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Sample records for mouse mandible common

  1. Microarray analysis of mandible regionalization during mouse development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langová, Petra; Balková, Simona; Buchtová, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, Suppl 1 (2015), S24-S24 ISSN 1213-8118. [Morphology 2015. International Congress of the Czech Anatomical Society /49./. Lojda Symposium on Histochemistry /52./. 06.09.2015-08.09.2015, Olomouc] R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37368G Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : mouse development Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  2. Micro-evolutionary divergence patterns of mandible shapes in wild house mouse (Mus musculus populations

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    Tautz Diethard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the micro-evolutionary patterns of morphological traits require an assessment of the natural variation of the trait within and between populations and closely related species. The mouse mandible is a particularly suitable morphological trait for such an analysis, since it has long been used as a model to study the quantitative genetics of shape. In addition, many distinct populations, sub-species and closely related species are known for the house mouse. However, morphological comparisons among wild caught animals require an assessment in how far environmental and technical factors could interfere with the shape change measurements. Results Using geometric morphometrics, we have surveyed mandible shapes in 15 natural populations of the genus Mus, with a focus on the subspecies Mus musculus domesticus. In parallel we have carefully assessed possibly confounding technical and biological factors. We find that there are distinct differences on average between populations, subspecies and species, but these differences are smaller than differences between individuals within populations. Populations from summer-dry regions, although more ancestral, are less distinct from each other than are populations from the more recently colonized northern areas. Populations with especially distinct shapes occur in an area of sympatry of M. m. domesticus and M. spretus and on recently colonized sub-antarctic islands. We have also studied a number of inbred strains to assess in how far their mandible shapes resemble those from the wild. We find that they fall indeed into the shape space of natural variation between individuals in populations. Conclusions Although mandible shapes in natural populations can be influenced by environmental variables, these influences are insufficient to explain the average extent of shape differences between populations, such that evolutionary processes must be invoked to explain this level of diversity

  3. Anatomical and Radiographic Study on the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caribbean

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    Reda Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Common opossums (Didelphis marsupialis are found throughout the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The present work was conducted on 10 skulls and mandibles of the common opossum to describe the osteology and foramina of these skulls and mandibles grossly and radiographically. The information that is garnered can be used to detect, diagnose, and treat head affections, as well as for comparative studies with the skulls and mandibles of other similar species. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. All of the characteristic features of various standards views of the skulls bones, including dorsal, lateral, caudal and midsagittal, and the lateral and caudal views of the mandibles as well as the foramina of the skulls and mandibles were described and discussed. Each skull was divided into long facial and short cranial regions. No supraorbital foramen was observed in the skulls. The tympanic bulla was absent while there was the tympanic process of the alisphenoid. The temporal process of the zygomatic bone, zygomatic process of maxilla, and zygomatic process of the squamosal bone formed the zygomatic arch. The dental formula was confirmed. The bones and foramina of the skull and mandible were similar to other marsupial species and were homologue to that of other mammals.

  4. Mandible Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Brent B; Serebrakian, Arman T; Maricevich, Renata S

    2017-05-01

    Mandible fractures account for a significant portion of maxillofacial injuries and the evaluation, diagnosis, and management of these fractures remain challenging despite improved imaging technology and fixation techniques. Understanding appropriate surgical management can prevent complications such as malocclusion, pain, and revision procedures. Depending on the type and location of the fractures, various open and closed surgical reduction techniques can be utilized. In this article, the authors review the diagnostic evaluation, treatment options, and common complications of mandible fractures. Special considerations are described for pediatric and atrophic mandibles.

  5. A Descriptive Morphometric Approach of the Skull and Mandible of the Common Opossum (Didelphis Marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 in the Caribbean and its Clinical Application during Regional Anaesthesia

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    Reda Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric values of the skull and the mandible of the common opossum from the Caribbean island of Trinidad and Tobago. The skulls and mandibles were obtained from ten opossums captured for research purposes. The skulls and mandibles were prepared and cleaned using standard method. Some anatomical landmarks of the skulls and mandibles were identified and measured. The results were important for identification of the common opossum via comparison and discussion of our results with that of other marsupial species. Furthermore, the results had clinical importance with regard to regional nerve blocks of the infraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerves for dental extraction and head surgery. This study concluded that by using the anatomical landmarks of the infraorbital and mental foramina it will be easier for the veterinarian surgeons during the application of local anesthetic agent for the infraorbital, inferior alveolar, and mental nerve blocks.

  6. Performance of single and multi-atlas based automated landmarking methods compared to expert annotations in volumetric microCT datasets of mouse mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan; Maga, A Murat

    2015-01-01

    Here we present an application of advanced registration and atlas building framework DRAMMS to the automated annotation of mouse mandibles through a series of tests using single and multi-atlas segmentation paradigms and compare the outcomes to the current gold standard, manual annotation. Our results showed multi-atlas annotation procedure yields landmark precisions within the human observer error range. The mean shape estimates from gold standard and multi-atlas annotation procedure were statistically indistinguishable for both Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (mean form matrix) and Generalized Procrustes Analysis (Goodall F-test). Further research needs to be done to validate the consistency of variance-covariance matrix estimates from both methods with larger sample sizes. Multi-atlas annotation procedure shows promise as a framework to facilitate truly high-throughput phenomic analyses by channeling investigators efforts to annotate only a small portion of their datasets.

  7. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor of mandible

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    Ankita Bohra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratocystic odontogenic tumor is considered to be a benign cystic neoplasia of jaw bone with a higher rate of recurrence. It is noted to be third most common odontogenic cyst after radicular and dentigerous cyst. Most common location is posterior mandible and ascending ramus. A case with odontogenic keratocyst of the right posterior mandible is presented with proper clinical and radiographic examinations along with histopathological investigation. Cystic lesion was surgically resected with iliac crest bone graft replacement and reconstruction plate placement. Follow-up of 1 year is completed with repeated radiographic examinations in 4 months interval with no evidence of recurrence.

  8. Postnatal mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice: Differences revealed from bone remodeling patterns and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Molinero, Amalia; Ventura, Jacint

    2017-08-01

    Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics. Through ontogeny, the two mouse groups display similar directions of mandible growth, according to the temporospatial distribution of bone remodeling fields. The allometric shape variation of the mandibles of these mice entails the relative enlargement of the ascending ramus. The organization of the mandible into two modules is confirmed in both groups during the last postnatal weeks. However, especially after weaning, the mandibles of wild and laboratory mice differ in the timing and localization of several remodeling fields, in addition to exhibiting different patterns of shape variation and differences in size. The stimulation of dentary bone growth derived from the harder post-weaning diet might account for some features of postnatal mandible growth common to both groups. Nonetheless, a large component of the postnatal growth of the mouse mandible appears to be driven by the inherent genetic programs, which might explain between-group differences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Common themes and cell type specific variations of higher order chromatin arrangements in the mouse

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    Cremer Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Similarities as well as differences in higher order chromatin arrangements of human cell types were previously reported. For an evolutionary comparison, we now studied the arrangements of chromosome territories and centromere regions in six mouse cell types (lymphocytes, embryonic stem cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, myoblasts and myotubes with fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Both species evolved pronounced differences in karyotypes after their last common ancestors lived about 87 million years ago and thus seem particularly suited to elucidate common and cell type specific themes of higher order chromatin arrangements in mammals. Results All mouse cell types showed non-random correlations of radial chromosome territory positions with gene density as well as with chromosome size. The distribution of chromosome territories and pericentromeric heterochromatin changed during differentiation, leading to distinct cell type specific distribution patterns. We exclude a strict dependence of these differences on nuclear shape. Positional differences in mouse cell nuclei were less pronounced compared to human cell nuclei in agreement with smaller differences in chromosome size and gene density. Notably, the position of chromosome territories relative to each other was very variable. Conclusion Chromosome territory arrangements according to chromosome size and gene density provide common, evolutionary conserved themes in both, human and mouse cell types. Our findings are incompatible with a previously reported model of parental genome separation.

  10. The common parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colinot, Darrelle L; Garbuz, Tamila; Bosland, Maarten C; Wang, Liang; Rice, Susan E; Sullivan, William J; Arrizabalaga, Gustavo; Jerde, Travis J

    2017-07-01

    Inflammation is the most prevalent and widespread histological finding in the human prostate, and associates with the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Several factors have been hypothesized to cause inflammation, yet the role each may play in the etiology of prostatic inflammation remains unclear. This study examined the possibility that the common protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii induces prostatic inflammation and reactive hyperplasia in a mouse model. Male mice were infected systemically with T. gondii parasites and prostatic inflammation was scored based on severity and focality of infiltrating leukocytes and epithelial hyperplasia. We characterized inflammatory cells with flow cytometry and the resulting epithelial proliferation with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. We found that T. gondii infects the mouse prostate within the first 14 days of infection and can establish parasite cysts that persist for at least 60 days. T. gondii infection induces a substantial and chronic inflammatory reaction in the mouse prostate characterized by monocytic and lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate. T. gondii-induced inflammation results in reactive hyperplasia, involving basal and luminal epithelial proliferation, and the exhibition of proliferative inflammatory microglandular hyperplasia in inflamed mouse prostates. This study identifies the common parasite T. gondii as a new trigger of prostatic inflammation, which we used to develop a novel mouse model of prostatic inflammation. This is the first report that T. gondii chronically encysts and induces chronic inflammation within the prostate of any species. Furthermore, T. gondii-induced prostatic inflammation persists and progresses without genetic manipulation in mice, offering a powerful new mouse model for the study of chronic prostatic inflammation and microglandular hyperplasia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plexiform Ameloblastoma of the Mandible

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    Dinesh Singh Chauhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastoma is a common and aggressive odontogenic epithelial tumor. It has an aggressive behavior and recurrent course, and is rarely metastatic. Ameloblastoma represents 1% of all tumors and cysts that involve the maxillomandibular area and about 10% of the odontogenic tumors. It is primarily seen in adults in the third to fifth decade of life, with equal sex predilection. Radiographically, it appears as an expansile radiolucent, with thinned and perforated cortices, and is known to cause root resorption. As it shares common radiographic features with other lesions such as the giant cell tumor, aneurismal bone cyst, and renal cell carcinoma metastasis, a definitive diagnosis can only be made with histopathology. We present an extensive case of plexiform ameloblastoma of the mandible in a 42-year-old female patient.

  12. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents mathematical and computational techniques for three dimensional growth modeling applied to human mandibles. The longitudinal shape changes make the mandible a complex bone. The teeth erupt and the condylar processes change direction, from pointing predominantly backward...... of the common features. 3.model the process that moves the matched points (growth modeling). A local shape feature called crest line has shown itself to be structurally stable on mandibles. Registration of crest lines (from different mandibles) results in a sparse deformation field, which must be interpolated...... old mandible based on the 3 month old scan. When using successively more recent scans as basis for the model the error drops to 2.0 mm for the 11 years old scan. Thus, it seems reasonable to assume that the mandibular growth is linear....

  13. Automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir Hossein; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-10-01

    As the panoramic x-ray is the most common extraoral radiography in dentistry, segmentation of its anatomical structures facilitates diagnosis and registration of dental records. This study presents a fast and accurate method for automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-rays. In the proposed four-step algorithm, a superior border is extracted through horizontal integral projections. A modified Canny edge detector accompanied by morphological operators extracts the inferior border of the mandible body. The exterior borders of ramuses are extracted through a contour tracing method based on the average model of mandible. The best-matched template is fetched from the atlas of mandibles to complete the contour of left and right processes. The algorithm was tested on a set of 95 panoramic x-rays. Evaluating the results against manual segmentations of three expert dentists showed that the method is robust. It achieved an average performance of [Formula: see text] in Dice similarity, specificity, and sensitivity.

  14. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

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    Lauren Lederle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ. We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach

  15. Reward-related behavioral paradigms for addiction research in the mouse: performance of common inbred strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederle, Lauren; Weber, Susanna; Wright, Tara; Feyder, Michael; Brigman, Jonathan L; Crombag, Hans S; Saksida, Lisa M; Bussey, Timothy J; Holmes, Andrew

    2011-01-10

    The mouse has emerged as a uniquely valuable species for studying the molecular and genetic basis of complex behaviors and modeling neuropsychiatric disease states. While valid and reliable preclinical assays for reward-related behaviors are critical to understanding addiction-related processes, and various behavioral procedures have been developed and characterized in rats and primates, there have been relatively few studies using operant-based addiction-relevant behavioral paradigms in the mouse. Here we describe the performance of the C57BL/6J inbred mouse strain on three major reward-related paradigms, and replicate the same procedures in two other commonly used inbred strains (DBA/2J, BALB/cJ). We examined Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) by measuring the ability of an auditory cue associated with food reward to promote an instrumental (lever press) response. In a separate experiment, we assessed the acquisition and extinction of a simple stimulus-reward instrumental behavior on a touch screen based task. Reinstatement of this behavior was then examined following either continuous exposure to cues (conditioned reinforcers, CRs) associated with reward, brief reward and CR exposure, or brief reward exposure followed by continuous CR exposure. The third paradigm examined sensitivity of an instrumental (lever press) response to devaluation of food reward (a probe for outcome insensitive, habitual behavior) by repeated pairing with malaise. Results showed that C57BL/6J mice displayed robust PIT, as well as clear extinction and reinstatement, but were insensitive to reinforcer devaluation. DBA/2J mice showed good PIT and (rewarded) reinstatement, but were slow to extinguish and did not show reinforcer devaluation or significant CR-reinstatement. BALB/cJ mice also displayed good PIT, extinction and reinstatement, and retained instrumental responding following devaluation, but, unlike the other strains, demonstrated reduced Pavlovian approach behavior (food

  16. REVIEW OF 40 CASES OF ISOLATED FRACTURE MANDIBLE

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    Shashikant Kondiram Mhashal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mandible fractures are a frequent injury because of the mandible's prominence and relative lack of support. The purpose of this study is to clinically determine the most common sites and the prevalence of isolated fracture mandible in our scenario and determine most common traumatic aetiology factor responsible for fracture mandible. Numerous investigators have reported studies on populations on all continents; fractures of the mandible have been reported to account for 36-70% of all maxillofacial fractures. All reports apparently show a higher frequency in males aged 21-30 yrs. There is an emerging trend towards an increase in the frequency of violent mechanisms of fracture and in the proportion of adolescents and young adults sustaining such injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients treated at the Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery Department of B.D.B.A. Hospital from a period between January 2014 to January2016 were (retrospectively evaluated with respect to age groups, gender, aetiology, localisation, type of fractures and treatment. RESULTS Total number of patients 38, 2 patients had bilateral fracture, males 27 (71.05%, females 11 (28.95%. Anatomical location symphysis and parasymphysis 14 (35%, condylar 12 (30%, body 7 (17.5%, angle 6 (15%, coronoid 1 (2.5%. Aetiological factors road traffic accidents 19 (50%, assault 13 (34.24%, fall 3 (7.89%, work-related trauma 2 (5.26%, sports trauma 1 (2.6%. CONCLUSION This study indicates that most common fracture in adult patient were symphysis and parasymphysis, second most common were condylar followed by body fracture and angle fracture. The most common cause of the injury maybe road traffic accidents, second most common assault followed by work related injuries, fall and sports injuries.

  17. Immediate Oral Rehabilitation of Atrophic Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    Batista Mendes GC; Padovan LEM; da Silva WS; Ribeiro-Junior PD

    2016-01-01

    The oral rehabilitation using osseointegrated implants in atrophic mandibles (AM) with severe bone resorption remains a surgical and prosthetic challenge, due to the risk of mandible fracture during implant surgery or under functional loading, paresthesia and pain. A patient with severe atrophic mandible was treated using a 2.0 locking system reconstruction plate combined with dental implants, in immediate loading system. Surgery was performed through intraoral approach and preserving mental ...

  18. Therapeutic Challenge in a Severely Atrophic Mandible

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    Edvard Janev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: After tooth loss, however, severely atrophic residual alveolar ridges are fairly common, especially in patients who have been edentulous for a long period. Anterior area of the mandible is areas where clinicians have greater anatomical limitations. Reduced alveolar bone height very often represents a contraindication to implant therapy, unless a procedure such as a ridge augmentation is performed. CASE REPORT: This study aims to present two separate cases in highly selected edentulous anterior mandibular sites, where one stage, mini implants were used to support total prostheses. Small diameter implants have been used for retention of complete removable mandibular overdentures. This is an excellent option for those who suffer from the inconvenience and embarrassment of loose lower dentures and are tired of having to use sticky pastes and creams to make their dentures stay in place. CONCLUSION: Small diameter implants, when used multiples may offer adequate support for a removable prosthesis and overcome this problem.

  19. Therapeutic Challenge in a Severely Atrophic Mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janev, Edvard; Janeva, Nadica; Peeva–Petreska, Marija; Mitic, Kristina

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After tooth loss, however, severely atrophic residual alveolar ridges are fairly common, especially in patients who have been edentulous for a long period. Anterior area of the mandible is areas where clinicians have greater anatomical limitations. Reduced alveolar bone height very often represents a contraindication to implant therapy, unless a procedure such as a ridge augmentation is performed. CASE REPORT: This study aims to present two separate cases in highly selected edentulous anterior mandibular sites, where one stage, mini implants were used to support total prostheses. Small diameter implants have been used for retention of complete removable mandibular overdentures. This is an excellent option for those who suffer from the inconvenience and embarrassment of loose lower dentures and are tired of having to use sticky pastes and creams to make their dentures stay in place. CONCLUSION: Small diameter implants, when used multiples may offer adequate support for a removable prosthesis and overcome this problem. PMID:29610621

  20. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Viola; Gau, Christine; Scheideler, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse...... material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions....

  1. In vitro and in vivo properties of human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saga, T.; Endo, K.; Koizumi, M.; Kawamura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Konishi, J.; Ueda, R.; Nishimura, Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Watanabe, T.

    1990-01-01

    A human/mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody specific for a common acute lymphocytic leukemia antigen was efficiently obtained by ligating human heavy-chain enhancer element to the chimeric heavy- and light-chain genes. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays of both radioiodine and indium-111- (111In) labeled chimeric antibodies demonstrated in vitro immunoreactivity identical with that of the parental murine monoclonal antibodies. The biodistribution of the radiolabeled chimeric antibody in tumor-bearing nude mice was similar to that of the parental murine antibody. Tumor accumulation of radioiodinated parental and chimeric antibodies was lower than that of 111 In-labeled antibodies, probably because of dehalogenation of the radioiodinated antibodies. Indium-111-labeled chimeric antibody clearly visualized xenografted tumor. These results suggest that a human/mouse chimeric antibody can be labeled with 111 In and radioiodine without the loss of its immunoreactivity, and that chimeric antibody localizes in vivo in the same way as the parental murine antibody

  2. Evidence based selection of commonly used RT-qPCR reference genes for the analysis of mouse skeletal muscle.

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    Kristen C Thomas

    Full Text Available The ability to obtain accurate and reproducible data using quantitative real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR is limited by the process of data normalization. The use of 'housekeeping' or 'reference' genes is the most common technique used to normalize RT-qPCR data. However, commonly used reference genes are often poorly validated and may change as a result of genetic background, environment and experimental intervention. Here we present an analysis of 10 reference genes in mouse skeletal muscle (Actb, Aldoa, Gapdh, Hprt1, Ppia, Rer1, Rn18s, Rpl27, Rpl41 and Rpl7L1, which were identified as stable either by microarray or in the literature. Using the MIQE guidelines we compared wild-type (WT mice across three genetic backgrounds (R129, C57BL/6j and C57BL/10 as well as analyzing the α-actinin-3 knockout (Actn3 KO mouse, which is a model of the common null polymorphism (R577X in human ACTN3. Comparing WT mice across three genetic backgrounds, we found that different genes were more tightly regulated in each strain. We have developed a ranked profile of the top performing reference genes in skeletal muscle across these common mouse strains. Interestingly the commonly used reference genes; Gapdh, Rn18s, Hprt1 and Actb were not the most stable. Analysis of our experimental variant (Actn3 KO also resulted in an altered ranking of reference gene suitability. Furthermore we demonstrate that a poor reference gene results in increased variability in the normalized expression of a gene of interest, and can result in loss of significance. Our data demonstrate that reference genes need to be validated prior to use. For the most accurate normalization, it is important to test several genes and use the geometric mean of at least three of the most stably expressed genes. In the analysis of mouse skeletal muscle, strain and intervention played an important role in selecting the most stable reference genes.

  3. Impaired fear extinction learning and cortico-amygdala circuit abnormalities in a common genetic mouse strain

    OpenAIRE

    Hefner, Kathryn; Whittle, Nigel; Juhasz, Jaynann; Norcross, Maxine; Karlsson, Rose-Marie; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Fear extinction is a form of new learning that results in the inhibition of conditioned fear. Trait deficits in fear extinction are a risk factor for anxiety disorders. There are few examples of naturally-occurring animal models of impaired extinction. The present study compared fear extinction in a panel of inbred mouse strains. This strain survey revealed an impairment in fear extinction in 129/SvImJ (129S1). The phenotypic specificity of this deficit was evaluated by comparing 129S1 and C5...

  4. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola André

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse husbandry without creating a divide between past and future experimental results. Previous small-scale studies have been inconsistent throughout the literature, and it is not yet completely understood whether and how enrichment might endanger comparability of results of scientific experiments. Here, we measured the effect on means and variability of 164 physiological parameters in 3 conditions: with nesting material with or without a shelter, comparing these 2 conditions to a "barren" regime without any enrichments. We studied a total of 360 mice from each of 2 mouse strains (C57BL/6NTac and DBA/2NCrl and both sexes for each of the 3 conditions. Our study indicates that enrichment affects the mean values of some of the 164 parameters with no consistent effects on variability. However, the influence of enrichment appears negligible compared to the effects of other influencing factors. Therefore, nesting material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions.

  5. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Christine; Scheideler, Angelika; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan A.; Amarie, Oana V.; Becker, Lore; Garrett, Lillian; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M.; Janik, Dirk; Moreth, Kristin; Neff, Frauke; Östereicher, Manuela; Racz, Ildiko; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rozman, Jan; Bekeredjian, Raffi; Graw, Jochen; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Ollert, Markus; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Brielmeier, Markus; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse husbandry without creating a divide between past and future experimental results. Previous small-scale studies have been inconsistent throughout the literature, and it is not yet completely understood whether and how enrichment might endanger comparability of results of scientific experiments. Here, we measured the effect on means and variability of 164 physiological parameters in 3 conditions: with nesting material with or without a shelter, comparing these 2 conditions to a “barren” regime without any enrichments. We studied a total of 360 mice from each of 2 mouse strains (C57BL/6NTac and DBA/2NCrl) and both sexes for each of the 3 conditions. Our study indicates that enrichment affects the mean values of some of the 164 parameters with no consistent effects on variability. However, the influence of enrichment appears negligible compared to the effects of other influencing factors. Therefore, nesting material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions. PMID:29659570

  6. The common mouse protozoa Tritrichomonas muris alters mucosal T cell homeostasis and colitis susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, Nichole K; Lemire, Paul; Cruz Tleugabulova, Mayra; Prescott, David; Mortha, Arthur; Streutker, Catherine J; Girardin, Stephen E; Philpott, Dana J; Mallevaey, Thierry

    2016-12-12

    The mammalian gastrointestinal tract hosts a diverse community of microbes including bacteria, fungi, protozoa, helminths, and viruses. Through coevolution, mammals and these microbes have developed a symbiosis that is sustained through the host's continuous sensing of microbial factors and the generation of a tolerant or pro-inflammatory response. While analyzing T cell-driven colitis in nonlittermate mouse strains, we serendipitously identified that a nongenetic transmissible factor dramatically increased disease susceptibility. We identified the protozoan Tritrichomonas muris as the disease-exacerbating element. Furthermore, experimental colonization with T. muris induced an elevated Th1 response in the cecum of naive wild-type mice and accelerated colitis in Rag1 -/- mice after T cell transfer. Overall, we describe a novel cross-kingdom interaction within the murine gut that alters immune cell homeostasis and disease susceptibility. This example of unpredicted microbial priming of the immune response highlights the importance of studying trans-kingdom interactions and serves as a stark reminder of the importance of using littermate controls in all mouse research. © 2016 Escalante et al.

  7. Temperature-dependent innate defense against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxman, Ellen F; Storer, James A; Fitzgerald, Megan E; Wasik, Bethany R; Hou, Lin; Zhao, Hongyu; Turner, Paul E; Pyle, Anna Marie; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2015-01-20

    Most isolates of human rhinovirus, the common cold virus, replicate more robustly at the cool temperatures found in the nasal cavity (33-35 °C) than at core body temperature (37 °C). To gain insight into the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, we compared the transcriptional response of primary mouse airway epithelial cells infected with rhinovirus at 33 °C vs. 37 °C. Mouse airway cells infected with mouse-adapted rhinovirus 1B exhibited a striking enrichment in expression of antiviral defense response genes at 37 °C relative to 33 °C, which correlated with significantly higher expression levels of type I and type III IFN genes and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) at 37 °C. Temperature-dependent IFN induction in response to rhinovirus was dependent on the MAVS protein, a key signaling adaptor of the RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs). Stimulation of primary airway cells with the synthetic RLR ligand poly I:C led to greater IFN induction at 37 °C relative to 33 °C at early time points poststimulation and to a sustained increase in the induction of ISGs at 37 °C relative to 33 °C. Recombinant type I IFN also stimulated more robust induction of ISGs at 37 °C than at 33 °C. Genetic deficiency of MAVS or the type I IFN receptor in infected airway cells permitted higher levels of viral replication, particularly at 37 °C, and partially rescued the temperature-dependent growth phenotype. These findings demonstrate that in mouse airway cells, rhinovirus replicates preferentially at nasal cavity temperature due, in part, to a less efficient antiviral defense response of infected cells at cool temperature.

  8. Large Peripheral Osteoma of the Mandible: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Bulut

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteomas are benign, slow-growing osteogenic tumors commonly occurring in the craniofacial bones. Osteomas are characterized by the proliferation of compact and/or cancellous bone. It can be of a central, peripheral, or extraskeletal type. The peripheral type arises from the periosteum and is rarely seen in the mandible. The lingual surface and lower border of the body are the most common locations of these lesions. They are usually asymptomatic and can be discovered in routine clinical and radiographic examination. In this paper, we presented a large solitary peripheral osteoma located in the buccal surface of the left posterior mandible and causing facial deformity in a 37-year-old woman. Radiographic examination by computed tomography revealed radiopacity with a well-circumscribed, pedunculated mass approximately 3 cm in size. The osteoma was removed surgically, and no recurrence has been observed.

  9. Automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-ray

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Amir Hossein; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-01-01

    As the panoramic x-ray is the most common extraoral radiography in dentistry, segmentation of its anatomical structures facilitates diagnosis and registration of dental records. This study presents a fast and accurate method for automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-rays. In the proposed four-step algorithm, a superior border is extracted through horizontal integral projections. A modified Canny edge detector accompanied by morphological operators extracts the inferior border of t...

  10. Fractures of the growing mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, George M; Tiwana, Paul S

    2009-03-01

    Oral and maxillofacial surgeons must constantly weigh the risks of surgical intervention for pediatric mandible fractures against the wonderful healing capacity of children. The majority of pediatric mandibular fractures can be managed with closed techniques using short periods of maxillomandibular fixation or training elastics alone. Generally, the use of plate- and screw-type internal fixation is reserved for difficult fractures. This article details general and special considerations for this surgery including: craniofacial growth & development, surgical anatomy, epidemiology evaluation, various fractures, the role rigid internal fixation and the Risdon cable in pediatric maxillofacial trauma. It concludes with suggestions concerning long-term follow-up care in light of the mobility, insurance obstacles, and family dynamics facing the patient population.

  11. Dynamic simulation and finite element analysis of the human mandible injury protected by polyvinyl alcohol sponge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi, E-mail: mnavid@iust.ac.ir; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    There have been intensive efforts to find a suitable kinetic energy absorbing material for helmet and bulletproof vest design. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is currently in extensive use as scaffolding material for tissue engineering applications. PVA can also be employed instead of commonly use kinetic energy absorbing materials to increase the kinetic energy absorption capacity of current helmet and bulletproof vest materials owing to its excellent mechanical properties. In this study, a combined hexahedral finite element (FE) model is established to determine the potential protection ability of PVA sponge in controlling the level of injury for gunshot wounds to the human mandible. Digital computed tomography data for the human mandible are used to establish a three-dimensional FE model of the human mandible. The mechanism by which a gunshot injures the protected mandible by PVA sponge is dynamically simulated using the LS-DYNA code under two different shot angles. The stress distributions in different parts of the mandible and sponge after injury are also simulated. The modeling results regardless of shot angle reveal that the substantial amount of kinetic energy of the steel ball (67%) is absorbed by the PVA sponge and, consequently, injury severity of the mandible is significantly decreased. The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. The results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and bulletproof vest design to absorb most of the impact energy and reduce the transmitted load. - Highlights: • The ability of PVA sponge to control the injury to the human mandible is computed. • A hexahedral FE model for gunshot wounds to the human mandible is established. • The kinetic energy and injury severity of the mandible is minimized by the sponge. • The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. • PVA suggests as an alternative

  12. Unilateral Condylar Hyperplasia of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malachovsky I

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Condylar hyperplasia (CH of the mandible is a rare pathology that occurs at the head of the condyle and can lead to facial asymmetry affecting occlusion and possible association with pain and dysfunction. Unilateral condylar hyperplasia is an uncommon condition of unknown aetiology, proper diagnosis of which has to be established, as the patients may look for surgical help. A rare case of unilateral condylar hyperplasia of the mandible is reported here.

  13. EXTENSIVE RADICULAR CYST OF THE MANDIBLE: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokul VENKATESHWAR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The radicular cyst is the most common inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesion of the jaws. It usually originates as a sequel to a periapical inflammatory process, following chemical, physical or bacterial injury. Due to its chronic etiology, the cyst usually appears towards the later stage of life. It has a male sex predilection, with the maxillary anterior region as the most common site of involvement. This article reports a rare case of a large radicular cyst in the mandible, its management and follow up along one year.

  14. Analysis of the cartilage proteome from three different mouse models of genetic skeletal diseases reveals common and discrete disease signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Bell

    2013-06-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia are genetic skeletal diseases resulting from mutations in cartilage structural proteins. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry previously showed that the appearance of the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM in targeted mouse models of these diseases is disrupted; however, the precise changes in ECM organization and the pathological consequences remain unknown. Our aim was to determine the effects of matrilin-3 and COMP mutations on the composition and extractability of ECM components to inform how these detrimental changes might influence cartilage organization and degeneration. Cartilage was sequentially extracted using increasing denaturants and the extraction profiles of specific proteins determined using SDS-PAGE/Western blotting. Furthermore, the relative composition of protein pools was determined using mass spectrometry for a non-biased semi-quantitative analysis. Western blotting revealed changes in the extraction of matrilins, COMP and collagen IX in mutant cartilage. Mass spectrometry confirmed quantitative changes in the extraction of structural and non-structural ECM proteins, including proteins with roles in cellular processes such as protein folding and trafficking. In particular, genotype-specific differences in the extraction of collagens XII and XIV and tenascins C and X were identified; interestingly, increased expression of several of these genes has recently been implicated in susceptibility and/or progression of murine osteoarthritis. We demonstrated that mutation of matrilin-3 and COMP caused changes in the extractability of other cartilage proteins and that proteomic analyses of Matn3 V194D, Comp T585M and Comp DelD469 mouse models revealed both common and discrete disease signatures that provide novel insight into skeletal disease mechanisms and cartilage degradation.

  15. Analysis of PRICKLE1 in human cleft palate and mouse development demonstrates rare and common variants involved in human malformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tian; Jia, Zhonglin; Bryant-Pike, Whitney; Chandrasekhar, Anand; Murray, Jeffrey C; Fritzsch, Bernd; Bassuk, Alexander G

    2014-01-01

    Palate development is shaped by multiple molecular signaling pathways, including the Wnt pathway. In mice and humans, mutations in both the canonical and noncanonical arms of the Wnt pathway manifest as cleft palate, one of the most common human birth defects. Like the palate, numerous studies also link different Wnt signaling perturbations to varying degrees of limb malformation; for example, shortened limbs form in mutations of Ror2,Vangl2looptail and, in particular, Wnt5a. We recently showed the noncanonical Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling molecule Prickle1 (Prickle like 1) also stunts limb growth in mice. We now expanded these studies to the palate and show that Prickle1 is also required for palate development, like Wnt5a and Ror2. Unlike in the limb, the Vangl2looptail mutation only aggravates palate defects caused by other mutations. We screened Filipino cleft palate patients and found PRICKLE1 variants, both common and rare, at an elevated frequency. Our results reveal that in mice and humans PRICKLE1 directs palate morphogenesis; our results also uncouple Prickle1 function from Vangl2 function. Together, these findings suggest mouse and human palate development is guided by PCP-Prickle1 signaling that is probably not downstream of Vangl2. PMID:24689077

  16. A Rare Case Report of Mandible Osteosarcoma in an 8-Year-Old Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteosarcoma of jaw bones is the most common primary malignant bone tumor arising from mesenchymal cells capable of producing steoid; this disorder predominantly occurs in the long bones and rarely involves the maxillofacial region.  Normally, this disease presents in the third and fourth decades of life, is slightly more common in men than women, and affects the mandible and maxilla in the same proportion. Case report: An 8-year-old girl was referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon due to tumoral lesions in the posterior mandible in Sari, Iran. After the surgery, histopathological examination of the tumoral lesions revealed fibroblastic osteosarcoma. Further, immunohistochemical markers were evaluated, results of which approved final diagnosis of mandible osteosarcoma. Conclusion: Given that osteosarcoma of jaw bones share the same clinical manifestations with benign lesions, misdiagnosis is highly common and diagnosis is challenging for dentists. Accurate diagnosis and early referral are critical in prognosis and survival of patients.

  17. Evidence-based medicine: Mandible fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Brad T; Samson, Thomas D; Schubert, Warren; Mackay, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the anatomy and subunits of the mandible. 2. Review the cause and epidemiology of mandible fractures. 3. Discuss the preoperative evaluation and diagnostic imaging. 4. Understand the principles and techniques of mandible fracture reduction and fixation. The management of mandibular fractures has undergone significant improvement because of advancements in plating technology, imaging, and instrumentation. As the techniques in management continue to evolve, it is imperative for the practicing physician to remain up-to-date with the growing body of scientific literature. The objective of this Maintenance of Certification article is to present a review of the literature so that the physician may make treatment recommendation based on the best evidence available. Pediatric fractures have been excluded from this article.

  18. Microarray Analysis of the Developing Rat Mandible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo KABURAGI; Naoyuki SUGANO; Maiko OSHIKAWA; Ryosuke KOSHI; Naoki SENDA; Kazuhiro KAWAMOTO; Koichi ITO

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the molecular events that occur in the developing mandible, we examined the expression of 8803 genes from samples taken at different time points during rat postnatal mandible development.Total RNA was extracted from the mandibles of 1-day-old, 1-week-old, and 2-week-old rats. Complementary RNA (cRNA) was synthesized from cDNA and biotinylated. Fragmented cRNA was hybridized to RGU34A GeneChip arrays. Among the 8803 genes tested, 4344 were detectable. We identified 148 genes with significantly increased expression, and 19 genes with significantly decreased expression. A comprehensive analysis appears to be an effective method of studying the complex process of development.

  19. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible. A clinicopathological report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Tapas K; Soni, Sarmeshta; Dayal, Prakriti; Ghosh, Indrajeet

    2017-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibromas are rare fibro-osseous benign neoplasms that affect the jaws. They are included in the group of mesodermal odontogenic tumors and commonly present as a progressively growing lesion that might attain enormous size with resultant deformity, if left untreated. A confusion prevails on the terminology, which can only be confirmed by histopathologic evaluation. A case of cemento-ossifying fibroma involving the right mandible is described in a 30 year-old female patient. The clinical, radiographic, histologic features are presented and the various differential diagnosis are discussed.

  20. Three-dimensional CT of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinreich, S.J.; Price, J.C.; Wang, H.; Ahn, H.S.; Kashima, H.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen patients with mandibular oblation for facial neoplasia, primary neoplasm, and trauma were evaluated with CT and three-dimensional CT. In eight of these patients, a computerized acrylic model was generated for preoperative planning and postoperative reconstruction. The ramus and body of the mandible were reconstructed with mirror image and fusion techniques. Reconstructions of the anterior mandible were generated from models including the midface, skull based, and residual mandibular fragments. The results are preliminary; however, the authors believe that these represent a powerful new tool and a significant advance in mandibular reconstructive technique, reduced anesthesia time, and the optimized restoration of dental alignment and facial contour

  1. Asymmetry quantization and application to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glerup, Nanna; Nielsen, Mads; Sporring, Jon

    2004-01-01

    of asymmetry, the statistics on asymmetry for normal and pathological anatomical structures can be compared. Symmetry is a well-known mathematical group theoretical concept. In this paper, we will mathematically define the concept of weak symmetry, including topological symmetry, which serves as a basis...... of pathological assumed non-symmetric mandibles exhibiting a statistically significant increase of asymmetry....

  2. Big Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    KCOT originates as an extension of the basal epithelial cells or the dental organ due to degeneration of the stellate reticulum, or odontogenic epithelial remnants in the mandible or ... transformation into a squamous cell carcinoma. (3). CASE PRESENTATION. A 30 years old male patient came from the southern part of ...

  3. Aggressive fibromatosis of the mandible in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartoris, D.J.; Parker, B.R.; Arkoff, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis, or infantile fibrosarcoma, is an uncommon form of juvenile fibromatosis which rarely involves the head and neck. Skeletal involvement is infrequently demonstrated by radiography in this condition. Two unusual cases with similar radiographic changes in the mandible are presented, a situation not previously described. Clinical, pathologic, and radiographic features of aggressive fibromatosis are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Mandible osteoradionecrosis: a clinical case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazolla, E.R.; Biazolla, T.C.M.; Oliveira Marinho, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    This is a case report of the mandible osteoradionecrosis with its evolution and treatment, until the patient's cure. It's briefly discussed the treatment used, stressing the dentistry conscientiousness about the careless upon the manipulation of the patients submitted to radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Scaling of rotational inertia of primate mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Callum F; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Platts, Ellen; Walsh, Treva; Heins, Liam; Gerstner, Geoffrey E; Taylor, Andrea B

    2017-05-01

    The relative importance of pendulum mechanics and muscle mechanics in chewing dynamics has implications for understanding the optimality criteria driving the evolution of primate feeding systems. The Spring Model (Ross et al., 2009b), which modeled the primate chewing system as a forced mass-spring system, predicted that chew cycle time would increase faster than was actually observed. We hypothesized that if mandibular momentum plays an important role in chewing dynamics, more accurate estimates of the rotational inertia of the mandible would improve the accuracy with which the Spring Model predicts the scaling of primate chew cycle period. However, if mass-related momentum effects are of negligible importance in the scaling of primate chew cycle period, this hypothesis would be falsified. We also predicted that greater "robusticity" of anthropoid mandibles compared with prosimians would be associated with higher moments of inertia. From computed tomography scans, we estimated the scaling of the moment of inertia (I j ) of the mandibles of thirty-one species of primates, including 22 anthropoid and nine prosimian species, separating I j into the moment about a transverse axis through the center of mass (I xx ) and the moment of the center of mass about plausible axes of rotation. We found that across primates I j increases with positive allometry relative to jaw length, primarily due to positive allometry of jaw mass and I xx , and that anthropoid mandibles have greater rotational inertia compared with prosimian mandibles of similar length. Positive allometry of I j of primate mandibles actually lowers the predictive ability of the Spring Model, suggesting that scaling of primate chew cycle period, and chewing dynamics in general, are more strongly influenced by factors other than scaling of inertial properties of the mandible, such as the dynamic properties of the jaw muscles and neural control. Differences in cycle period scaling between chewing and locomotion

  6. Mandible osteoradionecrosis. Incidence and clinical evaluation of its therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazolla, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence and the efficiency of mandible osteoradionecrosis in patients with oral neoplasms and submitted to radiotherapy were studied. The osteoradionecrosis incidence in mandible was 6,67%. The treatment with sodium iodide 2% and hydrogen peroxide 10 v was the best treatment for mandible osteoradionecrosis. (L.M.J.)

  7. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: An unusual case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Mounabati; Banushree, C S; Nagarajan, K; Pati, Debashish

    2015-01-01

    The term ossifying fibroma (OF) has recently been included under fibro-osseous lesions. Cemento-OF (COF) is a benign neoplasm that arises from the periodontal membrane which contains multipotential cells that are capable of forming cementum, lamellar bone and fibrous tissue. These tumors occur in the third and fourth decades of life with a predilection for women. The mandible is more commonly involved than the maxilla. This lesion has caused considerable controversy regarding the use of terminology, origin and diagnostic criteria. This article describes an unusual case of COF presenting as unilocular lytic lesion of mandible in a 38-year-old male patient with review of literature.

  8. Multi Vesicular Osseous Hydatid Disease of the Mandible- A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nematollahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available "nHydatid disease is a common and major public health issue caused by parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The highest prevalence of the parasite can be found in different parts of world like Africa, Australia, and South America. This infection can occurs in almost any part of the body. Here we present clinical, radiological, histological features and treatment of a multi ve­sicular osseous hydatid disease of the mandible in an Afghan 5 year old boy with a firm swelling in the right side of mandible.

  9. Cap’n’collar differentiates the mandible from the maxilla in the beetle Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The biting mandible of the arthropods is thought to have evolved in the ancestor of the insects, crustaceans and myriapods: the Mandibulata. A unique origin suggests a common set of developmental genes will be required to pattern the mandible in different arthropods. To date we have functional studies on patterning of the mandibular segment of Drosophila melanogaster showing in particular the effects of the gene cap’n’collar (cnc), however, the dipteran head is far from representative of insects or of more distantly related mandibulates; Drosophila does not even possess a mandibular appendage. To study the development of a more representative insect mandible, we chose the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and investigated the function of the Tribolium orthologs of cap’n’collar (Tc-cnc) and the Hox gene Deformed (Tc-Dfd). In order to determine the function of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd, transcripts were knocked down by maternal RNA interference (RNAi). The effects of gene knockdown were examined in the developing embryos and larvae. The effect of Tc-cnc and Tc-Dfd knockdown on the expression of other genes was determined by using in situ hybridization on Tribolium embryos. Results Our analyses show that Tc-cnc is required for specification of the identity of the mandibular segment of Tribolium and differentiates the mandible from maxillary identity. Loss of Tc-cnc function results in a transformation of the mandible to maxillary identity as well as deletion of the labrum. Tc-Dfd and the Tribolium homolog of proboscipedia (Tc-mxp = maxillopedia), Hox genes that are required to pattern the maxillary appendage, are expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. Tribolium homologs of paired (Tc-prd) and Distal-less (Tc-Dll) that are expressed in the endites and telopodites of embryonic appendages are also expressed in a maxilla-like manner in the transformed mandible. We also show that Tc-Dfd is required to activate the collar of Tc

  10. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijolet, J-P; Parmentier, J; Sury, F; Goga, D; Mejean, N; Laure, B

    2011-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma is a rare benign tumor most often discovered incidentally. A 72-year-old patient was referred for a subclinical lesion of the mandible. The orthopantomogram showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent osteolytic image, 1 cm in diameter, on the mandibular angle. On CT, the single lesion had a tissue aspect with a peripheral halo without enhancement after contrast injection. A cortical lacuna on the lingual side was noted. Surgical enucleation of the lesion was performed. The pathological examination confirmed the ossifying fibroma. Slow and progressive, cemento-ossifying fibroma is a rare benign tumor that reaches the maxilla and more frequently the mandible. The ossifying and cementifying fibromas are differentiated by their clinical, radiological, and histological findings. The authors discuss the pathogenesis and radiological signs guiding the choice of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. The treatment is surgical with an enucleation or wider resection with bone reconstruction for large fibromas. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Osteoradionecrosis of the Mandible: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovik-Monevska Danica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoradionecrosis (ORN of the jaws is a serious complication of radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies. Different assumptions about its occurring, risk factors and possible therapeutical modalities exist, but the clinical outcome of such patients is still not on the desired level. This article presents a clinical case of ORN of the mandible, occurring with exposed and infected bone, necrotic process that extended through all the mandible body, as well as cutaneous fistula. The first site of ORN was detected 2 years after radiotherapy for oral cancer, with the second one detected 3 and a half years after radiotherapy. In both, the reason for exposing the bone was local trauma due to tooth extraction. Due to the stage of the condition, a decision for surgical treatment accompanied with antibiotics was made.

  12. Development of mandible in indigenous sheep fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the precise sites of the beginning of primary ossification centers of the mandible of sheep fetuses as well as their onset time, to achieve this goal, samples were taken weekly starting from the 7th week up to 20th week of intrauterine life. Sections of the samples were stained by the alizarin red and alcian blue technique. Primary centers appeared at the beginning of 7th week as big red spot on either sides of mesenchyme of first branchial arch (Meckel’s cartilage that developed by intramembranous ossification. The rostral part of the mandible, however, was developed by endochondral ossification. The successive bone development process (7–20 weeks, were moniterd by macerating the mandibles using either potassium hydroxide or fly larvae. Measuring tape and graph papers were employed for measurements and for localization of mandibular angle. The results revealed significant increase of these measurements during the successive weeks of intrauterine life.

  13. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun; Son, Hyun Jin

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  14. An asymptomatic radiolucent lesion in posterior mandible: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keerthi Gurushanth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiolucent mandibular lesions are commonly evident on head and neck imaging and present a diagnostic dilemma for the radiologist. These may represent a broad spectrum of lesions arising from both odontogenic and nonodontogenic structures. Furthermore, few radiolucent lesions are often identified as incidental lesions by the radiologist on imaging performed for different reasons. Location of the lesion, borders, internal structure, and its effect on surrounding structures are the key points to narrow the differential diagnosis. Imaging is essential not only for the diagnosis of lesions, but also to guide therapy and monitor the treatment response. Here is a case report on traumatic bone cyst that presented as an asymptomatic radiolucent lesion in right posterior mandible and was discovered incidentally on routine radiograph. The lesion was diagnosed based on patient′s anamnesis and radiographic examination. This paper aims at discussing the differential diagnosis, various radiological characteristics, and their prediction in prognosis of the lesion.

  15. Eosinophilic granuloma in the anterior mandible mimicking radicular cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Lee, Wan; Lee, Jun [College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Dept. of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a common expression of Langerhans cell histiocytosis and corresponds with typical bone lesions. The radiographic appearance of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaw is variable and not specific. It may resemble periodontitis, radicular cyst, or malignancies. The purpose of this report is to describe the characteristic radiographic features of eosinophilic granuloma of a 39-year-old male. The lesion in the anterior mandible was first diagnosed as radicular cyst because the radiographic findings were ovoid radiolucent lesion with well-defined border. However, careful interpretation revealed a non-corticated border and floating tooth appearance that were the characteristic radiographic features for the differential diagnosis. Early clinical signs of eosinophilic granuloma can occur in the jaw and a bony destructive lesion might be mistaken for periodontitis or an odontogenic cystic lesion; therefore, careful interpretation of radiographs should be emphasized.

  16. [Ewing sarcoma located in the mandible: A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M; Droz, D; Mansuy, L; Simon, E; Chastagner, P

    2015-06-01

    Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone cancer in children and adolescents. Clinical presentation is usually dominated by local pain and a palpable mass. These symptoms justify imaging investigations: the first one, when an osseous lesion is suspected, is usually a conventional radiograph in two planes. Ewing sarcoma appears as a poorly defined osteolytic lesion that may frequently be associated with cortical erosion or laminar periosteal response ("onion skin"). However, this aspect is not pathognomonic and the definitive diagnosis is made by biopsy. Absence of pain or an unusual localization can lead to misdiagnosis. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with Ewing sarcoma located in the mandible with a clinical picture including progressive mandibular swelling but no pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Normal and pathologic CT anatomy of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Hanafee, W.H.; Mancuso, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of facial lesions has been amply demonstrated. While a number of studies have focused on CT anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, nose, and nasopharynx, none has concentrated on the mandible. Although the mandible is difficult to image because of its complex, curving surfaces and the presence of artifact-producing amalgam fillings or restorations, CT of the mandible can nevertheless be highly informative in selected cases. This pictorial essay depicts normal gross and CT anatomy of the mandible and presents a series of cases that illustrate the utility of CT in examining mandibular lesions

  18. Gorham-Stout-syndrome of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, K.; Hoffmann, J.; Martin, K.

    1986-01-01

    A 16 year old female complained for loosening of several teeth in the lower jaw. Radiography revealed bone resorption of the tooth sockets. The osteolytic process extended throughout the alveolar crest of the mandible and caused a complete loss of teeth within 2 years. Microscopic sections showed angiomatous tissue of Gorham-Stout-syndrome. Radiotherapy with 35 Gy controled the mandibular osteolysis. Recurrent mengitis and osteolytic defects of the frontal skull base hint at an additional manifestation of the disease at this site. (orig.) [de

  19. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were given...... intravenously to mark the bone level at these times, respectively. Oxytetracycline, which defined the baseline of bone at implantation of HA, was detectable in 42% of animals that were irradiated and in no animal of the nonirradiated control group. The marker DCAF, designating levels of bone at the start...

  20. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung Wuk; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-03-15

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is an extremely rare odontogenic tumor composed of proliferating ectodermal and mesenchymal components of odontogenic tissue, containing hard tooth structure. It occurs predominantly in children and young adults. The mandibular molar-ramus area is the most frequently observed location, presenting radiographically as a well-circumscribed and radiolucent-radiopaque tumor. A case involving a 24-year-old woman presenting with a large ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the posterior mandible is reported. The case is of radiologic interest because two distinct calcification patterns were observed.

  1. Central Odontogenic Fibroma of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Khajeh Ahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-years-old female patient with painless swelling of the right side of mandible is described. She noticed the swelling from two years ago, without painful symptoms. Axial CT imaging showed buccal expansion with intact buccal and lingual cortical bone. The report of incisional biopsy was central odontogenic fibroma. Under general anesthesia the lesion was removed after ostectomy of buccal cortical plate and inferior alveolar nerve preserved. Three-year follow-up after tumor excision relieved no recurrence.

  2. Overdenture locator attachments for atrophic mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implant-supported overdentures provide a good opportunity for dentists to improve oral health and quality-of-life of patients. Atrophic mandible poses a significant challenge to successful oral rehabilitation with dental implants. In this article, the fabrication of lower overdenture by two narrow platform implants is described with dual retentive, resilient, self-locating locator attachment system. The locator attachment system has the lowest profile in comparison with the ball and bar attachments and is versatile up to 40΀ of divergence between two implants. By using locators as attachments, we can meet functional, economic and social expectation of patients with ease and satisfaction.

  3. Brown tumor of mandible with primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.K.; Khan, F.A.; Siddiq, A.; Hanif, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted and released by the parathyroid glands, the activity of which is controlled by the ionized serum calcium level. Increased PTH secretion results in hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary types. Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by increased parathyroid hormone secretion occurring as a result of abnormality in one or more of the parathyroid glands. Brown tumors are non-neoplastic lesions as a result of abnormal bone metabolism in cases of hyperparathyroidism, creating a local destructive phenomenon. A rare case of a young female patient with brown tumors in her mandible associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, is reported. (author)

  4. Close linkage of the mouse and human CD3 γ- and δ-chain genes suggests that their transcription is controlled by common regulatory elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Koyama, T.; Georgopoulos, K.; Clevers, H.; Haser, W.G.; LeBien, T.; Tonegawa, S.; Terhorst, C.

    1987-01-01

    Antigen receptors on the T-cell surface are noncovalently associated with at least four invariant polypeptide chains, CD3-γ, -δ, -epsilon, and -zeta. The mouse CD3-γ gene, consisting of seven exons, was found to be highly homologous to the CD3-γ described earlier. Both the high level of sequence homology and the exon/intron organization indicate that the CD3-γ and -δ genes arose by gene duplication. Surprisingly, murine and human genomic DNA clones could be isolated that contained elements of both the CD3-γ and CD3-δ genes. In fact, the putative transcription start site of the mouse CD3-γ gene is less than 1.4 kilobases from the transcription initiation site of the mouse CD3-δ gene. Common elements that regulate the divergent transcription of the two genes are therefore proposed to be located in the intervening 1.4-kilobase DNA segment. This might contribute to the coordinate expression of the CD3-γ and -δ genes during intrathymic maturation of T lymphocytes

  5. [Mandible function in taking construction bite for activator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, M

    1989-06-01

    Functional effects of construction bite for activator (Andresen type) especially on lateral pterygoid muscle, as well as the positional changes of the mandible, hyoid bone and surface EMGs from bilateral anterior temporal (TA) and masseter (MM) muscle, were studied on the electric force scale, MKG, EMG and cephalometric radiographs in 14 subjects with anterior cross bite in mixed dentition. The cephalometric radiographs were taken at the start of each patient's treatment. One was taken with the mandible in the intercuspal position and one was also taken with the activator in the mouth at the overjet improvement. The activator patients were divided into two groups because of differences in the direction of movement of the hyoid bone in the FH plane. In group O (7 patients), the movement of the hyoid bone was at an oblique angle to the FH plane, while in group D (7 patients) the movement ot the hyoid bone with nearly direct below angle to FH plane. The patients were further divided into three types because of differences in the distance between the hyoid bone and mental spine, and combined with the groups OA (3 patients), OB (2 patients), OC (2 patients), DA (5 patients), DB (2 patients) and DC (Naught). The results obtained were as follows: The forces for the construction bite for groups O and D were 2.71 Kg and 2.72 kg, respectively. Type OC required significantly heavier force. (p less than 0.05) In the condylar test, O group was significantly smaller at the start of treatment, but not after overjet improvement. Type OA and OB were also significantly smaller at the start of treatment. (p less than 0.05) Velocity of opening for group D was significantly (p less than 0.05) faster at the start of treatment, but not after that. There was no significant difference in EMGs between the groups, with activator in the mouse D group much increased as it EMGs. The EMGs M/T ratio for both groups was approximately 100% at the start of treatment for overjet improvement. In cases

  6. Geometric modelling of a make mandible utilising CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, N.; Basu, A.; McLean, A.G.; Jamieson, D.; Jonkman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The mandible is one of the most important and frequently used bones in the human body. It is responsible for basic actions such as mastication, communication and swallowing. It houses and provides protection for the tongue, teeth and salivary glands. The mandible is unique in that it has two anatomically identical articulations, each providing the same function. Both articulations, however, rarely have synchronous force and motion characteristics. The mandible is the only moveable bone in the skull and is capable of the following motions: depression - lowering the mandible, as in yawning, elevation - raising the mandible, protraction - thrusting the jaw forward, retraction - withdrawing the jaw posteriorly, and lateral deviation - sideways displacement in the transverse plane. The mandible is an irregular bone comprising a broad U shaped body with two ascending rami. The rami are quadrilateral plate like structures with lateral sides which are nearly flat. The mandible is subjected to repetitive loading and is susceptible to wear at its articulations, cyclic fatigue and dislocation. Despite the importance of the mandible little is understood about its mechanical properties and loading parameters. The purpose of this study was to create a three dimensional geometric model of a human mandible based on anatomical data. A 21 year old male with no history of mandible fracture or temporomandibular joint dysfunction was selected. The mandible was non-invasively imaged by Computed Tomography (CT). The subject was imaged lying on his back with the head supported and immobilised by a U shaped head rest. Seventeen parallel cross-sectional images oblique to the transverse plane were constructed. Cortical and cancellous bone boundaries were manually digitised for every image using a Science Accessories Corporation GP-9 digitiser linked to an IBM 286 SX personal computer. The data was transferred to a global coordinate system and entered into MSC/PATRAN finite element

  7. Intraosseous polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of mandible: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma is a rare type of minor salivary gland malignancy. The characteristic features of these tumors are the varied histomorphology and the malignant, albeit indolent behavior. It occurs commonly in the minor salivary glands, with the palate (58.5% being the most common intra oral site. Maxillary area (2%, mandibular mucosal area (1.5% and posterior trigone region (0.5% are the least affected areas. An occasional case has been reported arising from an intraosseous location i.e the maxilla, and only two cases have been reported in the English literature originating from the mandible. One such very rare case of polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma of the mandible, which radiographically has a soap bubble appearance, is reported here.

  8. Large Complex Odontoma of Mandible in a Young Boy: A Rare and Unusual Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Siva Prasad Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common odontogenic tumors. They are broadly classified in to Compound Odontoma and Complex Odontoma. Among them complex odontoma is a rare tumor. Occasionally this tumor becomes large, causing expansion of bone followed by facial asymmetry. Otherwise these tumors are asymptomatic and are generally diagnosed on radiographic examination. We report a rare case of complex odontoma of mandible in a young boy. The tumor was treated by surgical excision under general anesthesia.

