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Sample records for mouse jejunal crypt

  1. The effect of ginkgo biloba extract on radiosensitivity of mouse skin and jejunal crypt

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    Shin, Kyung Hwan; Ha, Sung Whan [Seoul National Univ. Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract(GBE) is known to increase the peripheral blood circulation. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of GBE on the acute normal tissue radiation reaction. C3H mice were divided into two groups, radiation alone and two doses GBE plus radiation, for both acute skin reaction and jejunal crypt assay. GBE was given i.p. one hour before irradiation with priming dose given one day earlier. Thirty to Fifty Gy for acute skin reaction and 11 to 14 Gy for jejunal crypt were irradiated to right hind leg and whole body, respectively. Radiation doses(RD{sub 50}) for peak skin score of 2.0 were 44.2Gy(40.6-48.2Gy) for radiation alone and 44.4Gy(41.6-47.4Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, showing no effect of GBE on acute radiation skin damage. The numbers of regenerating jejunal crypts per circumference were also almost the same for each radiation dose level(p=0.57-0.94), and the mean lethal doses(D{sub o}) were 1.80Gy(1.57-2.09Gy) for radiation alone and 1.88Gy(1.65-2.18Gy) for two doses GBE plus radiation, indicating no effect of GBE on jejunal crypt cell survival after radiation. GBE doesn't increase acute normal tissue radiation reaction in this model system. As GBE was verified to enhance radiation effect on tumor, high therapeutic gain is expected when GBE is combined with radiation therapy.

  2. HIV enteropathy: crypt stem and transit cell hyperproliferation induces villous atrophy in HIV/Microsporidia-infected jejunal mucosa.

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    Batman, Philip A; Kotler, Donald P; Kapembwa, Moses S; Booth, Dawn; Potten, Christopher S; Orenstein, Jan M; Scally, Andrew J; Griffin, George E

    2007-02-19

    The study aim was to analyse the kinetics of stem and transit cells in the crypts of jejunal mucosa infected with HIV and Microsporidia. The size of villi, depth of crypts and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were measured using morphometric techniques. The surface area/volume ratio (S/V) of jejunal biopsies was estimated under light microscopy using a Weibel graticule. Crypt length was measured by counting enterocytes along the crypt side from the base to the villus junction, and the mean crypt length was calculated. The S/V and crypt lengths of the jejunal mucosa of 21 HIV and Microsporidia-infected test cases were compared with 14 control cases. The labelling index in relation to the crypt cell position of 10 of the test cases was analysed compared with 13 control cases. Differences were found in the S/V and crypt length, and there was a negative correlation between S/V and crypt length in test and control cases combined. Cell labelling indices fell into low and high proliferation groups. There were significant differences in labelling indices between low proliferation test cases and controls, between high proliferation test cases and controls, and between high and low proliferation test cases. Villous atrophy induced by HIV and Microsporidia is attributed to crypt cell hyperplasia and the encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. These infections induce crypt hypertrophy by stimulating cell mitosis predominantly in transit cells but also in stem cells. Increased stem cell proliferation occurs only in high proliferation cases.

  3. Radioprotective effect of captopril on the mouse jejunal mucosa

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    Yoon, Se-Chul; Park, Jeong-Mi; Jang, Hong-Seok [Catholic University Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1994-11-15

    Captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin I converting enzyme, has been shown to modify radiation damage and prevent radiation injury of normal tissue in rats and pigs. The present study was carried out to determine whether captopril would reduce radiation changes in the proximal small bowel in mice. Mice were subjected to whole body irradiation with 9 Gy or 15 Gy. Captopril was administered in drinking water at a regimen of 62.5 mg/kg/day (captopril group I) and 125 mg/kg/day (captopril group II), continuously from 7 days before irradiation to the end of each designed experiment. The jejunal damage was evaluated microscopically by crypt count per circumference and by histologic damage grading. Crypt number in the sham-irradiated control was 133 {plus_minus} 6.8/circumference. In both captopril group I and II, crypt numbers and histologic scores were not significantly different from those in the normal group. The 9 Gy and 15 Gy radiation alone groups showed significantly lower crypt counts and histologic scores compared with the sham-irradiated control group (p<0.05). The groups exposed to 9 Gy radiation plus captopril I and II showed significantly higher crypt counts and lower histologic damage scores on the third day, and lower histologic damage scores on the fifth day compared with the 9 Gy radiation alone group (p<0.05). The 15 Gy radiation plus captopril I and II groups had significantly higher crypt counts and lower histologic damage scores on the third day than those of the 15 Gy radiation alone group (p<0.05). All mice of the 15 Gy radiation group succumbed to intestinal radiation death. Our results suggest that captopril provides protection from acute radiation damage to the jejunal mucosa in mice. 28 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Optical coherence tomography imaging of colonic crypts in a mouse model of colorectal cancer

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    Welge, Weston A.; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2016-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are abnormal epithelial lesions that precede development of colonic polyps. As the earliest morphological change in the development of colorectal cancer, ACF is a highly studied phenomenon. The most common method of imaging ACF is chromoendoscopy using methylene blue as a contrast agent. Narrow- band imaging is a contrast-agent-free modality for imaging the colonic crypts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an attractive alternative to chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging because it can resolve the crypt structure at sufficiently high sampling while simultaneously providing depth-resolved data. We imaged in vivo the distal 15 mm of colon in the azoxymethane (AOM) mouse model of colorectal cancer using a commercial swept-source OCT system and a miniature endoscope designed and built in-house. We present en face images of the colonic crypts and demonstrate that different patterns in healthy and adenoma tissue can be seen. These patterns correspond to those reported in the literature. We have previously demonstrated early detection of colon adenoma using OCT by detecting minute thickening of the mucosa. By combining mucosal thickness measurement with imaging of the crypt structure, OCT can be used to correlate ACF and adenoma development in space and time. These results suggest that OCT may be a superior imaging modality for studying the connection between ACF and colorectal cancer.

  5. Radioprotective effects of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor in the jejunal mucosa of mouse

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    Ryu, Mi Ryeong; Chung, Su Mi; Kay, Chul Seung; Kim, Yeon Shil; Yoon, Sei Chul [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been widely used to treat neutropenia caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy. The efficacy of recombinant human hematopoietic growth factors in improving oral mucositis after chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been recently demonstrated in some clinical studies. This study was designed to determine whether G-CSF can modify the radiation injury of the intestinal mucosa in mice. One hundred and five BALB/c mice weighing 20 grams were divided into nine subgroups including G-CSF alone group (I: 10 {mu}g/kg or II : 100{mu}g /kg), radiation alone group (7.5 or 12 Gy on the whole body), combination group with G-CSF and radiation (G-CSF I or II plus 7.5 Gy, G-CSF I or II plus 12 Gy), and control group. Radiation was administered with a 6 MV linear accelerator (Mevatron Siemens) with a dose rate of 3 Gy/min on day O. G-CSF was injected subcutaneously for 3 days, once a day, from day -2 to day 0. Each group was sacrificed on the day 1, day 3, and day 7. The mucosal changes of jejunum were evaluated microscopically by crypt count per circumference, villi length, and histologic damage grading. In both G-CSF I and II groups, crypt counts, villi length, and histologic damage scores were not significantly different from those of the control one (p>0.05). The 7.5 Gy and 12 Gy radiation alone groups showed significantly lower crypt counts and higher histologic damage scores compared with those of control one (p<0.05). The groups exposed to 7.5 Gy radiation plus G-CSF I or II showed significantly higher crypt counts and lower histologic damage scores on the day 3, and lower histologic damage scores on the day 7 compared with those of the 7.5 Gy radiation alone one (p<0.05). The 12 Gy radiation plus G-CSF I or II group did not show significant difference in crypt counts and histologic damage scores compared with those of the 12 Gy radiation alone one (p>0.05). Most of the mice in 12 Gy radiation with or without G-CSF group showed

  6. Fluorescence-based SMC and OCT endoscope to study aberrant crypt foci in the mouse colon

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    Keenan, Molly; Leung, Sarah; Rice, Faith; Wall, R. Andrew; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2013-03-01

    The accepted model of colorectal cancer assumes the paradigm that aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are the earliest events in tumorigenesis and develop into adenoma, which further develop into adenocarcinoma. Under this assumption, basic research and drug studies have been performed using ACF as substitute markers for fully developed carcinoma. While studies have shown a correlation between the number of ACF present and the presence of adenoma/adenocarcinoma, a causal relationship has yet to be determined. The mouse has shown to be an excellent model for colorectal cancer; however, the outcomes of such experiments require sacrifice and histologic examination of ex vivo tissue. To better utilize the mouse model to study ACF and adenoma development, an endoscope was constructed for non-destructive in vivo surface visualization, molecular imaging and cross-sectional imaging of the colon. Our system combines surface magnifying chromoendoscopy (SMC) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to image colon microstructure. Sixteen mice, treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane, were imaged at 2 week intervals, to visualize carcinogenesis events. With this dual-modality system we are able to visualize crypt structure alteration over time as well as adenoma development over time.

  7. The secretory KCa1.1 channel localises to crypts of distal mouse colon: functional and molecular evidence.

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    Sørensen, Mads V; Strandsby, Anne B; Larsen, Casper K; Praetorius, Helle A; Leipziger, Jens

    2011-11-01

    The colonic epithelium absorbs and secretes electrolytes and water. Ion and water absorption occurs primarily in surface cells, whereas crypt cells perform secretion. Ion transport in distal colon is regulated by aldosterone, which stimulates both Na(+) absorption and K(+) secretion. The electrogenic Na(+) absorption is mediated by epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) in surface cells. Previously, we identified the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, K(Ca)1.1 or big potassium (BK) channel, as the only relevant K(+) secretory pathway in mouse distal colon. The exact localisation of K(Ca)1.1 channels along the crypt axis is, however, still controversial. The aim of this project was to further define the localisation of the K(Ca)1.1 channel in mouse distal colonic epithelium. Through quantification of mRNA extracted from micro-dissected surface and crypt cells, we confirmed that Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) (NKCC1) is expressed primarily in the crypts and γ-ENaC primarily in the surface cells. The K(Ca)1.1 α-subunit mRNA was like NKCC1, mainly expressed in the crypts. The crypt to surface expression pattern of the channels and transporters was not altered when plasma aldosterone was elevated. The mRNA levels for NKCC1, γ-ENaC and K(Ca)1.1 α-subunit were, however, under these circumstances substantially augmented (K(Ca)1.1 α-subunit, twofold; NKCC1, twofold and ENaC, tenfold). Functionally, we show that ENaC-mediated Na(+) absorption and BK channel-mediated K(+) secretion are two independent processes. These findings show that K(Ca)1.1-mediated K(+) secretion mainly occurs in the crypts of the murine distal colon. This is in agreement with the general model of ion secretion being preferentially located to the crypt and not surface enterocytes.

  8. Interactions of radiation and adriamycin, bleomycin, mitomycin C or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II in intestinal crypt cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von der Maase, H

    1984-01-01

    The interactions of radiation and adriamycin (ADM), bleomycin (BLM), mitomycin C (MM-C), or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II (cis-DDP) in mouse jejunal crypt cells were studied using the microcolony survival assay. ADM administered from 24 h before to 48 h after irradiation resulted in an almost...

  9. The secretory KCa1.1 channel localises to crypts of distal mouse colon: functional and molecular evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Vaarby; Strandsby, Anne Bystrup; Larsen, Casper Kornbech;

    2011-01-01

    Na+ absorption is mediated by epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) in surface cells. Previously, we identified the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel, KCa1.1 or big potassium (BK) channel, as the only relevant K+ secretory pathway in mouse distal colon. The exact localisation of K(Ca)1.1 channels...... along the crypt axis is, however, still controversial. The aim of this project was to further define the localisation of the K(Ca)1.1 channel in mouse distal colonic epithelium. Through quantification of mRNA extracted from micro-dissected surface and crypt cells, we confirmed that Na+/K+/2Cl- (NKCC1......The colonic epithelium absorbs and secretes electrolytes and water. Ion and water absorption occurs primarily in surface cells, whereas crypt cells perform secretion. Ion transport in distal colon is regulated by aldosterone, which stimulates both Na+ absorption and K+ secretion. The electrogenic...

  10. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage

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    Isela Álvarez-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC induced with azoxymethane (AOM in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g, respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential.

  11. Food allergy alters jejunal circular muscle contractility and induces local inflammatory cytokine expression in a mouse model

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    Kovanen Petri T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that food allergy causes a state of non-specific jejunal dysmotility. This was tested in a mouse model. Methods Balb/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin and challenged with 10 intragastric ovalbumin administrations every second day. Smooth muscle contractility of isolated circular jejunal sections was studied in organ bath with increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol. Smooth muscle layer thickness and mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1 positive cell density were assayed histologically. Serum MMCP-1 and immunoglobulins were quantified by ELISA, and mRNA expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TGFβ-1 from jejunal and ileal tissue segments were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Results Ovalbumin-specific serum IgE correlated with jejunal MMCP-1+ cell density. In the allergic mice, higher concentrations of carbachol were required to reach submaximal muscular stimulation, particularly in preparations derived from mice with diarrhoea. Decreased sensitivity to carbachol was associated with increased expression of IL-4 and IL-6 mRNA in jejunum. Smooth muscle layer thickness, as well as mRNA of IFN-γ and TGF-β1 remained unchanged. Conclusion In this mouse model of food allergy, we demonstrated a decreased response to a muscarinic agonist, and increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6 and Th2-related IL-4, but not Th1-related IFN-γ mRNAs in jejunum. IgE levels in serum correlated with the number of jejunal MMCP-1+ cells, and predicted diarrhoea. Overall, these changes may reflect a protective mechanism of the gut in food allergy.

  12. Paneth cell marker expression in intestinal villi and colon crypts characterizes dietary induced risk for mouse sporadic intestinal cancer.

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    Wang, Donghai; Peregrina, Karina; Dhima, Elena; Lin, Elaine Y; Mariadason, John M; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2011-06-21

    Nutritional and genetic risk factors for intestinal tumors are additive on mouse tumor phenotype, establishing that diet and genetic factors impact risk by distinct combinatorial mechanisms. In a mouse model of dietary-induced sporadic small and large intestinal cancer in WT mice in which tumor etiology, lag, incidence, and frequency reflect >90% of intestinal cancer in Western societies, dietary-induced risk altered gene expression profiles predominantly in villus cells of the histologically normal mucosa, in contrast to targeting of crypt cells by inheritance of an Apc(1638N) allele or homozygous inactivation of p21(Waf1/cip1), and profiles induced by each risk factor were distinct at the gene or functional group level. The dietary-induced changes in villus cells encompassed ectopic expression of Paneth cell markers (a lineage normally confined to the bottom of small intestinal crypts), elevated expression of the Wnt receptor Fzd5 and of EphB2 (genes necessary for Paneth cell differentiation and localization to the crypt bottom), and increased Wnt signaling in villus cells. Ectopic elevation of these markers was also present in the colon crypts, which are also sites of sporadic tumors in the nutritional model. Elevating dietary vitamin D(3) and calcium, which prevents tumor development, abrogated these changes in the villus and colon cells. Thus, common intestinal cancer driven by diet involves mechanisms of tumor development distinct from those mechanisms that cause tumors induced by the rare inheritance of a mutant adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) allele. This is fundamental for understanding how common sporadic tumors arise and in evaluating relative risk in the population.

  13. Isolated jejunal varices.

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    Bhagwat S

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Isolated jejunal varices are an uncommon manifestation of portal hypertension. A one and a half year old boy presented with recurrent, massive gastrointestinal bleeding from jejunal varices. The bleeding site was identified at exploratory laparotomy. Jejunal resection and anastomosis resulted in complete resolution of the bleeding and there has been no recurrent bleeding over an eight month follow-up period.

  14. Preferential entry of botulinum neurotoxin A Hc domain through intestinal crypt cells and targeting to cholinergic neurons of the mouse intestine.

