quality of the dataset. The CCDS data are available through an interactive web page (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/CCDS/CcdsBrowse.cgi) and an FTP site (ftp://ftp.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pub/CCDS/). In this paper, we outline the ongoing work, growth and stability of the CCDS dataset and provide updates on new collaboration members and new features added to the CCDS user interface. We also present expert curation scenarios, with specific examples highlighting the importance of an accurate reference genome assembly and the crucial role played by input from the research community. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2017.

  3. Comparison of methods for genomic localization of gene trap sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrin Thomas E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene knockouts in a model organism such as mouse provide a valuable resource for the study of basic biology and human disease. Determining which gene has been inactivated by an untargeted gene trapping event poses a challenging annotation problem because gene trap sequence tags, which represent sequence near the vector insertion site of a trapped gene, are typically short and often contain unresolved residues. To understand better the localization of these sequences on the mouse genome, we compared stand-alone versions of the alignment programs BLAT, SSAHA, and MegaBLAST. A set of 3,369 sequence tags was aligned to build 34 of the mouse genome using default parameters for each algorithm. Known genome coordinates for the cognate set of full-length genes (1,659 sequences were used to evaluate localization results. Results In general, all three programs performed well in terms of localizing sequences to a general region of the genome, with only relatively subtle errors identified for a small proportion of the sequence tags. However, large differences in performance were noted with regard to correctly identifying exon boundaries. BLAT correctly identified the vast majority of exon boundaries, while SSAHA and MegaBLAST missed the majority of exon boundaries. SSAHA consistently reported the fewest false positives and is the fastest algorithm. MegaBLAST was comparable to BLAT in speed, but was the most susceptible to localizing sequence tags incorrectly to pseudogenes. Conclusion The differences in performance for sequence tags and full-length reference sequences were surprisingly small. Characteristic variations in localization results for each program were noted that affect the localization of sequence at exon boundaries, in particular.

  4. Partnering for functional genomics research conference: Abstracts of poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    This reports contains abstracts of poster presentations presented at the Functional Genomics Research Conference held April 16--17, 1998 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Attention is focused on the following areas: mouse mutagenesis and genomics; phenotype screening; gene expression analysis; DNA analysis technology development; bioinformatics; comparative analyses of mouse, human, and yeast sequences; and pilot projects to evaluate methodologies.

  5. Growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    A growth reference describes the variation of an anthropometric measurement within a group of individuals. A reference is a tool for grouping and analyzing data and provides a common basis for comparing populations.1 A well known type of reference is the age-conditional growth diagram. The

  6. Genome Sequences of Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Itoh, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter summarizes recent data obtained from genome sequencing, annotation projects, and studies on the genome diversity of Oryza sativa and related Oryza species. O. sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the first monocot species whose complete genome sequence was deciphered based on physical mapping by an international collaborative effort. This genome, along with its accurate and comprehensive annotation, has become an indispensable foundation for crop genomics and breeding. With the development of innovative sequencing technologies, genomic studies of O. sativa have dramatically increased; in particular, a large number of cultivars and wild accessions have been sequenced and compared with the reference rice genome. Since de novo genome sequencing has become cost-effective, the genome of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, has also been determined. Comparative genomic studies have highlighted the independent domestication processes of different rice species, but it also turned out that Asian and African rice share a common gene set that has experienced similar artificial selection. An international project aimed at constructing reference genomes and examining the genome diversity of wild Oryza species is currently underway, and the genomes of some species are publicly available. This project provides a platform for investigations such as the evolution, development, polyploidization, and improvement of crops. Studies on the genomic diversity of Oryza species, including wild species, should provide new insights to solve the problem of growing food demands in the face of rapid climatic changes.

  7. Genome Sequences of Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Kumagai, Masahiko

    2018-02-14

    This chapter summarizes recent data obtained from genome sequencing, annotation projects, and studies on the genome diversity of Oryza sativa and related Oryza species. O. sativa, commonly known as Asian rice, is the first monocot species whose complete genome sequence was deciphered based on physical mapping by an international collaborative effort. This genome, along with its accurate and comprehensive annotation, has become an indispensable foundation for crop genomics and breeding. With the development of innovative sequencing technologies, genomic studies of O. sativa have dramatically increased; in particular, a large number of cultivars and wild accessions have been sequenced and compared with the reference rice genome. Since de novo genome sequencing has become cost-effective, the genome of African cultivated rice, O. glaberrima, has also been determined. Comparative genomic studies have highlighted the independent domestication processes of different rice species, but it also turned out that Asian and African rice share a common gene set that has experienced similar artificial selection. An international project aimed at constructing reference genomes and examining the genome diversity of wild Oryza species is currently underway, and the genomes of some species are publicly available. This project provides a platform for investigations such as the evolution, development, polyploidization, and improvement of crops. Studies on the genomic diversity of Oryza species, including wild species, should provide new insights to solve the problem of growing food demands in the face of rapid climatic changes.

  8. Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) for large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) detection: A new approach to assess quantitative status of BRCA1 gene in a reference laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minucci, Angelo; De Paolis, Elisa; Concolino, Paola; De Bonis, Maria; Rizza, Roberta; Canu, Giulia; Scaglione, Giovanni Luca; Mignone, Flavio; Scambia, Giovanni; Zuppi, Cecilia; Capoluongo, Ettore

    2017-07-01

    Evaluation of copy number variation (CNV) in BRCA1/2 genes, due to large genomic rearrangements (LGRs), is a mandatory analysis in hereditary breast and ovarian cancers families, if no pathogenic variants are found by sequencing. LGRs cannot be detected by conventional methods and several alternative methods have been developed. Since these approaches are expensive and time consuming, identification of alternative screening methods for LGRs detection is needed in order to reduce and optimize the diagnostic procedure. The aim of this study was to investigate a Competitive PCR-High Resolution Melting Analysis (C-PCR-HRMA) as molecular tool to detect recurrent BRCA1 LGRs. C-PCR-HRMA was performed on exons 3, 14, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of the BRCA1 gene; exons 4, 6 and 7 of the ALB gene were used as reference fragments. This study showed that it is possible to identify recurrent BRCA1 LGRs, by melting peak height ratio between target (BRCA1) and reference (ALB) fragments. Furthermore, we underline that a peculiar amplicon-melting profile is associated to a specific BRCA1 LGR. All C-PCR-HRMA results were confirmed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. C-PCR-HRMA has proved to be an innovative, efficient and fast method for BRCA1 LGRs detection. Given the sensitivity, specificity and ease of use, c-PCR-HRMA can be considered an attractive and powerful alternative to other methods for BRCA1 CNVs screening, improving molecular strategies for BRCA testing in the context of Massive Parallel Sequencing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Nuclear Reprogramming in Mouse Primordial Germ Cells: Epigenetic Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo De Felici

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique capability of germ cells to give rise to a new organism, allowing the transmission of primary genetic information from generation to generation, depends on their epigenetic reprogramming ability and underlying genomic totipotency. Recent studies have shown that genome-wide epigenetic modifications, referred to as “epigenetic reprogramming”, occur during the development of the gamete precursors termed primordial germ cells (PGCs in the embryo. This reprogramming is likely to be critical for the germ line development itself and necessary to erase the parental imprinting and setting the base for totipotency intrinsic to this cell lineage. The status of genome acquired during reprogramming and the associated expression of key pluripotency genes render PGCs susceptible to transform into pluripotent stem cells. This may occur in vivo under still undefined condition, and it is likely at the origin of the formation of germ cell tumors. The phenomenon appears to be reproduced under partly defined in vitro culture conditions, when PGCs are transformed into embryonic germ (EG cells. In the present paper, I will try to summarize the contribution that epigenetic modifications give to nuclear reprogramming in mouse PGCs.

  10. [Reference citation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkić, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    Scientific and professional papers represent the information basis for scientific research and professional work. References important for the paper should be cited within the text, and listed at the end of the paper. This paper deals with different styles of reference citation. Special emphasis was placed on the Vancouver Style for reference citation in biomedical journals established by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. It includes original samples for citing various types of articles, both printed and electronic, as well as recommendations related to reference citation in accordance with the methodology and ethics of scientific research and guidelines for preparing manuscripts for publication.

  11. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, Ron; Desai, Jigar; Lazar, Gloria; King, Benjamin; Rollins, Jarod; Spurr, Melissa; Joseph, Jamie; Kadambi, Sindhuja; Li, Yang; Cherry, Allison; Matteson, Paul G.; Paigen, Beverly; Millonig, James H.

    Korstanje R, Desai J, Lazar G, King B, Rollins J, Spurr M, Joseph J, Kadambi S, Li Y, Cherry A, Matteson PG, Paigen B, Millonig JH. Quantitative trait loci affecting phenotypic variation in the vacuolated lens mouse mutant, a multigenic mouse model of neural tube defects. Physiol Genomics 35:

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 2166.

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Kosarev, Igor V.; Abramov, Vyacheslav M.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft sequence of the genome of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain 2166, a potential novel probiotic. Genome annotation and read mapping onto a reference genome of L. rhamnosus strain GG allowed for the identification of the differences and similarities in the genomic contents and gene arrangements of these strains.

  13. Genomic analysis of mouse retinal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blackshaw

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The vertebrate retina is comprised of seven major cell types that are generated in overlapping but well-defined intervals. To identify genes that might regulate retinal development, gene expression in the developing retina was profiled at multiple time points using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE. The expression patterns of 1,051 genes that showed developmentally dynamic expression by SAGE were investigated using in situ hybridization. A molecular atlas of gene expression in the developing and mature retina was thereby constructed, along with a taxonomic classification of developmental gene expression patterns. Genes were identified that label both temporal and spatial subsets of mitotic progenitor cells. For each developing and mature major retinal cell type, genes selectively expressed in that cell type were identified. The gene expression profiles of retinal Müller glia and mitotic progenitor cells were found to be highly similar, suggesting that Müller glia might serve to produce multiple retinal cell types under the right conditions. In addition, multiple transcripts that were evolutionarily conserved that did not appear to encode open reading frames of more than 100 amino acids in length ("noncoding RNAs" were found to be dynamically and specifically expressed in developing and mature retinal cell types. Finally, many photoreceptor-enriched genes that mapped to chromosomal intervals containing retinal disease genes were identified. These data serve as a starting point for functional investigations of the roles of these genes in retinal development and physiology.

  14. PTEN C-Terminal Deletion Causes Genomic Instability and Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tumor suppressor PTEN controls genomic stability and inhibits tumorigenesis. The N-terminal phosphatase domain of PTEN antagonizes the PI3K/AKT pathway, but its C-terminal function is less defined. Here, we describe a knockin mouse model of a nonsense mutation that results in the deletion of the entire Pten C-terminal region, referred to as PtenΔC. Mice heterozygous for PtenΔC develop multiple spontaneous tumors, including cancers and B cell lymphoma. Heterozygous deletion of the Pten C-terminal domain also causes genomic instability and common fragile site rearrangement. We found that Pten C-terminal disruption induces p53 and its downstream targets. Simultaneous depletion of p53 promotes metastasis without influencing the initiation of tumors, suggesting that p53 mainly suppresses tumor progression. Our data highlight the essential role of the PTEN C terminus in the maintenance of genomic stability and suppression of tumorigenesis.

  15. Reference Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  16. Analysis of Copy Number Variation in the Abp Gene Regions of Two House Mouse Subspecies Suggests Divergence during the Gene Family Expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezer, Željka; Chung, Amanda G; Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2017-06-01

    The Androgen-binding protein ( Abp ) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus ( Mmd ) and Mus musculus musculus ( Mmm ), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd , primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome. Clustering of Mmd individuals based on this variation did not reflect their geographical origin, suggesting no population divergence in the Abp gene cluster. However, copy number variation patterns differ substantially between Mmd and other mouse taxa. Large blocks of Abp genes are absent in Mmm , Mus musculus castaneus and an outgroup, Mus spretus , although with differences in variation and breakpoint locations. Our analysis calls into question the reliance on a reference genome for interpreting the detailed organization of genes in taxa more distant from the Mmd reference genome. The polymorphic nature of the gene family expansion in all four taxa suggests that the number of Abp genes, especially in the central gene region, is not critical to the survival and reproduction of the mouse. However, Abp haplotypes of variable length may serve as a source of raw genetic material for new signals influencing reproductive communication and thus speciation of mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  17. Pairagon: a highly accurate, HMM-based cDNA-to-genome aligner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, David V; Brown, Randall H; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Brent, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    The most accurate way to determine the intron-exon structures in a genome is to align spliced cDNA sequences to the genome. Thus, cDNA-to-genome alignment programs are a key component of most annotation pipelines. The scoring system used to choose the best alignment is a primary determinant of alignment accuracy, while heuristics that prevent consideration of certain alignments are a primary determinant of runtime and memory usage. Both accuracy and speed are important considerations in choosing an alignment algorithm, but scoring systems have received much less attention than heuristics. We present Pairagon, a pair hidden Markov model based cDNA-to-genome alignment program, as the most accurate aligner for sequences with high- and low-identity levels. We conducted a series of experiments testing alignment accuracy with varying sequence identity. We first created 'perfect' simulated cDNA sequences by splicing the sequences of exons in the reference genome sequences of fly and human. The complete reference genome sequences were then mutated to various degrees using a realistic mutation simulator and the perfect cDNAs were aligned to them using Pairagon and 12 other aligners. To validate these results with natural sequences, we performed cross-species alignment using orthologous transcripts from human, mouse and rat. We found that aligner accuracy is heavily dependent on sequence identity. For sequences with 100% identity, Pairagon achieved accuracy levels of >99.6%, with one quarter of the errors of any other aligner. Furthermore, for human/mouse alignments, which are only 85% identical, Pairagon achieved 87% accuracy, higher than any other aligner. Pairagon source and executables are freely available at http://mblab.wustl.edu/software/pairagon/

  18. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  19. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  20. Genomics Portals: integrative web-platform for mining genomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Kaustubh; Phatak, Mukta; Johannes, Freudenberg M; Chen, Jing; Li, Qian; Vineet, Joshi K; Hu, Zhen; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Meller, Jaroslaw; Medvedovic, Mario

    2010-01-13

    A large amount of experimental data generated by modern high-throughput technologies is available through various public repositories. Our knowledge about molecular interaction networks, functional biological pathways and transcriptional regulatory modules is rapidly expanding, and is being organized in lists of functionally related genes. Jointly, these two sources of information hold a tremendous potential for gaining new insights into functioning of living systems. Genomics Portals platform integrates access to an extensive knowledge base and a large database of human, mouse, and rat genomics data with basic analytical visualization tools. It provides the context for analyzing and interpreting new experimental data and the tool for effective mining of a large number of publicly available genomics datasets stored in the back-end databases. The uniqueness of this platform lies in the volume and the diversity of genomics data that can be accessed and analyzed (gene expression, ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, epigenomics, computationally predicted binding sites, etc), and the integration with an extensive knowledge base that can be used in such analysis. The integrated access to primary genomics data, functional knowledge and analytical tools makes Genomics Portals platform a unique tool for interpreting results of new genomics experiments and for mining the vast amount of data stored in the Genomics Portals backend databases. Genomics Portals can be accessed and used freely at http://GenomicsPortals.org.

  1. Genomics Portals: integrative web-platform for mining genomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Krishnendu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large amount of experimental data generated by modern high-throughput technologies is available through various public repositories. Our knowledge about molecular interaction networks, functional biological pathways and transcriptional regulatory modules is rapidly expanding, and is being organized in lists of functionally related genes. Jointly, these two sources of information hold a tremendous potential for gaining new insights into functioning of living systems. Results Genomics Portals platform integrates access to an extensive knowledge base and a large database of human, mouse, and rat genomics data with basic analytical visualization tools. It provides the context for analyzing and interpreting new experimental data and the tool for effective mining of a large number of publicly available genomics datasets stored in the back-end databases. The uniqueness of this platform lies in the volume and the diversity of genomics data that can be accessed and analyzed (gene expression, ChIP-chip, ChIP-seq, epigenomics, computationally predicted binding sites, etc, and the integration with an extensive knowledge base that can be used in such analysis. Conclusion The integrated access to primary genomics data, functional knowledge and analytical tools makes Genomics Portals platform a unique tool for interpreting results of new genomics experiments and for mining the vast amount of data stored in the Genomics Portals backend databases. Genomics Portals can be accessed and used freely at http://GenomicsPortals.org.

  2. Comparative Genome Viewer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molineris, I.; Sales, G.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of information about genomes, both in the form of complete sequences and annotations, has been exponentially increasing in the last few years. As a result there is the need for tools providing a graphical representation of such information that should be comprehensive and intuitive. Visual representation is especially important in the comparative genomics field since it should provide a combined view of data belonging to different genomes. We believe that existing tools are limited in this respect as they focus on a single genome at a time (conservation histograms) or compress alignment representation to a single dimension. We have therefore developed a web-based tool called Comparative Genome Viewer (Cgv): it integrates a bidimensional representation of alignments between two regions, both at small and big scales, with the richness of annotations present in other genome browsers. We give access to our system through a web-based interface that provides the user with an interactive representation that can be updated in real time using the mouse to move from region to region and to zoom in on interesting details.