  9. Are short implants in the mandible safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Gonçalves Motta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the importance of bioengineering and the improvement in surgical techniques demonstrated by the rates attained of the prevalence of successful placement of dental implants in the posterior region of the mandible, in D3 bone quality in patients between the ages of 52 and 60 years, with dentures fixed on 8.5 mm implants. Methods: The statistical data for this retrospective study were collected at the Post-Graduation Center of the Integrated Dentistry Center, Faculty of Sarandi / Academy of Dentistry - Rio de Janeiro, at the CLIVO clinic, from among a total of 2.294 implants placed in the mandible, in the period from 1999 to 2007. There was a total of 1.056 short implants, of a length shorter than or equal to 10 mm, among which 20 implants were randomly chosen and analyzed. Results: The data were treated statistically and comparison of these data was consubstantiated in constructive data analysis by means of Statistical Pattern Recognition Methods for each variable under study. A success rate of 85% was obtained, and the need to take certain care when indicating the use of short implants was verified. Conclusion: Bioengineering and the development of present day surgical techniques have optimized the use of short implants, with the aim of avoiding advanced surgeries. To compensate the smaller size, there are some factors that must be observed, such as: Bone quality, crown/implant ratio, number and diameter of implants, macroscopic and microscopic geometry of the implants, magnitude of mesial occlusal forces.

  10. Cognitive deficits in a genetic mouse model of the most common biochemical cause of human mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagreda, L; Goodman, J; Druin, D P; McDonald, D; Diamond, A

    1999-07-15

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah)-deficient "PKU mice" have a mutation in the Pah gene that causes phenylketonuria (PKU) in humans. PKU produces cognitive deficits in humans if it is untreated. We report here the first evidence that the genetic mouse model of PKU (Pah(enu2)) also produces cognitive impairments. PKU mice were impaired on both odor discrimination reversal and latent learning compared with heterozygote littermates and with wild-type mice of the same BTBR strain. A small container of cinnamon-scented sand was presented on the right or left, and nutmeg-scented sand was presented on the other side; left-right location varied over trials. Digging in sand of the correct scent was rewarded by finding phenylalanine-free chocolate. To prevent scent cuing, new containers were used on every trial, and both containers always contained chocolate. Digging in the incorrect choice was stopped before the chocolate was uncovered. Once criterion was reached, the other scent was rewarded. PKU mice were impaired on reversals 2, 3, and 4. They were also impaired in latent learning. On day 1, half the mice were allowed to explore a maze and discover the location of water. On day 2, all mice were water-deprived and were placed in the maze. Whereas pre-exposed wild-type and heterozygous mice showed evidence that they remembered the location of the water and hence could find the water faster on day 2, pre-exposed PKU mice showed no significant benefit from their pre-exposure on day 1.

  11. A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody detects a common idiotope on human, mouse and rabbit antibodies to allergen Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Dzuba-Fischer, J M; Rector, E S; Sehon, A H; Kisil, F T

    1991-09-01

    A syngeneic mouse monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated as B1/1, was generated against a monoclonal antibody (MoAb 91) specific for Ryegrass pollen allergen Lol p IV. This anti-Id recognized an idiotope (Id) that was also present on other monoclonal antibodies with the same specificity as MoAb 91. Observations that (i) the anti-Id inhibited the binding of MoAb 91 to Lol p IV and (ii) the Id-anti-Id interaction could be inhibited by Lol p IV indicated that the Id was located within or near the antigen combining site. These properties served to characterize B1/1 as an internal image anti-Id. Evidence that an immune response in different species to Lol p IV elicits the formation of antibodies which express a common Id was provided by the observations that (i) the Id-anti-Id interactions could be inhibited by mouse, human and rabbit antisera to Lol p IV and (ii) the binding of these antisera to Lol p IV could be inhibited by the anti-Id. Interestingly, the internal image anti-Id B1/1 also recognized an Id on a monoclonal antibody which was directed to an epitope of Lol p IV, different from that recognized by MoAb 91.

  12. Development of 3D statistical mandible models for cephalometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Goo; Yi, Won Jin; Hwang, Soon Jung; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Tae Il; Hong, Helen; Yoo, Ji Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide sex-matched three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape models of the mandible, which would provide cephalometric parameters for 3D treatment planning and cephalometric measurements in orthognathic surgery. The subjects used to create the 3D shape models of the mandible included 23 males and 23 females. The mandibles were segmented semi-automatically from 3D facial CT images. Each individual mandible shape was reconstructed as a 3D surface model, which was parameterized to establish correspondence between different individual surfaces. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to all mandible shapes produced a mean model and characteristic models of variation. The cephalometric parameters were measured directly from the mean models to evaluate the 3D shape models. The means of the measured parameters were compared with those from other conventional studies. The male and female 3D statistical mean models were developed from 23 individual mandibles, respectively. The male and female characteristic shapes of variation produced by PCA showed a large variability included in the individual mandibles. The cephalometric measurements from the developed models were very close to those from some conventional studies. We described the construction of 3D mandibular shape models and presented the application of the 3D mandibular template in cephalometric measurements. Optimal reference models determined from variations produced by PCA could be used for craniofacial patients with various types of skeletal shape.

  13. Development of 3D statistical mandible models for cephalometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Goo; Yi, Won Jin; Hwang, Soon Jung; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun; Heo, Min Suk; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Tae Il [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Helen; Yoo, Ji Hyun [Division of Multimedia Engineering, Seoul Women' s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The aim of this study was to provide sex-matched three-dimensional (3D) statistical shape models of the mandible, which would provide cephalometric parameters for 3D treatment planning and cephalometric measurements in orthognathic surgery. The subjects used to create the 3D shape models of the mandible included 23 males and 23 females. The mandibles were segmented semi-automatically from 3D facial CT images. Each individual mandible shape was reconstructed as a 3D surface model, which was parameterized to establish correspondence between different individual surfaces. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to all mandible shapes produced a mean model and characteristic models of variation. The cephalometric parameters were measured directly from the mean models to evaluate the 3D shape models. The means of the measured parameters were compared with those from other conventional studies. The male and female 3D statistical mean models were developed from 23 individual mandibles, respectively. The male and female characteristic shapes of variation produced by PCA showed a large variability included in the individual mandibles. The cephalometric measurements from the developed models were very close to those from some conventional studies. We described the construction of 3D mandibular shape models and presented the application of the 3D mandibular template in cephalometric measurements. Optimal reference models determined from variations produced by PCA could be used for craniofacial patients with various types of skeletal shape.

  14. A new 2-dimensional method for constructing visualized treatment objectives for distraction osteogenesis of the short mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, H

    2010-01-01

    Open bite development during distraction of the mandible is common and partly due to inaccurate planning of the treatment. Conflicting guidelines exist in the literature. A method for Visualized Treatment Objective (VTO) construction is presented as an aid for determining the correct orientation of monodirectional and multidirectional distractors. Distraction on the left and on the right side of the mandible takes place in a parallel manner in order to maintain intercondylar width. It follows that in the absence of marked asymmetry, the amount of mandibular body distraction, the amount of ramus distraction and (should it apply), the amount of closure of the gonial angle, can be derived from a simple 2-dimensional plan. After presurgical orthodontic treatment, a cephalogram is taken and a VTO is constructed, that aims at a good occlusion with the enhanced mandible in centric relation, with little or no change of the original position of the rami.

  15. Assessing joint effusion and bone changes of the head of the mandible in MR images of symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Xavier de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between degenerative bone changes of the head of the mandible and the presence of joint effusion (JE. This study was based on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI reports of 148 temporomandibular joints (TMJs of 74 patients complaining of pain and/or dysfunction in the TMJ area. The mandible heads were surveyed for osteoarthritis characteristics, which were classified as osteophytosis, sclerosis or erosion. The presence of JE was checked whenever high signal intensity was observed in the articular space. The results evidenced the presence of bone changes in 30% of the sample. Osteophytes and erosions were the changes most commonly observed. JE was reported in 10% of TMJs. The results from the statistical tests revealed that bone changes in the head of the mandible are associated with the presence of JE.

  16. A New Mouse Model of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2I Homozygous for the Common L276I Mutation Mimicking the Mild Phenotype in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Thomas O; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I (LGMD2I) is caused by mutations in the Fukutin-related protein (FKRP) gene, leading to inadequate glycosylation of α-dystroglycan, an important protein linking the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton. We created a mouse model of the common FKRP L276I...... mutation and a hemizygous FKRP L276I knockout model. We studied histopathology and protein expression in the models at different ages and found that homozygous FKRP L276I mice developed a mild progressive myopathy with increased muscle regeneration and fibrosis starting from 1 year of age. This was likely...... in maintaining proper glycosylation of α-dystroglycan. The mild progression in the homozygous FKRP L276I model resembles that in patients with LGMD2I who are homozygous for the L276I mutation. This animal model could, therefore, be relevant for understanding the pathophysiology of and developing a treatment...

  17. A new 2-dimensional method for constructing visualized treatment objectives for distraction osteogenesis of the short mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, H.

    2010-01-01

    Open bite development during distraction of the mandible is common and partly due to inaccurate planning of the treatment. Conflicting guidelines exist in the literature. A method for Visualized Treatment Objective (VTO) construction is presented as an aid for determining the correct orientation of

  18. Agressive fibromatosis involving the mandible--case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seper, László; Bürger, Horst; Vormoor, Josef; Joos, Ulrich; Kleinheinz, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) involving the mandible is rare, and surgery is often complicated by a high recurrence rate. A 4-year-old boy was referred because of a fast growing painless mass which involved the entire left angle of the mandible. Excisional biopsy revealed AF, and local excision of the tumor was performed. Six months after surgery a recurrence was detected. The tumor was determined to be unresectable and the boy was treated with low-dose chemotherapy including methotrexate and vinblastine for 1 year. With combined chemotherapy and surgical debulking, mutilating surgical resection will be delayed as long as possible or until completion of facial growth. According to the literature, surgery is the most common treatment of AF in the head and neck region. However, particularly in children, alternative modes of therapy must be considered because of the high recurrence rate and to avoid mutilating operations.

  19. 'Skullduggery': Lions Align and Their Mandibles Rock!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vivienne L; Loveridge, Andrew J; Newton, David J; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has legally exported substantial quantities of lion bones to Southeast Asia and China since 2008, apparently as part of the multinational trade substituting bones and body parts of other large cats for those of the tiger in wine and other health tonics. The legal sale of lion bones may mask an illegal trade, the size of which is only partially known. An observed component of the illegal trade is that quantities of skeletons are sometimes declared falsely/fraudulently on CITES export permits. Furthermore, there are emerging concerns that bones from tigers reared in captivity in South Africa and elsewhere are being laundered as lion bones using CITES Appendix II permits. There is therefore a need for tools to monitor the trade in lion body parts and to distinguish between lions and tigers. Our research indicates that it is possible to use skeletons, skulls and cranial sutures to detect misdeclarations in the lion bone trade. It is also possible to use the average mass of a lion skeleton to corroborate the numbers of skeletons declared on CITES permits, relative to the weight of the consolidated consignments stated on the air waybills. When the mass of consolidated consignments of skeletons destined for export was regressed against the number of skeletons in that consignment, there was a strong correlation between the variables (r2 = 0.992) that can be used as a predictor of the accuracy of a declaration on a CITES permit. Additionally, the skulls of lions and tigers differ: two cranial sutures of lions align and their mandibles rock when placed on a flat surface, whereas the cranial sutures of tigers are not aligned and their mandibles rest naturally on two contact points. These two morphological differences between the skulls of tigers and lions are easy to observe at a glance and provide a method for distinguishing between the species if illegal trade in the bones is suspected and the skulls are present. These identifications should ideally be

  20. 'Skullduggery': Lions Align and Their Mandibles Rock!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne L Williams

    Full Text Available South Africa has legally exported substantial quantities of lion bones to Southeast Asia and China since 2008, apparently as part of the multinational trade substituting bones and body parts of other large cats for those of the tiger in wine and other health tonics. The legal sale of lion bones may mask an illegal trade, the size of which is only partially known. An observed component of the illegal trade is that quantities of skeletons are sometimes declared falsely/fraudulently on CITES export permits. Furthermore, there are emerging concerns that bones from tigers reared in captivity in South Africa and elsewhere are being laundered as lion bones using CITES Appendix II permits. There is therefore a need for tools to monitor the trade in lion body parts and to distinguish between lions and tigers. Our research indicates that it is possible to use skeletons, skulls and cranial sutures to detect misdeclarations in the lion bone trade. It is also possible to use the average mass of a lion skeleton to corroborate the numbers of skeletons declared on CITES permits, relative to the weight of the consolidated consignments stated on the air waybills. When the mass of consolidated consignments of skeletons destined for export was regressed against the number of skeletons in that consignment, there was a strong correlation between the variables (r2 = 0.992 that can be used as a predictor of the accuracy of a declaration on a CITES permit. Additionally, the skulls of lions and tigers differ: two cranial sutures of lions align and their mandibles rock when placed on a flat surface, whereas the cranial sutures of tigers are not aligned and their mandibles rest naturally on two contact points. These two morphological differences between the skulls of tigers and lions are easy to observe at a glance and provide a method for distinguishing between the species if illegal trade in the bones is suspected and the skulls are present. These identifications should

  1. Case study: limitations of panoramic radiography in the anterior mandible.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walker, Cameron

    2009-12-01

    Dental Panoramic Tomography (DPT) is a widely used and valuable examination in dentistry. One area prone to artefacts and therefore misinterpretation is the anterior region of the mandible. This case study discusses a periapical radiolucency related to lower anterior teeth that is discovered to be a radiographic artefact. Possible causes of the artefact include a pronounced depression in the mental region of the mandible or superimposition of intervertebral spaces. Additional limitations of the DPT image include superimposition of radio-opaque structures, reduced image detail compared to intra-oral views and uneven magnification. These problems often make the DPT inappropriate for imaging the anterior mandible. Clinical Relevance: Panoramic radiography is often unsuitable for radiographic examination of the anterior mandible.

  2. Surgical Management of a Mandible Subcondylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hee Kang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Open reduction and anatomic reduction can create better function for the temporomandibularjoint, compared with closed treatment in mandible fracture surgery. Therefore, the doubleminiplate fixation technique via mini-retromandibular incision was used in order to makethe most stable fixation when performing subcondylar fracture surgery. Those approachesprovide good visualization of the subcondyle from the posterior edge of the ramus, allow thesurgeon to work perpendicularly to the fracture, and enable direct fracture management.Understanding the biomechanical load in the fixation of subcondylar fractures is alsonecessary in order to optimize fixation methods. Therefore, we measured the biomechanicalloads of four different plate fixation techniques in the experimental model regardingmandibular subcondylar fractures. It was found that the loads measured in the two-platefixation group with one dynamic compression plate (DCP and one adaption plate showed thehighest deformation and failure loads among the four fixation groups. The loads measuredin the one DCP plate fixation group showed higher deformation and failure loads than theloads measured in the two adaption plate fixation group. Therefore, we conclude that theselection of the high profile plate (DCP is also important in order to create a stable load in thesubcondylar fracture.

  3. Surgical Management of a Mandible Subcondylar Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hee Kang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Open reduction and anatomic reduction can create better function for the temporomandibular joint, compared with closed treatment in mandible fracture surgery. Therefore, the double miniplate fixation technique via mini-retromandibular incision was used in order to make the most stable fixation when performing subcondylar fracture surgery. Those approaches provide good visualization of the subcondyle from the posterior edge of the ramus, allow the surgeon to work perpendicularly to the fracture, and enable direct fracture management. Understanding the biomechanical load in the fixation of subcondylar fractures is also necessary in order to optimize fixation methods. Therefore, we measured the biomechanical loads of four different plate fixation techniques in the experimental model regarding mandibular subcondylar fractures. It was found that the loads measured in the two-plate fixation group with one dynamic compression plate (DCP and one adaption plate showed the highest deformation and failure loads among the four fixation groups. The loads measured in the one DCP plate fixation group showed higher deformation and failure loads than the loads measured in the two adaption plate fixation group. Therefore, we conclude that the selection of the high profile plate (DCP is also important in order to create a stable load in the subcondylar fracture.

  4. ASPERGILLOSIS OF MANDIBLE : A RARE CASE OF OSTEOMYELITIS

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Nurdan; ERSOY, Burak; SÖNMEZ, Ahmet; ÇELEBİLER, Özhan; NUMANOĞLU, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus species are saprophyticus fungi which may be the cause of infection predominantly in immunocompromised hosts. Aspergillosis is usually manifested in the respiratory system and bone involvement is rarely encountered. Osteomyelitis of the mandible with aspergillus species has been reported in only two cases in the literature. Treatment mainly consists of antimicrobial therapy in combination with surgery. We report a case of aspergillosis of the mandible in a patient who was under im...

  5. ANALYSIS OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF THE ROE DEER MANDIBLE (Capreolus capreolus AND MANDIBLE OF THE SHEEP (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizah Avdić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphology and morphometry of the bones are the methods often used for identification of species, estimation of animals' age, and genetic and forensic investigation. The mandible as the largest bone of the head is perhaps the most representative sample for this research. The aim of this study was to determine the basic morphometric parameters of the mandible of roe deer and sheep in order to identify the species. All samples were described by linear measure morphometric analysis of 12 specific anatomical points on the mandibles of roe deer and sheep. The results obtained are presented in the Table as mean and standard deviation.Key words: morphology, morphometry, mandible, roe deer, shee

  6. CENTRAL GIANT CELL GRANULOMA OF THE MANDIBLE: A RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra SINGH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG is an intra-osseous lesion consisting of cellular fibrosis tissue containing multiple foci of hemorrhage, multinucleated giant cells and trabecules of woven bone. This lesion accounts for less than 7% of all benign jaw tumours. Jaffe considered it as a locally reparative reaction of bone, which can be possibly due to either an inflammatory response, hemorrhage or local trauma. Females are affected more frequently than males. It occurs over a wide age range.It has been reported that this lesion is diagnosed during the first two decades of life in approximately 48% of cases, and 60% of cases are evident before the age of 30. It is considerably more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. Most lesions occur in the molar and premolar area, some of these extending up to the ascending ramus. The presence of giant cell granuloma in the mandibular body area, the entire ramus, condyle and coronoid represents a therapeutic challenge for the oral and maxillofacial surgeons. The aim of this report is to describe an unusual presentation of central giant cell granuloma involving the mandibular body, ramus, condylar and coronoid processes, and to discuss the differentiated diagnosis, the radiographic presentation and the management of this lesion.

  7. SURGICAL TREATMENT AND RECONSTRUCTION FOR CENTRAL GIANT CELL GRANULOMA OF MANDIBLE - case report and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elitsa G. Deliverska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG is a benign aggressive destructive osteolytic lesion of osteoclastic origin. The central giant cell granuloma is often found in the mandible, anterior to the first molars. It most commonly occurs in patients under the age of 30, with a clear female prevalencePurpose: To present a case of CGCG of the lower jaw in Department of Oral and maxillofacial surgery, University Hospital "St. Anna". Although en bloc resection provides the lowest recurrence rate, only a few single case reports describe the use of this technique followed by reconstruction with autogenous bone grafts.Material and methods: The medical history of a 28 years patient with a large central giant cell granuloma in the mandible. Biopsy specimen taken from the lesion showed CGCG followed by curettage with peripheral ostectomy with preservation of the continuity of the mandible.Result: At the 1-year clinical and radiological follow up there was no sign of recurrence. Conclusion: After complete healing of the graft, prosthetic rehabilitation with implants will be perfomed. This allows the best functional and aesthetic results.

  8. Morphological characterization and sex-related differences of the mandible of the armadillos Chaetophractus vellerosus and Zaedyus pichiy (Xenarthra, Dasypodidae, with consideration of dietary aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora S. Sidorkewicj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The morphological characteristics of the mandible of adult Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865 and Zaedyus pichiy (Desmarest, 1804 were studied to establish its generalized design and to identify inter- and intra- (sexual specific differences. Morphological descriptions were complemented with the application of univariate and multivariate (analysis of correlation matrices, PCA, discriminant analysis techniques. The mandible of both species is very similar, and is characterized by elevated condyle, well developed angular process, distinct coronoid process, tooth row which extends to the rear end of the angle between body and ramus, and unfused but firm symphysis. Although both armadillos are omnivorous, a more slender configuration of the jaw in Z. pichiy could be indicative of a better adaptation of its masticatory apparatus to insectivory. The PCA showed an almost total segregation of both species on PC1 (47.7% of the total variance, with C. vellerosus being associated to mandibles taller and with wider body and ramus. Zaedyus pichiy was characterized by heavy loadings of length parameters on PC2 (22.6% of the variance. A small degree of sexual dimorphism was found, with size-based differences in C. vellerosus (larger mandibles in females and shape-based differences in Z. pichiy (taller mandibles in males, longer ones in females. Correlations between variables were higher in males of both species, indicating a more stable shape of the mandible than in females. The selected parameters to discriminate sexes were the body length of the mandible in C. vellerosus (correct classification: ca. 86% in males, 81% in females, and the height of the mandible at the level of the last tooth in Z. pichiy (near 85% of right assignment in both sexes. The inclusion of a new variable (body length in the latter species improved the classification of the females to 100%. Teeth are typically 10 in C. vellerosus and 9 in Z. pichiy, but aberrancies in this basic

  9. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  10. Radiological and histopathological study of benign tumors of the mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seon Young; Baek, Seung Yon; Choi, Kyung Hee; Suh, Jeung Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik; Kim, Hee Seup [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-06-15

    Benign tumors of the mandible are uncommon lesions. That were classified into odontogenic tumors and nonodontogenic tumors. Author reviewed the radiological evaluation and pathological microscopic finding from 33 benign tumors of the mandible that were confirmed by the biopsy during last 10 years in Dental Clinics, Ewha Womans University Hospital and Seoul National University Dental Hospital. Following results were obtained; 1. Benign tumors of the mandible were classified into odontogenic (66.7%) and non-odontogenic tumors (33.3%). 2. The range of the age distribution was between 6 years and 67 years old. The commonest age group was the second decade (39.4%). 3. There was no difference to sex distribution. 4. The most frequent location was the body of the mandible (42.4%). 5. Radiographic findings were relatively characteristic in odontogenic tumors rather than non-odontogenic tumors. 1) Radiolucent cystic lesions-ameloblastoma, odontogenic myxoma, odontogenic fibtoma, aneurysmal bone cyst and neurofibroma. 2) Radiopaque mass lesions-odontoma, cementoma and osteoma. 3) Mixed patterns-ossifying fibroma, cementifying fibroma, calcifying odontogenic epithelial tumor and hemangioma. It was concluded that the radiographic examination was of value to diagnose the benign tumors of the mandible in symptomless patients.

  11. Identification of human and mouse CatSper3 and CatSper4 genes: Characterisation of a common interaction domain and evidence for expression in testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lindsey

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CatSper1 and CatSper2 are two recently identified channel-like proteins, which show sperm specific expression patterns. Through targeted mutagenesis in the mouse, CatSper1 has been shown to be required for fertility, sperm motility and for cAMP induced Ca2+ current in sperm. Both channels resemble a single pore forming repeat from a four repeat voltage dependent Ca2+ /Na+ channel. However, neither CatSper1 or CatSper2 have been shown to function as cation channels when transfected into cells, singly or in conjunction. As the pore forming units of voltage gated cation channels form a tetramer it has been suggested that the known CatSper proteins require additional subunits and/or interaction partners to function. Results Using in silico gene identification and prediction techniques, we have identified two further members of the CatSper family, CatSper3 and Catsper4. Each carries a single channel-forming domain with the predicted pore-loop containing the consensus sequence T×D×W. Each of the new CatSper genes has evidence for expression in the testis. Furthermore we identified coiled-coil protein-protein interaction domains in the C-terminal tails of each of the CatSper channels, implying that CatSper channels 1,2,3 and 4 may interact directly or indirectly to form a functional tetramer. Conclusions The topological and sequence relationship of CatSper1 and CatSper2 to the four repeat Ca2+ /Na+ channels suggested other members of this family may exist. We have identified a further two novel CatSper genes, conserved in both the human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, all four of the CatSper proteins are predicted to contain a common coiled-coil protein-protein interaction domain in their C-terminal tail. Coupled with expression data this leads to the hypothesis that the CatSper proteins form a functional hetero-tetrameric channel in sperm.

  12. Salivary duct carcinoma in the mandible: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yoshinao; Hirota, Makoto; Iwai, Toshinori; Aoki, Shinjiro; Chikumaru, Hiroshi; Kawabe, Ryoichi; Matsui, Yoshiro

    2007-03-01

    Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is a distinctive and aggressive neoplasm. The most frequent site of origin is the parotid gland, followed by the submandibular gland. SDC originating in the minor salivary glands, particularly in the ectopic glands within the mandible, is extremely rare. We describe a 62-year-old man with SDC in the mandible, who presented with a painless lump in the right submandibular region (later identified as lymph node metastasis) and ipsilateral mental nerve palsy. Histologic examination after ablative surgery revealed SDC originating in the mandible and cervical nodal metastases spreading to levels I-III. The patient remains alive 59 months after presentation as a result of postoperative full-dose irradiation and regular intensive chemotherapy using TXT, 5-FU, and CDDP. However, the patient has local recurrence and distant metastases to the lung and brain. In this report, we also discuss the specific diagnostic criteria and developmental theories of intraosseous salivary gland tumors.

  13. Malunited fracture of the body and condyle of the mandible : A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Baliga, Sudhindra; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2010-07-01

    Mandibular fractures are the most common facial fractures seen in hospitalized children and their incidence increases with age. Treatment options include soft diet, intermaxillary fixation with eyelet wires, arch bars, circummandibular wiring, or stents. Alternative options include open reduction and internal fixation through either an intraoral or extraoral approach. Many factors complicate the management of pediatric mixed-dentition mandibular fractures: tooth eruption, short roots, developing tooth buds and growth issues. One major factor is the inherent instability of the occlusion in the mixed deciduous-permanent tooth phase. This case report documents a child in mixed dentition period with a complication arising due to direct fixation of the fractured mandible.

  14. Central giant cell lesion of the mandible in a 2-year old girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Takaaki; Sue, Mikiko; Okada, Yasuo; Kanri, Yoriaki; Ono, Junya; Ogura, Ichiro [The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Niigata, Niigata (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    Central giant cell lesions are rare, benign, osteolytic, pseudocystic, solitary, localized lesions that are common in the skeletal structure, but less so in the maxillofacial region. Furthermore, to perform panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography, it is necessary to prepare patients properly and to position their heads carefully. However, this can be difficult in pediatric patients, who may be anxious. In this report, we describe the case of a central giant cell lesion of the mandible in a 2-year-old girl that was evaluated with multidetector computed tomography.

  15. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma of the anterior mandible in a 22-month-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wewel John

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an ameloblastic fibro-odontoma (AFO presenting in the anterior mandible as a "bump on his gums" in a 22-month-old boy. An occlusal radiograph revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucency with scattered radiopaque foci. The tumor was enucleated under general anesthesia. The histologic findings were characteristic of an AFO, a mixed odontogenic tumor most common in the posterior jaws, primarily affecting individuals with an average age of 10 years. The clinical presentation, microscopic findings, differential diagnoses, and treatment are discussed.

  16. En bloc resection of huge cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible: avoiding lower lip split incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Tahera; Katpar, Shahjahan; Shafique, Salman; Mirza, Talat

    2011-05-01

    Cemento-ossifying Fibroma (COF) is an osteogenic benign neoplasm affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. It commonly presents as a progressively slow growing pathology, which can sometimes attain an enormous size, causing facial deformity. A case of a huge cemento-ossifying fibroma, appearing as a mandibular dumbell tumour in a male patient is documented, which caused massive bone destruction and deformity. It was surgically removed by performing en bloc resection of mandible avoiding the splitting of lower lip incision technique, thereby maintaining his normal facial appearance.

  17. Numerical design studies on a novel electrostimulative osteosynthesis system for the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raben Hendrikje

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractures or other major bone defects in the mandible are commonly treated by mounting a reconstruction plate at the fracture site. To avoid complications due to loosening of the implant or the fixation screws, electrical stimulation presents a possibility to accelerate bone healing. The aim of this study was to investigate different combinations of activated electrodes and plate designs regarding their feasibility for electrostimulation of the mandibular bone. The electric field distribution for multiple implant designs was computed using the finite element method. The results suggest that the electrode insulation renders a crucial parameter, which influences substantially the stimulation impact and its power consumption.

  18. Low-grade Myxofibrosarcoma in the Mandible: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Kargahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myxofibrosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm of connective tissue origin commonly found in the extremities. It is very rare in the head and neck regions. Only 25 cases of myxofibrosarcoma have been reported in the head and neck regions until 2014. Here we report a 61-year-old male with this neoplasm in the lower border of his mandible. During a two-year follow-up, this case recurred four times despite a complete resection. This study suggested combined surgical and adjuvant radiotherapy for unresectable lesions and tumors with positive margins to prevent recurrence and risk of progression.

  19. Biomechanical evaluation of a new MatrixMandible plating system on cadaver mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateno, Jaime; Cookston, Christopher; Hsu, Sam Sheng-Pin; Stal, Drew N; Durrani, Salim K; Gold, Jonathan; Ismaily, Sabir; Alexander, Jerry W; Noble, Philip C; Xia, James J

    2013-11-01

    Current mandibular plating systems contain a wide range of plates and screws needed for the treatment of mandibular reconstruction and mandibular fractures. The authors' hypothesis was that a single diameter screw could be used in all applications in a plating system. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test if the 2.0-mm locking screws could replace the 2.4-mm screws to stabilize a 2.5-mm-thick reconstruction plate in the treatment of mandibular discontinuity. Thirty-six fresh human cadaveric mandibles were used: 18 were plated using 2.0-mm locking screws (experimental) and the other 18 were plated using 2.4-mm locking screws (control). Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups based on the site of loading application: the ipsilateral (right) second premolar region, the central incisal region, and the contralateral (left) first molar region. The same ipsilateral (right) mandibular angular discontinuity was created by the same surgeon. The mandible was mounted on a material testing machine. The micromotions between the 2 segments, permanent and elastic displacements, were recorded after incremental ramping loads. The magnitude of screw back-out and the separation between plate and bone were recorded using a laser scanner (resolution, 0.12 mm) before and after the loading applications. The data were processed. Descriptive analyses and a general linear model for repeated measures analysis of variance were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in permanent displacement (mean, 1.16 and 0.82 mm, respectively) between the 2.0-mm and 2.4-mm screw groups. There also was no statistically significant difference in elastic displacement between the 2 groups (mean, 1.48 and 1.21 mm, respectively). Finally, there were no statistically significant differences in screw back-out or separation between plate and bone between the 2 groups. All means for screw back-out and separation between screw and bone for each group were judged within the

  20. Metastatic Bronchogenic Carcinoma to the Mandible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tumor. Her chest radiograph findings were of a diffuse homogenous opacification with ipsilateral pleural effusion ... more commonly than sarcomas, the jaw bones being more ... disease (10). This report highlights diagnosis of a rare metastasis.

  1. Duplication of lower lip and mandible--a rare diprosopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaili, D N Pengiran; Somasundaram, S; Lau, S H; Ajura, A J; Roslan, A R; Ramli, R

    2011-01-01

    Diprosopus or duplication of the lower lip and mandible is a very rare congenital anomaly. We report this unusual case occurring in a girl who presented to our hospital at the age of 4 months. Surgery and problems related to this anomaly are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface-bounded growth modeling applied to human mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Per Rønsholt; Brookstein, F. L.; Conradsen, Knut

    2000-01-01

    From a set of longitudinal three-dimensional scans of the same anatomical structure, the authors have accurately modeled the temporal shape and size changes using a linear shape model. On a total of 31 computed tomography scans of the mandible from six patients, 14,851 semilandmarks are found...

  3. An experimental study on the radiation hazard of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Tohru

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the tooth extraction after irradiation to the mandible experimentally. The following results were obtained. 1. In a group whose teeth were extracted immediately after irradiation, healing of the extraction wound was delayed. However, severe radiation hazard was not recognized macroscopically. 2. In a group whose teeth were extracted after 2 weeks following irradiation, radiation osteomyelitis was recognized macroscopically. All of these cases showed disturbances of healing of the extraction wound. 3. The early radiographical finding on the mandible, in which the teeth had been extracted after irradiation, was osteoporosis and it was accelerated by infection. 4. Bone resorption caused by osteoclast was observed microscopically in a group whose teeth were extracted after irradiation. Osteoporotic bone resorption was accelerated by infection, and was decreased by subsidings of infection and blood vessel hazard. 5. Sequestration was one of the results of radiation osteomyelitis, which was caused by the disturbance of blood circulation due to periosteum detachment. Sequestrum was caused by invasion of the healthy gingiva. 6. Though healing of the extraction wound was delayed by irradiation, new bone was formed in the alveolar socket if the blood clot occupied the alveolar socket. 7. Radiation hazard of the mandible became more severe when the mandible was accompanied by infection. (J.P.N.)

  4. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the mandible : Case report | Lawal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It usually occurs in the posterior mandible of adults where it causes pain due to perineural invasion (neurotropism) (1,2,3) to the best of our knowledge, only 17 cases of centrally located/primary intraosseous ACC have been reported in literature (2). We hereby report a case of primary intraosseous adenoid cystic carcinoma ...

  5. Ewing's Sarcoma Localized in the Mandible: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Akbayram, S; Başaranoglu, M; Kaya, A; Açıkgöz, M; Üstyol, L; Taşkın, GA; Dogan, M

    2015-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is one of the most aggressive primary bone tumours. Ewing's sarcoma arising from the bones of the head and neck region is extremely rare; only 4–9% of all Ewing's sarcoma originate in this region. We report a case of Ewing's sarcoma localized in the mandible because of its unusual presentation.

  6. The edentulous mandible opposing maxillary natural teeth: treatment considerations utilizing implant overdentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S; Monasky, G E

    1993-01-01

    The restoration of the edentulous mandible opposing all or part of the maxillary natural dentition with implant overdentures is described. There are many situations in which the maxillary teeth opposing an edentulous mandible can and should be retained. Mandibular implant overdentures can be utilized as long as health considerations, morphologic features of the resorbed mandible, and maxillomandibular jaw relationships are satisfactory.

  7. Mechanical mandible competence in rats with nutritional growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezón, Christian Esteban; Pintos, Patricia Mabel; Bozzini, Clarisa; Romero, Alan Agüero; Casavalle, Patricia; Friedman, Silvia María; Boyer, Patricia Mónica

    2017-08-01

    In order to provide a better understanding of the sympathetic nervous system as a negative regulator of bone status, the aim of the study was to establish the biomechanical mandible response to different doses of a β-adrenergic antagonist such as propranolol (P) in a stress-induced food restriction model of growth retardation. Rats were assigned to eight groups: Control (C), C+P3.5 (CP3.5), C+P7 (CP7), C+P14 (CP14), NGR, NGR+P3.5 (NGRP3.5), NGR+P7 (NGRP7) and NGR+P14 (NGRP14). C, CP3.5, CP7 and CP14 rats were freely fed with the standard diet. NGR, NGRP3.5, NGRP7 and NGRP14 rats received, for 4 weeks (W4), 80% of the amount of controls food consumed. Propranolol 3.5, 7 and 14mg/kg/day was injected ip 5days per week in CP3.5 and NGRP3.5, CP7 and NGRP7, CP14 and NGRP14, respectively. At W4, zoometry, mandible morphometry, static histomorphometric and biomechanical competence were performed. A dose of Propranolol 7mg/kg/day induced interradicular bone volume accretion reaching a mandible stiffness according to chronological age. These findings evidenced that sympathetic nervous system activity is a negative regulator of mandible mechanical competence in the nutritional growth retardation model. Propranolol 7mg/kg/day, under the regimen usage, seems to be appropriate to blockade SNS activity on mandible mechanical performance in NGR rats, probably associated to an effect on bone mechanostat system ability to detect disuse mode as an error. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex determination of human mandible using metrical parameters by computed tomography: A prospective radiographic short study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj N Kallalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sex determination of unidentified human remains is very important in forensic medicine, medicolegal cases, and forensic anthropology. The mandible is the largest and hardest facial bone that commonly resists postmortem damage and forms an important source of personal identification. Additional studies have demonstrated the applicability of facial reconstruction using three-dimensional computed tomography scan (3D-CT for the purpose of individual identification. Aim: To determine the sex of human mandible using metrical parameters by CT. Materials and Methods: The study included thirty subjects (15 males and 15 females, with age group ranging between 10 and 60 years obtained from the outpatient department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Narsinhbhai Patel Dental College and Hospital. CT scan was performed on all the subjects, and the data obtained were reconstructed for 3D viewing. After obtaining 3D-CT scan, a total of seven mandibular measurements, i.e., gonial angle (G-angle, ramus length (Ramus-L, minimum ramus breadth and gonion-gnathion length (G-G-L, bigonial breadth, bicondylar breadth (BIC-Br, and coronoid length (CO-L were measured; collected data were analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis program by Student's t-test. Results: The result of the study showed that out of seven parameters, G-angle, Ramus-L, G-G-L, BIC-Br, and CO-L showed a significant statistical difference (P < 0.05, with overall accuracy of 86% for males and 82% for females. Conclusion: Personal identification using mandible by conventional methods has already been proved but with variable efficacies. Advanced imaging modalities can aid in personal identification with much higher accuracy than conventional methods.

  9. Strategic Considerations for Effective Sagittal Resection of the Mandible to Achieve a Slim and Attractive Jawline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sanghoon; Lee, Tae Sung

    2018-01-01

    Sagittal resection of the mandible has been widely used to reduce the width of the lower face and is usually carried out in combination with a mandibular contouring procedure. However, the surgical outcomes of this procedure are unclear because sagittal resection is rarely performed as a single procedure. The authors clarify misunderstandings regarding this procedure and introduce an improved strategic approach for sagittal resection of the mandible. Under general anesthesia, mandible contouring was performed first with a curved osteotomy, followed by sagittal resection of the outer cortex of mandible. The amount and extent of each procedure was determined in accordance with preoperative analysis. From 2012 to 2014, a consecutive series of 212 patients who underwent mandible contouring surgery without concomitant chin surgery were included in the study. A total of 189 patients underwent both mandibular contouring surgery and sagittal resection, whereas 13 underwent only sagittal resection and 10 underwent only mandibular contouring surgery. All operations were carried out successfully without any severe complications, and most patients had satisfactory aesthetic outcomes. The authors found that the sagittal resection of the mandible should be performed in accordance with the shape of the mandible to effectively reduce facial width and achieve better aesthetic outcomes for both profile and frontal views. In an outcurved-type mandible, conventional mandibular contouring may be effective alone, whereas sagittal resection focusing on removing the mandible body region is essential for incurved-type mandibles. In straight line-type mandibles, both procedures are necessary. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of the mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC located in the coronoid process of the mandible in a 12-year-old girl is presented. Treatment consisted of excision of the lesion through preauricular, submandibular and intraoral approach. An access osteotomy distal to second molar region was required to gain access to medial side of the coronoid process. To our knowledge, this is the third case of an aneurysmal bone cyst of the coronoid process of mandible. While examining a patient with a large expansile intrabony jaw cavity with thin peripheral bone, which is filled with blood without presence of bruit, thrills and pulse pressure, the diagnosis of aneurysmal bone cyst should be on top of the differential diagnosis list. Seventy-four to eighty-five percent of aneurysmal bone cysts of jaws occur in 10-20 years age group. Therefore, a pediatric dentist may be the first person to see such a lesion.

  11. Case report 380: Desmoplastic fibroma of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.; Irwin, G.A.L.; Hermann, G.; Shih, H.

    1986-01-01

    A seven-year-old girl presented with swelling of the jaw and difficulty in opening her mouth. A large, grossly lytic, expanding lesion in the left ramus of the mandible was demonstrated radiologically. Biopsy and curettage were performed. Five months later the patient returned because of a recurrent mass in the area of the biopsy. Radiological studies now showed that the grossly osteolytic lesion in the mandible had enlarged considerably and a soft tissue mass had developed again. On readmission, wide surgical excision of the lesion was accomplished after the presence of a desmoplastic fibroma was established. The differential diagnosis was discussed and the characteristic clinical, radiological and pathological features of desmoplastic fibroma were considered. Appropriate treatment was discussed in the instance of this child. It was stressed in the discussion that the distinction histologically between a desmoplastic fibroma, a desmoid, a low grade fibrosarcoma and even fibrous histiocytoma might be extremely difficult. (orig.)

  12. Radiation osteomyelitis of the mandible. Report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, M.R.; Nishio, Juntaro; Matsuya, Tokuzo; Miyazaki, Tadashi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1982-12-01

    Radiation therapy for the head and neck malignant tumor may often cause osteoradionecrosis of the mandible, leading to radiation osteomyelitis with a source of infection. The present study demonstrates two cases with radiation osteomyelitis of the mandible to discuss the etiology, radiological findings and preventive measure for this type of bone disease. The results indicate that, 1) A higher dose in external radiotherapy may claimed to be a potent factor to cause osteoradionecrosis and post irradiation periodontitis of the tooth associated with pain, may be preliminary symptom of leading radiation osteomyelitis, where a delayed healing of tooth extraction is an accelerating factor responsible for rapid progress of osteomyelitic changes. 2) Once infection sets in post irradiated bone, radio-osteomyelitic change is quite progressive even after various conservative measure. 3) Only radiological change in those cases is a slow formation of sequestrum time ranging from 7 to 10 months, with a gradual separation of dead bone as a large mass.

  13. Solitary plasmacytoma of the mandible - a rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad, Rajendra; Kapse, Sonam C; Rathod, Nanita; Sonawane, Kishor; Thete, Sanjay Gangadhar; Kumar, M Naveen

    2013-06-01

    Plasma cell dyscrasias (multiple myeloma, solitary plasmocytoma of bone and extra medullary plasmocytoma) are cha¬racterized by a monoclonal neoplastic proliferation of plasma cells of which Solitary plasmocytoma of bone (SPB) is a localized form. SPB is most frequently seen in vertebrae and secondarily in long bones. Its presence in jaws is extremely rare. The malignant plasma cells express monotypic cytoplasmic immunoglobulins and plasma cell-associated antigens, with an absence of immature B-cell antigens. Here we report a unique case of plasmacytoma in the right side of mandible, a chronology for diagnosis of the lesion is also reviewed along with clinical, radiographic, histopathological and immunohistochemical evidence. How to cite this article: Baad R, Kapse S C, Rathod N, Sonawane K, Thete S G, Naveen M K. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Mandible - A Rare Entity. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):97-101.

  14. Bilateral aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal HK Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC, usually considered a reactive lesion of bone rather than a cyst or true neoplasm, is believed to represent an exaggerated, localized, proliferative response of vascular tissue in bone. The case described here is of a 40-year-old female patient presenting with gradually increasing bilateral mandibular swelling of more than 1 year duration. The radiographic and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT images showed bilateral, multilocular expansile radiolucent lesions in the mandible in the premolar-molar region. On considering the blood aspirate obtained and the histopathologic findings, the patient was diagnosed with bilateral aneurysmal bone cysts in the mandible, with probable pre-existing bone lesion.

  15. A Rare Large Residual Cyst of the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Shojaei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A residual cyst is a periapical cyst persisted after its associated tooth had been extracted. Case Presentation: A 59-year-old Iranian man complaining of a dull pain in his left side of the mandible after falling down one month ago was referred to the department of oral and maxillofacial pathology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Panoramic film revealed a radiolucent lesion and fracture of the mandible at the right side. An excisional biopsy was obtained. Based on the histopathologic findings, residual cyst was diagnosed. Conclusions: We reported a rare case of large residual cyst. Dental practitioners should consider this lesion in the differential diagnosis of radiolucent lesions of the jaw bone.

  16. Growth Modeling of Human Mandibles using Non-Euclidean Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Larsen, Rasmus; Wrobel, Mark

    2003-01-01

    From a set of 31 three-dimensional CT scans we model the temporal shape and size of the human mandible. Each anatomical structure is represented using 14851 semi-landmarks, and mapped into Procrustes tangent space. Exploratory subspace analyses are performed leading to linear models of mandible...... shape evolution in Procrustes space. The traditional variance analysis results in a one-dimensional growth model. However, working in a non-Euclidean metric results in a multimodal model with uncorrelated modes of biological variation. The applied non-Euclidean metric is governed by the correlation...... structure of the estimated noise in the data. The generative models are compared, and evaluated on the basis of a cross validation study. The new non-Euclidean analysis is completely data driven. It not only gives comparable results w.r.t. to previous studies of the mean modelling error, but in addition...

  17. Simultaneous occurrence of an Odontogenic Myxoma and a Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bong Su; Lee, Sang Rae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Byung Do

    1999-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of oral cancer and odontogenic myxoma is relatively uncommon benign tumor of mesenchymal origin. There are, to our knowledge, no prior reports of simultaneously occurring squamous cell carcinoma and odontogenic myxoma of the jaw bones. In this case, at first, the plain films and computed tomograms revealed a large expansible multilocular radiolucent lesion on left mandible and marked expansion of cortical plate. In addition this radiograms revealed also infiltrative bony destruction of anterior and medial border of ascending ramus of left mandible and alveolar bone of left maxilla, floating teeth on left lower molar area and metastatic enlargement of left submandibular, jugular digastric and spinal accessory lymph nodes. Magnetic resonance imaging of this patient revealed infiltrative growth of tumor on alveolar bone of left maxilla, left retromolar fat pad, left masseter and left medial pterygoid muscle. Intraoral presurgical biopsy presented typical features of squamous cell carcinoma. After chemotherapy with radiation therapy during 6 months, this central lesion was diagnosed as odontogenic myxoma by the postsurgical biopsy. After 3 months, this patient presented multiple metastatic signs at lumbar spines, rib and liver. Consequently, our case is simultaneous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and odontogenic myxoma.

  18. Fracture of the styloid process associated with the mandible fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K N Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the styloid process (SP of temporal bone is an uncommon injuries. Fracture of the SP can be associated with the facial injuries including mandible fracture. However, injury to the SP may be concealed and missed diagnosis may lead to the improper or various unnecessary treatments. A rare case of SP fracture associated with the ipsilateral mandibular fracture and also the diagnostic and management considerations of the SP fracture are discussed.

  19. Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the mandible: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Chang Hyeon [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma is a rare benign mixed odontogenic tumor with histologic characteristics of ameloblastic fibroma and complex odontoma. As with ameloblastic fibroma, it may be asymptomatic or found because of painless swelling and delayed eruption of associated tooth. This report presents a case of ameloblastic fibro-odontoma in the posterior mandible of a 14-year-old girl and analyses its clinical features and radiographic features in plain X-ray film and CT images.

  20. The mandibular angles of dry adult human mandibles from north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mandibular angles of dry adult human mandibles from north-eastern arid zone of Nigeria. EF Mbajiorgu, AU Ekanem. Abstract. (Central African Journal of Medicine: 2002 48 (1-2): 9-13). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/cajm.v48i1.8417 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  1. The pediatric mandible: II. Management of traumatic injury or fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, James M; Low, David W; Bartlett, Scott P

    2005-08-01

    After studying this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the changing epidemiology of mandibular fractures in children and adolescents. 2. Discuss the appropriate use of internal fixation in the treatment of pediatric mandibular fractures. 3. Describe the difficulties posed by the deciduous dentition in the use of interdental wiring. 4. Understand reasons why techniques specific to adult fractures may not be applicable to the growing mandible. 5. Understand the etiology and epidemiology of pediatric mandibular fractures. 6. Understand the reasons for conservative (closed) versus aggressive (open) treatment of mandibular injury. Fractures of the pediatric mandible are complicated by the anatomic complexity of the developing mandible, particularly by the presence of tooth buds and the eruption of deciduous and permanent teeth. Traditional methods of fracture reduction and fixation employed in adults have little applicability in the pediatric population. The authors describe the surgical techniques that have been used at their institution and those that can be used safely in the pediatric setting. In most cases, "conservative" management is the preferred option, especially in the treatment of condylar fractures. In cases requiring surgical intervention, interdental wiring, drop wires in combination with circummandibular wires, and acrylic splints are suited well to specific phases of dental maturation. Open reduction and internal fixation using monocortical screws and microplates or resorbable plates and screws are acceptable techniques in the pediatric patient, but they require special safeguards. Algorithms are presented to simplify management of these complicated injuries.

  2. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mood-induced variations of mandible and tongue postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2013-06-01

    Twelve young adults in a good general health were observed during habitual posture of tongue and jaw in different emotional conditions induced by watching three video sequences. The position of the mandible was tracked by the displacements of an electromagnetic sensor glued to the chin. The tongue-to-palate distance was obtained by 2-D location of three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper midline surface. Head displacements were evaluated with a sensor fixed to an upper central incisor and were subtracted from corresponding displacements of tongue and chin sensors to obtain the real tongue and mandible positions during continuous recording sequences. Emotional conditioning by a fear movie influenced the vertical position of the mandible: the mean interarch distances during the fear movie (2·34 ± 0·24 mm) were significantly different from those measured during the tender (3·13 ± 0·35) and neutral (3·42 ± 0·80) movies, respectively (anova repeated measure, SNK; P < 0·05). anova repeated measure indicated that the tongue-to-palate distance differed significantly when the subjects were watching the conditioning movies (P = 0·003), the tip of the tongue taking a lower position during the fear movie than during the tender and neutral movies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effect of x-ray irradiated rat fetus mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang Gun; You, Dong Soo

    1978-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of x-ray to developing rat mandible in the gestation stage was focused on the study of mandible development and the side effect of x-ray irradiation. The author studied the effect of x-ray irradiation with the gestated rat and their offsprings. 100 rads, 200 rads, 300 rads and 400 rads of x-ray was irradiated in regular order schematically at the lower left abdomen of gestated rat. 18 1/2 days after conception, their offsprings were sacrificed and examined their developing mandible with histological findings. The results were as followed. 1. In the 100-200 rads irradiated rat offsprings, bony trabeclulation was revealed irregular shape. In combine with this finding, osteoblast and fibroblast were appeared shrunken of their nucleus and location of eccentric position. 2. In the 300-400 rads irradiated rat offsprings, decrease of fibroblast and osteoblast appearance in the periosteum were prominently observed and empty lacunae were frequently appeared in their bone matrix. 3. The advent of osteoclast and resorption of cortical bone were appeared in proportion to increasing of x-ray irradiation.

  5. Influence of Orthotropy on Biomechanics of Peri-Implant Bone in Complete Mandible Model with Full Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study was to investigate the impact of orthotropic material on the biomechanics of dental implant, based on a detailed mandible with high geometric and mechanical similarity. Materials and Methods. Multiple data sources were used to elaborate detailed biological structures and implant CAD models. In addition, an extended orthotropic material assignment methodology based on harmonic fields was used to handle the alveolar ridge region to generate compatible orthotropic fields. The influence of orthotropic material was compared with the commonly used isotropic model and simplified orthotropic model. Results. The simulation results showed that the values of stress and strain on the implant-bone interface almost increased in the orthotropic model compared to the isotropic case, especially for the cancellous bone. However, the local stress concentration was more obvious in the isotropic case compared to that in orthotropic case. The simple orthotropic model revealed irregular stress and strain distribution, compared to the isotropic model and the real orthotropic model. The influence of orthotropy was little on the implant, periodontal ligament, tooth enamel, and dentin. Conclusion. The orthotropic material has significant effect on stress and strain of implant-bone interface in the mandible, compared with the isotropic simulation. Real orthotropic mechanical properties of mandible should be emphasized in biomechanical studies of dental implants.

  6. Contribution to the radiological study of the eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible (Unifocal granuloma due to Langherans' cell histiocytosis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chigi, Gino; Pastremoli, Alessandro; Pisi, Paolo; Pastremoli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the mandible still constitutes a challenge in some pathological conditions in which the clinical data and the case history are relatively uniform and the radiological picture is lacking in any characteristics. Materials and methods: We reviewed the conventional radiograms of six cases of Langherans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the mandible examined over the last ten years. The X-ray examinations were performed in the lateral-oblique projection to allow a view of the horizontal portion of the mandible almost completely free of overlapping images of other bone structures. Results: We identified a series of radiological patterns for these reticulo-endotheliopathies capable of causing granuloma formed by polinuclear eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear macrophages with granulopexic and phagocytic activity that proliferate in the bone tissue and can be identified as the Langherans' cells of skin, mucosa, periodontal cavities and bone marrow. The granulomatous tissue penetrates the affected organ elements and, in its spread, it compresses, atrophies, and destroyed the damaged tissue, replacing it. The alterations produced by Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma are most common in the skeletal system affecting, in order of frequency, the skull, the long bones of the limbs, the foot, the ribs and the spine. The oral mucosa is rarely involved. Conclusions: The radiological investigation of unifocal Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma of the mandible is essential in the study of perimandibular swelling, although diagnosis is based on biopsy alone. In addition to digital or conventional radiography, other useful examinations are bone scintigraphy, Colour Doppler US, MR and CT, which enables a correct localisation necessary for planning the biopsy and treatment [it

  7. Prevention of collapse of the contralateral half of the mandible after hemimandibulectomy: Our experience in a low-resource center

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    Charles E Anyanechi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of pathologic lesions of the mandible includes plans for the reconstruction of the resultant defect to give the patients optimal surgical reconstructive and prosthetic results. Objective: To evaluate the degree of deviation of the contralateral half of the mandible toward the surgical defect after hemimandibulectomy and intermaxillary fixation (IMF. Patients and Methods: This is a 9-year prospective single-blinded clinical study conducted at the Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of our institution. Information obtained from the patients included age, gender, type of mandibular lesion, method of wound closure, duration of IMF, temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ symptom(s, and the deviation toward the surgical defect of the remnant contralateral half of the mandible, measured in centimeter at maximum mouth opening. Results: Ninety-six patients, unevenly distributed according to their duration of tolerance of IMF, were studied. The age of the patients ranged from 29 to 57 years with an overall mean age of 42.6 ± 5.1 years. There were 72 males and 24 females with a male-to-female ratio of 3:1 (P = 0.001. The lesions that were extirpated were all benign, and ameloblastoma was the most common tumor (P = 0.001. The shorter the duration of IMF, the greater the deviation of the mandibular mid-line toward the surgical defect (P = 0.001. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a deviation of mid-line of the residual mandible toward the surgical defect after hemimandibulectomy, even after its immobilization with IMF for 4–12 weeks. IMF is still useful in the prevention of mandibular collapse after hemimandibulectomy.

  8. Malunited fracture of the body and condyle of the mandible : A Case Report

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    Ramakrishna Yeluri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular fractures are the most common facial fractures seen in hospitalized children and their incidence increases with age. Treatment options include soft diet, intermaxillary fixation with eyelet wires, arch bars, circummandibular wiring, or stents. Alternative options include open reduction and internal fixation through either an intraoral or extraoral approach. Many factors complicate the management of pediatric mixed-dentition mandibular fractures: tooth eruption, short roots, developing tooth buds and growth issues. One major factor is the inherent instability of the occlusion in the mixed deciduous-permanent tooth phase. This case report documents a child in mixed dentition period with a complication arising due to direct fixation of the fractured mandible.

  9. Cases report of ossifying fibroma showing various radiographic appearances in posterior mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Oh, Seung Hwan; Son, Hyun Jin

    2010-01-01

    Common radiographic appearances of ossifying fibroma (OF) are well demarcated margin, radiolucent or mixed lesion. Lesions for the radiographic differential diagnosis with OF include fibrous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Other confusing lesions might be the mixed lesions such as calcifying odontogenic cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and benign cementoblastoma. We reported three cases of OF in posterior mandible. These cases showed a little distinguished radiographic features of OF and diagnosed from a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic information. We need to further refine radiographic and histopathological features of OF and other confusing lesions with literatures review because some cases of these lesions are not easily differentiated radiographically and histopathologically.

  10. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in the maxilla and mandible, an extremely rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Ranjan Misra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignancy is characterized by anaplasia, invasiveness, and metastasis. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most prevalent oral malignancy, but secondary malignancy from distant sites have also been reported. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common primary liver malignancy that frequently metastasizes during the course of the disease, but < 1% of cases show oral involvement. Such secondary neoplasms do not have any pathognomonic clinical or radiologic findings, and therefore they pose a diagnostic challenge. Hence, in the differential diagnosis of malignant tumors of the oral cavity, it is essential to consider the occurrence of both primary as well as metastatic tumors despite the low incidence of the latter. A rare case of HCC metastasizing to both the maxilla and mandible is presented, in which the patient succumbed to the disease as a result of the delay in diagnosis.

  11. Cases report of ossifying fibroma showing various radiographic appearances in posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Oh, Seung Hwan [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Common radiographic appearances of ossifying fibroma (OF) are well demarcated margin, radiolucent or mixed lesion. Lesions for the radiographic differential diagnosis with OF include fibrous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Other confusing lesions might be the mixed lesions such as calcifying odontogenic cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and benign cementoblastoma. We reported three cases of OF in posterior mandible. These cases showed a little distinguished radiographic features of OF and diagnosed from a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic information. We need to further refine radiographic and histopathological features of OF and other confusing lesions with literatures review because some cases of these lesions are not easily differentiated radiographically and histopathologically.