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    Aurélie Couesnon

    Full Text Available Botulism, characterized by flaccid paralysis, commonly results from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT absorption across the epithelial barrier from the digestive tract and then dissemination through the blood circulation to target autonomic and motor nerve terminals. The trafficking pathway of BoNT/A passage through the intestinal barrier is not yet fully understood. We report that intralumenal administration of purified BoNT/A into mouse ileum segment impaired spontaneous muscle contractions and abolished the smooth muscle contractions evoked by electric field stimulation. Entry of BoNT/A into the mouse upper small intestine was monitored with fluorescent HcA (half C-terminal domain of heavy chain which interacts with cell surface receptor(s. We show that HcA preferentially recognizes a subset of neuroendocrine intestinal crypt cells, which probably represent the entry site of the toxin through the intestinal barrier, then targets specific neurons in the submucosa and later (90-120 min in the musculosa. HcA mainly binds to certain cholinergic neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses, but also recognizes, although to a lower extent, other neuronal cells including glutamatergic and serotoninergic neurons in the submucosa. Intestinal cholinergic neuron targeting by HcA could account for the inhibition of intestinal peristaltism and secretion observed in botulism, but the consequences of the targeting to non-cholinergic neurons remains to be determined.

  15. Absence of Role of Dietary Protein Sensing in the Metabolic Benefits of Duodenal-Jejunal Bypass in the Mouse

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    Barataud, Aude; Goncalves, Daisy; Vinera, Jennifer; Zitoun, Carine; Duchampt, Adeline; Gautier-Stein, Amandine; Mithieux, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) induces remission or substantial improvement of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) but underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The beneficial effects of dietary proteins on energy and glucose homeostasis are mediated by the antagonist effects of peptides toward mu-opioid receptors (MORs), which are highly expressed in the distal gut. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of RYGB could depend at least in part on the interaction of peptides from food with intestinal MORs. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) was performed in obese and lean wild-type (WT) or MOR deficient (MOR−/−) mice. Food intake and body weight was monitored daily during 3 weeks. Glucose homeostasis was assessed from glucose and insulin tolerance tests. In obese WT and MOR−/− mice, DJB induced a rapid and sustained weight loss partly independent of food intake, and a rapid improvement in glycaemic parameters. Weight loss was a major determinant of the improvements observed. In lean WT and MOR−/− mice, DJB had no effect on weight loss but significantly enhanced glucose tolerance. We found that MORs are not essential in the metabolic beneficial effects of DJB, suggesting that protein sensing in the distal gut is not a link in the metabolic benefits of gastric surgery. PMID:28332577

  16. Protein kinase D1 mediates stimulation of DNA synthesis and proliferation in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 cells and in mouse intestinal crypts.

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    Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Nora; Kui, Robert; Huang, Carlos; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2011-01-07

    We examined whether protein kinase D1 (PKD1), the founding member of a new protein kinase family, plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that PKD1 activation is sustained, whereas that of PKD2 is transient in intestinal epithelial IEC-18 stimulated with the G(q)-coupled receptor agonists angiotensin II or vasopressin. PKD1 gene silencing utilizing small interfering RNAs dramatically reduced DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in IEC-18 cells stimulated with G(q)-coupled receptor agonists. To clarify the role of PKD1 in intestinal epithelial cell proliferation in vivo, we generated transgenic mice that express elevated PKD1 protein in the intestinal epithelium. Transgenic PKD1 exhibited constitutive catalytic activity and phosphorylation at the activation loop residues Ser(744) and Ser(748) and on the autophosphorylation site, Ser(916). To examine whether PKD1 expression stimulates intestinal cell proliferation, we determined the rate of crypt cell DNA synthesis by detection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporated into the nuclei of crypt cells of the ileum. Our results demonstrate a significant increase (p < 0.005) in DNA-synthesizing cells in the crypts of two independent lines of PKD1 transgenic mice as compared with non-transgenic littermates. Morphometric analysis showed a significant increase in the length and in the total number of cells per crypt in the transgenic PKD1 mice as compared with the non-transgenic littermates (p < 0.01). Thus, transgenic PKD1 signaling increases the number of cells per crypt by stimulating the rate of crypt cell proliferation. Collectively, our results indicate that PKD1 plays a role in promoting cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Angiodysplasia Occurring in Jejunal Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A Jones; Hugh Chaun; Phillip Switzer; David J Clow; Ronald J Hancock

    1990-01-01

    The first case of angiodysplasia occurring in acquired jejunal diverticulosis is reported. The patient presented with occult gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic anemia, and was created successfully by resection of a 25 cm long segment of jejunum. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms for both angiodysplasia and jejunal diverticulosis are discussed.

  18. Prolapso jejunal em gastroenteroanastomose Jejunal prolapse in gastroenteroanastomosis

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    Gerson Junqueira Júnior

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The autors report a case of jejunal mucosa prolapse after gastroenteroanastomosis, a rare postoperative complication. In the late postcholecistectomy period the patient had persistent vomit. Upper digestive endoscopy (UDE showed obstruction of the second portion of duodenum, and a gastrojejunal anastomosis was performed. Soon after that, the patient had persistent vomit and upper digestive endoscopy (UDE showed invagination of the jejunal mucosa. She was reoperated, a Roux Y gastrectomy was performed and the patient had a good evolution. The treatment for this complication is basically surgical, which intends to realieve the obstructive symptomatology.

  19. Bodies Folded in Migrant Crypts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tzokas, Spyros; Tympas, Aristotle

    2016-01-01

    and human migrants generates a dis/abled subject. In this context, dis/ability may be a cause or consequence of migration, both in physical/material (the folding of bodies in the crypt) and cultural/semiotic terms, and may become a barrier to accessing protection, to entering and/or crossing a country...

  20. Massive rectal bleeding from acquired jejunal diverticula

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Small bowel diverticulosis is an uncommon and often asymptomatic condition that is sporadically observed during radiographic examination or laparotomy. Although it is frequently seen in duodenum, jejunal and ileal locations are very rare. The majority of patients with jejunal diverticula have no symptoms. However, they can present with a number of acute and emergent complications with a high rate of mortality. Bleeding from jejunal diverticula occurs in less than 3% - 8% of patients ...

  1. Cell organisation in the colonic crypt: a theoretical comparison of the pedigree and niche concepts.

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    Richard C van der Wath

    Full Text Available The intestinal mucosa is a monolayer of rapidly self-renewing epithelial cells which is not only responsible for absorption of water and nutrients into the bloodstream but also acts as a protective barrier against harmful microbes entering the body. New functional epithelial cells are produced from stem cells, and their proliferating progeny. These stem cells are found within millions of crypts (tubular pits spaced along the intestinal tract. The entire intestinal epithelium is replaced every 2-3 days in mice (3-5 days in humans and hence cell production, differentiation, migration and turnover need to be tightly regulated. Malfunctions in this regulation are strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and to the formation of adenomas and ultimately cancerous tumours. Despite a great deal of biological experimentation and observation, precisely how colonic crypts are regulated to produce mature colonocytes remains unclear. To assist in understanding how cell organisation in crypts is achieved, two very different conceptual models of cell behaviour are developed here, referred to as the 'pedigree' and the 'niche' models. The pedigree model proposes that crypt cells are largely preprogrammed and receive minimal prompting from the environment as they move through a routine of cell differentiation and proliferation to become mature colonocytes. The niche model proposes that crypt cells are primarily influenced by the local microenvironments along the crypt, and that predetermined cell behaviour plays a negligible role in their development. In this paper we present a computational model of colonic crypts in the mouse, which enables a comparison of the quality and controllability of mature coloncyte production by crypts operating under these two contrasting conceptual models of crypt regulation.

  2. Cell Organisation in the Colonic Crypt: A Theoretical Comparison of the Pedigree and Niche Concepts

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    van der Wath, Richard C.; Gardiner, Bruce S.; Burgess, Antony W.; Smith, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a monolayer of rapidly self-renewing epithelial cells which is not only responsible for absorption of water and nutrients into the bloodstream but also acts as a protective barrier against harmful microbes entering the body. New functional epithelial cells are produced from stem cells, and their proliferating progeny. These stem cells are found within millions of crypts (tubular pits) spaced along the intestinal tract. The entire intestinal epithelium is replaced every 2–3 days in mice (3–5 days in humans) and hence cell production, differentiation, migration and turnover need to be tightly regulated. Malfunctions in this regulation are strongly linked to inflammatory bowel diseases and to the formation of adenomas and ultimately cancerous tumours. Despite a great deal of biological experimentation and observation, precisely how colonic crypts are regulated to produce mature colonocytes remains unclear. To assist in understanding how cell organisation in crypts is achieved, two very different conceptual models of cell behaviour are developed here, referred to as the ‘pedigree’ and the ‘niche’ models. The pedigree model proposes that crypt cells are largely preprogrammed and receive minimal prompting from the environment as they move through a routine of cell differentiation and proliferation to become mature colonocytes. The niche model proposes that crypt cells are primarily influenced by the local microenvironments along the crypt, and that predetermined cell behaviour plays a negligible role in their development. In this paper we present a computational model of colonic crypts in the mouse, which enables a comparison of the quality and controllability of mature coloncyte production by crypts operating under these two contrasting conceptual models of crypt regulation. PMID:24069177

  3. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

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    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  4. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

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    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  5. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  6. Fluorescent labelling of intestinal epithelial cells reveals independent long-lived intestinal stem cells in a crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horita, Nobukatsu [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Tsuchiya, Kiichiro, E-mail: kii.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Hayashi, Ryohei [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Hiroshima University (Japan); Fukushima, Keita; Hibiya, Shuji; Fukuda, Masayoshi; Kano, Yoshihito; Mizutani, Tomohiro; Nemoto, Yasuhiro; Yui, Shiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Okamoto, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Tetsuya [Department of Advanced Therapeutics for Gastrointestinal Diseases, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Watanabe, Mamoru [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Lentivirus mixed with Matrigel enables direct infection of intestinal organoids. • Our original approach allows the marking of a single stem cell in a crypt. • Time-lapse imaging shows the dynamics of a single stem cell. • Our lentivirus transgene system demonstrates plural long-lived stem cells in a crypt. - Abstract: Background and aims: The dynamics of intestinal stem cells are crucial for regulation of intestinal function and maintenance. Although crypt stem cells have been identified in the intestine by genetic marking methods, identification of plural crypt stem cells has not yet been achieved as they are visualised in the same colour. Methods: Intestinal organoids were transferred into Matrigel® mixed with lentivirus encoding mCherry. The dynamics of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using time-lapse imaging, and the localisation of mCherry-positive cells was analysed using 3D immunofluorescence. Results: We established an original method for the introduction of a transgene into an organoid generated from mouse small intestine that resulted in continuous fluorescence of the mCherry protein in a portion of organoid cells. Three-dimensional analysis using confocal microscopy showed a single mCherry-positive cell in an organoid crypt that had been cultured for >1 year, which suggested the presence of long-lived mCherry-positive and -negative stem cells in the same crypt. Moreover, a single mCherry-positive stem cell in a crypt gave rise to both crypt base columnar cells and transit amplifying cells. Each mCherry-positive and -negative cell contributed to the generation of organoids. Conclusions: The use of our original lentiviral transgene system to mark individual organoid crypt stem cells showed that long-lived plural crypt stem cells might independently serve as intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of a completely functional villus.

  7. 小鼠空肠黏膜微血管内皮细胞糖萼的透射电镜观察%Transmission electron microscopic observation of microvascular endothelial glycocalyx in mouse jejunal mucosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴双; 张涛; 冯波; 穆祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to establish a reliable displaying method of the endothelial glycocalyx in small intestinal mucosal microvessels, and to provide a foundation for further studies on its functions. Methods Six mice were divided into a control group and a cardiac perfusion group, three mice each. The mice were anesthetized by inhalation of ether. The jejunum from the cardiac perfusion group was sampled after they were fixed by cardiac perfusion with gradient alcian blue solution and the jejunum from control group was directly sampled. The jejunal mucosa was prepared as ultrathin sections according to the routine method for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. Results By TEM, the endothelial glycocalyx was shown in jejunal mucosal microvessels of cardiac perfusion group mice, which had two forms, the continued and the discontinued. The continued glycocalyx was 20-30 nm thick, and the discontinued was 50-100 nm. However, the glycocalyx was not found in the control group. Conclusion The endothelial glycocalyx in jejunal mucosal mirovessels is not observaed by TEM in the samples prepared with the traditional method. The cardiac perfusion fixation with alcian blue solution could better preserves the glycocalyx for TEM analysis, and is a reliable method for its study.%目的 建立可靠的小肠黏膜微血管内皮糖萼显示方法,为探讨其生物学功能提供基础.方法 取小鼠6只,分为对照组和心脏灌注组,每组3只.对小鼠行乙醚吸入麻醉,心脏灌注组使用梯度阿尔新蓝溶液心脏灌注固定后取空肠组织,对照组直接取空肠组织,然后按照常规方法对其黏膜层制备超薄切片,透射电镜观察.结果 透射电镜观察显示,心脏灌注组小鼠肠黏膜微血管内皮细胞膜表面有明显的糖萼结构,呈不连续型和连续型两种形态,不连续性糖萼厚度为50~ 100nm,连续型糖萼厚度为20 ~ 30nm;而对照组未能观察到明显的糖萼结构.结论 常规透

  8. Perforated jejunal diverticula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Christopher G

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Jejunal diverticula are rare and are usually asymptomatic. However, they may cause chronic non-specific symptoms or rarely lead to an acute presentation. Case presentation We report the case of an 82-year-old Caucasian woman presenting with a one-day history of generalized abdominal pain, with three episodes of vomiting. An abdominal X-ray displayed multiple dilated loops of the small bowel. A subsequent computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed a thickening of the duodenum and dilatation of the proximal jejunum. Multiple small bowel diverticula were identified with surrounding pockets of free air adjacent to the jejunal diverticula suggestive of a small bowel perforation. Our patient underwent a laparotomy, which identified multiple jejunal diverticula with two pinhole jejunal perforations and associated fecal contamination. The perforations were repaired with primary closure and extensive washout was performed. Conclusion Jejunal diverticulosis in the elderly can lead to significant morbidity and mortality and so should be suspected in those presenting with crampy abdominal pain and altered bowel habits.

  9. Jejunal Diverticular Perforation due to Enterolith

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    Ronaldo Nonose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.

  10. Emergency management of complicated jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin N; Fankhauser, Grant T; Chapital, Alyssa B; Merritt, Marianne V; Johnson, Daniel J

    2014-06-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare condition that is usually found incidentally. It is most often asymptomatic but presenting symptoms are nonspecific and include abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, malabsorption, bleeding, obstruction, and/or perforation. A retrospective review of medical records between 1999 and 2012 at a tertiary referral center was conducted to identify patients requiring emergency management of complicated jejunal diverticulosis. Complications were defined as those that presented with inflammation, bleeding, obstruction, or perforation. Eighteen patients presented to the emergency department with acute complications of jejunal diverticulosis. Ages ranged from 47 to 86 years (mean, 72 years). Seven patients presented with evidence of free bowel perforation. Six had either diverticulitis or a contained perforation. The remaining five were found to have gastrointestinal bleeding. Fourteen of the patients underwent surgical management. Four patients were successfully managed nonoperatively. As a result of the variety of presentations, complications of jejunal diverticulosis present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for the acute care surgeon. Although nonoperative management can be successful, most patients should undergo surgical intervention. Traditional management dictates laparotomy and segmental jejunal resection. Diverticulectomy is not recommended as a result of the risk of staple line breakdown. The entire involved portion of jejunum should be resected when bowel length permits.

  11. Jejunal diverticulosis presenting as an acute emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Huma Sabir; Ayyaz, Mahmood

    2015-04-01

    Diverticulosis of jejunum is a relatively rare disease of bowel. Jejunal diverticula are false diverticula with projections of mucosa and serosa without the muscular layer. These manifest as diverticulitis, bleeding, perforation or intestinal obstruction. There should be a high index of suspicion when patients present with chronic central abdominal pain, malabsorption and anaemia. Sometimes they are just incidentally picked up on investigations. Laparoscopy can be valuable in diagnosis and treatment as most of the times jejunal diverticulosis can be treated conservatively with surgery required for generalized peritonitis and massive gastrointestinal bleeding. A 33-year man repeatedly presented to emergency with abdominal pain which resolved with analgesics until he developed constipation, vomiting, fever and severe abdominal pain. He had to undergo laparotomy which revealed multiple jejunal diverticula. Resection of the involved gut portion was done. The patient did fine postoperatively.