  3. Effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate on the incorporation of labelled precursors into RNA, DNA and protein in epidermis, dermis and subcutis from precancerous mouse skin with reference to enhanced tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhisey, R.A.; Ramchandani, A.G.; Sirsat, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of a single application of 1.8 nmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on precursor incorporation into RNA, DNA and protein in the epidermis, dermis and subcutis from 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) injected precancerous mouse skin were studied at various time points between 3 and 96 h. In the precancerous tissues, the rates of incorporation of [ 3 H]uridine into RNA did not alter appreciably from those in the control tissues; while the rates of [ 3 H]methylthymidine incorporation into DNA were elevated with peaks appearing between 6 and 12 h, at 24 h and at 72 h in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The rate of incorporation of [ 14 C]leucine into protein was markedly elevated in all the three tissues which showed 3-4 sharp peaks. The maximum stimulation ranged between 14 and 20 times that of the control. A single application of TPA to the precancerous mouse skin induced early stimulation of precursor incorporation into all the three macromolecules in epidermis, dermis and subcutis. The increased stimulation was maintained for 36-72 h. The patterns of incorporation of [ 3 H]methylthymidine into DNA gave rise to 2-3 peaks of elevated uptake in each tissue up to 36-48 h. A lowered rate of DNA synthesis between 48 and 60 h was followed by a peak at 72 h. In each group, epidermal mitotic activity correlated well with spurts of precursor incorporation into cellular DNA. The observations indicate that TPA recruits more cells into the DNA synthetic phase and accelerates selective growth of preneoplastic cells during tumor progression

  4. The Banana Genome Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droc, Gaëtan; Larivière, Delphine; Guignon, Valentin; Yahiaoui, Nabila; This, Dominique; Garsmeur, Olivier; Dereeper, Alexis; Hamelin, Chantal; Argout, Xavier; Dufayard, Jean-François; Lengelle, Juliette; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cenci, Alberto; Pitollat, Bertrand; D’Hont, Angélique; Ruiz, Manuel; Rouard, Mathieu; Bocs, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Banana is one of the world’s favorite fruits and one of the most important crops for developing countries. The banana reference genome sequence (Musa acuminata) was recently released. Given the taxonomic position of Musa, the completed genomic sequence has particular comparative value to provide fresh insights about the evolution of the monocotyledons. The study of the banana genome has been enhanced by a number of tools and resources that allows harnessing its sequence. First, we set up essential tools such as a Community Annotation System, phylogenomics resources and metabolic pathways. Then, to support post-genomic efforts, we improved banana existing systems (e.g. web front end, query builder), we integrated available Musa data into generic systems (e.g. markers and genetic maps, synteny blocks), we have made interoperable with the banana hub, other existing systems containing Musa data (e.g. transcriptomics, rice reference genome, workflow manager) and finally, we generated new results from sequence analyses (e.g. SNP and polymorphism analysis). Several uses cases illustrate how the Banana Genome Hub can be used to study gene families. Overall, with this collaborative effort, we discuss the importance of the interoperability toward data integration between existing information systems. Database URL: http://banana-genome.cirad.fr/ PMID:23707967

  5. HGVA: the Human Genome Variation Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Javier; Coll, Jacobo; Haimel, Matthias; Kandasamy, Swaathi; Tarraga, Joaquin; Furio-Tari, Pedro; Bari, Wasim; Bleda, Marta; Rueda, Antonio; Gr?f, Stefan; Rendon, Augusto; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High-profile genomic variation projects like the 1000 Genomes project or the Exome Aggregation Consortium, are generating a wealth of human genomic variation knowledge which can be used as an essential reference for identifying disease-causing genotypes. However, accessing these data, contrasting the various studies and integrating those data in downstream analyses remains cumbersome. The Human Genome Variation Archive (HGVA) tackles these challenges and facilitates access to genomic...

  6. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Ohyanagi, Hajime; Ebata, Toshinobu; Huang, Xuehui; Gong, Hao; Fujita, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takako; Toyoda, Atsushi; Fujiyama, Asao; Kaminuma, Eli; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Feng, Qi; Wang, Zi Xuan; Han, Bin; Kurata, Nori

    2015-01-01

    . Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tabdelimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/ scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all

  7. phiGENOME: an integrative navigation throughout bacteriophage genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Matej; Klucar, Lubos

    2011-11-01

    phiGENOME is a web-based genome browser generating dynamic and interactive graphical representation of phage genomes stored in the phiSITE, database of gene regulation in bacteriophages. phiGENOME is an integral part of the phiSITE web portal (http://www.phisite.org/phigenome) and it was optimised for visualisation of phage genomes with the emphasis on the gene regulatory elements. phiGENOME consists of three components: (i) genome map viewer built using Adobe Flash technology, providing dynamic and interactive graphical display of phage genomes; (ii) sequence browser based on precisely formatted HTML tags, providing detailed exploration of genome features on the sequence level and (iii) regulation illustrator, based on Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and designed for graphical representation of gene regulations. Bringing 542 complete genome sequences accompanied with their rich annotations and references, makes phiGENOME a unique information resource in the field of phage genomics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reference free phasing and representation of complex variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2017-01-01

    High throughput sequencing has revolutionized our ability to interrogate genomes and entire human genomes are sequenced daily across the world. Mapping of short reads to a reference genome has enhanced our ability to detect genetic variation and is currently the most widely used technology....... Therefore, new methods for detecting variation that reduce reference bias are needed including ways of representing genomes that account for the variability within and between populations. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region is one of the most diverse and complex regions of the human genome...... to detect and call variation in humans. However, it has become evident that mapping of short reads to a single reference genome is subject to ascertainment bias (reference bias). This bias is especially pronounced in complex regions of the genome and particularly hampers detection of structural variation...

  9. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  10. Alignment of whole genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcher, A L; Kasif, S; Fleischmann, R D; Peterson, J; White, O; Salzberg, S L

    1999-01-01

    A new system for aligning whole genome sequences is described. Using an efficient data structure called a suffix tree, the system is able to rapidly align sequences containing millions of nucleotides. Its use is demonstrated on two strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis, on two less similar species of Mycoplasma bacteria and on two syntenic sequences from human chromosome 12 and mouse chromosome 6. In each case it found an alignment of the input sequences, using between 30 s and 2 min of computation time. From the system output, information on single nucleotide changes, translocations and homologous genes can easily be extracted. Use of the algorithm should facilitate analysis of syntenic chromosomal regions, strain-to-strain comparisons, evolutionary comparisons and genomic duplications. PMID:10325427

  11. A Thousand Fly Genomes: An Expanded Drosophila Genome Nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Justin B; Lange, Jeremy D; Tang, Alison D; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Pool, John E

    2016-12-01

    The Drosophila Genome Nexus is a population genomic resource that provides D. melanogaster genomes from multiple sources. To facilitate comparisons across data sets, genomes are aligned using a common reference alignment pipeline which involves two rounds of mapping. Regions of residual heterozygosity, identity-by-descent, and recent population admixture are annotated to enable data filtering based on the user's needs. Here, we present a significant expansion of the Drosophila Genome Nexus, which brings the current data object to a total of 1,121 wild-derived genomes. New additions include 305 previously unpublished genomes from inbred lines representing six population samples in Egypt, Ethiopia, France, and South Africa, along with another 193 genomes added from recently-published data sets. We also provide an aligned D. simulans genome to facilitate divergence comparisons. This improved resource will broaden the range of population genomic questions that can addressed from multi-population allele frequencies and haplotypes in this model species. The larger set of genomes will also enhance the discovery of functionally relevant natural variation that exists within and between populations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. The ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colbourne, John K.; Pfrender, Michael E.; Gilbert, Donald; Thomas, W. Kelley; Tucker, Abraham; Oakley, Todd H.; Tokishita, Shinichi; Aerts, Andrea; Arnold, Georg J.; Basu, Malay Kumar; Bauer, Darren J.; Caceres, Carla E.; Carmel, Liran; Casola, Claudio; Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Detter, John C.; Dong, Qunfeng; Dusheyko, Serge; Eads, Brian D.; Frohlich, Thomas; Geiler-Samerotte, Kerry A.; Gerlach, Daniel; Hatcher, Phil; Jogdeo, Sanjuro; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Kültz, Dietmar; Laforsch, Christian; Lindquist, Erika; Lopez, Jacqueline; Manak, Robert; Muller, Jean; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Patwardhan, Rupali P.; Pitluck, Samuel; Pritham, Ellen J.; Rechtsteiner, Andreas; Rho, Mina; Rogozin, Igor B.; Sakarya, Onur; Salamov, Asaf; Schaack, Sarah; Shapiro, Harris; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Skalitzky, Courtney; Smith, Zachary; Souvorov, Alexander; Sung, Way; Tang, Zuojian; Tsuchiya, Dai; Tu, Hank; Vos, Harmjan; Wang, Mei; Wolf, Yuri I.; Yamagata, Hideo; Yamada, Takuji; Ye, Yuzhen; Shaw, Joseph R.; Andrews, Justen; Crease, Teresa J.; Tang, Haixu; Lucas, Susan M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Bork, Peer; Koonin, Eugene V.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lynch, Michael; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2011-02-04

    This document provides supporting material related to the sequencing of the ecoresponsive genome of Daphnia pulex. This material includes information on materials and methods and supporting text, as well as supplemental figures, tables, and references. The coverage of materials and methods addresses genome sequence, assembly, and mapping to chromosomes, gene inventory, attributes of a compact genome, the origin and preservation of Daphnia pulex genes, implications of Daphnia's genome structure, evolutionary diversification of duplicated genes, functional significance of expanded gene families, and ecoresponsive genes. Supporting text covers chromosome studies, gene homology among Daphnia genomes, micro-RNA and transposable elements and the 46 Daphnia pulex opsins. 36 figures, 50 tables, 183 references.

  13. Extreme genomes

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Edward F

    2000-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Thermoplasma acidophilum, an acid- and heat-loving archaeon, has recently been reported. Comparative genomic analysis of this 'extremophile' is providing new insights into the metabolic machinery, ecology and evolution of thermophilic archaea.

  14. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  15. Cancer genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norrild, Bodil; Guldberg, Per; Ralfkiær, Elisabeth Methner

    2007-01-01

    Almost all cells in the human body contain a complete copy of the genome with an estimated number of 25,000 genes. The sequences of these genes make up about three percent of the genome and comprise the inherited set of genetic information. The genome also contains information that determines whe...

  16. Mouse Chromosome Engineering for Modeling Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    van der Weyden, Louise; Bradley, Allan

    2006-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements occur frequently in humans and can be disease-associated or phenotypically neutral. Recent technological advances have led to the discovery of copy-number changes previously undetected by cytogenetic techniques. To understand the genetic consequences of such genomic changes, these mutations need to be modeled in experimentally tractable systems. The mouse is an excellent organism for this analysis because of its biological and genetic similarity to humans, and the e...

  17. Description of Hymenolepis microstoma (Nottingham strain: a classical tapeworm model for research in the genomic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Peter D

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hymenolepis microstoma (Dujardin, 1845 Blanchard, 1891, the mouse bile duct tapeworm, is a rodent/beetle-hosted laboratory model that has been used in research and teaching since its domestication in the 1950s. Recent characterization of its genome has prompted us to describe the specific strain that underpins these data, anchoring its identity and bringing the 150+ year-old original description up-to-date. Results Morphometric and ultrastructural analyses were carried out on laboratory-reared specimens of the 'Nottingham' strain of Hymenolepis microstoma used for genome characterization. A contemporary description of the species is provided including detailed illustration of adult anatomy and elucidation of its taxonomy and the history of the specific laboratory isolate. Conclusions Our work acts to anchor the specific strain from which the H. microstoma genome has been characterized and provides an anatomical reference for researchers needing to employ a model tapeworm system that enables easy access to all stages of the life cycle. We review its classification, life history and development, and briefly discuss the genome and other model systems being employed at the beginning of a genomic era in cestodology.

  18. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  19. Number and location of mouse mammary tumor virus proviral DNA in mouse DNA of normal tissue and of mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    1980-01-01

    The Southern DNA filter transfer technique was used to characterize the genomic location of the mouse mammary tumor proviral DNA in different inbred strains of mice. Two of the strains (C3H and CBA) arose from a cross of a Bagg albino (BALB/c) mouse and a DBA mouse. The mouse mammary tumor virus-containing restriction enzyme DNA fragments of these strains had similar patterns, suggesting that the proviruses of these mice are in similar genomic locations. Conversely, the pattern arising from the DNA of the GR mouse, a strain genetically unrelated to the others, appeared different, suggesting that its mouse mammary tumor proviruses are located in different genomic sites. The structure of another gene, that coding for beta-globin, was also compared. The mice strains which we studied can be categorized into two classes, expressing either one or two beta-globin proteins. The macroenvironment of the beta-globin gene appeared similar among the mice strains belonging to one genetic class. Female mice of the C3H strain exogenously transmit mouse mammary tumor virus via the milk, and their offspring have a high incidence of mammary tumor occurrence. DNA isolated from individual mammary tumors taken from C3H mice or from BALB/c mice foster nursed on C3H mothers was analyzed by the DNA filter transfer technique. Additional mouse mammary tumor virus-containing fragments were found in the DNA isolated from each mammary tumor. These proviral sequences were integrated into different genomic sites in each tumor. Images PMID:6245257

  20. Astonishing advances in mouse genetic tools for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, Lech; Jackson, Walker S

    2015-01-01

    The humble house mouse has long been a workhorse model system in biomedical research. The technology for introducing site-specific genome modifications led to Nobel Prizes for its pioneers and opened a new era of mouse genetics. However, this technology was very time-consuming and technically demanding. As a result, many investigators continued to employ easier genome manipulation methods, though resulting models can suffer from overlooked or underestimated consequences. Another breakthrough, invaluable for the molecular dissection of disease mechanisms, was the invention of high-throughput methods to measure the expression of a plethora of genes in parallel. However, the use of samples containing material from multiple cell types could obfuscate data, and thus interpretations. In this review we highlight some important issues in experimental approaches using mouse models for biomedical research. We then discuss recent technological advances in mouse genetics that are revolutionising human disease research. Mouse genomes are now easily manipulated at precise locations thanks to guided endonucleases, such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or the CRISPR/Cas9 system, both also having the potential to turn the dream of human gene therapy into reality. Newly developed methods of cell type-specific isolation of transcriptomes from crude tissue homogenates, followed by detection with next generation sequencing (NGS), are vastly improving gene regulation studies. Taken together, these amazing tools simplify the creation of much more accurate mouse models of human disease, and enable the extraction of hitherto unobtainable data.

  1. In Vivo SILAC-Based Proteomics Reveals Phosphoproteome Changes during Mouse Skin Carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanivan, S.; Meves, A.; Behrendt, K.; Schoof, E.M.; Neilson, L.J.; Cox, J.; Tang, H.R.; Kalna, G.; Ree, J.H. van; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Trempus, C.S.; Machesky, L.M.; Linding, R.; Wickstrom, S.A.; Fassler, R.; Mann, M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer progresses through distinct stages, and mouse models recapitulating traits of this progression are frequently used to explore genetic, morphological, and pharmacological aspects of tumor development. To complement genomic investigations of this process, we here quantify phosphoproteomic

  2. Determination of the full-genome sequence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) SAAS-FX17 and use as a reference to identify putative HEV genotype 4 virulence determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yumin; Yu, Xiaoming; Huang, Fenfen; Yu, Ruisong; Dong, Shijuan; Si, Fusheng; Zhang, Yuanshu; Li, Zhen

    2012-11-08

    Four major genotypes of hepatitis E virus (HEV), the causative agent of hepatitis E, have so far been recognized. While genotypes 3 and 4 are both zoonotic, the disease symptoms caused by the latter tend to be more severe. To examine if specific nucleotide/amino acid variations between genotypes 3 and 4 play a role in determining the severity of hepatitis E disease, the complete genome of one swine HEV genotype 4 isolate, SAAS-FX17, was determined and compared with other genotype 4 and genotype 3 genomes to identify putative HEV genotype 4 virulence determinants. A total of 42 conformable nt/aa variations between genotype 3 and 4 HEVs were detected, of which 19 were proposed to be potential disease severity determinants for genotype 4 strains. One potential determinant was located in each of the 5'-UTR and 3'-UTR, 3 and 12 within ORF1 and ORF2 respectively, and 2 in the junction region.

  3. GAAP: Genome-organization-framework-Assisted Assembly Pipeline for prokaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lina; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Yanmin; Li, Yulai; Li, Changqing; Li, Rujiao; Ma, Qin; Siu, Gilman Kit-Hang; Yu, Jun; Jiang, Taijiao; Xiao, Jingfa; Kang, Yu

    2017-01-25

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have greatly promoted the genomic study of prokaryotes. However, highly fragmented assemblies due to short reads from NGS are still a limiting factor in gaining insights into the genome biology. Reference-assisted tools are promising in genome assembly, but tend to result in false assembly when the assigned reference has extensive rearrangements. Herein, we present GAAP, a genome assembly pipeline for scaffolding based on core-gene-defined Genome Organizational Framework (cGOF) described in our previous study. Instead of assigning references, we use the multiple-reference-derived cGOFs as indexes to assist in order and orientation of the scaffolds and build a skeleton structure, and then use read pairs to extend scaffolds, called local scaffolding, and distinguish between true and chimeric adjacencies in the scaffolds. In our performance tests using both empirical and simulated data of 15 genomes in six species with diverse genome size, complexity, and all three categories of cGOFs, GAAP outcompetes or achieves comparable results when compared to three other reference-assisted programs, AlignGraph, Ragout and MeDuSa. GAAP uses both cGOF and pair-end reads to create assemblies in genomic scale, and performs better than the currently available reference-assisted assembly tools as it recovers more assemblies and makes fewer false locations, especially for species with extensive rearranged genomes. Our method is a promising solution for reconstruction of genome sequence from short reads of NGS.

  4. Comparative genome analysis of trypanotolerance QTL | Nganga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homologous sequences were used in the definition of synteny relationships and subsequent identification of the shared disease response genes. The homologous genes within the human genome were then identified and aligned to the bovine radiation hybrid map in order to identify the mouse/bovine homologous regions.

  5. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  6. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  7. Robust and sensitive analysis of mouse knockout phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha A Karp

    Full Text Available A significant challenge of in-vivo studies is the identification of phenotypes with a method that is robust and reliable. The challenge arises from practical issues that lead to experimental designs which are not ideal. Breeding issues, particularly in the presence of fertility or fecundity problems, frequently lead to data being collected in multiple batches. This problem is acute in high throughput phenotyping programs. In addition, in a high throughput environment operational issues lead to controls not being measured on the same day as knockouts. We highlight how application of traditional methods, such as a Student's t-Test or a 2-way ANOVA, in these situations give flawed results and should not be used. We explore the use of mixed models using worked examples from Sanger Mouse Genome Project focusing on Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry data for the analysis of mouse knockout data and compare to a reference range approach. We show that mixed model analysis is more sensitive and less prone to artefacts allowing the discovery of subtle quantitative phenotypes essential for correlating a gene's function to human disease. We demonstrate how a mixed model approach has the additional advantage of being able to include covariates, such as body weight, to separate effect of genotype from these covariates. This is a particular issue in knockout studies, where body weight is a common phenotype and will enhance the precision of assigning phenotypes and the subsequent selection of lines for secondary phenotyping. The use of mixed models with in-vivo studies has value not only in improving the quality and sensitivity of the data analysis but also ethically as a method suitable for small batches which reduces the breeding burden of a colony. This will reduce the use of animals, increase throughput, and decrease cost whilst improving the quality and depth of knowledge gained.

  8. Genome Imprinting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the cell nucleus (mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes), and. (3) traits governed ... tively good embryonic development but very poor development of membranes and ... Human homologies for the type of situation described above are naturally ..... imprint; (b) New modifications of the paternal genome in germ cells of each ...