  12. A rare complication of secondary hyperparathyroidism: Brown tumor of the maxilla and mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumer, Pinar A.; Sumer, Mahmut; Arik, Nurol; Karogoz, Filiz

    2004-01-01

    Brown tumors are focal bone lesions caused by increased osteoclastic activity and fibroblastic proliferation encountered in primary or more rarely secondary hyperparathyroidism. Ninety-two percent of the patients undergoing dialysis develop secondary hyperparathyroidism. Of these, approximately 1.5% develops brown tumors. Brown tumors of hyperparathyroidism may appear in any bone but are frequently found in the facial bones and jaws, particularly in long-standing cases of the disease. As it becomes common for hyperparathyroidism to be detected earlier during the disease, the bony manifestations of the disease are rarely seen. The following report describes a case of brown tumor of the maxilla and mandible in a patient with renal insufficiency. This patient presented multiple skeletal lesions, which are uncommonly seen now a days. (author)

  13. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo

    1996-01-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author)

  14. The study on changes of bone mineral content of mandible by quantitative computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamai, Manabu; Ishii, Yasuo [Fukui Medical School, Matsuoka (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    A method to measure bone mineral of mandible has not been established. The bone mineral content (BMC) of the mandible with single energy quantitative computed tomography (SEQCT), which was compared with that of the spine, was discussed. The subjects were 104 healthy persons (54 males and 50 females, age range: 21-69) and 33 patients of mandibular atrophy (10 males and 23 females, age range: 46-87). The BMC changes of the mandible differed according to sex. In males BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone decreased slightly after 40 and 30 years of age respectively. In females, BMC decreased consistently during menopause. BMC of the spine tended to decrease with aging, especially in females. In males having mandibular atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone of the mandible decreased, and that of cortical bone of the mandible increased with aging. In females having atrophy, the BMC of trabecular bone and cortical bone of the mandible decreased with aging. The BMC of the mandible was correlated with the length of the denture-wearing time in males. In females, it appears that the BMC of the mandible participates in estrogen deficiency like the BMC of the spine. From the above, measurement of the BMC of the mandible by SEQCT was considered to be very useful for grasping the severity and progressive rate, and other conditions of alveolar ridge atrophy and determining the remedial course. (author).

  15. The longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Lin, Jiuxiang; Xu, Tianmin; Long, Xiaosi

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible according to the quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (QCVM) for adolescents with normal occlusion, mixed longitudinal data were used. The samples included 87 adolescents aged from 8 to 18 y old with normal occlusion (32 males, 55 females) selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year, lasting for 6 y. The longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible according to QCVM were measured. There were some significant differences between maxilla and mandible according to QCVM. The sagittal growth change of maxilla showed a trend towards high velocity-->decelerating velocity-->completing velocity from QCVM stage I to stage IV. The sagittal growth change of mandible showed a trend towards accelerating velocity-->high velocity-->decelerating velocity-->completing velocity from QCVM stage I to stage IV. With sagittal relationship, growth magnitude was almost the same between maxilla and mandible at QCVM stage I. At stage II the growth of mandible exceeded that of maxilla and growth in mandible continued at stages III and IV, while the maxilla ceased to grow. Growth magnitude was greater and the growth duration was longer with male mandible. It is concluded that the longitudinal sagittal growth changes of maxilla and mandible on the basis of QCVM is of value in the orthodontic practice.

  16. Giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Raghavendra Mahadev; Guruprasad, Yadavalli; Sujatha, D; Gurudath, Shubha; Pai, Anuradha; Suresh, Kv

    2014-01-01

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is classified as a fibro-osseous neoplasm and included among the non-odontogenic tumors derived from the mesenchymal blast cells of the periodontal ligament, with a potential for forming fibrous tissue, cementum and bone, or a combination of such elements. These are slow-growing lesions, and are more frequent in women between the third and fourth decades of life. Case reports of massive expansile COF, measuring more than 10 cm are rarely reported in the literature. We report a case of giant cemento-ossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 34 year old female patient.

  17. Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst with odontome in left mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kamala

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst is a mixed odontogenic benign tumor but most of the cases present cystic characteristics. We present a case report of calcifying epithelial odontogenic cyst with odontoma in a 20-year-old male who presented with a painless unilateral swelling of the jaw. The lesion involved an impacted 37 which was displaced to the lower border of the mandible and a calcified mass that was within the cystic lesion that was recognized as odontoma. The lesion was surgically removed along with 36 and 37 was allowed to erupt.

  18. Accessory neurovascular foramina on the lingual surface of mandible: Incidence, topography, and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B V Murlimanju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It was suggested that the accessory neurovascular foramina of the mandible might be of significance in relation to the effectiveness of local anesthesia following the routine inferior alveolar nerve block. Aims: To investigate the incidence of neurovascular foramina over the lingual surface of the mandible in South Indian population. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the department of anatomy. Materials and Methods: The study included 67 human adult dry mandibles, the exact ages and sexes of which were not known. The location and number of neurovascular foramina were topographically analyzed. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics. Results: The foramina were observed in 64 mandibles (95.5% and were often multiple in most of the cases. They were located between the two medial incisors in 8 mandibles (1.9%, between the medial and lateral incisor in 34 mandibles (50.7%; 25-bilateral; 7-right; 2-left, between the lateral incisor and canine in 7 mandibles (10.4%; 2-bilateral; 3-right; 2-left, between the canine and first premolar in 6 cases (8.9%; 3 on each side. Foramina were also present around the genial tubercle in 56 mandibles (83.6%. Among them, 52 mandibles showed a single foramen just above the genial tubercle, 34 mandibles had foramina below the tubercles, 13 mandibles had foramina on the right side of genial tubercle and 17 were having on the left side. Conclusion: Since the anatomical details of these foramina are important to various fields of dentistry and oncology, the present investigation was undertaken. The clinical significance and implications are emphasized.

  19. Possibilities of reconstruction and implant-prosthetic rehabilitation following mandible resection

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    Konstantinović Vitomir S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mandible reconstruction is still very challenging for surgeons. Mandible defects could be the consequence of ablative surgery for malignancies, huge jaw cysts, infection and trauma. Segmental resection of the mandible may compromise orofacial function and often lead to patients psychological disorders. Despite very frequent use of microvascular flaps, autogenous bone grafts are still very reliable technique for mandible reconstruction. Comprehensive therapy means not only mandible reconstruction, but prosthodontic rehabilitation supported by dental implants, which can significantly improve patients quality of life. The aim of this paper was to evaluate possible techniques of mandible reconstruction and to present a patient who had been submitted to mandible resection and reconstruction with autogenous iliac bone graft and prosthodontic rehabilitation with fixed denture anchoraged by disc-shaped implants in early loading protocol. Case report. Mandible reconstruction was performed simultaneously with resection. Autogenous iliac bone graft was taken, reshaped and placed in two parts, to the required optimal contour of the mandible. After graft consolidation, decision was made for prosthodontics rehabilitation with fixed dentures supported by implants. In addition to the standard preoperative procedures, planning was done based on a biomodel gained by rapid prototyping after CT scan. It offered a real 3D planning to obtain a proper shape, dimension and the position of implants. Conclusion. If bone dimensions of a reconstructed mandible are insufficient, like in the presented case, the use of basal osseointegrated implants may be a method of choice. Avoiding bone augmentation procedures, as well as early loading protocol for this type of implants, shorten the total rehabilitation time, which is very convenient for patients. Fixed denture supported by dental implants is the best solution for comprehensive rehabilitation after mandible

  20. Dilemma in pediatric mandible fractures: resorbable or metallic plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylan Filinte, Gaye; Akan, İsmail Mithat; Ayçiçek Çardak, Gülçin Nujen; Özkaya Mutlu, Özay; Aköz, Tayfun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of resorbable and metallic plates in open reduction and internal fixation of mandible fractures in children. Thirty-one patients (mean age, 8.05 years; range 20 months-14 years) were operated on various fractures of the mandible (26 [60.4%] symphysis- parasymphysis, 12 [27.9%] condylar-subcondylar fractures, 5 [11.6%] angulus and ramus fractures). Twelve patients were treated with resorbable plates and 19 patients with metallic plates. Mean follow-up time was 41 months (11-74 months) in the metallic hardware group and was 22 months (8-35 months) in the resorbable plate group. Both groups were investigated for primary bone healing, complications, number of operations, and mandibular growth. The results were discussed below. Both groups demonstrated primary bone healing. Minor complications were similar in both groups. The metallic group involved secondary operations for plate removal. Mandibular growth was satisfactory in both groups. Resorbable plates cost more than the metallic ones; however, when the secondary operations are included in the total cost, resorbable plates were favourable. As mandibular growth and complication parameters are similar in both groups, resorbable plates are favored due to avoidance of potential odontogenic injury, elimination of long-term foreign body retention and provision of adequate stability for rapid bone healing. However, learning curve and concerns for decreased stability against heavy forces of mastication accompanied with the resorbable plates when compared to the metallic ones should be kept in mind.

  1. Management of comminuted but continuous mandible defects after gunshot injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Majeed; Warraich, Riaz; Rashad, Ashkan; von See, Constantin; Channar, Kashif A; Rana, Madiha; Stoetzer, Marcus; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius

    2014-01-01

    Firearm injuries continue as a major public health problem, contributing significant morbidity, mortality, and expense to our society. There are four main steps in the management of patients with gunshot wounds to the face: securing an airway, controlling haemorrhage, identifying other injuries and definitive repair of the traumatic facial deformities. The objective of this study was to determine late outcome of two treatment options by open reduction and internal fixation versus closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) in the treatment of gunshot injuries of the mandible. Sixty patients of gunshot injury were randomly allocated in two groups. In group A, 30 patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation and in group B, 30 patients were treated by closed reduction and maxillomandibular fixation. Patients were discharged as the treatment completed and recalled for follow up. Up to 3 months after injury, fortnightly complications like infection, malocclusion, malunion of fractured fragments, facial asymmetry, sequestration of bone and exposed plates were evaluated and the differences between two groups were assessed. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 10 months. Patients treated by open reduction tended to have less complications as compared to closed reduction. Based on this study open reduction and internal fixation is the best available method for the treatment of gunshot mandible fractures without continuity defect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Juvenile Ossifying Fibroma of the Mandible: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Keles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws, including juvenile ossifying fibroma, pose diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties due to their clinical, radiological and histological variability. The aim of this study was to report the outcome of a 9 years old girl with diagnosed juvenile ossifying fibroma treatment.Methods: A 9 years old girl presented with a 6 x 8 cm sized hard fixed tumour on right ramus and corpus of the mandible. On the radiological examination tumour showed an irregular but well bordered, unilocular and expansive lesion on the right corpus and ramus of the mandible. There was no teeth displacement or teeth root resorbtion. Microscopically, the tumour had trabeculae, fibrillary osteoid and woven bone. After the clinical, radiological (panoramic radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and histologic analysis it was diagnosed juvenile ossifying fibroma. In the history of the patient there has been an acute lymphocytic leukaemia in the remission for 3 years.Results: Because of large size of mandibular tumour, resultant expansion and destruction of mandibular cortex, the patient underwent right hemimandibulectomy using transmandibular approach. There was no recurrence or complications for two years follow-up.Conclusions: Although juvenile ossifying fibroma is an uncommon clinical entity, its aggressive local behaviour and high recurrence rate means that it is important to make an early diagnosis, apply the appropriate treatment and, especially, follow-up the patient over the long-term.

  3. Bilateral radicular cyst in mandible: an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bava, Fareed Ahmed; Umar, Dilshad; Bahseer, Bahija; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    A radicular cyst is one of the furthermost everyday odontogenic cysts of the anterior maxilla, not regularly comprehended in youth. They are found mostly at the apices of the tooth (periapical cyst), lateral surface of the roots (lateral radicular cyst) and remains in the jaw after removal of the offending tooth (residual cyst). The radicular cyst has been catalogued as an inflammatory cyst, as an outcome to pulpal necrosis succeeding caries, with a linked periapical inflammatory reaction. They advance sluggishly and asymptomatic lest infected. Because of this they can extent to big dimensions. Many times it is perplexing to segregate radicular cysts from the obligatory pre-existing chronic periapical periodontitis lesions radiographically. Here, we present a rare case with bilateral radicular cyst in relation to first molar of the mandible in a 19-year-old. Orthopantomograph showed a large unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border in the periapical region of the first molar on the left side extending from the root of the second premolar to the mesial root of the second molar. Correspondingly another well-defined unilocular radiolucency with a well-defined border was seen on the right side of the mandible. Several treatment possibilities are presented for a radicular cyst such as surgical endodontic treatment, extraction of the transgressing tooth, enucleation with primary closure, and marsupialization trailed by enucleation. The patient management comprised surgical enucleation of cystic sac followed by rehabilitation of the same area.

  4. Social isolation stress and chronic glutathione deficiency have a common effect on the glutamine-to-glutamate ratio and myo-inositol concentration in the mouse frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoba, Alberto; Gruetter, Rolf; Do, Kim Q; Duarte, João M N

    2017-09-01

    Environmental stress can interact with genetic predisposition to increase the risk of developing psychopathology. In this work, we tested the hypothesis that social isolation stress interacts with impaired glutathione synthesis and have cumulative effects on the neurochemical profile of the frontal cortex. A mouse model with chronic glutathione deficit induced by knockout (-/-) of the glutamate-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (Gclm) was exposed to social isolation stress from weaning to post-natal day 65. Using magnetic resonance methods at high-field (14.1 T), we analysed the neurochemical profile in the frontal cortex, brain size and ventricular volume of adult animals. Glutathione deficit was accompanied by elevated concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, alanine, and glutamine, as well as the ratio of glutamine-to-glutamate (Gln/Glu), and by a reduction in levels of myo-inositol and choline-containing compounds in the frontal cortex of -/- animals with respect to wild-type littermates. Although there was no significant interaction between social isolation stress and glutathione deficiency, mice reared in isolation displayed lower myo-inositol concentration (-8.4%, p social isolation had no effect on these parameters. We conclude that social isolation caused neurochemical alterations that may add to those associated to impaired glutathione synthesis. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. The mouse tumor cell lines EL4 and RMA display mosaic expression of NK-related and certain other surface molecules and appear to have a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gays, F; Unnikrishnan, M; Shrestha, S; Fraser, K P; Brown, A R; Tristram, C M; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z M; Brooks, C G

    2000-05-15

    As a potential means for facilitating studies of NK cell-related molecules, we examined the expression of these molecules on a range of mouse tumor cell lines. Of the lines we initially examined, only EL4 and RMA expressed such molecules, both lines expressing several members of the Ly49 and NKRP1 families. Unexpectedly, several of the NK-related molecules, together with certain other molecules including CD2, CD3, CD4, CD32, and CD44, were often expressed in a mosaic manner, even on freshly derived clones, indicating frequent switching in expression. In each case examined, switching was controlled at the mRNA level, with expression of CD3zeta determining expression of the entire CD3-TCR complex. Each of the variable molecules was expressed independently, with the exception that CD3 was restricted to cells that also expressed CD2. Treatment with drugs that affect DNA methylation and histone acetylation could augment the expression of at least some of the variable molecules. The striking phenotypic similarity between EL4 and RMA led us to examine the state of their TCRbeta genes. Both lines had identical rearrangements on both chromosomes, indicating that RMA is in fact a subline of EL4. Overall, these findings suggest that EL4 is an NK-T cell tumor that may have retained a genetic mechanism that permits the variable expression of a restricted group of molecules involved in recognition and signaling.

  6. Vertical distraction of the severely resorbed edentulous mandible : An assessment of treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Stellingsma, Kees; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the treatment outcome (implant survival, surgical complications, patient satisfaction) of vertical distraction of the severely resorbed edentulous mandible. Materials and Methods: Forty-six patients with severe resorption of the edentulous mandible (bone height 5 to 8 mm, median 6

  7. Bone augmentation followed by implant surgery in the edentulous mandible: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, R. J.; Oomens, M. A. E. M.; Forouzanfar, T.; Schulten, E. A. J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Long-standing loss of natural teeth in the mandible can lead to severe jaw atrophy and even mandibular fracture. There is no consensus on the best preprosthetic surgical treatment to reconstruct the atrophic edentulous mandible. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the existing

  8. Phenylbutyrate is a multifaceted drug that exerts neuroprotective effects and reverses the Alzheimer´s disease-like phenotype of a commonly used mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar; Ricobaraza, Ana L; Torrijo, Rosana; Franco, Rafael; Garcia-Osta, Ana

    2013-01-01

    4-Phenylbutyrate (PBA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor whose efficacy in the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer´s disease (AD) is correlated with decreased tau phosphorylation, clearance of intraneuronal Aβ and restoration of dendritic spine density in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. PBA is also a chemical chaperone that facilitates cell proteostasis. To determine the relative contributions of HDAC inhibition and chaperone-like activity in the anti-AD effects of PBA, we compared the effect of PBA with that of sodium butyrate (NaBu), an HDAC inhibitor with no chaperone activity. In neuronal cultures from Tg2576 mice, we observed a correlation between histone 3 acetylation and decreased p-tau levels. Moreover, we observed a decrease in the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in Tg2576 neurons treated with PBA, but not with NaBu. In Tg2576 mice administered PBA or NaBu for 3 weeks, only PBA normalized the pathological AD markers, implicating, at least in part, other mechanism as the chaperone-like activity in the reversal of the AD-like phenotype of Tg2576 mice. Furthermore, treatment with PBA but not NaBu prevented the neuronal loss in the hippocampus of hAPPWT-overexpressing mice, as was particularly evident in the CA1 layer. In addition to its activity as a HDAC inhibitor, the chaperone activity of PBA appears to at least partially, mediate its reversal of the AD phenotype in Tg2576 mice and its neuroprotective effect in a model of hippocampal neuronal loss.

  9. Characterization and autoradiographic visualization of (+)-[3H]SKF10,047 binding in rat and mouse brain: further evidence for phencyclidine/sigma opiate receptor commonality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sircar, R.; Nichtenhauser, R.; Ieni, J.R.; Zukin, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The binding specificity of (+)-[ 3 H]N-allylnormetazocine, the dextrorotatory isomer of the prototypical sigma opiate SKF10,047, was determined in rat and mouse brain and the neuroanatomical distribution of its binding sites elucidated by quantitative autoradiography in sections of rat brain. Computer-assisted Scatchard analysis revealed an apparent two-site fit of the binding data in both species and in all rat brain regions examined. In whole rat brain, the Kd values were 3.6 and 153 nM and the maximum binding values were 40 fmol and 1.6 pmol/mg of protein for the apparent high- and low-affinity binding sites, respectively. (+)-SKF10,047, haloperidol and pentazocine were among the most potent inhibitors of 7 nM (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 binding to the higher affinity sites; rank orders of ligand potencies at these sites differ sharply from those that have been reported for the [ 3 H]phencyclidine (PCP) site, or for eliciting PCP-like or SKF10,047-like behaviors. By contrast, rank orders of potency of sigma opiods, PCP derivatives and dioxolanes for displacement of 100 nM (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 from the more numerous lower affinity sites in the presence of 100 nM haloperidol agreed closely with their potencies in the [ 3 H]PCP binding assay as well as their potencies in exerting PCP- or SKF10,047-like behavioral effects. In order to compare directly the anatomical localizations of PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 binding sites, quantitative light microscopy autoradiography utilizing tritium-labeled PCP and (+)-SKF10,047 was carried out in rat brain sections. (+)-[ 3 H]SKF10,047 binding was observed to follow the regional pattern of [3H]PCP binding but also to bind in other regions not associated with PCP receptors

  10. Mandible vertical height correction using lingual bone-split pedicle onlay graft technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coen Pramono D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available As edentulous mandible become atrophic, a denture bearing area will also be reduced. Difficulty in the removable prosthesis rehabilitation will be present as well. The purpose of this paper reports an innovative surgical technique to cope a problem of unstable complete lower denture due to bone atrophy and resulted of vertical height reduction of the anterior region of the mandible necessary for denture retention. Vertical advancement of the lower jaw using lingual bone split pedicle onlay graft technique in the anterior region of the mandible and followed by secondary epithelization vestibuloplasty in achieving the vertical height dimension. The surgery was achieved satisfactorily as the vertical dimension of the mandible anterior region had increased and the denture seated more stable comparing with the previous denture worn by the patient. It concluded that the surgery was achieved with a great result as the vertical height of the anterior region of the mandible had increased positively therefore lead the denture seated more stable.

  11. Adaptation of D-P flap to the oro-facial fistula induced by radio-osteomyelitis of mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, E.; Genba, R.; Hayatsu, Y.; Sunakawa, H.; Kohama, G. (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1980-06-01

    Intraoral partial resection of the mandible was performed on 3 patients with radiation-induced ostomyelitis and ostonecrosis of the mandible, and inflammation in the mandible disappeared. Residual oro-facial fistula was closed with D-P flap, and a good result was obtained. Treatments of radiation osteopathy, the time of the treatments, and the period from resection of necrotic mandible to the closure of the fistula with D-P flap and reconstructive surgery for the mouth were also considered.

  12. Clinicopathologic correlation of chondrosarcoma of mandible with a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Kundu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma is a rare primary malignant neoplasm of the head, neck, oral and maxillofacial regions. The clinicopathological and radiographic findings are usually characteristic; however, not decisive. The neoplasm is usually treated by wide surgical resection because it is traditionally radioresistant. However, radiotherapy is generally advised for high-grade lesions, and chemotherapy has a palliative role. The treatment and management are primarily guided by the histological grades of the neoplasm. Prognosis of jaw lesions is poor as compared to the lesions affecting the long bones of the body, and the cause of death is usually by direct extension in the base of the skull or due to distant metastasis to lungs and other bones. A clinical case of chondrosarcoma, involving the right half of mandible of a 36 year old male patient is discussed herewith, encompassing the entire gamut of clinicopathological, radiological and treatment modalities rendered.

  13. Cemento-ossifying fibroma of mandible mimicking complex composite odontome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Hitesh Sudarshan; Dewan, Sudarshan Kumar; Bahl, Sumit; Tushar Parekh, Parth

    2016-10-19

    Cemento-ossifying fibroma (COF) is a fibro-osseous lesion or non-odontogenic tumour that affects craniofacial bones. These lesions are included in the spectrum of fibro-osseous lesions arising from periodontal ligament cells, which can deposit combination of cementum and bone surrounded by fibrous tissue. It clinically, macroscopically and radiologically resembles complex composite odontome and can be differentiated only on the basis of histopathology. They usually occur solitarily as a painless and expansile spherical or ovoid jawbone mass that may displace the roots of adjacent teeth. They predominantly occur in females in third and fourth decades of life. We present a case report of a 20-year-old man, with a mildly painful swelling in the mandible which was successfully treated with enucleation and diagnosed as COF. Its resemblance to complex composite odontome and unique surgical approach are highlighted in this paper. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Aggressive osteoblastoma of the mandible: A diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshaminder Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical facts and radiologic findings are very important in the diagnostic evaluation of jaw swellings, and must be considered along with histologic findings. Osteoblastoma, an uncommon primary lesion of the bone that occasionally arises in the jaws, is one such lesion causing a localized jaw swelling. Clinically, osteoblastoma can be symptomatic or even remain symptom-free, and may be diagnosed only on routine radiographic examination. Histologically and clinically, differential diagnosis for osteoblastoma ranges from a variety of benign and malignant tumors that poses a diagnostic dilemma. Stressing the importance of the correct diagnosis of such lesions, this report discusses a case of aggressive osteoblastoma of the mandible posing as a diagnostic dilemma.

  15. Mandible reconstruction: History, state of the art and persistent problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, José J; Zagalo, Carlos M; Oliveira, Marta L; Correia, André M; Reis, Ana R

    2015-06-01

    Mandibular reconstruction has been experiencing an amazing evolution. Several different approaches are used to reconstruct this bone and therefore have a fundamental role in the recovery of oral functions. This review aims to highlight the persistent problems associated with the approaches identified, whether bone grafts or prosthetic devices are used. A brief summary of the historical evolution of the surgical procedures is presented, as well as an insight into possible future pathways. A literature review was conducted from September to December 2012 using the PubMed database. The keyword used was "mandible reconstruction." Articles published in the last three years were included as well as the relevant references from those articles and the "historical articles" were referred. This research resulted in a monograph that this article aims to summarize. Titanium plates, bone grafts, pediculate flaps, free osteomyocutaneous flaps, rapid prototyping, and tissue engineering strategies are some of the identified possibilities. The classical approaches present considerable associated morbidity donor-site-related problems. Research that results in the development of new prosthetics devices is needed. A new prosthetic approach could minimize the identified problems and offer the patients more predictable, affordable, and comfortable solutions. This review, while affirming the evolution and the good results found with the actual approaches, emphasizes the negative aspects that still subsist. Thus, it shows that mandible reconstruction is not a closed issue. On the contrary, it remains as a research field where new findings could have a direct positive impact on patients' life quality. The identification of the persistent problems reveals the characteristics to be considered in a new prosthetic device. This could overcome the current difficulties and result in more comfortable solutions. Medical teams have the responsibility to keep patients informed about the predictable

  16. Semireal Time Monitoring Of The Functional Movements Of The Mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Robert J.; Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean; Molthen, Robert A.

    1983-07-01

    Many branches of dental practice would benefit from the availability of a relatively accurate, precise, and efficient method for monitoring the movements of the human mandible during function. Mechanical analog systems have been utilized in the past but these are difficult to quantify, have limited accuracy due to frictional resistance of the components, and contain information only on the borders of the envelopes of possible movement of the landmarks measured (rather than on the functional paths of the landmarks which lie within their envelopes). Those electronic solutions which have been attempted thus far have been prohibitively expensive and time consuming for clinical use, have had lag times between data acquisition and display, or have involved such restrictions of freedom of motion as to render ambiguous the meaning of the data obtained. We report work aimed at developing a relatively non-restrictive semi-real time acoustical system for monitoring the functional movement of the mandible relative to the rest of the head. A set of three sparking devices is mounted to the mandibular component of a light, relatively non-constraining extra-oral harness and another set of three sparkers is attached to the harness' cranial or skull component. The sparkers are fired sequentially by a multiplexer and the sound associated with each firing is recorded by an array of three or more microphones. Computations based on the known speed of sound are used to evaluate the distances between the sparkers and the microphones. These data can then be transformed by computer to provide numeric or graphic information on the movement of selected mandibular landmarks with respect to the skull. Total elapsed time between the firing of the sparkers and the display of graphic information need not exceed 30-60 seconds using even a relatively modest modern computer.

  17. An experimental study on radiation hazard to young mandibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Arata

    1986-01-01

    The mandible young adult dogs was irradiated for 3,000 R with X-ray of 200 kVp and radiation hazard to the mandibles was investigated radiologically, photographically, pathohistologically at one week, two weeks, one, two, four, six, and eight months after irradiation. The results were as follows: 1. Radiological findings, 1) Effect of irradiation on root formation was observed until 1 month after irradiation. Thereafter, apical obliteration was observed. 2) Lamina dura in the periodontal membrane space disappeared at 2 months but was observed in part at 8 months. 3) The alveolar bone showed resorption of the alveolar crest and bone resorption in moth-eaten appearance at 2 months, and formation of sequestrum and bone fracture at 4 months. From 6 months, osteosclerotic image was observed in the resorption image; yet bone defect image was observed in the inferior portion of the alveolar bone. 4) Almost all cortical bone was resorbed at 6 months and a fall in radiopacity was observed on the whole. 2. Pathohistological findings, 1) Almost all buccal cementum disappeared at 4 months. However, regeneration image of cementum was observed from 6 months. 2) The buccal connective tissue in the periodontal membrane space ran irregularly at 2 weeks and the periodontal membrane space disappeared completely at 4 months. However, the lingual periodontal membrane was irregular arrangement of connective tissue. Bundle bone showed resorption image at 2 weeks and the buccal bundle bone disappeared at 2 months. At 8 months, however, new bundle bone was observed. 3) The cortical bone at 2 weeks showed empty lacunae on the buccal side. At 4 months, resorption image of Haversian canalis was seen in every cortical bone. At 8 months, Haversian canalis appeared buccolingually and resorption image such as new lacunae was observed. 4) Fatty marrow was already formed in bone marrow at 1 week. At 8 months, fatty marrow was seen on the whole. (J.P.N.)

  18. The shape of contention: adaptation, history, and contingency in ungulate mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Pasquale; Carotenuto, Francesco; Meloro, Carlo; Piras, Paolo; Pushkina, Diana

    2010-05-01

    Mandibles and teeth of ungulates have been extensively studied to discern the functional significance of their design. Grazing ungulates have deeper mandibles, longer coronoid processes, flatter incisor arcades, and more hypsodont molars in comparison to browsers. If the functional significance of both mandible and teeth shapes is well-established, it remains uncertain to what extent mandible shapes are really adapted to grazing, meaning that they evolved either to serve their current biological function or just as a structural requirement to accommodate higher crowned molars. Here, we address this question by studying the contribution of phylogeny, hypsodonty, and body size to mandibular shape variation. The mandible shape appeared to be significantly influenced by hypsodonty but not by body size. Interestingly, hypsodonty-related changes influenced the tooth row in artiodactyls and perissodactyls significantly but in the opposite directions, which is ultimately related to their different digestive strategies. Yet, we obtained a strong phylogenetic effect in perissodactyls, suggesting that their mandible shape should be strongly inherited. The strength of this effect was not significant within artiodactyls (where hypsodonty explained much more variance in mandible shape). Digestive strategy is deemed to interplay with hypsodonty to produce different paths of adaptation to particular diets in ungulates.

  19. Generating classes of 3D virtual mandibles for AR-based medical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippalgaonkar, Neha R; Sider, Alexa D; Hamza-Lup, Felix G; Santhanam, Anand P; Jaganathan, Bala; Imielinska, Celina; Rolland, Jannick P

    2008-01-01

    Simulation and modeling represent promising tools for several application domains from engineering to forensic science and medicine. Advances in 3D imaging technology convey paradigms such as augmented reality (AR) and mixed reality inside promising simulation tools for the training industry. Motivated by the requirement for superimposing anatomically correct 3D models on a human patient simulator (HPS) and visualizing them in an AR environment, the purpose of this research effort was to develop and validate a method for scaling a source human mandible to a target human mandible within a 2 mm root mean square (RMS) error. Results show that, given a distance between 2 same landmarks on 2 different mandibles, a relative scaling factor may be computed. Using this scaling factor, results show that a 3D virtual mandible model can be made morphometrically equivalent to a real target-specific mandible within a 1.30 mm RMS error. The virtual mandible may be further used as a reference target for registering other anatomic models, such as the lungs, on the HPS. Such registration will be made possible by physical constraints among the mandible and the spinal column in the horizontal normal rest position.

  20. Occurrence of neanderthal features in mandibles from the Atapuerca-SH site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, A

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of variation and distribution of evolutionary novelties is meaningful in understanding evolutionary processes. The mandible, as a morphological complex, comprises a large number of derived Neanderthal features. The present study investigates whether the features usually considered as European lineage apomorphies evolved independently; the occurrence of these features is studied in the mandibles from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site (Atapuerca, Spain). For comparative purposes, a large sample of Neanderthal mandibles as well as older fossil Homo specimens have been used for the study. Chi-square tests were employed to test for independence. The SH mandibles present a set of features that clearly show the basic architecture of the Neanderthal mandible. A highly significant association is detected in the variation of the position of the mental foramen, the lateral prominence, and the anterior marginal tubercle, as well as in the development of retromolar space. However, a much weaker association is detected in the features of the internal aspect of the mandible, with a few exceptions. Features of the external aspect of the mandible occur chronologically earlier than those observed in the internal aspect. The hypothesis that two distinct and consecutive morphological processes have driven the emergence of the European lineage throughout the Middle Pleistocene is proposed. A first transformation affects the mandible by means of backwards displacement of the structures located at the external aspect, as well as the position of the condyle. A second process would modify the features of the internal aspect of the mandible, in which the relief of the masseteric and pterygoid fossae are affected, in association with a spatial rearrangement of the corpus and ramus. Analyzed individually, some of the considered features may be questioned as Neanderthal apomorphies (Trinkaus,1993; Franciscus and Trinkaus, 995); however, the joint occurrence of many of them suggests

  1. Study of mandible reconstruction using a fibula flap with application of additive manufacturing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-June; Wu, Ching-Tsai

    2014-05-06

    This study aimed to establish surgical guiding techniques for completing mandible lesion resection and reconstruction of the mandible defect area with fibula sections in one surgery by applying additive manufacturing technology, which can reduce the surgical duration and enhance the surgical accuracy and success rate. A computer assisted mandible reconstruction planning (CAMRP) program was used to calculate the optimal cutting length and number of fibula pieces and design the fixtures for mandible cutting, registration, and arrangement of the fibula segments. The mandible cutting and registering fixtures were then generated using an additive manufacturing system. The CAMRP calculated the optimal fibula cutting length and number of segments based on the location and length of the defective portion of the mandible. The mandible cutting jig was generated according to the boundary surface of the lesion resection on the mandible STL model. The fibular cutting fixture was based on the length of each segment, and the registered fixture was used to quickly arrange the fibula pieces into the shape of the defect area. In this study, the mandibular lesion was reconstructed using registered fibular sections in one step, and the method is very easy to perform. The application of additive manufacturing technology provided customized models and the cutting fixtures and registered fixtures, which can improve the efficiency of clinical application. This study showed that the cutting fixture helped to rapidly complete lesion resection and fibula cutting, and the registered fixture enabled arrangement of the fibula pieces and allowed completion of the mandible reconstruction in a timely manner. Our method can overcome the disadvantages of traditional surgery, which requires a long and different course of treatment and is liable to cause error. With the help of optimal cutting planning by the CAMRP and the 3D printed mandible resection jig and fibula cutting fixture, this all

  2. Relationship between structure and the stress pattern in the human mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongini, F; Calderale, P M; Barberi, G

    1979-12-01

    The internal bony structure of ten dentate human mandibles was examined on lateral radiograms, and the condylar shape measured with a digital electronic machine. The external surface was coated with photoelastic material. Each mandible was then placed in centric occlusion with brass replicas of the upper arch and the glenoid fossae and set in a supporting frame. Occlusal loads were simulated and the isoclinics recorded in plane-polarized light. The isostatic flow lines were constructed for each mandible. A relation was found between the mandibular structure and the distribution pattern of these lines.

  3. Application of the Mandible Injury Severity Score to Pediatric Mandibular Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Edward W; Susarla, Srinivas M; Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Mundinger, Gerhard S; Redett, Richard J; Tufaro, Anthony P; Manson, Paul N; Dorafshar, Amir H

    2015-07-01

    The Mandible Injury Severity Score (MISS) has been used to evaluate adult mandibular fractures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MISS in a cohort of pediatric patients. This was a retrospective study of pediatric patients treated for mandibular fractures over a 20-year period. Patients were included if they had computed tomographic imaging available for review and had at least 1 post-treatment visit. The primary predictor variable was the MISS. Secondary predictors were demographic and injury-associated factors. The outcome was treatment-associated complications. Descriptive, bivariate, and multiple logistic regression statistics were computed. One hundred sixteen patients with mandibular fractures were identified; 73 (62.9%) met the inclusion criteria. The sample's mean age was 8.5 ± 4.1 years; 44% were girls. Motor vehicle collisions (60%) and falls (15.1%) were the most common mechanisms. More than 50% of patients had an extra-mandibular injury. The mean MISS was 13.5 ± 7.8. Forty-five percent of the sample underwent open reduction and internal fixation. Complications were noted in 20.5% of patients, of which malocclusion was the most common (8.2%). Increasing MISS was associated with complications (P pediatric patients with mandibular fractures, increased severity of injury is associated with complications, even after controlling for the effects of multiple confounders, including open treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Report of a Rare Case of Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma of Mandible

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    Fatemeh Ahmadi-Motamayel

    Full Text Available Introduction: Malignent Fibrous Histiocytoma (MFH is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma of adulthood. The most common sites affected by MFH are limbs, orbit, retroperitoneum, pelvis and knee. Oral cavity and mandible involvements are very rare. Case Report: A 35-year-old male was visited in the oral medicine department of Hamadan dental school with the chief complaint of pain and teeth mobility. The patient also had a history of paresthesia in lower lip for two monthes. In intraoral examination, there was a crater like, deep and disseminated ulcer in lower buccal and ligual gingiva of right mandibular teeth and exophitic lesion with smooth surface, and color similar to normal mucosa with 2×2×3 cm in diameter in buccal and lingual part of right lateral and central teeth extended to left second premolar was observed. Gingival resorption was observed in all adjascent teeth. There was radiolucency with irregular border in all part of lesion. MFH was confirmed by histopathological report.Conclusion: The most common complaint of patients with malignant fibrous histiocytoma is the growing mass that could be ulcerative or painful. Early diagnosis and referral is very important in prognosis and survival of the patients.

  5. Osteocutaneous Free Fibular Flap for Anatomical Reconstruction of the Mandible Following Tumor Resection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The development of microvascular free tissue transfer has revolutionized the current approaches for mandible reconstruction. It allowed one stage reconstruction of complex bony and soft tissue defects with high reliability. This study presents our experience using vascularized free fibular graft for reconstruction of different anatomical mandibular defects following tumor ablation. Methods: This study involves a total of 16 patients who were treated over 3-year period at the National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. All patients underwent mandibular resection and immediate reconstruction using free fibula osteocutaneous flap. Mandibular resections were performed due to either primary mandibular tumors, or tumors directly invading the mandible from adjacent areas. The extent of mandibular involvement by tumor was preoperatively assessed by X-ray panoramic view and CT scan. Mandibular defects were classified according to HCL system where H defects are lateral defect of any length including the condyle, L defects are the same without condyle and C defects represent the central segment between the mental foramina. The success rate, recipient vessels used, complications and functional as well as cosmetic outcome will be discussed. Results: Of sixteen patients, ten were males and 6 were females. The age ranged from 4 to 68 years. Five patients had preoperative chemotherapy; two had radiation therapy, while six patients received postoperative radiation therapy. All patients had preoperative histological diagnosis; squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histology. Mandibular defects consisted of central segment (3 C), lateral defect (9 L) and 4 patients with H defects. The skin island was used to provide inner mucosal lining in II patients and as external monitor in 5 patients. The free flap was successful in 13 patients. There were 3 complete free flap necrosis; all were due to venous thromboses. Salvage surgery was attempted in all failing flaps, however, it was

  6. ‘Skullduggery’: Lions Align and Their Mandibles Rock!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Vivienne L.; Loveridge, Andrew J.; Newton, David J.; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has legally exported substantial quantities of lion bones to Southeast Asia and China since 2008, apparently as part of the multinational trade substituting bones and body parts of other large cats for those of the tiger in wine and other health tonics. The legal sale of lion bones may mask an illegal trade, the size of which is only partially known. An observed component of the illegal trade is that quantities of skeletons are sometimes declared falsely/fraudulently on CITES export permits. Furthermore, there are emerging concerns that bones from tigers reared in captivity in South Africa and elsewhere are being laundered as lion bones using CITES Appendix II permits. There is therefore a need for tools to monitor the trade in lion body parts and to distinguish between lions and tigers. Our research indicates that it is possible to use skeletons, skulls and cranial sutures to detect misdeclarations in the lion bone trade. It is also possible to use the average mass of a lion skeleton to corroborate the numbers of skeletons declared on CITES permits, relative to the weight of the consolidated consignments stated on the air waybills. When the mass of consolidated consignments of skeletons destined for export was regressed against the number of skeletons in that consignment, there was a strong correlation between the variables (r2 = 0.992) that can be used as a predictor of the accuracy of a declaration on a CITES permit. Additionally, the skulls of lions and tigers differ: two cranial sutures of lions align and their mandibles rock when placed on a flat surface, whereas the cranial sutures of tigers are not aligned and their mandibles rest naturally on two contact points. These two morphological differences between the skulls of tigers and lions are easy to observe at a glance and provide a method for distinguishing between the species if illegal trade in the bones is suspected and the skulls are present. These identifications should ideally be

  7. Common Hepatic Branch of Vagus Nerve-Dependent Expression of Immediate Early Genes in the Mouse Brain by Intraportal L-Arginine: Comparison with Cholecystokinin-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yamada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information from the peripheral organs is thought to be transmitted to the brain by humoral factors and neurons such as afferent vagal or spinal nerves. The common hepatic branch of the vagus (CHBV is one of the main vagus nerve branches, and consists of heterogeneous neuronal fibers that innervate multiple peripheral organs such as the bile duct, portal vein, paraganglia, and gastroduodenal tract. Although, previous studies suggested that the CHBV has a pivotal role in transmitting information on the status of the liver to the brain, the details of its central projections remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the brain regions activated by the CHBV. For this purpose, we injected L-arginine or anorexia-associated peptide cholecystokinin-8 (CCK, which are known to increase CHBV electrical activity, into the portal vein of transgenic Arc-dVenus mice expressing the fluorescent protein Venus under control of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc promotor. The brain slices were prepared from these mice and the number of Venus positive cells in the slices was counted. After that, c-Fos expression in these slices was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method. Intraportal administration of L-arginine increased the number of Venus positive or c-Fos positive cells in the insular cortex. This action of L-arginine was not observed in CHBV-vagotomized Arc-dVenus mice. In contrast, intraportal administration of CCK did not increase the number of c-Fos positive or Venus positive cells in the insular cortex. Intraportal CCK induced c-Fos expression in the dorsomedial hypothalamus, while intraportal L-arginine did not. This action of CCK was abolished by CHBV vagotomy. Intraportal L-arginine reduced, while intraportal CCK increased, the number of c-Fos positive cells in the nucleus tractus solitarii in a CHBV-dependent manner. The present results suggest that the CHBV

  8. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  9. Proposal for a new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagozoglu, K.H.; Dekker, H.; Rietveld, D.H.F.; de Bree, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Kantola, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    The presented staging system seems well reproducible, facilitating the comparison of study groups dealing with the various issues of osteoradionecrosis of the mandible. It is yet to be evaluated whether the presently proposed staging system is useful for management purposes.

  10. Radiographic features of the parakeratenized keratocysts of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada Marquez, Milushka M.; Delgado Azanero, Wilson; Calderon Ubaqui, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the radiographic features of a group of keratocyst of the mandible. The sample consisted of 36 cases diagnosed in patients between 11 and 66 years of age; 58.3% were females and 41.7 were males. The left side was affected in 47.3% and 25% crossed the middle line. Nebulous radiographic density was found in 69.4% cases. Only 30.6% presented an impacted tooth. In 72.73% cases the tooth was displaced into the alveolar ridge and in 27.27% appeared displaced caudally. Root re-absorption was observed only in displaced teeth. Displacement of the dental nerve canal was found in 83.9% cases. Infected keratocysts represented 49.4% and in this group. 80% exhibited corticalized borders. The results of this study demonstrate that most of the keratocysts presented nebulous density; they do not affect the basal mandibular bone and do not produce root re-absorption of the adjacent teeth. Infection of the cyst influences their radiographic features. (author)

  11. Kinematics of the human mandible for different head postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, C M; Huddleston Slater, J J; Lobbezoo, F; Naeije, M

    2000-04-01

    The influence of head posture on movement paths of the incisal point (IP) and of the mandibular condyles during free open-close movements was studied. Ten persons, without craniomandibular or cervical spine disorders, participated in the study. Open close mandibular movements were recorded with the head in five postures, viz., natural head posture, forward head posture, military posture, and lateroflexion to the right and to the left side, using the Oral Kinesiologic Analysis System (OKAS-3D). This study showed that in a military head posture, the opening movement path of the incisal point is shifted anteriorly relative to the path in a natural head posture. In a forward head posture, the movement path is shifted posteriorly whereas during lateroflexion, it deviates to the side the head has moved to. Moreover, the intra-articular distance in the temporomandibular joint during closing is smaller with the head in military posture and greater in forward head posture, as compared to the natural head posture. During lateroflexion, the intra-articular distance on the ipsilateral side is smaller. The influence of head posture upon the kinematics of the mandible is probably a manifestation of differences in mandibular loading in the different head postures.

  12. MULTIPLE RETAINED TEETH IN MANDIBLE: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetan Cvetanov

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this science report is to show a rare case of multiple impacted teeth at adult patient and our propose clinical approach.Materials and methods: The clinical case is showed from adult man /64-year old/ with multiple impacted teeth (6 impacted teeth in the anterior place on the mandible were not suggestive of any syndrome or metabolic disorder. The extraction of the impacted teeth was made on two stage with piezosurgery unit under local anaesthesia. For prevention of postsurgical complications, as a swelling and prevention of postsurgical resorbtion were used coneshapes from pressure xeno colagen. To base on clinical and radiological examination we will discuss the differential diagnosis and we will offer a clinical approach about decided the case.Result and Conclusion: The incidence of multiple retained teeth by literature research range from 10.9% to 40.4%, most frequently is the retention of the third molars. In the literature most rarely have clinical reports about multiple retained teeth which differ from third molars at adult patients. The rare clinical case we showed is very demonstrative and the medicative approach which we used gave excellent result.

  13. Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma of the mandible: a treatment strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina FERREIRA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC is a rare odontogenic tumor of the jaws, histologically characterized by the presence of agglomerates of cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm. The patient, a 62-year-old Caucasian woman, presented an intraosseous lesion in the mandibular symphysis. A clinical examination revealed a discrete volumetric increase with a hard consistency, palpable to extraoral and intraoral examinations. Imaging studies revealed an extensive radiolucent area, without defined limits, extending from the region of the right second premolar to the left canine. Incisional biopsy analysis indicated a diagnosis of CCOC. The treatment proposed was segmental resection of the mandible with a safety margin. After six months without recurrence, definitive mandibular reconstruction was performed using an iliac crest graft, followed by rehabilitation with implant-supported denture after five months. After three years of post-resection follow-up, the patient has shown no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. She continues to be under follow-up. To conclude, CCOC must be considered a malignant tumor with aggressive behavior. Previous studies have shown that resection with free margins is a treatment with a lower rate of recurrence. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up is necessary for such patients.

  14. Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Using Temporary Mandible Advancement Device: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Chan Choi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is the most prevalent type of sleep apnea, and oral appliance may be one of the options for treatment of OSA. But, the problems with the oral appliance are high cost, possible low compliance, and complications such as temporomandibular disorder. In this article, we described a severe OSA case that was successfully improved by using temporary mandible advancement device, which was designed for therapeutic effect of mandible advancement with low cost and simplified fabrication procedure.

  15. Age Effect in the Morphological Traits Performance for Sex Determination in Human Skulls and Mandibles

    OpenAIRE

    Suazo Galdames, Iván; Zavando, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that diagnostic performance of the morphological indicators for sexual dimorphism are reduced as they are applied in skull and mandibles of older subjects. We used 275 adult human skulls, 250 of these with mandible, all subjects with sex and age registry. Sixteen classic morphological indicators of sexual dimorphism were evaluated, this information was compared with the registry and results noted in terms of precision. The best general performance of mor...

  16. A Case of Maxillary Protrusion with Congenitally Missing Canine Teeth in the Mandible

    OpenAIRE

    松井, 啓至; 酒徳, 明彦

    1996-01-01

    A patient that had a maxillary protrusion with congenitally missing canine teeth in the mandible was successfully treated with the extraction of the maxillary first premolars. The patient's cooperation in wearing headgear appliance was highly favorable. Her profile changes were pronounced and esthetically pleasing. A review of her post-treatment records revealed an excellent esthetic and occlusal result even though the first premolars were aligned instead of the canine teeth in the mandible. ...

  17. Bite of the cats: relationships between functional integration and mechanical performance as revealed by mandible geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Paolo; Maiorino, Leonardo; Teresi, Luciano; Meloro, Carlo; Lucci, Federico; Kotsakis, Tassos; Raia, Pasquale

    2013-11-01

    Cat-like carnivorous mammals represent a relatively homogeneous group of species whose morphology appears constrained by exclusive adaptations for meat eating. We present the most comprehensive data set of extant and extinct cat-like species to test for evolutionary transformations in size, shape and mechanical performance, that is, von Mises stress and surface traction, of the mandible. Size and shape were both quantified by means of geometric morphometrics, whereas mechanical performance was assessed applying finite element models to 2D geometry of the mandible. Additionally, we present the first almost complete composite phylogeny of cat-like carnivorans for which well-preserved mandibles are known, including representatives of 35 extant and 59 extinct species of Felidae, Nimravidae, and Barbourofelidae. This phylogeny was used to test morphological differentiation, allometry, and covariation of mandible parts within and among clades. After taking phylogeny into account, we found that both allometry and mechanical variables exhibit a significant impact on mandible shape. We also tested whether mechanical performance was linked to morphological integration. Mechanical stress at the coronoid process is higher in sabertoothed cats than in any other clade. This is strongly related to the high degree of covariation within modules of sabertooths mandibles. We found significant correlation between integration at the clade level and per-clade averaged stress values, on both original data and by partialling out interclade allometry from shapes when calculating integration. This suggests a strong interaction between natural selection and the evolution of developmental and functional modules at the clade level.

  18. Is Homo heidelbergensis a distinct species? New insight on the Mauer mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounier, Aurélien; Marchal, François; Condemi, Silvana

    2009-03-01

    The discovery of new fossils in Africa, Asia, and Europe, and the recognition of a greater diversity in the middle Pleistocene fossil record, has led to a reconsideration of the species Homo heidelbergensis. This nomen, formulated by Schoetensack in 1908 to describe the Mauer jaw (Germany), was almost forgotten during most of the past century. Numerous fossils have been attributed to it but no consensus has arisen concerning their classification. The holotype anatomical traits are still poorly understood, and numerous fossils with no mandibular remains have been placed in the taxon. Some researchers propose H. heidelbergensis as an Afro-European taxon that is ancestral to both modern humans and Neandertals whereas others think it is a strictly European species that is part of the Neandertal lineage. We focus on the validity of H. heidelbergensis, using the traditional basis of species recognition: anatomical description. We provide a comparative morphological analysis using 47 anatomical traits of 36 Pleistocene fossils from Africa, Asia, and Europe and 35 extant human mandibles. We re-examine the mandibular features of Mauer and discuss the specimen's inclusion in H. heidelbergensis, as well as alternative evolutionary theories. To lend objectivity to specimen grouping, we use multiple correspondence analysis associated with hierarchical classification that creates clusters corresponding to phenetic similarities between jaws. Our phenetic and comparative morphological analyses support the validity of H. heidelbergensis as a taxon. A set of morphological features can be statistically identified for the definition of the species. Some traits can be used to delimit H. heidelbergensis in an evolutionary framework (e.g., foramina mentale posteriorly positioned, horizontal retromolar surface). Those traits are also present on African (e.g., Tighenif) and European (e.g., Sima de los Huesos) specimens that show a close relationship with the Mauer mandible. Therefore, the

  19. Bone damage of mandibles after radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Motoyasu; Kubo, Kazuko; Furukawa, Sohei; Fuchihata, Hajime; Shimizutani, Kiminari; Inoue, Takehiro; Nishiyama, Kinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Masaki, Norie

    1987-10-01

    At Osaka University Hospital, the 5-year survival rate for carcinoma of the tongue, treated by radiotherapy, is almost 60 % and in early cases, around 80 %. However, with this improvement in the survival rate, an increase in the incidence of various complications (xerostomia, soft tissue ulcer, bone damage, etc.) has been observed. Because of these circumstances, a radiographic analysis on the bone damage of the mandibles after radiotherapy was made. Only those patients whose progress had been followed for more than one year and whose disease was well controlled were selected for this study. Early radiographic signs of bone damages showed an enlargement of the periodontal space and a loss of lamina dura. From the results of the study it has been found that bone damage is less common in patients treated by interstitial radiotherapy alone. Bone damage seems to develope more frequently in patients who receive about 30 Gy by external radiotherapy, followed by more than 2,000 mgh. Ra. eq. of interstitial radiotherapy.

  20. Clinical experiences with laser-welded titanium frameworks supported by implants in the edentulous mandible: a 5-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortorp, A; Linden, B; Jemt, T

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the 5-year clinical performance of implant-supported prostheses with laser-welded titanium frameworks and to compare their performance with that of prostheses provided with conventional cast frameworks. On a routine basis, a consecutive group of 824 edentulous patients were provided with fixed prostheses supported by implants in the edentulous mandible. In addition to conventional gold-alloy castings, patients were at random provided with 2 kinds of laser-welded titanium frameworks. In all, 155 patients were included in the 2 titanium framework groups. A control group of 53 randomly selected patients with conventional gold-alloy castings was used for comparison. Clinical and radiographic 5-year data was collected for the 3 groups. All followed patients still had fixed prostheses in the mandible after 5 years. The overall cumulative success rates were 95.9% and 99.7% for titanium-framework prostheses and implants, respectively. The corresponding success rates for the control group were 100% and 99.6%, respectively. Bone loss was 0.5 mm on average during the 5-year follow-up period. The most common complications for titanium frameworks were resin or tooth fractures, gingival inflammation, and fractures of the metal frames (10%). One of the cast frameworks fractured and was resoldered. Loose and fractured implant screw components were few (laser-welded titanium frameworks seem to be a viable alternative to conventional castings in the edentulous mandible.

  1. Fractures of the mandible and maxilla: A 10-year analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estie Kruger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Previous analysis of jaw fracture hospitalisations in Western Australia (WA indicated disproportionately high rates of hospitalisations for Aboriginal people. This study was to follow-up on the earlier analysis to determine if inequalities in terms of jaw fracture hospitalisation rates between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people have changed. Aims This study, done over a 10-year period from 1999/2000 to 2008/2009, aimed to determine rates of hospitalisations for jaw fractures in WA, trends over the 10–year period, and direct costs associated with these hospital admissions. Methods Hospitalisation data were obtained from the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data System (HMDS. Episodes were selected on the basis of an ICD10-AM code being S02.4 (Fracture of the malar and maxillary bones and S02.6 (Fracture of the mandible. Self-reported Aboriginality were used to compare Aboriginal to non-Aboriginal populations. Estimated cost of care was determined for each episode using the national standard diagnostic-related group (DRG average price. Results Our findings indicate that inequalities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people in terms of hospital admissions for jaw fractures exist in WA, and continued over a decade-long period. Higher fracture rates occurred amongst males, Aboriginal people, younger adult age-groups, those from low socioeconomic areas, and those from remote and very remote areas. The DRG cost per person for jaw fractures ranged between AUD $842 and $109,002, with a median cost of $4,965. Conclusion Hospital admission rates for the treatment of maxillary and mandibular fractures is very strongly divided along racial and socioeconomic lines in WA.

  2. Marsupialization of a large dentigerous cyst in the mandible with orthodontic extrusion of three impacted teeth. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Abbasi, Arshad

    2017-09-01

    The dentigerous cyst (DC) is the most common type of developmental odontogenic cyst. It is usually asymptomatic and associated with the crown of an unerupted or impacted tooth. However, after a long duration, it is likely to cause significant bone resorption, cortical expansion, and tooth displacement. This report presents a large infected DC in the mandible of a 12-year-old female patient. The DC was located inferior to badly decayed primary molars and surrounded three impacted permanent teeth: canine, first premolar, which had a dilacerated root, and second premolar. The DC was treated successfully by marsupialization and extrusion of the impacted teeth. In conclusion, the combination of marsupialization with orthodontic extrusion is a conservative, efficient protocol that stimulates bone healing and promotes the eruption of cyst-associated teeth even if they are deeply impacted, crowded, or have a dilacerated root. Key words: Dentigerous cyst, marsupialization, impacted teeth, orthodontic extrusion, dilacerated root.

  3. Adaptation of D-P flap to the oro-facial fistula induced by radio-osteomyelitis of mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Etsuhide; Genba, Ryo-ichi; Hayatsu, Yoshikazu; Sunakawa, Hajime; Kohama, Gen-iku

    1980-01-01

    Intraoral partial resection of the mandible was performed on 3 patients with radiation-induced ostomyelitis and ostonecrosis of the mandible, and inflammation in the mandible disappeared. Residual oro-facial fistula was closed with D-P lap, and a good result was obtained. Treatments of radiation osteopathy, the time of the treatments, and the period from resection of necrotic mandible to the closure of the fistula with D-P lap and reconstructive surgery for the mouth were also considered. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. 215 mandible fractures in 120 children: demographics, treatment, outcomes, and early growth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darren M; Bykowski, Michael R; Cray, James J; Naran, Sanjay; Rottgers, S Alex; Shakir, Sameer; Vecchione, Lisa; Schuster, Lindsay; Losee, Joseph E

    2013-06-01

    Optimal management of pediatric mandible fractures demands that the practitioner balance reduction and fixation with preservation of growth potential and function. The ideal synthesis of these goals has not yet been defined. The authors catalogue their experience with pediatric mandible fractures at a major pediatric teaching hospital with reference to demographics, injury type, treatment, and outcomes to inform future management of these injuries. Demographics, management, and outcomes of pediatric mandible fractures presenting over 10 years at a pediatric trauma center were assessed. Cephalometric analysis was conducted. Relationships among demographics, fracture type, management, outcomes, and growth were explored. Two hundred fifteen mandible fractures in 120 patients younger than 18 years were analyzed (average follow-up, 19.5 months). The condylar head and neck were fractured most frequently. Operative management was significantly more likely for children older than 12 years (pfractures were significantly associated with a higher rate of adverse outcomes (pmandibular function by patient or surgeon. No significant growth differences existed on cephalometric analysis between our cohort and age- and sex-matched controls (p>0.05). This study reports the demographics, treatment, and early follow-up of a sizable cohort of pediatric mandible fractures. Management principles for these injuries are outlined. Although definitive recommendations must be withheld until longer follow-up is available, the data presented here show that the treatment protocols used at the authors' center have yielded largely uncompromised mandibular function and growth thus far.