  12. Radiologic findings of perforated jejunal diverticulitis: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Jeong Hwa; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Park, Yong Koo [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-15

    We report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old man with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. The patient presented with right upper abdominal pain. Ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic structure connected to a small bowel loop, and subsequent CT examination showed multiple diverticula in proximal jejunal loops with free air trapped within the mesenteric leaf. Segmental resection of the jejunal loop confirmed jejunal diverticulitis with perforation.

  13. The effects of herbs on the radiation-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; An, Mi Ra; Nah, Seung Yeol; Lee, Jong Hwan; Kim, Jae Ha; Shin, Dong Ho [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Sung Kee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jong Sik [Sangju National Univ., Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-03-15

    This study was performed to determine the effect of several herbs on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells. Longyanrou(Euphoris logana), Suanzaoren(Zizyphus vulgaris), Yuanzhi(Polygala tenuifolia), Rensan(Panax ginseng), Fuling(Poria cocos), Muxiang(Saussurea lappa), Chuanxiong(Cnidium offcinale), Baishaoyao(Paeonia lactifolia), Shengma(Cimicifuga heracleifolia), Chaihu(Bupleurum falcatum) and Dongchongxiacao(Paecilomyces japonica) reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis(p<0.05). Although the mechanisms of this effect remain to be elucidated, these results indicated that Longyanrou, Suanzaoren, Yuanzhi, Rensan, Fuling, Muxiang, Chuanxiong, Baishaoyao, Shengma, Chaihu and Dongchongxiacao might be useful inhibitors of apoptosis, especially since these are relative nontoxic natural products.

  14. A Rare Case of Jejunal Diverticulosis Causing Mesenteric Volvulus

    OpenAIRE

    Reddi, Bhavani Rao; Konkena, Janardhan Rao; Bogarapu, Chaitanya Babu; Kollu, Srinu Babu; Neelam, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare asymptomatic entity [1]. In literature, there are only few cases of jejunal diverticulosis where small gut volvulus is reported. The disease entity is important as it may masquerade as hemorrhage, obstruction, or perforation which are life threatening. We report a rare case of small bowel volvulus secondary to jejunal diverticulosis.

  15. Jejunal diverticulosis as the obscure cause of overt gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyin, L Y; Zainun, A R; Tee, H P

    2011-08-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare gastrointestinal condition manifested as benign outpouching from the jejunal wall. It is usually asymptomatic, but may present as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. This condition is often found incidentally in the imaging work-up of patients with other gastrointestinal conditions. We present a case of jejunal diverticulosis in a 65-year-old gentleman with obscure overt gastrointestinal bleed.

  16. Jejunal diverticula — a rare cause of intestinal perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Borgaonkar, Viraj; Borgaonkar, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Jejunal diverticuli is a extremely rare entity. We report a case of jejunal diverticulum as a cause of perforation peritonitis, which has been managed by resection anastomosis. This study is important from the perspective that clear cut guidelines for managment of jejunal perforation are not available in litreture.

  17. Enterolith ileus due to jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monchal, Tristan; Hornez, Emmanuel; Bourgouin, Stéphane; Sbardella, Fabrice; Baudoin, Yoann; Butin, Christophe; Salle, Etienne; Thouard, Hervé

    2010-04-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare malformation that is often asymptomatic. Complications might be similar to those occurring in large-bowel diverticula but also include a much more particular event: intestinal obstruction due to migration and impaction of enterolith formed inside diverticula. This is a very uncommon entity; diagnosis and management are thus often delayed. Mostly surgical exploration is necessary because obstruction symptoms are unresponsive to medical treatment. The authors report a new case of enterolith ileus in a 74-year-old man, due to jejunal diverticulosis, and its successful surgical management in emergency. Only 39 similar cases have ever been reported in the literature.

  18. Perforation of jejunal diverticulum with ectopic pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Shintani, Yukako; Murono, Koji; Sasaki, Kazuhito; Yasuda, Koji; Otani, Kensuke; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Kiyomatsu, Tomomichi; Hata, Keisuke; Kawai, Kazushige; Nozawa, Hiroaki; Ishihara, Soichiro; Fukayama, Masashi; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2017-04-01

    Perforation of jejunal diverticulum is a rare complication. Here, we report a case of jejunal diverticulum penetration with surrounding ectopic pancreas. An 83-year-old female patient was admitted to our department with acute onset of severe abdominal pain lasting for half a day. Abdominal computed tomography showed outpouching of the small intestine that contained air/fluid, with multiple surrounding air bubbles in the mesentery of the small intestine. She was diagnosed with penetration of the small intestine, and an emergency laparotomy was indicated. The penetrated jejunal diverticulum was identified ~20-cm distal to the ligament of Treitz. Partial resection of the jejunum was performed, and her postoperative course was uneventful. The pathological findings confirmed diverticulum penetration into the mesentery and severe inflammation at the site, with surrounding ectopic pancreas. Furthermore, the pancreatic ducts were opened through the penetrated diverticulum. This rare case shows that the ectopic pancreas might have caused penetration of jejunal diverticulum owing to the pancreatic duct opening through the diverticulum.

  19. Recurrent Midgut Bleeding due to Jejunal Angioleiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahir Gachabayov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioleiomyoma being a type of true smooth muscle gastrointestinal tumors can lead to serious life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a case of 21-year-old male patient with recurrent midgut bleeding. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed highly vascular small bowel neoplasm. The patient underwent laparotomy with bowel resection and recovered uneventfully. Histopathology revealed jejunal angioleiomyoma.

  20. Recurrent Midgut Bleeding due to Jejunal Angioleiomyoma

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Angioleiomyoma being a type of true smooth muscle gastrointestinal tumors can lead to serious life-threatening gastrointestinal bleeding. We report a case of 21-year-old male patient with recurrent midgut bleeding. Contrast-enhanced CT revealed highly vascular small bowel neoplasm. The patient underwent laparotomy with bowel resection and recovered uneventfully. Histopathology revealed jejunal angioleiomyoma.

  1. Perforated jejunal diverticulum in the use of mycophenolate mofetil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charat Thongprayoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare disease. Common acute complications include diverticulitis, intestinal obstruction, bleeding and perforation. Gastrointestinal tract perorations have also been rarely observed in the use of mycophenolate mofetil. Case Report: We report a 44-year-old man with end-stage renal disease post failed kidney transplant on low-dose mycophenolate mofetil who presented with acute onset of abdominal pain. He was successfully given the diagnosis of perforated jejunal diverticulum. The patient successfully underwent a segmental jejunal resection and anastomosis. He unfortunately developed a recurrent jejunal perforation a month later and again had the second segmental jejunal resection operation. Mycophenolate mofetil then was discontinued. Conclusion: The present case illustrates jejunal diverticulum perforation in the use of mycophenolate mofetil. Physicians should increase the awareness of this association of perforated jejunal diverticulum in patients using mycophenolate mofetil.

  2. Primarily Proximal Jejunal Stone Causing Enterolith Ileus in a Patient without Evidence of Cholecystoenteric Fistula or Jejunal Diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtar, Houssam Khodor; Mneimneh, Mostapha; Hammoud, Mazen M; Zaaroura, Ahmed; Papas, Yasmina S

    2016-01-01

    Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula), bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel.

  3. Jejunal tackle: a case report of complete jejunal transection in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; Fischer, Jesse; Wakeman, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Jejunal perforation as a result of blunt abdominal trauma during sport is particularly rare. We are aware of 6 reported cases of jejunal perforation in sport: 1 in hockey, 2 in football (soccer), and 3 in American football. This report presents the case of a 25-year-old professional rugby union player, who presented to an "After Hours" general practice clinic with increasing central abdominal and epigastric pain after a heavy tackle during an international match in New Zealand. Despite suffering complete jejunal transection, the patient continued to play on, only presenting to an After Hours general practice clinic 3 hours after the injury. The case demonstrates the remarkable physiological resilience of professional rugby players and acts as a reminder to maintain a high degree of suspicion for small bowel injury despite normal vital signs in healthy young patients with abdominal pain secondary to blunt trauma.

  4. Jejunal Diverticulitis: A Rare Case of Severe Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Vijay Sakpal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old African American female with no prior medical/surgical history presented with abdominal pain and fever. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed jejunal wall thickening with an air-fluid-filled mass in the adjacent mesentery. At laparotomy, a segmental jejunal resection with the abscess cavity followed by primary anastomosis was performed. Pathological evaluation of the specimen revealed a large mesenteric abscess contiguous with a perforated solitary jejunal diverticulum. We provide a discussion of jejunal diverticulitis as an unusual cause of peritonitis.

  5. A Rare Acute Abdomen Reason: Perforated Jejunal Diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktay Karakose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare case that is diagnosed incidental. Although it is generally asymptomatic, it can cause non-spesific symptoms like stomachache, nausea, diarrhoea, malabsorption, bleeding, obstruction and / or perforation. Perforated jejunal diverticulitis is a very rare acute abdomen cause. The acute complications of jejunal diverticulosis can be cause of significant morbidity and mortality especially in old patients. In this text, we report a 81 year old woman case that was operated emergently because of perforated jejunal diverticulitis and was lost in postoperation term because of multiple organ failure.

  6. MicroRNA mir-16 is anti-proliferative in enterocytes and exhibits diurnal rhythmicity in intestinal crypts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, Anita, E-mail: anita.balakrishnan@doctors.org.uk [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); School of Clinical Sciences, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GE (United Kingdom); Stearns, Adam T. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD (United Kingdom); Park, Peter J. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harvard Medical School, Center for Biomedical Informatics, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dreyfuss, Jonathan M. [Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Ashley, Stanley W. [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rhoads, David B. [Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Pediatric Endocrine Unit, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Tavakkolizadeh, Ali, E-mail: atavakkoli@partners.org [Department of Surgery, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-12-10

    Background and aims: The intestine exhibits profound diurnal rhythms in function and morphology, in part due to changes in enterocyte proliferation. The regulatory mechanisms behind these rhythms remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that microRNAs are involved in mediating these rhythms, and studied the role of microRNAs specifically in modulating intestinal proliferation. Methods: Diurnal rhythmicity of microRNAs in rat jejunum was analyzed by microarrays and validated by qPCR. Temporal expression of diurnally rhythmic mir-16 was further quantified in intestinal crypts, villi, and smooth muscle using laser capture microdissection and qPCR. Morphological changes in rat jejunum were assessed by histology and proliferation by immunostaining for bromodeoxyuridine. In IEC-6 cells stably overexpressing mir-16, proliferation was assessed by cell counting and MTS assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and cell cycle gene expression by qPCR and immunoblotting. Results: mir-16 peaked 6 hours after light onset (HALO 6) with diurnal changes restricted to crypts. Crypt depth and villus height peaked at HALO 13-14 in antiphase to mir-16. Overexpression of mir-16 in IEC-6 cells suppressed specific G1/S regulators (cyclins D1-3, cyclin E1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 6) and produced G1 arrest. Protein expression of these genes exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in rat jejunum, peaking between HALO 11 and 17 in antiphase to mir-16. Conclusions: This is the first report of circadian rhythmicity of specific microRNAs in rat jejunum. Our data provide a link between anti-proliferative mir-16 and the intestinal proliferation rhythm and point to mir-16 as an important regulator of proliferation in jejunal crypts. This function may be essential to match proliferation and absorptive capacity with nutrient availability.

  7. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Jejunal Diverticulosis with Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is generally asymptomatic and is associated with high morbidity and mortality secondary to complications, especially in elderly patients. We present a case report of a 74-year-old female patient with jejunal diverticulosis and perforation due to diverticulitis.

  8. Perforated jejunal diverticulitis as a rare cause of acute abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.; Grust, A.; Fuerst, G. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Gerharz, C.D. [Department of Pathology, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Dumon, C. [Department of Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    Jejunal diverticula is rare and in most cases without any symptoms. They become clinically relevant when complications, such as diverticulitis, malabsorption caused by bacterial overgrowth, intestinal hemorrhage, or obstruction, occur. In this case report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulitis is presented and the problems in finding the correct diagnosis are discussed. (orig.) With 3 figs., 13 refs.

  9. Modelling the dynamics of stem cells in colonic crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirio, Orozco-Fuentes; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt organisation in the human intestine. We construct a theoretical and computational framework to model the colonic crypt behaviour, using a Voronoi tessellation to represent each cell and elastic forces between them we addressed how their dynamical disfunction can lead to tumour masses and cancer. Our results indicate that for certain parameters the crypt is in a homeostatic state, but slight changes on their values can disrupt this behaviour.

  10. Midgut volvulus due to jejunal diverticula: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Li Hu; Wei-Zhong Chen

    2012-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is uncommon and often asymptomatic.It can produce significant complications,and some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment,such as obstruction,hemorrhage and perforation.There is no consensus on the management of this disease.Only a few cases of jejunal diverticulosis with midgut volvulus have been reported.We herein report a case of 57-year-old woman with jejunal diverticulosis causing small bowel volvulus who complained of intermittent upper abdominal pin-prick for 5 years that eventually progressed to a complete obstruction.The computed tomography scans revealed a mesenteric vessel "whirlpool" and laparotomy showed midgut volvulus secondary to jejunal diverticula.This case highlights jejunal diverticulosis causing small bowel volvulus as an uncommon mechanism of small bowel obstruction,which should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction.

  11. Investigation of computer-aided colonic crypt pattern analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xin; Pan, Yinsheng; Sivak, Michael V., Jr.; Olowe, Kayode; Rollins, Andrew M.

    2007-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Approximately 50% of these deaths could be prevented by earlier detection through screening. Magnification chromoendoscopy is a technique which utilizes tissue stains applied to the gastrointestinal mucosa and high-magnification endoscopy to better visualize and characterize lesions. Prior studies have shown that shapes of colonic crypts change with disease and show characteristic patterns. Current methods for assessing colonic crypt patterns are somewhat subjective and not standardized. Computerized algorithms could be used to standardize colonic crypt pattern assessment. We have imaged resected colonic mucosa in vitro (N = 70) using methylene blue dye and a surgical microscope to approximately simulate in vivo imaging with magnification chromoendoscopy. We have developed a method of computerized processing to analyze the crypt patterns in the images. The quantitative image analysis consists of three steps. First, the crypts within the region of interest of colonic tissue are semi-automatically segmented using watershed morphological processing. Second, crypt size and shape parameters are extracted from the segmented crypts. Third, each sample is assigned to a category according to the Kudo criteria. The computerized classification is validated by comparison with human classification using the Kudo classification criteria. The computerized colonic crypt pattern analysis algorithm will enable a study of in vivo magnification chromoendoscopy of colonic crypt pattern correlated with risk of colorectal cancer. This study will assess the feasibility of screening and surveillance of the colon using magnification chromoendoscopy.

  12. Patterns of proliferative activity in the colonic crypt determine crypt stability and rates of somatic evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells in the colon are arranged in cylindrical structures called crypts in which cellular proliferation and migration are tightly regulated. We hypothesized that the proliferation patterns of cells may determine the stability of crypts as well as the rates of somatic evolution towards colorectal tumorigenesis. Here, we propose a linear process model of colonic epithelial cells that explicitly takes into account the proliferation kinetics of cells as a function of cell position within the crypt. Our results indicate that proliferation kinetics has significant influence on the speed of cell movement, kinetics of mutation propagation, and sensitivity of the system to selective effects of mutated cells. We found that, of all proliferation curves tested, those with mitotic activities concentrated near the stem cell, including the actual proliferation kinetics determined in in vivo labeling experiments, have a greater ability of delaying the rate of mutation accumulation in colonic stem cells compared to hypothetical proliferation curves with mitotic activities focused near the top of the crypt column. Our model can be used to investigate the dynamics of proliferation and mutation accumulation in spatially arranged tissues.