  9. Baculovirus Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus genomes are covalently closed circles of double stranded-DNA varying in size between 80 and 180 kilobase-pair. The genomes of more than fourty-one baculoviruses have been sequenced to date. The majority of these (37) are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts; three infect sawflies

  10. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  11. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  12. Human vs. Mouse Eosinophils: “That which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J.; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A.; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P.; Condjella, Rachel M.; Doyle, Alfred D.; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R.; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Willetts, Lian; LeSuer, William E.; Colbert, Dana C.; Helmers, Richard A.; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    The respective life histories of humans and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiological pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils and/or their effector functions. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide the experimental details, comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in humans vs. mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy to use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that while differences exist, more often than not their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function, but instead, species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. PMID:22935586

  13. Human versus mouse eosinophils: "that which we call an eosinophil, by any other name would stain as red".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James J; Jacobsen, Elizabeth A; Ochkur, Sergei I; McGarry, Michael P; Condjella, Rachel M; Doyle, Alfred D; Luo, Huijun; Zellner, Katie R; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Willetts, Lian; Lesuer, William E; Colbert, Dana C; Helmers, Richard A; Lacy, Paige; Moqbel, Redwan; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-09-01

    The respective life histories of human subjects and mice are well defined and describe a unique story of evolutionary conservation extending from sequence identity within the genome to the underpinnings of biochemical, cellular, and physiologic pathways. As a consequence, the hematopoietic lineages of both species are invariantly maintained, each with identifiable eosinophils. This canonical presence nonetheless does not preclude disparities between human and mouse eosinophils, their effector functions, or both. Indeed, many books and reviews dogmatically highlight differences, providing a rationale to discount the use of mouse models of human eosinophilic diseases. We suggest that this perspective is parochial and ignores the wealth of available studies and the consensus of the literature that overwhelming similarities (and not differences) exist between human and mouse eosinophils. The goal of this review is to summarize this literature and in some cases provide experimental details comparing and contrasting eosinophils and eosinophil effector functions in human subjects versus mice. In particular, our review will provide a summation and an easy-to-use reference guide to important studies demonstrating that although differences exist, more often than not, their consequences are unknown and do not necessarily reflect inherent disparities in eosinophil function but instead species-specific variations. The conclusion from this overview is that despite nominal differences, the vast similarities between human and mouse eosinophils provide important insights as to their roles in health and disease and, in turn, demonstrate the unique utility of mouse-based studies with an expectation of valid extrapolation to the understanding and treatment of patients. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of Aeromonas hydrophila wound pathotypes by comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Christopher J; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Fitts, Eric C; van Lier, Christina J; Kirtley, Michelle L; Joseph, Sandeep J; Read, Timothy D; Burd, Eileen M; Tall, Ben D; Joseph, Sam W; Horneman, Amy J; Chopra, Ashok K; Shak, Joshua R

    2013-04-23

    Aeromonas hydrophila has increasingly been implicated as a virulent and antibiotic-resistant etiologic agent in various human diseases. In a previously published case report, we described a subject with a polymicrobial wound infection that included a persistent and aggressive strain of A. hydrophila (E1), as well as a more antibiotic-resistant strain of A. hydrophila (E2). To better understand the differences between pathogenic and environmental strains of A. hydrophila, we conducted comparative genomic and functional analyses of virulence-associated genes of these two wound isolates (E1 and E2), the environmental type strain A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T), and four other isolates belonging to A. aquariorum, A. veronii, A. salmonicida, and A. caviae. Full-genome sequencing of strains E1 and E2 revealed extensive differences between the two and strain ATCC 7966(T). The more persistent wound infection strain, E1, harbored coding sequences for a cytotoxic enterotoxin (Act), a type 3 secretion system (T3SS), flagella, hemolysins, and a homolog of exotoxin A found in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Corresponding phenotypic analyses with A. hydrophila ATCC 7966(T) and SSU as reference strains demonstrated the functionality of these virulence genes, with strain E1 displaying enhanced swimming and swarming motility, lateral flagella on electron microscopy, the presence of T3SS effector AexU, and enhanced lethality in a mouse model of Aeromonas infection. By combining sequence-based analysis and functional assays, we characterized an A. hydrophila pathotype, exemplified by strain E1, that exhibited increased virulence in a mouse model of infection, likely because of encapsulation, enhanced motility, toxin secretion, and cellular toxicity. Aeromonas hydrophila is a common aquatic bacterium that has increasingly been implicated in serious human infections. While many determinants of virulence have been identified in Aeromonas, rapid identification of pathogenic versus nonpathogenic

  15. OryzaGenome: Genome Diversity Database of Wild Oryza Species

    KAUST Repository

    Ohyanagi, Hajime

    2015-11-18

    The species in the genus Oryza, encompassing nine genome types and 23 species, are a rich genetic resource and may have applications in deeper genomic analyses aiming to understand the evolution of plant genomes. With the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, a flood of Oryza species reference genomes and genomic variation information has become available in recent years. This genomic information, combined with the comprehensive phenotypic information that we are accumulating in our Oryzabase, can serve as an excellent genotype-phenotype association resource for analyzing rice functional and structural evolution, and the associated diversity of the Oryza genus. Here we integrate our previous and future phenotypic/habitat information and newly determined genotype information into a united repository, named OryzaGenome, providing the variant information with hyperlinks to Oryzabase. The current version of OryzaGenome includes genotype information of 446 O. rufipogon accessions derived by imputation and of 17 accessions derived by imputation-free deep sequencing. Two variant viewers are implemented: SNP Viewer as a conventional genome browser interface and Variant Table as a textbased browser for precise inspection of each variant one by one. Portable VCF (variant call format) file or tabdelimited file download is also available. Following these SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) data, reference pseudomolecules/ scaffolds/contigs and genome-wide variation information for almost all of the closely and distantly related wild Oryza species from the NIG Wild Rice Collection will be available in future releases. All of the resources can be accessed through http://viewer.shigen.info/oryzagenome/.

  16. Genomics technologies to study structural variations in the grapevine genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardone Maria Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is one of the most important crop plants in the world. Recently there was great expansion of genomics resources about grapevine genome, thus providing increasing efforts for molecular breeding. Current cultivars display a great level of inter-specific differentiation that needs to be investigated to reach a comprehensive understanding of the genetic basis of phenotypic differences, and to find responsible genes selected by cross breeding programs. While there have been significant advances in resolving the pattern and nature of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on plant genomes, few data are available on copy number variation (CNV. Furthermore association between structural variations and phenotypes has been described in only a few cases. We combined high throughput biotechnologies and bioinformatics tools, to reveal the first inter-varietal atlas of structural variation (SV for the grapevine genome. We sequenced and compared four table grape cultivars with the Pinot noir inbred line PN40024 genome as the reference. We detected roughly 8% of the grapevine genome affected by genomic variations. Taken into account phenotypic differences existing among the studied varieties we performed comparison of SVs among them and the reference and next we performed an in-depth analysis of gene content of polymorphic regions. This allowed us to identify genes showing differences in copy number as putative functional candidates for important traits in grapevine cultivation.

  17. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang; Huang, Shujia; Sun, Yuhui; Tong, Xin; Xie, Yinlong; Liu, Binghang; Yang, Hailong; Zheng, Hancheng; Li, Jian; Li, Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Fang; Sun, Peng; Liu, Siyang; Gao, Peng; Huang, Haodong; Sun, Jing; Chen, Dan; He, Guangzhu; Huang, Weihua; Huang, Zheng; Li, Yue; Tellier, Laurent C A M; Liu, Xiao; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xiuqing; Bolund, Lars; Krogh, Anders; Kristiansen, Karsten; Drmanac, Radoje; Drmanac, Snezana; Nielsen, Rasmus; Li, Songgang; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Yingrui; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun

    2015-06-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-genome shotgun strategies, based solely on next-generation sequencing and hierarchical assembly methods. We applied our sequencing method to the genome of an Asian individual and generated a 5.15-Gb assembled genome with a haplotype N50 of 484 kb. Our analysis identified previously undetected indels and 7.49 Mb of novel coding sequences that could not be aligned to the human reference genome, which include at least six predicted genes. This haplotype-resolved genome represents the most complete de novo human genome assembly to date. Application of our approach to identify individual haplotype differences should aid in translating genotypes to phenotypes for the development of personalized medicine.

  18. FANTOM5 CAGE profiles of human and mouse samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noguchi, Shuhei; Arakawa, Takahiro; Fukuda, Shiro; Furuno, Masaaki; Hasegawa, Akira; Hori, Fumi; Ishikawa-Kato, Sachi; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsumi; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kojima, Miki; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao-Sato, Sayaka; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya, Noriko; Nishiyori-Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Saijyo, Eri; Saka, Akiko; Sakai, Mizuho; Simon, Christophe; Suzuki, Naoko; Tagami, Michihira; Watanabe, Shoko; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Arner, Peter; Axton, Richard A.; Babina, Magda; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Barnett, Timothy C.; Beckhouse, Anthony G.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Carlisle, Ailsa J.; Clevers, Hans C.; Davis, Carrie A.; Detmar, Michael; Dohi, Taeko; Edge, Albert S. B.; Edinger, Matthias; Ehrlund, Anna; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Eslami, Afsaneh; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Ferrai, Carmelo; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Forrester, Lesley M.; Fujita, Rie; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B.; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowitz, Daniel; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas J.; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Hasegawa, Yuki; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hitchens, Kelly J.; Hume, David A.; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Kai, Chieko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki I.; Kempfle, Judith S.; Kenna, Tony J.; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon M.; Kitamura, Toshio; Klein, Sarah; Klinken, S. Peter; Knox, Alan J.; Kojima, Soichi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Lee, Weonju; Lennartsson, Andreas; Mackay-sim, Alan; Mejhert, Niklas; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Morris, Kelly J.; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine L.; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry A.; Passier, Robert; Patrikakis, Margaret; Pombo, Ana; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Qin, Xian-Yang; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roy, Sugata; Sajantila, Antti; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Savvi, Suzana; Saxena, Alka; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula G.; Schwegmann, Anita; Sheng, Guojun; Shin, Jay W.; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim M.; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tomoiu, Andru; Toyoda, Hiroo; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda M.; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Wells, Christine A.; Winteringham, Louise N.; Wolvetang, Ernst; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yanagi-Mizuochi, Chiyo; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Zhang, Peter G.; Zucchelli, Silvia; Abugessaisa, Imad; Arner, Erik; Harshbarger, Jayson; Kondo, Atsushi; Lassmann, Timo; Lizio, Marina; Sahin, Serkan; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Shimoji, Hisashi; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Harukazu; Kawai, Jun; Kondo, Naoto; Itoh, Masayoshi; Daub, Carsten O.; Kasukawa, Takeya; Kawaji, Hideya; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2017-01-01

    In the FANTOM5 project, transcription initiation events across the human and mouse genomes were mapped at a single base-pair resolution and their frequencies were monitored by CAGE (Cap Analysis of Gene Expression) coupled with single-molecule sequencing. Approximately three thousands of samples,

  19. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L.; Searle, Steven M. J.; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Davis, Brian W.; Driscoll, Carlos A.; Barr, Christina S.; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W. C.; Hahn, Matthew W.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Murphy, William J.; Warren, Wesley C.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae. PMID:25385592

  20. Comparative analysis of the domestic cat genome reveals genetic signatures underlying feline biology and domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Michael J; Li, Gang; Gandolfi, Barbara; Khan, Razib; Aken, Bronwen L; Searle, Steven M J; Minx, Patrick; Hillier, LaDeana W; Koboldt, Daniel C; Davis, Brian W; Driscoll, Carlos A; Barr, Christina S; Blackistone, Kevin; Quilez, Javier; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Alkan, Can; Thomas, Gregg W C; Hahn, Matthew W; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; O'Brien, Stephen J; Wilson, Richard K; Lyons, Leslie A; Murphy, William J; Warren, Wesley C

    2014-12-02

    Little is known about the genetic changes that distinguish domestic cat populations from their wild progenitors. Here we describe a high-quality domestic cat reference genome assembly and comparative inferences made with other cat breeds, wildcats, and other mammals. Based upon these comparisons, we identified positively selected genes enriched for genes involved in lipid metabolism that underpin adaptations to a hypercarnivorous diet. We also found positive selection signals within genes underlying sensory processes, especially those affecting vision and hearing in the carnivore lineage. We observed an evolutionary tradeoff between functional olfactory and vomeronasal receptor gene repertoires in the cat and dog genomes, with an expansion of the feline chemosensory system for detecting pheromones at the expense of odorant detection. Genomic regions harboring signatures of natural selection that distinguish domestic cats from their wild congeners are enriched in neural crest-related genes associated with behavior and reward in mouse models, as predicted by the domestication syndrome hypothesis. Our description of a previously unidentified allele for the gloving pigmentation pattern found in the Birman breed supports the hypothesis that cat breeds experienced strong selection on specific mutations drawn from random bred populations. Collectively, these findings provide insight into how the process of domestication altered the ancestral wildcat genome and build a resource for future disease mapping and phylogenomic studies across all members of the Felidae.

  1. Analysis of 16S libraries of mouse gastrointestinal microflora reveals a large new group of mouse intestinal bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzman, NH; de Jong, H; Paterson, Y; Harmsen, HJM; Welling, GW; Bos, NA

    2002-01-01

    Total genomic DNA from samples of intact mouse small intestine, large intestine, caecum and faeces was used as template for PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene sequences with conserved bacterial primers. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplification products revealed 40 unique 16S rDNA sequences. Of

  2. Characterization and mapping of the mouse NDP (Norrie disease) locus (Ndp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, E M; Boyd, Y; Craig, I W; Breakefield, X O; Chen, Z Y

    1996-02-01

    Norrie disease is a severe X-linked recessive neurological disorder characterized by congenital blindness with progressive loss of hearing. Over half of Norrie patients also manifest different degrees of mental retardation. The gene for Norrie disease (NDP) has recently been cloned and characterized. With the human NDP cDNA, mouse genomic phage libraries were screened for the homolog of the gene. Comparison between mouse and human genomic DNA blots hybridized with the NDP cDNA, as well as analysis of phage clones, shows that the mouse NDP gene is 29 kb in size (28 kb for the human gene). The organization in the two species is very similar. Both have three exons with similar-sized introns and identical exon-intron boundaries between exon 2 and 3. The mouse open reading frame is 393 bp and, like the human coding sequence, is encoded in exons 2 and 3. The absence of six nucleotides in the second mouse exon results in the encoded protein being two amino acids smaller than its human counterpart. The overall homology between the human and mouse NDP protein is 95% and is particularly high (99%) in exon 3, consistent with the apparent functional importance of this region. Analysis of transcription initiation sites suggests the presence of multiple start sites associated with expression of the mouse NDP gene. Pedigree analysis of an interspecific mouse backcross localizes the mouse NDP gene close to Maoa in the conserved segment, which runs from CYBB to PFC in both human and mouse.

  3. Aberrant splicing in transgenes containing introns, exons, and V5 epitopes: lessons from developing an FSHD mouse model expressing a D4Z4 repeat with flanking genomic sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénie Ansseau

    Full Text Available The DUX4 gene, encoded within D4Z4 repeats on human chromosome 4q35, has recently emerged as a key factor in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD. This recognition prompted development of animal models expressing the DUX4 open reading frame (ORF alone or embedded within D4Z4 repeats. In the first published model, we used adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV and strong viral control elements (CMV promoter, SV40 poly A to demonstrate that the DUX4 cDNA caused dose-dependent toxicity in mouse muscles. As a follow-up, we designed a second generation of DUX4-expressing AAV vectors to more faithfully genocopy the FSHD-permissive D4Z4 repeat region located at 4q35. This new vector (called AAV.D4Z4.V5.pLAM contained the D4Z4/DUX4 promoter region, a V5 epitope-tagged DUX4 ORF, and the natural 3' untranslated region (pLAM harboring two small introns, DUX4 exons 2 and 3, and the non-canonical poly A signal required for stabilizing DUX4 mRNA in FSHD. AAV.D4Z4.V5.pLAM failed to recapitulate the robust pathology of our first generation vectors following delivery to mouse muscle. We found that the DUX4.V5 junction sequence created an unexpected splice donor in the pre-mRNA that was preferentially utilized to remove the V5 coding sequence and DUX4 stop codon, yielding non-functional DUX4 protein with 55 additional residues on its carboxyl-terminus. Importantly, we further found that aberrant splicing could occur in any expression construct containing a functional splice acceptor and sequences resembling minimal splice donors. Our findings represent an interesting case study with respect to AAV.D4Z4.V5.pLAM, but more broadly serve as a note of caution for designing constructs containing V5 epitope tags and/or transgenes with downstream introns and exons.

  4. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  5. A universal genomic coordinate translator for comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Neda; Sundström, Görel; Meadows, Jennifer R S; Höppner, Marc P; Dainat, Jacques; Lantz, Henrik; Haas, Brian J; Grabherr, Manfred G

    2014-06-30

    Genomic duplications constitute major events in the evolution of species, allowing paralogous copies of genes to take on fine-tuned biological roles. Unambiguously identifying the orthology relationship between copies across multiple genomes can be resolved by synteny, i.e. the conserved order of genomic sequences. However, a comprehensive analysis of duplication events and their contributions to evolution would require all-to-all genome alignments, which increases at N2 with the number of available genomes, N. Here, we introduce Kraken, software that omits the all-to-all requirement by recursively traversing a graph of pairwise alignments and dynamically re-computing orthology. Kraken scales linearly with the number of targeted genomes, N, which allows for including large numbers of genomes in analyses. We first evaluated the method on the set of 12 Drosophila genomes, finding that orthologous correspondence computed indirectly through a graph of multiple synteny maps comes at minimal cost in terms of sensitivity, but reduces overall computational runtime by an order of magnitude. We then used the method on three well-annotated mammalian genomes, human, mouse, and rat, and show that up to 93% of protein coding transcripts have unambiguous pairwise orthologous relationships across the genomes. On a nucleotide level, 70 to 83% of exons match exactly at both splice junctions, and up to 97% on at least one junction. We last applied Kraken to an RNA-sequencing dataset from multiple vertebrates and diverse tissues, where we confirmed that brain-specific gene family members, i.e. one-to-many or many-to-many homologs, are more highly correlated across species than single-copy (i.e. one-to-one homologous) genes. Not limited to protein coding genes, Kraken also identifies thousands of newly identified transcribed loci, likely non-coding RNAs that are consistently transcribed in human, chimpanzee and gorilla, and maintain significant correlation of expression levels across

  6. The Douglas-fir genome sequence reveals specialization of the photosynthetic apparatus in Pinaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. Neale; Patrick E. McGuire; Nicholas C. Wheeler; Kristian A. Stevens; Marc W. Crepeau; Charis Cardeno; Aleksey V. Zimin; Daniela Puiu; Geo M. Pertea; U. Uzay Sezen; Claudio Casola; Tomasz E. Koralewski; Robin Paul; Daniel Gonzalez-Ibeas; Sumaira Zaman; Richard Cronn; Mark Yandell; Carson Holt; Charles H. Langley; James A. Yorke; Steven L. Salzberg; Jill L. Wegrzyn

    2017-01-01

    A reference genome sequence for Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco (Coastal Douglas-fir) is reported, thus providing a reference sequence for a third genus of the family Pinaceae. The contiguity and quality of the genome assembly far exceeds that of other conifer reference genome sequences (contig N50 = 44,136 bp and scaffold N50...