  5. Asymmetric larval head and mandibles of Hydrophilus acuminatus (Insecta: Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae): Fine structure and embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shun'ichi; Inoda, Toshio; Niitsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Souichirou; Goto, Yuji; Kobayashi, Yukimasa

    2017-11-01

    The larvae of a water scavenger beetle, Hydrophilus acuminatus, have strongly asymmetric mandibles; the right one is long and slender, whereas the left one is short and stout. The fine structure and embryonic development of the head capsule and mandibles of this species were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy, and asymmetries in shape were detected in these structures applying an elliptic Fourier analysis. The larval mandibles are asymmetric in the following aspects: whole length, the number, structure and arrangement of retinacula (inner teeth), and size and shape of both the molar and incisor regions. The larval head is also asymmetric; the left half of the head capsule is larger than the right, and the left adductor muscle of the mandible is much thicker than the right. The origin and developmental process of asymmetric mandibles were traced in developing embryos whose developmental period is about 270 h and divided into 10 stages. Mandibular asymmetries are produced by the cumulative effects of six stepwise modifications that occur from about 36% of the total developmental time onward. The significance of these modifications was discussed with respect to the functional advantages of asymmetries and the phylogeny of members of the Hydrophilidae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Failure location prediction by finite element analysis for an additive manufactured mandible implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jinxing; Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Gamstedt, E Kristofer

    2015-09-01

    In order to reconstruct a patient with a bone defect in the mandible, a porous scaffold attached to a plate, both in a titanium alloy, was designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing. Regrettably, the implant fractured in vivo several months after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the failure of the implant and show a way of predicting the mechanical properties of the implant before surgery. All computed tomography data of the patient were preprocessed to remove metallic artefacts with metal deletion technique before mandible geometry reconstruction. The three-dimensional geometry of the patient's mandible was also reconstructed, and the implant was fixed to the bone model with screws in Mimics medical imaging software. A finite element model was established from the assembly of the mandible and the implant to study stresses developed during mastication. The stress distribution in the load-bearing plate was computed, and the location of main stress concentration in the plate was determined. Comparison between the fracture region and the location of the stress concentration shows that finite element analysis could serve as a tool for optimizing the design of mandible implants. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mandible-first sequence in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borba, A M; Borges, A H; Cé, P S; Venturi, B A; Naclério-Homem, M G; Miloro, M

    2016-04-01

    The sequencing of bimaxillary orthognathic surgery remains controversial, although the traditional maxilla-first approach is performed routinely. The goal of this study was to present a systematic review of the mandible-first sequence in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery, to provide data that may assist in the decision as to which jaw should undergo osteotomy first in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery cases. A literature search was conducted for articles published in the English language, reporting the use of the altered sequence for bimaxillary orthognathic surgery (mandible-first), using the following descriptors: 'orthognathic' and 'double-jaw', 'orthognathic' and 'two-jaw', 'orthognathic' and 'mandible-first', 'orthognathic' and 'bimaxillary'. Eight hundred eighty-seven abstracts were initially identified and were evaluated for inclusion according to the proposed inclusion criteria. After evaluation of these abstracts and relevant references, six publications met the criteria for consideration. Performing mandible-first surgery in bimaxillary orthognathic cases dates back to the 1970s; however the decision regarding the jaw to be operated on first seems to rely on accurate preoperative planning based upon the surgeon's experience and preference. While there appear to be significant theoretical advantages to support the use of the altered orthognathic sequence (mandible-first), future prospective studies on its reliability, accuracy, and short- and long-term outcomes are required. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [The application of the asymmetry index in assessment of mandible size in difficult diagnostic case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syryńska, Maria; Szyszka, Liliana; Post, Marcin

    2008-01-01

    Recognised and unrecognised bone diseases including maxilla and/or mandible may have influance on formation of malocclusions. In first stages of diseases the patients are directed or report for orthodontic treatment which starting need additional examinations mainly pantomographic views. In spite doing necessary additional examinations sometimes we can't recognise disorder like patient presented in our study. Then we can observate and if changes will begin disturbing the function--surgical intervention. Establishment of orthodontic treatment plan and explanation if during three years the dimension of asymmetry resulting from wrong growth right and left part of mandible and the estimation the rate of changes happening in this time. In study we used the own asymmetry index to estimate the patient's pantomographic views who reported for orthodontic treatment because of occlusion disorders, facial asymmetry and discomfort of mastication and speech. The telerentgenographic lateral views in right and posterior-anterior (PA) projection were also done. We measured and estimated the own asymmetry index on pantomographic views. The radiographs reveal the asymmetry of left part of mandible. The comparative analysis of pantomographic views enables the estimation of changes happening in time and the telerentgenographic lateral views, PA and computer tomography (CT) confirm changes which increase the asymmetry. The asymmetry index is the instrument which enable the estimation of growth changes in mandible with unsteady aetiology and histopathological unrecognised, allow determine the growth rate and facilitate the permanent control the dimension of mandible asymmetry.

  9. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Weihmann

    Full Text Available Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2 to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  10. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  11. Morphometric variability of mandible linear characteristics depending on level of teeth alveolus position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Aleshkina

    2017-05-01

    Results and Conclusion ― The highest altitude was marked at levels of incisors and 3rd molar, the smallest one – at level of 1st and 2nd molars; maximum mandible thickness was defined at level of 2nd molar, minimum – at levels of canine and 1st – 2nd premolars on both sides of mandible; average thickness was revealed at levels of incisors, 1st and 2nd molars and had the same statistical values. Bilateral variability of thickness was significantly dominating on the right side and only at levels of 1st – 2nd premolars and 1st molar. Average values of altitude and thickness from both sides of mandible and at all levels had medium degree of variability.

  12. [Normal and pathologic mandible development: practical deductions in maxillo-dento-facial orthopedics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salagnac, Jean-Michel

    2016-09-01

    The mandible consists of different segments, each of which possess its own specific characteristics regarding emergence, ossification during growth and pathologies. Orthodontists need to be very familiar with these developmental anomalies if they are to avoid failure in their orthopedic or orthodontic treatments and in order to understand the reasons for the lack of success of "conventional" treatments. Each segment must develop correctly if the mandible is to achieve optimal development and occupy a normal position within the cranio-facial complex. The position of the mandible in the cranio-facial block is also conditioned by its attachment to the base of the skull. Combining a detailed semiologic study and a three-dimensional architectural and structural radiologic analysis of clinical cases, this article investigates the various anomalies affecting the mandibular segments and their impact on the craniofacial structure as a whole. An understanding of these anomalies and this analytical method can enable clinicians to perform early diagnosis, avoid undertaking orthopedic and orthodontic treatments which are likely to fail, understand the reasons for unsuccessful "conventional" treatments, provide an orthopedic-surgical guide and make it possible to inform patients correctly. Anomalies affecting the growth of the mandible and its position on the cranial base and their impact on cranio-facial skeletal balance are clearly revealed by structural and architectural analysis, which pinpoints the different clinical elements in skeletal Class II et III cases. In maxilla-dento-facial orthopedics when confronted with a pathology of mandibular origin, it is essential to carefully study the radiographs of each segment of the mandible, to seek out the minor forms of the anomalies and to calculate the position of the mandible on the cranial base relative to the neighboring structures; the skull, the cervical vertebrae and the maxilla. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2016.

  13. Influence of X-ray irradiation on the mandible of ovariectomized rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikoma, Kazuyuki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Yosue, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of irradiation on the mandible of ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Female rats were subject to OVX or a sham operation (SHAM) at the age of 14 weeks. Ten Gy doses of X-ray were applied to the mandibles twelve weeks after the operation. The experimental animals were divided into four groups: the OVX non-irradiation group, the OVX irradiation group, SHAM non-irradiation group and SHAM irradiation group. Four, eight and twelve weeks after irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the mandibles removed. The mandibles were investigated using μCT and pQCT, and from the images obtained, the rate of mineralized tissue in the bone as well as the bone mineral content (BMC) were evaluated. The rate of mineralized tissue in the bone as determined from the images of μCT was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the OVX non-irradiation group than in the SHAM non-irradiation group at four weeks after irradiation. Similarly, the rate in the OVX irradiation group was lower than that in the SHAM irradiation group at twelve weeks after irradiation. In both the SHAM and OVX groups, there was no difference between the non-irradiation and irradiation groups. From the pQCT images, the change in the BMC in the cortical bone was negligible when the BMC was measured in the mandibles. In the OVX non-irradiation group, the trabecular BMC of the mandibles was significantly lower than that in the SHAM non-irradiation group at four and twelve weeks after irradiation. The trabecular BMC of the mandibles in the SHAM and OVX irradiation groups were significantly lower than that of the SHAM and OVX non-irradiation groups respectively throughout the experimental period. In the rate of mineralized tissue in the mandibles, the influence of OVX was recognized, but the influence of irradiation was not. On the other hand, the BMC in the cortical bone was not significant through out the experiment. The influence of irradiation on the OVX group was

  14. Giant Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumor of the Mandible – A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornafel, Olga; Jaźwiec, Przemysław; Pakulski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    The keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT) is a relatively rare, benign neoplasm which develops in the maxilla or mandible, arising from the dental lamina or basal cells of the oral epithelium. It is often found incidentally and brings about late symptoms as it does not cause bone distension for a long time. The presented case is of a young woman with a giant keratocystic odontogenic tumor of the mandible. Despite its rare occurrence, it must be taken into consideration in radiological and clinical diagnostics. Due to the frequent recurrence of KCOT, patients are recommended to be kept under long-term and close radiological supervision

  15. Preoperative CT analysis of the mandible and maxilla for permanent dental prosthetic implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, S.L.G.; Rhodes, M.L.; Schwarz, M.; Chafetz, N.I.

    1987-01-01

    The Branemark technique for permanently implanting dental prostheses is becoming universally accepted. The surgeon requires detailed knowledge of the cross-sectional anatomy of the alveolar ridges and inferior alveolar nerve for safe placement of the titanium fixtures. Axial CT scans of the mandible and maxilla, with oblique and panoramic CT reformations, were obtained in more than 100 patients. This report describes the anatomic variations in the maxilla and mandible as they relate to dental implantation surgery. The authors demonstrate the utility of this technique in preoperative surgical planning and postoperative evaluation

  16. An Alternative Method of Intermaxillary Fixation for Simple Pediatric Mandible Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Scott J; Nguyen, Dennis C; Harvey, Alan A; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2016-03-01

    Mandibular fractures represent a substantial portion of facial fractures in the pediatric population. Pediatric mandibles differ from their adult counterparts in the presence of mixed dentition. Avoidance of injury to developing tooth follicles is critical. Simple mandibular fractures can be treated with intermaxillary fixation (IMF) using arch bars or bone screws. This report describes an alternative to these methods using silk sutures and an algorithm to assist in treating simple mandibular fractures in the pediatric population. A retrospective chart review was performed and the records of 1 surgeon were examined. Pediatric patients who underwent treatment for a mandibular fracture in the operating room from 2011 to 2015 were identified using Common Procedural Terminology codes. Data collected included age, gender, type of fracture, type of treatment used, duration of fixation, and presence of complications. Five patients with a mean age of 6.8 years at presentation were identified. Fracture types were unilateral fractures of the condylar neck (n = 3), bilateral fractures of the condylar head (n = 1), and a unilateral fracture of the condylar head with an associated parasymphyseal fracture (n = 1). IMF was performed in 4 patients using silk sutures, and bone screw fixation was performed in the other patient. No post-treatment complications or malocclusion were reported. Average duration of IMF was 18.5 days. An algorithm is presented to assist in the treatment of pediatric mandibular fractures. Silk suture fixation is a viable and safe alternative to arch bars or bone screws for routine mandibular fractures. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo bone strain and finite element modeling of a rhesus macaque mandible during mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Olga; Iriarte-Diaz, José; Wilshin, Simon; Dechow, Paul C; Taylor, Andrea B; Mehari Abraha, Hyab; Aljunid, Sharifah F; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) is a commonly used tool in musculoskeletal biomechanics and vertebrate paleontology. The accuracy and precision of finite element models (FEMs) are reliant on accurate data on bone geometry, muscle forces, boundary conditions and tissue material properties. Simplified modeling assumptions, due to lack of in vivo experimental data on material properties and muscle activation patterns, may introduce analytical errors in analyses where quantitative accuracy is critical for obtaining rigorous results. A subject-specific FEM of a rhesus macaque mandible was constructed, loaded and validated using in vivo data from the same animal. In developing the model, we assessed the impact on model behavior of variation in (i) material properties of the mandibular trabecular bone tissue and teeth; (ii) constraints at the temporomandibular joint and bite point; and (iii) the timing of the muscle activity used to estimate the external forces acting on the model. The best match between the FEA simulation and the in vivo experimental data resulted from modeling the trabecular tissue with an isotropic and homogeneous Young's modulus and Poisson's value of 10GPa and 0.3, respectively; constraining translations along X,Y, Z axes in the chewing (left) side temporomandibular joint, the premolars and the m 1 ; constraining the balancing (right) side temporomandibular joint in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior axes, and using the muscle force estimated at time of maximum strain magnitude in the lower lateral gauge. The relative strain magnitudes in this model were similar to those recorded in vivo for all strain locations. More detailed analyses of mandibular strain patterns during the power stroke at different times in the chewing cycle are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  18. The medial pterygoid tubercle in the Atapuerca Early and Middle Pleistocene mandibles: evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José-María; Quam, Rolf; Martinón-Torres, María; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify the presence of uniquely derived (autoapomorphic) Neandertal features. Here, we deal with the medial pterygoid tubercle (MTP), which is usually present on the internal face of the ascending ramus of Neandertal specimens. Our study stems from the identification of a hypertrophied tubercle in ATD6-96, an Early Pleistocene mandible recovered from the TD6 level of the Atapuerca-Gran Dolina site and attributed to Homo antecessor. Our review of the literature and study of numerous original fossil specimens and high quality replicas confirm that the MTP occurs at a high frequency in Neandertals (ca. 89%) and is also present in over half (ca. 55%) of the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos (SH) hominins. In contrast, it is generally absent or minimally developed in other extinct hominins, but can be found in variable frequencies (common ancestor in which these features appeared during the Early Pleistocene. The presence of the MTP in taxa other than H. neanderthalensis precludes this feature from being a Neandertal autapomorphy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prosthetic rehabilitation using adhesive bridge and fixed-fixed bridge on the maxilla and telescopic crown overdenture on mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Sulistiawaty

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic rehabilitation is the rehabilitation process of masticatory and esthetics function for patients missing teeth and alveolar bone by means of manufacture and installation of dentures. The prosthetic rehabilitation commonly used include denture adhesive bridge, fixed-fixed bridge, as well as telescopic overdenture. Adhesive bridge is bridge denture consisting of single pontic and two retainer wings attached to the abutment using cement or resin. Fixed-fixed bridge is a bridge denture with rigid connectors on both ends of the pontics, whereas the telescopic crown Overdenture is a removable denture that uses linked precision on the original tooth in the form of primary coping on abutment and secondary coping on the denture. To expose the procedures of prosthetic rehabilitation using adhesive bridge and fixed-fixed bridge on the maxilla and telescopic crown Overdenture on mandible. Male patients aged 32 years came with complaints of difficulty to chew food because he had lost some teeth behind. In the maxilla, teeth are lost in the region of 15 and 16 performed by making the fixed-fixed bridge with abutment teeth 14 and 17. Loss of teeth in the region of 26, performed the manufacture of adhesive bridge with a box preparation on the occlusal 25 and 27. In the mandible, tooth loss in the region of 36,37,46, and 47 performed manufacture of telescopic crown Overdenture with primer coping on the teeth 35.38, 45, and 48 and the secondary coping on a metal frame. Prosthetic rehabilitation especially in the case of loss of back teeth is very important because with the denture patients can chew properly and maintain the stomatognathic system.

  20. Reverse engineering of mandible and prosthetic framework: Effect of titanium implants in conjunction with titanium milled full arch bridge prostheses on the biomechanics of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Roberto; Gloria, Antonio; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Varriale, Angelo; Veltri, Mario; Balleri, Piero; Mollica, Francesco; Riccitiello, Francesco; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2014-12-18

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of titanium implants and different configurations of full-arch prostheses on the biomechanics of edentulous mandibles. Reverse engineered, composite, anisotropic, edentulous mandibles made of a poly(methylmethacrylate) core and a glass fibre reinforced outer shell were rapid prototyped and instrumented with strain gauges. Brånemark implants RP platforms in conjunction with titanium Procera one-piece or two-piece bridges were used to simulate oral rehabilitations. A lateral load through the gonion regions was used to test the biomechanical effects of the rehabilitations. In addition, strains due to misfit of the one-piece titanium bridge were compared to those produced by one-piece cast gold bridges. Milled titanium bridges had a better fit than cast gold bridges. The stress distribution in mandibular bone rehabilitated with a one-piece bridge was more perturbed than that observed with a two-piece bridge. In particular the former induced a stress concentration and stress shielding in the molar and symphysis regions, while for the latter design these stresses were strongly reduced. In conclusion, prosthetic frameworks changed the biomechanics of the mandible as a result of both their design and manufacturing technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Protogenin, a new member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is implicated in the development of the mouse lower first molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada Hiroko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protogenin (Prtg has been identified as a gene which is highly expressed in the mouse mandible at embryonic day 10.5 (E10.5 by a cDNA subtraction method between mandibles at E10.5 and E12.0. Prtg is a new member of the deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC family, which is composed of DCC, Neogenin, Punc and Nope. Although these members play an important role in the development of the embryonic central nervous system, recent research has also shed on the non-neuronal organization. However, very little is known regarding the fetal requirement of the non-neuronal organization for Prtg and how this may be associated with the tooth germ development. This study examined the functional implications of Prtg in the developing tooth germ of the mouse lower first molar. Results Ptrg is preferentially expressed in the early stage of organogenesis. Prtg mRNA and protein were widely expressed in the mesenchymal cells in the mandible at E10.5. The oral epithelial cells were also positive for Prtg. The expression intensity of Prtg after E12.0 was markedly reduced in the mesenchymal cells of the mandible, and was restricted to the area where the tooth bud was likely to be formed. Signals were also observed in the epithelial cells of the tooth germ. Weak signals were observed in the inner enamel epithelial cells at E16.0 and E18.0. An inhibition assay using a hemagglutinating virus of Japan-liposome containing Prtg antisense-phosphorothioated-oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-S-ODN in cultured mandibles at E10.5 showed a significant growth inhibition in the tooth germ. The relationship between Prtg and the odontogenesis-related genes was examined in mouse E10.5 mandible, and we verified that the Bmp-4 expression had significantly been decreased in the mouse E10.5 mandible 24 hr after treatment with Prtg AS-S-ODN. Conclusion These results indicated that the Prtg might be related to the initial morphogenesis of the tooth germ leading to the

  2. Anatomic and histological study of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing and surgical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, V-E; Langonnet, S; Pierrefeu, A; Chaux-Bodard, A-G

    2014-10-01

    The rabbit is one of the most widely used models for studying bone remodeling or dental implant osseointegration but very few data are available about the rabbit's mandible. The aim of this work was to describe the anatomy of the rabbit mandible and to estimate the available bone volume for experimental studies. First, with a dissection, the morphology of the mandible was described and the mental foramen, the position of the main salivary glands and muscular insertions were located. Then, by X-ray imaging, the position of the inferior alveolar canal, the dental root courses and volume and bone density were described. Finally, with frontal sections of the mandible body, the rabbit's dental and alveolar bone histological structure were assessed. Thus, the relevance of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing or surgical therapies was discussed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  3. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the mandible in HIV patient - A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Neerupakam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL is a lymphatic system tumor originating from either B or T lymphocytes and shows a high malignant potential. In HIV-seropositive patients, NHL of head and neck is mainly found in Waldeyer's ring, oral mucosa, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses, and laryngeal tissue. Primary NHL rarely affects the bone. When the lesion affects the bones of the jaws, it is rare in the mandible when compared to the maxilla. In the reported cases, only 0.6% are found in the mandible. NHL of the mandible can be difficult to diagnose, and so the prime aim of the present case report is to establish appropriate diagnosis of one of such kinds. Clinically, they may imitate a dental infection with symptoms of pain and discomfort. A delay in diagnosis may lead to a poor prognosis. Herewith, we present a case of NHL on the lower-right mandible in a 40-year-old male. A correlation of clinical findings, radiological examination, and histopathological examination enabled us in early diagnosis and differentiating it from other similar conditions, thus aiding in initiation of prompt treatment.

  4. Vertical distraction of the severely resorbed mandible - The Groningen Distraction Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, GM; Heydenrijk, K; Vissink, A

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, both the surgical procedure and the clinical results of a novel distraction device to augment a severely resorbed anterior edentulous mandible are described. The distraction device is non-voluminous, and consists of two distraction screws and one guide screw. Two months after the last

  5. Morphological and quantitative analyses on features of asymmetric mandible with X-ray CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Isshiki, Yasushige; Nishikawa, Keiichi [Tokyo Dental Coll., Chiba (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Biomechanical disproportion of the mandible causes morphological and quantitative changes in the bone and induces jaw deformities. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the biomechanical disproportion on the structure and quality of the mandible, using spiral X-ray CT images. Subjects were 11 patients with mandibular asymmetry requiring orthognathic surgery. Lateral and vertical shift angles of the mandible against the maxilla were determined mathematically from the coordinates of structural reference points in 3-dimensional orthogonal coordinate systems as indices of the deformity degree. Several properties concerning thickness and CT value of mandibular cortical bone were measured as indices of the morphological and quantitative changes in mandibular cortical bone. Occlusal force was also measured using a pressure sensitive film as an index of biomechanical disproportion. Asymmetric indices of them were calculated from data of the left and right sides. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for these data. As a result, the mandible tended to shift laterally toward the side where the occlusal force at the second molar region was stronger and also to shift upward on that side. At the central incisor region of the laterally shifted side, CT values were relatively decreased. At the lateral incisor region, cortical bone density was relatively increased. At the first bicuspid region and the posterior tooth regions, cortical bone thickness was relatively decreased. (author)

  6. Morphological and quantitative analyses on features of asymmetric mandible with X-ray CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masaki; Isshiki, Yasushige; Nishikawa, Keiichi

    2001-01-01

    Biomechanical disproportion of the mandible causes morphological and quantitative changes in the bone and induces jaw deformities. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of the biomechanical disproportion on the structure and quality of the mandible, using spiral X-ray CT images. Subjects were 11 patients with mandibular asymmetry requiring orthognathic surgery. Lateral and vertical shift angles of the mandible against the maxilla were determined mathematically from the coordinates of structural reference points in 3-dimensional orthogonal coordinate systems as indices of the deformity degree. Several properties concerning thickness and CT value of mandibular cortical bone were measured as indices of the morphological and quantitative changes in mandibular cortical bone. Occlusal force was also measured using a pressure sensitive film as an index of biomechanical disproportion. Asymmetric indices of them were calculated from data of the left and right sides. The Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for these data. As a result, the mandible tended to shift laterally toward the side where the occlusal force at the second molar region was stronger and also to shift upward on that side. At the central incisor region of the laterally shifted side, CT values were relatively decreased. At the lateral incisor region, cortical bone density was relatively increased. At the first bicuspid region and the posterior tooth regions, cortical bone thickness was relatively decreased. (author)

  7. A note on the Mandible of Aceratherium Acutirostratum (Deraniyagala) from Moruaret hill, Turkana district, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1968-01-01

    The genus and species Turkanatherium acutirostratus was proposed by Deraniyagala (1951) for a skull, without the mandible, collected by Dr. H. B. S. Cooke, a member of the Wendell-Phillips Expedition to Africa in 1948, at Moruaret Hill (or Moruorot) near Losodok (or Lothidok) in the Turkana

  8. Assessment of temporomandibular joint dysfunction in condylar fracture of the mandible using the Helkimo index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Suhas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Condylar fractures of the mandible are functionally important fractures as the condyle of the mandible being a part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and can lead to TMJ dysfunction if not properly treated. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of a total of 33 treated patients with fracture of the mandibular condyle who underwent examination as per the Helkimo index. Their dysfunction was quantified and clinicoepidemiological characteristics were assessed. It was found that majority of our patients were young males involved in a two-wheeler accident. All patients underwent intermaxillary fixation as the minimum treatment and 30% underwent open reduction and internal fixation in addition. Results: There was no statistically significant association between the degree of clinical dysfunction and factors such as age, mechanism of injury, type of condyle fracture, presence of other mandible fractures, and surgical procedure. However, dislocation of the mandibular condyle was found to be a negative prognostic factor and all these patients had some degree of dysfunction. Conclusion: The overall prevalence of TMJ dysfunction according to the Helkimo index was 90%. About 61% of patients had mild dysfunction (Di1 and 30% had moderate dysfunction (Di2. None of the patients had severe dysfunction. To conclude, the Helkimo index is a simple, effective, inexpensive, reliable screening index to assess TMJ dysfunction in condylar fractures of mandible.

  9. Proposal for a new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagozoglu, K.H.; Dekker, H.A.; Rietveld, D.; de Bree, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Kantola, S.; Forouzanfar, T.; van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    A new staging system for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible has been retrospectively applied to a group of 31 patients. In this system clinicoradiographic signs and symptoms are incorporated in a simplified manner. For imaging purposes the use of plain radiographs such as periapical films and

  10. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...

  11. Reduced somatosensory impairment by piezosurgery during orthognathic surgery of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Hahn, Wolfram; Fenge, Stefan; Moser, Norman; Schliephake, Henning; Gruber, Rudolf Matthias

    2015-09-01

    This clinical trial aimed to test the hypothesis that piezosurgery causes reduced nerval irritations and, thus, reduced somatosensory impairment when used in orthognathic surgery of the mandible. To this end, 37 consecutive patients with Angle Class II and III malocclusion were treated using bilateral sagittal split osteotomies (BSSO) of the mandible. In a split mouth design, randomized one side of the mandible was operated using a conventional saw, while a piezosurgery device was used on the contralateral side. In order to test the individual qualities of somatosensory function, quantitative sensory testings (QSTs) were performed 1 month, 6 months and 1 year after surgery. A comparison of the data using a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant reduction in postoperative impairment in warm detection threshold (WDT) (P = 0.046), a decreased dynamic mechanical allodynia (ALL) (P = 0.002) and a decreased vibration detection threshold (VDT) (P = 0.030) on the piezosurgery side of the mandible as opposed to the conventionally operated control side. In the remaining QSTs, minor deviations from the preoperative baseline conditions and a more rapid regression could be observed. Piezosurgery caused reduced somatosensory impairment and a faster recovery of somatosensory functions in the present investigation.

  12. Case report 834: Chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis of the mandible with long bone periostitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A; Carneiro, R; Pollock, L; Shaw, D

    1994-04-01

    We present the case of a patient with primary chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible, the radiological appearance of which is compatible with a diagnosis of chronic sclerosing osteomyelitis. The accompanying femoral and tibial periosteal reactive new bone formation and the benign clinical course suggest that this presentation may represent a form of chronic multifocal osteomyelitis.

  13. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma of the mandible following treatment for bilateral retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferlito, A; Recher, G [Padua Univ. (Italy); Tomazzoli, L

    1979-10-01

    A case of fibrosarcoma of the mandible following radiotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma and occurring in an 11-year-old female child is described. After a clinical description of the case, reported with histological documentation, problems connected with the pathogenesis of the malignancies are dealt with. Besides irradiation, genetic mutation as a carcinogenetic co-factor is taken into consideration. (author).

  14. Cancer of Oral Cavity Abutting the Mandible; Predictors of Loco-regional Failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, T.K.; Hussein, H.A.; Mebeed, A.H.; El Sebai, H.I.; Sami, I.; Farahat, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the causes of Loco-regional failure in 51 patients with tumors of the oral cavity abutting the mandible. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study (27 patients were operated upon in the retrospective section and 24 patients in the prospective section of the study) was done in the department of Surgical Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, from January 2003 to January 2008. Fifty-one patients, with oral cavity cancerous lesions abutting the mandible, were operated upon by segmental mandibulectomy en-bloc with primary tumor resection in addition to modified radical or selective neck dissection according to the status of the cervical lymph nodes. Results: During a median follow-up of 2 years, 29 patients (56.8%) had local recurrences, the incidence of nodal recurrence after neck dissection was detected in 4 patients (7.8%). On multivariate analysis, tumor depth, tumor grade, oral mucosa, soft tissue and bone surgical margins in addition to metastatic lymphadenopathy were independent prognostic factors of loco-regional failure and disease-free survival. Conclusion: Oral cavity cancers abutting the mandible should be treated with great caution by a multidisciplinary oncology team (resection and reconstruction surgeons) as it has a very aggressive biologic behavior. Negative intraoperative pathological margins should be attempted since this is the critical point for patients with cancers abutting the mandible? Further research on the biologic margin and genetic study is required

  15. Primary ewing sarcoma of the anterior mandible localized to the midline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, E.; Brouns, E.R.E.A.; Korones, D.N.; Pochal, W.F.; Philipone, E.M.; Zegarelli, D.J.; Yoon, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma is a malignant, small, round blue-cell tumor of the bone that is usually located in the long bones and the pelvis. Fewer than 3% of all Ewing sarcomas originate in the head and neck region and these are mostly located in the posterior mandible. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl

  16. Association Between Changes in the Angle of Mandible and Reduced Bone Mineral Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, D.; Sarwath, S.; Nigar, N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish an association between the angle of mandible on an orthopantomogram (OPG) with reduced bone mineral density of femoral neck and spine on Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Institute of Basic Medical Sciences (IBMS), Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS), Karachi, from December 2011 to July 2012. Methodology: Female subjects between 25 and 85 years of age were divided into premenopausal (Group-I) and postmenopausal (Group II) groups. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scan was done to divide Group-I and Group-II into normal (pre A, post A), osteopenic (pre B, post B) and osteoporotic (pre C, post C) groups. Changes seen in angle of mandible on orthopantomogram (OPG) in subgroups of Group-I were compared with each other and with subgroups of Group-II. SPSS version 16 was used to carry out the statistical analysis. Intragroup significance was evaluated through One Way Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). For intergroup significance independent samples t-test was applied. Results: The angle of mandible (A) was significantly decreased in Intragroup comparison of Group-II (0.035) between Post normal (Post A) vs. Post osteopenic (Post B) groups. Intergroup comparison between Group-I and Group-II (0.005) showed a significant decrease in angle of mandible between Pre osteopenic (Pre B) vs. Post osteopenic (Post B). Conclusion: As decrease in angle of mandible was observed at stage of osteopenia, it can be conveniently used for early detection of osteoporosis. (author)

  17. Morphometric analysis of the mandible in the Durban Metropolitan population of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwarkumar, S; Pillay, P; Haffajee, M R; Satyapal, K S

    2017-01-01

    The identification of an individual from skeletal remains plays a vital role in forensic investigation as it is essential for the identification of the individual's age, sex, and/or race and further analysis. Skeletal characteristics differ from one population group to another since population-specific osteometric standards exist for sex determination. Since the mandible is the largest, strongest and most durable compact facial bone, it is the best preserved after death. While sexual dimorphism of the mandible is indicated by its shape and size, morphometric analysis is more accurate in the determination of sex from the skull. The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometric parameters of the mandible in the Durban Metropolitan population. Various morphometric parameters of the mandible were measured and assessed in 265 digital panoramic radiographs aged between 16 and 30 years (n = 530). Each parameter recorded was statistically analysed using SPSS to determine if a relationship existed between the parameter, and sex and age. In this study the morphometric parameters of the male mandibles were greater than that of the females. This concurred with the findings of previous studies. The length of the mandibular ramus on the right and left sides was statistically significant with sex. This correlated with previous studies, indicating that the length of the mandibular ramus generally has higher sexual dimorphism than any other morphometric mandibular parameter (p = 0.000). However, only the length of the right mandibular body was statistically significant when compared with sex (p = 0.040). The findings of this study may assist forensic investigators, anatomists, anthropologists and maxillo-facial surgeons.

  18. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, Samir; Kumta, Monica; Jain, Leena; Purohit, Shrirang; Ummul, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D) structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT) scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD) using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D) data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling. PMID:26933279

  19. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumta, Samir; Kumta, Monica; Jain, Leena; Purohit, Shrirang; Ummul, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D) structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT) scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD) using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. This conversion of two-dimensional (2D) data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling.

  20. Structure and Function in the Lunge Feeding Apparatus: Mechanical Properties of the Fin Whale Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwick, Robert E; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Whale, James C A

    2017-11-01

    The mandibles of rorqual whales are highly modified to support loads associated with lunge-feeding, a dynamic filter feeding mechanism that is characterized by rapid changes in gape angle and acceleration. Although these structures are the largest ossified elements in animals and an important part of the rorqual engulfment apparatus, details of internal structure are limited and no direct measurements of mechanical properties exist. Likewise, the forces that are sustained by the mandibles are unknown. Here we report on the structure and mechanical behavior of the mandible of an adult fin whale. A series of transverse sections were cut at locations along the entire length of a 3.6-m left mandible recovered post-mortem from a 16-m fin whale, and CT scanned to make density maps. Cored samples 6-8 mm in diameter were tested in compression to determine the Young's modulus and strength. In addition, wet density, dry density and mineral density were measured. Dense cortical bone occupies only a relatively narrow peripheral layer while much less dense and oil-filled trabecular bone occupies the rest. Mineral density of both types is strongly correlated with dry density and CT Hounsfield units. Compressive strength is strongly correlated with Young's modulus, while strength and stiffness are both correlated with mineral density. It appears that the superficial compact layer is the main load bearing element, and that the mandible is reinforced against dorso-vental flexion that would occur during the peak loads while feeding. Anat Rec, 300:1953-1962, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A novel 3D template for mandible and maxilla reconstruction: Rapid prototyping using stereolithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Kumta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Replication of the exact three-dimensional (3D structure of the maxilla and mandible is now a priority whilst attempting reconstruction of these bones to attain a complete functional and aesthetic rehabilitation. We hereby present the process of rapid prototyping using stereolithography to produce templates for modelling bone grafts and implants for maxilla/mandible reconstructions, its applications in tumour/trauma, and outcomes for primary and secondary reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Stereolithographic template-assisted reconstruction was used on 11 patients for the reconstruction of the mandible/maxilla primarily following tumour excision and secondarily for the realignment of post-traumatic malunited fractures or deformity corrections. Data obtained from the computed tomography (CT scans with 1-mm resolution were converted into a computer-aided design (CAD using the CT Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM data. Once a CAD model was constructed, it was converted into a stereolithographic format and then processed by the rapid prototyping technology to produce the physical anatomical model using a resin. This resin model replicates the native mandible, which can be thus used off table as a guide for modelling the bone grafts. Discussion: This conversion of two-dimensional (2D data from CT scan into 3D models is a very precise guide to shaping the bone grafts. Further, this CAD can reconstruct the defective half of the mandible using the mirror image principle, and the normal anatomical model can be created to aid secondary reconstructions. Conclusion: This novel approach allows a precise translation of the treatment plan directly to the surgical field. It is also an important teaching tool for implant moulding and fixation, and helps in patient counselling.

  2. Morphological and functional diversity of the mandible in suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Nathan K; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2012-01-01

    We examined the mandibles of 377 individuals representing 25 species, 12 genera, 5 tribes, and 2 subfamilies of the Loricariidae, a species-rich radiation of detritivorous-herbivorous neotropical freshwater fishes distinguished by having a ventral oral disk and jaws specialized for surface attachment and benthic feeding. Loricariid mandibles are transversely oriented and bilaterally independent, each rotating predominantly around its long axis, although rotational axes likely vary with mandibular geometry. On each mandible, we measured three traditional and three novel morphological parameters chosen primarily for their functional relevance. Five parameters were linear distances and three of these were analogous to traditional teleost in- and out-levers for mandibular adduction. The sixth parameter was insertion area of the combined adductor mandibulae muscle (AM(area)), which correlated with adductor mandibulae volume across a subset of taxa and is interpreted as being proportional to maximum force deliverable to the mandible. Multivariate analysis revealed distributions of phylogenetically diagnosed taxonomic groupings in mandibular morphospace that are consistent with an evolutionary pattern of basal niche conservatism giving rise to multiple adaptive radiations within nested clades. Correspondence between mandibular geometry and function was explored using a 3D model of spatial relationships among measured parameters, potential forces, and axes of rotation. By combining the model with known loricariid jaw kinematics, we developed explicit hypotheses for how individual parameters might relate to each other during kinesis. We hypothesize that the ratio [AM(area) /tooth row length(2) ] predicts interspecific variation in the magnitude of force entering the mandible per unit of substrate contacted during feeding. Other newly proposed metrics are hypothesized to predict variation in aspects of mandibular mechanical advantage that may be specific to Loricariidae and

  3. Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongmei; Deng, Mohong; Wang, WenPeng; Zhang, Ji; Mu, Jiao; Zhu, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    A present limitation of forensic anthropology practice in China is the lack of population-specific criteria on contemporary human skeletons. In this study, a sample of 203 maxillofacial Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, including 96 male and 107 female cases (20-65 years old), was analyzed to explore mandible sexual dimorphism in a population of contemporary adult Han Chinese to investigate the potential use of the mandible as sex indicator. A three-dimensional image from mandible CBCT scans was reconstructed using the SimPlant Pro 11.40 software. Nine linear and two angular parameters were measured. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) and logistic regression analysis (LRA) were used to develop the mathematics models for sex determination. All of the linear measurements studied and one angular measurement were found to be sexually dimorphic, with the maximum mandibular length and bi-condylar breadth being the most dimorphic by univariate DFA and LRA respectively. The cross-validated sex allocation accuracies on multivariate were ranged from 84.2% (direct DFA), 83.5% (direct LRA), 83.3% (stepwise DFA) to 80.5% (stepwise LRA). In general, multivariate DFA yielded a higher accuracy and LRA obtained a lower sex bias, and therefore both DFA and LRA had their own advantages for sex determination by the mandible in this sample. These results suggest that the mandible expresses sexual dimorphism in the contemporary adult Han Chinese population, indicating an excellent sexual discriminatory ability. Cone beam computed tomography scanning can be used as alternative source for contemporary osteometric techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical in vitro evaluation of three stable internal fixation techniques used in sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus: a study in sheep mandibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Benetti de Olivera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the osteotomies performed in orthognathic surgery, the sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus (SOMR is the most common, allowing a great range of movements and stable internal fixation (SIF, therefore eliminating the need of maxillomandibular block in the postoperative period. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical resistance of three national systems used for SIF in SOMR in sheep mandibles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed in 30 sheep hemi-mandibles randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each containing 10 hemi-mandibles. The samples were measured to avoid discrepancies and then subjected to SOMR with 5-mm advancement. In group I, 2.0x12 mm screws were used for fixation, inserted in an inverted "L" pattern (inverted "L" group. In group II, fixation was performed with two 2.0x12 mm screws, positioned in a linear pattern and a 4-hole straight miniplate and four 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (hybrid group. In group III, fixation was performed with two 4-hole straight miniplates and eight 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (mini plate group. All materials used for SIF were supplied by Osteosin - SIN. The hemimandibles were subjected to vertical linear load test by Kratos K2000MP mechanical testing unit for loading registration and displacement. RESULTS: All groups showed similar resistance during mechanical test for loading and displacement, with no statistically significant differences between groups according to analysis of variance. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the three techniques of fixation are equally effective for clinical fixation of SOMR.

  5. Quantitative analysis of contrast enhanced MRI of the inferior alveolar nerve in inflammatory changes of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, G.; Gerber, S.; Solbach, T.; Baehren, W.; Anders, L.; Kress, B.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of contrast enhanced MRI in quantifying signal changes of the inferior alveolar nerve following inflammatory changes of the mandible. Material and methods: 30 patients with inflammatory changes of the mandible underwent MRI of the face. Both sides of the mandible, the affected as well as the unaffected healthy side were evaluated retrospectively. Regions of interest were placed at 5 defined placed on both sides to assess signal intensity before and after intravenous application of paramagnetic contrast agent. The results of the measurements were compared between the healthy and the affected side (t-test, p [de

  6. Evaluation of applicability and efficacy of the reconstructive microvascular surgery of advanced cancer of the lower face with mandible infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate applicability and efficacy of reconstructive and microvascular surgery for patients with locally advanced cancer of the lower face with mandible infiltration, regarding to various technique of mandible and tongue reconstruction using flaps and to own modifications. Complex quality of life including functional, aesthetic, social and effect has also been evaluated. For patients with advanced cancer of the region infiltrating mandible reconstructive and microvascular surgery as a sole modality or combined with postoperative radiotherapy, is effective method of radical treatment, providing 80% of chance of 3-year disease-free survival and reduces the risk of recurrence by 60%. (author)

  7. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Charan Babu HS; Bhagawan Das Rai; Manju A. Nair; Madhusudan S. Astekar

    2012-01-01

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two ...

  8. Utrophin Compensates dystrophin Loss during Mouse Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hung-Chih; Chin, Yu-Feng; Lundy, David J.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Chi, Ya-Hui; Kuo, Paolin; Hsieh, Patrick C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. The mdx/utrn ?/? mouse, lacking in both dystrophin and its autosomal homologue utrophin, is commonly used to model the clinical symptoms of DMD. Interestingly, these mice are infertile but the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Using dystrophin deficient mdx mouse and utrophin haplodeficient mdx/utrn +/? mouse models, we demonstrate the contribution of Dp427 (f...

  9. LESIONS OF THE MANDIBLE - A PATTERN BASED APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS BY OPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Govind

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study of 95 orthopentograms focused on importance of OPG as a first line of investigation in the diagnosis of mandibular lesions and establish its role beyond doubt in some the conditions due to its pathognomonic appearance. It also narrows down the list of differential diagnosis. INTRODUCTION Mandibular lesions cause a variety of problems ranging from swelling, tooth mobility, displacement of adjacent teeth, mild sensitivity, root deformation of developing permanent teeth and potential to expand the bone causing fractures. Some of these mandibular lesions are silent in their progression and pose a challenge in early diagnosis for clinicians. Radiographic characteristics such as location, margin, density, relation to tooth, along with clinical notes is the first step in interpreting mandibular pathologies. Orthopentogram is a simple, accurate and cost effective technique commonly employed for diagnosing dental and maxillofacial lesions. We retrospectively evaluated spectrum of mandibular lesions from a database of groundwork diagnostic OPGs. METHODS We reviewed a total of 2690 orthopentograms of patients with tooth ache and/or swelling, referred to the radiologist for the preliminary diagnosis. All osteolytic lesions more than 10 mm. and having characteristics of root abscess were included for evaluation. OPG taken for orthodontic work up, showing dental abscess less than 10 mm and OPG of patients with Gingival and T.M. joint pathologies were excluded. RESULTS In our study, we found 0.35% (95/2690 of patients were having a spectrum of mandibular lesions. The frequency of appearance of mandibular lesions on OPG was buccal-neoplasm>dentigerous-cysts>dental-cyst>neoplastic=traumatic-bone-cyst= osteomyelitis >kerato-cyst. The most frequent sites of these lesions were 80/103(77.6% molars, 14/103(13.6% incisors, and 9/103(8.7% angle of mandibles. No lesions were found on condyles. CONCLUSION The present study proves that OPG is a first

  10. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma on the mandible: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jae Duk

    2005-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancer worldwide, primarily affecting those in regions with a high prevalence of viral hepatitis. However, the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma to the oral cavity is a rare phenomenon. This report presents a case of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma in the left mandibular angle and ramus region of a 62-year-old man. Panoramic radiograph revealed an ill-defined radiolucent lesion extending from the retained root of the mandibular left second molar into the ascending ramus. The lesion had irregular and ill-defined margins.

  11. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hs, Charan Babu; Rai, Bhagawan Das; Nair, Manju A; Astekar, Madhusudan S

    2012-05-29

    Simple bone cysts (SBC) are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  12. Simple bone cyst of mandible mimicking periapical cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charan Babu HS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Simple bone cysts (SBC are pseudocysts occurring less commonly in the maxillofacial region. The uncertain and unclear etiopathogenesis led to numerous synonyms to refer this particular cyst. These cysts are devoid of an epithelial lining and are usually empty or contain blood or straw-colored fluid. In jaws initially it mimics a periapical cyst and later can lead to cortical bone expansion warranting for radical approach, which is seldom required. SBC is predominantly diagnosed in first two decades of life. Here we report a case of solitary bone cyst mimicking a periapical cyst of a mandibular molar in a 37-year-old patient.

  13. Temporal abscess after third molar extraction in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Neto, Patrício José; de Souza Maliska, Maximiana Cristina; Sawazaki, Renato; Asprino, Luciana; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2012-03-01

    Dental infections resulting before or after third molar removal are complications in which the maxillofacial surgeon may have to initiate an earlier management. The severe dental infections resulting before or after this procedure is one of the few life-threatening complications in which the maxillofacial surgeon may have to initiate an earlier management. Infections involving the temporal space are rare and infrequently reported. Infections in this space have also been observed secondary to maxillary sinusitis, maxillary sinus fracture, temporomandibular arthroscopy, and drug injection, although more commonly associated to third molar infections. A 22-year-old man had undergone extraction of tooth 38 secondary to pericoronaritis by a general dentist. Physical examination of his face demonstrated severe trismus, pain, and swelling in temporal region. A CT scan showed an inflammatory area into the temporal space. He was started on IV cephalosporin, but the clinical course of the patient was not satisfactory. Incision and drainage were performed from an extraoral and intraoral approach. After discharged, the antibiotic was switched to clindamycin IO 600 mg. The retromaxillary and temporal infections are quite common after maxillary molar extractions but not after mandibular third molar, the spread mechanism of ascension must be involved with the virulence of microorganisms, but more studies are necessary to clarify this occurrence.

  14. A case of Sotos syndrome treated with distraction osteogenesis in maxilla and mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Masayuki; Kasahara, Kiyohiro; Ogawa, Chiharu; Katada, Hidenori; Sueishi, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is inherited in an autosomal-dominant manner and is characterized by increased birth weight, excessive growth, advanced bone age, and distinctive facial features, including dolichocephaly, hypertelorism, and a prominent mandible. We treated a jaw deformity due to Sotos syndrome consisting of malocclusion due to a narrow maxillary dental arch and mandibular retrusion from hypoplasia of the rami. The patient was a 17-year-old man. Malocclusion due to a narrow maxillary dental arch and mandibular retrusion was diagnosed. Rapid maxillary expansion with Lines corticotomy and mandibular advancement with distraction osteogenesis were performed. The maxilla was expanded laterally a total of 3 mm and the mandible prolonged 12 mm in the posterior area of the mandibular body. Subsequently, orthodontic treatment was continued. At present, 5 years after surgery, occlusion remains good and stable.

  15. Short mandible - a possible risk factor for cleft palate with/without a cleft lip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Nuno Vibe; Darvann, Tron Andre; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Structured Abstract Objectives To estimate the influence of a short mandible on the risk of developing a cleft palate with/without a cleft lip (CP). Setting and sample population The retrospective sample consisted of 115 2-month-old Danish infants with CP, and 70 control infants with unilateral...... the risk of having a cleft palate. Results The mean mandibular length in the group with CP was about 4mm shorter than in the control group. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated to be 0.58 (95% confidence interval 0.48-0.68), implying that an individual's risk of cleft palate with/without a cleft lip increases...... about 50% per mm decrease in mandibular length. Conclusions A special facial type including a short mandible is a possible risk factor for cleft palate, and it was found that the risk of cleft palate increases 58% per mm decreases in mandibular length....

  16. The mandible opening response: quantifying aggression elicited by chemical cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Fernando J; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    Social insects have evolved efficient recognition systems guaranteeing social cohesion and protection from enemies. To defend their territories and threaten non-nestmate intruders, ants open their mandibles as a first aggressive display. Albeit chemical cues play a major role in discrimination...... genus have more similar profiles. The antennae of harnessed ants were touched with a glass rod coated with the cuticular extract of (a) nestmates, (b) non-nestmates of the same species, (c) another species of the same genus and (d) a species of a different genus. The mandible opening response (MOR......) was recorded as the aggressive response. In all assayed species, MOR significantly differed among stimuli, being weakest towards nestmate odour and strongest towards odours originating from ants of a different genus. We thus introduce here a new procedure suitable for studying the chemical basis of aggression...

  17. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  18. A rare case of retained fourth molar teeth in maxilla and mandible. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama Mansur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a case of the rarely occurring totally retained fourth molar teeth simultaneously in maxilla and mandible. The appearance of supernumerary teeth is a relatively uncommon dental anomaly and it is rare for patients to have impacted fourth molars in two quadrant. The aim of this work is to describe the presence of unilateral (right fourth molars in the maxilla and the mandible in a young female patient aged 24 years. Orthopantomogram revealed impacted lower third molars but also unerupted unilateral (right upper and lower fourth molars. Before orthodontic treatment, the patient was subsequently admitted for removal of third and fourth impacted upper and lower molars under local anesthesia.

  19. Agressive osteoblastoma in a seven-year-old girl's mandible: Treatment and six-year monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Paulo Henrique Souza; Molinari, Danielle Lima; Stateri, Hiran Queiroz; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Volpato, Luiz Evaristo Ricci

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a rare benign bone tumor with locally aggressive behavior in some cases; however, with rare malignant transformations. A case of osteoblastoma in a seven-year-old patient's mandible is presented. After the diagnosis, the patient underwent two stages of treatment. In the first intervention, an intralesional curettage was performed as well as a marsupialization of the lesion, in order to reduce its volume and allow a second and more conservative surgical period. In the second surgery, after reducing the lesion, enucleation and rigid internal fixation of the mandible were performed. The treatment has proven to be satisfactory, without recurrence of the injury for two years, when the patient suffered a car accident that caused the synthetic material to fracture. The internal fixation was surgically replaced and the patient is being monitored after six years of the initial intervention, without presenting further changes. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Coexistence of salivary gland cysticercosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Dipti; Khurana, Nita; Setia, Namrata

    2007-03-01

    Cysticercosis is a parasitic infestation caused by the pork tapeworm larval stage, Cysticercus cellulosae. The majority of the cases present in ocular, cerebral, and subcutaneous locations. We report the presence of cysticercosis inside the submandibular gland in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the inferior alveolar ramus of the mandible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report documenting cysticercosis inside a salivary gland. A 65-year-old male presented with complaints of an ulcerative lesion on the inferior alveolar ramus present for 2 months. Histological examination revealed a keratinizing well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the alveolar margin and mandible. The histopathological examination of the submandibular gland revealed cysticercosis. This case emphasizes the importance of adequate sampling of all the tissues obtained for associated infectious disorders, more so in immunosuppressed patients, which will help the clinician to manage the case appropriately.

  1. [Dynamic magnetotherapy use in comprehensive treatment phlegmons of maxillofacial region and mandible fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepilin, A V; Raĭgorodckiĭ, Iu M; Nozdrachev, V G; Erokina, N L

    2007-01-01

    145 patients (60 with phlegmons of submandibular and submental regions, 85--with fractures of mandible) were observed and treated with the use of moving pulse magnetic field (MPMF) produced by special apparatus (AMO-ATOS-E, , Saratov-city), 60 patients with the same pathology were treated by traditional physical methods and served as control. Use of MPMF led to quicker patient recovery: quicker reduction (if compared with traditional physical methods of treatment) of oedema and soft tissue inflammatory infiltration, quicker relief from inflammatory reaction (according to data of cytokinin profile), improvement of tissue blood supply in the region of fractures in patients with mandible fractures. As the result--we had shortening treatment terms of such patients and complication number reduction.

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL INTEGRATION OF NATIVE SOUTH AMERICAN UNGULATE MANDIBLES. A TRIBUTE TO D’ARCY THOMPSON IN THE CENTENNIAL OF “ON GROWTH AND FORM”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassini, Guillermo H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available South American native ungulates include several extinct lineages that evolved within the context of South American Cenozoic geographic isolation. By the late early Miocene Santacrucian Age, the orders Notoungulata, Litopterna, and Astrapotheria were differentiated. Recent ecomorphological studies highlighted complex functional patterns between their habitat/diet and hypsodonty. In order to understand these relationships in an evolutionary context we used geometric morphometrics methods (27 3-D landmarks to evaluate the morphological integration of two of the primary functional units of the mandible: the alveolar region and the ascending ramus. Principal component analyses (PCA and two blocks Partial Least Squares analyses (PLS were used to explore the patterns of variation and covariation between these two modules. The main variation in shape is related to the robusticity and curvature of the mandibular corpus, and the relative size of the angular and coronoid process. The PLS analyses show a very strong morphological integration within the Litopterna, but a pattern of modularity in the Notoungulata. There is a common pattern of covariation in Astrapotheria and Litopterna, which might be due to similar constraints. The different covariation patterns in notoungulates with respect to litopterns are in concordance with both the taxonomic and morphological diversity of the clades, particularly in the typotheres. The modularity present in notoungulates could have allowed specializations in each module of the mandible, related to crown height or muscle attachments, without a high morphological constrain. This could have resulted in their high morphological diversity, in contrast with the more conservative morphology present in litopterns.

  3. Application of different types of mandible resection in combined treatment of oral cancer patient (pt.): results and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyakin, E.G.; Uvarov, A.A.; Kropotov, M.A.; Azizjan, R.I.

    1998-01-01

    Surgery is the main part of combined treatment of advanced oral cancer. Three types of mandible resection were applied in our center. Rim mandibulectomy leads to satisfactory cosmetic and functional results, in case of segmental mandibulectomy different methods of mandible restoration are applied. Middle mandibulotomy creates the optimum access to the operation field in patients with a large primary tumor of mobile tongue and a tumor thai is posteriorly located. Aims of the study: analyse of material to estimate the results and complications in cases of application of different types of mandible resection. Conclusions: Segmental mandibulectomy should be performed if erosion of alveolar ridge is detected. Rim manidibulectomy and segmental mandibylectomy with reconstructive surgery lead to good cosmetic and functional results. Usage of mini plates in reconstruction of mandibular arch decrease the number of postoperative complications even in patients after radiation therapy. Previous radiotherapy significantly increase the risk of the postoperative osteomyelitis of mandible

  4. Intraosseous Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Mandible: Report of a Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM R Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA is an entity under the subclassification of adenocarcinoma from salivary glands. PLGA is an unusual tumor that occur: in the minor salivary gland, particularity in the palate followed by buccal mucosa, upper lip, retromolar area and base of the tongue- The occurance of PLGA in locations other than these is exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of PLGA occuring in the anterior mandible. The clinical, radiographic, computed tomographic and histopathologic findings are discussed.

  5. Beneficial role of periosteum in distraction osteogenesis of mandible. Its preservation prevents the external bone resorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Sawako; Matsuo, Akira; Chiba, Hiroshige

    2010-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical process of new bone generation through the gradual extension of two segments of existing bone. DO is applied for maxillofacial surgeries to manage defects in mandibular continuity. Vertical DO with an oral device is often employed to augment the alveolar bone height for better implant anchorage for esthetic purposes or functional prosthetic requirements. To determine how the periosteum affects the vertical DO in mandibular reconstruction, we extracted the teeth and resected the alveolar parts of the mandible on both sides of dogs, along with removal of the surrounding periosteum in the right, but not left side. Three months later, box-shaped bone segments (vectors) were prepared from the resected alveolar part, and the segments were vertically elongated using a distraction device on both sides at 0.9 mm/day for one week. The extent of bone formation after distraction was determined with micro-focused computed tomography and by measuring incorporation of tetracycline and calcein with confocal laser scanning microscopy. During the initial two months after distraction, new bone formation was observed more prominently in the left side than in the right side of mandible with the periosteum. However, this difference was less clear during the bone-remodeling period. One notable change was the reduced height of the alveolar part of the right-side mandible, a sign of external bone resorption, observed in two out of three dogs at 6-month post-consolidation. These findings suggest that preservation of periosteum prevents the external bone resorption during the vertical DO of mandible. (author)

  6. Rare Case of a Chondrosarcoma of the Mandible in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendryk Vieweg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chondrosarcoma of the mandible is rare, especially in children. The available literature consists mostly of a few case reports which are partly integrated in small studies. Growing this small pool of literature is helpful in solidifying knowledge about this disease and facilitating appropriate treatment for children. Therefore, we present such a case in a 12-year-old boy, exhibit comprehensive and relevant information concerning this entity, and discuss our findings in the context of other publications.