  13. Primarily Proximal Jejunal Stone Causing Enterolith Ileus in a Patient without Evidence of Cholecystoenteric Fistula or Jejunal Diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam Khodor Abtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula, bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel.

  14. Elderly patient with acute, left lower abdominal pain: perforated jejunal diverticulitis (2010:7b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Manuela; Certo, Manuela; Varzim, Pedro [Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Radiology Department, Porto (Portugal); Silva, Donzilia [Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Surgery Department, Porto (Portugal); Peixoto, Carlos [Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Pathology Department, Porto (Portugal)

    2010-10-15

    An elderly patient with acute, left, lower abdominal pain is described, for whom the diagnosis of perforated jejunal diverticulitis was established by computed tomography (CT). The presence of a jejunal segmental inflammatory process, with or without abscess or perforation, in the setting of jejunal diverticulosis, is very suggestive of jejunal diverticulitis. (orig.)

  15. File list: Unc.Dig.05.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: His.Dig.50.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: His.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Unc.Dig.20.AllAg.Intestinal_crypt [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Acute ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis: Case report of an uncommon entity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wojciech Staszewicz; Michel Christodoulou; Stefania Proietti; Nicolas Demartines

    2008-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Its reported incidence varies from 0.05% to 6%. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life threatening and require early surgical treatment. We report a case of an 88-year-old man investigated for acute abdominal pain with a high biological inflammatory syndrome. Inflammation of multiple giant jejunal diverticulum was discovered at abdominal computed tomography (CT). As a result of the clinical and biological signs of early peritonitis, an emergency surgical exploration was performed. The first jejunal loop showed clear signs of jejunal diverticulitis. Primary segmental jejunum resection with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Histopathology report confirmed an ulcerative jejunal diverticulitis with imminent perforation and acute local peritonitis. The patient made an excellent rapid postoperative recovery. Jejunal diverticulum is rare but may cause serious complications. It should be considered a possible etiology of acute abdomen, especially in elderly patients with unusual symptomatology. Abdominal CT is the diagnostic tool of choice. The best treatment is emergency surgical management.

  3. Crypt region localization of intestinal stem cells in adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial lining plays a central role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients, but exists in a harsh luminal environment that necessitates continual renewal. This renewal process involves epithelial cell proliferation in the crypt base and later cell migration from the crypt base to the luminal surface. This process is dependent on multi-potent progenitor cells, or stem cells, located in each crypt. There are about 4 to 6 stem cells per crypt, and these stem cells are believed to generate distinct end-differentiated epithelial cell types, including absorptive cells, goblet cells, enteroendocrine cells and Paneth cells, while also maintaining their own progenitor cell state. Earlier studies suggested that intestinal stem cells were located either in the crypt base interspersed between the Paneth cells [i.e. Crypt base columnar (CBC) cell model] or at an average position of 4 cells from the crypt base [I.e. Label-retaining cells (LRC +4) model]. Recent studies have employed biomarkers in the in vivo mammalian state to more precisely evaluate the location of these progenitor cells in the intestinal crypt. Most notable of these novel markers are Lgr5, a gene that encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor with expression restricted to CBC cells, and Bmi 1, which encodes a chromatin remodeling protein expressed by LRC. These studies raise the possibility that there may be separate stem cell lines or different states of stem cell activation involved in the renewal of normal mammalian intestinal tract.

  4. SMALL BOWEL DIVERTICULOSIS WITH JEJUNAL ATRESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A 24 year s old primigravida had presented to us in third trimester with an antenatal ultrasound diagnosis of intestinal obstruction in the fetus and polyhydramnios. The parents were counseled and the obstetrician was advised to conduct the delivery as per obstetric indication, the patient delivered at 36 wks by an emergency LSCS. The baby was 1.8Kgs in weight and had an APGAR score of 9 and 10 at 1 and 5 minutes of life. Baby had significant bilious aspirate and did not pass meconium, it did not have dysmorphic featu res or any other associated anomalies, abdomen was soft and no masses were palpable. X ray abdomen revealed three gas bubbles with distal paucity of gas (Triple bubble sign. With the above findings a diagnosis of jejunal atresia was made and a laparotomy was planned on day 2 of life.

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 is expressed in undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells during murine crypt morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrich, Alda; Buzan, Jenny M; Ilo, Chibuzo; Bradley, Leigh; Skaar, Kirstin; Cohn, Steven M

    2004-05-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3) regulates proliferation of undifferentiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. However, the function(s) of FGFR-3-mediated signaling during intestinal development and epithelial differentiation in vivo remain unknown. The goal of this study was to define the temporal, regional, and cell-specific patterns of FGFR-3 expression and its ligands during normal intestinal ontogeny and epithelial regeneration. Both the IIIb and IIIc isoforms of FGFR-3 mRNA, which result from differential splicing of the FGFR-3 primary transcript, were detected in mouse small intestine as early as embryonic day 16. FGFR-3 levels peaked in the small intestine from 7 to 21 days after birth and decreased thereafter to reach the low levels observed in adult mice. FGFR-3 IIIb and IIIc mRNA levels were highest in the duodenum and proximal jejunum with lower levels of both seen in the distal jejunum, ileum, and colon. FGFR-3 was expressed in a subset of proliferating undifferentiated crypt epithelial cells located in the intervillous epithelium and in the lower half of nascently forming crypts but not in differentiated epithelial cell types. FGFR-3 IIIb was the dominant isoform expressed in both small intestinal and colonic crypts. Expression of FGF1, FGF2, and FGF9, known ligands of FGFR-3, paralleled patterns of FGFR-3 expression during gut development. These data suggest that signaling through FGFR-3 plays a role in regulating morphogenic events involved in formation of intestinal crypts and/or the fate of epithelial stem cells.

  6. Perforated jejunal diverticulum: a rare presentation of acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Crystal; Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Spoor, Kristen; Friedman, Paul F

    2014-03-22

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with a reported clinical incidence of 0.5%. However, symptoms relating to its presence are non-specific, which does not only delay diagnosis, but also increases the risk of serious complications approaching 15%. We report a case of perforated jejunal diverticulum presented with a 6-month history of significant weight loss and acute abdominal pain. We discuss clinical presentation in both simple and complex cases, diagnostic pitfalls and management strategies.

  7. Free jejunal flaps can be monitored by use of microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Hanne Birke

    2008-08-01

    When new combinations of preoperative treatments of carcinoma of the esophagus are implemented, surgical morbidity and mortality become even more important risk factors. This study investigated whether the risk of postoperative complications caused by ischemia in the reconstructed esophagus can be reduced using microdialysis as monitoring method. This is a retrospective study of 14 patients undergoing resection of carcinoma in the upper part of the esophagus and reconstruction with a free jejunal flap. The metabolism in all 14 jejunal transfers was monitored by use of microdialysis. The data were analyzed looking for reliable parameters detecting critical ischemia. Critical ischemia was suspected in two cases. Both of these cases were surgically revised, ischemia in the jejunal flap was verified, and the jejunal flaps were revascularized. All 14 jejunal flaps survived. Using the concentration of glucose in the microdialysate, it was possible to detect the two cases of critical ischemia. Yet, the most reliable parameter seemed to be the retrospectively calculated lactate:glucose ratio; in both the ischemic flaps, the lactate:glucose ratio exceeded more than 1000% the maximum values found in all the nonischemic flaps. Microdialysis is a promising monitoring method for surveillance of free jejunal flaps.

  8. Bleeding Jejunal Diverticulosis in a Patient with Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zuber-Jerger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A seventy-year-old male presented with severe myasthenia gravis and an episode of obscure bleeding. There was a history of gastric ulcer leading to Billroth II surgery twenty-five years ago. Upper endoscopy revealed no pathology. Colonoscopy showed a few solitary diverticula and traces of old blood in the terminal ileum. Capsule endoscopy pictured red smear in the upper jejunum. Diverticula were seen as well. Suspecting bleeding jejunal diverticulosis double balloon enteroscopy was performed. The complete jejunal ascending loop and about 100 cm of the jejunum through the descending jejunal loop could be inspected. Large diverticula with fecoliths were found in both loops. Bleeding had ceased. The patient was discharged to neurology for optimizing therapy for myasthenia gravis.

  9. Role of Krüppel-like factor 5 in the maintenance of the stem cell niche in the intestinal crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Jes G; Ghaleb, Amr M; Bialkowska, Agnieszka B; Nandan, Mandayam O; Yang, Vincent W

    The intestinal epithelium is a tissue that undergoes continuous self-renewal initiated at the bottom of the crypts, which harbor the intestinal stem cell (ISC) pool. The ISC pool is sub-divided into crypt base columnar (CBC) cells at the crypt bottom and label retention cells (LRC) at position +4 from the crypt bottom. CBC cells are marked by Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor (Lgr5) while LRC cells are identified by several markers including Bmi1, mTert, Hopx, Lrig1, and Sox9. Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a family of transcription factors that exert important physiological function in various tissues. In the intestine, KLF4 is predominantly expressed in the terminally differentiated, non-proliferating cells lining the villus. Its deletion in the adult mouse intestine results in perturbed homeostasis. In contrast, KLF5 is expressed in actively proliferating cells of the intestinal crypt, including CBC cells and transit amplifying (TA) cells. We recently investigated the effect of Klf5 deletion specifically from the Lgr5-expressing CBC cells in adult mouse intestine using an inducible Cre recombinase system. Shortly (3-5 days) after Cre induction, proliferation of both CBC and TA cells ceased, which was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis in the crypt. Beginning at two weeks following Cre induction, both Klf5 expression and proliferation re-appeared but without the re-emergence of Lgr5-positive CBC cells, which were eventually depleted by four months following induction. These findings indicate that KLF5 plays an important role in regulating proliferation and survival of CBC stem cells in the intestine.

  10. A Rare Case of Jejunal Atresia Due to Intrauterine Intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanjeev B; Kinhal, Vidyadhar; Desai, Mahesh; Tilak; Choudhari, Fazal Ur Rehman

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal atresia is generally caused by intrauterine vascular obstructions involving mesenteric vessels. Intrauterine intussusceptions (IUI) are one of these disruptive events. Intestinal intussusceptions affects children commonly between 3 months and 3 years of age, but it rarely affects in intrauterine life. The relationship between intrauterine intussusception and intestinal atresia has been demonstrated by few cases in literature, suggesting intrauterine intussusception as a rare cause of intestinal atresia. We report a 7-day-old full term neonate presenting with intrauterine intussusceptions (jejuno-jejunal) resulting in jejunal atresia.

  11. Stomatal crypts may facilitate diffusion of CO(2) to adaxial mesophyll cells in thick sclerophylls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassiotou, Foteini; Evans, John R; Ludwig, Martha; Veneklaas, Erik J

    2009-11-01

    In some plants, stomata are exclusively located in epidermal depressions called crypts. It has been argued that crypts function to reduce transpiration; however, the occurrence of crypts in species from both arid and wet environments suggests that crypts may play another role. The genus Banksia was chosen to examine quantitative relationships between crypt morphology and leaf structural and physiological traits to gain insight into the functional significance of crypts. Crypt resistance to water vapour and CO(2) diffusion was calculated by treating crypts as an additional boundary layer partially covering one leaf surface. Gas exchange measurements of polypropylene meshes confirmed the validity of this approach. Stomatal resistance was calculated as leaf resistance minus calculated crypt resistance. Stomata contributed significantly more than crypts to leaf resistance. Crypt depth increased and accounted for an increasing proportion of leaf resistance in species with greater leaf thickness and leaf dry mass per area. All Banksia species examined with leaves thicker than 0.6 mm had their stomata in deep crypts. We propose that crypts function to facilitate CO(2) diffusion from the abaxial surface to adaxial palisade cells in thick leaves. This and other possible functions of stomatal crypts, including a role in water use, are discussed.

  12. Influence of dietary supplementation with flaxseed and lactobacilli on the mucosal morphology and proliferative cell rate in the jejunal mucosa of piglets after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonecova, Zuzana; Toth, Stefan; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Rodrigo, Luis; Kruzliak, Peter; Nemcova, Radomira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of flaxseed and lactobacilli supplementation to the diet of piglets during the time period between 10 days before and 21 days after weaning. The morphometry of the jejunal mucosa and proliferative ratio of both epithelial and lamina propria cells were compared with those found in a group of piglets fed with the usual diet added with sunflower oil during the same time period. The addition of flaxseed oil to the diet significantly increased the crypt depth in comparison with both groups supplemented with sunflower (P lactobacilli showed significantly lower proliferative activity in the connective tissue cells from weaning up to 7 days after weaning (P < 0.05 all) in comparison with the flaxseed group.

  13. FauxCrypt - A Method of Text Obfuscation

    CERN Document Server

    Gualtieri, Devlin M

    2010-01-01

    Warnings have been raised about the steady diminution of privacy. More and more personal information, such as that contained electronic mail, is moving to cloud computing servers where it might be machine-searched and indexed. FauxCrypt is an algorithm for modification of a plaintext document that leaves it generally readable by a person but not readily searched or indexed by machine. The algorithm employs a dictionary substitution of selected words, and an obfuscating transposition of letters in other words. The obfuscation is designed to leave the words understandable, although they are badly spelled. FauxCrypt is free, open source software, with source code available.

  14. Complicated jejunal diverticulitis: A challenging diagnosis and difficult therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Schloericke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: In contrast to diverticulosis of the colon, jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity that often becomes clinically relevant only after exacerbations occur. The variety of symptoms and low incidence make this disease a difficult differential diagnosis. Patients and Methods: Data from all patients who were treated in our surgical department for complicated jejunal diverticulitis, that is, gastrointestinal hemorrhage or a diverticula perforation were collected prospectively over a 6-year period (January 2004 to January 2010 and analyzed retrospectively. Results: The median age among the 9 patients was 82 years (range: 54-87. Except for 2 cases (elective operation for a status postjejunal peridiverticulitis and a re-perforation of a diverticula in a patient s/p segment resection with free perforation, the diagnosis could only be confirmed with an exploratory laparotomy. Perforation was observed in 5 patients, one of which was a retroperitoneal perforation. The retroperitoneal perforation was associated with transanal hemorrhage. Hemodynamically relevant transanal hemorrhage requiring transfusion were the reason for an exploratory laparotomy in 2 further cases. In one patient, the hemorrhage was the result of a systemic vasculitis with resultant gastrointestinal involvement. A singular jejunal diverticulum caused an adhesive ileus in one patient. The extent of jejunal diverticulosis varied between a singular diverticulum to complete jejunal involvement. A tangential, transverse excision of the diverticulum was carried out in 3 patients. The indication for segment resection was made in the case of a perforation with associated peritonitis (n=4 as well as the presence of 5 or more diverticula (n=2. Histological analysis revealed chronic pandiverticulitis in all patients. Median operating time amounted to 142 minutes (range: 65-210 and the median in-hospital stay was 12 days (range: 5-45. Lethality was 0%. Major complications included

  15. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, M.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of corn replacement with five levels of wheat screening (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/kg of diet) with (0.5 g/kg of diet) or without xylanase-glucanase enzyme on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers (25-42 days of age). Five hundred day-old Ross-308 male broiler chicks were fed by a standard commercial diet up to 24 days of age, then randomly assigned to 10 diets. Each diet was fed to five groups of ten chicks each. There was not significant differences in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of birds fed with different levels of wheat screening (WS), whereas enzyme increased (p<0.05) BWG. Different levels of WS and enzyme did not have a significant effect on relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, and abdominal fat of broilers. Relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, small and large intestine, and relative length of jejunum and jejunal and ileal viscosity were increased (p<0.05) by WS, while were decreased (p<0.05) by enzyme. The serum cholesterol level decreased (p<0.05) by increasing levels of WS. Jejunal histomorphological observations showed (p<0.05) shorter and thicker villus and lower crypt depth by increasing levels of WS, while addition of enzyme to the diets, affected (p<0.05) reversely to these parameters. The results showed that the addition of wheat screening up to an inclusion level of 600 g/kg of diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance in the finisher (25-42 d) phases whereas decreased serum cholesterol levels, increased viscosity and villus atrophy. The dietary administration of exogenous enzyme improved performance parameters and decreased viscosity and villus atrophy of broiler jejunum. (Author)

  16. Crypt abscess-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and acute self-limited colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry; Sokol; Nadia; Vasquez; Nadia; Hoyeau-Idrissi; Philippe; Seksik; Laurent; Beaugerie; Anne; Lavergne-Slove; Philippe; Pochart; Philippe; Marteau

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether crypt abscesses frominflammatory bowel disease(IBD)patients containbacteria and to establish their nature.METHODS:We studied 17 ulcerative colitis patients,11 Crohn's disease patients,7 patients with acute selflimited colitis(ASLC)and normal colonic biopsies from5 subjects who underwent colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.A fluorescent in situ hybridization techniquewas applied to colonic biopsies to assess the microbiotacomposition of the crypts and crypt abscesses.RESULTS:Crypts...