  7. The Functional Genomics Initiative at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Dabney; Justice, Monica; Beattle, Ken; Buchanan, Michelle; Ramsey, Michael; Ramsey, Rose; Paulus, Michael; Ericson, Nance; Allison, David; Kress, Reid; Mural, Richard; Uberbacher, Ed; Mann, Reinhold

    1997-12-31

    The Functional Genomics Initiative at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory integrates outstanding capabilities in mouse genetics, bioinformatics, and instrumentation. The 50 year investment by the DOE in mouse genetics/mutagenesis has created a one-of-a-kind resource for generating mutations and understanding their biological consequences. It is generally accepted that, through the mouse as a surrogate for human biology, we will come to understand the function of human genes. In addition to this world class program in mammalian genetics, ORNL has also been a world leader in developing bioinformatics tools for the analysis, management and visualization of genomic data. Combining this expertise with new instrumentation technologies will provide a unique capability to understand the consequences of mutations in the mouse at both the organism and molecular levels. The goal of the Functional Genomics Initiative is to develop the technology and methodology necessary to understand gene function on a genomic scale and apply these technologies to megabase regions of the human genome. The effort is scoped so as to create an effective and powerful resource for functional genomics. ORNL is partnering with the Joint Genome Institute and other large scale sequencing centers to sequence several multimegabase regions of both human and mouse genomic DNA, to identify all the genes in these regions, and to conduct fundamental surveys to examine gene function at the molecular and organism level. The Initiative is designed to be a pilot for larger scale deployment in the post-genome era. Technologies will be applied to the examination of gene expression and regulation, metabolism, gene networks, physiology and development.

  8. Human Contamination in Public Genome Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryukov, Kirill; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Contamination in genome assembly can lead to wrong or confusing results when using such genome as reference in sequence comparison. Although bacterial contamination is well known, the problem of human-originated contamination received little attention. In this study we surveyed 45,735 available genome assemblies for evidence of human contamination. We used lineage specificity to distinguish between contamination and conservation. We found that 154 genome assemblies contain fragments that with high confidence originate as contamination from human DNA. Majority of contaminating human sequences were present in the reference human genome assembly for over a decade. We recommend that existing contaminated genomes should be revised to remove contaminated sequence, and that new assemblies should be thoroughly checked for presence of human DNA before submitting them to public databases.

  9. Immunologic applications of conditional gene modification technology in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang

    2014-04-02

    Since the success of homologous recombination in altering mouse genome and the discovery of Cre-loxP system, the combination of these two breakthroughs has created important applications for studying the immune system in the mouse. Here, we briefly summarize the general principles of this technology and its applications in studying immune cell development and responses; such implications include conditional gene knockout and inducible and/or tissue-specific gene over-expression, as well as lineage fate mapping. We then discuss the pros and cons of a few commonly used Cre-expressing mouse lines for studying lymphocyte development and functions. We also raise several general issues, such as efficiency of gene deletion, leaky activity of Cre, and Cre toxicity, all of which may have profound impacts on data interpretation. Finally, we selectively list some useful links to the Web sites as valuable mouse resources. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Herbarium genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Freek T.; Lei, Di; Yu, Jiaying

    2016-01-01

    Herbarium genomics is proving promising as next-generation sequencing approaches are well suited to deal with the usually fragmented nature of archival DNA. We show that routine assembly of partial plastome sequences from herbarium specimens is feasible, from total DNA extracts and with specimens...... up to 146 years old. We use genome skimming and an automated assembly pipeline, Iterative Organelle Genome Assembly, that assembles paired-end reads into a series of candidate assemblies, the best one of which is selected based on likelihood estimation. We used 93 specimens from 12 different...... correlation between plastome coverage and nuclear genome size (C value) in our samples, but the range of C values included is limited. Finally, we conclude that routine plastome sequencing from herbarium specimens is feasible and cost-effective (compared with Sanger sequencing or plastome...

  11. Assessing molecular initiating events (MIEs), key events (KEs) and modulating factors (MFs) for styrene responses in mouse lungs using whole genome gene expression profiling following 1-day and multi-week exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melvin E; Cruzan, George; Black, Michael B; Pendse, Salil N; Dodd, Darol; Bus, James S; Sarang, Satinder S; Banton, Marcy I; Waites, Robbie; McMullen, Patrick D

    2017-11-15

    Styrene increased lung tumors in mice at chronic inhalation exposures of 20ppm and greater. MIEs, KEs and MFs were examined using gene expression in three strains of male mice (the parental C57BL/6 strain, a CYP2F2(-/-) knock out and a CYP2F2(-/-) transgenic containing human CYP2F1, 2A13 and 2B6). Exposures were for 1-day and 1, 4 and 26weeks. After 1-day exposures at 1, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 120ppm significant increases in differentially expressed genes (DEGs) occurred only in parental strain lungs where there was already an increase in DEGs at 5ppm and then many thousands of DEGs by 120ppm. Enrichment for 1-day and 1-week exposures included cell cycle, mitotic M-M/G1 phases, DNA-synthesis and metabolism of lipids and lipoproteins pathways. The numbers of DEGs decreased steadily over time with no DEGs meeting both statistical significance and fold-change criteria at 26weeks. At 4 and 26weeks, some key transcription factors (TFs) - Nr1d1, Nr1d2, Dbp, Tef, Hlf, Per3, Per2 and Bhlhe40 - were upregulated (|FC|>1.5), while others - Npas, Arntl, Nfil3, Nr4a1, Nr4a2, and Nr4a3 - were down-regulated. At all times, consistent changes in gene expression only occurred in the parental strain. Our results support a MIE for styrene of direct mitogenicity from mouse-specific CYP2F2-mediated metabolites activating Nr4a signaling. Longer-term MFs include down-regulation of Nr4a genes and shifts in both circadian clock TFs and other TFs, linking circadian clock to cellular metabolism. We found no gene expression changes indicative of cytotoxicity or activation of p53-mediated DNA-damage pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Chromosomal localization of the human and mouse hyaluronan synthase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spicer, A.P.; McDonald, J.A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Seldin, M.F. [Univ. of California Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    We have recently identified a new vertebrate gene family encoding putative hyaluronan (HA) synthases. Three highly conserved related genes have been identified, designated HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3 in humans and Has1, Has2, and Has3 in the mouse. All three genes encode predicted plasma membrane proteins with multiple transmembrane domains and approximately 25% amino acid sequence identity to the Streptococcus pyogenes HA synthase, HasA. Furthermore, expression of any one HAS gene in transfected mammalian cells leads to high levels of HA biosynthesis. We now report the chromosomal localization of the three HAS genes in human and in mouse. The genes localized to three different positions within both the human and the mouse genomes. HAS1 was localized to the human chromosome 19q13.3-q13.4 boundary and Has1 to mouse Chr 17. HAS2 was localized to human chromosome 8q24.12 and Has2 to mouse Chr 15. HAS3 was localized to human chromosome 16q22.1 and Has3 to mouse Chr 8. The map position for HAS1 reinforces the recently reported relationship between a small region of human chromosome 19q and proximal mouse chromosome 17. HAS2 mapped outside the predicted critical region delineated for the Langer-Giedion syndrome and can thus be excluded as a candidate gene for this genetic syndrome. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Effect of Duplicate Genes on Mouse Genetic Robustness: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixi Su

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to S. cerevisiae and C. elegans, analyses based on the current knockout (KO mouse phenotypes led to the conclusion that duplicate genes had almost no role in mouse genetic robustness. It has been suggested that the bias of mouse KO database toward ancient duplicates may possibly cause this knockout duplicate puzzle, that is, a very similar proportion of essential genes (PE between duplicate genes and singletons. In this paper, we conducted an extensive and careful analysis for the mouse KO phenotype data and corroborated a strong effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetics robustness. Moreover, the effect of duplicate genes on mouse genetic robustness is duplication-age dependent, which holds after ruling out the potential confounding effect from coding-sequence conservation, protein-protein connectivity, functional bias, or the bias of duplicates generated by whole genome duplication (WGD. Our findings suggest that two factors, the sampling bias toward ancient duplicates and very ancient duplicates with a proportion of essential genes higher than that of singletons, have caused the mouse knockout duplicate puzzle; meanwhile, the effect of genetic buffering may be correlated with sequence conservation as well as protein-protein interactivity.

  14. Genome instability in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sybesma, W.; Molenaar, D.; IJcken, W. van; Venema, K.; Korta, R.

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a comparative genome analysis of three dairy product isolates of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and the ATCC 53103 reference strain to the published genome sequence of L. rhamnosus GG. The analysis showed that in two of three isolates, major DNA segments were missing from the

  15. Lethality of radioisotopes in early mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macqueen, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of pre-implantation mouse embryos was found to be prevented by exposure of the embryos to [ 35 S]methionine, but not to [ 3 H]methionine. Such embryos have also been shown to be highly sensitive to [ 3 H]thymidine. These observations are discussed with reference to the path lengths and energies of electrons emitted from the different radioisotopes. (author)

  16. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wandelt

    Full Text Available The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1 the size of the factorization, 2 the time for factorization, and 3 the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%, factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s, and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB. Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization.

  17. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  18. The life cycle of a genome project: perspectives and guidelines inspired by insect genome projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanicolaou, Alexie

    2016-01-01

    Many research programs on non-model species biology have been empowered by genomics. In turn, genomics is underpinned by a reference sequence and ancillary information created by so-called "genome projects". The most reliable genome projects are the ones created as part of an active research program and designed to address specific questions but their life extends past publication. In this opinion paper I outline four key insights that have facilitated maintaining genomic communities: the key role of computational capability, the iterative process of building genomic resources, the value of community participation and the importance of manual curation. Taken together, these ideas can and do ensure the longevity of genome projects and the growing non-model species community can use them to focus a discussion with regards to its future genomic infrastructure.

  19. Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Human Genome Research: Decoding DNA Resources with of the DNA double helix during April 2003. James D. Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were company Celera announced the completion of a "working draft" reference DNA sequence of the human

  20. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarvis, D.E.; Shwen Ho, Yung; Lightfoot, Damien J.; Schmöckel, Sandra M.; Li, Bo; Borm, T.J.A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Mitchell, Craig T.; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A.; Woo, Yong H.; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A.; Negräo, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T.; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, van der C.G.; Loo, van E.N.; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.; Tester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for

  1. Cephalopod genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertin, Caroline B.; Bonnaud, Laure; Brown, C. Titus

    2012-01-01

    The Cephalopod Sequencing Consortium (CephSeq Consortium) was established at a NESCent Catalysis Group Meeting, ``Paths to Cephalopod Genomics-Strategies, Choices, Organization,'' held in Durham, North Carolina, USA on May 24-27, 2012. Twenty-eight participants representing nine countries (Austria......, Australia, China, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, Spain and the USA) met to address the pressing need for genome sequencing of cephalopod mollusks. This group, drawn from cephalopod biologists, neuroscientists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, materials scientists, bioinformaticians and researchers...... active in sequencing, assembling and annotating genomes, agreed on a set of cephalopod species of particular importance for initial sequencing and developed strategies and an organization (CephSeq Consortium) to promote this sequencing. The conclusions and recommendations of this meeting are described...

  2. Analysis of mammalian gene function through broad-based phenotypic screens across a consortium of mouse clinics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Nicholson, George; Selloum, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies...

  3. The genome of Eucalyptus grandis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myburg, Alexander A.; Grattapaglia, Dario; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hellsten, Uffe; Hayes, Richard D.; Grimwood, Jane; Jenkins, Jerry; Lindquist, Erika; Tice, Hope; Bauer, Diane; Goodstein, David M.; Dubchak, Inna; Poliakov, Alexandre; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Kullan, Anand R. K.; Hussey, Steven G.; Pinard, Desre; van der Merwe, Karen; Singh, Pooja; van Jaarsveld, Ida; Silva-Junior, Orzenil B.; Togawa, Roberto C.; Pappas, Marilia R.; Faria, Danielle A.; Sansaloni, Carolina P.; Petroli, Cesar D.; Yang, Xiaohan; Ranjan, Priya; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Ye, Chu-Yu; Li, Ting; Sterck, Lieven; Vanneste, Kevin; Murat, Florent; Soler, Marçal; Clemente, Hélène San; Saidi, Naijib; Cassan-Wang, Hua; Dunand, Christophe; Hefer, Charles A.; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich; Kersting, Anna R.; Vining, Kelly; Amarasinghe, Vindhya; Ranik, Martin; Naithani, Sushma; Elser, Justin; Boyd, Alexander E.; Liston, Aaron; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Dharmwardhana, Palitha; Raja, Rajani; Sullivan, Christopher; Romanel, Elisson; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Külheim, Carsten; Foley, William; Carocha, Victor; Paiva, Jorge; Kudrna, David; Brommonschenkel, Sergio H.; Pasquali, Giancarlo; Byrne, Margaret; Rigault, Philippe; Tibbits, Josquin; Spokevicius, Antanas; Jones, Rebecca C.; Steane, Dorothy A.; Vaillancourt, René E.; Potts, Brad M.; Joubert, Fourie; Barry, Kerrie; Pappas, Georgios J.; Strauss, Steven H.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Salse, Jérôme; Van de Peer, Yves; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Schmutz, Jeremy

    2014-06-11

    Eucalypts are the world s most widely planted hardwood trees. Their broad adaptability, rich species diversity, fast growth and superior multipurpose wood, have made them a global renewable resource of fiber and energy that mitigates human pressures on natural forests. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640 Mbp genome of Eucalyptus grandis into its 11 chromosomes. A set of 36,376 protein coding genes were predicted revealing that 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion found thus far in any plant genome. Eucalypts also show the highest diversity of genes for plant specialized metabolism that act as chemical defence against biotic agents and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Resequencing of a set of inbred tree genomes revealed regions of strongly conserved heterozygosity, likely hotspots of inbreeding depression. The resequenced genome of the sister species E. globulus underscored the high inter-specific genome colinearity despite substantial genome size variation in the genus. The genome of E. grandis is the first reference for the early diverging Rosid order Myrtales and is placed here basal to the Eurosids. This resource expands knowledge on the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.

  4. Dense and accurate whole-chromosome haplotyping of individual genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porubsky, David; Garg, Shilpa; Sanders, Ashley D.; Korbel, Jan O.; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Marschall, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The diploid nature of the human genome is neglected in many analyses done today, where a genome is perceived as a set of unphased variants with respect to a reference genome. This lack of haplotype-level analyses can be explained by a lack of methods that can produce dense and accurate

  5. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  6. Accurate quantification of mouse mitochondrial DNA without co-amplification of nuclear mitochondrial insertion sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Afshan N; Czajka, Anna; Cunningham, Phil

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria contain an extra-nuclear genome in the form of mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA), damage to which can lead to inflammation and bioenergetic deficit. Changes in MtDNA levels are increasingly used as a biomarker of mitochondrial dysfunction. We previously reported that in humans, fragments in the nuclear genome known as nuclear mitochondrial insertion sequences (NumtS) affect accurate quantification of MtDNA. In the current paper our aim was to determine whether mouse NumtS affect the quantification of MtDNA and to establish a method designed to avoid this. The existence of NumtS in the mouse genome was confirmed using blast N, unique MtDNA regions were identified using FASTA, and MtDNA primers which do not co-amplify NumtS were designed and tested. MtDNA copy numbers were determined in a range of mouse tissues as the ratio of the mitochondrial and nuclear genome using real time qPCR and absolute quantification. Approximately 95% of mouse MtDNA was duplicated in the nuclear genome as NumtS which were located in 15 out of 21 chromosomes. A unique region was identified and primers flanking this region were used. MtDNA levels differed significantly in mouse tissues being the highest in the heart, with levels in descending order (highest to lowest) in kidney, liver, blood, brain, islets and lung. The presence of NumtS in the nuclear genome of mouse could lead to erroneous data when studying MtDNA content or mutation. The unique primers described here will allow accurate quantification of MtDNA content in mouse models without co-amplification of NumtS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Mitochondria Research Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  8. Standard Reference Tables -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Standard Reference Tables (SRT) provide consistent reference data for the various applications that support Flight Standards Service (AFS) business processes and...

  9. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. PGSB/MIPS Plant Genome Information Resources and Concepts for the Analysis of Complex Grass Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spannagl, Manuel; Bader, Kai; Pfeifer, Matthias; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2016-01-01

    PGSB (Plant Genome and Systems Biology; formerly MIPS-Munich Institute for Protein Sequences) has been involved in developing, implementing and maintaining plant genome databases for more than a decade. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable datasets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, e.g., from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and analyzed. In addition, genomes from both model and crop plants form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny) between related species on macro- and micro-levels.The genomes of many economically important Triticeae plants such as wheat, barley, and rye present a great challenge for sequence assembly and bioinformatic analysis due to their enormous complexity and large genome size. Novel concepts and strategies have been developed to deal with these difficulties and have been applied to the genomes of wheat, barley, rye, and other cereals. This includes the GenomeZipper concept, reference-guided exome assembly, and "chromosome genomics" based on flow cytometry sorted chromosomes.