  7. Morphology and ultrastructure of the molar area of mandibles in mayfly (Ephemeroptera) larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sroka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 31, suppl. 1 (2009), s. 471-484 ISSN 0165-0424. [International Perspectives in Mayfly and Stonefly Research. Proceedings of the International Conference on Ephemeroptera /12./ and International Symposium on Plecoptera /16./. Stuttgart, 08.06.2008-14.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Ephemeroptera * morphology * mandible Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2009

  8. Adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution in rat mandible during bone growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, T; Fujitani, W; Ishimoto, T [Division of Materials and Manufacturing Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Umakoshi, Y [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaragi, 305-0471 (Japan)], E-mail: nakano@mat.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2009-05-01

    Biological apatite (BAp) c-axis orientation strongly depends on stress distribution in vivo and tends to align along the principal stress direction in bones. Dentulous mandible is subjected to a complicated stress condition in vivo during chewing but few studies have been carried out on the BAp c-axis orientation; so the adaptation of BAp crystal orientation to stress distribution was examined in rat dentulous mandible during bone growth and mastication. Female SD rats 4 to 14 weeks old were prepared, and the bone mineral density (BMD) and BAp crystal orientation were analyzed in a cross-section of mandible across the first molar focusing on two positions: separated from and just under the tooth root on the same cross-section perpendicular to the mesiodistal axis. The degree of BAp orientation was analyzed by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer using Cu-K{alpha} radiation equipped with a detector of curved one-dimensional PSPC and two-dimensional PSPC in the reflection and transmission optics, respectively. BMD quickly increased during bone growth up to 14 weeks, although it was independent of the position from the tooth root. In contrast, BAp crystal orientation strongly depended on the age and the position from the tooth root, even in the same cross-section and direction, especially along the mesiodistal and the biting axes. With increased biting stress during bone growth, the degree of BAp orientation increased along the mesiodistal axis in a position separated from the tooth root more than that near the tooth root. In contrast, BAp preferential alignment clearly appeared along the biting axis near the tooth root. We conclude that BAp orientation rather than BMD sensitively adapts to local stress distribution, especially from the chewing stress in vivo in the mandible.

  9. Thin-plate spline (TPS) graphical analysis of the mandible on cephalometric radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H P; Liu, P H; Chang, H F; Chang, C H

    2002-03-01

    We describe two cases of Class III malocclusion with and without orthodontic treatment. A thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis of lateral cephalometric radiographs was used to visualize transformations of the mandible. The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. These case analyses indicate that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopaedic therapy, and visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis.

  10. CHANGING OF THE BIOCHEMICAL INDICES ON REGENERATION OF EXPERIMENTAL DEFECT OF THE MANDIBLE BONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borysenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The results of an experimental biochemical investigation on the influence of the proposed drug composition for the experimental mandible bone defect regeneration in rats were presented. The high efficiency and osteoregenerative properties of this paste were shown. The experimental investigations showed that the proposed drug composition exerts a considerable normalization influence upon the biochemical indicators of bone mineral metabolism, comparable to Collapan influence.

  11. Achievability of 3D planned bimaxillary osteotomies: maxilla-first versus mandible-first surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Liebregts, Jeroen; Baan, Frank; de Koning, Martien; Ongkosuwito, Edwin; Berg?, Stefaan; Maal, Thomas; Xi, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of sequencing a two-component surgical procedure for correcting malpositioned jaws (bimaxillary osteotomies); specifically, surgical repositioning of the upper jaw?maxilla, and the lower jaw?mandible. Within a population of 116 patients requiring bimaxillary osteotomies, the investigators analyzed whether there were statistically significant differences in postoperative outcome as measured by concordance with a preoperative digital 3D vir...

  12. Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible arising de novo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2009-07-01

    Primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma is an odontogenic tumour with aggressive behaviour usually noticed in 6th to 7th decades of life. The tumour is characterized by progressive swelling of the jaw, pain and loosening of teeth. Microscopically, the lesion is showing foci of keratinising cells separated by collagenous connective tissue stroma. A case of primary intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma of mandible arising de novo in a 40-year-old man is reported.

  13. Osseous Dysplasia Accompanied by a Complex Odontoma in the Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Jafari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cement osseous dysplasia is the most common lesion of the family fibrous dysplasia which normal bone is replaced with fibrous tissue and several mineralized material. These lesions may be seen in association with various lesions. Companionship of this lesion with odontoma has been reported rarely. Case report: A 44-year-old female in one year ago has admitted to Shahid Sadoughi Faculty of Dentistry Yazd for treatment of mandibular left third molar. In panoramic radiography in the mandibular left first molar region, a mixed lesion of radiolucent-radiopaque with a corticated borderwas seen. Small swelling was observed in this area. Microscopically, the diagnosis of osseous dysplasia with odontoma for the lesion was confirmed. Conclusion: The reason of companionship of cement osseous lesions whit other lesions is not completely clear and it requires further evaluation.

  14. Early treatment of simphysis mandible fracture in children 12 years old using Erich arch bar (case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Samad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Incidence rate of symphysis mandible fracture in children was about 15 – 20%. Boys are effected twice as frequently as girls. The pattern of craniomaxillofacial fractures seen in children varies with evolving skeletal anatomy and socioenvironmental factors. The treatment of pediatric maxillofacial fractures is due to physiological, developmental, and anatomical characteristic of children. Management of pediatric mandible fracture by anatomic reduction is combine with stabilization adequate to maintain it until bone union has occured. This case report is aimed to explain about the management of simphysis mandible fracture in pediatric using erich arch bar. A 12 years old boy has fracture in mandible due to accident with mechanisme the chin hit the touching motorcyle tank. Clinically, was a deformity at the anterior of mandible and malocclusion has occured. Patient also complaint a  pain with swelling and bleeding at the regio of fracture and lip. Suturing was done  in wound area intra and extra oral, followed by application of arch bar in maxilla and mandible. Control at the third day was found a vague fracture line in panoramic radiograph. Management of emergency trauma in oral and maxillofacial surgery was based on principle of ATLS was done in this case. Following treatment was application of erich arch bar for mobility reducing the fracture of mandible symphisis. Management of mandibular symphisis fracture in 12 years old children with full eruption of teeth has been given a good healing  due to the teeth  was act to develop retention and stabilize the erich arch bar. Management of pediatric simphysis mandible fracture for 12 years old children with full eruption of teeth using erich bar revealed a healed fracture.

  15. Chewing on the trees: Constraints and adaptation in the evolution of the primate mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloro, Carlo; Cáceres, Nilton Carlos; Carotenuto, Francesco; Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza Leal; Passaro, Federico; Raia, Pasquale

    2015-07-01

    Chewing on different food types is a demanding biological function. The classic assumption in studying the shape of feeding apparatuses is that animals are what they eat, meaning that adaptation to different food items accounts for most of their interspecific variation. Yet, a growing body of evidence points against this concept. We use the primate mandible as a model structure to investigate the complex interplay among shape, size, diet, and phylogeny. We find a weak but significant impact of diet on mandible shape variation in primates as a whole but not in anthropoids and catarrhines as tested in isolation. These clades mainly exhibit allometric shape changes, which are unrelated to diet. Diet is an important factor in the diversification of strepsirrhines and platyrrhines and a phylogenetic signal is detected in all primate clades. Peaks in morphological disparity occur during the Oligocene (between 37 and 25 Ma) supporting the notion that an adaptive radiation characterized the evolution of South American monkeys. In all primate clades, the evolution of mandible size is faster than its shape pointing to a strong effect of allometry on ecomorphological diversification in this group. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Conservatism and adaptability during squirrel radiation: what is mandible shape telling us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Casanovas-Vilar

    Full Text Available Both functional adaptation and phylogeny shape the morphology of taxa within clades. Herein we explore these two factors in an integrated way by analyzing shape and size variation in the mandible of extant squirrels using landmark-based geometric morphometrics in combination with a comparative phylogenetic analysis. Dietary specialization and locomotion were found to be reliable predictors of mandible shape, with the prediction by locomotion probably reflecting the underlying diet. In addition a weak but significant allometric effect could be demonstrated. Our results found a strong phylogenetic signal in the family as a whole as well as in the main clades, which is in agreement with the general notion of squirrels being a conservative group. This fact does not preclude functional explanations for mandible shape, but rather indicates that ancient adaptations kept a prominent role, with most genera having diverged little from their ancestral clade morphologies. Nevertheless, certain groups have evolved conspicuous adaptations that allow them to specialize on unique dietary resources. Such adaptations mostly occurred in the Callosciurinae and probably reflect their radiation into the numerous ecological niches of the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeastern Asia. Our dietary reconstruction for the oldest known fossil squirrels (Eocene, 36 million years ago show a specialization on nuts and seeds, implying that the development from protrogomorphous to sciuromorphous skulls was not necessarily related to a change in diet.

  17. Evaluation of Mandibular Anatomy Associated With Bad Splits in Sagittal Split Ramus Osteotomy of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tongyue; Han, Jeong Joon; Oh, Hee-Kyun; Park, Hong-Ju; Jung, Seunggon; Park, Yeong-Joon; Kook, Min-Suk

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with bad splits during sagittal split ramus osteotomy by using three-dimensional computed tomography. This study included 8 bad splits and 47 normal patients without bad splits. Mandibular anatomic parameters related to osteotomy line were measured. These included anteroposterior width of the ramus at level of lingula, distance between external oblique ridge and lingula, distance between sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible, mandibular angle, distance between inferior outer surface of mandibular canal and inferior border of mandible under distal root of second molar (MCEM), buccolingual thickness of the ramus at level of lingula, and buccolingual thickness of the area just distal to first molar (BTM1) and second molar (BTM2). The incidence of bad splits in 625 sagittal split osteotomies was 1.28%. Compared with normal group, bad split group exhibited significantly thinner BTM2 and shorter sigmoid notch and inferior border of mandible (P bad splits. These anatomic data may help surgeons to choose the safest surgical techniques and best osteotomy sites.

  18. Osteoporosis prediction from the mandible using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barngkgei, Imad; Al Haffar, Iyad; Khattab, Razan

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis among menopausal and postmenopausal women by using only a CBCT viewer program. Thirty-eight menopausal and postmenopausal women who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination for hip and lumbar vertebrae were scanned using CBCT (field of view: 13 cmx15 cm; voxel size: 0.25 mm). Slices from the body of the mandible as well as the ramus were selected and some CBCT-derived variables, such as radiographic density (RD) as gray values, were calculated as gray values. Pearson's correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) evaluation based on linear and logistic regression were performed to choose the variable that best correlated with the lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. RD of the whole bone area of the mandible was the variable that best correlated with and predicted both the femoral neck and the lumbar vertebrae T-scores; further, Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.5/0.6 (p value=0.037/0.009). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on the logistic regression were 50%, 88.9%, and 78.4%, respectively, for the femoral neck, and 46.2%, 91.3%, and 75%, respectively, for the lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck osteoporosis can be predicted with high accuracy from the RD value of the body of the mandible by using a CBCT viewer program.

  19. The effects of combined treatment with radiation and bleomycin on the oral carcinoma involving the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Manabu; Ozeki, Satoru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Tashiro, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    The effect of concurrent combined treatment with 22.5 Gy of radiation and 110 mg of bleomycin or 55 mg of peplomycin on oral carcinoma involving the mandible was examined histologically. In 14 of 18 patients who had mandibles resected after this combined treatment, bone invasion by carcinoma was observed histologically. According to Shimosato's classification of histological effects, 3 belonged to Grade III/IV, 4 to IIb, 3 to IIa and 4 to I. The formation of new bone that was considered to be reparable was observed in the marked effective patients. In 4 patients the Grade IIb, residual surviving cancer cells were observed in the mandible. Accordingly, excision was needed in the area of radiologic features of mandibular infiltration. But it is considered that although the excision scope for the patient who has received the preoperative treatment is the same as that for the patient who has not, it is advantageous for the former patient that a wider safety region is obtained. (author)

  20. Heterochrony in mandible development of larval shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea)--a comparative morphological SEM study of two carideans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batel, Annika; Melzer, Roland R; Anger, Klaus; Geiselbrecht, Hannes

    2014-11-01

    Mandible development in the larval stages I-V of two palaemonid shrimp species, Palaemon elegans and Macrobrachium amazonicum, was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. In contrast to the zoea I of P. elegans, first-stage larvae of M. amazonicum are nonfeeding. At hatching, the morphology of the mandibles is fully expressed in P. elegans, while it appears underdeveloped in M. amazonicum, presenting only small precursors of typical caridean features. In successive zoeal stages, both species show similar developmental changes, but the mandibular characters of the larvae in M. amazonicum were delayed compared to the equivalent stages in P. elegans, especially in the development of submarginal setae and mandible size. In conclusion, our results indicate heterochrony (postdisplacement) of mandible development in M. amazonicum compared to that in P. elegans, which is related to initial lack of mandible functionality or planktivorous feeding at hatching, respectively. This conclusion is supported by comparison with other palaemonid zoeae exhibiting different feeding modes. Our data suggest that an evolutionary ground pattern of mandible morphology is present even in species with nonfeeding first-stage larvae. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. 3D Architecture of Trabecular Bone in the Pig Mandible and Femur: Inter-Trabecular Angle Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Yehonatan; Reznikov, Natalie; Shahar, Ron; Weiner, Steve

    2017-09-01

    Cancellous bone is an intricate network of interconnected trabeculae, to which analysis of network topology can be applied. The inter-trabecular angle (ITA) analysis - an analysis of network topological parameters and regularity of network-forming nodes, was previously carried out on human proximal femora and showed that trabecular bone follows two main principles: sparsity of the network connectedness (prevalence of nodes with low connectivity in the network) and maximal space spanning (angular offset of connected elements is maximal for their number and approximates the values of geometrically symmetric shapes). These observations suggest that 3D organization of trabecular bone, irrespective of size and shape of individual elements, reflects a tradeoff between minimal metabolic cost of maintenance and maximal network stability under conditions of multidirectional loading. In this study we validate the ITA application using additional 3D structures (cork and 3D-printed metal lattices), analyze the ITA parameters in porcine proximal femora and mandibles and carry out a spatial analysis of the most common node type in the porcine mandibular condyle. The validation shows that the ITA application reliably detects designed or evolved topological parameters. The ITA parameters of porcine trabecular bones are similar to those of human bones. We demonstrate functional adaptation in the pig mandibular condyle by showing that the planar nodes with 3 edges are preferentially aligned in relation to the muscle forces that are applied to the condyle. We conclude that the ITA topological parameters are remarkable conserved, but locally do adapt to applied stresses.

  2. STAT3 and NF-κB are common targets for kaempferol-mediated attenuation of COX-2 expression in IL-6-induced macrophages and carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandita Basu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2 is the inducible isoform of cycloxygenase enzyme family that catalyzes synthesis of inflammatory mediators, prostanoids and prostaglandins, and therefore, can be targeted by anti-inflammatory drugs. Here, we showed a plant polyphenol, kaempferol, attenuated IL-6-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells suggesting its beneficial role in chronic inflammation. Kaempferol deactivated and prevented nuclear localization of two major transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB, mutually responsible for COX-2 induction in response to IL-6. Moreover, STAT3 and NF-κB were simultaneously deactivated by kaempferol in acute inflammation, as shown by carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema model. The concomitant reduction in COX-2 expression in paw tissues suggested kaempferol’s role in mitigation of inflammation by targeting STAT3 and NF-κB.

  3. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  4. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  5. Mandible Fracture Complications and Infection: The Influence of Demographics and Modifiable Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Elizabeth B; Snyder-Warwick, Alison K

    2016-08-01

    Mandible fractures account for 36 to 70 percent of all facial fractures. Despite their high prevalence, the literature lacks a comprehensive review of demographics, fracture patterns, timing of management, antibiotic selection, and outcomes, particularly when evaluating pediatric versus adult patients. The authors aim to determine the complication and infection rates after surgical treatment of mandibular fractures and the bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivities from mandible infections after open reduction and internal fixation at their institution. Data were collected retrospectively for all mandible fractures treated at the authors' institution between 2003 and 2013. Patients were divided into pediatric (younger than 16 years) and adult (16 years or older) subgroups. Demographics, fracture location, fracture cause, comorbidities, antibiotic choice, and subsequent complications and infections were analyzed. Data were evaluated using appropriate statistical tests for each variable. Three hundred ninety-five patients were evaluated. Demographics and fracture cause were similar to those reported in current literature. Of the 56 pediatric patients, complications occurred in 5.6 percent. Time from injury to operative intervention did not affect outcome. The complication rate was 17.5 percent and the infection rate was 9.4 percent in the adult subgroup. Time from injury to operative intervention, sex, and edentulism were not significant predictors of complication or infection. Tobacco use, number of fractures, number of fractures fixated, and surgical approach were predictors of complication and infection. Perioperative ampicillin-sulbactam had a significantly lower risk of infection. Certain demographic and operative factors lead to significantly higher risks of complications after surgical management of mandibular fractures. Ampicillin-sulbactam provides effective antibiotic prophylaxis. Risk factor modification may improve outcomes. Risk, IV.

  6. The Role of Postoperative Antibiotics in Mandible Fractures: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Sachin M; Berli, Jens; Manson, Paul N; Tufaro, Anthony P; Rodriguez, Eduardo D

    2015-09-01

    Little debate exists regarding the use of preoperative and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the setting of mandibular fracture management; however, employing postoperative prophylactic antibiotics remains an inexact science based on experience rather than evidence. In this systematic review, the authors evaluate scientific literature and report results of an international survey that provide information regarding current practices of the plastic surgery community. Systematic literature review was performed using Medline, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane databases to identify studies evaluating use of antibiotics in patients suffering from mandible fractures. Level 1, 2, and large retrospective studies were included. Case reports were excluded. Additionally, an E-survey was distributed to all ASPS members and data were collected over a 5-month period through SurveyMonkey. Four hundred twenty-seven articles published before December 2012 were identified. Seventy-one articles met inclusion criteria. Five articles remained when exclusion criteria were applied.ASPS member survey demonstrated 13% response rate (687 responses/5299 questionnaires). Of respondents, 75% placed patients (ORIF group) with open mandible fractures on prophylactic antibiotics for up to 3 days (44.1%), 1 week (54.8%), and more than 1 week (1.1%). Of respondents, 51% placed patients (ORIF group) with closed mandible fracture on prophylactic antibiotics for up to 3 days (50.5%), 1 week (48.6%), and more than 1 week (1%). Critical literature review demonstrates a trend towards no postoperative antibiotic coverage (>24 hours) in patients undergoing mandibular ORIF. There is further need for prospective, randomized control trials with a standardized regimen. Our survey elucidates the variability of plastic surgeons' clinical practices.

  7. Osteoporosis prediction from the mandible using cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barngkgei, Imad; Al Haffar, Iyad [Dept. of Oral Medicine, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Khattab, Razan [Dept. of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2014-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis among menopausal and postmenopausal women by using only a CBCT viewer program. Thirty-eight menopausal and postmenopausal women who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination for hip and lumbar vertebrae were scanned using CBCT (field of view: 13 cmx15 cm; voxel size: 0.25 mm). Slices from the body of the mandible as well as the ramus were selected and some CBCT-derived variables, such as radiographic density (RD) as gray values, were calculated as gray values. Pearson's correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) evaluation based on linear and logistic regression were performed to choose the variable that best correlated with the lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. RD of the whole bone area of the mandible was the variable that best correlated with and predicted both the femoral neck and the lumbar vertebrae T-scores; further, Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.5/0.6 (p value=0.037/0.009). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on the logistic regression were 50%, 88.9%, and 78.4%, respectively, for the femoral neck, and 46.2%, 91.3%, and 75%, respectively, for the lumbar vertebrae. Lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck osteoporosis can be predicted with high accuracy from the RD value of the body of the mandible by using a CBCT viewer program.

  8. Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian; Hofstede, Theresa M.; Sturgis, Erich M.; Garden, Adam S.; Lindberg, Mary E.; Wei Qingyi; Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

  9. Osteoporosis prediction from the mandible using cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haffar, Iyad; Khattab, Razan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the use of dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the diagnosis of osteoporosis among menopausal and postmenopausal women by using only a CBCT viewer program. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight menopausal and postmenopausal women who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) examination for hip and lumbar vertebrae were scanned using CBCT (field of view: 13 cm×15 cm; voxel size: 0.25 mm). Slices from the body of the mandible as well as the ramus were selected and some CBCT-derived variables, such as radiographic density (RD) as gray values, were calculated as gray values. Pearson's correlation, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) evaluation based on linear and logistic regression were performed to choose the variable that best correlated with the lumbar and femoral neck T-scores. Results RD of the whole bone area of the mandible was the variable that best correlated with and predicted both the femoral neck and the lumbar vertebrae T-scores; further, Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.5/0.6 (p value=0.037/0.009). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on the logistic regression were 50%, 88.9%, and 78.4%, respectively, for the femoral neck, and 46.2%, 91.3%, and 75%, respectively, for the lumbar vertebrae. Conclusion Lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck osteoporosis can be predicted with high accuracy from the RD value of the body of the mandible by using a CBCT viewer program. PMID:25473633

  10. Brown Tumour in the Mandible and Skull Osteosclerosis Associated with Primary Hyperparathyroidism – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Popovik-Monevska

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The hyperparathyroidism (HPT is a condition in which the parathyroid hormone (PTH levels in the blood are increased. HPT is categorised into primary, secondary and tertiary. A rare entity that occurs in the lower jaw in association with HPT is the so-called brown tumour, which an osteolytic lesion is predominantly occurring in the lower jaw. It is usually a manifestation of the late stage of the disease. Osteosclerotic changes in other bones are almost always associated with renal osteodystrophy in secondary HPT and are extremely rare in primary HPT. This article reports a rare case of a brown tumour in the mandible as the first sign of a severe primary HPT, associated with osteosclerotic changes on the skull. CASE REPORT: A brown tumour in the mandible was diagnosed in 60 - year old female patient with no previous history of systemic disease. The x - rays showed radiolucent osteolytic lesion in the frontal area of the mandible affecting the lamina dura of the frontal teeth, and skull osteosclerosis in the form of salt and pepper sign. The blood analyses revealed increased values of PTH, calcitonin and β – cross-laps, indicating a primary HPT. The scintigraphy of the parathyroid glands showed a presence of adenoma in the left lower lobe. The tumour lesion was surgically removed together with the lower frontal teeth, and this was followed by total parathyroidectomy. The follow - up of one year did not reveal any signs of recurrence. CONCLUSION: It is critical to ensure that every osteolytic lesion in the maxillofacial region is examined thoroughly. Moreover, a proper and detailed systemic investigation should be performed. Patients should undergo regular check-ups to prevent late complications of HPT.

  11. Bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible as a sequelae of noma: A rare case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagewadi, Shivanand B.; Awasthi, Ujjwala Rastogi; Mody, Bharat M.; Suma, Gundareddy N.; Garg, Shruti [Dept. of Medicine and Radiology, ITS Center for Dental Studies and Research, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Noma is a gangrenous disease of the orofacial region that leads to severe facial tissue destruction and is a significant cause of death among children. With the advent of modern antibiotics and improved nutrition, children with noma may survive into adulthood, but must face the challenge of undergoing repair of the sequelae of noma. This report describes a case of bony fusion of the maxilla and mandible in a 28-year-old female patient, which was a sequelae of a childhood case of noma.

  12. Fusions within the mandible of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, D A

    1983-05-01

    The articulations formed within the mandible of the domestic fowl by its constituent elements have been described and illustrated. The sutures identified were suturae angulosplenialis, angulosupra-angularis, articulare/pre-articulo-angularis, articulare/pre-articulosupra-angularis, dento-angularis, dentosplenialis, dentosupra-angularis and supra-angulosplenialis. Some degree of fusion was found to occur in all sutures except sutura supra-angulosplenialis. The range of fusion time and mean fusion time for each site was studied in a flock of Golden Comet pullets. Mean fusion times varied from 45-119 days post-hatching.

  13. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of the mandible with unusual radiographic features: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, Veena S.; Naidu, Giridhar; Haldar, Maya; Ragavendra, Raju; Mhaske-Jedhe, Shubang

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) usually presents as a unilocular, pericoronal radiolucency in the maxillary anterior region in adolescent females. Very few conditions occur in such a narrow age range and at such a restrictive site. Rarely, these tumors present with varied clinical features. A case of AOT of the mandible is reported with unusual features such as large size, multilocular appearance, and aggressive behavior. The role of radiology in diagnosis of atypical AOT is extremely important. The unique radiological manifestations of the lesion helped in the diagnosis, and it was managed conservatively with no evidence of recurrence.

  14. Stafne bone cavity with ectopic salivary gland tissue in the anterior of mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Deyhimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stafne bone cavities (SBCs are uncommon well-demarcated defects of the mandible, which often occur in the posterior portion of the jaw bone and are usually asymptomatic. Furthermore, SBC is found in men aged 50-70-year-old. Anterior mandibular variants of SBC are very rare. This article describes a case of anterior SBC in a 45-year-old man that resembled endodontic periapical lesions. Upon histopathological examination, it turned out to be a normal salivary gland tissue.

  15. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of the mandible with unusual radiographic features: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, Veena S. [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Coorg Institute of Dental Sciences, Virajpe (India); Naidu, Giridhar; Haldar, Maya [Dept. of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Peoples' Dental Academy, Bhopal (India); Ragavendra, Raju; Mhaske-Jedhe, Shubang [Dept. of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Peoples' Dental Academy, Bhopal (India)

    2013-06-15

    Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) usually presents as a unilocular, pericoronal radiolucency in the maxillary anterior region in adolescent females. Very few conditions occur in such a narrow age range and at such a restrictive site. Rarely, these tumors present with varied clinical features. A case of AOT of the mandible is reported with unusual features such as large size, multilocular appearance, and aggressive behavior. The role of radiology in diagnosis of atypical AOT is extremely important. The unique radiological manifestations of the lesion helped in the diagnosis, and it was managed conservatively with no evidence of recurrence.

  16. Health-related quality of life after segmental resection of the lateral mandible: Free fibula flap versus plate reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Johannes; Holtslag, Irene; van der Bilt, Andries; Merkx, Matthias; Koole, Ron; Van Cann, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    Segmental resection of the mandible causes functional, aesthetic and social problems affecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL). It is often assumed that reconstruction with composite free flaps guarantees better function and aesthetics than bridging the defect with reconstruction plates. Using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 version 3.0 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35), we compared HRQoL in patients who received free fibula flaps versus reconstruction plates after segmental resection of the lateral mandible. Thirty-seven completed questionnaires (18 fibula reconstructions and 19 patients with reconstruction plates) were available. Reconstruction with a free fibula flap did not provide clear additional benefit to bridging the defect with a reconstruction plate after segmental resection of the lateral mandible. In particular aspects known to have the most impact on HRQoL like swallowing, speech and chewing were not influenced by the type of reconstruction. Reconstruction of segmental defects of the lateral mandible with free fibula flap and reconstruction plate resulted in comparable HRQoL. If dental rehabilitation by means of dental implants is not anticipated in the fibula, then plate reconstruction with adequate soft tissue remains a suitable technique for the reconstruction of segmental defects of the lateral mandible. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of the mandible Atta laevigata and the bioinspiration for the development of a biomimetic surgical clamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Thays Obando; Elzubair, Amal; Araújo, Leonardo Sales; Camargo, Sergio Alvaro de Souza; Almeida, Luiz Henrique, E-mail: thaysdesigner@hotmail.com [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEMM/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalúrgica e de Materiais; Souza, Jorge Luiz Pereira [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2017-11-15

    Approximately thousand years ago it was reported the use of mandibles of ants for suture. In this sense, bioinspired components, as absorbable surgical clamps, can be designed. This study is aimed to characterize the mandible of the ant Atta laevigata in order to help the selection of candidate biomaterials for application as surgical clamps. Three pairs of mandibles were used and ten nanoindenations were performed in each pair. The average hardness for the samples in the internal and external regions were 0.36 ± 0.06 GPa and 0.19 ± 0.04 GPa, respectively and the average elastic modulus for the internal and external regions were 6.16 ± 0.23 GPa and 2.74 ± 0.44 GPa, respectively. The morphology of the mandible was observed in detail by scanning electron microscopy, as well as Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The average roughnesses on the internal and external regions, measured by atomic force microscopy, were 6.73 ± 0.90 nm and 11.87 ± 1.42 nm, respectively. From these results, it was possible to identify biomaterials that mimic the mandible behaviour for surgical clamp. (author)

  18. Morphological and morphometric analysis of the shape, position, number and size of mental foramen on human mandibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Voljevica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide anatomical information on the position, morphological variations and incidence of mental foramen (MF and accessorymental foramen (AMF as they are important for dental surgeons, anesthetists in nerve block and surgical procedures, to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle in the mental foramen area. Methods. Our study was conducted on 150 adult dry human mandibles from the osteological collection of the Department of Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. The location and shape of the MF and the presence of the AMF were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the MF were measured using a digital vernier caliper. SPSS, version 17 software was used for the statistical analysis. Results. Bilateral mental foramina were presented in all 150 mandibles. In the majority of mandibles, the MF was located between the first and second premolar (20.3% or on the level of the root of the second premolar (60.3%, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape (83.3%. An AMF was present in four mandibles (2.7% on the right side. Conclusion. This study may be a very useful new supplement to data on variations in the incidence, position, shape and size of mental and accessory mental foramina, which may help surgeons, anaesthetists, neurosurgeons and dentists in carrying out surgical procedures successfully.

  19. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  20. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  1. The role of magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pathologic changes of the mandible after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.; Rau, W.S.; Roessler, R.; Klett, R.; Bauer, R.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study of 85 patients with oral cancer, treated with high-dose radiation therapy was performed to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy for diagnosis of pathologic changes in the mandible. During postradiotherapeutic monitoring, radiation osteomyelitis occurred in 12 cases, tumor recurrences infiltrating the mandible in five cases, and progressive periodontal disease in nine cases. MRI permitted early diagnosis of radiation osteomyelitis in 11 out of 12 cases; only two cases were false positive. In scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HDP, all alterations of the mandible, such as osteoradionecrosis, tumor infiltration, and periodontitis, showed a high uptake, resulting in a sensitivity of up to 100%, but a low specificity of 57%. Scintigraphy permitted assessment of the extension and location of the lesions. Both methods were superior to conventional radiography and clinical examination and should be integrated into a comprehensive follow-up program after radiation therapy. (au) 25 refs

  2. The role of magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pathologic changes of the mandible after radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, G.; Rau, W.S.; Roessler, R.; Klett, R.; Bauer, R.

    1996-01-01

    A prospective study of 85 patients with oral cancer, treated with high-dose radiation therapy, was performed to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy for diagnosis of pathologic changes in the mandible. During postradiotherapeutic monitoring, radiation osteomyelitis occurred in 12 cases, tumor occurrences infiltrating the mandible in five cases, and progressive periodontal disease in nine cases. MRI permitted early diagnosis of radiation osteomyelitis in 11 out of 12 cases; only two cases were false positive. In scintigraphy with 99m Tc-HDP, all alterations of the mandible, such as osteoradionecrosis, tumor infiltration, and periodontitis, showed a high uptake, resulting in a sensitivity of up to 100%, but a low specificity of 57%. Scintigraphy permitted assessment of the extension and location of the lesions. Both methods were superior to conventional radiography and clinical examination and should be integrated into a comprehensive follow-up program after radiation therapy. (au) 14 refs

  3. The role of magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pathologic changes of the mandible after radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, G.; Rau, W.S. [Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen, Dept. of Radiology, Giessen (Germany); Roessler, R. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Dept. of Periodontology, Giessen (Germany); Klett, R.; Bauer, R. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Giessen (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    A prospective study of 85 patients with oral cancer, treated with high-dose radiation therapy, was performed to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and scintigraphy for diagnosis of pathologic changes in the mandible. During postradiotherapeutic monitoring, radiation osteomyelitis occurred in 12 cases, tumor occurrences infiltrating the mandible in five cases, and progressive periodontal disease in nine cases. MRI permitted early diagnosis of radiation osteomyelitis in 11 out of 12 cases; only two cases were false positive. In scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-HDP, all alterations of the mandible, such as osteoradionecrosis, tumor infiltration, and periodontitis, showed a high uptake, resulting in a sensitivity of up to 100%, but a low specificity of 57%. Scintigraphy permitted assessment of the extension and location of the lesions. Both methods were superior to conventional radiography and clinical examination and should be integrated into a comprehensive follow-up program after radiation therapy. (au) 14 refs.

  4. Radiological assessment of the inferior alveolar artery course in human corpse mandibles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertl, Kristina [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Oral Surgery, Bernhard Gottlieb School of Dentistry, Vienna (Austria); Malmoe University, Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, Malmoe (Sweden); Hirtler, Lena [Medical University of Vienna, Center for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Systematic Anatomy, Vienna (Austria); Dobsak, Toni [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Oral Surgery, Bernhard Gottlieb School of Dentistry, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Karl Donath Laboratory for Hard Tissue and Biomaterial Research, Division of Oral Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria); Heimel, Patrick [Medical University of Vienna, Karl Donath Laboratory for Hard Tissue and Biomaterial Research, Division of Oral Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Clinical and Experimental Traumatology, Vienna (Austria); Gahleitner, Andre [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Oral Surgery, Bernhard Gottlieb School of Dentistry, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Division of Osteoradiology, General Hospital, Vienna (Austria); Ulm, Christian [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Oral Surgery, Bernhard Gottlieb School of Dentistry, Vienna (Austria); Plenk, Hanns [Medical University of Vienna, Bone and Biomaterials Research, Institute for Histology and Embryology, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-04-01

    CT assessment of the entire course of the inferior alveolar artery (IAA) within the mandibular canal. After contrast medium injection (180 or 400 mg/ml iodine concentration) into the external carotid arteries of 15 fresh human cadaver heads, the main IAA's position in the canal (cranial, buccal, lingual or caudal) was assessed in dental CT images of partially edentulous mandibles. The course of the main IAA could be followed at both iodine concentrations. The higher concentration gave the expected better contrast, without creating artefacts, and improved visibility of smaller arteries, such as anastomotic sections, dental branches and the incisive branch. The main IAA changed its position in the canal more often than so far known (mean 4.3 times, SD 1.24, range 2-7), but with a similar bilateral course. A cranial position was most often detected (42 %), followed by lingual (36 %), caudal (16 %) and buccal (6 %). With this non-invasive radiologic method, the entire course of the main IAA in the mandibular canal could be followed simultaneously with other bone structures on both sides of human cadaver mandibles. This methodology allows one to amend existing anatomical and histological data, which are important for surgical interventions near the mandibular canal. (orig.)

  5. A study on the development of normal mandible in children by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yiming; Qiu Weiliu; Shen Guofang; Tang Yousheng; Tian Weijia; Wang Hui; Feng Guowei; Pu Mingfang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the developmental characters of the normal mandible in growing children. Methods: Twenty growing children undergoing skeletal scintigraphic study for isolated bone disease other than bones of the head and neck at hospital and turned out with normal results finally were studied. The 99 Tc m -MDP uptakes in the mandibular condyle, ramus, body and the fourth lumbar vertebra in these cases were quantitated and a ratio of the uptake in the three mandibular regions to that in the fourth lumbar vertebra was obtained. Results: The analysis results showed that the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratios of the three mandibular regions decreased in linear fashion with age increasing and leveled off after age of 20. The regression equations are: the mandibular condyle, Y-circumflex = -0.052 2X + 1.792 8; the mandibular ramus, Y-circumflex = -0.015 1X + 0.766 7; the mandibular body, Y-circumflex = -0.014 2X + 0.741 0. There was no significant difference of the 99 Tc m -MDP uptake ratio between the two sides of the mandible and between the male and female. Conclusion: The results suggest that the ideal time to undergo orthognathic surgery should be at the age of 20 or so if the circumstance of the deformity is not quite clear

  6. Benign diseases of the mandible in MRI; Benigne Erkrankungen des Unterkiefers im MRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, B.; Sartor, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Neuroradiologie; Gottschalk, A. [Bundeswehrkrankenhaus, Ulm (Germany). Abt. fuer Radiologie; Schmitter, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Zahnaerztliche Prothetik

    2004-04-01

    Diseases of the mandible affect the soft tissues aside from the osseous manifestation. This can be shown clearly and in great detail by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is the gold standard in the diagnostic evaluation of any internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint. Dental MRI requires high resolution techniques and in some cases also intravenous administration of contrast material. These techniques allow delineation of the neurovascular bundle. In the past few years new indications were formulated, for example, the evaluation of the integrity of the inferior alveolar nerve in trauma and in radicular cysts. New quantitative methods now enable insights into the pathophysiology. The objective of this review is to communicate accepted indications for MRI of the mandible and to present innovative applications. (orig.) [German] Mandibulaere Erkrankungen beteiligen neben dem Knochen Weichteilstrukturen, die sich mit der MRT klar und detailreich darstellen lassen. In der bildgebenden Diagnostik der Binnenstoerung des Kiefergelenks (internal derangement) gilt die MRT als Goldstandard. Die MR-Tomographie des Unterkiefers erfordert hochaufloesende Techniken und bei besonderen Indikationen die intravenoese Kontrastmittelgabe. Diese Techniken erlauben es, das neurovaskulaere Buendel des Unterkiefers darzustellen. In den letzten Jahren sind neue Indikationsgebiete hinzugekommen, darunter solche, die die Unversehrtheit des N.alveolaris inferior bei Frakturen oder Raumforderungen des Unterkiefers ueberpruefen. Neue quantitative Verfahren geben mittlerweile Einblicke in Pathophysiologie. Ziel dieser Uebersichtsarbeit soll es sein, klassische Indikationen der Unterkiefer-MRT darzustellen und innovative Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten aufzuzeigen. (orig.)

  7. Meckel's and condylar cartilages anomalies in achondroplasia result in defective development and growth of the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosse Duplan, Martin; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Heuzé, Yann; Estibals, Valentin; Gaudas, Emilie; Kaci, Nabil; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Zerah, Michel; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Porta, Diana Grauss; Di Rocco, Federico; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-07-15

    Activating FGFR3 mutations in human result in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism, where cartilages are severely disturbed causing long bones, cranial base and vertebrae defects. Because mandibular development and growth rely on cartilages that guide or directly participate to the ossification process, we investigated the impact of FGFR3 mutations on mandibular shape, size and position. By using CT scan imaging of ACH children and by analyzing Fgfr3 Y367C/+ mice, a model of ACH, we show that FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to structural anomalies of primary (Meckel's) and secondary (condylar) cartilages of the mandible, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis. These defects are likely related to a defective chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 corrects Meckel's and condylar cartilages defects ex vivo. Moreover, we show that low dose of NVP-BGJ398 improves in vivo condyle growth and corrects dysmorphologies in Fgfr3 Y367C/+ mice, suggesting that postnatal treatment with NVP-BGJ398 mice might offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve mandible anomalies in ACH and others FGFR3-related disorders. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Intraosseous vascular access through the anterior mandible--a cadaver model pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Goldschalt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several insertion sites have been described for intraosseous puncture in cases of emergencies when a conventional vascular access cannot be established. This pilot study has been designed to evaluate the feasibility of the mandibular bone for the use of an intraosseous vascular access in a cadaver model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 17 dentistry and 16 medical students participating in a voluntary course received a short introduction into the method and subsequently used the battery powered EZ-IO system with a 15 mm cannula for a puncture of the anterior mandible in 33 cadavers. The time needed to perform each procedure was evaluated. India ink was injected into the accesses and during the anatomy course cadavers were dissected to retrace the success or failure of the puncture. Dental students needed 25.5±18.9(mean±standard deviations and medical students 33±20.4 s for the procedure (p = 0.18. Floor of mouth extravasation occurred in both groups in 3 cases. Success rates were 82 and 75% (p = 0.93. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite floor of mouth extravasation of injected fluid into a mandibular intraosseous access might severely complicate this procedure, the anterior mandible may be helpful as an alternative to other intraosseous and intravenous insertion sites when these are not available in medical emergencies.

  9. A study of an assisting robot for mandible plastic surgery based on augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunyong; Lin, Li; Zhou, Chaozheng; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Le; Chai, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Mandible plastic surgery plays an important role in conventional plastic surgery. However, its success depends on the experience of the surgeons. In order to improve the effectiveness of the surgery and release the burden of surgeons, a mandible plastic surgery assisting robot, based on an augmented reality technique, was developed. Augmented reality assists surgeons to realize positioning. Fuzzy control theory was used for the control of the motor. During the process of bone drilling, both the drill bit position and the force were measured by a force sensor which was used to estimate the position of the drilling procedure. An animal experiment was performed to verify the effectiveness of the robotic system. The position error was 1.07 ± 0.27 mm and the angle error was 5.59 ± 3.15°. The results show that the system provides a sufficient accuracy with which a precise drilling procedure can be performed. In addition, under the supervision's feedback of the sensor, an adequate safety level can be achieved for the robotic system. The system realizes accurate positioning and automatic drilling to solve the problems encountered in the drilling procedure, providing a method for future plastic surgery.

  10. Reconstruction of the mandible and the maxilla: the evolution of surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genden, Eric M

    2010-01-01

    The upper and lower jaws play an essential role in mastication, articulation, and cosmetic form. The mandible provides support for tongue position and elevation of the larynx during swallowing, while the maxilla provides support for the nasal structures as well as an opposing structure to the mandible during mastication. The evolution of mandibular and maxillary reconstruction dates back to the early 19th century. Before the introduction of free tissue transfer, a variety of local flaps, regional flaps, and prosthetics were introduced, yet each was met with eventual failure. Since the introduction of free tissue transfer, mandibular and maxillary reconstruction has become as much of an art as it has a science. Whether the mandibular or the palatomaxillary defects are a result of trauma, congenital deformity, or tumor extirpation, the resultant effect often disrupts both form and function. With these considerations taken together, jaw reconstruction is a unique undertaking in which the artistic reconstruction of the facial skeleton is met with the science of reestablishing the mechanics of mastication. The site, size, and associated soft-tissue defects represent the 3 most important factors in determining the impact of a given defect on function and aesthetics. There is also an inherent difference between defects that are sustained in a controlled fashion, such as during cancer ablation, and those that result from trauma. The consideration of these complexities in jaw reconstruction is reflected in the wide variety of approaches and techniques that have evolved over the past century.

  11. Thin-plate spline graphical analysis of the mandible in mandibular prognathism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Fu; Chang, Hong-Po; Liu, Pao-Hsin; Chang, Chih-Han

    2002-11-01

    The chin cup has been used to treat skeletal mandibular prognathism in growing patients for 200 years. The pull on the orthopedic-force chin cup is oriented along a line from the mandibular symphysis to the mandibular condyle. Various levels of success have been reported with this restraining device. The vertical chin cup produces strong vertical compression stress on the maxillary molar regions when the direction of traction is 20 degrees more vertical than the chin-condyle line. This treatment strategy may prevent relapse due to counter-clockwise rotation of the mandible. In this report, we describe a new strategy for using chin-cup therapy involving thin-plate spline (TPS) analysis of lateral cephalometric roentgenograms to visualize transformation of the mandible. The actual sites of mandibular skeletal change are not detectable with conventional cephalometric analysis. A case of mandibular prognathism treated with a chin cup and a case of dental Class III malocclusion without orthodontic treatment are described. The case analysis illustrates that specific patterns of mandibular transformation are associated with Class III malocclusion with or without orthopedic therapy, and that visualization of these deformations is feasible using TPS graphical analysis.

  12. Morphometric Analysis of the Mandible in Subjects with Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Yun Pan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the deformations that contribute to Class III mandibular configuration, employing geometric morphometric analysis. Lateral cephalograms of male and female groups of 100 young adults and 70 children with Class III malocclusion were compared to those of counterparts with normal occlusion. The sample included an equal number of both genders. The cephalographs were traced, and 12 homologous landmarks were identified and digitized. Average mandibular geometries were generated by means of Procrustes analysis. Thin-plate spline analysis was then applied to mandibular configurations to determine local form differences in male and female groups of adults and children with normal occlusion and Class III malocclusion. The mandibular morphology was significantly different between these two groups of male and female adults, and children (p < 0.0001. This spline analysis revealed an anteroposterior elongation of the mandible along the condylion-gnathion axis, showing an extension in the regions of the mandibular condyle and ramus, and of the anteroinferior portion of the mandibular symphysis in Class III groups. More extension was evident in Class III adults. The deformations in subjects with Class III malocclusion may represent a developmental elongation of the mandible anteroposteriorly, which leads to the appearance of a prognathic mandibular profile.

  13. Direct radiocarbon dating and genetic analyses on the purported Neanderthal mandible from the Monti Lessini (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Sahra; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Mannino, Marcello A; Fasani, Leone; Welker, Frido; Martini, Fabio; Romagnoli, Francesca; Zorzin, Roberto; Meyer, Matthias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2016-07-08

    Anatomically modern humans replaced Neanderthals in Europe around 40,000 years ago. The demise of the Neanderthals and the nature of the possible relationship with anatomically modern humans has captured our imagination and stimulated research for more than a century now. Recent chronological studies suggest a possible overlap between Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans of more than 5,000 years. Analyses of ancient genome sequences from both groups have shown that they interbred multiple times, including in Europe. A potential place of interbreeding is the notable Palaeolithic site of Riparo Mezzena in Northern Italy. In order to improve our understanding of prehistoric occupation at Mezzena, we analysed the human mandible and several cranial fragments from the site using radiocarbon dating, ancient DNA, ZooMS and isotope analyses. We also performed a more detailed investigation of the lithic assemblage of layer I. Surprisingly we found that the Riparo Mezzena mandible is not from a Neanderthal but belonged to an anatomically modern human. Furthermore, we found no evidence for the presence of Neanderthal remains among 11 of the 13 cranial and post-cranial fragments re-investigated in this study.

  14. Achievability of 3D planned bimaxillary osteotomies: maxilla-first versus mandible-first surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebregts, Jeroen; Baan, Frank; de Koning, Martien; Ongkosuwito, Edwin; Bergé, Stefaan; Maal, Thomas; Xi, Tong

    2017-08-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of sequencing a two-component surgical procedure for correcting malpositioned jaws (bimaxillary osteotomies); specifically, surgical repositioning of the upper jaw-maxilla, and the lower jaw-mandible. Within a population of 116 patients requiring bimaxillary osteotomies, the investigators analyzed whether there were statistically significant differences in postoperative outcome as measured by concordance with a preoperative digital 3D virtual treatment plan. In one group of subjects (n = 58), the maxillary surgical procedure preceded the mandibular surgery. In the second group (n = 58), the mandibular procedure preceded the maxillary surgical procedure. A semi-automated analysis tool (OrthoGnathicAnalyser) was applied to assess the concordance of the postoperative maxillary and mandibular position with the cone beam CT-based 3D virtual treatment planning in an effort to minimize observer variability. The results demonstrated that in most instances, the maxilla-first surgical approach yielded closer concordance with the 3D virtual treatment plan than a mandibular-first procedure. In selected circumstances, such as a planned counterclockwise rotation of both jaws, the mandible-first sequence resulted in more predictable displacements of the jaws.

  15. Association of Mandible Anatomy with Age, Gender, and Dental Status: A Radiographic Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chole, Revant H.; Patil, Ranjitkumar N.; Balsaraf Chole, Swati; Gondivkar, Shailesh; Gadbail, Amol R.; Yuwanati, Monal B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Gonial angle and antegonial region are important landmarks in mandible which is influenced by gender, age, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth and to investigate their relationship to gender, age group, and dental status. Materials and Methods. A total of 1060 panoramic radiographs were evaluated: the dentulous group, 854 subjects and the edentulous group, 206 subjects. The patients were grouped into six age groups of 10-years each. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth were measured from panoramic radiographs. Results and Discussion. Corelation of age with gonial angle, antegonial angle and antegonial depth was not significant. Significant difference in mandibular angle was found between males and females. Males had significantly smaller antegonial angle and greater antegonial depth than females. Significant difference was found for gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth between right and left sides of mandible. Conclusion. Gonial angle, antegonial angle, and antegonial depth can be implicated as a forensic tool for gender determination but not suitable for age determination

  16. Radiological assessment of the inferior alveolar artery course in human corpse mandibles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertl, Kristina; Hirtler, Lena; Dobsak, Toni; Heimel, Patrick; Gahleitner, Andre; Ulm, Christian; Plenk, Hanns

    2015-01-01

    CT assessment of the entire course of the inferior alveolar artery (IAA) within the mandibular canal. After contrast medium injection (180 or 400 mg/ml iodine concentration) into the external carotid arteries of 15 fresh human cadaver heads, the main IAA's position in the canal (cranial, buccal, lingual or caudal) was assessed in dental CT images of partially edentulous mandibles. The course of the main IAA could be followed at both iodine concentrations. The higher concentration gave the expected better contrast, without creating artefacts, and improved visibility of smaller arteries, such as anastomotic sections, dental branches and the incisive branch. The main IAA changed its position in the canal more often than so far known (mean 4.3 times, SD 1.24, range 2-7), but with a similar bilateral course. A cranial position was most often detected (42 %), followed by lingual (36 %), caudal (16 %) and buccal (6 %). With this non-invasive radiologic method, the entire course of the main IAA in the mandibular canal could be followed simultaneously with other bone structures on both sides of human cadaver mandibles. This methodology allows one to amend existing anatomical and histological data, which are important for surgical interventions near the mandibular canal. (orig.)

  17. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Peter H.; Ahn, Andrew I.; Lee, C. Joe; Shen Jin; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: With 54 o of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck

  18. Random Positional Variation Among the Skull, Mandible, and Cervical Spine With Treatment Progression During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Peter H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)], E-mail: phahn@mdanderson.org; Ahn, Andrew I [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Lee, C Joe; Jin, Shen; Miller, Ekeni; Lukaj, Alex; Milan, Elissa; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: With 54{sup o} of freedom from the skull to mandible to C7, ensuring adequate immobilization for head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT) is complex. We quantify variations in skull, mandible, and cervical spine movement between RT sessions. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three sequential head-and-neck RT patients underwent serial computed tomography. Patients underwent planned rescanning at 11, 22, and 33 fractions for a total of 93 scans. Coordinates of multiple bony elements of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine were used to calculate rotational and translational changes of bony anatomy compared with the original planning scan. Results: Mean translational and rotational variations on rescanning were negligible, but showed a wide range. Changes in scoliosis and lordosis of the cervical spine between fractions showed similar variability. There was no correlation between positional variation and fraction number and no strong correlation with weight loss or skin separation. Semi-independent rotational and translation movement of the skull in relation to the lower cervical spine was shown. Positioning variability measured by means of vector displacement was largest in the mandible and lower cervical spine. Conclusions: Although only small overall variations in position between head-and-neck RT sessions exist on average, there is significant random variation in patient positioning of the skull, mandible, and cervical spine elements. Such variation is accentuated in the mandible and lower cervical spine. These random semirigid variations in positioning of the skull and spine point to a need for improved immobilization and/or confirmation of patient positioning in RT of the head and neck.

  19. Comparison of 3D reconstruction of mandible for pre-operative planning using commercial and open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Johari Yap; Omar, Marzuki; Pritam, Helmi Mohd Hadi; Husein, Adam; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad

    2016-12-01

    3D printing of mandible is important for pre-operative planning, diagnostic purposes, as well as for education and training. Currently, the processing of CT data is routinely performed with commercial software which increases the cost of operation and patient management for a small clinical setting. Usage of open-source software as an alternative to commercial software for 3D reconstruction of the mandible from CT data is scarce. The aim of this study is to compare two methods of 3D reconstruction of the mandible using commercial Materialise Mimics software and open-source Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) software. Head CT images with a slice thickness of 1 mm and a matrix of 512x512 pixels each were retrieved from the server located at the Radiology Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. The CT data were analysed and the 3D models of mandible were reconstructed using both commercial Materialise Mimics and open-source MITK software. Both virtual 3D models were saved in STL format and exported to 3matic and MeshLab software for morphometric and image analyses. Both models were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and Hausdorff Distance. No significant differences were obtained between the 3D models of the mandible produced using Mimics and MITK software. The 3D model of the mandible produced using MITK open-source software is comparable to the commercial MIMICS software. Therefore, open-source software could be used in clinical setting for pre-operative planning to minimise the operational cost.

  20. Computed tomography evaluation of human mandibles with regard to layer thickness and bone density of the cortical bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwardt, Jutta; Meissner, H.; Weber, A.; Reitemeier, B.; Laniado, M.

    2013-01-01

    Application of function-restoring individual implants for the bridging of defects in mandibles with continuity separation requires a stable fixation with special use of the cortical bone stumps. Five section planes each of 100 computed tomographies of poly-traumatized patients' jaws were used for measuring the thickness of the cortical layer and the bone density of the mandible. The CT scans of 28 female and 72 male candidates aged between 12 and 86 years with different dentition of the mandible were available. The computed tomographic evaluations of human mandibles regarding the layer thickness of the cortical bone showed that the edge of the mandible in the area of the horizontal branch possesses the biggest layer thickness of the whole of the lower jaws. The highest medians of the cortical bone layer thickness were found in the area of the molars and premolars at the lower edge of the lower jaws in 6-o'clock position, in the area of the molars in the vestibular cranial 10-o'clock position and in the chin region lingual-caudal in the 4-o'clock position. The measurement of the bone density showed the highest values in the 8-o'clock position (vestibular-caudal) in the molar region in both males and females. The average values available of the bone density and the layer thickness of the cortical bone in the various regions of the lower jaw, taking into consideration age, gender and dentition, are an important aid in practice for determining a safe fixation point for implants in the area of the surface layer of the mandible by means of screws or similar fixation elements. (orig.)

  1. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  2. 3D Architecture of Trabecular Bone in the Pig Mandible and Femur: Inter-Trabecular Angle Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehonatan Ben-Zvi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancellous bone is an intricate network of interconnected trabeculae, to which analysis of network topology can be applied. The inter-trabecular angle (ITA analysis—an analysis of network topological parameters and regularity of network-forming nodes—was previously carried out on human proximal femora and showed that trabecular bone follows two main principles: sparsity of the network connectedness (prevalence of nodes with low connectivity in the network and maximal space spanning (angular offset of connected elements is maximal for their number and approximates the values of geometrically symmetric shapes. These observations suggest that 3D organization of trabecular bone, irrespective of size and shape of individual elements, reflects a tradeoff between minimal metabolic cost of maintenance and maximal network stability under conditions of multidirectional loading. In this study, we validate the ITA application using additional 3D structures (cork and 3D-printed metal lattices, analyze the ITA parameters in porcine proximal femora and mandibles, and carry out a spatial analysis of the most common node type in the porcine mandibular condyle. The validation shows that the ITA application reliably detects designed or evolved topological parameters. The ITA parameters of porcine trabecular bones are similar to those of human bones. We demonstrate functional adaptation in the pig mandibular condyle by showing that the planar nodes with three edges are preferentially aligned in relation to the muscle forces that are applied to the condyle. We conclude that the ITA topological parameters are remarkably conserved, but locally do adapt to applied stresses.

  3. Clinical experiences with laser-welded titanium frameworks supported by implants in the edentulous mandible: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortorp, Anders; Jemt, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    Long-term follow-up studies for more than 5 years are not available on laser-welded titanium frameworks. To report and compare 10-year data on implant-supported prostheses in the edentulous mandible provided with laser-welded titanium frameworks and conventional gold alloy frameworks. Altogether, 155 patients were consecutively treated with prostheses at abutment level with two generations of fixed laser-welded titanium frameworks (test groups). A control group of 53 randomly selected patients with conventional gold alloy castings was used for comparison. Clinical and radiographic 10-year data were collected for the three groups. All patients followed-up for 10 years (n=112) still had fixed prostheses in the mandible (cumulative success rate [CSR] 100%). The overall 10-year cumulative success rate (CSR) was 92.8 and 100.0% for titanium and gold alloy frameworks, respectively. Ten-year implant cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.4 and 99.6% for the test and control groups, respectively. Average 10-year bone loss was 0.56 (SD 0.45) mm for the titanium group and 0.77 (SD 0.36) mm for the control group (p screw components were below 3%. Excellent overall long-term results with 100% CSR could be achieved with the present treatment modality. Fractures of the metal frames and remade prostheses were more common for the laser-welded titanium frameworks, and the first generation of titanium frameworks worked poorly when compared with gold alloy frameworks during 10 years (p < 0.05). However, on average more bone loss was observed for implants supporting gold alloy frameworks during 10 years. The reasons for this difference are not clear.