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  18. Inhibitory Effect of Spirulina maxima on the Azoxymethane-induced Aberrant Colon Crypts and Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-González, Isela; Islas-Islas, Víctor; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Barrios, Juan Pablo; Paniagua, Norma; Vásquez-Garzón, Verónica R.; Villa-Treviño, Saúl; Osiris-Madrigal-Santillán; Morales-González, José Antonio; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Spirulina maxima (Sm) is a cyanobacterium well known because of its high nutritive value, as well as its anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-genotoxic activities. Objective: To determine the capacity of Sm to inhibit the induction of aberrant colon crypts (AC), as well as the level of lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage in mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Materials and Methods: Sm (100, 400, and 800 mg/kg) was daily administered to animals by the oral route during 4 weeks, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to mice twice in weeks 2 and 3 of the assay. We also included a control group of mice orally administered with distilled water along the assay, as well as other group orally administered with the high dose of Sm. Results: A significant decrease in the number of AC with the three tested doses of Sm, with a mean protection of 51.6% respect to the damage induced by AOM. Also, with the three doses of the alga, we found a reduction in the level of lipoperoxidation, as well as in regard to the percentage of the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2’- deoxyguanosine. Conclusion: Sm possesses anti-precarcinogenic potential in vivo, as well as capacity to reduce the oxidative damage induced by AOM. SUMMARY Azoxymethane (AOM) induced a high number of colon aberrant crypts in mouse. It also increased the level of peroxidation and of DNA oxidation in the same organ.Spirulina maxima significantly reduced the number of AOM-induced colon aberrant crypts in mouse. It also reduced the AOM-induced lipid and DNA oxidation in mouse.The results suggest a chemopreventive potential for the tested algae. PMID:27013804

  19. [A case of jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Akiko; Yamada, Masami; Takehira, Yasunori; Kageyama, Fujito; Yoshii, Shigeto; Murohisa, Gou; Yoshida, Kenichi; Iwaoka, Yasushi; Terai, Tomohiro; Uotani, Takahiro; Watanabe, Shinya; Noritake, Hidenao; Ikematu, Yoshito; Kanai, Toshikazu

    2008-04-01

    Gallstone ileus is a rare but important cause of small bowel obstruction in the geriatric population. A 65-year-old man with a twenty year history of cholecystolithiasis was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain and vomiting. Physical exams showed abdominal defence and rebound tenderness. A plain abdominal X-ray suggested a small bowel obstruction and pneumobilia. CT scan revealed a 2.5-cm gallstone at the jejunum and air in the biliary tree. The patient underwent a emergency laparotomy based on a diagnosis of panperitonitis with a perforation associated with gallstone ileus. Operative findings revealed a jejunal perforation and a impacted stone on the anal side of perforation. Enterolithotomy and jejunal resection were performed with cholecystectomy and repairment of the cholecystoduodenal fistula.

  20. Jejuno-jejunal invagination due to intestinal melanoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Resta; Gianfranco Azzena; Savino Occhionorelli; Gabriele Anania; Federico Messina; Damiano de Tullio; Gloria Ferrocci; Federico Zanzi; Davide Pellegrini; Rocco Stano; Giorgio Cavallesco

    2007-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most studied neoplastic lesions in biology and clinical oncology. It has been well documented that this type of neoplasm presents a high metastatic rate, and is able to involve nearly every tissue. Non-cutaneous melanoma represents an unusual pattern of melanoma, and the small intestine is an uncommon anatomic localization. Herein we report an extremely rare clinical case of a young woman affected by a bleeding jejunal melanoma, whose early clinical presentation was an intestinal invagination.

  1. Jejunal Feeding in Chronic Pancreatitis with Severe Necrosis

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    Hamvas J

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Necrotizing pancreatitis is the most serious form of pancreatic inflammatory disease leading to multiorgan failure and a high (15-20% mortality rate. The poor nutritional and metabolic conditions and secondary bacterial translocation raise the mortality rate even more. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of jejunal feeding in cases of chronic pancreatitis with extended necrosis. PATIENTS: In our institution, over a five-year period, 86 patients with severe necrotizing pancreatitis were treated for extended necrosis. In 19 patients, chronic calcifying pancreatitis was demonstrated by computed tomography showing more than 20% necrosis in the residual pancreas as well. SETTING: In 12 cases, nutrition was provided by jejunal feeding using an endoscopically placed nasojejunal feeding tube, whereas in 7 cases, hypocaloric parenteral nutrition was used. DESIGN: Retrospective unicenter study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The rate of healing with conservative treatment. RESULTS: Two of the 12 jejunally fed patients were operated on because of complications of pancreatitis. Five patients required intervention in the hypocaloric parenteral nutrition group: 4 were operated on and one more needed endoscopic intervention. The healing rate was significantly higher (P=0.045 in the jejunal feeding group (83.3% than in the parenteral nutrition (28.6% patients. CONCLUSIONS: In cases of chronic calcifying pancreatitis serious necrosis can develop in the residual pancreas resulting in a severe acute pancreatitis-like disease. A better healing rate was achieved and less interventions became necessary using nasojejunal tube feeding than in the parenteral nutrition group and this was analogous to what was observed in severe necrotizing pancreatitis This form of pancreatitis has not yet been described in the literature in detail. The authors suggest that it be regarded as a separate entity.

  2. Complicated Jejunal Diverticulosis: Small Bowel Volvulus with Obstruction

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    Rommel Singh Mohi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of the diverticulum of the small bowel varies from 0.2-1.3% in autopsy studies to 2.3% when assessed on enteroclysis. It occurs mostly in patients in the 6th decade of their life. Of all the small bowel diverticuli, jejunal diverticulum is the most common type. This rare entity is usually asymptomatic. However, they may cause chronic non-specific symptoms for a long period of time like dyspepsia, chronic postprandial pain, nausea, vomiting, borborgymi, alternating diarrhoea and constipation, weight loss, anaemia, steatorrhea or rarely lead to complications like haemorrhage, obstruction, perforation. Obstruction can be due to enterolith, adhesions, intussusception, and volvulus. The condition is difficult to diagnose because patients are generally presented with symptoms that mimic other diseases. It is important for clinicians to have awareness of this entity. Here, we present a case of multiple jejunal diverticuli with a history of repeated attacks of diverticulitis over past 20 years, which were misdiagnosed and now presented with intestinal obstruction due to volvulus of the involved segment along with mesentery around its axis. Resection of the diverticuli segment of jejunum was done with end-to-end jejuno-jejunal anastomosis. The patient is asymptomatic since 10 months of follow-up.

  3. GASTRIC AND JEJUNAL HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING BARIATRIC SURGERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RODRIGUES, Rosemary Simões Nomelini; ALMEIDA, Élia Cláudia de Souza; CAMILO, Silvia Maria Perrone; TERRA-JÚNIOR, Júverson Alves; GUIMARÃES, Lucinda Calheiros; DUQUE, Ana Cristina da Rocha; ETCHEBEHERE, Renata Margarida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Morbid obesity is a multifactorial disease that increasingly is being treated by surgery. Aim: To evaluate gastric histopathological changes in obese, and to compare with patients who underwent gastrojejunal bypass and the jejunal mucosa after the surgery. Methods: This is an observational study performed at a tertiary public hospital, evaluating endoscopic biopsies from 36 preoperative patients and 35 postoperative. Results: In the preoperative group, 80.6% had chronic gastritis, which was active in 38.9% (77.1% and 20.1%, respectively, in the postoperative). The postoperative group had a significant reduction in H. pylori infection (p=0.0001). A longer length of the gastric stump and a time since surgery of more than two years were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was normal in 91.4% and showed slight nonspecific chronic inflammation in 8.6%. Conclusion: There was a reduction in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in the postoperative group. A longer length of the gastric stump and longer time elapsed since surgery were associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. The jejunal mucosa was considered normal in an absolute majority of patients. PMID:27683773

  4. Memory based active contour algorithm using pixel-level classified images for colon crypt segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Assaf; Rivlin, Ehud; Shimshoni, Ilan; Sabo, Edmond

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel method for detection and segmentation of crypts in colon biopsies. Most of the approaches proposed in the literature try to segment the crypts using only the biopsy image without understanding the meaning of each pixel. The proposed method differs in that we segment the crypts using an automatically generated pixel-level classification image of the original biopsy image and handle the artifacts due to the sectioning process and variance in color, shape and size of the crypts. The biopsy image pixels are classified to nuclei, immune system, lumen, cytoplasm, stroma and goblet cells. The crypts are then segmented using a novel active contour approach, where the external force is determined by the semantics of each pixel and the model of the crypt. The active contour is applied for every lumen candidate detected using the pixel-level classification. Finally, a false positive crypt elimination process is performed to remove segmentation errors. This is done by measuring their adherence to the crypt model using the pixel level classification results. The method was tested on 54 biopsy images containing 4944 healthy and 2236 cancerous crypts, resulting in 87% detection of the crypts with 9% of false positive segments (segments that do not represent a crypt). The segmentation accuracy of the true positive segments is 96%.

  5. Characteristics of deslanoside-induced modulation on jejunal contractility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-Peng Chen; Yong-Jian Xiong; Ze-Yao Tang; Qi-Ying Yao; Dong-Mei Ye; Sha-Sha Liu; Yuan Lin

    2012-01-01

    AIM:TO characterize the dual effects of deslanoside on the contractility of jejunal smooth muscle.METHODS:Eight pairs of different low and high contractile states of isolated jejunal smooth muscle fragment (JSMF) were established.Contractile amplitude of JSMF in different low and high contractile states was selected to determine the effects of deslanoside,and Western blotting analysis was performed to measure the effects of deslanoside on myosin phosphorylation of jejunal smooth muscle.RESULTS:Stimulatory effects on the contractility of JSMF were induced (45.3% ± 4.0% vs 87.0% ± 7.8%,P < 0.01) by deslanoside in 8 low contractile states,and inhibitory effects were induced (180.6% ± 17.8%vs 109.9% ± 10.8%,P < 0.01) on the contractility of JSMF in 8 high contractile states.The effect of deslanoside on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain ofJSMF in low (78.1% ± 4.1% vs 96.0% ± 8.1%,P <0.01) and high contractile state (139.2% ± 8.5% vs 105.5 ± 7.34,P < 0.01) was also bidirectional.Bidirectional regulation (BR) was abolished in the presence of tetrodotoxin.Deslanoside did not affect jejunal contractility pretreated with the Ca2+ channel blocker verapamil or in a Ca2+-free assay condition.The stimulatory effect of deslanoside on JSMF in a low contractile state (low Ca2+ induced) was abolished by atropine.The inhibitory effect of deslanoside on jejunal contractility in a high contractile state (high Ca2+ induced) was blocked by phentolamine,propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine,respectively.CONCLUSION:Deslanoside-induced BR is Ca2+ dependent and is related to cholinergic and adrenergic systems when JSMF is in low or high contractile states.

  6. [Surgical Removal of Migrated Coil after Embolization of Jejunal Variceal Bleeding: A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junhwan; Lee, Danbi; Oh, Kyunghwan; Lee, Mingee; So, Seol; Yang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Chan Wook; Gwon, Dong Il; Chung, Young Hwa

    2017-01-25

    Jejunal variceal bleeding is less common compared with esophagogastric varices in patients with portal hypertension. However, jejunal variceal bleeding can be fatal without treatment. Treatments include surgery, transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS), endoscopic sclerotherapy, percutaneous coil embolization, and balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO). Percutaneous coil embolization can be considered as an alternative treatment option for those where endoscopic sclerotherapy, surgery, TIPS or BRTO are not possible. Complications of percutaneous coil embolization have been reported, including coil migration. Herein, we report a case of migration of the coil into the jejunal lumen after percutaneous coil embolization for jejunal variceal bleeding. The migrated coil was successfully removed using surgery.

  7. Ruptured Jejunal Diverticulum Due to a Single-Band Small Bowel Obstruction

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    Rajaraman Durai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is rare and often goes unnoticed until complications occur. The diverticula are true, acquired diverticula and often asymptomatic. Jejunal diverticulosis can be associated with diverticulosis of the duodenum, ileum, and colon. Here we describe a patient with known severe diverticular disease of the large bowel, who presented acutely with abdominal pain and signs of generalised peritonitis. Laparotomy showed ruptured jejunal diverticulosis with a single band over the terminal ileum, causing small bowel obstruction. Spontaneous perforation of a jejunal diverticulum is rare and is usually an intraoperative finding. One should exclude a precipitating cause, such as coexisting distal obstruction, stricture, or a foreign body.

  8. CT of jejunal diverticulitis: imaging findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macari, M.; Faust, M.; Liang, H.; Pachter, H.L

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To describe the imaging findings of jejunal diverticulitis as depicted at contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and review the differential diagnosis and clinical management. Materials and Methods: CT and pathology databases were searched for the diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis. Three cases were identified and the imaging and clinical findings correlated. Results: Jejunal diverticulitis presents as a focal inflammatory mass involving the proximal small bowel. A trial of medical management with antibiotics may be attempted. Surgical resection may be required if medical management is unsuccessful. Conclusion: The imaging findings at MDCT may allow a specific diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis to be considered and may affect the clinical management of the patient.

  9. A Model of Colonic Crypts using SBML Spatial

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    Carlo Maj

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Spatial Processes package enables an explicit definition of a spatial environment on top of the normal dynamic modeling SBML capabilities. The possibility of an explicit representation of spatial dynamics increases the representation power of SBML. In this work we used those new SBML features to define an extensive model of colonic crypts composed of the main cellular types (from stem cells to fully differentiated cells, alongside their spatial dynamics.

  10. Crypt cells are involved in kin recognition in larval zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biechl, Daniela; Tietje, Kristin; Gerlach, Gabriele; Wullimann, Mario F.

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish larvae imprint on visual and olfactory kin cues at day 5 and 6 postfertilization, respectively, resulting in kin recognition later in life. Exposure to non-kin cues prevents imprinting and kin recognition. Imprinting depends on MHC class II related signals and only larvae sharing MHC class II alleles can imprint on each other. Here, we analyzed which type of olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) detects kin odor. The single teleost olfactory epithelium harbors ciliated OSNs carrying OR and TAAR gene family receptors (mammals: main olfactory epithelium) and microvillous OSNs with V1R and V2R gene family receptors (mammals: vomeronasal organ). Additionally, teleosts exhibit crypt cells which possess microvilli and cilia. We used the activity marker pERK (phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase) after stimulating 9 day old zebrafish larvae with either non-kin conspecific or food odor. While food odor activated both ciliated and microvillous OSNs, only the latter were activated by conspecific odor, crypt cells showed no activation to both stimuli. Then, we tested imprinted and non-imprinted larvae (full siblings) for kin odor detection. We provide the first direct evidence that crypt cells, and likely a subpopulation of microvillous OSNs, but not ciliated OSNs, play a role in detecting a kin odor related signal. PMID:27087508

  11. Evaluation healing of jejunal anastomosis in preoperative dexamethasone treated dogs

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    A.S. Al-Qadhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to evaluate the healing process of jejunal anastomosis by the aid of histopathology and measurement of bursting pressure of anastomosis site in thirty two adult preoperatively with dexamethasone. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups: Group 1: consists of 16 dogs underwent apposition end-to-end jejunal anastomosis using simple interrupted suture technique which in turn divided into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consists of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.2mg/kg given I/M. Subgroup B: control group consists of 8 dogs not treated with dexamethasone. Group 2: consists of 16 dogs underwent inverted end-to-end jejunal anastomosis using continuous Lembert suture pattern that also divided into 2 subgroups: subgroup A: consists of 8 dogs treated preoperatively for 15 days with dexamethasone at a dose of (0.2mg/kg given I/M. subgroup B: control group consists of 8 dogs not treated with dexamethasone. The result of bursting pressure measurement showed higher tensile strength in the control groups (445±9.6 in comparison with the steroidal groups (255±25.3 for both techniques. The histopathological study showed that the healing was good in all groups but the rupture that occur due to shedding the pressure lead to non discrimination between which is better in terms of healing. Massonʼs trichrome showed that collagen content of subgroups taking dexamethasone was lower than that of subgroups not treated with dexamethasone.