  11. Deep whole-genome sequencing of 90 Han Chinese genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tianming; Lin, Haoxiang; Zhu, Wenjuan; Laurent, Tellier Christian Asker Melchior; Yang, Mengcheng; Liu, Xin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Xu, Xun; Guo, Xiaosen

    2017-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing provides a high-resolution insight into human genetic information. However, the focus of previous studies has primarily been on low-coverage data due to the high cost of sequencing. Although the 1000 Genomes Project and the Haplotype Reference Consortium have both provided powerful reference panels for imputation, low-frequency and novel variants remain difficult to discover and call with accuracy on the basis of low-coverage data. Deep sequencing provides an optimal solution for the problem of these low-frequency and novel variants. Although whole-exome sequencing is also a viable choice for exome regions, it cannot account for noncoding regions, sometimes resulting in the absence of important, causal variants. For Han Chinese populations, the majority of variants have been discovered based upon low-coverage data from the 1000 Genomes Project. However, high-coverage, whole-genome sequencing data are limited for any population, and a large amount of low-frequency, population-specific variants remain uncharacterized. We have performed whole-genome sequencing at a high depth (∼×80) of 90 unrelated individuals of Chinese ancestry, collected from the 1000 Genomes Project samples, including 45 Northern Han Chinese and 45 Southern Han Chinese samples. Eighty-three of these 90 have been sequenced by the 1000 Genomes Project. We have identified 12 568 804 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 2 074 210 short InDels, and 26 142 structural variations from these 90 samples. Compared to the Han Chinese data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we have found 7 000 629 novel variants with low frequency (defined as minor allele frequency genome. Compared to the 1000 Genomes Project, these Han Chinese deep sequencing data enhance the characterization of a large number of low-frequency, novel variants. This will be a valuable resource for promoting Chinese genetics research and medical development. Additionally, it will provide a valuable supplement to the 1000

  12. Comparative Genomics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 8. Comparative Genomics - A Powerful New Tool in Biology. Anand K Bachhawat. General Article Volume 11 Issue 8 August 2006 pp 22-40. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Genome Improvement at JGI-HAGSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2012-03-03

    Since the completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has rapidly expanded its scientific goals in several DOE mission-relevant areas. At the JGI-HAGSC, we have kept pace with this rapid expansion of projects with our focus on assessing, assembling, improving and finishing eukaryotic whole genome shotgun (WGS) projects for which the shotgun sequence is generated at the Production Genomic Facility (JGI-PGF). We follow this by combining the draft WGS with genomic resources generated at JGI-HAGSC or in collaborator laboratories (including BAC end sequences, genetic maps and FLcDNA sequences) to produce an improved draft sequence. For eukaryotic genomes important to the DOE mission, we then add further information from directed experiments to produce reference genomic sequences that are publicly available for any scientific researcher. Also, we have continued our program for producing BAC-based finished sequence, both for adding information to JGI genome projects and for small BAC-based sequencing projects proposed through any of the JGI sequencing programs. We have now built our computational expertise in WGS assembly and analysis and have moved eukaryotic genome assembly from the JGI-PGF to JGI-HAGSC. We have concentrated our assembly development work on large plant genomes and complex fungal and algal genomes.

  14. Simultaneous gene finding in multiple genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Stefanie; Romoth, Lars W; Gerischer, Lizzy; Stanke, Mario

    2016-11-15

    As the tree of life is populated with sequenced genomes ever more densely, the new challenge is the accurate and consistent annotation of entire clades of genomes. We address this problem with a new approach to comparative gene finding that takes a multiple genome alignment of closely related species and simultaneously predicts the location and structure of protein-coding genes in all input genomes, thereby exploiting negative selection and sequence conservation. The model prefers potential gene structures in the different genomes that are in agreement with each other, or-if not-where the exon gains and losses are plausible given the species tree. We formulate the multi-species gene finding problem as a binary labeling problem on a graph. The resulting optimization problem is NP hard, but can be efficiently approximated using a subgradient-based dual decomposition approach. The proposed method was tested on whole-genome alignments of 12 vertebrate and 12 Drosophila species. The accuracy was evaluated for human, mouse and Drosophila melanogaster and compared to competing methods. Results suggest that our method is well-suited for annotation of (a large number of) genomes of closely related species within a clade, in particular, when RNA-Seq data are available for many of the genomes. The transfer of existing annotations from one genome to another via the genome alignment is more accurate than previous approaches that are based on protein-spliced alignments, when the genomes are at close to medium distances. The method is implemented in C ++ as part of Augustus and available open source at http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/augustus/ CONTACT: stefaniekoenig@ymail.com or mario.stanke@uni-greifswald.deSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. DATABASE URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit.

  16. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  17. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  18. The eastern oyster genome: A resource for comparative genomics in shellfish aquaculture species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyster aquaculture is an important sector of world food production. As such, it is imperative to develop a high quality reference genome for the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, to assist in the elucidation of the genomic basis of commercially important traits. All genetic, gene expression and...

  19. The W22 genome: a foundation for maize functional genomics and transposon biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maize W22 inbred has served as a platform for maize genetics since the mid twentieth century. To streamline maize genome analyses, we have sequenced and de novo assembled a W22 reference genome using small-read sequencing technologies. We show that significant structural heterogeneity exists in ...

  20. The Saccharomyces Genome Database Variant Viewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Travis K; Hitz, Benjamin C; Engel, Stacia R; Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C; Dalusag, Kyla S; Demeter, Janos; Hellerstedt, Sage T; Karra, Kalpana; Nash, Robert S; Paskov, Kelley M; Skrzypek, Marek S; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith D; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-04

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference genome sequence and its annotation. In recent years, we have moved toward increased representation of sequence variation and allelic differences within S. cerevisiae. The publication of numerous additional genomes has motivated the creation of new tools for their annotation and analysis. Here we present the Variant Viewer: a dynamic open-source web application for the visualization of genomic and proteomic differences. Multiple sequence alignments have been constructed across high quality genome sequences from 11 different S. cerevisiae strains and stored in the SGD. The alignments and summaries are encoded in JSON and used to create a two-tiered dynamic view of the budding yeast pan-genome, available at http://www.yeastgenome.org/variant-viewer. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Personal genomics services: whose genomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwitz, David; Bregman-Eschet, Yael

    2009-07-01

    New companies offering personal whole-genome information services over the internet are dynamic and highly visible players in the personal genomics field. For fees currently ranging from US$399 to US$2500 and a vial of saliva, individuals can now purchase online access to their individual genetic information regarding susceptibility to a range of chronic diseases and phenotypic traits based on a genome-wide SNP scan. Most of the companies offering such services are based in the United States, but their clients may come from nearly anywhere in the world. Although the scientific validity, clinical utility and potential future implications of such services are being hotly debated, several ethical and regulatory questions related to direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing strategies of genetic tests have not yet received sufficient attention. For example, how can we minimize the risk of unauthorized third parties from submitting other people's DNA for testing? Another pressing question concerns the ownership of (genotypic and phenotypic) information, as well as the unclear legal status of customers regarding their own personal information. Current legislation in the US and Europe falls short of providing clear answers to these questions. Until the regulation of personal genomics services catches up with the technology, we call upon commercial providers to self-regulate and coordinate their activities to minimize potential risks to individual privacy. We also point out some specific steps, along the trustee model, that providers of DTC personal genomics services as well as regulators and policy makers could consider for addressing some of the concerns raised below.

  2. Performance of Genomic Selection in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Legarra, Andrés; Robert-Granié, Christèle; Manfredi, Eduardo; Elsen, Jean-Michel

    2008-01-01

    Selection plans in plant and animal breeding are driven by genetic evaluation. Recent developments suggest using massive genetic marker information, known as “genomic selection.” There is little evidence of its performance, though. We empirically compared three strategies for selection: (1) use of pedigree and phenotypic information, (2) use of genomewide markers and phenotypic information, and (3) the combination of both. We analyzed four traits from a heterogeneous mouse population (http://...

  3. Correction for Measurement Error from Genotyping-by-Sequencing in Genomic Variance and Genomic Prediction Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashraf, Bilal; Janss, Luc; Jensen, Just

    sample). The GBSeq data can be used directly in genomic models in the form of individual SNP allele-frequency estimates (e.g., reference reads/total reads per polymorphic site per individual), but is subject to measurement error due to the low sequencing depth per individual. Due to technical reasons....... In the current work we show how the correction for measurement error in GBSeq can also be applied in whole genome genomic variance and genomic prediction models. Bayesian whole-genome random regression models are proposed to allow implementation of large-scale SNP-based models with a per-SNP correction...... for measurement error. We show correct retrieval of genomic explained variance, and improved genomic prediction when accounting for the measurement error in GBSeq data...

  4. Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel butyrate-producing bacterium from the mouse intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kläring, K.; Hanske, L.; Bui, T.P.N.; Charrier, C.; Blaut, M.; Haller, D.; Plugge, C.M.; Clavel, T.

    2013-01-01

    Whilst creating a bacterial collection of strains from the mouse intestine, we isolated a Gram-negative, spore-forming, non-motile and strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium from the caecal content of a TNFdeltaARE mouse. The isolate, referred to as strain SRB-521-5-IT, was originally cultured on a

  5. One bacterial cell, one complete genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Woyke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While the bulk of the finished microbial genomes sequenced to date are derived from cultured bacterial and archaeal representatives, the vast majority of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes from these environmental species. Single cell genomics is a novel culture-independent approach, which enables access to the genetic material of an individual cell. No single cell genome has to our knowledge been closed and finished to date. Here we report the completed genome from an uncultured single cell of Candidatus Sulcia muelleri DMIN. Digital PCR on single symbiont cells isolated from the bacteriome of the green sharpshooter Draeculacephala minerva bacteriome allowed us to assess that this bacteria is polyploid with genome copies ranging from approximately 200-900 per cell, making it a most suitable target for single cell finishing efforts. For single cell shotgun sequencing, an individual Sulcia cell was isolated and whole genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA. Sanger-based finishing methods allowed us to close the genome. To verify the correctness of our single cell genome and exclude MDA-derived artifacts, we independently shotgun sequenced and assembled the Sulcia genome from pooled bacteriomes using a metagenomic approach, yielding a nearly identical genome. Four variations we detected appear to be genuine biological differences between the two samples. Comparison of the single cell genome with bacteriome metagenomic sequence data detected two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, indicating extremely low genetic diversity within a Sulcia population. This study demonstrates the power of single cell genomics to generate a complete, high quality, non-composite reference genome within an environmental sample, which can be used for population genetic analyzes.

  6. One Bacterial Cell, One Complete Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Tighe, Damon; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Clum, Alicia; Copeland, Alex; Schackwitz, Wendy; Lapidus, Alla; Wu, Dongying; McCutcheon, John P.; McDonald, Bradon R.; Moran, Nancy A.; Bristow, James; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2010-04-26

    While the bulk of the finished microbial genomes sequenced to date are derived from cultured bacterial and archaeal representatives, the vast majority of microorganisms elude current culturing attempts, severely limiting the ability to recover complete or even partial genomes from these environmental species. Single cell genomics is a novel culture-independent approach, which enables access to the genetic material of an individual cell. No single cell genome has to our knowledge been closed and finished to date. Here we report the completed genome from an uncultured single cell of Candidatus Sulcia muelleri DMIN. Digital PCR on single symbiont cells isolated from the bacteriome of the green sharpshooter Draeculacephala minerva bacteriome allowed us to assess that this bacteria is polyploid with genome copies ranging from approximately 200?900 per cell, making it a most suitable target for single cell finishing efforts. For single cell shotgun sequencing, an individual Sulcia cell was isolated and whole genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA). Sanger-based finishing methods allowed us to close the genome. To verify the correctness of our single cell genome and exclude MDA-derived artifacts, we independently shotgun sequenced and assembled the Sulcia genome from pooled bacteriomes using a metagenomic approach, yielding a nearly identical genome. Four variations we detected appear to be genuine biological differences between the two samples. Comparison of the single cell genome with bacteriome metagenomic sequence data detected two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), indicating extremely low genetic diversity within a Sulcia population. This study demonstrates the power of single cell genomics to generate a complete, high quality, non-composite reference genome within an environmental sample, which can be used for population genetic analyzes.

  7. Visualization for genomics: the Microbial Genome Viewer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoven, R.; Enckevort, F.H.J. van; Boekhorst, J.; Molenaar, D; Siezen, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY: A Web-based visualization tool, the Microbial Genome Viewer, is presented that allows the user to combine complex genomic data in a highly interactive way. This Web tool enables the interactive generation of chromosome wheels and linear genome maps from genome annotation data stored in a

  8. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  9. 2002 reference document; Document de reference 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  10. De novo assembly of a haplotype-resolved human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Hongzhi; Wu, Honglong; Luo, Ruibang

    2015-01-01

    The human genome is diploid, and knowledge of the variants on each chromosome is important for the interpretation of genomic information. Here we report the assembly of a haplotype-resolved diploid genome without using a reference genome. Our pipeline relies on fosmid pooling together with whole-...

  11. Human Genome Sequencing in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the “finished,” euchromatic, haploid human reference genome sequence, the rapid development of novel, faster, and cheaper sequencing technologies is making possible the era of personalized human genomics. Personal diploid human genome sequences have been generated, and each has contributed to our better understanding of variation in the human genome. We have consequently begun to appreciate the vastness of individual genetic variation from single nucleotide to structural variants. Translation of genome-scale variation into medically useful information is, however, in its infancy. This review summarizes the initial steps undertaken in clinical implementation of personal genome information, and describes the application of whole-genome and exome sequencing to identify the cause of genetic diseases and to suggest adjuvant therapies. Better analysis tools and a deeper understanding of the biology of our genome are necessary in order to decipher, interpret, and optimize clinical utility of what the variation in the human genome can teach us. Personal genome sequencing may eventually become an instrument of common medical practice, providing information that assists in the formulation of a differential diagnosis. We outline herein some of the remaining challenges. PMID:22248320

  12. Chromosomal instability in mouse embryonic fibroblasts null for the transcriptional co-repressor Ski

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelain, Katherine; Armisen, Ricardo; Aguirre, Adam; Ueki, Nobuhide; Toro, Jessica; Colmenares, Clemencia; Hayman, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ski is a transcriptional regulator that has been considered an oncoprotein, given its ability to induce oncogenic transformation in avian model systems. However, studies in mouse and in some human tumor cells have also indicated a tumor suppressor activity for this protein. We found that Ski−/− mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibit high levels of genome instability, namely aneuploidy, consistent with a tumor suppressor function for Ski. Time-lapse microscopy revealed lagging chromosomes and chroma...

  13. Mouse SNP Miner: an annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramensky Vasily E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of quantitative trait loci in rat and mouse has been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions associated with human disease-related phenotypes. However, identifying the specific phenotype-causing DNA sequence variations within a quantitative trait locus has been much more difficult. The recent availability of genomic sequence from several mouse inbred strains (including C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J has made it possible to catalog DNA sequence differences within a quantitative trait locus derived from crosses between these strains. However, even for well-defined quantitative trait loci ( Description To help identify functional DNA sequence variations within quantitative trait loci we have used the Ensembl annotated genome sequence to compile a database of mouse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutations (available at http://bioinfo.embl.it/SnpApplet/. For missense mutations we have used the PolyPhen and PANTHER algorithms to predict whether amino acid changes are likely to disrupt protein function. Conclusion We have developed a database of mouse SNPs predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations. Our analysis revealed that 20% and 14% of missense SNPs are likely to be deleterious according to PolyPhen and PANTHER, respectively, and 6% are considered deleterious by both algorithms. The database also provides gene expression and functional annotations from the Symatlas, Gene Ontology, and OMIM databases to further assess candidate phenotype-causing mutations. To demonstrate its utility, we show that Mouse SNP Miner successfully finds a previously identified candidate SNP in the taste receptor, Tas1r3, that underlies sucrose preference in the C57BL/6J strain. We also use Mouse SNP Miner to derive a list of candidate phenotype-causing mutations within a previously

  14. Genetics Home Reference: sitosterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also helps regulate cholesterol levels in a similar fashion; normally about 50 percent of cholesterol in the ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  15. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  16. Genome-wide DNA polymorphism analyses using VariScan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilella Albert J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA sequence polymorphisms analysis can provide valuable information on the evolutionary forces shaping nucleotide variation, and provides an insight into the functional significance of genomic regions. The recent ongoing genome projects will radically improve our capabilities to detect specific genomic regions shaped by natural selection. Current available methods and software, however, are unsatisfactory for such genome-wide analysis. Results We have developed methods for the analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms at the genome-wide scale. These methods, which have been tested on a coalescent-simulated and actual data files from mouse and human, have been implemented in the VariScan software package version 2.0. Additionally, we have also incorporated a graphical-user interface. The main features of this software are: i exhaustive population-genetic analyses including those based on the coalescent theory; ii analysis adapted to the shallow data generated by the high-throughput genome projects; iii use of genome annotations to conduct a comprehensive analyses separately for different functional regions; iv identification of relevant genomic regions by the sliding-window and wavelet-multiresolution approaches; v visualization of the results integrated with current genome annotations in commonly available genome browsers. Conclusion VariScan is a powerful and flexible suite of software for the analysis of DNA polymorphisms. The current version implements new algorithms, methods, and capabilities, providing an important tool for an exhaustive exploratory analysis of genome-wide DNA polymorphism data.

  17. The Arab genome: Health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Hatem

    2016-11-05

    The 22 Arab nations have a unique genetic structure, which reflects both conserved and diverse gene pools due to the prevalent endogamous and consanguineous marriage culture and the long history of admixture among different ethnic subcultures descended from the Asian, European, and African continents. Human genome sequencing has enabled large-scale genomic studies of different populations and has become a powerful tool for studying disease predictions and diagnosis. Despite the importance of the Arab genome for better understanding the dynamics of the human genome, discovering rare genetic variations, and studying early human migration out of Africa, it is poorly represented in human genome databases, such as HapMap and the 1000 Genomes Project. In this review, I demonstrate the significance of sequencing the Arab genome and setting an Arab genome reference(s) for better understanding the molecular pathogenesis of genetic diseases, discovering novel/rare variants, and identifying a meaningful genotype-phenotype correlation for complex diseases. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. HGVA: the Human Genome Variation Archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Javier; Coll, Jacobo; Haimel, Matthias; Kandasamy, Swaathi; Tarraga, Joaquin; Furio-Tari, Pedro; Bari, Wasim; Bleda, Marta; Rueda, Antonio; Gräf, Stefan; Rendon, Augusto; Dopazo, Joaquin; Medina, Ignacio

    2017-07-03

    High-profile genomic variation projects like the 1000 Genomes project or the Exome Aggregation Consortium, are generating a wealth of human genomic variation knowledge which can be used as an essential reference for identifying disease-causing genotypes. However, accessing these data, contrasting the various studies and integrating those data in downstream analyses remains cumbersome. The Human Genome Variation Archive (HGVA) tackles these challenges and facilitates access to genomic data for key reference projects in a clean, fast and integrated fashion. HGVA provides an efficient and intuitive web-interface for easy data mining, a comprehensive RESTful API and client libraries in Python, Java and JavaScript for fast programmatic access to its knowledge base. HGVA calculates population frequencies for these projects and enriches their data with variant annotation provided by CellBase, a rich and fast annotation solution. HGVA serves as a proof-of-concept of the genome analysis developments being carried out by the University of Cambridge together with UK's 100 000 genomes project and the National Institute for Health Research BioResource Rare-Diseases, in particular, deploying open-source for Computational Biology (OpenCB) software platform for storing and analyzing massive genomic datasets. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. VBE reference framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Ermilova, E.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Ollus, M.