  4. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  5. EMMPRIN (basigin/CD147) is involved in the morphogenesis of tooth germ in mouse molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ming; Jiao, Ting; Chen, Yuqin; Xu, Chun; Li, Jing; Jiang, Xinquan; Zhang, Fuqiang

    2010-05-01

    The pattern of gene expression for extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) was revealed in the tooth germ of mouse mandibular molars using quantitative real-time PCR. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study demonstrated the characteristic distribution of EMMPRIN in the different stages of tooth germ development. To investigate the functional role played by EMMPRIN in tooth germ development, EMMPRIN siRNA interference approach was carried out in cultured mouse mandibles at embryonic day 11.0 (E11.0). The results showed that EMMPRIN siRNA-treated explants exhibited a marked growth inhibition of tooth germ compared to the control and scrambled siRNA-treated explants. Meanwhile, a significant increase in MT1-MMP mRNA expression and a reduction in MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and MT2-MMP mRNA expression were observed in the mouse mandibles following EMMPRIN abrogation. The current results indicate that EMMPRIN could thus be involved in the early stage of tooth germ development and morphogenesis, possibly by regulating the expression of MMP genes.

  6. Interactions of mouse pinworms and trichomonads

    OpenAIRE

    Choutková, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Oxyurid nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata are both common mouse intestinal parasites; in the same location several species of trichomonads occur. Tritrichomonas muris is the most often found, but there are also some others: Tritrichomonas minuta, Pentatrichomonas hominis or Hexamastix muris. It is known that, under some circumstances, trichomonads can be found in the intestine of mouse pinworms, as reported by Theiler and Farber (1936) for T. muris in A. tetraptera and S....

  7. Risk profile for osteoradionecrosis of the mandible in the IMRT era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer, Gabriela; Glanzmann, Christoph [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Bredell, Marius; Studer, Stephan [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Craniomaxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Head Neck Cancer Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Huber, Gerhard [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head Neck Cancer Center, Head and Neck Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-01-15

    The risk for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is positively related to bone volume exposed to >∝ 60 Gy. We hypothesized that in combined treatment, surgery may also be a risk factor. The impact of mandibular surgery on ORN in locally disease-free IMRT cohorts was retrospectively analyzed. Between October 2002 and October 2013, 531 of 715 patients with oral cavity cancer (OCC), mesopharyngeal cancer (MC), or salivary gland tumor were treated with the mandible bone exposed to ∝> 60 Gy (mean follow-up, 38 months; 7-143 months). Of the 531 patients, 36 developed ORN (7 %; 1.5 % with grade 3-4). The ORN rate in definitive IMRT MC (16/227) and in postoperative IMRT OCC patients with no mandibular surgery (3/46) was 7 % each; in OCC patients with mandibular surgery the rate was 29 % (15/60, p = 0.002). Marginal or periosteal bone resection was found to be a high risk factor (39 %, vs. 7 % followed by segmental or no resection, p < 0.0001). Marginal or periosteal bone resection of the mandible was identified as the highest ORN risk factor in our IMRT cohort. (orig.) [German] Das Risiko fuer die Entwicklung einer Kiefernekrose nach Radiotherapie (Osteoradionekrose, ORN) korreliert bekanntlich mit dem Knochenvolumen, das einer Dosis von ∝> 60 Gy ausgesetzt wurde. Hypothese war, dass die Chirurgie bei kombinierten Therapien ebenfalls einen Risikofaktor darstellt. Der Einfluss chirurgischer Interventionen am Kiefer auf das Risiko einer ORN wurde in unserem lokal krankheitsfreien IMRT-Kollektiv retrospektiv analysiert. Zwischen Oktober 2002 und Oktober 2013 wurden 531/715 Patienten mit Mundhoehlenkarzinomen (OCC), Mesopharynxkarzinomen (MC) oder Speicheldruesentumoren mit Dosen > 60 Gy am Kieferknochen behandelt (mittlere Beobachtungszeit 38 Monate; Spanne 7-143 Monate). Von 531 Patienten entwickelten 36 eine ORN (7 %; 1,5 % mit Grad 3-4). Die ORN-Rate nach definitiver IMRT bei MC (16/227) und nach postoperativer IMRT bei OCC ohne chirurgischen Eingriff am

  8. Cerebrofacial venous metameric syndrome (CVMS) 3: Sturge-Weber syndrome with bilateral lymphatic/venous malformations of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramli, N.; Sachet, M.; Bao, C.; Lasjaunias, P.

    2003-01-01

    We present a case of Sturge-Weber syndrome with a bilateral lymphatic/venous malformation of the mandible. Modern biology suggests an explanation for such a case. The classification of cerebrofacial venous metameric syndromes (CVMS) enables us to recognise this lesion as involving the most caudal of the cranial metamere (CVMS 3). (orig.)

  9. Clinical aspects of a multicenter clinical trial of implant-retained mandibular overdentures in patients with severely resorbed mandibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertman, ME; Boerrigter, EM; VanWaas, MAJ; vanOort, RP

    In a multicenter clinical trial treatment, the effects of overdentures on different implant systems in patients with severely resorbed mandibles were compared 1 year after the insertion of new dentures. The implant systems used were the transmandibular implant (TMI), the IMZ (IMZ), and the Branemark

  10. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...

  11. Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Pinto, Carlos F; Rojas, Alejandra; Fontúrbel, Francisco E

    2014-05-01

    Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. In wood-boring insects, host plants features may impose selective forces leading to phenotypic differentiation on traits related to nest construction. Carpenter bees build their nests in dead stems or dry twigs of shrubs and trees; thus, mandibles are essential for the nesting process, and the nest is required for egg laying and offspring survival. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypic variation on three size measures of the bees (intertegular width, wing length, and mandible area) and two nest architecture measures (tunnel length and diameter) on bees using the native species Chusquea quila (Poaceae), and the alloctonous species Rubus ulmifolius (Rosaceae), in central Chile. Our results showed significant and positive linear selection gradients for tunnel length on both hosts, indicating that bees building long nests have more offspring. Bees with broader mandibles show greater fitness on C. quila but not on R. ulmifolius. Considering that C. quila represents a selective force on mandible area, we hypothesized a high adaptive value of this trait, resulting in higher fitness values when nesting on this host, despite its wood is denser and hence more difficult to be bored.

  12. Longitudinal study of relative growth rates of the maxilla and the mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lili; Liu, Jiarong; Xu, Tianmin; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative growth rates (RGR) of the maxilla and the mandible according to quantitative cervical vertebral maturation (QCVM) of adolescents with normal occlusion. Mixed longitudinal data were used. The sample included 87 adolescents (32 boys, 55 girls) from 8 to 18 years of age with normal occlusion, selected from 901 candidates. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films were taken once a year for 6 consecutive years. The growth magnitude (GM) and RGR of the maxilla and the mandible were measured and analyzed. GM and RGR were not always consistent, because subjects had different periods of time between the QCVM stages. GM was not as reliable as RGR. RGR had no significant sex differences in the maxilla and the mandible, in spite of different decelerating curves. However, statistically significant sex differences were found in the GM of mandibular measurements. The greatest growth potentials were not synchronized between the maxilla and the mandible. For both sexes, the greatest RGR of maxillary length and height was in QCVM stage I; then, deceleration occurred. The greatest RGR of mandibular length and height was in QCVM stage II, and the next largest was in QCVM stage I. Understanding the RGR can provide references for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 99mTc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism: comparison among mandible, cranium, radius and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Bernardo, Vanessa V. de Albuquerque; Macedo, Sara Mello Santana de; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Evaluating bone involvement in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) by 99m Tc-MDP uptake in the mandible, cranium, radius and femur and with data correlation with PTHi serum (Intact Parathyroid Hormone). Materials and Methods: In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi, concentration and positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake measurements were carried out drawing regions-of-interest (ROI) on the mandible, posterior cranium, distal radius and proximal femur. Additionally, soft tissue uptake was measured with one region-of-interest on the internal tight soft tissue (BG). The ROI-BG ratio used as the index of normalized bone uptake. Results: The uptake differences from SHPT and control groups mainly for mandible (p = 0,001) and cranium (p = 0,002) were statistically significant, even when the SHPT groups were separated according to serum PTHi levels. There was increased bone uptake with the increased levels of PTHi serum. All of the mandibles of the SHPT patients were abnormal with 33% having focal lesions. Conclusions: The bone uptake in SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, with high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP correlated to the increase of PTHi serum concentration. (author)

  14. 99mTc-MDP bone uptake in secondary hyperparathyroidism. Comparison of the mandible, cranium, radius, and femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Edson; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A.; Silva, Jorge Wagner Esteves da; Albuquerque Bernardo, V.V. de; Macedo, S. Mello Santana de; Oliveira, Andre Ribeiro Nogueira de; Pires Kasai, Erika Tami; Boasquevisque, Camila S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study to evaluate the bone involvement of the mandible, cranium, radius, and femur in secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) using 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate sodium (MDP) uptake correlated with the serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTHi). In a prospective study of 54 patients with SHPT due to chronic renal disease and 15 normal individuals (control group), all patients had elevated serum PTHi and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Bone uptake was measured in regions of interest (ROIs) in the mandible posterior cranium, distal radius, and proximal femur. In addition, soft tissue uptake was measured in one ROI in the soft tissues of the medial thigh (BG). The ROI-BG ratio was used as an index of the normalized bone uptake. The uptake differences in the SHPT and control groups were statistically significant for the mandible (P=0.001) and cranium (P=0.002). When the SHPT group was subclassified according to serum PTHi levels, the bone uptake increased with the serum PTHi level. All mandibles of the patients with SHPT were abnormal, and 33% had focal lesions. The bone uptake in the SHPT group was abnormal in all areas evaluated, and a high uptake of 99m Tc-MDP was correlated with an increased serum PTHi. (author)

  15. A New Method for 3D Finite Element Modeling of Human Mandible Based on CT Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于力牛; 叶铭; 王成焘

    2004-01-01

    This study presents a reliable method for the semi-automatic generation of an FE model, which determines both geometrical data and bone properties from patient CT scans.3D FE analysis is one of the best approaches to predict the stress and strain distribution in complex bone structures, but its accuracy strongly depends on the precision of input information. In geometric reconstruction, various methods of image processing, geometric modeling and finite element analysis are combined and extended. Emphasis is given to the assignment of the material properties based on the density values computed from CT data. Through this technique, the model with high geometric and material similarities were generated in an easy way. Consequently, the patient-specific FE model from mandible CT data is realized also.

  16. Ultrasonographic findings of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the mandible: report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakibafard, Alireza [TABA Medical Imaging Center, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahidi, Shoaleh; Zamiri, Barbod; Houshyar, Maneli; Amanpour, Sara [Dental School, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Houshyar, Maral [Dental Center of Dastgheib Hospital, Shiraz(Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Today, ultrasound imaging is being widely used to assess soft tissue lesions in the maxillofacial region. However, ultrasound investigations of intra-osseous lesions are rare, especially for tumors of the jaws. This report emphasized the capability of this useful imaging modality in identification of the characteristics of malignant conditions involving the bone. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoama, one of the unusual malignant conditions of the jaw, was presented in a young male with significant facial swelling. Different imaging modalities parallel with the histopathologic investigation confirmed the diagnosis. Interestingly, destruction of the bony cortex and new bone formation with a characteristic 'sun ray appearance', highly suggestive of sarcomas, was manifested on the ultrasonograph. Thus, this report presented the ultrasonographic features of chondrosarcoma of mandible and considered the ultrasonography to be a useful imaging modality to evaluate intra-osseous jaw lesions.

  17. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, forearm, and mandible of nephrotic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olgaard, K; Storm, Tina; van Wowern, N

    1992-01-01

    /day and tapered down to 20 mg/day for 1 year and DFZ was given in an equipotent dosage. Twenty-three patients completed 6 months of treatment, and 18 patients completed 12 months of treatment. Beside laboratory parameters to ensure the effect of treatment on the nephrotic syndrome, all had measurements......The long-term effects of high dose steroid treatment with either prednisone (PDN) or deflazacort (DFZ) were examined on various parts of the skeleton in 29 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All had normal skeleton at the start of the steroid treatment. At the beginning, PDN was given as 80 mg...... of the bone mineral content (BMC) at 0, 6, and 12 months of treatment. BMC was measured by single photon absorptiometry of both forearms and by dual photon absorptiometry of the mandible, forearms, and lumbar spine. The effect of DFZ was compared to that of PDN due to a potential "calcium sparing" effect...

  18. Multiple keratocysts of the mandible in association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: A rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Gayithri Harish; Khaji, Shahanavaj I; Metkari, Suryakant; Kulkarni, Harish S; Kulkarni, Reshma

    2014-07-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a syndrome with wide variety of manifestations ranging from oral lesions to skeletal deformities. It calls for due responsibility of maxillofacial surgeon to diagnose the syndrome because very often they are the first health professionals to see the patient for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor has been the topic of numerous investigators, is known for its potentially aggressive behavior, significant rate of recurrences. KCOT often occurs as a solitary lesion, in some instances multiple keratocysts may occur in association with a syndrome called Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (nevoid BCC, jaw cyst bifid rib basal cell nevus syndrome). Here, we present a case of multiple keratocysts in the mandible in association with skeletal, ocular, cutaneous anomalies in the given clinical scenario, which has profound relevance in the clinical dental practice.

  19. The removal of a malpositioned implant in the anterior mandible using piezosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Ettore; Cisterna, Veronica; Messina, Antonello Maria

    2013-05-01

    In oral, cranio, and maxillofacial surgery, a close relationship among the bone, nerves, and blood vessels can be regularly observed. Surgical procedures for the removal of dental implants have the potential to cause vascular injury and bleeding in the floor of the mouth and internal anterior region of the mandible. Furthermore, conventional osteotomy techniques always require extensive protection of adjacent soft tissue because cutting is not limited to bone and could easily affect other tissues when applied improperly. We report the removal by means of piezosurgery of a malpositioned osseointegrated implant that had previously caused a sublingual hematoma during its insertion. The postoperative course was uneventful, no bleeding, infection, or hematoma formation was noted and the patient reported 100% resolution of all symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Case of Unifocal Eosinophilic Granuloma of the Mandible in an Adult Female: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshita Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granuloma of bone is a disease with an incidence of one new case per 350,000 to 2 million per year, which is an uncommon disease of maxillofacial region, and presents in more than 90% in children under the age of ten with predominance for males. As a result, eosinophilic granuloma of the jaw is always unconsidered in the differential diagnosis of similar lesions by many clinicians. It is difficult to make a correct diagnosis on it without proof of a pathological diagnosis, which correlates with the diverse clinical and radiographic presentations of eosinophilic granuloma in the jaws. In the present paper we report a rare case of unifocal eosinophilic granuloma of mandible occurring in an adult female.

  1. Multiple keratocysts of the mandible in association with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayithri Harish Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is a syndrome with wide variety of manifestations ranging from oral lesions to skeletal deformities. It calls for due responsibility of maxillofacial surgeon to diagnose the syndrome because very often they are the first health professionals to see the patient for the treatment of keratocystic odontogenic tumor. Keratocystic odontogenic tumor has been the topic of numerous investigators, is known for its potentially aggressive behavior, significant rate of recurrences. KCOT often occurs as a solitary lesion, in some instances multiple keratocysts may occur in association with a syndrome called Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (nevoid BCC, jaw cyst bifid rib basal cell nevus syndrome. Here, we present a case of multiple keratocysts in the mandible in association with skeletal, ocular, cutaneous anomalies in the given clinical scenario, which has profound relevance in the clinical dental practice.

  2. [Metastatic lung cancer origin from osteosarcoma of mandible invading tracheal lumen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, K; Noriyuki, T; Furonaka, O; Kuroda, Y; Akimoto, E; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Okuda, H; Hashimoto, M; Yonehara, S

    2009-07-01

    A 52-year-old woman underwent the surgical treatment for osteosarcoma of the left mandible in 2003 and was followed up afterward. She suffered from dry cough and bloody sputum, and was admitted to our hospital in April 2007. Computed tomography (CT) revealed several nodules in bilateral lung, and bronchofiberscopy showed the endobronchial tumor obstructing in the right main bronchus. The metastatic tumor progressed in the right main bronchus from the right S6 lung segment. The tumor rapidly progressed in the right bronchus in comparison with the CT findings in about 2 weeks, and the possibility of the tracheal obstruction was considered. She underwent the right middle and lower lobectomy, and the endobronchial tumor was pulled through the right main bronchus. The postoperative course was uneventful, the patient was discharged on 14th postoperative day, and the chemotherapy using cisplatin (CDDP) and adriamycin (ADR) is on-going.

  3. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor of the mandible: review of the literature and report of a rare case

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    Braunstein Stefan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT is a rare odontogenic tumor which is often misdiagnosed as odontogenic cyst. To acquire additional information about AOT, all reports regarding AOT and cited in "pubmed" since 1990 onward were reviewed. AOT accounts for about 1% until 9% of all odontogenic tumors. It is predominantly found in young and female patients, located more often in the maxilla in most cases associated with an uneruppted permanent tooth. For radiological diagnose the intraoral periapical radiograph seems to be more useful than panoramic. However, AOT frequently resemble other odontogenic lesions such as dentigerous cysts or ameloblastoma. Immunohistochemically AOT is characterized by positive reactions with certain cytokeratins. Treatment is conservative and the prognosis is excellent. For illustration a rare case of an AOT in the mandible is presented.

  4. Reconstruction of the mandible bone by treatment of resected bone with pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masataka; Inokuchi, Tsugio; Sano, Kazuo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Asahina, Izumi

    2012-11-01

    The results of long-term follow-up for reimplantation of the mandibular bone treated with pasteurization are reported. Mandibulectomy was performed for mandibular malignancy in 3 cases. The resected bones were subsequently reimplanted after treatment with pasteurization in 3 cases to eradicate tumor cells involved in the resected bone. Although postoperative infection was observed in 2 of 3 cases, reimplantation of the resected mandibular bone treated by pasteurization was finally successful. Ten to 22 years of follow-up was carried out. Pasteurization was able to devitalize tumor cells involved in the resected bone and to preserve bone-inductive activity. Reimplantation of pasteurization could be a useful strategy for reconstruction of the mandible in patients with mandibular malignancy.

  5. A dental perspective on the taxonomic affinity of the Balanica mandible (BH-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Matthew M; de Vries, Dorien; Gunz, Philipp; Kupczik, Kornelius; Klassen, R Paul; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Roksandic, Mirjana

    2016-04-01

    The Middle Pleistocene represents a period of critical importance in human evolution, marked by encephalisation and dental reduction, and increasing diversification of temporally and spatially distributed hominin lineages in Africa, Asia and Europe. New specimens, especially from areas less well represented in the fossil record, can inform the debate on morphological changes to the skeleton and teeth and the phylogenetic course of human evolution during this period. The mandible from the cave of Mala Balanica, Serbia has recently been re-dated to at least 400 ka, and its well-preserved dentition presents an excellent opportunity to characterize molar crown morphology at this time period, and re-examine claims for a lack of Neandertal affinities in the specimen. In this study we employ microtomography to image the internal structure of the mandibular molars (focusing on the morphology of the enamel-dentine junction, or EDJ) of the BH-1 specimen and a comparative sample (n = 141) of Homo erectus sensu lato, Homo neanderthalensis, Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and recent H. sapiens. We quantitatively assess EDJ morphology using 3D geometric morphometrics and examine the expression of discrete dental traits at the dentine surface. We also compare third molar enamel thickness in BH-1 to those of H. neanderthalensis and both Pleistocene and recent H. sapiens, and document previously unreported morphology of the BH-1 premolar and molar roots. Our results highlight the reliability of the EDJ surface for classifying hominin taxa, indicate a primitive dental morphology for BH-1 molars, and confirm a general lack of derived Neandertal features for the Balanica individual. The plesiomorphic character of BH-1 is consistent with several competing models of Middle Pleistocene hominin evolution and provides an important regional and temporal example for reconstructing morphological changes in the mandible and teeth during this time period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All

  6. Lingual Foramina and Canals of the Mandible: Anatomic Variations in a Lebanese Population

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    Georges Aoun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular lingual foramina (LF and canals and their anatomic variations using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT technology in a Lebanese population. Materials and Methods: In this study, we analyzed CBCT images of 90 adult Lebanese patients (41 males and 49 females. We assessed the number and location of the LF. In additional, we measured: (a The distance from both the alveolar crest and the inferior border of the mandible to the LF and (b the length of the lingual canals (LCs. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Shapiro–Wilk normality test, t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. Statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: In our sample, the LF and canals were present in 93.33% of the CBCT analyzed, and the majority (76.64% was located above the genial tubercles. The distance from the foramen of the superior and the inferior LCs to the alveolar crest was 16.24 ± 2.82 mm and 25.49 ± 2.43 mm, respectively. The distance from the foramen of the superior canal to the inferior border of the mandible was 14 ± 2.32 mm. The mean length of the superior canal was 5.81 ± 1.6 mm and 4.25 ± 1.2 mm for the inferior one. There were no gender-related differences in the anatomic characteristics of the LF and canals except for the distance measured from the superior canal foramina to the alveolar crest where the measurement was significantly greater in males compared to females. Neither the number of canals nor the positions of the foramina were different between males and females. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, we concluded that in our sample of Lebanese adults, there was substantial variability in the LF and canals anatomy and location.

  7. Metastatic breast carcinoma in the mandible presenting as a periodontal abscess: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulias, Evmenios; Melakopoulos, Ioannis; Tosios, Konstantinos

    2011-07-01

    Tumors can metastasize to the oral cavity and affect the jaws, soft tissue and salivary glands. Oral cavity metastases are considered rare and represent approximately 1% of all oral malignancies. Because of their rarity and atypical clinical and radiographic appearance, metastatic lesions are considered a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a metastatic breast carcinoma mimicking a periodontal abscess in the mandible. A 55-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis. She had undergone modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. Her clinical examination showed diffuse swelling and a periodontal pocket of 6 mm exhibiting suppuration in the posterior right mandible. Moreover, paresthesia of the lower right lip and chin was noted. There were no significant radiographic findings other than alveolar bone loss due to her periodontal disease. Although the lesion resembled a periodontal abscess, metastatic carcinoma of the breast was suspected on the basis of the patient's medical history. The area was biopsied, and histological analysis confirmed the final diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. The general dentist or dental specialist should maintain a high level of suspicion while evaluating patients with a history of cancer. Paresthesias of the lower lip and the chin should be considered ominous signs of metastatic disease. This case highlights the importance of the value of a detailed medical history and thorough clinical examination for the early detection of metastatic tumors in the oral cavity.

  8. Measurement of Mucosal Thickness in Denture-bearing Area of Edentulous Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The thickness of the alveolar mucosa influences the probability of the occurrence of denture-induced irritations. Thick denture-supporting tissues offer relief from mucosal tenderness and ulcers; however, the uniformity of the thickness across the entire mandibular alveolar mucosa cannot be accurately determined in edentulous patients. This study aimed to assess the mucosal thickness of the denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible. Methods: Twenty-seven edentulous patients underwent cone-beam computed tomography scanning, wherein the patients wore a record base to retract soft tissues away from the alveolar mucosa. The measured regions were the central incisor (IC, lateral incisor (IL, canine (Ca, first premolar (P1, second premolar (P2, first molar (M1, and second molar (M2 regions. The thickness was measured in the alveolar ridge crest (T, buccal (B1-B4, and lingual (L1-L4 alveolar ridge mucosa. The average thickness of the mucosa at buccal sides (B and lingual sides (L were also assessed. Results: The differences in the mucosal thickness between the left and right sides were not significant. In the Ca-M2 regions, T was the thickest, and L3 was the thinnest of all the measured points in the same regions. L was significantly less than B in posterior regions (P < 0.01. On the other hand, M2 at L4 was thinnest of all the measured regions from Ca to M2 (P < 0.01, and was thicker than IC, IL, P1, and P2 at B2. Conclusions: Since the mucosal thickness of denture-bearing area in the edentulous mandible is not uniform; the tissue surface of the denture base or custom tray should be selectively relieved, which may reduce the risk of denture-induced irritations.

  9. Esthetic evaluation of single-tooth implants in the anterior mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, Markus; Tepper, Gabor; Koller, Barbara; Krainhöfner, Martin; Watzek, Georg; Pommer, Bernhard

    2014-09-01

    Single-tooth replacement of anterior mandibular teeth is frequently complicated by insufficient bucco-lingual bone width and limited mesio-distal space available for implant placement. The aim of the present study was to assess implant esthetics in the partially edentulous anterior mandible. Esthetic evaluation of 43 anterior mandibular single-tooth implants in 15 women and 28 men was performed using esthetic indices (PES = Pink Esthetic Score, PI = Papilla Index, SES = Subjective Esthetic Score) as well as subjective patients' Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ratings. Clinical and radiological parameters (implant and crown dimensions, pocket depth, bleeding on probing, plaque, keratinized mucosa, marginal bone level, and distance to adjacent teeth) were tested for influence. Implant esthetics were judged satisfactory (PES ≤10) in 42% of implants compared with a patient satisfaction rate of 87%. Correlation between objective indices (PES/PI: rs  = 0.62, PES/SES: rs  = -0.73, PI/SES: rs  = -0.48) was highly significant (P ≤ 0.001); however, no association to subjective patients' ratings could be observed. Type of prosthetic restoration (single crown vs. tulip-shaped double crowns), mesio-distal crown width as well as anatomic crown length significantly affected esthetic scores. Patients' judgment, by contrast, could not be associated to any prognostic factor. Subjective patient satisfaction with implant esthetics in the partially edentulous anterior mandible is high, however, remains hard to predict or objectively quantify. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Influence of 60Co irradiation on the mandible of adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezaki, Yukio

    1977-01-01

    This study was performed in order to observe the effect of 60 Co γ-ray irradiation (5000, 8000 and 10000R) on rabbits' mandible, for as long as possible, approximately 18 months. Radiographical and histopathological studies were done after irradiation. The upper anterior teeth of all experimental animals showed elongation, lateral flection and diasthema. The lower anterior teeth showed shortening or disappearance of the crowns and resorption of the root apex in all. These teeth were lost eventually. Molar teeth disclosed shortening of crowns and irregular and partial loss on the surface of the dentine. Pulp chambers were extremely narrowed. These changes were most conspicuous in the 10,000R irradiation group. Mandibular fractures occurred in 13 cases, which include 3 cases with 5,000R, 4 cases with 8,000R and 6 cases with 10,000R. The alveolar bones were resorped, and were replaced with mandibular bone trabeculae. Various types of ankylosis of root surface and mandibulars were seen. These changes were more frequently noted in the molar regions that the anterior regions and in the groups with higher doses and longer days after irradiation. Bone trabeculae and cortex of the mandibles were resorped in the 3 irradiation groups in the early stage, but regeneration and thickening of the bones occured later. The usual case was that the anterior bone marrow became more gelatinous and the molar marrow became more fibrous. Hyperemia and abscess formation were recognized in some cases. Although in the molar regions these pathological changes were conspicuous in proportion to the amount of dose, in the anterior regions, the same changes were more conspicuous in the 5,000R irradiation group than in the 8,000R group. (J.P.N.)

  11. The Amount of Wear in Attachment of Implant-Supported Overdentures in Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Vafaee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: One of the simplest and cheapest attachments for overdentures, is the ball-type attachment, however, keeping it during the first year of prosthesis delivery and after that is one of the main concerns of dentists. The present study aimed to assess the wear of matrix in overdentures attachment supported by one, two and three implants in the mandible. Materials and methods: Thirty edentulous patients were randomly divided into three groups: the first group received a single implant in the midline of the lower mandible, the second group two implants in areas B and D, and the third group three implants in areas B, C, and D. The attachment used in patients’ prosthetic with single and two implants was O-ball/ring attachment and for patients with three implants, the treatment plan was ball bar-supported attachments. After placing the new matrix implant for each patient and obtaining their consent, the matrix wear was measured with CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine device. To compare matrix wear after six months and one year, measurements were repeated. Data analysis, using ANOVA and multiple comparisons was down by Tukey Test. variance with repeated measures and Tukey test were used to compare the groups two-by-two. P.value less than 0.05 was set statistical significant. SPSS 16 software was used for data analysis. Results: The data obtained from the CMM device showed that the lowest mean matrix wear in the maximum single implant and maximum mean were in group two. Conclusion: Both time and the number of implants had a significant effect on the wear of the O-ring.

  12. Metastatic breast carcinoma in the mandible presenting as a periodontal abscess: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosios Konstantinos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Tumors can metastasize to the oral cavity and affect the jaws, soft tissue and salivary glands. Oral cavity metastases are considered rare and represent approximately 1% of all oral malignancies. Because of their rarity and atypical clinical and radiographic appearance, metastatic lesions are considered a diagnostic challenge. The purpose of this report is to present a rare case of a metastatic breast carcinoma mimicking a periodontal abscess in the mandible. Case presentation A 55-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to our clinic for evaluation of bisphosphonate-induced jaw osteonecrosis. She had undergone modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. Her clinical examination showed diffuse swelling and a periodontal pocket of 6 mm exhibiting suppuration in the posterior right mandible. Moreover, paresthesia of the lower right lip and chin was noted. There were no significant radiographic findings other than alveolar bone loss due to her periodontal disease. Although the lesion resembled a periodontal abscess, metastatic carcinoma of the breast was suspected on the basis of the patient's medical history. The area was biopsied, and histological analysis confirmed the final diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma. Conclusion The general dentist or dental specialist should maintain a high level of suspicion while evaluating patients with a history of cancer. Paresthesias of the lower lip and the chin should be considered ominous signs of metastatic disease. This case highlights the importance of the value of a detailed medical history and thorough clinical examination for the early detection of metastatic tumors in the oral cavity.

  13. The effects of high dose and highly fractionated radiation on distraction osteogenesis in the murine mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monson, Laura A; Cavaliere, Christi M; Deshpande, Sagar S; Ayzengart, Alexander L; Buchman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    The ability of irradiated tissue to support bony growth remains poorly defined, although there are anecdotal cases reported showing mixed results for the use of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after radiation for head and neck cancer. Many of these reports lack objective measures that would allow adequate analysis of outcomes or efficacy. The purpose of this experiment was to utilize a rat model of mandibular distraction osteogenesis after high dose and highly fractionated radiation therapy and to evaluate and quantify distracted bone formation under these conditions. Male Sprague–Dawley rats underwent 12 fractions of external beam radiation (48 Gray) of the left mandible. Following a two week recovery period, an external frame distractor was applied and gradual distraction of the mandible was performed. Tissue was harvested after a twenty-eight day consolidation period. Gross, radiologic and histological evaluations were undertaken. Those animals subjected to pre-operative radiation showed severe attenuation of bone formation including bone atrophy, incomplete bridging of the distraction gap, and gross bony defects or non-union. Although physical lengthening was achieved, the irradiated bone consistently demonstrated marked damaging effects on the normal process of distraction osteogenesis. This murine model has provided reliable evidence of the injurious effects of high dose radiation on bone repair and regeneration in distraction osteogenesis utilizing accurate and reproducible metrics. These results can now be used to assist in the development of therapies directed at mitigating the adverse consequences of radiation on the regeneration of bone and to optimize distraction osteogenesis so it can be successfully applied to post-oncologic reconstruction

  14. Dosimetric study of mandible examinations performed with three cone-beam computed tomography scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Helen J; Andrade, Marcos E; Araujo, Max Well; Brasileiro, Izabela V; Kramer, Richard; Huda, Amir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the air kerma-area product (PKA) and the skin absorbed dose in the region of the eyes, salivary glands and thyroid of the patient from mandible examinations performed with three cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners, i.e. i-CAT classic, Gendex CB-500 and PreXion 3D. For the dosimetric evaluation, an anthropomorphic head phantom (model RS-250) was used to simulate an adult patient. The CBCT examinations were performed using standard and high-resolution protocols for mandible acquisitions for adult patients. During the phantom's exposure, the PKA was measured using an ionising chamber and the absorbed doses to the skin in the region of the eyes, thyroid and salivary glands were estimated using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) positioned on the phantom's surface. The PKA values estimated with the CBCT scanners varied from 26 to 138 µGy m(2). Skin absorbed doses in the region of the eyes varied from 0.07 to 0.34 mGy; at the parotid glands, from 1.31 to 5.93 mGy; at the submandibular glands, from 1.41 to 6.86 mGy; and at the thyroid, from 0.18 to 2.45 mGy. PKA and absorbed doses showed the highest values for the PreXion 3D scanner due to the use of the continuous exposure mode and a high current-time product. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Introduction to Force-Dependent Kinematics: Theory and Application to Mandible Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipper Andersen, Michael; de Zee, Mark; Damsgaard, Michael; Nolte, Daniel; Rasmussen, John

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of the muscle, ligament, and joint forces is important when planning orthopedic surgeries. Since these quantities cannot be measured in vivo under normal circumstances, the best alternative is to estimate them using musculoskeletal models. These models typically assume idealized joints, which are sufficient for general investigations but insufficient if the joint in focus is far from an idealized joint. The purpose of this study was to provide the mathematical details of a novel musculoskeletal modeling approach, called force-dependent kinematics (FDK), capable of simultaneously computing muscle, ligament, and joint forces as well as internal joint displacements governed by contact surfaces and ligament structures. The method was implemented into the anybody modeling system and used to develop a subject-specific mandible model, which was compared to a point-on-plane (POP) model and validated against joint kinematics measured with a custom-built brace during unloaded emulated chewing, open and close, and protrusion movements. Generally, both joint models estimated the joint kinematics well with the POP model performing slightly better (root-mean-square-deviation (RMSD) of less than 0.75 mm for the POP model and 1.7 mm for the FDK model). However, substantial differences were observed when comparing the estimated joint forces (RMSD up to 24.7 N), demonstrating the dependency on the joint model. Although the presented mandible model still contains room for improvements, this study shows the capabilities of the FDK methodology for creating joint models that take the geometry and joint elasticity into account.

  16. Study of a bridge-like bone transplantation in the mandible of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Aizo

    1979-01-01

    A bridge-like bone transplantation using fresh auto-ribs was performed in the mandibles of 161 female rats (Donryu strain, weight 130 g) previously irradiated by means of a betatron (group B, 1000 rad; group C, 2000 rad; group D, 3000 rad). Formation of a bridge-like bone in the transplanted region was studied morphologically and the results were compared with those obtained from non-treated rats (nonirradiated and non-transplanted rats, 5), irradiated and non-transplanted rats (36), and control rats (group A: nonirradiated and transplanted rats, 30) on the 7th, 21st, 35th 49th, 63rd and 90th postoperative days (5 rats per day, totaling 90). All the rats had a favorable prognosis without suppuration or exclusion. In groups B, C, and D, depilation was noted on the skin of the mandible. In group D, incisor teeth were shorter, resulting in abnormal occlusion. Disappearance of reactive inflammation, formation of granulation tissues, resorption of transplanted bone, and new growth of bone appeared later in groups C and D than in groups A and B. New growth of bone in the recipient's was remarkably less in groups C and D than in groups A and B. Formation of a bridge-like bone was observed in all the rats in groups A and B after the 35th postoperative day. However, in groups C and D, new growth of bone from the base of the bridge was small and did not connect with the transplanted bone even on the 90th postoperative day. Consequently, a bridge-like bone was not formed. On every observation day, findings in group A were similar to those in group B, and those in group C were similar to those in group D. Irradiation with 2000 rad or 3000 rad had an effect on formation of a bridge-like bone, but irradiation with 1000 rad had no effect. (Ueda, J.)

  17. Anthropometrics of mental foramen in dry dentate and edentulous mandibles in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Moogala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the morphological features and morphometrics of mental foramen with reference to surrounding anatomical landmarks in Coastal Andhra population of Andhra Pradesh State. Materials and Methods: Two-hundred and nineteen dry dentate and edentulous mandibles are examined in this study. Out of these 127 were dentate and 92 were edentulous. Various morphological and morphometrical parameters were measured by using digital Vernier caliper, metallic wire and metallic scale on both the right and left sides. Results: In the present study, the distance between most anterior margin of mental foramen and posterior border of ramus of the mandible is [MF-PR], MF-PR is 69.61 ± 6.03 mm on the right side and is 69.17 ± 6. 0 mm on left side in dentate mandible. In edentulous type, MF-PR is 68.39 ±6.4 mm on right side and 68.81 ± 6.55 mm on left side. In the present study, the distance between symphysis menti and most anterior margin of mental foramen [MF-SM] in dentate mandible is 28.24 ± 5.09 mm on right side and is 27.45 ± 3.7 mm on left side. In edentulous mandible (MF-SM is 28.51 ± 4.5 mm on right side and on left side is 27.99 ± 4.50 mm. Conclusion: Acquiring the knowledge and importance of anatomy of mental foramen is helpful in avoiding neurovascular complications, during regional anesthesia, peri apical surgeries, nerve repositioning and dental implant placement.

  18. Effect of variable scanning protocolson the pre-implant site evaluation of the mandible in reformatted computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of variable scanning protocols of computed tomography for evaluation of pre-implant site of the mandible through the comparison of the reformatted cross-sectional images of helical CT scans obtained with various imaging parameters versus those of conventional CT scans. A dry mandible was imaged using conventional nonoverlapped CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and helical CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and pitches of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0. All helical images were reconstructed at reconstruction interval of 1 mm. DentaScan reformatted images were obtained to allow standardized visualization of cross-sectional images of the mandible. The reformatted images were reviewed and measured separately by 4 dental radiologists. The image qualities of continuity of cortical outline, trabecular bone structure and visibility of the mandibular canal were evaluated and the distance between anatomic structures were measured by 4 dental radiologists. On image qualities of continuity of cortical outline, trabecular bone structure and visibility of the mandibular canal and in horizontal measurement, there was no statistically significant difference among conventional and helical scans with pitches of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0. In vertical measurement, there was no statistically significant difference among the conventional and all imaging parameters of helical CT scans with pitches of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0. The images of helical CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and pitches of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 are as good as those of conventional CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness for evaluation of pre-dental implant site of the mandible. Considering the radiation dose and patient comfort, helical CT scans with 1 mm slice thickness and pitch of 2.0 is recommended for evaluation of pre-implant site of the mandible.

  19. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  20. A catalog of the mouse gut metagenome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Liang; Feng, Qiang; Liang, Suisha

    2015-01-01

    laboratories and fed either a low-fat or high-fat diet. Similar to the human gut microbiome, >99% of the cataloged genes are bacterial. We identified 541 metagenomic species and defined a core set of 26 metagenomic species found in 95% of the mice. The mouse gut microbiome is functionally similar to its human......We established a catalog of the mouse gut metagenome comprising ∼2.6 million nonredundant genes by sequencing DNA from fecal samples of 184 mice. To secure high microbiome diversity, we used mouse strains of diverse genetic backgrounds, from different providers, kept in different housing...... counterpart, with 95.2% of its Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologous groups in common. However, only 4.0% of the mouse gut microbial genes were shared (95% identity, 90% coverage) with those of the human gut microbiome. This catalog provides a useful reference for future studies....

  1. Common Avian Infection Plagued the Tyrant Dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Ewan D. S.; Salisbury, Steven W.; Horner, John R.; Varricchio, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name ‘Sue’) has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. Conclusions/Significance This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation. PMID:19789646

  2. Common avian infection plagued the tyrant dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan D S Wolff

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tyrannosaurus rex and other tyrannosaurid fossils often display multiple, smooth-edged full-thickness erosive lesions on the mandible, either unilaterally or bilaterally. The cause of these lesions in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen FMNH PR2081 (known informally by the name 'Sue' has previously been attributed to actinomycosis, a bacterial bone infection, or bite wounds from other tyrannosaurids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted an extensive survey of tyrannosaurid specimens and identified ten individuals with full-thickness erosive lesions. These lesions were described, measured and photographed for comparison with one another. We also conducted an extensive survey of related archosaurs for similar lesions. We show here that these lesions are consistent with those caused by an avian parasitic infection called trichomonosis, which causes similar abnormalities on the mandible of modern birds, in particular raptors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding represents the first evidence for the ancient evolutionary origin of an avian transmissible disease in non-avian theropod dinosaurs. It also provides a valuable insight into the palaeobiology of these now extinct animals. Based on the frequency with which these lesions occur, we hypothesize that tyrannosaurids were commonly infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan. For tyrannosaurid populations, the only non-avian dinosaur group that show trichomonosis-type lesions, it is likely that the disease became endemic and spread as a result of antagonistic intraspecific behavior, consumption of prey infected by a Trichomonas gallinae-like protozoan and possibly even cannibalism. The severity of trichomonosis-related lesions in specimens such as Tyrannosaurus rex FMNH PR2081 and Tyrannosaurus rex MOR 980, strongly suggests that these animals died as a direct result of this disease, mostly likely through starvation.

  3. Algorithms for managing the common trauma patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory distress. Did injury penetrate platysma muscle? Zone III. (above angle of mandible). C-spine X-ray. Angiogram. Laryngoscopy. Sialogram. Suspected pharyngeal injury. Suspected parotid gland injury. Zone II. (between the cricoid cartilage and angle of the mandible). Chest X-ray. C-spine X-ray. Angiogram.

  4. An accurate bimaxillary repositioning technique using straight locking miniplates for the mandible-first approach in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Omura, Susumu; Honda, Koji; Yamashita, Yosuke; Shibutani, Naoki; Fujita, Koichi; Takasu, Hikaru; Murata, Shogo; Tohnai, Iwai

    2017-01-01

    Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery has been widely performed to achieve optimal functional and esthetic outcomes in patients with dentofacial deformity. Although Le Fort I osteotomy is generally performed before bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) in the surgery, in several situations BSSO should be performed first. However, it is very difficult during bimaxillary orthognathic surgery to maintain an accurate centric relation of the condyle and decide the ideal vertical dimension from the skull base to the mandible. We have previously applied a straight locking miniplate (SLM) technique that permits accurate superior maxillary repositioning without the need for intraoperative measurements in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Here we describe the application of this technique for accurate bimaxillary repositioning in a mandible-first approach where the SLMs also serve as a condylar positioning device in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery.

  5. Massive keratocystic odontogenic tumor of mandible crossing the midline in 11-year child: An unusual case report and its management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Sulabha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC is now designated by World Health Organization (WHO as keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT. The OKC involves approximately 11% of all the cysts in jaws. OKC possesses tumor-like characteristics because of its clinical behavior. Incidence of occurrence of this lesion in nonnevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients before ten is low. Case Report: We report a massive OKC in the anterior region of mandible in a child. Combination of age, sex, size of the lesion, its location, and rapid growth in the present case makes it different from other KCOTs. Our management plan aimed to preserve the natural dentition, shape, function, and continuity of mandible. Discussion: An aggressive treatment modality like enucleation in combination with Carnoy′s solution application, as done in the present case might be considered as a viable treatment modality for massive KCOT. The present paper also highlights brief discussion concerning the management of OKC.

  6. 3-Dimensional Physiologic Postural Range of the Mandible: A Computerized-Assisted Technique—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Shewman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that while the mandible assumes its resting position in space, antagonistic muscles should assume minimal muscle activity within a spatial range. This zone of mandibular rest has been mapped using physiologic parameters of muscle activity and incisal spatial kinematics. This case study expands on previous research by monitoring incisal and posterior jaw position and includes lateral pterygoid muscle activity, thus allowing for determining the spatial range including additional relevant coordinates and muscle activity. Four positions were evaluated: a maximum physiologic open position, a maximum physiologic closed position, physiologic rest position, and maximum physiologic protrusion position. Within the physiologic zone of rest formed by these 4 positions, the vertical and anterior borders of the envelope of function may be documented for the incisal and posterior mandible in true 3-dimensional fashion to assist the clinician in determining a physiologic interocclusal freeway space and vertical dimension of occlusion. Advantages and limitations are discussed.

  7. Primary Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma of the Mandible: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Bugshan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the oral cavity, extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma can occur in the periapical region either in the maxilla or mandible. Also, it can mimic inflammatory lesions that arise around the teeth apices such as periapical granuloma, radicular cyst and osteomyelitis. Misdiagnosis of lymphomas in the jaws may reduce the chance of successful treatment and worsen the prognosis. Therefore, any growth of periapical tissue must be submitted for histopathological evaluation to avoid a delay in the diagnosis. We present a case of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of a 53-year-old male in the right posterior mandible that was initially misdiagnosed as a reactive periapical lesion. This case illustrates the importance for both the pathologist and the clinician of considering malignant lesions such as lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of periapical radiolucency.

  8. Long-term observation of a large keratocystic odontogenic tumour of the mandible treated by a single enucleation procedure: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias L. Pittl

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Immediate enucleation in combination with a titanium plate offers an effective surgical approach for the treatment of large KCOTs of the mandible without the need for radical tooth removal or resection of the afflicted side.

  9. A finite element study on the effects of midsymphyseal distraction osteogenesis on the mandible and articular disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Nam; Cha, Bong-Kuen; Choi, Dong-Soon; Jang, Insan; Yi, Yang-Jin; Jost-Brinkmann, Paul-Georg

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical effect of midsymphyseal distraction osteogenesis with three types of distractors on the mandible and articular disc using a three-dimensional finite element model analysis. A virtual model of the mandible was produced from computed tomography scan images of a healthy 27-year-old man. On the finite element model of the mandible, expansion of the bone-borne, tooth-borne, and hybrid type distractors were simulated with the jaw-closing muscles. The displacement and stress distribution of the mandible and articular disc were analyzed. With the bone-borne appliance the alveolar process area was displaced more than the basal bone area. The tooth-borne appliance displaced the mandibular body in a parallel manner and showed high level of the von Mises stress in the alveolar process and the ramal region as well as in the condylar neck area. The hybrid type showed medium amount of displacement and stress distribution compared with the bone-borne and tooth-borne type. At the articular disc the compressive stress was concentrated in the anteromedial and posterolateral area, and it was highest in the tooth-borne distractor, followed by hybrid appliance and bone-borne appliance. The tooth-borne distractor produced more parallel bony widening in the midsymphyseal area and larger expansion in the molar region; however, it induced higher stress concentration on the articular disc than the hybrid appliance and bone-borne appliance. Whether any long-term side effects on the temporomandibular joint are anticipated, especially in tooth-borne distractor, remains to be investigated.

  10. Strong selection on mandible and nest features in a carpenter bee that nests in two sympatric host plants

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Prado, Luis; Pinto, Carlos F; Rojas, Alejandra; Fontúrbel, Francisco E

    2014-01-01

    Host plants are used by herbivorous insects as feeding or nesting resources. In wood-boring insects, host plants features may impose selective forces leading to phenotypic differentiation on traits related to nest construction. Carpenter bees build their nests in dead stems or dry twigs of shrubs and trees; thus, mandibles are essential for the nesting process, and the nest is required for egg laying and offspring survival. We explored the shape and intensity of natural selection on phenotypi...

  11. Sexual dimorphism in the mandible of the armadillo Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804) (Dasypodidae) from northern Patagonia, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Squarcia, SM.; Sidorkewicj, NS.; Camina, R.; Casanave, EB.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the sexual dimorphism in adult Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804), from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Eight mandibular traits were measured in 37 males and 34 females. Univariate and multivariate morphometric analysis were applied to the data set. Results showed that C. villosus was sexually dimorphic, with higher absolute values corresponding to females. The total length of the mandible was the most important variable to discriminate sexes, followed...

  12. Free vascularized flaps for reconstruction of the mandible: complications, success, and dental rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Johannes T M; van Es, Robert J J; Rosenberg, Antoine J W P; van der Bilt, Andries; Koole, Ron; Van Cann, Ellen M

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate complications and success of mandibular reconstruction with free fibula flaps, iliac crest flaps, and forearm flaps with reconstruction plates and to evaluate dental rehabilitation after these reconstructions. Eighty-three patients with segmental mandibular defects were included. Correlation analyses were used to determine the relationship between reconstruction type and clinical parameters with recipient-site complications and success. The dental rehabilitation was evaluated in successfully reconstructed survivors. Multivariate analyses showed significant correlations between flap type and success (P < .0001). Of the patients, 51 (61%) were alive 2 years after the reconstruction. Mandibular reconstruction with a free forearm flap and reconstruction plate was associated with higher complication rates at the recipient site and higher failure rates compared with reconstruction with free vascularized bone flaps. Of the 32 successfully reconstructed survivors, 14 (44%) had a complete dental rehabilitation, of which 10 had dental implants and 4 did not. Only 6 (29%) of the edentulous survivors ultimately had an implant-supported prosthesis. Reconstruction of the mandible with a free vascularized bone flap is superior to reconstruction with a free forearm flap with a reconstruction plate. Complete dental rehabilitation was reached in fewer than half of the surviving patients. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Florid Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia Simultaneous the Chronic Suppurative Osteomyelitis in Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Mateus Barros; de Oliveira Lima, Amanda Laísa; Júnior, Marcus Antônio Brêda; Santos, Milkle Bruno Pessoa

    2016-11-01

    The florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is an uncommon condition nonneoplastic, of unknown cause with higher prevalence in melanodermic women, limited the maxillary bones, is characterized by the presence of dispersed and diffuse radiopaque calcifications, constituted of bone and dense cemento; however, when the bone is infected it induces the suppuration and formation of osseous sequestra, thus resulting in an osteomyelitis frame. The patient was attended in a Dental Specialties Center in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, presenting on clinical examination edema and extra oral fistula with pus drainage in hemiface submandibular of the right side. Radiographically it was possible to observe area of sclerosis and osseous sequestra involving the right side region of the mandible body, and it increases zones of the bone density. In association with clinical data and complementary diagnosis examinations, the option of treatment adopted was the complete removal of the bone fragment, followed by adaptation and plate fixation and titanium screws to reduce the risk of mandibular fracture. The aim of the present paper was to relate a clinical patient of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia simultaneous the chronic suppurative osteomyelitis, highlighting their clinical, radiographic, and histological characteristics, as well as their diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Evaluation of fixation of expandable implants in the mandibles of ovariectomized sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Rui; Li, De-Hua; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Shu-Jun; Guan, Su-Min; Kong, Liang

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of an expandable implant (EI) in ovariectomized sheep. The EI and taper implant (control group) were produced and placed in mandibles of ovariectomized sheep. Twelve weeks after implantation, resonance frequency analysis, biomechanical tests, histomorphometry, and micro-computed tomography were applied to detect the osseointegration in the 2 groups. The implant stability quotient values, maximal pullout forces, and bone-implant contact (BIC) were 60.3 ± 7.9, 511.0 ± 18.7 N, and 53.14% ± 4.56%, respectively, in the EI group and 58.3 ± 8.9, 394.5 ± 54.5 N, and 46.85% ± 5.04%, respectively, in the control group. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in implant stability quotient values (P > .05); however, in the EI group the maximal pullout force and BIC were increased significantly (P bone volume/total volume ratio and trabecular number increased significantly (P < .01) and trabecular separation decreased significantly (P < .05) in the EI group. EI could improve osseointegration in osteoporosis after 12 weeks of implantation by increasing BIC around the implant and by supplying an extra osseointegration surface. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Central Acinic Cell Carcinoma of the Mandible Simulating as Benign Odontogenic Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Bajpai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Centrally occurring salivary gland tumors are rare. Because of a considerable overlap between the clinical and histopathological features, this group of tumors often produces a diagnostic difficulty to the clinicians and oral pathologists. Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC is an unusual, low-grade, malignant salivary gland tumor that represents approximately 2% of the salivary gland tumors with almost 90% arising in the parotid gland. The rest involve the submandibular and the minor salivary gland. ACC of the jaw is extremely rare and, to our knowledge, only 8 cases have been reported in the English literature. Herein, a case of primary intraosseous ACC of the mandible in a 31-year-old woman is presented. The present case is unique, as the central ACC has never been reported in a patient in the third decade of life. The complete surgical removal of the tumor was carried out under general anesthesia along with the extraction of teeth #31, #32, #41, and #42. The follow-up period of 1-year was uneventful.

  16. Comparison of panorama radiomorphometric indices of the mandible in normal and osteoporotic women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Nah, Kyung Soo; Jung, Yun Hoa

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the radiomorphometric indices of the mandible on panoramic radiographs among three groups of normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis and to determine whether panoramic indices have validity in predicting osteoporotic risk. Ninety-four postmenupausal women aged 42-72 years (mean 62 ± 7.5) were examined using dual energy X-ray absorptionmetry (DEXA) of the lumbar and classified into three groups by WHO classification. Panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical thickness (Mental index (MI), Antegonial index (AI), Gonial index(GI)) and the mandibular cortical index (MCI) were measured bilaterally on panoramic radiographs and analyzed. There were significant differences among normal, osteopenic and osteoporoti groups in PMI (I), PMI (S), MI, AI, GI and MCI. The sensitivities of the MCI (93%) and the combination index of MCI and MI (90%) in diagnosing osteopenic/osteoporotic cases were high. The widths and shapes of the mandibular cortical bone on panoramic radiography may highly reflect the systemic osteopenic/osteoporotic conditions of the patients.

  17. The effects of odontogenic and nonodontogenic tissues on bone healing in Guinea pig mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Jung; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae; Hong, Jung Pyo

    1996-01-01

    This study was for comparing healing patterns and effects between with odontogenic and nonodontogenic tissues on the defected mandible. Experimental bone defects that measured 3 mm in diameter were created on the mandibular body of guinea pig by removal of bone with the use of trephine burs and bone defects were grafted with Biogran (Orthovita Co., U.S. A.) and covered with Dura Mata (Pfrimmer-Viggo GmbH Co., Germany). Guinea pigs were serially terminated by fours on the 3 days, the 1 week, the 2 weeks, the 3 weeks, the 4 weeks, and the 5 weeks after experiment, and the mandibular body was removed and fixed with 10% neutral formalin. They were decalcified and embedded in paraffin as using the usual methods. The specimen sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue. They were observed with a light microscope and a polarizing microscope. The obtained results were as follows: 1. Defected bone was healed fast from the odontogenic tissues in early stage of the experiment. 2. The arrangement of the bone matrix was relatively regular in the bone from the nonodontogenic tissues, but irregular in the bone from the odotogenic tissues. 3. Compact bone has started to be absorbed and changed to the pattern of matrix bone tissue from 3 weeks after experiment.

  18. An unusual case of ameloblastoma observed in the left anterior mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canger, Emin Murat; Çelenk, Peruze; Bulut, Emel; Günhan, Ömer

    2014-11-01

    To report a small intaalveolar ameloblastoma which resembled cystic lesion, and to emphasize the value of Computed tomography (CT) in radiographic examination. Ameloblastoma is a slow-growing, locally invasive odontogenic neoplasm that accounts for approximately 10% of all tumors detected in the jaws. Radiographically, those tumors are usually well-defined. Computerized tomography is highly recommended to confirm the diagnosis. A 48-year-old female attended with a chief complaint of painless swelling in the left anterior of mandible, 1 month duration. In intraoral examination, non-fluctuant, immobile, approximately 1 × 1 cm in dimension, painless, swelling which had a bone-like hardness and located in the mandibular canine region was detected. Panoramic radiography revealed a well circumscribed unilocular radiolucent lesion located in the inter-radicular area of left mandibular lateral and canine teeth. In CT examination it was realized that the lesion was multilocular. Histopathological examination of the biopsy specimen was reported as ameloblastoma. It is extremely difficult to find such an ameloblastoma in small dimension in alvolar bone.

  19. Osteomyelitis of the mandible in the patient with plasmocytoma – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Anna Bal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone which may be caused by infection carried to the bone via the bloodstream or from surrounding tissue. Treatment of osteomyelitis of the mandible is extremely difficult because of oral environment and teeth presence. Management often involves both debridement and antibiotic selection. Despite this, aggressive surgical interventions and conservative therapy are most important aspects of treatment. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ is an avascular necrosis related to osteomyelitis and characterized by necrotic bone in the maxillofacial region. The prevalence of this is associated with treatment with high-potency bisphosphonates or denosumab and it seems to be getting increasingly frequent. Due to lack of prospective studies with long-term follow-up there are no recommendation for treatment of MRNOJ. The main aim of treatment of patients with MRNOJ is to continue and to support oncological treatment as well as to provide patient education, comfort to life, control of pain and to prevent from secondary infection and development of new areas of necrosis.

  20. A roentgenographic study of cortical thickness and bone density of mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Dong Jin; Lee, Sang Rae

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the thickness of angular cortex and bone density of mandible in norm al person. Age changes and sex differences of those were comprised in this study. Material included 456 pantomographic views and 309 intraoral films taken by paralleling techinic. Conclusions from this study were as follows. 1. The thickness of mandibular angular cortex increased with age in both sexes before 15 to 19-year-old group. And those were relatively constant in the age range from 20 to 49 years in male and in the age range from 20 to 39 years in female, but decreased after that age. 2. The thickness of mandibular angular cortex were larger in male than in female. And no significant differences between sexes were noted before 40 to 49-year-old group. 3. Changes of bone density with age were analogous to changes of thickness of mandibular angular cortex. Correlation coefficients between changes of bone density and age were arranged, and male group underwent comparatively low correlation while insignificant statistically in female group. And no significant differences between sexes were found in all age group except 50 to 59-year-old group.