  12. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in a Zebu cow in Brazil

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    Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type A has been incriminated as the etiologic agent in jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS, which is a disease that affects dairy cattle. Although this microorganism is considered an important enteropathogen the pathogenesis of JHS is still not clear, and there have been no reports of its occurrence in Brazil so far. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of JHS by infection with a C. perfringens type A strain carrying the beta-2 toxin gene in a zebu cow in Brazil, for the first time.

  13. [Digestive bleeding and acute abdomen caused by jejunal diverticulosis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nari, Gustavo A; Azar, Ricardo; Feliu, Luis; Moreno, Eduardo; Bonaparte, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    We present a patient with acute abdomen and digestive bleeding caused by jejunal diverticulosis. Jejunal diverticulosis, mainly asymptomatic, when is symptomatic have a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from chronic anemic syndrome to acute abdomen. In this communication, we reviewed the clinical presentation, the pathogenesis and the treatment this infrequent pathology.

  14. Perforated Jejunal Diverticula Secondary to a Large Faecolith: A Rare Cause of the Acute Abdomen

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    Peter John Webster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticula are uncommon and usually asymptomatic. Very rarely, they can lead to acute complications such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation. This report describes our experience of a case of jejunal diverticula perforation secondary to a large faecolith, with particular focus on the aetiology and management of this rare condition.

  15. ArterioVenous Malformation within Jejunal Diverticulum: An Unusual Cause of Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding

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    Jeffrey K. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive gastrointestinal (GI bleeding can occur with multiple jejunal diverticulosis. However, significant bleeding in the setting of few diverticulae is very unusual and rare. We report a case of massive gastrointestinal bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation (AVM within a jejunal diverticulum to underscore the significance of such coexisting pathologies. Mesenteric angiogram was chosen to help identify the source of bleeding and to offer an intervention. Despite endovascular coiling, emergent intestinal resection of the bleeding jejunal segment was warranted to ensure definitive treatment. However several reports have shown jejunal diverticulosis as a rare cause of massive GI bleeding. The coexistence of jejunal diverticulum and AVM is rare and massive bleeding from an acquired Dieulafoy-like AVM within a diverticulum has never previously been described. Awareness of Dieulafoy-like AVM within jejunoileal diverticulosis is useful in preventing delay in treatment.

  16. Effect of genistein on basal jejunal chloride secretion in R117H CF mice is sex and route specific

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    Rayyan E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esa Rayyan,1 Sarah Polito,1 Lana Leung,1 Ashesh Bhakta,1 Jonathan Kang,1 Justin Willey,1 Wasim Mansour,1 Mitchell L Drumm,2 Layla Al-Nakkash11Department of Physiology, Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA; 2Pediatric Pulmonology Division, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF results from the loss or reduction in function of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein chloride channel. The third most common CFTR mutation seen clinically is R117H. Genistein, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen, is known to stimulate CFTR function in vitro. We aimed to determine whether route of administration of genistein could mediate differential effects in R117H male and female CF mice. Mice were fed (4 weeks or injected subcutaneously (1 week with the following: genistein 600 mg/kg diet (600Gd; genistein-free diet (0Gd; genistein injection 600 mg/kg body weight (600Gi; dimethyl sulfoxide control (0Gi. In male R117H mice fed 600Gd, basal short circuit current (Isc was unchanged. In 600Gd-fed female mice, there was a subgroup that demonstrated a significant increase in basal Isc (53.14±7.92 µA/cm2, n=6, P<0.05 and a subgroup of nonresponders (12.05±6.59 µA/cm2, n=4, compared to 0Gd controls (29.3±6.5 µA/cm2, n=7. In R117H mice injected with 600Gi, basal Isc was unchanged in both male and female mice compared to 0Gi controls. Isc was measured in response to the following: the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 µM, bilateral, bumetanide (100 µM, basolateral to indicate the Cl- secretory component, and acetazolamide (100 µM, bilateral to indicate the HCO3- secretory component; however, there was no effect of genistein (diet or injection on any of these parameters. Jejunal morphology (ie, villi length, number of goblet cells per villus, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells per crypt in R117H mice suggested no genistein

  17. Complicated jejunal diverticulosis: A case report with literature review

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    Affes Nejmeddine

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Context: Jejunal diverticuli are rare and usually asymptomatic. More commonly, they are seen as incidental findings on CT images, enteroclysis, or during surgery. Complications such as bleeding, perforation, obstruction, malabsorption, diverticulitis, blind loop syndrome, volvulus, and intussusceptions may warrant surgical intervention. Case report: We report a case of 47-year old woman who had suffered from intestinal obstruction for 3 days. The symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment. An exploratory laparotomy found small bowel obstruction due to proximal jejunal diverticulum with an adhesion epiploic band. Strangulation of the jejunum resulted from the internal hernia caused by the band. The band was removed and the proximal jejunum segmentally resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: Although this phenomenon is rare, we should keep in mind that intestinal diverticulosis may induce intestinal obstructions of different kinds, repeat physical examinations and X-ray films are needed and enteroclysis studies or CT scan are helpful in diagnosis. Surgery is indicated for acute abdominal or repeated intestinal obstruction.

  18. Complicated jejunal diverticulosis: A case report with literature review

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    Affes Nejmeddine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Jejunal diverticuli are rare and usually asymptomatic. More commonly, they are seen as incidental findings on CT images, enteroclysis, or during surgery. Complications such as bleeding, perforation, obstruction, malabsorption, diverticulitis, blind loop syndrome, volvulus, and intussusceptions may warrant surgical intervention. Case report: We report a case of 47-year old woman who had suffered from intestinal obstruction for 3 days. The symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment. An exploratory laparotomy found small bowel obstruction due to proximal jejunal diverticulum with an adhesion epiploic band. Strangulation of the jejunum resulted from the internal hernia caused by the band. The band was removed and the proximal jejunum segmentally resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: Although this phenomenon is rare, we should keep in mind that intestinal diverticulosis may induce intestinal obstructions of different kinds, repeat physical examinations and X-ray films are needed and enteroclysis studies or CT scan are helpful in diagnosis. Surgery is indicated for acute abdominal or repeated intestinal obstruction.

  19. Complicated jejunal diverticulosis: A case report with literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejmeddine, Affes; Bassem, Abid; Mohamed, Hammami; Hazem, Ben ameur; Ramez, Beyrouti; Issam, Beyrouti Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Context: Jejunal diverticuli are rare and usually asymptomatic. More commonly, they are seen as incidental findings on CT images, enteroclysis, or during surgery. Complications such as bleeding, perforation, obstruction, malabsorption, diverticulitis, blind loop syndrome, volvulus, and intussusceptions may warrant surgical intervention. Case report: We report a case of 47-year old woman who had suffered from intestinal obstruction for 3 days. The symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment. An exploratory laparotomy found small bowel obstruction due to proximal jejunal diverticulum with an adhesion epiploic band. Strangulation of the jejunum resulted from the internal hernia caused by the band. The band was removed and the proximal jejunum segmentally resected. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion: Although this phenomenon is rare, we should keep in mind that intestinal diverticulosis may induce intestinal obstructions of different kinds, repeat physical examinations and X-ray films are needed and enteroclysis studies or CT scan are helpful in diagnosis. Surgery is indicated for acute abdominal or repeated intestinal obstruction. PMID:22666695

  20. Effects of grinding method, particle size, and physical form of the diet on gastrointestinal morphology and jejunal glucose transport in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhe, I; Ruhnke, I; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Löwe, R; Zentek, J

    2014-08-01

    Several studies illustrated that the structure of feed, i.e., the particle size, particle-size distribution, and the physical form of the diet, affects the avian gastrointestinal function and health leading to changes in productive performance. However, investigations concerning the effects of feeding differently processed diets on laying hens are limited and primarily concentrated on bird performance. The current study examines the effect of feed processing on the gastrointestinal morphology and on the jejunal glucose transport of laying hens. In 8 replicates, a total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 20 wk were randomly allocated to 8 different groups and fed over a period of 21 d in a 3-factorial design. Diets differed in 1) grinding method, either hammer or roller mill; 2) physical form, either mash or expandate; and 3) particle size, either coarsely or finely ground. During the experimental trial, the laying performance of each feeding group was recorded daily and the feed intake and BW determined weekly. After slaughtering, the weights of the pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, and small intestine were measured. Villus lengths and crypt depths of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were determined. The jejunal electrogenic glucose transport was studied in Ussing chambers. Hens that received mash instead of expandate had higher proventriculus (P = 0.011), gizzard (P < 0.001), and pancreas (P = 0.019) weights, whereas the feeding of coarsely instead of finely ground diets led to higher gizzard weights (P < 0.001). Mash-fed hens showed longer duodenal (P < 0.001) and shorter ileal villi (P = 0.047) and increased duodenal villus height-to-crypt depth ratios (P < 0.001) than those given the expandate. Mash-fed hens had higher glucose transport rates than expandate-fed hens (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the feeding of coarsely ground as well as mash diets had stimulating effects on the development of the gastrointestinal organs. Moreover, the feeding of mash influenced

  1. Jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus – a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Browning Louise E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gallstone ileus is an uncommon complication of cholelithiasis but an established cause of mechanical bowel obstruction in the elderly. Perforation of the small intestine proximal to the obstructing gallstone is rare, and only a handful of cases have been reported. We present two cases of perforation of the jejunum in gallstone ileus, and remarkably in one case, the gallstone ileus caused perforation of a jejunal diverticulum and is to the best of our knowledge the first such case to be described. Case presentations Case 1 A 69 year old man presented with two days of vomiting and central abdominal pain. He underwent laparotomy for small bowel obstruction and was found to have a gallstone obstructing the mid-ileum. There was a 2 mm perforation in the anti-mesenteric border of the dilated proximal jejunum. The gallstone was removed and the perforated segment of jejunum was resected. Case 2 A 68 year old man presented with a four day history of vomiting and central abdominal pain. Chest and abdominal radiography were unremarkable however a subsequent CT scan of the abdomen showed aerobilia. At laparotomy his distal ileum was found to be obstructed by an impacted gallstone and there was a perforated diverticulum on the mesenteric surface of the mid-jejunum. An enterolithotomy and resection of the perforated small bowel was performed. Conclusion Gallstone ileus remains a diagnostic challenge despite advances in imaging techniques, and pre-operative diagnosis is often delayed. Partly due to the elderly population it affects, gallstone ileus continues to have both high morbidity and mortality rates. On reviewing the literature, the most appropriate surgical intervention remains unclear. Jejunal perforation in gallstone ileus is extremely rare. The cases described illustrate two quite different causes of perforation complicating gallstone ileus. In the first case, perforation was probably due to pressure necrosis caused by the

  2. Morphological changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal mucosa at different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wang; Jian Li; Qing Li; Jian Zhang; Xiang-Lin Duan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the changes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in rat jejunal epithelium at different ages.METHODS: Cell proliferation and apoptosis of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia from birth to postnatal 12th month were observed using immunocytochemistry (ICC), and TUNEL method. The height of villus, the thickness of muscle layer and the number of goblet cells in jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia were measured by BeiHang analytic software and analyzed by STAT.RESULTS: (1) Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive cells of jejunal glandulous recess were found and increased in number from birth to the postnatal 3rd month. The number of PCNA positive cells peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, and decreased from then on. (2) The number of apoptotic cells also peaked in the postnatal 3rd month, showing a similar trend to that of the PCNA positive cells. (3) The height of jejunal villus increased after birth, peaked in the postnatal 3rd month and decreased from then on. The jejunal muscle layer became thicker in the postnatal 3rd week and the postnatal 12th month.The number of goblet cells of the jejunal mucosal and glandulous epithelia had a linear correlation with age.CONCLUSION: (1) PCNA positive cells are distributed in the jejunal glandulous recess. (2) Apoptotic cell number peaks in the postnatal 3rd month, indicating that cell proliferation and apoptosis are developed with the formation of digestive metabolism as rat grows to maturity. (3) The thickness of jejunal muscle layer increases to a maximum in the postnatal 3rd week, which may be related to the change in diet from milk to solid food. (4) The number of goblet cells increases rapidly in the postnatal 3rd week, probably due to ingestion of solid food.

  3. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Expression of aminopeptidase N along the crypt-villus axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1984-01-01

    in the crypt cells and a moderate increase of about 20% in the villus cells. Whereas the latter can possibly be ascribed to a general protective effect of dexamethasone on villus architecture, these experiments indicate that crypt cells of mucosa from adult individuals exhibit the same sensitivity...

  4. Identifying the stem cell of the intestinal crypt: strategies and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van Oudenaarden, A.; Clevers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Decades ago, two nonoverlapping crypt stem cell populations were proposed: Leblond's Crypt Base Columnar (CBC) cell and Potten's +4 cell. The identification of CBC markers including Lgr5 has confirmed Leblond's predictions that CBC cells are anatomically distinct, long-lived stem cells that

  5. Notch/gamma-secretase inhibition turns proliferative cells in intestinal crypts and adenomas into goblet cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, J.H. van; Gijn, M.E. van; Riccio, O.; Born, M. van den; Vooijs, M.; Begthel, H.; Cozijnsen, M.; Robine, S.; Winston, D.J.; Radtke, F.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The self-renewing epithelium of the small intestine is ordered into stem/progenitor crypt compartments and differentiated villus compartments. Recent evidence indicates that the Wnt cascade is the dominant force in controlling cell fate along the crypt-villus axis. Here we show a rapid, massive

  6. Identifying the stem cell of the intestinal crypt: strategies and pitfalls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; van Oudenaarden, A.; Clevers, H.