    2008-01-01

    Defining a comprehensive and generic "reference framework" for Virtual organizations Breeding Environments (VBEs), addressing all their features and characteristics, is challenging. While the definition and modeling of VBEs has become more formalized during the last five years, "reference models"

  20. CMS Statistics Reference Booklet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...

  1. Comparison of gene coverage of mouse oligonucleotide microarray platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medrano Juan F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing use of DNA microarrays for genetical genomics studies generates a need for platforms with complete coverage of the genome. We have compared the effective gene coverage in the mouse genome of different commercial and noncommercial oligonucleotide microarray platforms by performing an in-house gene annotation of probes. We only used information about probes that is available from vendors and followed a process that any researcher may take to find the gene targeted by a given probe. In order to make consistent comparisons between platforms, probes in each microarray were annotated with an Entrez Gene id and the chromosomal position for each gene was obtained from the UCSC Genome Browser Database. Gene coverage was estimated as the percentage of Entrez Genes with a unique position in the UCSC Genome database that is tested by a given microarray platform. Results A MySQL relational database was created to store the mapping information for 25,416 mouse genes and for the probes in five microarray platforms (gene coverage level in parenthesis: Affymetrix430 2.0 (75.6%, ABI Genome Survey (81.24%, Agilent (79.33%, Codelink (78.09%, Sentrix (90.47%; and four array-ready oligosets: Sigma (47.95%, Operon v.3 (69.89%, Operon v.4 (84.03%, and MEEBO (84.03%. The differences in coverage between platforms were highly conserved across chromosomes. Differences in the number of redundant and unspecific probes were also found among arrays. The database can be queried to compare specific genomic regions using a web interface. The software used to create, update and query the database is freely available as a toolbox named ArrayGene. Conclusion The software developed here allows researchers to create updated custom databases by using public or proprietary information on genes for any organisms. ArrayGene allows easy comparisons of gene coverage between microarray platforms for any region of the genome. The comparison presented here

  2. Changing quantum reference frames

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Matthew C.; Girelli, Florian; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the process of changing reference frames in the case where the reference frames are quantum systems. We find that, as part of this process, decoherence is necessarily induced on any quantum system described relative to these frames. We explore this process with examples involving reference frames for phase and orientation. Quantifying the effect of changing quantum reference frames serves as a first step in developing a relativity principle for theories in which all objects includ...

  3. Whole-genome sequence of the Tibetan frog Nanorana parkeri and the comparative evolution of tetrapod genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan-Bo; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Xiang, Xue-Yan; Liu, Shi-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Tu, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Yang, Min-Min; Chen, Hong-Man; Li, Fang; Zhou, Long; Feng, Shao-Hong; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Guo-Jie; Irwin, David; Hillis, David M; Murphy, Robert W; Yang, Huan-Ming; Che, Jing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-03-17

    The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs belong to the Neobatrachia, and no genome exists for this group. This dearth of amphibian genomes greatly restricts genomic studies of amphibians and, more generally, our understanding of tetrapod genome evolution. To fill this gap, we provide the de novo genome of a Tibetan Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri, and compare it to that of X. tropicalis and other vertebrates. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, a number similar to that of Xenopus. Although the genome size of Nanorana is considerably larger than that of Xenopus (2.3 vs. 1.5 Gb), most of the difference is due to the respective number of transposable elements in the two genomes. The two frogs exhibit considerable conserved whole-genome synteny despite having diverged approximately 266 Ma, indicating a slow rate of DNA structural evolution in anurans. Multigenome synteny blocks further show that amphibians have fewer interchromosomal rearrangements than mammals but have a comparable rate of intrachromosomal rearrangements. Our analysis also identifies 11 Mb of anuran-specific highly conserved elements that will be useful for comparative genomic analyses of frogs. The Nanorana genome offers an improved understanding of evolution of tetrapod genomes and also provides a genomic reference for other evolutionary studies.

  4. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  5. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  6. The genome BLASTatlas - a GeneWiz extension for visualization of whole-genome homology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Peter Fischer; Binnewies, Tim Terence; Ussery, David

    2008-01-01

    ://www.cbs.dtu.dk/ws/BLASTatlas), where programming examples are available in Perl. By providing an interoperable method to carry out whole genome visualization of homology, this service offers bioinformaticians as well as biologists an easy-to-adopt workflow that can be directly called from the programming language of the user, hence......The development of fast and inexpensive methods for sequencing bacterial genomes has led to a wealth of data, often with many genomes being sequenced of the same species or closely related organisms. Thus, there is a need for visualization methods that will allow easy comparison of many sequenced...... genomes to a defined reference strain. The BLASTatlas is one such tool that is useful for mapping and visualizing whole genome homology of genes and proteins within a reference strain compared to other strains or species of one or more prokaryotic organisms. We provide examples of BLASTatlases, including...

  7. Genetic characterization and improved genotyping of the dysferlin-deficient mouse strain Dysf (tm1Kcam).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowicz, Tatiana; Kinter, Jochen; Kobuke, Kazuhiro; Campbell, Kevin P; Sinnreich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of dysferlinopathies are valuable tools with which to investigate the pathomechanisms underlying these diseases and to test novel therapeutic strategies. One such mouse model is the Dysf (tm1Kcam) strain, which was generated using a targeting vector to replace a 12-kb region of the dysferlin gene and which features a progressive muscular dystrophy. A prerequisite for successful animal studies using genetic mouse models is an accurate genotyping protocol. Unfortunately, the lack of robustness of currently available genotyping protocols for the Dysf (tm1Kcam) mouse has prevented efficient colony management. Initial attempts to improve the genotyping protocol based on the published genomic structure failed. These difficulties led us to analyze the targeted locus of the dysferlin gene of the Dysf (tm1Kcam) mouse in greater detail. In this study we resequenced and analyzed the targeted locus of the Dysf (tm1Kcam) mouse and developed a novel PCR protocol for genotyping. We found that instead of a deletion, the dysferlin locus in the Dysf (tm1Kcam) mouse carries a targeted insertion. This genetic characterization enabled us to establish a reliable method for genotyping of the Dysf (tm1Kcam) mouse, and thus has made efficient colony management possible. Our work will make the Dysf (tm1Kcam) mouse model more attractive for animal studies of dysferlinopathies.

  8. CoGI: Towards Compressing Genomes as an Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaojing; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Genomic science is now facing an explosive increase of data thanks to the fast development of sequencing technology. This situation poses serious challenges to genomic data storage and transferring. It is desirable to compress data to reduce storage and transferring cost, and thus to boost data distribution and utilization efficiency. Up to now, a number of algorithms / tools have been developed for compressing genomic sequences. Unlike the existing algorithms, most of which treat genomes as one-dimensional text strings and compress them based on dictionaries or probability models, this paper proposes a novel approach called CoGI (the abbreviation of Compressing Genomes as an Image) for genome compression, which transforms the genomic sequences to a two-dimensional binary image (or bitmap), then applies a rectangular partition coding algorithm to compress the binary image. CoGI can be used as either a reference-based compressor or a reference-free compressor. For the former, we develop two entropy-based algorithms to select a proper reference genome. Performance evaluation is conducted on various genomes. Experimental results show that the reference-based CoGI significantly outperforms two state-of-the-art reference-based genome compressors GReEn and RLZ-opt in both compression ratio and compression efficiency. It also achieves comparable compression ratio but two orders of magnitude higher compression efficiency in comparison with XM--one state-of-the-art reference-free genome compressor. Furthermore, our approach performs much better than Gzip--a general-purpose and widely-used compressor, in both compression speed and compression ratio. So, CoGI can serve as an effective and practical genome compressor. The source code and other related documents of CoGI are available at: http://admis.fudan.edu.cn/projects/cogi.htm.

  9. Genomic dark matter: the reliability of short read mapping illustrated by the genome mappability score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hayan; Schatz, Michael C

    2012-08-15

    Genome resequencing and short read mapping are two of the primary tools of genomics and are used for many important applications. The current state-of-the-art in mapping uses the quality values and mapping quality scores to evaluate the reliability of the mapping. These attributes, however, are assigned to individual reads and do not directly measure the problematic repeats across the genome. Here, we present the Genome Mappability Score (GMS) as a novel measure of the complexity of resequencing a genome. The GMS is a weighted probability that any read could be unambiguously mapped to a given position and thus measures the overall composition of the genome itself. We have developed the Genome Mappability Analyzer to compute the GMS of every position in a genome. It leverages the parallelism of cloud computing to analyze large genomes, and enabled us to identify the 5-14% of the human, mouse, fly and yeast genomes that are difficult to analyze with short reads. We examined the accuracy of the widely used BWA/SAMtools polymorphism discovery pipeline in the context of the GMS, and found discovery errors are dominated by false negatives, especially in regions with poor GMS. These errors are fundamental to the mapping process and cannot be overcome by increasing coverage. As such, the GMS should be considered in every resequencing project to pinpoint the 'dark matter' of the genome, including of known clinically relevant variations in these regions. The source code and profiles of several model organisms are available at http://gma-bio.sourceforge.net

  10. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  11. The Mouse That Soared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  12. Metabolism, genomics, and DNA repair in the mouse aging liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, Michel; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2011-01-01

    hepatic metabolic and detoxification activities, with implications for systemic aging and age-related disease. It has become clear, using rodent models as biological tools, that genetic instability in the form of gross DNA rearrangements or point mutations accumulate in the liver with age. DNA lesions......The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients, drugs, hormones, and metabolic waste products, thereby maintaining body homeostasis. The liver undergoes substantial changes in structure and function within old age. Such changes are associated with significant impairment of many......, such as oxidized bases or persistent breaks, increase with age and correlate well with the presence of senescent hepatocytes. The level of DNA damage and/or mutation can be affected by changes in carcinogen activation, decreased ability to repair DNA, or a combination of these factors. This paper covers some...

  13. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN-SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  14. Dosage Compensation of an Aneuploid Genome in Mouse Spermatogenic Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jansa, Petr; Homolka, David; Blatný, Radek; Mistrik, M.; Bartek, Jiří; Forejt, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), 124/1-124/9 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : gene dosage * male sterility * segmental trisomy * meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin * DOWN - SYNDROME * MAMMALIAN MEIOSIS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2014

  15. The truth about mouse, human, worms and yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson David R

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genome comparisons are behind the powerful new annotation methods being developed to find all human genes, as well as genes from other genomes. Genomes are now frequently being studied in pairs to provide cross-comparison datasets. This 'Noah's Ark' approach often reveals unsuspected genes and may support the deletion of false-positive predictions. Joining mouse and human as the cross-comparison dataset for the first two mammals are: two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura; two sea squirts, Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi; four yeast (Saccharomyces species; two nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae; and two pufferfish (Takefugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis. Even genomes like yeast and C. elegans, which have been known for more than five years, are now being significantly improved. Methods developed for yeast or nematodes will now be applied to mouse and human, and soon to additional mammals such as rat and dog, to identify all the mammalian protein-coding genes. Current large disparities between human Unigene predictions (127,835 genes and gene-scanning methods (45,000 genes still need to be resolved. This will be the challenge during the next few years.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Identifies Multiple Genomic Regions Associated with Susceptibility to and Control of Ovine Lentivirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    to varying degrees of dyspnea (respiratory distress), cachexia (body condition wasting), mastitis , arthritis, and/or encephalitis [5,6]. One of the...General Transcription Factor IIH, polypeptide 5), the gene order does not agree with other mammal genomes including cow , human, dog, and mouse, and it may

  17. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David Erwin; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien; Schmö ckel, Sandra M.; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J. A.; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M.; Rupper, Ryan R.; Sharp, Aaron R.; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A.; Woo, Yong; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G. W. M.; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque Ahmad Imtiyaz; Negrã o, Só nia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph A; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T.; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C. Gerard van der; Loo, Eibertus N. van; Jellen, Eric N.; Maughan, Peter J.; Tester, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  18. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa

    KAUST Repository

    Jarvis, David Erwin

    2017-02-08

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  19. The genome of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, David E; Ho, Yung Shwen; Lightfoot, Damien J; Schmöckel, Sandra M; Li, Bo; Borm, Theo J A; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Michell, Craig T; Saber, Noha; Kharbatia, Najeh M; Rupper, Ryan R; Sharp, Aaron R; Dally, Nadine; Boughton, Berin A; Woo, Yong H; Gao, Ge; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Guo, Xiujie; Momin, Afaque A; Negrão, Sónia; Al-Babili, Salim; Gehring, Christoph; Roessner, Ute; Jung, Christian; Murphy, Kevin; Arold, Stefan T; Gojobori, Takashi; Linden, C Gerard van der; van Loo, Eibertus N; Jellen, Eric N; Maughan, Peter J; Tester, Mark

    2017-02-16

    Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa) is a highly nutritious grain identified as an important crop to improve world food security. Unfortunately, few resources are available to facilitate its genetic improvement. Here we report the assembly of a high-quality, chromosome-scale reference genome sequence for quinoa, which was produced using single-molecule real-time sequencing in combination with optical, chromosome-contact and genetic maps. We also report the sequencing of two diploids from the ancestral gene pools of quinoa, which enables the identification of sub-genomes in quinoa, and reduced-coverage genome sequences for 22 other samples of the allotetraploid goosefoot complex. The genome sequence facilitated the identification of the transcription factor likely to control the production of anti-nutritional triterpenoid saponins found in quinoa seeds, including a mutation that appears to cause alternative splicing and a premature stop codon in sweet quinoa strains. These genomic resources are an important first step towards the genetic improvement of quinoa.

  20. A post-assembly genome-improvement toolkit (PAGIT) to obtain annotated genomes from contigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Martin T; Tsai, Isheng J; Assefa, Samual A; Newbold, Chris; Berriman, Matthew; Otto, Thomas D

    2012-06-07

    Genome projects now produce draft assemblies within weeks owing to advanced high-throughput sequencing technologies. For milestone projects such as Escherichia coli or Homo sapiens, teams of scientists were employed to manually curate and finish these genomes to a high standard. Nowadays, this is not feasible for most projects, and the quality of genomes is generally of a much lower standard. This protocol describes software (PAGIT) that is used to improve the quality of draft genomes. It offers flexible functionality to close gaps in scaffolds, correct base errors in the consensus sequence and exploit reference genomes (if available) in order to improve scaffolding and generating annotations. The protocol is most accessible for bacterial and small eukaryotic genomes (up to 300 Mb), such as pathogenic bacteria, malaria and parasitic worms. Applying PAGIT to an E. coli assembly takes ∼24 h: it doubles the average contig size and annotates over 4,300 gene models.

  1. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  2. Epigenetic functions enriched in transcription factors binding to mouse recombination hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Kwoh, Chee-Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Li, Jing; Zheng, Jie

    2012-06-21

    The regulatory mechanism of recombination is a fundamental problem in genomics, with wide applications in genome-wide association studies, birth-defect diseases, molecular evolution, cancer research, etc. In mammalian genomes, recombination events cluster into short genomic regions called "recombination hotspots". Recently, a 13-mer motif enriched in hotspots is identified as a candidate cis-regulatory element of human recombination hotspots; moreover, a zinc finger protein, PRDM9, binds to this motif and is associated with variation of recombination phenotype in human and mouse genomes, thus is a trans-acting regulator of recombination hotspots. However, this pair of cis and trans-regulators covers only a fraction of hotspots, thus other regulators of recombination hotspots remain to be discovered. In this paper, we propose an approach to predicting additional trans-regulators from DNA-binding proteins by comparing their enrichment of binding sites in hotspots. Applying this approach on newly mapped mouse hotspots genome-wide, we confirmed that PRDM9 is a major trans-regulator of hotspots. In addition, a list of top candidate trans-regulators of mouse hotspots is reported. Using GO analysis we observed that the top genes are enriched with function of histone modification, highlighting the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of recombination hotspots.

  3. Millstone: software for multiplex microbial genome analysis and engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Daniel B; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Lajoie, Marc J; Ahern, Brian W; Napolitano, Michael G; Chen, Kevin Y; Chen, Changping; Church, George M

    2017-05-25

    Inexpensive DNA sequencing and advances in genome editing have made computational analysis a major rate-limiting step in adaptive laboratory evolution and microbial genome engineering. We describe Millstone, a web-based platform that automates genotype comparison and visualization for projects with up to hundreds of genomic samples. To enable iterative genome engineering, Millstone allows users to design oligonucleotide libraries and create successive versions of reference genomes. Millstone is open source and easily deployable to a cloud platform, local cluster, or desktop, making it a scalable solution for any lab.

  4. Draft genome sequence of the Coccolithovirus Emiliania huxleyi virus 203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Jozef I; Worthy, Charlotte A; Rooks, Paul; Napier, Johnathan A; Kimmance, Susan A; Henn, Matthew R; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Allen, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    The Coccolithoviridae are a recently discovered group of viruses that infect the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. Emiliania huxleyi virus 203 (EhV-203) has a 160- to 180-nm-diameter icosahedral structure and a genome of approximately 400 kbp, consisting of 464 coding sequences (CDSs). Here we describe the genomic features of EhV-203 together with a draft genome sequence and its annotation, highlighting the homology and heterogeneity of this genome in comparison with the EhV-86 reference genome.

  5. Draft genome sequence of the coccolithovirus Emiliania huxleyi virus 202.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissimov, Jozef I; Worthy, Charlotte A; Rooks, Paul; Napier, Johnathan A; Kimmance, Susan A; Henn, Matthew R; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Allen, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Emiliania huxleyi virus 202 (EhV-202) is a member of the Coccolithoviridae, a group of viruses that infect the marine coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi. EhV-202 has a 160- to 180-nm-diameter icosahedral structure and a genome of approximately 407 kbp, consisting of 485 coding sequences (CDSs). Here we describe the genomic features of EhV-202, together with a draft genome sequence and its annotation, highlighting the homology and heterogeneity of this genome in comparison with the EhV-86 reference genome.