  1. [A phd completed 10. Implant-supported removable partial -dentures in a Kennedy Class I-situation in the mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Louwerse, C

    2017-06-01

    Implant-supported removable partial dentures in the mandible often cause problems, which means that patients wear their dentures seldom if at all. A solution is to place implants that the dentures can be snapped onto. There is, however, no consensus about the best position of the implants in the mandible yet. In addition, it is worthwhile to balance the cost of treatment with its effectiveness. In a randomised cross-over clinical trial involving 30 patients with a shortened dental arch, the implant-supported removable partial denture in the mandible was evaluated based on the experience of the patient, mean time of wearing, chewing ability and the clinical and radiographic parameters in relation to 2 different implant positions: 2 in the pre-molar region or 2 in the molar region. The cost-effectiveness of both treatments was also evaluated. From the patient's point of view, the implant-supported removable partial dentures are best supported by implants placed in the molar region. The research also revealed, however, that significantly more bleeding occurred around implants placed in the molar region and from a clinical perspective placement in the pre-molar region would have preference. The cost-effectiveness of the treatment with an implant-supported removable partial denture depends on the choice of outcome measurement and monetary threshold.

  2. Comparison of effective dose for imaging of mandible between multi-detector CT and cone-beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Dae Kyo; Lee, Sang Chul; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the effective dose for imaging of mandible between multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). An MDCT with low dose technique was also compared with them. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were placed at 25 organ sites of an anthropomorphic phantom. The mandible of the phantom was exposed using 2 different types of MDCT units (Somatom Sensation 10 for standard-dose MDCT, Somatom Emotion 6 for low-dose MDCT) and 3 different CBCT units (AZ3000CT, Implagraphy, and Kavo 3D eXaM). The radiation absorbed dose was measured and the effective dose was calculated according to the ICRP 2007 report. The effective dose was the highest for Somatom Sensation 10 (425.84 {mu}Sv), followed by AZ3000CT (332.4 {mu}Sv), Somatom Emotion 6 (199.38 {mu}Sv), and 3D eXaM (111.6 {mu}Sv); it was the lowest for Implagraphy (83.09 {mu}Sv). The CBCT showed significant variation in dose level with different device. The effective doses of MDCTs were not significantly different from those of CBCTs for imaging of mandible. The effective dose of MDCT could be markedly decreased by using the low-dose technique.

  3. Comparison of effective dose for imaging of mandible between multi-detector CT and cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Dae Kyo; Lee, Sang Chul; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effective dose for imaging of mandible between multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). An MDCT with low dose technique was also compared with them. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were placed at 25 organ sites of an anthropomorphic phantom. The mandible of the phantom was exposed using 2 different types of MDCT units (Somatom Sensation 10 for standard-dose MDCT, Somatom Emotion 6 for low-dose MDCT) and 3 different CBCT units (AZ3000CT, Implagraphy, and Kavo 3D eXaM). The radiation absorbed dose was measured and the effective dose was calculated according to the ICRP 2007 report. The effective dose was the highest for Somatom Sensation 10 (425.84 μSv), followed by AZ3000CT (332.4 μSv), Somatom Emotion 6 (199.38 μSv), and 3D eXaM (111.6 μSv); it was the lowest for Implagraphy (83.09 μSv). The CBCT showed significant variation in dose level with different device. The effective doses of MDCTs were not significantly different from those of CBCTs for imaging of mandible. The effective dose of MDCT could be markedly decreased by using the low-dose technique.

  4. Numerical study of the influence of material parameters on the mechanical behaviour of a rehabilitated edentulous mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favot, Louis-Marc; Berry-Kromer, Valérie; Haboussi, Mohamed; Thiebaud, Frédéric; Ben Zineb, Tarak

    2014-03-01

    The study dealt with full dental prosthetic reconstruction on four implants. The aim was to analyse the influence of material parameters on the mechanical behaviour of the restored mandible compared to the natural mandible. A finite element model of an edentulous mandible with prosthetic rehabilitation was established. Four materials were investigated for the framework of the prosthesis (zirconia, titanium, gold and nickel-titanium (NiTi)), as well as three cortical bone thicknesses. Various muscles were employed to simulate the main stages of mastication. Three distinct phases of mastication were modelled: maximum intercuspation, incisal clench and unilateral molar clench. The zirconia framework demonstrated the highest stresses and NiTi the weakest. The highest stresses in the framework were obtained during maximum intercuspation. The highest stresses at the bone-implant interface were recorded on the working axial implant during unilateral molar clench and on tilted implants during maximum intercuspation. The influence of the framework's material stiffness on the stresses at the bone-implant interface was insignificant for axial implants (except the right implant during unilateral molar clench) and slightly more significant for tilted implants. Mandibular flexion decreased with an increase of the cortical bone thickness and the stiffness of the prosthetic framework's material. Among all materials, NiTi allowed a better preservation of the mandibular flexure, during all the mastication stages. Compared to stiffer materials, NiTi also permitted physiological mechanical conditions at the bone/implant interface, in almost all mastication stages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  6. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a "Low-Cost" 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field.

  7. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  8. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  9. Learning commons evolution and collaborative essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Schader, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    This book examines successfully planned and implemented learning commons at several different academic institutions around the world. These case studies provide a methodology for effective planning, implementation and assessment. Practical information is provided on how to collaborate with campus stakeholders, estimate budgeting and staffing and determine the equipment, hardware and software needs. Also provided are memoranda of understandings (MOUs), planning checklists and assessment tools. This book reflects a unifying focus on both the evolution of learning commons to learning spaces and t

  10. The value of CT measurement of normal human mandible, hyoid and the airway area at the hyoid level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changliang; Zhang Jia; Ge Pingjiang; Zhang Siyi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the normal value and clinical significance of the lengths and angles of both mandible and hyoid, and their relationship with cervical vertebra as well as the transverse area of the airway at the hyoid level using CT. Methods: Several lines and angles on the CT images were measured in 68 normal subjects. Line A was the length between both free ends of the mandible; line B was the distance from the body of the mandible to line A; Line C was the distance from line A to the anterior aspect of the cervical vertebra. α 1 was the angle between the middle of mandible body and its two free ends. Line a was the distance between two free ends of greater horn of hyoid bone. Line b was the distance from hyoid to line a. Line c was the distance from line a to the cervical vertebra. α 2 was the angle between the middle of hyoid body and its two free ends. S stood for the area of the airway at the hyoid level. SPSS 11.5 statistical analysis package was used to analyze the results. Results: The average and median distance/angle of various measurements were as follows: line A was (89.28±5.90) mm and 88.70 mm, line B was (62.61±5.78) mm and 62.50 mm, line C was (9.29±3.29) mm and 4.20 mm, α 1 was (71.25±6.77) degree and 71.05 degree, line a was (38.69 ± 6.07) mm and 39.90 mm, line b was (28.79 ± 4.37) mm and 28.50 mm, line c was (1.91 ± 3.03) mm and 1.75 mm, α 2 was (68.47 ± 15.71) degree and 66.95 degree. The average S was (436.14 ± 160.37) mm 2 and median was 431.75 mm 2 . Conclusion: It is easy to measure the three lines and the two angles of mandible and hyoid. The measurement is of vital importance in the diagnosis and treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

  11. Implant-supported removable partial dentures in the mandible: A 3-16 year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Kerdijk, Wouter; Cune, Marco S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess performance, together with biological and technical complications, of implant-supported removable partial dentures (ISRPD) in mandibular Kennedy class I situations with implants placed in the anterior or posterior position. 23 subjects with two endosseous implants to support a bilateral-free-ending mandibular removable denture were examined. Eight subjects had implants in the premolar (anterior) region and 15 subjects implants in the molar (posterior) region. Biological and technical complications were recorded from the patients' medical record. Patients filled out a validated questionnaire regarding their appreciation of oral health related quality of life (OHIP-NL49) and a VAS score on overall satisfaction. Over a mean follow-up period of 8 years (median 8 years, range 3-16 years) the cumulative implant survival rate was 91.7% (SE 0.05). Mean peri-implant bone loss was 0.9mm (SD 1.0mm). Scores for bleeding on probing, plaque and mucosal health were generally low, but significantly worse for posteriorly placed implants. Significantly more biological complications occurred in the posterior group (X 2 (1)=3.9; p=0.048). In 65% of the cases no technical complications were registered. Mean overall OHIP score was 16.1 (SD 18.4) and patients were highly satisfied (VAS: 8.4; SD 2.1). Within the limitations of this retrospective study, in case of a Kennedy class I situation in the mandible, an ISRPD is a viable treatment option with a high implant survival rate and satisfied patients after a maximum of 16 years. Technical and biological complications should be anticipated. Anteriorly placed implants performed slightly better. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrospective analysis of survival rates and marginal bone loss on short implants in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draenert, Florian G; Sagheb, Keyvan; Baumgardt, Katharina; Kämmerer, Peer W

    2012-09-01

    Short implants have become an interesting alternative to bone augmentation in dental implantology. Design of shorter implants and longer surveillance times are a current research issue. The goal of this study was to show the survival rates of short implants below 9 mm in the partly edentulous mandibular premolar and molar regions with fixed prosthetics. Marginal vertical and 2D bone loss was evaluated additionally. Different implant designs are orientationally evaluated. A total of 247 dental implants with fixed prosthetics (crowns and bridges) in the premolar and molar region of the mandible were evaluated; 47 implants were 9 mm or shorter. Patient data were evaluated to acquire implant survival rates, implant diameter, gender and age. Panoramic X-rays were analysed for marginal bone loss. Average surveillance time was 1327 days. Cumulative survival rate (CSR) of short implants was 98% (1 implants lost) compared to 94% in the longer implants group without significance. Thirty-five of the short implants were Astratech (0 losses) and 12 were Camlog Screw Line Promote Plus (1 loss). Early vertical and two-dimensional marginal bone loss was not significantly different in short and regular length implant group with an average of 0.6 mm and 0.7 mm(2) in short implants over the observation period. Within the limitations of this study, we conclude that short implants with a length of 9 mm or less have equal survival rates compared with longer implants over the observation period of 1-3 years. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Immunohistochemical visualization of mouse interneuron subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Mølgaard; Ulrichsen, Maj; Boggild, Simon

    2014-01-01

    , and calretinin are also commonly used as markers to narrow down the specific interneuron subtype. Here, we describe a journey to find the necessary immunological reagents for studying GABAergic interneurons of the mouse hippocampus. Based on web searches there are several hundreds of different antibodies...... of the hippocampus where they have previously been described. Additionally, the antibodies were also tested on sections from mouse spinal cord with similar criteria for specificity of the antibodies. Using the antibodies with a high rating on pAbmAbs, stainings with high signal-to-noise ratios and location...

  14. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  15. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  16. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 affects osteogenic efficacy on dental implants in rat mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Young-Hee [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Ho [Department of Dental Materials, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Il-Song [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Center for Advanced Materials, Development and Institute of Biodegradable Materials, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ho-Keun, E-mail: yihokn@chonbuk.ac.kr [Department of Oral Biochemistry, Institute of Oral Bioscience, School of Dentistry, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-01

    Insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in bone cells and its utilization in dental implants have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the osteogenic efficacy of chitosan gold nanoparticles (Ch-GNPs) conjugated with IGFBP-3 coated titanium (Ti) implants. Ch-GNPs were conjugated with IGFBP-3 plasmid DNA through a coacervation process. Conjugation was cast over Ti surfaces, and cells were seeded on coated surfaces. For in vitro analysis the expression of different proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting. For in vivo analysis, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were installed in rat mandibles. Four weeks post-implantation, mandibles were examined by microcomputed tomography (μCT), immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin & eosin and tartrate resistance acid phosphatase staining. In vitro overexpressed Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated Ti surfaces was associated with activation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), inhibition of the stress activated protein c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and 7 compared to control. Further, in vivo, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were associated with inhibition of implant induced osteoclastogenesis molecules, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and enhanced expression of osteogenic molecules including BMP2/7 and osteopontin (OPN). The μCT analysis demonstrated that IGFBP-3 increased the volume of newly formed bone surrounding the implants compared to control (n = 5; p < 0.05). These results support the view that IGFBP-3 overexpression diminishes osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis of Ti implants, and can serve as a potent molecule for the development of good implantation. - Highlights: • Chitosan gold nanoparticles were conjugated with IGFBP-3 and coated onto surface of the titanium implants for gene delivery to bone. • Implants were inserted in rat mandible for 4 weeks. • Parameters studied: histopathology and radiology.

  17. A finite element analysis of the stress distribution to the mandible from impact forces with various orientations of third molars*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun-feng; Wang, Russell; Baur, Dale A.; Jiang, Xian-feng

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the stress distribution to the mandible, with and without impacted third molars (IM3s) at various orientations, resulting from a 2000-Newton impact force either from the anterior midline or from the body of the mandible. Materials and methods: A 3D mandibular virtual model from a healthy dentate patient was created and the mechanical properties of the mandible were categorized to 9 levels based on the Hounsfield unit measured from computed tomography (CT) images. Von Mises stress distributions to the mandibular angle and condylar areas from static impact forces (Load I-front blow and Load II left blow) were evaluated using finite element analysis (FEA). Six groups with IM3 were included: full horizontal bony, full vertical bony, full 450 mesioangular bony, partial horizontal bony, partial vertical, and partial 450 mesioangular bony impaction, and a baseline group with no third molars. Results: Von Mises stresses in the condyle and angle areas were higher for partially than for fully impacted third molars under both loading conditions, with partial horizontal IM3 showing the highest fracture risk. Stresses were higher on the contralateral than on the ipsilateral side. Under Load II, the angle area had the highest stress for various orientations of IM3s. The condylar region had the highest stress when IM3s were absent. Conclusions: High-impact forces are more likely to cause condylar rather than angular fracture when IM3s are missing. The risk of mandibular fracture is higher for partially than fully impacted third molars, with the angulation of impaction having little effect on facture risk. PMID:29308606

  18. Long-term evaluation of immediately loaded implants in the edentulous mandible using fixed bridges and platform shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E; Gaertner, Kathrin; Nentwig, Georg H

    2014-08-01

    The immediate loading concept has been extensively documented in the anterior part of the mandible when six primary stable implants are placed, splinted with a fixed prosthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term success of immediately occlusal loaded implants with a progressive thread design and platform shifting in the edentulous mandible. Seventy-eight implants placed in 13 patients and were connected with their abutments immediately after surgery. The implants were splinted using a fixed temporary restoration having occlusal contacts in the centric and group function in the lateral movements of the mandible (immediate occlusal loading). The patients were advised to use soft/liquid diet for the first 6 to 8 weeks of healing in order to reduce excessive loading in the bone-to-implant interface. Abutment level impressions were taken without removing the abutments in order to fabricate the final prostheses. The final restorations were delivered 4 to 8 weeks after surgery and cemented temporarily in order to evaluate the peri-implant soft tissue condition at the different time intervals after removal of the restoration. Clinical stability and radiological indices were evaluated at the start of loading, at 3-month interval after loading, and then annually. After a mean loading period of 75.29 (± 38.18) months, no implant was lost (100% success rate). All clinical indices had values in normal levels. The Periotest values demonstrated a continuous reduction, representing high stability. The crestal bone level was relatively stable and only minimal crestal bone loss was observed in some implants. Long-term success and stability of the peri-implant tissues around immediately loaded mandibular implants are expected when implants with platform shifting are restored with bridges without abutment removal. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 affects osteogenic efficacy on dental implants in rat mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Il-Song; Yi, Ho-Keun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in bone cells and its utilization in dental implants have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to determine the osteogenic efficacy of chitosan gold nanoparticles (Ch-GNPs) conjugated with IGFBP-3 coated titanium (Ti) implants. Ch-GNPs were conjugated with IGFBP-3 plasmid DNA through a coacervation process. Conjugation was cast over Ti surfaces, and cells were seeded on coated surfaces. For in vitro analysis the expression of different proteins was analyzed by immunoblotting. For in vivo analysis, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were installed in rat mandibles. Four weeks post-implantation, mandibles were examined by microcomputed tomography (μCT), immunohistochemistry, hematoxylin & eosin and tartrate resistance acid phosphatase staining. In vitro overexpressed Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated Ti surfaces was associated with activation of extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), inhibition of the stress activated protein c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and 7 compared to control. Further, in vivo, Ch-GNP/IGFBP-3 coated implants were associated with inhibition of implant induced osteoclastogenesis molecules, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and enhanced expression of osteogenic molecules including BMP2/7 and osteopontin (OPN). The μCT analysis demonstrated that IGFBP-3 increased the volume of newly formed bone surrounding the implants compared to control (n = 5; p < 0.05). These results support the view that IGFBP-3 overexpression diminishes osteoclastogenesis and enhances osteogenesis of Ti implants, and can serve as a potent molecule for the development of good implantation. - Highlights: • Chitosan gold nanoparticles were conjugated with IGFBP-3 and coated onto surface of the titanium implants for gene delivery to bone. • Implants were inserted in rat mandible for 4 weeks. • Parameters studied: histopathology and radiology.

  20. "A" shape plate for open rigid internal fixation of mandible condyle neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakiewicz, Marcin; Swiniarski, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Reduction of the fracture is crucial for proper outcome of the treatment. The stability of reduction is closed connected to the method of its fixation. The topic of condylar fracture osteosynthesis still remains highly controversial and challenging. That is why authors decided to propose novel design of the fixating plate and the example of its application. The aim of this study was to present A-shape plate dedicated to rigid fixation of mandible condyle neck fracture. A-shape condylar plate (ACP) design is prepared of 1.0 mm thick titanium alloy (grade 5) sheet: posterior and anterior bars are reinforced by widening to 2.5 mm and anatomically curved along the compression and traction lines in ramus and condylar neck. Superior three-hole-group has triangular organization and located on the level of condylar head. The inferior extensions of the bars are equipped in three holes located at each of lower tails. Connecting bar (2.0 mm wide) connects the first hole of each lower tails closing upper part of ACP in triangular shape. The connecting bar runs along compression line of condylar neck. Holes in ACP has 2.0 mm diameter for locking or normal screws. Height of ACP is 31 mm. The proposed new type of plate was compared by finite element analysis (FEA) to nowadays manufactured 9-hole trapezoid plate as the most similar device. ACP design was evaluated by finite element analysis (FEA) and later applied in patient affected with high condylar neck fracture complicated by fracture of coronoid process. FEA revealed high strength of ACP and more stabile fixation than trapezoid plate. The result was caused by multipoint fixation at three regions of the plate and reinforced bars supported by semi-horizontal connecting bar. Clinical application of ACP was as versatile as makes possible to simultaneous fixation of high condylar neck and coronoid process fracture. Application of proposed A-shape condylar plate would be possible in all levels of neck fractures and can be use

  1. Utility of preoperative imaging diagnosis for a malignant tumor of the mandible. A malignant tumor of the mandible is difficult to discriminate from bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamio, Takashi; Imaizumi, Akiko; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Shibui, Takeo; Inoue, Kenji; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Sakamoto, Junichiro; Sano, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    We report our experience of a case with a malignant tumor of the mandible in which diagnostic imaging played an important role in the differential diagnosis and therapeutic strategy decisions. The patient was a 78-year-old woman who visited our hospital because of poor healing after tooth extraction. Multiple cytological diagnoses provided class II results, and a histopathological diagnosis of a biopsy also failed to show malignant findings. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis could not be made. Although the patient had a history of osteoporosis treatment, details of her medications were unclear. Therefore, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) could not be excluded, causing difficulty in management of the patient's condition. Eventually, we mainly focused on the diagnostic imaging and planned the therapeutic strategy in accordance with treatment for a malignant tumor. A postoperative histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed squamous cell carcinoma. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate among atypical diseases such as malignant tumors of the mandible and BRONJ, based solely on clinical or diagnostic imaging results. However, in the present patient, diagnostic imaging suggested a malignant tumor, and the appropriate treatment could be selected. (author)

  2. The Watinglo mandible: a second terminal Pleistocene Homo sapiens fossil from tropical Sahul with a test on existing models for the human settlement of the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbeck, D; O'Connor, S

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyses a fossil human mandible, dated to circa 10ka, from Watinglo rockshelter on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. The fossil is metrically and morphologically similar to male mandibles of recent Melanesians and Australian Aborigines. It is distinguished from Kow Swamp and Coobool Creek male mandibles (Murray Valley, terminal Pleistocene) by being smaller and having different shape characteristics, as well as smaller teeth and a slower rate of tooth wear. It pairs with the Liang Lemdubu female (Late Glacial Maximum, Aru Islands) in suggesting that the morphology of the terminal Pleistocene inhabitants of tropical Sahul was gracile compared to their contemporaries within the southern Murray drainage. An explanatory scenario for this morphological contrast is developed in the context of the Homo sapiens early fossil record, Australasian mtDNA evidence, terminal Pleistocene climatic variation, and the possibility of multiple entry points into Sahul. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. [Successful Awake Nasal Endotracheal Intubation with the McGrath Videolaryngoscope and a Soft-tipped Extra Firm Exchange Catheter in a Patient with a Necrotic Mandible].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Matsunami, Sayuri; Nakao, Kenta; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-03-01

    Here we report a case of successful awake nasal intubation with the McGrath videolaryngscope (McGrath) in conjunction with a soft-tipped extra firm exchange catheter in a patient with a necrotic mandible developing a hole. An 81-year-old woman underwent partial tongue resection and cervical lymph node dissection. After additional radiation therapy, she developed a necrotic mandible with a hole from the oral cavity to the neck region. She was scheduled for resection of the necrotic mandible under general anesthesia. Upon sedation with dexmedetomidine 1.0 μg xkg-(1 )-xhr-(1 )and applying topical anesthesia with lido-aine, we inserted the McGrath orally and the soft- ipped extra firm tube exchange catheter (TE) nasally. Under the guide of the McGrath's monitor, we inserted the TE, using Magill forceps, into her trachea. A 6.0 mm internal diameter spiral tracheal tube was inserted via the TE uneventfully.

  4. Clinical presentation of epignathus teratoma with cleft palate; and duplication of cranial base, tongue, mandible, and pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yujiro; Suenaga, Hideyuki; Sugiyama, Madoka; Saijo, Hideto; Hoshi, Kazuto; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Tsuyoshi

    2013-07-01

    A 2-day-old girl was diagnosed with an oral epignathus teratoma and an uncommon combination of orofacial malformations including cleft palate; tongue, mandible, cranial base, cervical vertebrae, lower lip, and pituitary gland duplications; and fistula of the glabella and lower lip. Computed tomography revealed that the mass within the nasal cavity had tooth-like calcifications and protruded into the nasopharynx and oral cavity. It was implanted on the anterior wall of the body of the sphenoid bone and was accompanied with mandibular duplication. Magnetic resonance imaging detected duplication of the pituitary gland and confirmed the absence of intracranial communication of the nasopharyngeal mass. The teratoma did not cause respiratory obstruction; however, the patient required continuous nasogastric tube feeding. Usually, an epignathus teratoma is associated with few midline defects and can be corrected with multiple interventions at different time points. The current study describes the surgical procedure comprising excision of the tumor along with reconstructive surgeries of the mandible, tongue, and fistulae undertaken when the infant reached 7 months of age. The cleft palate was repaired at 18 months of age using the Kaplan buccal flap method. Histopathologic examination confirmed a grade 0 teratoma covered with keratinized skin and containing pilosebaceous and sweat glands, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle. The long-term success of this intervention was determined at the follow-up examination conducted at 3 years of age, with no signs of the teratoma recurrence observed.

  5. Meckel’s and condylar cartilages anomalies in achondroplasia result in defective development and growth of the mandible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biosse Duplan, Martin; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Heuzé, Yann; Estibals, Valentin; Gaudas, Emilie; Kaci, Nabil; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Zerah, Michel; Kramer, Ina; Kneissel, Michaela; Porta, Diana Grauss; Di Rocco, Federico; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Activating FGFR3 mutations in human result in achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent form of dwarfism, where cartilages are severely disturbed causing long bones, cranial base and vertebrae defects. Because mandibular development and growth rely on cartilages that guide or directly participate to the ossification process, we investigated the impact of FGFR3 mutations on mandibular shape, size and position. By using CT scan imaging of ACH children and by analyzing Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, a model of ACH, we show that FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to structural anomalies of primary (Meckel’s) and secondary (condylar) cartilages of the mandible, resulting in mandibular hypoplasia and dysmorphogenesis. These defects are likely related to a defective chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation and pan-FGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-BGJ398 corrects Meckel’s and condylar cartilages defects ex vivo. Moreover, we show that low dose of NVP-BGJ398 improves in vivo condyle growth and corrects dysmorphologies in Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice, suggesting that postnatal treatment with NVP-BGJ398 mice might offer a new therapeutic strategy to improve mandible anomalies in ACH and others FGFR3-related disorders. PMID:27260401

  6. Postnatal width changes in the internal structures of the human mandible: a longitudinal three-dimensional cephalometric study using implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents case-specific quantitative evidence of the systematic lateral displacement of metallic implants in the mandibles of treated and untreated human subjects between the ages of 8.5 and 15.5 years. This evidence appears to be consistent with the inference of small, but systematic increases in distance between the internal structures of the two sides of the osseous mandible during growth. Such a conclusion, however, is inconsistent with traditional beliefs that the internal structures of the mandibular symphysis fuse at the midline during the first post-natal year and remain dimensionally constant thereafter. We recently published evidence of statistically significant transverse displacement of metallic implants in the mandibular body region for 12 of 28 subjects for whom longitudinal data were available. Of the twelve subjects for whom statistically significant changes were observed, widening occurred in eleven cases and narrowing in one. Matching data are now available on concurrent ramus changes for 22 of the same 28 subjects, including 11 of the 12 for whom statistically significant width changes had previously been noted in the body region. In eight of these 11 subjects, statistically significant widening in the ramus region was also observed. No subject had statistically significant widening in the ramus region without also having statistically significant widening in the body region. No subject had statistically significant trans-ramus narrowing.

  7. Topography of the inferior alveolar nerve in relation to cystic processes of the mandible in dental MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, B.; Stippich, C.; Sartor, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Cystic processes are changing the course of the inferior alveolar nerve in the mandible. This study evaluates the possibility of demonstrating the relationship between space-occupying processes and the course of the neurovascular bundle. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients with cystic processes in the mandible (9 keratocystic lesions, 1 eosinophilic granuloma, 1 plasmocytoma, 2 adamantinomas) were examined by MRI (1.5-T magnet, 8-cm surface coil, PD-gradient-echo-sequences in sagittal and coronal orientation, without enhancement) and the results retrospectively evaluated. Results: The entire course of the nerve could be delineated in all patients. In six patients with minor cystic processes, the nerve was identified in both sagittal and coronal orientation. In seven patients with major cystic lesions, only parts of the nerve were detected in either image orientation, but the nerve could be visualized in its entire length by evaluating coronal and sagittal images side by side. Conclusion: It is possible to delineate the inferior alveolar nerve in its entirety along pathologic mandibular lesions. For large cystic lesions, this requires the evaluation of both coronal and sagittal sections of multidirectional MRI. (orig.) [de

  8. Preliminarily measurement and analysis of sawing forces in fresh cadaver mandible using reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yua, Dedong; Zhengb, Xiaohu; Chenc, Ming; Shend, Steve G F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to preliminarily measure and analyze the cutting forces in fresh Chinese cadaver mandible using a clinically widely used reciprocating saw for reality-based haptic feedback. Eight mandibles were taken from fresh Chinese cadavers, 4 females and 4 males, aged between 59 and 95 years. A set of sawing experiments, using a surgery Stryker micro-reciprocating saw and Kistler piezoelectric dynamometer, was carried out by a CNC machining center. Under different vibration frequencies of saw and feeding rates measured from orthognathic surgery, sawing forces were recorded by a signal acquisition system. Remarkably different sawing forces were measured from different cadavers. Feed and vibration frequency of the reciprocating saw could determine the cutting forces only on 1 body. To reduce the impact of bone thickness changes on the cutting force measurements, all the cutting force data should be converted to the force of unit cutting length. The vibration frequency of haptic feedback system is determined by main cutting forces. Fast Fourier transform method can be used to calculate the frequency of this system. To simulate surgery in higher fidelity, all the sawing forces from the experiment should be amended by experienced surgeons before use in virtual reality surgery simulator. Sawing force signals of different ages for force feedback were measured successfully, and more factors related to the bone mechanical properties, such as bone density, should be concerned in the future.

  9. Implantation of Octacalcium Phosphate Stimulates both Chondrogenesis and Osteogenesis in the Tibia, but Only Osteogenesis in the Rat Mandible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sargolzaei Aval

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of problem: It is not known whether endochondral and intramembranous bones have distinct biological characteristics. Octacalcium Phosphate (OCP, a hydroxyapatite precursor, has been reported to stimulate bone formation after being implanted in parietal bone defects of rats.Purpose: The present study was designed to investigate the response of endochondral and intramembranous bones to OCP implantation and to compare their biological characteristicsMaterials and Methods: Full-thickness standardized trephine defects were made in rat tibiae and mandibles and synthetic OCP was implanted into the defects. The biologic response was examined histologically to identify bone and cartilage formation.Results: Both chondrogenesis and osteogenesis were initiated in the tibia, 1 week after implantation of OCP and most of the cartilage was replaced by bone at week 2.However, the mandible only showed osteogenesis in response to OCP implantation at week 2, and no cartilage formation was associated with the osteogenesis.Conclusions: According to the results obtained in the present study, endochondral and intramembranous bones exhibit different biological responses to OCP implantation in rats.

  10. Evaluation of imaging reformation with cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of bone density and shape in mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sang Woo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwan, Eui Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Diagnostic estimation of destruction and formation of bone has the typical limit according to capacity of x-ray generator and image detector. So the aim of this study was to find out how much it can reproduce the shape and the density of bone in the case of using recently developed dental type of cone beam computed tomography, and which image is applied by new detector and mathematic calculation. Cone beam computed tomography (PSR 9000N, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd., Japan) and soft x-ray radiography were executed on dry mandible that was already decalcified during 5 hours, 10 hours, 15 hours, 20 hours, and 25 hours. Estimating and comparing of those came to the following results. The change of inferior border of mandible and anterior border of ramous in the region of cortical bone was observed between first 5 and 10 hours of decalcification. The reproduction of shape and density in the region of cortical bone and cancellous bone can be hardly observed at cone beam computed tomography compared with soft x-ray radiography. The difference of decrease of bone density according to hours of decalcification increase was not reproduced at cone beam computed tomography compared with soft x-ray radiography. CBCT images revealed higher spatial resolution. However, contrast resolution in region of low contrast sensitivity is the inferiority of images' property.

  11. Three-dimensional assessment of the temporal bone and mandible deformations in patients with congenital aural atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yaoyao; Li, Chenlong; Dai, Peidong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the deformations of temporal bone and mandible combined with congenital aural atresia. A total of 158 patients with congenital aural atresia were included in the study. The raw CT data of the temporal bone was imported into MIMICS v 12 and threshold dissection, region growing and three-dimensional (3D) calculation were used to calculate 3D models. The 3D characteristics of the temporal bone and upper part of mandible were assessed. The tympanic part of the temporal bone was all undeveloped. Of all the patients included, 14 patients were found to have severe maxillofacial malformations. Among them, 2 cases have floating arch, 4 cases have interrupted arch, 5 cases have mandibular processes hypoplasia and 3 cases have interrupted arch combined with severe maxillary malformation. Ten of the 14 patients were suffered from dysplasia of the mastoid part of the temporal bone as well. Maxillofacial malformations may sometimes coexist with congenital aural atresia. Otolaryngologists should not neglect the coexisted maxillofacial malformations and give timely referral to maxillofacial surgeons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  13. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  14. Different morphotypes of the tabby (EDA) dentition in the mouse mandible result from a defect in the mesio-distal segmentation of dental epithelium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterková, Renata; Kristenová, Pavlína; Lesot, H.; Lisi, S.; Vonesch, J. L.; Gendrault, J. L.; Peterka, Miroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 5, - (2002), s. 215-226 ISSN 1397-5927 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7039901; GA ČR GA304/02/0448; GA MŠk OC B8.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : development * ectodermal dysplasia * EDA Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  15. Effect of Heavy Smoking on Dental Implants Placed in Male Patients Posterior Mandibles: A Prospective Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cong; Zhao, Jinxiu; Jianghao, Chen; Hong, Tao

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implant stability and peri-implant tissue response in heavy smokers receiving dental implants due to partially edentulous posterior mandibles. Forty-five ITI Straumann dental implants were placed into the partially edentulous posterior mandibles of 16 heavy smokers and 16 nonsmokers. One implant in each patient was evaluated for implant stability after surgery and before loading, and for the modified plaque index (mPLI), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI), probing depth (PD), and marginal bone loss (MBL) after loading. Meanwhile, the osteogenic capability of jaw marrow samples collected from patients was evaluated via an in vitro mineralization test. For both groups, the implant stability quotient (ISQ) initially decreased from the initial ISQ achieved immediately after surgery and then increased starting from 2 weeks postsurgery. However, at 3, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postsurgery, the ISQ differed significantly between nonsmokers and heavy smokers. All implants achieved osseointegration without complications at least by the end of the 12th week postsurgery. At 6 or 12 months postloading, the MBL and PD were significantly higher in heavy smokers than in nonsmokers, whereas the mSBI and mPLI did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The 1-year cumulative success rate of implants was 100% for both groups. Within the limitations of the present clinical study (such as small sample size and short study duration), which applied the loading at 3 months postoperation, heavy smoking did not affect the cumulative survival rate of dental implants placed at the posterior mandible in male patients, but heavy smoking did negatively affect bone healing around dental implants by decreasing the healing speed. These results implied that it might be of importance to select the right time point to apply the implant loading for heavy smokers. In addition, heavy smoking promoted the loss of marginal bone and the further development

  16. Digital volume tomography in the diagnosis of periodontal defects: an in vitro study on native pig and human mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Reiner; Candir, Muhsin; Shiratori, Kiyoshi; Flores-de-Jacoby, Lavin

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study of native pig and human mandibles was to investigate the accuracy and quality of the representation of periodontal defects by intraoral radiography (IR), panoramic radiography (PR), computed tomography (CT), and digital volume tomography (DVT) in comparison with histologic specimens. Following the standardized preparation of periodontal defects (14 dehiscences, fenestrations, 2- to 3-walled intrabony defects, respectively; Class I, II, and III furcation involvement) in six pig and seven human mandibles, IR, PR, CT, and DVT were performed. The histologic specimens were produced by cutting blocks with the individual defects out of the mandibles, embedding them in acrylic, and producing sagittal and axial microsections. The intrabony defects were measured using appropriate software on the digitized IR and PR images programs. The histologic sections were measured by reflecting stereomicroscopy. The statistical comparison between the measurements of the radiographic images and those of the histologic specimens was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. The quality of the radiographic images was determined through the subjective perception and detectability of the intrabony defects by five independent observers. All intrabony defects could be measured in three planes in the CT and DVT scans. Comparison with the histologic specimens yielded a mean deviation of 0.16 +/- 0.10 mm for the CT scans and 0.19 +/- 0.11 mm for the DVT scans. On the IR and PR images, the defects could be detected only in the mesio-distal and craniocaudal planes. In comparison with the histologic specimens, the IR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.33 +/- 0.18 mm and the PR images a mean deviation of 1.07 +/- 0.62 mm. The quality rating of the radiographic images was highest for the DVT scans. Overall, the CT and DVT scans displayed only a slight deviation in the extent of the periodontal defects in comparison with the histologic specimens. Both radiographic

  17. Digital volume tomography in the diagnosis of peri-implant defects: an in vitro study on native pig mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Reiner; Kruse, Björn; Flores-de-Jacoby, Lavin

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study of native pig mandibles was to investigate the accuracy and quality of the representation of peri-implant defects by intraoral radiography (IR), panoramic radiography (PR), computer tomography (CT), and digital volume tomography (DVT). The examination was carried out on 19 native pig mandibles. In the toothless sections of the mandibles, one or two implants were inserted. Following the standardized preparation of peri-implant defects (11 each of dehiscences, fenestrations, and 2- to 3-walled intrabony defects), IR, PR, CT, and DVT were performed. The peri-implant defects were measured using appropriate software on the digitized IR and PR image programs. As a control method, the peri-implant bone defects were measured directly using a reflecting stereomicroscope with measuring ocular. The statistical comparison between the measurements of the radiographic scans and those of the direct readings of the peri-implant defects was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient. The quality of the radiographic scans was determined through the subjective perception and detectability of the peri-implant defects by five independent observers. In the DVT and CT scans, it was possible to measure all the bone defects in three planes. Comparison with the direct peri-implant defect measurements yielded a mean deviation of 0.17+/-0.11 mm for the DVT scans and 0.18+/-0.12 mm for the CT scans. On the IR and PR images, the defects could be detected only in the mesio-distal and cranio-caudal planes. In comparison with the direct measurements of the peri-implant defects, the IR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.34+/-0.30 mm, and the PR images revealed a mean deviation of 0.41+/-0.35 mm. The quality rating of the radiographic images was highest for the DVT scans. Overall, the CT and DVT scans displayed only a slight deviation in the extent of the peri-implant defects. Both radiographic imaging techniques permitted imaging of peri-implant defects in three

  18. Immediate occlusal loading of implants in the partially edentate mandible: a prospective 1-year radiographic and 4-year clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Pär-Olov; Hellman, Mats; Sennerby, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present prospective clinical study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcome of immediately loaded implants in the partial edentulous mandible over a 4-year follow-up period using a modified surgical protocol, primary implant stability criteria, and splinting for inclusion. Patients in need of implant treatment in the partial edentate mandible were consecutively included in the study. The implant sites were underprepared to obtain maximal stability. Inclusion criteria for the study were torque of a least 30 Ncm before final seating of the implant and an ISQ greater than 60. A provisional fixed partial denture was delivered within 24 hours and a definitive fixed partial denture within 3 months. The patients were monitored with clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations for up to 4 years. Stability of the implants was measured with resonance frequency analysis at placement and after 6 months. Ninety-six patients were evaluated, and 77 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included. A total of 111 fixed partial dentures supported by 257 Brånemark System implants (77 turned and 180 TiUnite implants) were delivered. Four (1.6%) of the 257 implants did not osseointegrate, giving an overall survival rate of 98.4% after 4 years. Three turned (3.9%) implants and 1 oxidized implant (0.6%) failed after 4 to 13 months. The average marginal bone resorption was 0.7 mm (SD 0.78) during the first year in function. Turned implants showed an average bone loss of 0.5 mm (SD 0.8) and oxidized implants an average of 0.7 mm (SD 0.8). Resonance frequency analysis showed a mean implant stability quotient of 72.2 (SD 7.5) at placement and 72.5 (SD 5.7) after 6 months of loading. It is concluded that immediate loading of implants with firm primary stability in partially edentulous areas of the mandible appears to be a viable procedure with predictable outcome.

  19. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  20. Contribution to the radiological study of the eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible (Unifocal granuloma due to Langherans' cell histiocytosis); Contributo allo studio radiologico del granuloma eosinofilo della mandibola (granuloma unifocale da istiocitosi delle cellule di Lagherhans)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chigi, Gino; Pastremoli, Alessandro; Pisi, Paolo; Pastremoli, Alfredo [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipartimento di scienze odontomastologiche; Bianchi, Giuseppe [Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: The radiological diagnosis of osteolytic lesions of the mandible still constitutes a challenge in some pathological conditions in which the clinical data and the case history are relatively uniform and the radiological picture is lacking in any characteristics. Materials and methods: We reviewed the conventional radiograms of six cases of Langherans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) of the mandible examined over the last ten years. The X-ray examinations were performed in the lateral-oblique projection to allow a view of the horizontal portion of the mandible almost completely free of overlapping images of other bone structures. Results: We identified a series of radiological patterns for these reticulo-endotheliopathies capable of causing granuloma formed by polinuclear eosinophils, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and large mononuclear macrophages with granulopexic and phagocytic activity that proliferate in the bone tissue and can be identified as the Langherans' cells of skin, mucosa, periodontal cavities and bone marrow. The granulomatous tissue penetrates the affected organ elements and, in its spread, it compresses, atrophies, and destroyed the damaged tissue, replacing it. The alterations produced by Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma are most common in the skeletal system affecting, in order of frequency, the skull, the long bones of the limbs, the foot, the ribs and the spine. The oral mucosa is rarely involved. Conclusions: The radiological investigation of unifocal Langherans' cell histiocytic granuloma of the mandible is essential in the study of perimandibular swelling, although diagnosis is based on biopsy alone. In addition to digital or conventional radiography, other useful examinations are bone scintigraphy, Colour Doppler US, MR and CT, which enables a correct localisation necessary for planning the biopsy and treatment. [Italian] Scopo: La diagnosi radiologica delle lesioni osteolitiche della mandibola costituisce un problema

  1. The potential of the horizontal ramus of the mandible as a donor site for block and particular grafts in pre-implant surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soehardi, A.; Meijer, G.J.; Strooband, V.F.; Koning, M.J.J. de; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The results on 32 consecutive patients, who underwent bone grafting prior to implant surgery, are presented. The grafts were taken from the horizontal part of the mandible, including the full height of the buccal cortico-cancellous plate and were used to reconstruct alveolar defects or to augment

  2. Fully 3-dimensional digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible with a free vascularized fibula and immediate placement of an implant-supported prosthetic construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, Rutger H.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Lahoda, Lars U.; Van der Meer, W. Joerd; Roodenburg, Jan L.; Reintsema, Harry; Witjes, Max J.

    Background Reconstruction of craniofacial defects becomes complex when dental implants are included for functional rehabilitation. We describe a fully 3-dimensional (3D) digitally planned reconstruction of a mandible and immediate prosthetic loading with a fibula graft in a 2-step surgical approach.

  3. A 15-Year Comparative Prospective Study of Surgical and Prosthetic Care and Aftercare of Overdenture Treatment in the Atrophied Mandible : Augmentation Versus Nonaugmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Anita; Stellingsma, Cornelis; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundDifferent treatment strategies for the atrophied mandible are described in literature. The need for long term care and aftercare for these strategies is sparsely described, however. PurposeTo prospectively assess the need for prosthetic and surgical care and aftercare of two implant

  4. Multistage bone-charged distraction osteogenesis for aesthetic reconstruction of an extensive bone deficiency in the mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yorikatsu; Sasaki, Ryo; Ando, Tomohiro; Okano, Teruo; Akizuki, Tanetaka

    2012-01-01

    Alveolar and mandibular bone defects impair occlusion and affect the aesthetics of facial contouring, making it difficult to obtain a satisfactory outcome. Treatment with distraction osteogenesis (DO) is particularly difficult in cases in which the defective region extends to close to the inferior margin of the mandible. To overcome the limits of current DO, we developed a method as follows. In the first stage, a submucosal space necessary for bone grafting was prepared by soft tissue expansion through DO. In the second stage, an iliac corticocancellous bone was transplanted with its cancellous side in close contact with the new bone in the space formed on the labial side into this new space. In the third stage, the grafted bone was distracted. This technique requires time, but each surgery is of minimum invasiveness and does not leave a visible scar; use of this technique may expand the limited indication of current DO and dental implants.

  5. Lung abscess combined with chronic osteomyelitis of the mandible successfully treated with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hiromasa; Inui, Kenji; Watanabe, Keisuke; Watanuki, Kei; Okudela, Koji; Tsuboi, Masahiro; Masuda, Munetaka

    2015-04-01

    With the progress of antibiotic therapy, the mortality of lung abscess has been improved, and surgical intervention has declined. However, surgery is still required in selected cases that are intractable to antibiotic treatment. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is beneficial for treatment and/or diagnosis of pulmonary disease as it provides a less invasive surgical technique and reduces prolongation of post-operative recovery. However, the indication of VATS lobectomy for lung abscess is controversial as a result of particular complications, i.e. wet lung, intrapleural adhesion and ease of bleeding. We herein report a rare combination of lung abscess and osteomyelitis of mandible resulting from the same pathogen successfully treated with VATS lobectomy. We propose VATS lobectomy for lung abscess. This procedure might be the best treatment candidate for selected cases of lung abscess. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The use of radiographs for assessment of asymmetric growth in mandible with AAI. One patient's view report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syryjska, M.; Szyszka, L.; Post, M.

    2008-01-01

    The indices of asymmetry enable estimation and long-term control of mandibular growth. The aim of this study is to present 3 indices which have been used in case of atypical growth of left and right part of mandible. Radiograms in PA projection, panoramic views and CT scans of patient KK, aged 24, were used in this study. Comparative measurements and calculations of Habets index, Kjellberg index and own, angular asymmetry index (AAI) were performed. The analysis of left mandibular condyle and ramus showed severe anatomical deviations. Comparative evaluation of panoramic views allowed to observe progression of lesions responsible for asymmetry. Indices of asymmetry are objective method of mandibular growth estimation. Because of different gauge points and different way of calculation, presented indices: Habets, Kjellberg and AAI are incomparable, but each of them may be used as sufficient diagnostic tool. The angular asymmetry index (AAI) seems to be the simplest and quickest of all three. (author)

  7. Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant, of the mandible: report of a case and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Victoria L; Landesberg, Regina; Imel, Erik A; Singer, Steven R; Folpe, Andrew L; Econs, Michael J; Kim, Taeyun; Harik, Lara R; Jacobs, Thomas P

    2009-12-01

    Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that results in renal phosphate wasting with hypophosphatemia. In most cases, the underlying cause of TIO is a small mesenchymal neoplasm that is often difficult to detect, resulting in delayed diagnosis. One such neoplasm is the phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor, mixed connective tissue variant (PMTMCT), an unusual entity with unique morphologic and biochemical features. Most of these tumors are found at appendicular sites with only rare cases reported in the jaws. We describe a PMTMCT involving the mandible in a patient with a protracted history of osteomalacia. A review of the current literature is provided with emphasis on the clinical and histologic features, etiopathogenesis, and management of PMTMCT in the setting of TIO.

  8. Overdentures in the edentulous mandible supported by implants and retained by a Dolder bar: a 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heschl, Alexander; Payer, Michael; Clar, Volker; Stopper, Marlene; Wegscheider, Walther; Lorenzoni, Martin

    2013-08-01

    This prospective study was performed to evaluate the outcomes of XiVE® S plus implants (Dentsply Friadent, Mannheim, Germany) following conventional restoration with bar structures and overdentures in the edentulous mandible. A total of 39 patients were treated with four interforaminal implants (n = 156) splinted by a Dolder bar. Overdentures were attached to the bars after 3 months of healing. As primary outcome measures, clinical and radiological parameters were evaluated at the time of implant placement (baseline) and once a year (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 years) after functional loading. Secondary outcome measures included (i) primary stability and surgical complications, as well as (ii) Periotest® (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) values, implant survival, and prosthetic complications at baseline and follow-up. A total of 156 implants were placed. The vast majority (n = 149) were tightened to >30 Ncm, while torques in the range of 20-30 Ncm were obtained in the remaining cases (n = 7). Mean crestal bone levels around the implants were 0.41 mm at baseline and 1.04/1.20/1.34/1.45/1.44 mm after 1/2/3/4/5 years respectively. The mean values of the plaque, calculus, bleeding, and mucosal indices remained low throughout this period. The reported follow-up periods involved one implant loss after 3 months (survival rate: 99.4%) and one implant failure after 4 years (success rate: 98.4%). Prosthetic complications included factures of bars (n = 3) and denture teeth (n = 7). Prosthetic survival was 100%. Dolder bars to restore oral implants in the edentulous mandible appear to offer a high rate of implant survival, good stability of the peri-implant tissue, and a low rate of prosthetic complications. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Morphometric study on mandibular foramen and incidence of accessory mandibular foramen in mandibles of south Indian population and its clinical implications in inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; RaviVarman, C; Manoranjitham, R; Veeramuthu, M

    2016-12-01

    The mandibular foramen is a landmark for procedures like inferior alveolar nerve block, mandibular implant treatment, and mandibular osteotomies. The present study was aimed to identify the precise location of the mandibular foramen and the incidence of accessory mandibular foramen in dry adult mandibles of South Indian population. The distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of the ramus, posterior border of the ramus, mandibular notch, base of the mandible, third molar, and apex of retromolar trigone was measured with a vernier caliper in 204 mandibles. The mean distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of ramus of mandible was 17.11±2.74 mm on the right side and 17.41±3.05 mm on the left side, from posterior border was 10.47±2.11 mm on the right side and 9.68±2.03 mm on the left side, from mandibular notch was 21.74±2.74 mm on the right side and 21.92±3.33 mm on the left side, from the base of the ramus was 22.33±3.32 mm on the right side and 25.35±4.5 mm on the left side, from the third molar tooth was 22.84±3.94 mm on the right side and 23.23±4.21 mm on the left side, from the apex of retromolar trigone was 12.27±12.13 mm on the right side and 12.13±2.35 mm on the left side. Accessory mandibular foramen was present in 32.36% of mandibles. Knowledge of location mandibular foramen is useful to the maxillofacial surgeons, oncologists and radiologists.

  10. The Mouse That Soared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Astronomers have used an X-ray image to make the first detailed study of the behavior of high-energy particles around a fast moving pulsar. The image, from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, shows the shock wave created as a pulsar plows supersonically through interstellar space. These results will provide insight into theories for the production of powerful winds of matter and antimatter by pulsars. Chandra's image of the glowing cloud, known as the Mouse, shows a stubby bright column of high-energy particles, about four light years in length, swept back by the pulsar's interaction with interstellar gas. The intense source at the head of the X-ray column is the pulsar, estimated to be moving through space at about 1.3 million miles per hour. VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field VLA Radio Image of the Mouse, Full Field A cone-shaped cloud of radio-wave-emitting particles envelopes the X-ray column. The Mouse, a.k.a. G359.23-0.82, was discovered in 1987 by radio astronomers using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array in New Mexico. It gets its name from its appearance in radio images that show a compact snout, a bulbous body, and a remarkable long, narrow, tail that extends for about 55 light years. "A few dozen pulsar wind nebulae are known, including the spectacular Crab Nebula, but none have the Mouse's combination of relatively young age and incredibly rapid motion through interstellar space," said Bryan Gaensler of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and lead author of a paper on the Mouse that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "We effectively are seeing a supersonic cosmic wind tunnel, in which we can study the effects of a pulsar's motion on its pulsar wind nebula, and test current theories." Illustration of the Mouse System Illustration of the Mouse System Pulsars are known to be rapidly spinning, highly magnetized neutron stars -- objects so dense that a mass equal to that of the Sun is packed into a

  11. Osteosarcoma of the mandible mimicking an odontogenic abscess: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadage, Chetan J; Vaishampayan, Sagar; Kolhe, Swapnil; Umarji, Hemant

    2013-04-01

    Inflammatory lesions, like periapical/odontogenic abscesses, are by far the most common pathologic condition of the jaws. Radiographically, these lesions commonly manifest as widening of periodontal ligament space, discontinuity of lamina dura and ill-defined periapical radiolucency. There are some rare disorders which could cause similar radiographic changes in the jaw bone. With careful scrutiny of periapical radiolucency, regular periodic follow-up radiographs and histo-pathologic examination, the periapical abscess or infection can be differentiated from rare fatal disorders. This paper highlights the need for vigilant examination of even the commonest, innocuous-appearing periapical changes which sometimes are produced by some rare fatal disorders.

  12. Immunologic applications of conditional gene modification technology in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang

    2014-04-02

    Since the success of homologous recombination in altering mouse genome and the discovery of Cre-loxP system, the combination of these two breakthroughs has created important applications for studying the immune system in the mouse. Here, we briefly summarize the general principles of this technology and its applications in studying immune cell development and responses; such implications include conditional gene knockout and inducible and/or tissue-specific gene over-expression, as well as lineage fate mapping. We then discuss the pros and cons of a few commonly used Cre-expressing mouse lines for studying lymphocyte development and functions. We also raise several general issues, such as efficiency of gene deletion, leaky activity of Cre, and Cre toxicity, all of which may have profound impacts on data interpretation. Finally, we selectively list some useful links to the Web sites as valuable mouse resources. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  13. Variations in habitual bone strains in vivo: long bone versus mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W.C.; Korfage, J.A.M.; Langenbach, G.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical

  14. Variations in habitual bone strains in vivo: Long bone versus mandible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. C.; Korfage, J. A. M.; Langenbach, G. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the similarities and dissimilarities between daily in vivo strain histories of different bones, other than the generally accepted view that most bones need daily loading to maintain their mass. Similarities in daily strain histories might uncover a common basic mechanical

  15. Development of a transgenic mouse model to study the immunogenicity of recombinant human insulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torosantucci, Riccardo; Brinks, Vera; Kijanka, Grzegorz; Halim, Liem Andhyk; Sauerborn, Melody; Schellekens, Huub; Jiskoot, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used to assess the immunogenicity of therapeutic proteins and to investigate the immunological processes leading to antidrug antibodies. The aim of this work was to develop a transgenic (TG) Balb/c mouse model for evaluating the immunogenicity of recombinant human insulin

  16. Desmoplastic ameloblastoma in the anterior mandible crossing the midline: A rare variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appaji Athota

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA is a rare variant of ameloblastoma. One hundred and forty-five cases of desmoplastic ameloblastoma have been reported till 2007 in the literature. This article presents a rare case of desmoplastic ameloblastoma in the parasymphysial region. Review of the literature has revealed that the tumor most commonly occurs in the third to fifth decade of life, with a male predilection of 3:2. The anterior region of the maxilla is the part that is most commonly found to be affected. The radiological features reveal a mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesion with poorly defined to well-defined borders. However, our case differed from the reviewed cases, as it was found to be with well-defined borders. The histological findings of the case were consistent with the histological appearance of the reviewed cases and showed extensive stromal desmoplasia and small tumor nests of odontogenic epithelium scattered in the stroma.

  17. Malunited fracture of the body and condyle of the mandible : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishna Yeluri; Sudhindra Baliga; Autar Krishen Munshi

    2010-01-01

    Mandibular fractures are the most common facial fractures seen in hospitalized children and their incidence increases with age. Treatment options include soft diet, intermaxillary fixation with eyelet wires, arch bars, circummandibular wiring, or stents. Alternative options include open reduction and internal fixation through either an intraoral or extraoral approach. Many factors complicate the management of pediatric mixed-dentition mandibular fractures: tooth eruption, short roots, develop...

  18. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jan 29,2018 How much do you ... are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t a concern for children. High cholesterol ...

  19. How Common Is PTSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for PTSD » Public » How Common Is PTSD? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... here Enter ZIP code here How Common Is PTSD? Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, ...

  20. Value of PET/CT 3D visualization of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma extended to mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, R; Gantet, P; Julian, A; Hitzel, A; Herbault-Barres, B; Alshehri, S; Payoux, P

    2018-05-01

    To study an original 3D visualization of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma extending to the mandible by using [18F]-NaF PET/CT and [18F]-FDG PET/CT imaging along with a new innovative FDG and NaF image analysis using dedicated software. The main interest of the 3D evaluation is to have a better visualization of bone extension in such cancers and that could also avoid unsatisfying surgical treatment later on. A prospective study was carried out from November 2016 to September 2017. Twenty patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma extending to the mandible (stage 4 in the UICC classification) underwent [18F]-NaF and [18F]-FDG PET/CT. We compared the delineation of 3D quantification obtained with [18F]-NaF and [18F]-FDG PET/CT. In order to carry out this comparison, a method of visualisation and quantification of PET images was developed. This new approach was based on a process of quantification of radioactive activity within the mandibular bone that objectively defined the significant limits of this activity on PET images and on a 3D visualization. Furthermore, the spatial limits obtained by analysis of the PET/CT 3D images were compared to those obtained by histopathological examination of mandibular resection which confirmed intraosseous extension to the mandible. The [18F]-NaF PET/CT imaging confirmed the mandibular extension in 85% of cases and was not shown in [18F]-FDG PET/CT imaging. The [18F]-NaF PET/CT was significantly more accurate than [18F]-FDG PET/CT in 3D assessment of intraosseous extension of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This new 3D information shows the importance in the imaging approach of cancers. All cases of mandibular extension suspected on [18F]-NaF PET/CT imaging were confirmed based on histopathological results as a reference. The [18F]-NaF PET/CT 3D visualization should be included in the pre-treatment workups of head and neck cancers. With the use of a dedicated software which enables objective delineation of

  1. Common Law and Un-common Sense

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Roger

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the practical and conceptual differences which arise when juries are invited to apply their common sense in assessing reasonable behaviour in the midst of an ethnically plural society. The author explores the conundrums which the increasing salience of ethnic pluralism has now begun to pose in legal terms, most especially with respect to organisation of system for the equitable administration and delivery of justice in the context of an increasingly heterogeneous society. ...