    2012-01-01

    Decades ago, two nonoverlapping crypt stem cell populations were proposed: Leblond's Crypt Base Columnar (CBC) cell and Potten's +4 cell. The identification of CBC markers including Lgr5 has confirmed Leblond's predictions that CBC cells are anatomically distinct, long-lived stem cells that permanen

  7. Paneth cells constitute the niche for Lgr5 stem cells in intestinal crypts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sato, T.; van Es, J.H.; Snippert, H.J.G.; Stange, D.E.; Vries, R.G.J.; van den Born, M.M.W.; Barker, N.; Shroyer, N.F.; van de Wetering, M.L.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    Homeostasis of self-renewing small intestinal crypts results from neutral competition between Lgr5 stem cells, which are small cycling cells located at crypt bottoms. Lgr5 stem cells are interspersed between terminally differentiated Paneth cells that are known to produce bactericidal products such

  8. Analysis of cryptographic mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Glet

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to analysis how malicious software is using cryptographic mechanisms. Reverse engineering were applied in order to discover mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3. At the end were given some useful advices how to improve CryptXXX.[b]Keyword:[/b] ransomware, software engineering, reverse engineering, RC4, RSA, malicious software

  9. Notch/gamma-secretase inhibition turns proliferative cells in intestinal crypts and adenomas into goblet cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, J.H. van; Gijn, M.E. van; Riccio, O.; Born, M. van den; Vooijs, M.; Begthel, H.; Cozijnsen, M.; Robine, S.; Winston, D.J.; Radtke, F.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The self-renewing epithelium of the small intestine is ordered into stem/progenitor crypt compartments and differentiated villus compartments. Recent evidence indicates that the Wnt cascade is the dominant force in controlling cell fate along the crypt-villus axis. Here we show a rapid, massive conv

  10. c-Myb is required for progenitor cell homeostasis in colonic crypts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malaterre, J.; Carpinelli, M.; Ernst, M.; Alexander, W.; Cooke, M.; Sutton, S.; Dworkin, S.; Heakth, J.K.; Frampton, J.; McArthur, G.; Clevers, J.C.; Hilton, D.; Mantamadiotis, Th.; Ramsay, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    The colonic crypt is the functional unit of the colon mucosa with a central role in ion and water reabsorption. Under steady-state conditions, the distal colonic crypt harbors a single stem cell at its base that gives rise to highly proliferative progenitor cells that differentiate into columnar, go

  11. Analysis of cryptographic mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Glet

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to analysis how malicious software is using cryptographic mechanisms. Reverse engineering were applied in order to discover mechanisms used in ransomware CryptXXX v3. At the end were given some useful advices how to improve CryptXXX.[b]Keyword:[/b] ransomware, software engineering, reverse engineering, RC4, RSA, malicious software

  12. Small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to primary enterolithiasis in a patient with jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhery, Baber; Newman, Peter Alexander; Kelly, Michael Denis

    2014-03-13

    We describe a rare case of small bowel obstruction and perforation secondary to a primary enterolith in an 84-year-old female patient with jejunal diverticulosis. She underwent an emergency laparotomy, small bowel resection and primary anastomosis. Multiple jejunal diverticula and a large stone were identified at the time of operation. Analysis of the stone demonstrated mainly faecal material consistent with a true primary enterolith. A literature search of Medline and PubMed revealed three cases similar to the one described. The pathogenesis and management of enterolithiasis in jejunal diverticular disease is considered.

  13. The Carcinogenic Agent Azoxymethane (AOM) Enhances Early Inflammation-induced Colon Crypt Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venning, Freja Albjerg; Claesson, Mogens Helweg; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2013-01-01

    mice and SCID mice with transfer colitis. AOM by itself did result in neither weight loss nor inflammation although treatment affected crypt widths and numbers. Although AOM together with T cell transfer did not increase the level of gut inflammation including COX-2 expression, AOM increased crypt......Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice transplanted with CD4+ T cells depleted of CD25+ regulatory T cells develop colitis within 2-3 weeks after the T cell transfer. In the present study we studied the effect of the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM) on the colon crypt pathology of normal SCID...... changes associated with colon inflammation such as a decline in crypt numbers and an increase in crypts width throughout the large intestine. Thus it appears that AOM lower the threshold level for inflammation-induced changes which potentially may lead to neoplasia....

  14. First jejunal artery, an alternative graft for right hepaticartery reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bibek Aryal; Teruo Komokata; Jun Kadono; Hiroyuki Motodaka; Tetsuya Ueno; Akira Furoi; Yutaka Imoto

    2015-01-01

    Common bile duct cancer invading right hepatic artery is sometimes diagnosed intraoperatively. Excision and safe reconstruction of the artery with suitable graftis essential. Arterial reconstruction with autologoussaphenous vein graft is the preferred method practicedroutinely. However the right hepatic artery reconstructionhas also been carried out with several other vesselslike gastroduodenal artery, right gastroepiploic arteryor the splenic artery. We report a case of 63-year-oldman presenting with history of progressive jaundice,pruritus and impaired appetite. Following variousimaging modalities including computed tomography,endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography,magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, intraductalultrasound extrahepatic bile duct cancer wasdiagnosed; however, none of those detected vesselinvasion. Intraoperatively, right hepatic artery invasionwas revealed. Right hepatic artery was resectedand reconstructed with a graft harvested from thefirst jejunal artery (JA). Postoperative outcome wassatisfactory with a long-term graft patency. First JAcan be a reliable graft option for right hepatic arteryreconstruction.

  15. Stem cell self-renewal in intestinal crypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Benjamin D., E-mail: bds10@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, J.J. Thomson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN (United Kingdom); Clevers, Hans, E-mail: h.clevers@hubrecht.eu [Hubrecht Institute, KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    As a rapidly cycling tissue capable of fast repair and regeneration, the intestinal epithelium has emerged as a favored model system to explore the principles of adult stem cell biology. However, until recently, the identity and characteristics of the stem cell population in both the small intestine and colon has remained the subject of debate. Recent studies based on targeted lineage tracing strategies, combined with the development of an organotypic culture system, have identified the crypt base columnar cell as the intestinal stem cell, and have unveiled the strategy by which the balance between proliferation and differentiation is maintained. These results show that intestinal stem cells operate in a dynamic environment in which frequent and stochastic stem cell loss is compensated by the proliferation of neighboring stem cells. We review the basis of these experimental findings and the insights they offer into the mechanisms of homeostatic stem cell regulation.

  16. Laparoscopic resection of sporadic synchronous gastric and jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumors: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Avanzato, Roberto; Carboni, Fabio; Palmieri, Maria Beatrice; Palmirotta, Raffaele; Guadagni, Fiorella; Pippa, Giovanna; Santeusanio, Giuseppe; Antimi, Mauro; Lopez, Massimo; Carlini, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    Multicentricity of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) has been described only in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or within the small intestine, and different pathogenetic mechanisms are involved. We report a case of synchronous sporadic gastric and jejunal GISTs, which were resected laparoscopically in a 67-year-old man. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both lesions were KIT (CD117)-positive, but that the gastric lesion was CD34-positive, whereas the jejunal one was Vimentin-, S-100-, and SMA-positive. Molecular analysis of mutations in KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17, and in PDGFRA exons 12 and 18 revealed the presence of a gastric sporadic GIST with a KIT mutation of the exon 11 and a jejunal sporadic GIST without KIT or PDGFRA mutations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopically resected synchronous sporadic gastric and jejunal GISTs.

  17. Jejunal diverticulitis with localized perforation diagnosed by ultrasound: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelekis, Alexis D.; Poletti, Pierre A. [Department of Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, 24 Rue Michelli-du-Crest, 1208 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    A rare case of a proximal jejunal diverticulitis is presented. The diagnosis was initially suggested by US and confirmed by CT. Ultrasound detected a hypoechoic irregular lesion continuous with the jejunum suggestive of the presence of diverticula. The presence of peridiverticular hyperechoic fat, associated with US signs of extraluminal air, evoked the diagnosis of a proximal jejunal diverticulitis, which was spontaneously walled-off. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT. The patient recovered after conservative treatment. (orig.)

  18. Critical role of microbiota within cecal crypts on the regenerative capacity of the intestinal epithelium following surgical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborin, Alexander; Krezalek, Monika; Hyoju, Sanjiv; Defazio, Jennifer R; Setia, Namrata; Belogortseva, Natalia; Bindokas, Vytautas P; Guo, Qiti; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C

    2017-02-01

    Cecal crypts represent a unique niche that are normally occupied by the commensal microbiota. Due to their density and close proximity to stem cells, microbiota within cecal crypts may modulate epithelial regeneration. Here we demonstrate that surgical stress, a process that invariably involves a short period of starvation, antibiotic exposure, and tissue injury, results in cecal crypt evacuation of their microbiota. Crypts devoid of their microbiota display pathophysiological features characterized by abnormal stem cell activation as judged by leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5) staining, expansion of the proliferative zone toward the tips of the crypts, and an increase in apoptosis. In addition, crypts devoid of their microbiota display loss of their regenerative capacity as assessed by their ability to form organoids ex vivo. When a four-member human pathogen community isolated from the stool of a critically ill patient is introduced into the cecum of mice with empty crypts, crypts become occupied by the pathogens and further disruption of crypt homeostasis is observed. Fecal microbiota transplantation restores the cecal crypts' microbiota, normalizes homeostasis within crypts, and reestablishes crypt regenerative capacity. Taken together, these findings define an emerging role for the microbiota within cecal crypts to maintain epithelial cell homeostasis in a manner that may enhance recovery in response to the physiological stress imposed by the process of surgery. This study provides novel insight into the process by which surgical injury places the intestinal epithelium at risk for colonization by pathogenic microbes and impairment of its regenerative capacity via loss of its microbiota. We show that fecal transplant restores crypt homeostasis in association with repopulation of the microbiota within cecal crypts. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Nanoparticle passage through porcine jejunal mucus: Microfluidics and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sourav; Mahon, Eugene; Harrison, Sabine M; McGetrick, Jim; Muniyappa, Mohankumar; Carrington, Stephen D; Brayden, David J

    2017-04-01

    A micro-slide chamber was used to screen and rank sixteen functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles (SiNP) of different sizes (10, 50, 100 and 200 nm) and surface coatings (aminated, carboxylated, methyl-PEG1000ylated, and methyl-PEG2000ylated) according to their capacity to permeate porcine jejunal mucus. Variables investigated were influence of particle size, surface charge and methyl-PEGylation. The anionic SiNP showed higher transport through mucus whereas the cationic SiNP exhibited higher binding with lower transport. A size-dependence in transport was identified - 10 and 50 nm anionic (uncoated or methyl-PEGylated) SiNP showed higher transport compared to the larger 100 and 200 nm SiNP. The cationic SiNP of all sizes interacted with the mucus, making it more viscous and less capable of swelling. In contrast, the anionic SiNP (uncoated or methyl-PEGylated) caused minimal changes in the viscoelasticity of mucus. The data provide insights into mucus-NP interactions and suggest a rationale for designing oral nanomedicines with improved mucopermeability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-surgical management of recurrent perforation of a jejunal diverticulum following previous segmental bowel resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colvin Hugh Shunsuke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Perforations of jejunal diverticula are uncommon and repeated symptomatic perforations have been reported only twice before in the literature. This is the first case report of recurrent perforation of a jejunal diverticulum to be successfully managed non-operatively. Case presentation We report a recurrent perforation of a jejunal diverticulum in an 87-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 1-week history of epigastric pain. The diagnosis of a perforated jejunal diverticulum was made from the appearances of the abdominal computed tomography scan together with the presence of jejunal diverticula noted at the time of a previous laparotomy for the first perforation of a jejunal diverticulum. Conclusion Whilst this case report by itself does not add to the knowledge we already have of jejunal diverticula, it is one report of a rare condition and more reports are required in the future to establish the recurrence rate of jejunal diverticula perforation and how perforated jejunal diverticula are best managed.

  1. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaques WAISBERG

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment.Os autores descrevem caso de angiostrongilíase abdominal em doente adulto que se manifestou como abdômen agudo devido à perfuração de alça jejunal, evento raro, uma vez que esta afecção geralmente envolve o íleo terminal, apêndice, ceco ou cólon ascendente. A doença é causada pelo nematódeo Angiostrongylus costaricensis cujos hospedeiros definitivos são roedores silvestres e os hospedeiros intermediários são caracóis e caramujos. A infecção em humanos é acidental e ocorre pela ingestão de secreção mucóide destes invertebrados presentes em vegetais ou por contato direto com o muco. A angiostrongilíase abdominal é clinicamente caracterizada pela presença de febre prolongada, anorexia, dor no quadrante inferior direito do abdômen e eosinofilia periférica. Embora a doença seja de

  2. Aberrant crypt foci as microscopic precursors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Cheng; Mao-De Lai

    2003-01-01

    Since the first detection of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in carcinogen-treated mice, there have been numerous studies focusing on these microscopically visible lesions both in rodents and in humans. ACF have been generally accepted as precancerous lesions in regard to histopathological characteristics, biochemical and immunohistochemical alterations, and genetic and epigenetic alterations. ACF show variable histological features, ranging from hyperplasia to dysplasia. ACF in human colon are more frequently located in the distal parts than in the proximal parts, which is in accordance with those in colorectal cancer (CRC). The immunohistochemical expressions of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), β-catenin, placental cadherin (P-cadherin),epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and P16INK4a are found to be altered. Genetic mutations of K-ras, APC and p53, and the epigenetic alterations of CpG island methylation of ACF have also been demonstrated. Genomic instabilities due to the defect of mismatch repair (MMR) system are detectable in ACF Two hypotheses have been proposed.One is the "dysplasia ACF-adenoma-carcinoma sequence",the other is "heteroplastic ACF-adenoma-carcinoma sequence". The malignant potential of ACF, especially dyspiastic ACF, makes it necessary to reveal the nature of these lesions, and to prevent CRC from the earliest possible stage. The technique of magnifying chromoscope makes it possible to detect "in vivo' ACF, which is beneficial to colon cancer research, identifying high-risk populations for CRC,and developing preventive procedures.

  3. Quantification of Crypt and Stem Cell Evolution in the Normal and Neoplastic Human Colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Marie Baker

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics remain poorly characterized because transgenic lineage-tracing methods are impractical in humans. Here, we have circumvented this problem by quantitatively using somatic mtDNA mutations to trace clonal lineages. By analyzing clonal imprints on the walls of colonic crypts, we show that human intestinal stem cells conform to one-dimensional neutral drift dynamics with a “functional” stem cell number of five to six in both normal patients and individuals with familial adenomatous polyposis (germline APC−/+. Furthermore, we show that, in adenomatous crypts (APC−/−, there is a proportionate increase in both functional stem cell number and the loss/replacement rate. Finally, by analyzing fields of mtDNA mutant crypts, we show that a normal colon crypt divides around once every 30–40 years, and the division rate is increased in adenomas by at least an order of magnitude. These data provide in vivo quantification of human intestinal stem cell and crypt dynamics.

  4. Computational models reveal a passive mechanism for cell migration in the crypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available Cell migration in the intestinal crypt is essential for the regular renewal of the epithelium, and the continued upward movement of cells is a key characteristic of healthy crypt dynamics. However, the driving force behind this migration is unknown. Possibilities include mitotic pressure, active movement driven by motility cues, or negative pressure arising from cell loss at the crypt collar. It is possible that a combination of factors together coordinate migration. Here, three different computational models are used to provide insight into the mechanisms that underpin cell movement in the crypt, by examining the consequence of eliminating cell division on cell movement. Computational simulations agree with existing experimental results, confirming that migration can continue in the absence of mitosis. Importantly, however, simulations allow us to infer mechanisms that are sufficient to generate cell movement, which is not possible through experimental observation alone. The results produced by the three models agree and suggest that cell loss due to apoptosis and extrusion at the crypt collar relieves cell compression below, allowing cells to expand and move upwards. This finding suggests that future experiments should focus on the role of apoptosis and cell extrusion in controlling cell migration in the crypt.