  6. USING OF MOUSE MODEL TO ANALYZE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO INFECTIOUS PATHOGENS BY THE METHODS OF CLASSICAL GENETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Poltorak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Identification and studying of numerous functions of all genes of the human beings is one of the main objects of modern biological science. Due to high level of homology between mouse and human genomes the important role to reach above mentioned goal belongs to the mouse model which using in the classical genetics increase in connection with appearance of different inbred mouse lines. For instance, the differences in immune response to infectious pathogens in various mouse lines were used many times to determine immunologically competent genes. That is why the contribution of mouse model in understanding of the mechanisms of immune response to infectious pathogens is difficult to overestimate. In the current review some of the most successful and well known examples of mouse using in studies of anti-infectious response are described.

  7. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.; Staves, D.; McDonald, S.

    1989-07-01

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  8. A Mouse Model that Recapitulates Cardinal Features of the 15q13.3 Microdeletion Syndrome Including Schizophrenia- and Epilepsy-Related Alterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejgin, Kim; Nielsen, Jacob; Birknow, Michelle R.

    2014-01-01

    to develop myoclonic and absence-like seizures but decreased propensity for clonic and tonic seizures. Furthermore, they had impaired long-term spatial reference memory and a decreased theta frequency in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Electroencephalogram characterization revealed auditory processing......Background: Genome-wide scans have uncovered rare copy number variants conferring high risk of psychiatric disorders. The 15q13.3 microdeletion is associated with a considerably increased risk of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia. Methods: A 15q13.......3 microdeletion mouse model (Df[h15q13]/) was generated by hemizygous deletion of the orthologous region and characterized with focus on schizophrenia- and epilepsy-relevant parameters. Results: Df(h15q13)/ mice showed marked changes in neuronal excitability in acute seizure assays, with increased propensity...

  9. Android quick APIs reference

    CERN Document Server

    Cinar, Onur

    2015-01-01

    The Android Quick APIs Reference is a condensed code and APIs reference for the new Google Android 5.0 SDK. It presents the essential Android APIs in a well-organized format that can be used as a handy reference. You won't find any technical jargon, bloated samples, drawn out history lessons, or witty stories in this book. What you will find is a software development kit and APIs reference that is concise, to the point and highly accessible. The book is packed with useful information and is a must-have for any mobile or Android app developer or programmer. In the Android Quick APIs Refe

  10. Functional analysis of limb transcriptional enhancers in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Mark J; Wang, Ying; Deng, Jian Min; Swinton, Paul G; Wei, Caimiao; Guindani, Michele; Schwartz, Robert J; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are genomic sequences bound by transcription factors that act together with basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene transcription. Several high-throughput methods have generated large datasets of tissue-specific enhancer sequences with putative roles in developmental processes. However, few enhancers have been deleted from the genome to determine their roles in development. To understand the roles of two enhancers active in the mouse embryonic limb bud we deleted them from the genome. Although the genes regulated by these enhancers are unknown, they were selected because they were identified in a screen for putative limb bud-specific enhancers associated with p300, an acetyltransferase that participates in protein complexes that promote active transcription, and because the orthologous human enhancers (H1442 and H280) drive distinct lacZ expression patterns in limb buds of embryonic day (E) 11.5 transgenic mice. We show that the orthologous mouse sequences, M1442 and M280, regulate dynamic expression in the developing limb. Although significant transcriptional differences in enhancer-proximal genes in embryonic limb buds accompany the deletion of M1442 and M280 no gross limb malformations during embryonic development were observed, demonstrating that M1442 and M280 are not required for mouse limb development. However, M280 is required for the development and/or maintenance of body size; M280 mice are significantly smaller than controls. M280 also harbors an "ultraconserved" sequence that is identical between human, rat, and mouse. This is the first report of a phenotype resulting from the deletion of an ultraconserved element. These studies highlight the importance of determining enhancer regulatory function by experiments that manipulate them in situ and suggest that some of an enhancer's regulatory capacities may be developmentally tolerated rather than developmentally required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  12. Localization and regulation of mouse pantothenate kinase 2 [The PanK2 Genes of Mouse and Human Specify Proteins with Distinct Subcellular Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonardi, Roberta [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Zhang, Yong-Mei [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Lykidis, Athanasios [DOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Rock, Charles O. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Jackowski, Suzanne [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2007-09-07

    Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis is initiated by pantothenatekinase (PanK) and CoA levels are controlled through differentialexpression and feedback regulation of PanK isoforms. PanK2 is amitochondrial protein in humans, but comparative genomics revealed thatacquisition of a mitochondrial targeting signal was limited to primates.Human and mouse PanK2 possessed similar biochemical properties, withinhibition by acetylCoA and activation by palmitoylcarnitine. Mouse PanK2localized in the cytosol, and the expression of PanK2 was higher in humanbrain compared to mouse brain. Differences in expression and subcellularlocalization should be considered in developing a mouse model for humanPanK2 deficiency.

  13. Discovering transcription factor binding sites in highly repetitive regions of genomes with multi-read analysis of ChIP-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dongjun; Kuan, Pei Fen; Li, Bo; Sanalkumar, Rajendran; Liang, Kun; Bresnick, Emery H; Dewey, Colin; Keleş, Sündüz

    2011-07-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) is rapidly replacing chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with genome-wide tiling array analysis (ChIP-chip) as the preferred approach for mapping transcription-factor binding sites and chromatin modifications. The state of the art for analyzing ChIP-seq data relies on using only reads that map uniquely to a relevant reference genome (uni-reads). This can lead to the omission of up to 30% of alignable reads. We describe a general approach for utilizing reads that map to multiple locations on the reference genome (multi-reads). Our approach is based on allocating multi-reads as fractional counts using a weighted alignment scheme. Using human STAT1 and mouse GATA1 ChIP-seq datasets, we illustrate that incorporation of multi-reads significantly increases sequencing depths, leads to detection of novel peaks that are not otherwise identifiable with uni-reads, and improves detection of peaks in mappable regions. We investigate various genome-wide characteristics of peaks detected only by utilization of multi-reads via computational experiments. Overall, peaks from multi-read analysis have similar characteristics to peaks that are identified by uni-reads except that the majority of them reside in segmental duplications. We further validate a number of GATA1 multi-read only peaks by independent quantitative real-time ChIP analysis and identify novel target genes of GATA1. These computational and experimental results establish that multi-reads can be of critical importance for studying transcription factor binding in highly repetitive regions of genomes with ChIP-seq experiments.

  14. Discovering transcription factor binding sites in highly repetitive regions of genomes with multi-read analysis of ChIP-Seq data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Chung

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq is rapidly replacing chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with genome-wide tiling array analysis (ChIP-chip as the preferred approach for mapping transcription-factor binding sites and chromatin modifications. The state of the art for analyzing ChIP-seq data relies on using only reads that map uniquely to a relevant reference genome (uni-reads. This can lead to the omission of up to 30% of alignable reads. We describe a general approach for utilizing reads that map to multiple locations on the reference genome (multi-reads. Our approach is based on allocating multi-reads as fractional counts using a weighted alignment scheme. Using human STAT1 and mouse GATA1 ChIP-seq datasets, we illustrate that incorporation of multi-reads significantly increases sequencing depths, leads to detection of novel peaks that are not otherwise identifiable with uni-reads, and improves detection of peaks in mappable regions. We investigate various genome-wide characteristics of peaks detected only by utilization of multi-reads via computational experiments. Overall, peaks from multi-read analysis have similar characteristics to peaks that are identified by uni-reads except that the majority of them reside in segmental duplications. We further validate a number of GATA1 multi-read only peaks by independent quantitative real-time ChIP analysis and identify novel target genes of GATA1. These computational and experimental results establish that multi-reads can be of critical importance for studying transcription factor binding in highly repetitive regions of genomes with ChIP-seq experiments.

  15. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  16. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    optimisme og misinformation. RCF bygger på teorier, som vandt Daniel Kahneman Nobelprisen i økonomi i 2002. RCF estimerer budgettet for et givet projekt på grundlag af de faktiske udfald for budgetterne i en reference-klasse af projekter. RCF udføres i tre trin: 1. Identifikation af en relevant reference...

  17. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  18. The Mouse House: A brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947–2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Liane B.

    2013-10-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Lab is often re-membered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-Chromosome s importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a valuable

  19. The Mouse House: a brief history of the ORNL mouse-genetics program, 1947-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Liane B

    2013-01-01

    The large mouse genetics program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is often remembered chiefly for the germ-cell mutation-rate data it generated and their uses in estimating the risk of heritable radiation damage. In fact, it soon became a multi-faceted research effort that, over a period of almost 60 years, generated a wealth of information in the areas of mammalian mutagenesis, basic genetics (later enriched by molecular techniques), cytogenetics, reproductive biology, biochemistry of germ cells, and teratology. Research in the area of germ-cell mutagenesis explored the important physical and biological factors that affect the frequency and nature of induced mutations and made several unexpected discoveries, such as the major importance of the perigametic interval (the zygote stage) for the origin of spontaneous mutations and for the sensitivity to induced genetic change. Of practical value was the discovery that ethylnitrosourea was a supermutagen for point mutations, making high-efficiency mutagenesis in the mouse feasible worldwide. Teratogenesis findings resulted in recommendations still generally accepted in radiological practice. Studies supporting the mutagenesis research added whole bodies of information about mammalian germ-cell development and about molecular targets in germ cells. The early decision to not merely count but propagate genetic variants of all sorts made possible further discoveries, such as the Y-chromosome's importance in mammalian sex determination and the identification of rare X-autosome translocations, which, in turn, led to the formulation of the single-active-X hypothesis and provided tools for studies of functional mosaicism for autosomal genes, male sterility, and chromosome-pairing mechanism. Extensive genetic and then molecular analyses of large numbers of induced specific-locus mutants resulted in fine-structure physical and correlated functional mapping of significant portions of the mouse genome and constituted a

  20. The diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Wei; Li, Ruiqiang

    2008-01-01

    Here we present the first diploid genome sequence of an Asian individual. The genome was sequenced to 36-fold average coverage using massively parallel sequencing technology. We aligned the short reads onto the NCBI human reference genome to 99.97% coverage, and guided by the reference genome, we...... used uniquely mapped reads to assemble a high-quality consensus sequence for 92% of the Asian individual's genome. We identified approximately 3 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) inside this region, of which 13.6% were not in the dbSNP database. Genotyping analysis showed that SNP...... identification had high accuracy and consistency, indicating the high sequence quality of this assembly. We also carried out heterozygote phasing and haplotype prediction against HapMap CHB and JPT haplotypes (Chinese and Japanese, respectively), sequence comparison with the two available individual genomes (J...

  1. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L Smits

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.

  2. Tissue specific mutagenic and carcinogenic responses in NER defective mouse models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Susan W P; Hoogervorst, Esther M; Waard, Harm de; Horst, Gijsbertus T J van der; Steeg, Harry van

    2007-01-01

    Several mouse models with defects in genes encoding components of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway have been developed. In NER two different sub-pathways are known, i.e. transcription-coupled repair (TC-NER) and global-genome repair (GG-NER). A defect in one particular NER protein can

  3. Uranium reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs

  4. Network reconstruction of the mouse secretory pathway applied on CHO cell transcriptome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Brandl, Julian

    2017-01-01

    , counting 801 different components in mouse. By employing our mouse RECON to the CHO-K1 genome in a comparative genomic approach, we could reconstruct the protein secretory pathway of CHO cells counting 764 CHO components. This RECON furthermore facilitated the development of three alternative methods...... to study protein secretion through graphical visualizations of omics data. We have demonstrated the use of these methods to identify potential new and known targets for engineering improved growth and IgG production, as well as the general observation that CHO cells seem to have less strict transcriptional...... regulation of protein secretion than healthy mouse cells.  Conclusions: The RECON of the secretory pathway represents a strong tool for interpretation of data related to protein secretion as illustrated with transcriptomic data of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the main platform for mammalian protein...

  5. Genomics: Looking at Life in New Ways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Mark D. (Case-Western Reserve University)

    2003-10-22

    The availability of complete or nearly complete mouse, human, and rat genomes (in addition to those from many other species) has resulted in a series of new and powerful opportunities to apply the technologies and approaches developed for large-scale genome sequencing to the study of disease. New approaches to biological problems are being explored that involve concepts from computer science such as systems theory and modern large scale computing techniques. A recent project at Celera Genomics involved sequencing protein coding regions from several humans and a chimpanzee. Computational models of evolutionary divergence enabled us to identify genes with unique evolutionary signatures. These genes give us some insight into features that may be uniquely human. The laboratory mouse and rat have long been favorite mammalian models of human disease. Integrated approaches to the study of disease that combine genetics, DNA sequence analysis, and careful analysis of phenotype at a molecular level are becoming more common and powerful. In addition, evaluation of the variation inherent in normal populations is now being used to build networks to describe heart function based on the interaction of multiple phenotypes in randomized populations using a factorial design.

  6. STL pocket reference

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2003-01-01

    The STL Pocket Reference describes the functions, classes, and templates in that part of the C++ standard library often referred to as the Standard Template Library (STL). The STL encompasses containers, iterators, algorithms, and function objects, which collectively represent one of the most important and widely used subsets of standard library functionality. The C++ standard library, even the subset known as the STL, is vast. It's next to impossible to work with the STL without some sort of reference at your side to remind you of template parameters, function invocations, return types--ind

  7. Handbook of reference electrodes

    CERN Document Server

    Inzelt, György; Scholz, Fritz

    2013-01-01

    Reference Electrodes are a crucial part of any electrochemical system, yet an up-to-date and comprehensive handbook is long overdue. Here, an experienced team of electrochemists provides an in-depth source of information and data for the proper choice and construction of reference electrodes. This includes all kinds of applications such as aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, ionic liquids, glass melts, solid electrolyte systems, and membrane electrodes. Advanced technologies such as miniaturized, conducting-polymer-based, screen-printed or disposable reference electrodes are also covered. Essen

  8. Regular Expression Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Stubblebine, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This handy little book offers programmers a complete overview of the syntax and semantics of regular expressions that are at the heart of every text-processing application. Ideal as a quick reference, Regular Expression Pocket Reference covers the regular expression APIs for Perl 5.8, Ruby (including some upcoming 1.9 features), Java, PHP, .NET and C#, Python, vi, JavaScript, and the PCRE regular expression libraries. This concise and easy-to-use reference puts a very powerful tool for manipulating text and data right at your fingertips. Composed of a mixture of symbols and text, regular exp

  9. Neptunium: a bibliographic reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosley, R.E.

    1979-06-01

    A comprehensive bibliograhy of the literature on the element neptunium published prior to January 1976 is presented. A short abstract is given for each listed reference, with a few exceptions. The references are divided into sections categorized as General, Man-Made Sources (Reactors), Man-Made Sources (Fuel Reprocessing), Chemistry (Solubility), Chemistry (Compounds), Chemistry (Isotopes), Analyses (Instrumental), Analyses (Chemical), Chemical (Animal), Biological (Effects), Biological (Animal-Metabolism-Retention), Biological (Air Movement), Biological (Human Inhalation), Measurement, and Dosimetry. The bibliography contains author and keyword indexes and was compiled to serve as a quick reference source for neptunium-related work. 184 citations

  10. CSS Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    When you're working with CSS and need a quick answer, CSS Pocket Reference delivers. This handy, concise book provides all of the essential information you need to implement CSS on the fly. Ideal for intermediate to advanced web designers and developers, the 4th edition is revised and updated for CSS3, the latest version of the Cascading Style Sheet specification. Along with a complete alphabetical reference to CSS3 selectors and properties, you'll also find a short introduction to the key concepts of CSS. Based on Cascading Style Sheets: The Definitive Guide, this reference is an easy-to-us

  11. Biomedical Engineering Desk Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Buddy D; Schoen, Frederick J; Lemons, Jack E; Dyro, Joseph; Martinsen, Orjan G; Kyle, Richard; Preim, Bernhard; Bartz, Dirk; Grimnes, Sverre; Vallero, Daniel; Semmlow, John; Murray, W Bosseau; Perez, Reinaldo; Bankman, Isaac; Dunn, Stanley; Ikada, Yoshito; Moghe, Prabhas V; Constantinides, Alkis

    2009-01-01

    A one-stop Desk Reference, for Biomedical Engineers involved in the ever expanding and very fast moving area; this is a book that will not gather dust on the shelf. It brings together the essential professional reference content from leading international contributors in the biomedical engineering field. Material covers a broad range of topics including: Biomechanics and Biomaterials; Tissue Engineering; and Biosignal Processing* A hard-working desk reference providing all the essential material needed by biomedical and clinical engineers on a day-to-day basis * Fundamentals, key techniques,

  12. LINQ Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Albahari, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Ready to take advantage of LINQ with C# 3.0? This guide has the detail you need to grasp Microsoft's new querying technology, and concise explanations to help you learn it quickly. And once you begin to apply LINQ, the book serves as an on-the-job reference when you need immediate reminders. All the examples in the LINQ Pocket Reference are preloaded into LINQPad, the highly praised utility that lets you work with LINQ interactively. Created by the authors and free to download, LINQPad will not only help you learn LINQ, it will have you thinking in LINQ. This reference explains: LINQ's ke

  13. R quick syntax reference

    CERN Document Server

    Tollefson, Margot

    2014-01-01

    The R Quick Syntax Reference is a handy reference book detailing the intricacies of the R language. Not only is R a free, open-source tool, R is powerful, flexible, and has state of the art statistical techniques available. With the many details which must be correct when using any language, however, the R Quick Syntax Reference makes using R easier.Starting with the basic structure of R, the book takes you on a journey through the terminology used in R and the syntax required to make R work. You will find looking up the correct form for an expression quick and easy. With a copy of the R Quick

  14. PSAT: A web tool to compare genomic neighborhoods of multiple prokaryotic genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasnick Michael

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conservation of gene order among prokaryotic genomes can provide valuable insight into gene function, protein interactions, or events by which genomes have evolved. Although some tools are available for visualizing and comparing the order of genes between genomes of study, few support an efficient and organized analysis between large numbers of genomes. The Prokaryotic Sequence homology Analysis Tool (PSAT is a web tool for comparing gene neighborhoods among multiple prokaryotic genomes. Results PSAT utilizes a database that is preloaded with gene annotation, BLAST hit results, and gene-clustering scores designed to help identify regions of conserved gene order. Researchers use the PSAT web interface to find a gene of interest in a reference genome and efficiently retrieve the sequence homologs found in other bacterial genomes. The tool generates a graphic of the genomic neighborhood surrounding the selected gene and the corresponding regions for its homologs in each comparison genome. Homologs in each region are color coded to assist users with analyzing gene order among various genomes. In contrast to common comparative analysis methods that filter sequence homolog data based on alignment score cutoffs, PSAT leverages gene context information for homologs, including those with weak alignment scores, enabling a more sensitive analysis. Features for constraining or ordering results are designed to help researchers browse results from large numbers of comparison genomes in an organized manner. PSAT has been demonstrated to be useful for helping to identify gene orthologs and potential functional gene clusters, and detecting genome modifications that may result in loss of function. Conclusion PSAT allows researchers to investigate the order of genes within local genomic neighborhoods of multiple genomes. A PSAT web server for public use is available for performing analyses on a growing set of reference genomes through any

  15. Genomics With Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhamrit Kaur; Sandeep Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genomics is study of genome which provides large amount of data for which large storage and computation power is needed. These issues are solved by cloud computing that provides various cloud platforms for genomics. These platforms provides many services to user like easy access to data easy sharing and transfer providing storage in hundreds of terabytes more computational power. Some cloud platforms are Google genomics DNAnexus and Globus genomics. Various features of cloud computin...