  2. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals

  3. Autopsy and histological analysis of the transgenic mouse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijbels, Marion J. J.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades, transgenic and knock-out mouse models have become common use in research laboratories. Detailed phenotypic characterization of such models is essential for understanding basic mechanisms of normal physiology and disease. Hereto, pathological examination is a very helpful tool.

  4. Comparison of (stereotactic) parcellations in mouse prefrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werd, H.J.J.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study compares the cytoarchitectonic parcellation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in the mouse as presented in publications that are commonly used for identifying brain areas. Agreement was found to be greater for boundaries in the medial PFC than in the lateral PFC and lowest for those in the

  5. Radiation necrosis of the mandible: a 10 year study. Part II. Dental factors; onset, duration and management of necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, C.G.; Herson, J.; Daly, T.E.; Zimmerman, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a review of patients receiving radiation for cancer in the oral region the rate of radiation necrosis of the mandible was found to be similar for patients who had dental extractions before radiation therapy and for the remainder of the dentate population. It was suggested that diseased teeth should be removed prior to irradiation and sufficient healing time should be allowed. Teeth should not be extracted after irradiation. Dental prostheses can be provided for most irradiated patients if adequate care is exercised. The probability of necrosis commencing was highest three to twelve months after the start of therapy; it diminished gradually after that period. The duration of necrosis was depicted as an exponential curve with a constant probability of necrosis termination at each time point after onset. In 46.8% of the patients in study II (1971-1975), the necrosis was healed by conservative means. This was a significant increase over study I (1966-1969), and a complementary reduction in the necessity for surgical intervention was also found

  6. A review of clinical and technical considerations for fixed and removable implant prostheses in the edentulous mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola Ursula; Marinello, Carlo Paolo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present article is to review some of the technical treatment options for implant prostheses restoring the edentulous mandible, mainly based on the Brånemark system. Clinical and technical aspects are discussed for the three established concepts: (1) implant-supported fixed prosthesis, (2) removable implant-supported overdenture, and (3) combined implant-retained and soft tissue-supported overdenture prosthesis. The framework of an implant-supported fixed screw-retained prosthesis can be processed in gold, Co-Cr alloy, or titanium with casting, laser-welding, or milling techniques. To improve the stability and retention of a conventional complete denture, one to four implants are indicated, and unsplinted (single attachments) or splinted designs (bar systems) can be applied. The design of the overdenture prosthesis must be carefully planned according to the requirements to ensure adequate stability and optimal form, contour, and esthetics, and the patient's best comfort. A large variety of different treatment modalities exist for both the fixed and removable mandibular implant prosthesis. Clinical and technical aspects should be considered at the beginning of the treatment to: (1) select the optimal implant position, (2) establish an adequate number of functional units, (3) select the appropriate retainers, and (4) apply the best technique for framework processing and veneering.

  7. Wire fixation osteosynthesis for the emergency treatment of patients with mandible fractures: A report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Oré Acevedo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Currently, titanium plates and screws are the gold standard osteosynthesis treatment of facial bone fractures. Techniques considerer obsoletes like surgical wires osteosynthesis are not used anymore, but it is necessary to bear in mind the possibility of using wire for the treatment of cases in emergency, and in which we do not have immediately available sterile implants such as plates and screws. Objectives: Describe the mandibular osteosynthesis with surgical wire as an acceptable surgical treatment when plates and screws are not avaliable. Description: Three cases of patients with mandible fractures were presented, treated on emergency with wire. Two cases were the gunshot injuries and the remaining one suffered a recreational accident. Which required immediate treatment due to the magnitude of the damage, bone exposure and persistence of active bleeding. Conclusions: The use of surgical wire for the treatment of mandibular fractures should not be ignored and is a good alternative for situations where titanium plates and screws are not available due to economic reasons or access. The surgical outcome is stable and allows restoring partially mandibular anatomy and function looking forward a future reconstruction.

  8. The effect of extracapsular injuries on growth and development of the mandible condyle: an experimental study in growing dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siying; Tian, Lei; Ding, Mingchao; Liu, Yanpu; Li, Guiyu; Chen, Jinwu; Ding, Yin

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the effects of condylar extracapsular injuries on the development of the mandibular condyle and try to find a way to treat condylar hyperplasia by electively using such injuries to restrict the overdeveloped mandibular condyle. Sixty 6-month-old beagle puppies were divided randomly into five groups: blank control; unilateral fracture to the condylar neck; unilateral fracture to the condylar neck treated with rigid internal fixation; unilateral periosteum injury; unilateral decortication of the condylar neck. Computed tomography, 99 m Tc single-photon emission computed tomography, and tetracycline-calcein double-labeling were performed after surgery. The puppies were sacrificed 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. Morphologic analyses and examination of growth activity were done. Unilateral fracture of the condylar neck without fixation caused local morphologic changes during the early postoperative period, but compensatory growth of the condyle altered such changes after healing. The other types of injury failed to inhibit the growth of the condyle and the mandible, whereas functional deviation of the chin was found after unilateral fracture of the condylar neck with or without fixation. The four types of extracapsular injury described here failed to inhibit the growth of the mandibular condyle and could not be selected as alternatives to treat condylar hyperplasia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Filiz; Uysal, Ismihan Ilknur; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Fazliogullari, Zeliha; Unver Dogan, Nadire; Karabulut, Ahmet Kagan

    2018-03-01

    The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched. The presence of lingual vascular canals, and the number of median and lateral canals was determined, and the length of the median lingual vascular canals measured. All measurement parameters were analyzed by gender, side and age group. Eleven patients demonstrated a total of 15 accessory mental foramen. Median lingual vascular canals were observed in 100% of cases, with lateral lingual vascular canals determined in 32%. Significant differences were observed in the results of different gender groups (P mental foramen was determined mostly in males, and unilaterally on the right side; also, the distances of mental foramen, except the distance from the back border of the mandible (P mental foramen, as well as the presence, position and size of lingual vascular canals can be clearly investigated by multidetector computed tomography. A preoperative knowledge of the positions of neurovascular and bone structures is very important for preventing complications that may occur during or after operations.

  10. Ecomorphological analysis of bovid mandibles from Laetoli Tanzania using 3D geometric morphometrics: Implications for hominin paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Frances L; Plummer, Thomas W; Raaum, Ryan L

    2018-01-01

    The current study describes a new method of mandibular ecological morphology (ecomorphology). Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics (3D GM) was used to quantify mandibular shape variation between extant bovids with different feeding preferences. Landmark data were subjected to generalized Procrustes analysis (GPA), principal components analysis (PCA), and discriminant function analysis (DFA). The PCA resulted in a continuum from grazers to browsers along PC1 and DFA classified 88% or more of the modern specimens to the correct feeding category. The protocol was reduced to a subset of landmarks on the mandibular corpus in order to make it applicable to incomplete fossils. The reduced landmark set resulted in greater overlap between feeding categories but maintained the same continuum as the complete landmark model. The DFA resubstitution and jackknife analyses resulted in classification success rates of 85% and 80%, respectively. The reduced landmark model was applied to fossil mandibles from the Upper Laetolil Beds (∼4.3-3.5 Ma) and Upper Ndolanya Beds (∼2.7-2.6 Ma) at Laetoli, Tanzania in order to assess antelope diet, and indirectly evaluate paleo-vegetation structure. The majority of the fossils were classified by the DFA as browsers or mixed feeders preferring browse. Our results indicate a continuous presence of wooded habitats and are congruent with recent environmental studies at Laetoli indicating a mosaic woodland-bushland-grassland savanna ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Separate development of the maxilla and mandible is controlled by regional signaling of the maxillomandibular junction during avian development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Hye-Jin; Park, Tae-Jin; Piao, Zhenngu; Lee, Sang-Hwy

    2017-01-01

    Syngnathia is a congenital craniofacial disorder characterized by bony or soft tissue fusion of upper and lower jaws. Previous studies suggested some causative signals, such as Foxc1 or Bmp4, cause the disruption of maxillomandibular identity, but their location and the interactive signals involved remain unexplored. We wanted to examine the embryonic origin of syngnathia based on the assumption that it may be located at the separation between the maxillary and mandibular processes. This region, known as the maxillomandibular junction (MMJ), is involved in segregation of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme into the presumptive upper and lower jaws. Here we investigated the role of Fgf, Bmp, and retinoid signaling during development of MMJ in chicken embryos. By changing the levels of these signals with bead implants, we induced syngnathia with microstomia on the treated side, which showed increased Barx1 and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression. Redistribution of proliferating cells was also observed at the proximal region to maxillary and mandibular arch around MMJ. We propose that interactive molecular signaling by Fgfs, Bmps, and retinoids around MMJ is required for normal separation of the maxilla and mandible, as well as the proper positioning of beak commissure during early facial morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 246:28-40, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Enhanced Critical Size Defect Repair in Rabbit Mandible by Electrospun Gelatin/β-TCP Composite Nanofibrous Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and fabrication of biodegradable barrier membranes with satisfactory structure and composition remain a considerable challenge for periodontal tissue regeneration. We have developed a biomimetic nanofibrous membrane made from a composite of gelatin and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP. We previously confirmed the in vitro biological performance of the membrane material, but the efficacy of the membranes in promoting bone repair in situ has not yet been examined. Gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibers were fabricated by incorporation of 20 wt.% β-TCP nanoparticles into electrospun gelatin nanofibers. Electron microscopy showed that the composite membranes presented a nonwoven structure with an interconnected porous network and had a rough surface due to the β-TCP nanoparticles, which were distributed widely and uniformly throughout the gelatin-fiber matrix. The repair efficacy of rabbit mandible defects implanted with bone substitute (Bio-Oss and covered with the gelatin/β-TCP composite nanofibrous membrane was evaluated in comparison with pure gelatin nanofibrous membrane. Gross observation, histological examination, and immunohistochemical analysis showed that new bone formation and defect closure were significantly enhanced by the composite membranes compared to the pure gelatin ones. From these results, we conclude that nanofibrous gelatin/β-TCP composite membranes could serve as effective barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration.

  13. Mandibular kinematics and maximum voluntary bite force following segmental resection of the mandible without or with reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsen, Sabine S; Oikonomou, Annina; Martini, Markus; Teschke, Marcus

    2018-05-01

    The purpose was to analyze mandibular kinematics and maximum voluntary bite force in patients following segmental resection of the mandible without and with reconstruction (autologous bone, alloplastic total temporomandibular joint replacement (TMJ TJR)). Subjects operated from April 2002 to August 2014 were enrolled in the study. Condylar (CRoM) and incisal (InRoM) range of motion and deflection during opening, condylar retrusion, incisal lateral excursion, mandibular rotation angle during opening, and maximum voluntary bite force were determined on the non-affected site and compared between groups. Influence of co-factors (defect size, soft tissue deficit, neck dissection, radiotherapy, occlusal contact zones (OCZ), and time) was determined. Twelve non-reconstructed and 26 reconstructed patients (13 autologous, 13 TMJ TJR) were included in the study. InRoM opening and bite force were significantly higher (P ≤ .024), and both condylar and incisal deflection during opening significantly lower (P ≤ .027) in reconstructed patients compared with non-reconstructed. Differences between the autologous and the TMJ TJR group were statistically not significant. Co-factors defect size, soft tissue deficit, and neck dissection had the greatest impact on kinematics and number of OCZs on bite force. Reconstructed patients (both autologous and TMJ TJR) have better overall function than non-reconstructed patients. Reconstruction of segmental mandibular resection has positive effects on mandibular function. TMJ TJR seems to be a suitable technique for the reconstruction of mandibular defects including the TMJ complex.

  14. Superior biocompatibility and osteogenic efficacy of micro-arc oxidation-treated titanium implants in the canine mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran Wei; Guo Bing; Shu Dalong; Tian Zhihui; Nan Kaihui; Wang Yingjun

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test implantation outcomes and osteogenic efficacy of plasma micro-arc oxidation (MAO)-treated titanium implants in dogs. Thirty-six pure titanium implants (18 MAO-treated, 18 untreated) were inserted into the mandibles of nine adult beagles and allowed to heal under non-weight-bearing conditions. Implant stability and interface characteristics were evaluated at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-implantation. Methods included scanning electron microscopy, mechanical testing, histological analysis and computer-quantified tissue morphology. Osseointegration was achieved in both groups, but occurred earlier and more extensively in the MAO group. Areas of direct bone/implant contact were approximately nine times higher in the MAO group than in the control group at 12 weeks (65.85% versus 7.37%, respectively; p < 0.01). Bone-implant shear strength in the MAO group (71.4, 147.2 and 266.3 MPa at weeks 4, 8 and 12, respectively) was higher than in the control group (4.3, 7.1, and 11.8 MPa at weeks 4, 8 and 12, respectively), at all assessments (all, p < 0.01). MAO treatment of titanium implants promotes more rapid formation of new bone, and increases bone-implant shear strength compared to untreated titanium implants.

  15. Comparative analysis of fracture characteristics of the developing mandible: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwani, Rizwan; Tombers, Nicole M; Rieck, Kevin L; Cofer, Shelagh A

    2014-07-01

    To review and compare the epidemiology and treatment of mandibular fractures in subgroups of a pediatric population. We conducted a retrospective review of pediatric patients (age, ≤18 years) with mandibular fractures treated at our institution from January 1996 through November 2011. We identified 122 patients (93 [76%] male) with 216 mandibular fractures. The prevalent mechanisms of injury were motor vehicle accidents (n=52 [43%]), sports injuries (n=24 [20%]), and assault (n=13 [11%]). The most common fracture sites were subcondylar, parasymphyseal, angle, and body. Two patients (2%) were treated conservatively by observation only, 67 (55%) underwent maxillomandibular fixation alone, 41 (34%) underwent maxillomandibular fixation with plate fixation, and 7 (5.7%) underwent plate fixation only. The average duration of maxillomandibular fixation was 26 days (range, 7-49 days). Complications occurred in 11 patients (9.0%) over a mean follow-up of 92 days (range, 21-702 days). Fifty patients (41.0%) had comorbid conditions or a history of mental illness at the time of injury, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=11 [9%]), mental disorders other than attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n=23 [19%]), and asthma (n=17 [14%]). Twenty-six patients (21%) had a history of substance use, the most common being tobacco (n=18 [15%]), alcohol (n=13 [11%]), and marijuana (n=11 [9%]). Treatment approach and outcomes were affected by age and fracture characteristics. In addition, a marked proportion of this cohort had preexisting mental disorders and history of substance use, which may have implications on treatment approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human and mouse choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. METHODS: We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. RESULTS: Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. CONCLUSION: Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE

  17. Vertical augmentation of the posterior atrophic mandible by interpositional grafts in a split-mouth design: a human tomography evaluation pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Eduardo Pinheiro; Ribeiro, Rafael Fernandes; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo; Côsso, Maurício Greco; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Using computed tomography, to compare vertical and volumetric bone augmentation after interposition grafting with bovine bone mineral matrix (GEISTLICH BIO-OSS ® ) or hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (STRAUMANN ® BONECERAMIC) for atrophic posterior mandible reconstruction through segmental osteotomy. Seven patients received interposition grafts in the posterior mandible for implant rehabilitation. The computed tomography cone beam images were analysed with OsiriX Imaging Software 6.5 (Pixmeo Geneva, Switzerland) in the pre-surgical period (T0), at 15 days post-surgery (T1) and at 180 days post-surgery (T2). The tomographic analysis was performed by a single trained and calibrated radiologist. Descriptive statistics and nonparametric methods were used to analyse the data. There was a significant difference in vertical and volume augmentation with both biomaterials using the technique (P  0.05) in volume change of the graft, bone volume augmentation, or augmentation of the maximum linear vertical distance between the two analysed biomaterials. The GEISTLICH BIO-OSS ® and STRAUMANN ® BONECERAMIC interposition grafts exhibited similar and sufficient dimensional stability and volume gain for short implants in the atrophic posterior mandible. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Occurrence of the Retromolar Foramen in Dry Mandibles of South-Eastern Part of India: A Morphological Study with Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Salem, Abdel-Halim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The retromolar foramen (RMF) is a rare anatomical structure situated in the retromolar fossa behind the third molar tooth. When it is present, the foramen is connected with the mandibular canal and is believed to transmit neurovascular structures that provide accessory source to the mandibular molars and the buccal area. Reports from the literature show that the presence of RMF could pose a challenge in complete blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve during mandibular surgeries. We report the incidence of retromolar foramen from ninety-four dry mandibles of south-eastern part of Karnataka State, India. The foramen was observed in 11 mandibles out of 94 included in the study (11.7%). In three mandibles, the foramen was present bilaterally (3.2%) and in three it was on the left side (3.2%) and in five it was on the right side (5.3%). For the first time, we also measured the dimensions of the retromolar area and distance of the foramen from third molar tooth to understand its risks during the surgical extraction of the lower third molar tooth. A thorough review of the literature has also been done to compare the present findings with the studies reported from the various populations. PMID:25489487

  19. The common good

    OpenAIRE

    Argandoña, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the common good occupied a relevant place in classical social, political and economic philosophy. After losing ground in the Modern age, it has recently reappeared, although with different and sometimes confusing meanings. This paper is the draft of a chapter of a Handbook; it explains the meaning of common good in the Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy and in the Social Doctrine of the Catholic Church; why the common good is relevant; and how it is different from the other uses...

  20. Secondary Involvement of the Mandible due to Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Mosannen Mozaffary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common cutaneous malignancy among Caucasians. Rare examples of aggressive and neglected BCC have been reported. Here we report a unique case of a neglected BCC with significant jaw involvement. A 50-year-old female, referred by an otorhinologist, presented with a large ulcer on her chin, which was extended to her mandibular vestibule. The ulcer was 9×5.5 cm in size, and tissue destruction, necrosis was observed in the central portion, and the mandibular bone was exposed. On intraoral examination, tooth mobility and severe bone loss were evident. Due to the primary cutaneous origin of the lesion, BCC was considered as preliminary diagnosis. Biopsy was performed and diagnosis of BCC was confirmed. The diseased mandibular bone was resected and reconstructed with a surgical plate. The soft tissue defect was reconstructed with deltopectoral flap. The patient refused secondary stage plastic surgery. Although BCC is not a lethal malignancy, if left untreated and neglected, it can result in severe destruction, disfigurement, and even mortality.

  1. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  2. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  3. Common Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Susan R.; Levine, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of common student mental health issues and approaches for student affairs practitioners who are working with students with mental illness, and ways to support the overall mental health of students on campus.

  4. Five Common Glaucoma Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Donate In This Section Five Common Glaucoma Tests en Español email Send this article to ... year or two after age 35. A Comprehensive Glaucoma Exam To be safe and accurate, five factors ...

  5. Common symptoms during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... keep your gums healthy Swelling, Varicose Veins, and Hemorrhoids Swelling in your legs is common. You may ... In your rectum, veins that swell are called hemorrhoids. To reduce swelling: Raise your legs and rest ...

  6. The Common Good

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt, Liv Egholm

    At present voluntary and philanthropic organisations are experiencing significant public attention and academic discussions about their role in society. Central to the debate is on one side the question of how they contribute to “the common good”, and on the other the question of how they can avoid...... and concepts continuously over time have blurred the different sectors and “polluted” contemporary definitions of the “common good”. The analysis shows that “the common good” is not an autonomous concept owned or developed by specific spheres of society. The analysis stresses that historically, “the common...... good” has always been a contested concept. It is established through messy and blurred heterogeneity of knowledge, purposes and goal achievements originating from a multitude of scientific, religious, political and civil society spheres contested not only in terms of words and definitions but also...

  7. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  8. Common Childhood Orthopedic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... pain. Toe Walking Toe walking is common among toddlers as they learn to walk, especially during the ...

  9. Evaluation of protein undernourishment on the condylar process of the Wistar rat mandible correlation with insulin receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Arthur CAVALLI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mandible condylar process cartilage (CP of Wistar rats is a secondary cartilage and acts as a mandibular growth site. This phenomenon depends on adequate proteins intake and hormone actions, including insulin. Objectives The present study evaluated the morphological aspects and the expression of the insulin receptor (IR in the cartilage of the condylar process (CP of rats subjected to protein undernourishment. Material and Methods The nourished group received a 20% casein diet, while the undernourished group (U received a 5% casein diet. The re-nourished groups, R and RR, were used to assess the effects of re-nutrition during puberty and adulthood, respectively. CPs were processed and stained with picro-sirius red, safranin-O and azocarmine. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results The area of the CP cartilage and the number of cells in the chondroblastic layer decreased in the U group, as did the thickness of the CP layer in the joint and hypertrophic layer. Renourishment during the pubertal stage, but not during the adult phase, restored these parameters. The cell number was restored when re-nutrition occurred in the pubertal stage, but not in the adult phase. The extracellular matrix also decreased in the U group, but was restored by re-nutrition during the pubertal stage and further increased in the adult phase. IR expression was observed in all CPs, being higher in the chondroblastic and hypertrophic cartilage layers. The lowest expression was found in the U and RR groups. Conclusions Protein malnutrition altered the cellularity, the area, and the fibrous cartilage complex, as well as the expression of the IRs.

  10. Human mandible bone defect repair by the grafting of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and collagen sponge biocomplexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R d’Aquino

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used a biocomplex constructed from dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (DPCs and a collagen sponge scaffold for oro-maxillo-facial (OMF bone tissue repair in patients requiring extraction of their third molars. The experiments were carried out according to our Internal Ethical Committee Guidelines and written informed consent was obtained from the patients. The patients presented with bilateral bone reabsorption of the alveolar ridge distal to the second molar secondary to impaction of the third molar on the cortical alveolar lamina, producing a defect without walls, of at least 1.5 cm in height. This clinical condition does not permit spontaneous bone repair after extraction of the third molar, and eventually leads to loss also of the adjacent second molar. Maxillary third molars were extracted first for DPC isolation and expansion. The cells were then seeded onto a collagen sponge scaffold and the obtained biocomplex was used to fill in the injury site left by extraction of the mandibular third molars. Three months after autologous DPC grafting, alveolar bone of patients had optimal vertical repair and complete restoration of periodontal tissue back to the second molars, as assessed by clinical probing and X-rays. Histological observations clearly demonstrated the complete regeneration of bone at the injury site. Optimal bone regeneration was evident one year after grafting. This clinical study demonstrates that a DPC/collagen sponge biocomplex can completely restore human mandible bone defects and indicates that this cell population could be used for the repair and/or regeneration of tissues and organs.

  11. Trueness and precision of digital impressions obtained using an intraoral scanner with different head size in the partially edentulous mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Hironari; Fueki, Kenji; Wadachi, Juro; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2018-03-01

    It remains unclear whether digital impressions obtained using an intraoral scanner are sufficiently accurate for use in fabrication of removable partial dentures. We therefore compared the trueness and precision between conventional and digital impressions in the partially edentulous mandible. Mandibular Kennedy Class I and III models with soft silicone simulated-mucosa placed on the residual edentulous ridge were used. The reference models were converted to standard triangulated language (STL) file format using an extraoral scanner. Digital impressions were obtained using an intraoral scanner with a large or small scanning head, and converted to STL files. For conventional impressions, pressure impressions of the reference models were made and working casts fabricated using modified dental stone; these were converted to STL file format using an extraoral scanner. Conversion to STL file format was performed 5 times for each method. Trueness and precision were evaluated by deviation analysis using three-dimensional image processing software. Digital impressions had superior trueness (54-108μm), but inferior precision (100-121μm) compared to conventional impressions (trueness 122-157μm, precision 52-119μm). The larger intraoral scanning head showed better trueness and precision than the smaller head, and on average required fewer scanned images of digital impressions than the smaller head (pdigital impressions. Digital impressions are partially comparable to conventional impressions in terms of accuracy; the use of a larger scanning head may improve the accuracy for removable partial denture fabrication. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia and titanium dental implants: an experimental study in the dog mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Benic, Goran I; Muñoz, Fernando; Kohal, Ralf; Sanz Martin, Ignacio; Cantalapiedra, Antonio G; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2016-04-01

    The aim was to test whether or not the marginal bone-level alterations of loaded zirconia implants are similar to the bone-level alterations of a grade 4 titanium one-piece dental implant. In six dogs, all premolars and the first molars were extracted in the mandible. Four months later, three zirconia implants (BPI, VC, ZD) and a control titanium one-piece (STM) implant were randomly placed in each hemimandible and left for transmucosal healing (baseline). Six months later, CAD/CAM crowns were cemented. Sacrifice was scheduled at 6-month postloading. Digital X-rays were taken at implant placement, crowns insertion, and sacrifice. Marginal bone-level alterations were calculated, and intra- and intergroup comparisons performed adjusted by confounding factors. Implants were successfully placed. Until crown insertion, two implants were fractured (one VC, one ZD). At sacrifice, 5 more implants were (partly) fractured (one BPI, four ZD), and one lost osseointegration (VC). No decementation of crowns occurred. All implant systems demonstrated a statistically significant (except VC) loss of marginal bone between baseline and crown insertion ranging from 0.29 mm (VC; P = 0.116) to 0.80 mm (ZD; P = 0.013). The estimated marginal bone loss between baseline and 6 months of loading ranged between 0.19 mm (BPI) and 1.11 mm (VC), being statistically significant for STM and VC only (P implants and control implants (STM vs. BPI P = 0.007; vs. VC P = 0.001; vs. ZD P = 0.011). Zirconia implants were more prone to fracture prior to and after loading with implant-supported crowns compared to titanium implants. Individual differences and variability in the extent of the bone-level changes during the 12-month study period were found between the different implant types and materials. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Comparison of 2 canal preparation techniques in the induction of microcracks: a pilot study with cadaver mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Ana; Lee, Yoon H; Peters, Christine I; Gluskin, Alan H; Peters, Ove A

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study in a cadaver model was to compare 2 different shaping techniques regarding the induction of dentinal microcracks. Three lower incisors from each of 6 adult human cadaver skulls were randomly distributed into 3 groups: the control group (CG, no instrumentation), the GT group (GT Profile hand files; Dentsply Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK), and the WO group (WaveOne; Dentsply Tulsa Dental). In the GT group, manual shaping in a crown-down sequence with GT Profile hand files was performed. In the WO group, Primary WaveOne files were used to the working length. Teeth were separated from the mandibles by careful removal of soft tissue and bone under magnification. Roots were sectioned horizontally at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex using a low-speed saw. Color photographs at 2 magnifications (25× and 40×) were obtained. Three blinded examiners registered the presence of microcracks (yes/no), extension (incomplete/complete), direction (buccolingual/mesiodistal), and location. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests at P < .05. Microcracks were found in 50% (CG and GT) and 66% (WO) of teeth at 3 mm, 16.6% (CG) and 33.3% (GT and WO) at 6 mm, and 16.6% in all 3 groups at 9 mm from the apex. There were no significant differences in the incidence of microcracks between all groups at 3 (P = .8), 6 (P = .8), or 9 mm (P = 1). All microcracks were incomplete, started at the pulpal wall, and had a buccolingual direction. Within the limitations of this pilot study, a relationship between the shaping techniques (GT hand and WaveOne) and the incidence of microcracks could not be shown compared with uninstrumented controls. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Histopathological studies of radiation-combined intra-arterial chemotherapy on squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonemochi, Takemi

    1996-01-01

    The 2nd Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry Hospital, Iwate Medical University has performed radiation-combined intra-arterial chemotherapy as a preoperative treatment and subsequent mandibulectomy. During a 20 year-period from 1975 to 1994, clinical and histopathological examination of the above therapy was made for its effect and usefulness by using 15 primary cases of mandibular gingival squamous cell carcinoma, which were all identifiable. Roentgenological examination by bone resorptive pattern (invasive type, erosive type) and by bone resorptive depth (degree 0-III) revealed that early infiltration case and advanced case were predominant in the erosive type and the invasive type respectively. Histopathologically, the therapeutical effect of the radiation-combined intra-arterial chemotherapy on the tumor cells was examined using osteoclast, fibrous connective tissue, osteoblast, new bone, site of neoosteogenesis, and post-treatment site of residual tumor ceils as findings in the healing process. The histological therapeutic effect was good on well-differentiated type cases, and the histological effect on osteo-infiltrated region was as good as, or better than on soft tissue region. The cases with good histological therapeutic effect scarcely showed osteoclast, but showed remarkable hyperplasia of fibrous connective tissue, appearance of osteoblast and repair mechanism via neoosteogenesis. Invasive type tumor was persistent in the depth of the mandible, while erosive type tumor showed a tendency to be persistent in superficial layer. The results suggested that the application of the present radiation-combined intra-arterial chemotherapy to mandibular gingival squamous cell carcinoma is very useful leading to the improvement in radical curability of the tumor in its primary focus and the preservation of mandibular continuity in surgery. (author)

  15. Coordination of early cellular reactions during activation of bone resorption in the rat mandible periosteum: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Hassan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The activation step of bone remodeling remains poorly characterized. Activation comprises determination of the site to be remodeled, osteoclast precursor recruitment, their migration to the site of remodeling, and differentiation. These actions involve different compartments and cell types. The aim of this study was to investigate events and cell types involved during activation. We used a bone remodeling model in rats where extractions of the upper jaw molars initiate remodeling of the antagonist lower jaw (mandible cortex along the periosteum. In this model osteoclastic resorption peaks 4 days after extractions. We previously reported that mast cell activation in the periosteum fibrous compartment is an early event of activation, associated with recruitment of circulating monocyte osteoclast precursors. By using immunohistochemistry, we observed 9 hours after induction a spatially oriented expression of InterCellular Adhesion Molecule-1 in the vessels that was inhibited by antagonists of histamine receptors 1 and 2. It was followed at 12 hours by the recruitment of ED1+ monocytes. In parallel, at 9 hours, Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1+ fibroblast-like cells scattered in the fibrous compartment of the periosteum between the vessels and the osteogenic compartment increased; these cells may be implicated in osteoclast precursor migration. Receptor Activator of NF KappaB Ligand+ cells increased at 12 hours in the osteogenic compartment and reached a peak at 18 hours. At 24 hours the numbers of osteogenic cells and subjacent osteocytes expressing semaphorin 3a, a repulsive for osteoclast precursors, decreased before returning to baseline at 48 hours. These data show that during activation the two periosteum compartments and several cell types are coordinated to recruit and guide osteoclast precursors towards the bone surface. Keywords: Biological sciences, Cell biology, Physiology, Dentistry

  16. Contributory role of the tongue and mandible in modulating the in-mouth air cavity at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, Pierre; Mishellany-Dutour, Anne; Peyron, Marie-Agnes; Woda, Alain

    2013-12-01

    The tongue-to-palate distance influences the volume of the in-mouth air cavity (IMAC), thus conditioning the entry of aromatic compounds to the olfactory mucosa site. This study was set out to record the IMAC volume by measuring tongue-to-palate distance at rest. Twelve young adults in good general health were tested--lips contacting, with at-rest posture of the tongue and jaw during a silent reading task. Observations in this study were limited to pre- and post-swallowing sequences. The tongue-to-palate distance was measured using three electromagnetic sensors placed on the tongue upper surface. IMAC volume was evaluated from a geometrical model, taking into account the tongue-to-palate distance, the IMAC transversal distance measured from dental casts and historic data giving the anterior-posterior distance of the oral cavity. (1) In the at-rest posture, the tongue-to-palate distance was significantly greater at the posterior sensor level. (2) A vertical shift in tongue posture at rest frequently appeared following deglutition. The upward shifts were of larger amplitude and more frequent than the downward shifts. (3) Evaluation of the IMAC volume gave an approximate value of 12 ml at rest. (4) The chin sensor at rest was 2.8 ± 0.8 mm below its position when in occlusion. The tongue and mandible contribute to shaping the IMAC volume. These and other results suggest that deglutition changes tongue-to-palate distance and influences aroma release during mastication/deglutition acts through modulation of the IMAC volume.

  17. Developmental changes in the skull morphology of common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Gen; Kato, Hidehiro

    2014-10-01

    We investigated growth-related and sex-related morphological changes in the skulls of 144 North Pacific common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata. Measurement was conducted at 39 points on the skull and mandible to extract individual allometric equations relating the length and zygomatic width of the skull. The results revealed no significant differences in skull morphology by sex except for width of occipital bone. The size relative to the skull of the anatomical parts involved in feeding, such as the rostrum and mandible, increased after birth. In contrast, the sensory organs and the anatomical regions involved in neurological function, such as the orbit, tympanic bullae, and foramen magnum, were fully developed at birth, and their relative size reduced over the course of development. This is the first study to investigate developmental changes in the skull morphology using more than 100 baleen whale specimens, and we believe the results of this study will contribute greatly to multiple areas of baleen whale research, including taxonomy and paleontology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Comprehensive Atlas of the Adult Mouse Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany R.; Wright, David K.; Gradie, Paul E.; Johnston, Leigh A.; Pask, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Mice are routinely used to study the development of the external genitalia and, in particular, the process of male urethral closure. This is because misplacement of the male penile urethra, or hypospadias, is amongst the most common birth defects reported in humans. While mice present a tractable model to study penile development, several structures differ between mice and humans, and there is a lack of consensus in the literature on their annotation and developmental origins. Defining the ontology of the mouse prepuce is especially important for the relevance and interpretation of mouse models of hypospadias to human conditions. We have developed a detailed annotation of the adult mouse penis that addresses these differences and enables an accurate comparison of murine and human hypospadias phenotypes. Through MRI data, gross morphology and section histology, we define the origin of the mouse external and internal prepuces, their relationship to the single human foreskin as well as provide a comprehensive view of the various structures of the mouse penis and their associated muscle attachments within the body. These data are combined to annotate structures in a novel 3D adult penis atlas that can be downloaded, viewed at any angle, and manipulated to examine the relationship of various structures. PMID:26112156

  19. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  20. Towards common technical standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Suardi, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, PETRONAS launched its Total Quality Management (TQM) program. In the same year the decision was taken by the PETRONAS Management to introduce common technical standards group wide. These standards apply to the design, construction, operation and maintenance of all PETRONAS installations in the upstream, downstream and petrochemical sectors. The introduction of common company standards is seen as part of an overall technical management system, which is an integral part of Total Quality Management. The Engineering and Safety Unit in the PETRONAS Central Office in Kuala Lumpur has been charged with the task of putting in place a set of technical standards throughout PETRONAS and its operating units

  1. COMMON FISCAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mursa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a common fiscal policy, designed to support the euro currency, has some significant drawbacks. The greatest danger is the possibility of leveling the tax burden in all countries. This leveling of the tax is to the disadvantage of countries in Eastern Europe, in principle, countries poorly endowed with capital, that use a lax fiscal policy (Romania, Bulgaria, etc. to attract foreign investment from rich countries of the European Union. In addition, common fiscal policy can lead to a higher degree of centralization of budgetary expenditures in the European Union.

  2. The mouse beam walking assay offers improved sensitivity over the mouse rotarod in determining motor coordination deficits induced by benzodiazepines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Joanna L; Lincoln, Rachael J; Brown, Terry A; McDonald, Louise M; Dawson, Gerard R; Reynolds, David S

    2005-05-01

    The mouse rotarod test of motor coordination/sedation is commonly used to predict clinical sedation caused by novel drugs. However, past experience suggests that it lacks the desired degree of sensitivity to be predictive of effects in humans. For example, the benzodiazepine, bretazenil, showed little impairment of mouse rotarod performance, but marked sedation in humans. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the mouse beam walking assay demonstrates: (i) an increased sensitivity over the rotarod and (ii) an increased ability to predict clinically sedative doses of benzodiazepines. The study compared the effects of the full benzodiazepine agonists, diazepam and lorazepam, and the partial agonist, bretazenil, on the mouse rotarod and beam walking assays. Diazepam and lorazepam significantly impaired rotarod performance, although relatively high GABA-A receptor occupancy was required (72% and 93%, respectively), whereas beam walking performance was significantly affected at approximately 30% receptor occupancy. Bretazenil produced significant deficits at 90% and 53% receptor occupancy on the rotarod and beam walking assays, respectively. The results suggest that the mouse beam walking assay is a more sensitive tool for determining benzodiazepine-induced motor coordination deficits than the rotarod. Furthermore, the GABA-A receptor occupancy values at which significant deficits were determined in the beam walking assay are comparable with those observed in clinical positron emission tomography studies using sedative doses of benzodiazepines. These data suggest that the beam walking assay may be able to more accurately predict the clinically sedative doses of novel benzodiazepine-like drugs.

  3. Common Privacy Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the common myths: Health information cannot be faxed – FALSE Your information may be shared between healthcare providers by faxing ... E-mail cannot be used to transmit health information – FALSE E-mail can be used to transmit information, ...

  4. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  5. Common Breastfeeding Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or duplicated without permission of the Office on Women’s Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. Page last updated: March 02, 2018. Common breastfeeding challenges Breastfeeding can be ...

  6. Common mistakes of investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Wai Pong Raymond

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral finance is an actively discussed topic in the academic and investment circle. The main reason is because behavioral finance challenges the validity of a cornerstone of the modern financial theory: rationality of investors. In this paper, the common irrational behaviors of investors are discussed

  7. Virtual reconstruction of the Early Pleistocene mandible ATD6-96 from Gran Dolina-TD6-2 (Sierra De Atapuerca, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martín-Francés, Laura; Modesto-Mata, Mario; Martínez de Pinillos, Marina; Martinón-Torres, María; García-Campos, Cecilia; Carretero, José Miguel

    2016-04-01

    In this report, we present a further study of the late Early Pleistocene ATD6-96 human mandible, recovered from the TD6-2 level of the Gran Dolina cave site (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) and attributed to Homo antecessor. ATD6-96 consists of a left half of a gracile mandible of an adult individual with the premolars and molars in place that is broken at the level of the lateral incisor-canine septum. The present analysis is based on a virtual reconstruction of the whole mandible by means of computed tomography (CT). We have reconstructed the symphysis using information from a modern human sample, as well as from a wide sample composed of several Homo specimens. This research has allowed us to record new variables with taxonomic and phylogenetic interest. We have estimated the length/width index of the alveolar arcade, as well as the percentage of the arcade length with regard to the total length. The latter confirms that ATD6-96 shares with all African and Asian Homo species a primitive structural pattern, as it was established in previous studies. In constrast, the length/width index of the alveolar arcade in the H. antecessor specimen is close to the mean values of Neandertals and the Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos hominins. H. antecessor is derived regarding the shape of the mandibular alveolar arcade within the genus Homo and points to an early divergence from contemporaneous African populations. Our results also ratify the affinities of H. antecessor with Neanderthals, although the precise relationship with this lineage needs further research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  9. Production of peptide antisera specific for mouse and rat proinsulin C-peptide 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, N; Madsen, O D; Kofod, Hans

    1990-01-01

    for antibody binding to the immunizing antigen. Antisera to C-peptide 2, stained islet beta-cells on mouse and rat, but not monkey pancreas sections in immunocytochemical analysis. Preabsorption to the synthetic C-peptide 2, but not the synthetic mouse and rat C-peptide 1 abolished staining. In conclusion we......Mice and rats have two functional non-allelic insulin genes. By using a synthetic peptide representing a common sequence in mouse and rat C-peptide 2 as antigen, we have produced rabbit antisera specific for an epitope which is not present in mouse or rat C-peptide 1. Long-term immunization did...... not seem to increase the end point titre as tested in direct ELISA. The specificity of the antiserum was determined by competitive ELISA and histochemistry on pancreas sections. Only the synthetic C-peptide 2, but not the homologous synthetic C-peptide 1 from mouse and rat competed efficiently in ELISA...

  10. Integration of mouse and human genome-wide association data identifies KCNIP4 as an asthma gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Himes, Blanca E.; Sheppard, Keith; Berndt, Annerose; Leme, Adriana S.; Myers, Rachel A.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Levin, Albert M.; Gauderman, W. James; Yang, James J.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Romieu, Isabelle; Torgerson, Dara G.; Roth, Lindsey A.; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Klanderman, Barbara; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Szefler, Stanley J.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Zeiger, Robert S.; Strunk, Robert C.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Boushey, Homer; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Israel, Elliot; Mauger, David; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A. E.; Vonk, Judith M.; Lima, John J.; Irvin, Charles G.; Peters, Stephen P.; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Tantisira, Kelan G.; Raby, Benjamin A.; Bleecker, Eugene R.; Meyers, Deborah A.; London, Stephanie J.; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Gilliland, Frank D.; Williams, L. Keoki; Burchard, Esteban G.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Ober, Carole; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Paigen, Beverly; Churchill, Gary; Shapiro, Steve D.; Weiss, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic respiratory disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). The genetics of asthma have been widely studied in mouse and human, and homologous genomic regions have been associated with mouse AHR and human asthma-related phenotypes. Our goal was to identify

  11. Fixation of fractures of the condylar head of the mandible with a new magnesium-alloy biodegradable cannulated headless bone screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, H; Franke, A; McLeod, N M H; Lauer, G; Nowak, A

    2017-07-01

    It is difficult to fix fractures of the condylar head of the mandible. Several techniques have been described which show satisfactory outcomes, but stability can be questionable, and some can cause irritation of the soft tissues. We describe a technique and first results of treating such fractures with resorbable magnesium-based headless bone screws (Magnezix ® 2.7mm CS; Syntellix AG, Hanover, Germany). Copyright © 2017 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The appearance of foramen in the internal aspect of the mental region of mandible from japanese cadavers and dry skulls under macroscopic observation and three-dimensional CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shunji; Kawai, Taisuke; Okutsu, Koichiro; Yosue, Takashi; Sunohara, Masataka; Sato, Iwao; Takamori, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    The lingual canal with foramen displays different appearances on the internal surfaces of mandible as confirmed by macroscopic observation and computerized tomography (CT). The lingual canal was observed in the inside of mental region run to the outside of lingual foramen, which is extend internally from mandibular canal in right and left sides of the mandible in cadavers (13 sides out of 88 sides) and in dry skulls (43 out of 94 sides) examined. The spinal foramen connected with mental canal occurred at the midline of mandible in 6 cases (6 out of 47 cases) in dry skulls. In this small foramen, the inferior alveolar artery give some branches to the inside of mental region at the anterior mandible and which may be run pass through the lingual canal to the lingual foramen, where they emerge to enter the mylohyoid or anterior belly of digastric muscles. The observations of these are important considerations for surgical placement of dental implants in the region in the mandible. (author)

  13. Functional correlates of the position of the axis of rotation of the mandible during chewing in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; Terhune, Claire E; Taylor, Andrea B; Ross, Callum F

    2017-10-01

    The location of the axis of rotation (AoR) of the mandible was quantified using the helical axis (HA) in eight individuals from three species of non-human primates: Papio anubis, Cebus apella, and Macaca mulatta. These data were used to test three hypotheses regarding the functional significance of anteroposterior condylar translation - an AoR located inferior to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) - during chewing: minimizing impingement of the gonial region on cervical soft tissue structures during jaw opening; avoiding stretching of the inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle (IANB); and increasing jaw-elevator muscle torques. The results reveal that the HA is located near the occlusal plane in Papio and Cebus, but closer to the condyle in Macaca; is located anteroinferior to the TMJ during both opening and closing in Papio, as well as during opening in Macaca and Cebus; and varies in its location during closing in Macaca and Cebus. The impingement hypothesis is not supported by interspecific variation in HA location: species with larger gonial angles like Cebus do not have more inferiorly located HAs than species with more obtuse mandibular angles like Papio. However, intraspecific variation provides some support for the impingement hypothesis. The HA seldom passes near or through the lingula, falsifying the hypothesis that its location is determined by the sphenomandibular ligament, and the magnitudes of strain associated with a HA at the TMJ would not be large enough to cause problematic stretching of the IANB. HA location does affect muscle moment arms about the TMJ, with implications for the torque generation capability of the jaw-elevator muscles. In Cebus, a HA farther away from the TMJ is associated with larger jaw-elevator muscle moment arms about the joint than if it were at the TMJ. The effects of HA location on muscle strain and muscle moment arms are largest at large gapes and smallest at low gapes, suggesting that if HA location is of functional

  14. Odontogenic Keratocyst of mandible

    OpenAIRE

    de Lima, José Lacet; Dias-Ribeiro, Eduardo; Honfi, Evaldo Sales; de Araújo, Túlio Neves; de Góes, Kilma Keilla Honório; Aragão, Maria do Socorro

    2006-01-01

    The Odontogenic Keratocyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst and deserves special attention because of its peculiar histopathologic features and biologic behavior. It is believed that the Odontogenic Keratocyst arises from the proliferation of remnants of dental lamina. It is usually asymptomatic, and solitary lesion, however, it may be associated with Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome. This work aimed to present a case of a very extensive Odontogenic Keratocyst in a 28-year-old woman.

  15. Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graupera, B.B.

    1977-01-01

    Osteoradionecrosis is extremely vicious and a paramount threat to a patient who receives radiation therapy predominantly to the mandibular area. For this reason, all aspects of the patient's situation that could be affected by radiation should be considered before radiation treatment begins. The three factors necessary for osteoradionecrosis to occur, radiation, trauma, and infection, are discussed and possible preventive measures explained. Evaluation of the patient's dental condition and relationship to the lesion and treatment plan is considered. There are three major methods of treating osteoradionecrosis: antibiotics before and after extractions following radiation treatment; optimal oral hygiene; and hyperbaric chamber. Continual communication and cooperation between the medical-dental team and patient greatly decreases the patient's chances of post irradiation complications

  16. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  17. Esophageal Cancer: Insights from Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Tétreault

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. Mouse models constitute valuable tools for modeling human cancers and for the preclinical testing of therapeutic strategies in a manner not possible in human subjects. Mice are excellent models for studying human cancers because they are similar to humans at the physiological and molecular levels and because they have a shorter gestation time and life cycle. Moreover, a wide range of well-developed technologies for introducing genetic modifications into mice are currently available. In this review, we describe how different mouse models are used to study esophageal cancer.

  18. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  19. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  20. Common anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxx-Orenstein, Amy E; Umar, Sarah B; Crowell, Michael D

    2014-05-01

    Anorectal disorders result in many visits to healthcare specialists. These disorders include benign conditions such as hemorrhoids to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with these disorders as well as know how to conduct an appropriate history and physical examination. This article reviews the most common anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, fecal incontinence, proctalgia fugax, excessive perineal descent, and pruritus ani, and provides guidelines on comprehensive evaluation and management.

  1. Common sense codified

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    At CERN, people of more than a hundred different nationalities and hundreds of different professions work together towards a common goal. The new Code of Conduct is a tool that has been designed to help us keep our workplace pleasant and productive through common standards of behaviour. Its basic principle is mutual respect and common sense. This is only natural, but not trivial…  The Director-General announced it in his speech at the beginning of the year, and the Bulletin wrote about it immediately afterwards. "It" is the new Code of Conduct, the document that lists our Organization's values and describes the basic standards of behaviour that we should both adopt and expect from others. "The Code of Conduct is not going to establish new rights or new obligations," explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources Department (HR). But what it will do is provide a framework for our existing rights and obligations." The aim of a co...

  2. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  3. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  4. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  5. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  6. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  7. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  8. Haemozoin Detection in Mouse Liver Histology Using Simple Polarized Light Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    DWI RAMADHANI; SITI NURHAYATI; TUR RAHARDJO

    2014-01-01

    The presence of malarial pigment (haemozoin) due to Plasmodium infection is a common histopathological effect in mouse liver. Previous research showed that by using a polarized light microscope, researchers were better able to detect haemozoin in mouse liver histology section. Thus, the aim of this research was to compare the haemozoin area observed by a conventional vs. simple polarized light microscope by using image processing analysis. A total of 40 images produced from both conventional ...

  9. Evaluation of bone scan by scintigraphy to detect subclinical invasion of the mandible by squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, H.L.; Woodbury, D.H.; Krause, C.J.; Saxon, K.G.; Stewart, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    A prospective study using scintigraphy was performed to compare the sensitivity of the Panorex roentgenogram and the bone scan in detecting subclinical invasion of the mandible by squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and floor of the mouth. Twenty-five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the floor of the mouth were evaluated preoperatively by both the Panorex and scintigraphic techniques and the results compared with postoperative pathologic findings. In 13 (52%) of the cases, Panorex and scintigraphic techniques were comparable in detecting tumor involvement in bone. In eight cases (32%) all three modalities had normal pathologic indications of the mandible. However, in four cases (16%) results of the scintigraphic techniques were abnormal and the Panorex, normal. In four separate cases, the extent of lesion demonstrable by scintiscanning was greater than delineated by Panorex; surgical specimen confirmed this finding. Pathologic examination of operative specimens confirmed tumor involvement. These data lead us to believe that the scintigraphic techniques may be more sensitive in detecting early mandibular involvement with squamous cell carcinoma than the Panorex technique and may help alter the therapeutic approach

  10. Educational effect of a lecture on differential imaging features comparing ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the mandible presented to dental students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Mitsuko; Ariji, Yoshiko; Kise, Yoshitaka; Goto, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Ariji, Eiichiro; Katsumata, Akitoshi

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the educational effect of a lecture on differential imaging features comparing ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the mandibles presented to dental students. Panoramic and CT images of 10 ameloblastomas and 10 keratocystic odontogenic tumors were randomly presented 114 dental students. Test scores, correct answer ratios, identification index, and understanding of the imaging features contributing to a correct diagnosis were serially evaluated before and after the lecture on the differential imaging features comparing the two types of tumors. The mean and standard deviation of the scoring ratios of dental students diagnosing these lesions on panoramic and CT images were 48.8±10.8% and 52.5±12.9%, respectively. After the lecture on the differential imaging features comparing the two tumors, the scoring ratios improved significantly. After the lecture, both the numbers of patients whose images were correctly diagnosed and the identification indices increased. The lecture also increased the number of imaging features recognized as contributing to the correct diagnosis. A lecture on the differential imaging features comparing ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors of the mandibles contributed to the improvement of imaging diagnosis skills among dental students. (author)

  11. Maxillary overdentures supported by anteriorly or posteriorly placed implants opposed by a natural dentition in the mandible: a 1-year prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slot, Wim; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-02-01

    For maxillary overdenture therapy, treatment guidelines are missing. There is a need for longitudinal studies. The purpose of this 1-year prospective case series study was to assess the treatment outcome of maxillary overdentures supported by six dental implants opposed by natural antagonistic teeth in the mandible. Fifty patients were treated with a maxillary overdenture supported by six dental implants, either placed in the anterior region (n = 25 patients) or in the posterior region (n = 25 patients). Items of evaluation were the following: survival of implants, condition of hard and soft peri-implant tissues, and patients' satisfaction. One-year implant survival rate was 98% in the anterior group and 99.3% in the posterior group. Mean radiographic bone loss in the anterior and posterior groups after 1 year of loading was 0.22 and 0.50 mm, respectively. Mean scores for plaque, calculus, gingiva, bleeding, and pocket probing depth were low, and patients' satisfaction was high, with no differences between the groups. Six dental implants placed in either the anterior region or the posterior region of the edentulous maxilla, connected with a bar, and opposed by antagonistic teeth in the mandible supply a proper base for the support of an overdenture. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Natural teeth-retained splint based on a patient-specific 3D-printed mandible used for implant surgery and vestibuloplasty: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Helin; Wu, Jinshuang; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Sefei

    2017-12-01

    With respect to improving the quality of oral rehabilitation, the management of keratinized mucosa is as important as bone condition for implant success. To enhance this management, a natural teeth-retained splint based on a patient-specific 3-dimensional (3D) printed mandible was used in vestibuloplasty to provide sufficient keratinized mucosa around dental implants to support long-term implant maintenance. A 28-year-old male patient had a fracture of the anterior andible 1 year ago, and the fracture was treated with titanium. The patient had lost mandibular incisors on both the sides and had a shallow vestibule and little keratinized mucosa. In the first-stage implant surgery, 2 implants were inserted and the titanium fracture fixation plates and screws were removed at the same time. During second-stage implant surgery, vestibuloplasty was performed, and the natural teeth-retained splint was applied. The splint was made based upon a patient-specific 3D-printed mandible. At 30-day follow-up, the splint was modified and reset. The modified splint was removed after an additional 60 days, and the patient received prosthetic treatment. After prosthetic treatment, successful oral rehabilitation was achieved. Within 1 year and 3 years after implant prosthesis finished, the patient exhibited a good quantity of keratinized gingiva. The proposed splint is a simple and time-effective technique for correcting soft tissue defects in implant dentistry that ensures a good quantity of keratinized mucosa.

  13. Common Influence Join

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yiu, Man Lung; Mamoulis, Nikos; Karras, Panagiotis

    2008-01-01

    We identify and formalize a novel join operator for two spatial pointsets P and Q. The common influence join (CIJ) returns the pairs of points (p,q),p isin P,q isin Q, such that there exists a location in space, being closer to p than to any other point in P and at the same time closer to q than ......-demand, is very efficient in practice, incurring only slightly higher I/O cost than the theoretical lower bound cost for the problem....

  14. English for common entrance

    CERN Document Server

    Kossuth, Kornel

    2013-01-01

    Succeed in the exam with this revision guide, designed specifically for the brand new Common Entrance English syllabus. It breaks down the content into manageable and straightforward chunks with easy-to-use, step-by-step instructions that should take away the fear of CE and guide you through all aspects of the exam. - Gives you step-by-step guidance on how to recognise various types of comprehension questions and answer them. - Shows you how to write creatively as well as for a purpose for the section B questions. - Reinforces and consolidates learning with tips, guidance and exercises through

  15. Building the common

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    document, A Common Immigration Policy for Europe: Principles, actions and tools (2008) as a part of Hague Programme (2004) on actions against terrorism, organised crime and migration and asylum management and influenced by the renewed Lisbon Strategy (2005-2010) for growth and jobs. My aim is to explore...... policy in the European Union is constructed and the categories and themes that are discussed. I will look also at the discourse strategies to show the linguistic representations of the social actors, who are excluded from or include in such representations. I will analysis a European Commission’s policy...

  16. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  17. Skeletal muscle repair in a mouse model of nemaline myopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Sanoudou, Despina; Corbett, Mark A.; Han, Mei; Ghoddusi, Majid; Nguyen, Mai-Anh T.; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hardeman, Edna C.; Beggs, Alan H.

    2006-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM), the most common non-dystrophic congenital myopathy, is a variably severe neuromuscular disorder for which no effective treatment is available. Although a number of genes have been identified in which mutations can cause NM, the pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the phenotypes are poorly understood. To address this question, we examined gene expression patterns in an NM mouse model carrying the human Met9Arg mutation of alpha-tropomyosin slow (Tpm3). We assessed five d...

  18. Mouse Resource Browser-a database of mouse databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouberakis, Michael; Chandras, Christina; Swertz, Morris; Smedley, Damian; Gruenberger, Michael; Bard, Jonathan; Schughart, Klaus; Rosenthal, Nadia; Hancock, John M.; Schofield, Paul N.; Kollias, George; Aidinis, Vassilis

    2010-01-01

    The laboratory mouse has become the organism of choice for discovering gene function and unravelling pathogenetic mechanisms of human diseases through the application of various functional genomic approaches. The resulting deluge of data has led to the deployment of numerous online resources and the

  19. Common Sense Biblical Hermeneutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Mangini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the noetics of moderate realism provide a firm foundation upon which to build a hermeneutic of common sense, in the first part of his paper the author adopts Thomas Howe’s argument that the noetical aspect of moderate realism is a necessary condition for correct, universally valid biblical interpretation, but he adds, “insofar as it gives us hope in discovering the true meaning of a given passage.” In the second part, the author relies on John Deely’s work to show how semiotics may help interpreters go beyond meaning and seek the significance of the persons, places, events, ideas, etc., of which the meaning of the text has presented as objects to be interpreted. It is in significance that the unity of Scripture is found. The chief aim is what every passage of the Bible signifies. Considered as a genus, Scripture is composed of many parts/species that are ordered to a chief aim. This is the structure of common sense hermeneutics; therefore in the third part the author restates Peter Redpath’s exposition of Aristotle and St. Thomas’s ontology of the one and the many and analogously applies it to the question of how an exegete can discern the proper significance and faithfully interpret the word of God.

  20. True and common balsams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayana L. Custódio

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Balsams have been used since ancient times, due to their therapeutic and healing properties; in the perfume industry, they are used as fixatives, and in the cosmetics industry and in cookery, they are used as preservatives and aromatizers. They are generally defined as vegetable material with highly aromatic properties that supposedly have the ability to heal diseases, not only of the body, but also of the soul. When viewed according to this concept, many substances can be considered balsams. A more modern concept is based on its chemical composition and origin: a secretion or exudate of plants that contain cinnamic and benzoic acids, and their derivatives, in their composition. The most common naturally-occurring balsams (i.e. true balsams are the Benzoins, Liquid Storaque and the Balsams of Tolu and Peru. Many other aromatic exudates, such as Copaiba Oil and Canada Balsam, are wrongly called balsam. These usually belong to other classes of natural products, such as essential oils, resins and oleoresins. Despite the understanding of some plants, many plants are still called balsams. This article presents a chemical and pharmacological review of the most common balsams.