  16. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  17. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V Die

    Full Text Available The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  18. Detection of genomic instability in hypospadias patients by random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIRECTOR

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... organism including bacteria (Sahoo et al., 2010), fungi. (Motlagh and Anvari ... technique that detects genomic alteration correlated with human tumor is .... chromosomal instability among hypospadias patients. REFERENCES.

  19. Genome Maps, a new generation genome browser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Ignacio; Salavert, Francisco; Sanchez, Rubén; de Maria, Alejandro; Alonso, Roberto; Escobar, Pablo; Bleda, Marta; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2013-07-01

    Genome browsers have gained importance as more genomes and related genomic information become available. However, the increase of information brought about by new generation sequencing technologies is, at the same time, causing a subtle but continuous decrease in the efficiency of conventional genome browsers. Here, we present Genome Maps, a genome browser that implements an innovative model of data transfer and management. The program uses highly efficient technologies from the new HTML5 standard, such as scalable vector graphics, that optimize workloads at both server and client sides and ensure future scalability. Thus, data management and representation are entirely carried out by the browser, without the need of any Java Applet, Flash or other plug-in technology installation. Relevant biological data on genes, transcripts, exons, regulatory features, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, karyotype and so forth, are imported from web services and are available as tracks. In addition, several DAS servers are already included in Genome Maps. As a novelty, this web-based genome browser allows the local upload of huge genomic data files (e.g. VCF or BAM) that can be dynamically visualized in real time at the client side, thus facilitating the management of medical data affected by privacy restrictions. Finally, Genome Maps can easily be integrated in any web application by including only a few lines of code. Genome Maps is an open source collaborative initiative available in the GitHub repository (https://github.com/compbio-bigdata-viz/genome-maps). Genome Maps is available at: http://www.genomemaps.org.

  20. Optimal primitive reference frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the smallest possible directional reference frames allowed and determine the best one can ever do in preserving quantum information in various scenarios. We find that for the preservation of a single spin state, two orthogonal spins are optimal primitive reference frames; and in a product state, they do approximately 22% as well as an infinite-sized classical frame. By adding a small amount of entanglement to the reference frame, this can be raised to 2(2/3) 5 =26%. Under the different criterion of entanglement preservation, a very similar optimal reference frame is found; however, this time it is for spins aligned at an optimal angle of 87 deg. In this case 24% of the negativity is preserved. The classical limit is considered numerically, and indicates under the criterion of entanglement preservation, that 90 deg. is selected out nonmonotonically, with a peak optimal angle of 96.5 deg. for L=3 spins.

  1. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  2. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  3. Python essential reference

    CERN Document Server

    Beazley, David M

    2009-01-01

    Python Essential Reference is the definitive reference guide to the Python programming language — the one authoritative handbook that reliably untangles and explains both the core Python language and the most essential parts of the Python library. Designed for the professional programmer, the book is concise, to the point, and highly accessible. It also includes detailed information on the Python library and many advanced subjects that is not available in either the official Python documentation or any other single reference source. Thoroughly updated to reflect the significant new programming language features and library modules that have been introduced in Python 2.6 and Python 3, the fourth edition of Python Essential Reference is the definitive guide for programmers who need to modernize existing Python code or who are planning an eventual migration to Python 3. Programmers starting a new Python project will find detailed coverage of contemporary Python programming idioms.

  4. Collaborative networks: Reference modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2008-01-01

    Collaborative Networks: Reference Modeling works to establish a theoretical foundation for Collaborative Networks. Particular emphasis is put on modeling multiple facets of collaborative networks and establishing a comprehensive modeling framework that captures and structures diverse perspectives of

  5. Ozone Standard Reference Photometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Standard Reference Photometer (SRP) Program began in the early 1980s as collaboration between NIST and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to design,...

  6. Building the sequence map of the human pan-genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruiqiang; Li, Yingrui; Zheng, Hancheng

    2010-01-01

    analysis of predicted genes indicated that the novel sequences contain potentially functional coding regions. We estimate that a complete human pan-genome would contain approximately 19-40 Mb of novel sequence not present in the extant reference genome. The extensive amount of novel sequence contributing...

  7. Arthropod genomic resources for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genome references are foundational for high quality entomological research today. Species, sub populations and taxonomy are defined by gene flow and genome sequences. Gene content in arthropods is often directly reflective of life history, for example, diet and symbiont related gene loss is observed...

  8. Mouse Models for Drug Discovery. Can New Tools and Technology Improve Translational Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuberi, Aamir; Lutz, Cathleen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of mouse models in biomedical research and preclinical drug evaluation is on the rise. The advent of new molecular genome-altering technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9 allows for genetic mutations to be introduced into the germ line of a mouse faster and less expensively than previous methods. In addition, the rapid progress in the development and use of somatic transgenesis using viral vectors, as well as manipulations of gene expression with siRNAs and antisense oligonucleotides, allow for even greater exploration into genomics and systems biology. These technological advances come at a time when cost reductions in genome sequencing have led to the identification of pathogenic mutations in patient populations, providing unprecedented opportunities in the use of mice to model human disease. The ease of genetic engineering in mice also offers a potential paradigm shift in resource sharing and the speed by which models are made available in the public domain. Predictively, the knowledge alone that a model can be quickly remade will provide relief to resources encumbered by licensing and Material Transfer Agreements. For decades, mouse strains have provided an exquisite experimental tool to study the pathophysiology of the disease and assess therapeutic options in a genetically defined system. However, a major limitation of the mouse has been the limited genetic diversity associated with common laboratory mice. This has been overcome with the recent development of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mice. These strains provide new tools capable of replicating genetic diversity to that approaching the diversity found in human populations. The Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred strains thus provide a means to observe and characterize toxicity or efficacy of new therapeutic drugs for a given population. The combination of traditional and contemporary mouse genome editing tools, along with the addition of genetic diversity in new modeling

  9. Enterprise Reference Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  10. A physical map for the Amborella trichopoda genome sheds light on the evolution of angiosperm genome structure

    OpenAIRE

    Zuccolo, Andrea; Bowers, John E; Estill, James C; Xiong, Zhiyong; Luo, Meizhong; Sebastian, Aswathy; Goicoechea, Jos? Luis; Collura, Kristi; Yu, Yeisoo; Jiao, Yuannian; Duarte, Jill; Tang, Haibao; Ayyampalayam, Saravanaraj; Rounsley, Steve; Kudrna, Dave

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome....

  11. Comparability of reference values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Stoeppler, M.

    1993-01-01

    Harmonization of certified values in Reference Materials (RMs) can be carried out by applying nuclear analytical techniques to RMs of various matrix types and concentration levels. Although RMs generally should not be used as primary standards the cross evaluation of concentrations in RMs leads to better compatibility of reference values and thus to a greater agreement between analytical results from different laboratories using these RMs for instrument calibration and quality assurance. (orig.)

  12. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  13. 2002 reference document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This 2002 reference document of the group Areva, provides information on the society. Organized in seven chapters, it presents the persons responsible for the reference document and for auditing the financial statements, information pertaining to the transaction, general information on the company and share capital, information on company operation, changes and future prospects, assets, financial position, financial performance, information on company management and executive board and supervisory board, recent developments and future prospects. (A.L.B.)

  14. Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Jie; Howie, Bryan; Mccarthy, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Imputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced at low de...

  15. Improved imputation of low-frequency and rare variants using the UK10K haplotype reference panel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Huang (Jie); B. Howie (Bryan); S. McCarthy (Shane); Y. Memari (Yasin); K. Walter (Klaudia); J.L. Min (Josine L.); P. Danecek (Petr); G. Malerba (Giovanni); E. Trabetti (Elisabetta); H.-F. Zheng (Hou-Feng); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); J.B. Richards (Brent); R. Durbin (Richard); N.J. Timpson (Nicholas); J. Marchini (Jonathan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); S.H. Al Turki (Saeed); A. Amuzu (Antoinette); C. Anderson (Carl); R. Anney (Richard); D. Antony (Dinu); M.S. Artigas; M. Ayub (Muhammad); S. Bala (Senduran); J.C. Barrett (Jeffrey); I.E. Barroso (Inês); P.L. Beales (Philip); M. Benn (Marianne); J. Bentham (Jamie); S. Bhattacharya (Shoumo); E. Birney (Ewan); D.H.R. Blackwood (Douglas); M. Bobrow (Martin); E. Bochukova (Elena); P.F. Bolton (Patrick F.); R. Bounds (Rebecca); C. Boustred (Chris); G. Breen (Gerome); M. Calissano (Mattia); K. Carss (Keren); J.P. Casas (Juan Pablo); J.C. Chambers (John C.); R. Charlton (Ruth); K. Chatterjee (Krishna); L. Chen (Lu); A. Ciampi (Antonio); S. Cirak (Sebahattin); P. Clapham (Peter); G. Clement (Gail); G. Coates (Guy); M. Cocca (Massimiliano); D.A. Collier (David); C. Cosgrove (Catherine); T. Cox (Tony); N.J. Craddock (Nick); L. Crooks (Lucy); S. Curran (Sarah); D. Curtis (David); A. Daly (Allan); I.N.M. Day (Ian N.M.); A.G. Day-Williams (Aaron); G.V. Dedoussis (George); T. Down (Thomas); Y. Du (Yuanping); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); I. Dunham (Ian); T. Edkins (Ted); R. Ekong (Rosemary); P. Ellis (Peter); D.M. Evans (David); I.S. Farooqi (I. Sadaf); D.R. Fitzpatrick (David R.); P. Flicek (Paul); J. Floyd (James); A.R. Foley (A. Reghan); C.S. Franklin (Christopher S.); M. Futema (Marta); L. Gallagher (Louise); P. Gasparini (Paolo); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); M. Geihs (Matthias); D. Geschwind (Daniel); C.M.T. Greenwood (Celia); H. Griffin (Heather); D. Grozeva (Detelina); X. Guo (Xiaosen); X. Guo (Xueqin); H. Gurling (Hugh); D. Hart (Deborah); A.E. Hendricks (Audrey E.); P.A. Holmans (Peter A.); L. Huang (Liren); T. Hubbard (Tim); S.E. Humphries (Steve E.); M.E. Hurles (Matthew); P.G. Hysi (Pirro); V. Iotchkova (Valentina); A. Isaacs (Aaron); D.K. Jackson (David K.); Y. Jamshidi (Yalda); J. Johnson (Jon); C. Joyce (Chris); K.J. Karczewski (Konrad); J. Kaye (Jane); T. Keane (Thomas); J.P. Kemp (John); K. Kennedy (Karen); A. Kent (Alastair); J. Keogh (Julia); F. Khawaja (Farrah); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); M. Van Kogelenberg (Margriet); A. Kolb-Kokocinski (Anja); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); G. Lachance (Genevieve); C. Langenberg (Claudia); C. Langford (Cordelia); D. Lawson (Daniel); I. Lee (Irene); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); M. Lek (Monkol); R. Li (Rui); Y. Li (Yingrui); J. Liang (Jieqin); H. Lin (Hong); R. Liu (Ryan); J. Lönnqvist (Jouko); L.R. Lopes (Luis R.); M.C. Lopes (Margarida); J. Luan; D.G. MacArthur (Daniel G.); M. Mangino (Massimo); G. Marenne (Gaëlle); W. März (Winfried); J. Maslen (John); A. Matchan (Angela); I. Mathieson (Iain); P. McGuffin (Peter); A.M. McIntosh (Andrew); A.G. McKechanie (Andrew G.); A. McQuillin (Andrew); S. Metrustry (Sarah); N. Migone (Nicola); H.M. Mitchison (Hannah M.); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); J. Morris (James); R. Morris (Richard); D. Muddyman (Dawn); F. Muntoni; B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge G.); K. Northstone (Kate); M.C. O'donovan (Michael); S. O'Rahilly (Stephen); A. Onoufriadis (Alexandros); K. Oualkacha (Karim); M.J. Owen (Michael J.); A. Palotie (Aarno); K. Panoutsopoulou (Kalliope); V. Parker (Victoria); J.R. Parr (Jeremy R.); L. Paternoster (Lavinia); T. Paunio (Tiina); F. Payne (Felicity); S.J. Payne (Stewart J.); J.R.B. Perry (John); O.P.H. Pietiläinen (Olli); V. Plagnol (Vincent); R.C. Pollitt (Rebecca C.); S. Povey (Sue); M.A. Quail (Michael A.); L. Quaye (Lydia); L. Raymond (Lucy); K. Rehnström (Karola); C.K. Ridout (Cheryl K.); S.M. Ring (Susan); G.R.S. Ritchie (Graham R.S.); N. Roberts (Nicola); R.L. Robinson (Rachel L.); D.B. Savage (David); P.J. Scambler (Peter); S. Schiffels (Stephan); M. Schmidts (Miriam); N. Schoenmakers (Nadia); R.H. Scott (Richard H.); R.A. Scott (Robert); R.K. Semple (Robert K.); E. Serra (Eva); S.I. Sharp (Sally I.); A.C. Shaw (Adam C.); H.A. Shihab (Hashem A.); S.-Y. Shin (So-Youn); D. Skuse (David); K.S. Small (Kerrin); C. Smee (Carol); G.D. Smith; L. Southam (Lorraine); O. Spasic-Boskovic (Olivera); T.D. Spector (Timothy); D. St. Clair (David); B. St Pourcain (Beate); J. Stalker (Jim); E. Stevens (Elizabeth); J. Sun (Jianping); G. Surdulescu (Gabriela); J. Suvisaari (Jaana); P. Syrris (Petros); I. Tachmazidou (Ioanna); R. Taylor (Rohan); J. Tian (Jing); M.D. Tobin (Martin); D. Toniolo (Daniela); M. Traglia (Michela); A. Tybjaerg-Hansen; A.M. Valdes; A.M. Vandersteen (Anthony M.); A. Varbo (Anette); P. Vijayarangakannan (Parthiban); P.M. Visscher (Peter); L.V. Wain (Louise); J.T. Walters (James); G. Wang (Guangbiao); J. Wang (Jun); Y. Wang (Yu); K. Ward (Kirsten); E. Wheeler (Eleanor); P.H. Whincup (Peter); T. Whyte (Tamieka); H.J. Williams (Hywel J.); K.A. Williamson (Kathleen); C. Wilson (Crispian); S.G. Wilson (Scott); K. Wong (Kim); C. Xu (Changjiang); J. Yang (Jian); G. Zaza (Gianluigi); E. Zeggini (Eleftheria); F. Zhang (Feng); P. Zhang (Pingbo); W. Zhang (Weihua)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractImputing genotypes from reference panels created by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) provides a cost-effective strategy for augmenting the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) content of genome-wide arrays. The UK10K Cohorts project has generated a data set of 3,781 whole genomes sequenced

  16. Genomic analyses of the CAM plant pineapple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jisen; Liu, Juan; Ming, Ray

    2014-07-01

    The innovation of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis in arid and/or low CO2 conditions is a remarkable case of adaptation in flowering plants. As the most important crop that utilizes CAM photosynthesis, the genetic and genomic resources of pineapple have been developed over many years. Genetic diversity studies using various types of DNA markers led to the reclassification of the two genera Ananas and Pseudananas and nine species into one genus Ananas and two species, A. comosus and A. macrodontes with five botanical varieties in A. comosus. Five genetic maps have been constructed using F1 or F2 populations, and high-density genetic maps generated by genotype sequencing are essential resources for sequencing and assembling the pineapple genome and for marker-assisted selection. There are abundant expression sequence tag resources but limited genomic sequences in pineapple. Genes involved in the CAM pathway has been analysed in several CAM plants but only a few of them are from pineapple. A reference genome of pineapple is being generated and will accelerate genetic and genomic research in this major CAM crop. This reference genome of pineapple provides the foundation for studying the origin and regulatory mechanism of CAM photosynthesis, and the opportunity to evaluate the classification of Ananas species and botanical cultivars. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Léguillier, Teddy; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Artus, Jérôme; Houlard, Martin; Picard, Christel; Bernex, Florence; Robine, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically req...

  18. Cardiac disease and arrhythmogenesis: Mechanistic insights from mouse models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Choy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The mouse is the second mammalian species, after the human, in which substantial amount of the genomic information has been analyzed. With advances in transgenic technology, mutagenesis is now much easier to carry out in mice. Consequently, an increasing number of transgenic mouse systems have been generated for the study of cardiac arrhythmias in ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Mouse hearts are also amenable to physical manipulation such as coronary artery ligation and transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure, radiofrequency ablation of the AV node to model complete AV block and even implantation of a miniature pacemaker to induce cardiac dyssynchrony. Last but not least, pharmacological models, despite being simplistic, have enabled us to understand the physiological mechanisms of arrhythmias and evaluate the anti-arrhythmic properties of experimental agents, such as gap junction modulators, that may be exert therapeutic effects in other cardiac diseases. In this article, we examine these in turn, demonstrating that primary inherited arrhythmic syndromes are now recognized to be more complex than abnormality in a particular ion channel, involving alterations in gene expression and structural remodelling. Conversely, in cardiomyopathies and heart failure, mutations in ion channels and proteins have been identified as underlying causes, and electrophysiological remodelling are recognized pathological features. Transgenic techniques causing mutagenesis in mice are extremely powerful in dissecting the relative contributions of different genes play in producing disease phenotypes. Mouse models can serve as useful systems in which to explore how protein defects contribute to arrhythmias and direct future therapy.

  19. GenomePeek—an online tool for prokaryotic genome and metagenome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn McNai