  5. A reaction–diffusion mechanism influences cell lineage progression as a basis for formation, regeneration, and stability of intestinal crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colon crypts, a single sheet of epithelia cells, consist of a periodic pattern of stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and terminally differentiated cells that constantly renew and turnover. Experimental evidence suggests that Wnt signaling promotes and regulates stem cell division, differentiation, and possible cell migrations while intestinal BMP signaling inhibits stem cell self-renewal and repression in crypt formation. As more molecular details on Wnt and BMP in crypts are being discovered, little is still known about how complex interactions among Wnt, BMP, and different types of cells, and surrounding environments may lead to de novo formation of multiple crypts or how such interactions affect regeneration and stability of crypts. Results We present a mathematical model that contains Wnt and BMP, a cell lineage, and their feedback regulations to study formation, regeneration, and stability of multiple crypts. The computational explorations and linear stability analysis of the model suggest a reaction–diffusion mechanism, which exhibits a short-range activation of Wnt plus a long-range inhibition with modulation of BMP signals in a growing tissue of cell lineage, can account for spontaneous formation of multiple crypts with the spatial and temporal pattern observed in experiments. Through this mechanism, the model can recapitulate some distinctive and important experimental findings such as crypt regeneration and crypt multiplication. BMP is important in maintaining stability of crypts and loss of BMP usually leads to crypt multiplication with a fingering pattern. Conclusions The study provides a mechanism for de novo formation of multiple intestinal crypts and demonstrates a synergetic role of Wnt and BMP in regeneration and stability of intestinal crypts. The proposed model presents a robust framework for studying spatial and temporal dynamics of cell lineages in growing tissues driven by multiple signaling

  6. Jejunal small ectopic pancreas developing into jejunojejunal intussusception: A rare cause of ileus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shoji Hirasaki; Motoharu Kubo; Atsushi Inoue; Yasuyuki Miyake; Hisako Oshiro

    2009-01-01

    Intussusception is rare in adults. We describe a 62-yearold man with jejunal ectopic pancreas that led to jejunojejunal intussusception and ileus. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of intermittent abdominal pain. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and fluid levels. Abdominal CT scan demonstrated a target sign suggesting bowel intussusception. Jejunography using a naso-jejunal tube showed an oval-shaped mass about 15 mm in diameter with a smooth surface in the jejunum, which suggested a submucosal tumor (SMT), and edematous mucosa around the mass. Partial jejunal resection was carried out and the resected oval-shaped tumor,14 mm × 11 mm in size, was found to be covered with normal jejunal mucosa. The tumor was histologically diagnosed as type Ⅲ ectopic pancreas according to the classification proposed by Heinrich. Abdominal pain resolved postoperatively. This case reminds us that jejunal ectopic pancreas should be included in the differential diagnosis of intussusception caused by an SMT in the intestine.

  7. Glutamine supplementation does not improve protein synthesis rate by the jejunal mucosa of the malnourished rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannus, Andrea Ferreira S; Darmaun, Dominique; Ribas, Durval F; Oliveira, José Eduardo D; Marchini, Julio Sergio

    2009-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that glutamine, a conditionally essential amino acid, improves nitrogen balance, acts as a stimulant of protein synthesis, and decreases proteolysis in myopathic children. In contrast, other studies have shown no beneficial effect of glutamine supplementation on burn victims or critically ill patients. Nonetheless, we hypothesized that glutamine supplementation would increase the fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR) in the jejunal mucosa of malnourished male Wistar rats. Thus, the objective of the present study was to test the effect of daily oral glutamine supplementation (0.42 g kg(-1) d(-1) for 14 days) on the FSR of the jejunal mucosa of healthy and malnourished rats. A 4-hour kinetic study with l-[1-(13)C]leucine was subsequently performed, and jejunal biopsies were obtained 1.5 cm from the Treitz angle and analyzed. Malnourished rats showed a 25% weight loss and increased urinary nitrogen excretion. Plasma amino acid concentration did not differ between groups. (13)C enrichment in plasma and jejunal cells was higher in the malnourished groups than in the healthy group. The FSR (percent per hour) was similar for the control and experimental groups (P > .05), with a mean range of 22%/h to 27%/h. Oral glutamine supplementation alone did not induce higher protein incorporation by the jejunal mucosa in malnourished rats, regardless of total food intake or the presence or absence of glutamine supplementation.

  8. Challenges of banding jejunal varices in an 8-year-old child

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Endoscoic variceal ligation (EVL) by the applicationof bands on small bowel varices is a relatively rareprocedure in gastroenterology and hepatology. Thereare no previously reported paediatric cases of EVLfor jejunal varices. We report a case of an eight-yearoldmale patient with a complex surgical backgroundleading to jejunal varices and short bowel syndrome,presenting with obscure but profound acute gastrointestinalbleeding. Wireless capsule endoscopy and double balloonenteroscopy (DBE) confirmed jejunal varices as thesource of bleeding. The commercially available varicealbanding devices are not long enough to be used eitherwith DBE or with push enteroscopes. With the useof an operating gastroscope, four bands were placedsuccessfully on the afferent and efferent ends of theleads of the 2 of the varices. Initial hemostasis wasachieved with obliteration of the varices after threeseparate applications. This case illustrates the feasibilityof achieving initial hemostasis in the pediatric population.

  9. Developmental changes of jejunal brush-border enzyme activity in growing Jinhua gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Wang Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the developmental changes of small intestinal morphometry and jejunal brush-border enzyme activity in growing Jinhua gilts. The weight, length, and mucosa weight of the small intestine were measured at 35, 80 and 125 days of age, respectively. Sucrase, maltase, lactase and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities of the jejunal brush-border membrane were determined at the respective stages. Body weights and body weight gains significantly increased with age (P<0.05. Weights of the small intestine and of the intestinal mucosa increased faster from 35 to 80 d than from 80 to 125 d (P<0.05. Weights of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, and mucosa from the respective sections increased with age (P<0.05. Mucosa weight relative to the weight of the section was greater (P<0.05 for the duodenum, jejunum than for the ileum. Jejunal maltase and sucrase activity increased with age (P<0.05, whereas, lactose and ALP activity decreased with age (P<0.05 during growth. There was a 15-fold increase in both total jejunal maltase and sucrase activity from 35 to 125 days of age, and a 5-fold increase in both total jejunal lactase and ALP activity; the greatest rate of increase occurred between 35 and 80 days of age. The results suggest increases in body weight of growing Jinhua gilts are accompanied by significant developmental changes in intestinal weight, length and mucosal weights as well as jejunal brush border maltase, sucrase, lactase and ALP activities.

  10. Jejunal intussusception in a 10-year-old boy with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi, 2, 27100, Pavia PV (Italy); Romano, Piero; Matteotti, Chiara; Minniti, Silvio; Ceffa, Franco [Division of Paediatric Surgery, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Morbini, Patrizia [Department of Pathology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Jejunal intussusception in a Chinese 10-year-old boy affected by the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is presented and discussed. The syndrome is rare, sporadically found with possible dominant inheritance, and due to a gene mutation mapped on the short arm of chromosome 9. It presents with distinctive cutaneous and gastrointestinal malformations together with possible other organ involvement. Gastrointestinal malformations tend to bleed and lead to anaemia. Infrequent complications of the gastrointestinal malformations are volvulus, intestinal infarction and intussusception. The age of the patient and the jejunal intussusception precipitated by a vascular malformation containing calcifications (which were also found in different gut segments) make this case remarkable. (orig.)

  11. Familial adenomatous polyposis with synchronous invasive colonic carcinomas and metastatic jejunal adenocarcinoma in a Nigerian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Blessius Kesieme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Familial adenomatous polyposis is rare. Three cases were previously reported in Nigeria. An intriguing feature of this case is an ulcerated jejunal carcinoma which was metastatic rather than synchronous carcinoma. This patient presented with partial large bowel obstruction and the pathological analysis revealed 4 invasive adenocarcinomas, 3 in the colon and 1 in the jejunum (Dukes stage D. Palliative pancolectomy and jejunal tumour resection with chemotherapy was offered to him. He died eight months after surgery from disease progression. The challenges of managing a hereditary cancer syndrome in a resource poor country are highlighted.

  12. Jejunal Choristoma: A Very Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Olajide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children.

  13. Human intestinal circadian clock: expression of clock genes in colonocytes lining the crypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardini, L; Kaeffer, B; Trubuil, A; Bourreille, A; Galmiche, J-P

    2005-01-01

    Biological clock components have been detected in many epithelial tissues of the digestive tract of mammals (oral mucosa, pancreas, and liver), suggesting the existence of peripheral circadian clocks that may be entrainable by food. Our aim was to investigate the expression of main peripheral clock genes in colonocytes of healthy humans and in human colon carcinoma cell lines. The presence of clock components was investigated in single intact colonic crypts isolated by chelation from the biopsies of 25 patients (free of any sign of colonic lesions) undergoing routine colonoscopy and in cell lines of human colon carcinoma (Caco2 and HT29 clone 19A). Per-1, per-2, and clock mRNA were detected by real-time RT-PCR. The three-dimensional distributions of PER-1, PER-2, CLOCK, and BMAL1 proteins were recorded along colonic crypts by immunofluorescent confocal imaging. We demonstrate the presence of per-1, per-2, and clock mRNA in samples prepared from colonic crypts of 5 patients and in all cell lines. We also demonstrate the presence of two circadian clock proteins, PER-1 and CLOCK, in human colonocytes on crypts isolated from 20 patients (15 patients for PER-1 and 6 for CLOCK) and in colon carcinoma cells. Establishing the presence of clock proteins in human colonic crypts is the first step toward the study of the regulation of the intestinal circadian clock by nutrients and feeding rhythms.

  14. Resveratrol modulates intestinal morphology and HSP70/90, NF-κB and EGF expression in the jejunal mucosa of black-boned chickens on exposure to circular heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Fu, Chenxing; Yan, Mingli; Xie, Hongbing; Li, Si; Yu, Qifang; He, Shaoping; He, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation with resveratrol could alleviate intestinal injuries and to explore how resveratrol regulates heat shock protein (HSP)70, HSP90, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression in the jejunal mucosa of black-boned chickens under circular heat stress. A total of 300 black-boned chicks of 42-d-old were randomly assigned to five treatment groups. The positive control chickens were kept in a normal-temperature (NT, 24 ± 2 °C) chamber and fed with a basal diet. The other four groups were kept in a circular high-temperature (HT, 37 ± 2 °C) chamber for 8 h and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg per kg of resveratrol for 15 days. The results showed that the heat-stress responses damaged the villus structures of the jejunum and ileum, resulting in shortened intestinal villi, deepened crypts, and a reduced villus height to crypt depth (V/C) ratio and decreased the numbers of goblet cells and lymphocytes. Heat stress also caused increased mRNA and protein expression of HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB, and reduced EGF in the jejunal mucosa. Dietary supplementation with 400 mg per kg of resveratrol improved the villus morphology, increased the numbers of goblet cells and lymphocytes, attenuated the mRNA overexpression of HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB on the 6th, 10th and 15th day of heat stress (P heat stress, and increased EGF expression from the lamina propria toward the epithelial cells of the villi. These results suggest that dietary resveratrol offers a potential nutritional strategy to improve the intestinal morphology and alleviate jejunum mucosa injuries by modulating the mRNA and protein expression of HSPs, and the epithelial growth factor and transcription factor in black-boned chickens subjected to circular heat stress.

  15. The gut microbiota elicits a profound metabolic reorientation in the mouse jejunal mucosa during conventionalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidy, Sahar; Merrifield, Claire A.; Derrien, Muriel; van Baarlen, Peter; Hooiveld, Guido; Levenez, Florence; Dore, Joel; Dekker, Jan; Holmes, Elaine; Claus, Sandrine P.; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Proper interactions between the intestinal mucosa, gut microbiota and nutrient flow are required to establish homoeostasis of the host. Since the proximal part of the small intestine is the first region where these interactions occur, and since most of the nutrient absorption occurs in the

  16. The gut microbiota elicits a profound metabolic reorientation in the mouse jejunal mucosa during conventionalisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.; Merrifield, C.A.; Derrien, M.; Baarlen, van P.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Levenez, F.; Dore, J.; Dekker, J.; Holmes, E.; Claus, S.P.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Proper interactions between the intestinal mucosa, gut microbiota and nutrient flow are required to establish homoeostasis of the host. Since the proximal part of the small intestine is the first region where these interactions occur, and since most of the nutrient absorption occurs in th

  17. Prophylactic Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy with Jejunal Pouch Reconstruction in Patients Carrying a CDH1 Germline Mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkamp, L.; Sluis, P.C. van der; Ausems, M.G.; Horst, S. van der; Siersema, P.D.; Ruurda, J.P.; Offerhaus, G.J.; Hillegersberg, R. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with an identified germline E-cadherin-1 (CDH1) mutation, prophylactic gastrectomy is the treatment of choice to eliminate the high risk of developing diffuse gastric cancer. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy with jejunal pouch reconstruction is a novel approach that may be esp

  18. Electrophysiological response of chicken's jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Kröger, Susan; Tichy, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The present investigations were conducted to test the effects of T-2 toxin on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of chicken. Jejunal segments of broilers were monitored in Ussing chambers in the presence of T-2 toxin at the levels of 0 (negative control), 0 (methanol/vehicle control), 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of buffer. T-2 toxin did not affect basal values of short circuit current (I(sc)), transmural potential difference, or tissue conductivity in the jejunal epithelium. T-2 toxin also did not statistically affect glucose-induced electrophysiological variables during the first 3 min of glucose induction. Compared to the vehicle control, the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) was negatively affected (P = 0.008) only under 5 μg of T-2 toxin/ml. Increasing levels of T-2 toxin negatively affected the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) in a cubic (P = 0.007) fashion. These data indicate that acute exposure to moderate levels of T-2 toxin may progressively impair the cation gradient across the jejunal epithelium.

  19. Effects of Salmonella on spatial-temporal processes of jejunal development in chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, D.J.; Smits, M.A.; Hoekman, A.J.W.; Parmentier, H.K.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    To study effects of Salmonella enteritidis on morphological and functional changes in chicken jejunal development, we analysed gene expression profiles at seven points post-infection in 1-21 day-old broiler chickens. Nine clusters with different gene expression patterns were identified, and the gene

  20. Duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve - a potential alternative to bariatric surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Gylvin, Silas; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for several co-morbidities reducing life expectancy. Conservative treatment of obesity is generally ineffective in the long-term. Bariatric surgery has proven effective, but is associated with potential complications. Duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve is a novel...

  1. Acute pancreatitis as an adverse event in patients with the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betzel, B; Homan, J.; Aarts, E.; Janssen, I.; Spanier, M.; Wahab, P.J.; Groenen, M.; Berends, F.

    2015-01-01

    Placement of the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a minimally invasive technique for the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Acute pancreatitis was seen in 5 of 167 patients (3 %) in our series. It is suggested that acute pancreatitis in patients with the DJBL re

  2. Ischemic jejunal stenosis and blind loop syndrome after blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, P; Rendall, M; Hoskins, E O; Missen, G A; Sladen, G E

    1987-02-01

    One month after suffering blunt abdominal trauma a patient developed severe steatorrhea and profound weight loss in association with an ischemic distal jejunal stricture and blind loop syndrome. Evidence for a partial mesenteric tear was found at resection of the stricture, which resulted in complete cure.

  3. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine.

  4. Electroacupuncture at ST37 Enhances Jejunal Motility via Excitation of the Parasympathetic System in Rats and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengqian; Li, Yuqin; Wang, Yidan; Zhang, Na; Hu, XuanMing; Yin, Yin; Zhu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems in mediating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at ST37 on jejunal motility have yet to be demonstrated. Aim. We used rats and mice to investigate the effect and mechanism of action of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility. Methods. Jejunal motility was recorded by a balloon placed in the jejunum and connected to a biological signal collection system through a transducer. The effects of EA (3 mA) at ST37 were evaluated in Sprague-Dawley rats without drugs and with the administration of clenbuterol, propranolol, acetylcholine, and atropine. Further, the efficacy of EA at different intensities (1/2/4/6/8 mA) was measured in wild-type mice and β1β2−/− mice and M2M3−/− mice. Results. In Sprague-Dawley rats, the excitatory effect of EA at ST37 on jejunal motility disappeared in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine. EA at ST37 was less effective in M2M3−/− mice than in wild-type mice. Furthermore, to a certain extent, there existed “intensity-response” relationship between jejunal motility and EA. Conclusions. EA at ST37 can enhance jejunal motility in rats and mice mainly via excitation of the parasympathetic pathway. There is an “intensity-response” relationship between EA and effect on jejunal motility.

  5. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Martha A; Terrell, Scott P; Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Mangold, Barbara J

    2002-08-01

    Five painted storks were treated with fenbendazole for 5 days for internal parasitism. Four birds died following treatment. Profound heteropenia was a consistent finding in all samples evaluated; additionally, the 1 surviving bird had progressive anemia. Consistent necropsy findings in the 4 birds that died were small intestinal crypt cell necrosis and severe bone marrow depletion and necrosis. Fenbendazole has been associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and enteric damage in mammals and other species of birds. The dosages of fenbendazole used in birds are often substantially higher than those recommended for mammals, which may contribute to bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in birds.

  6. Instabilities of monolayered epithelia: shape and structure of villi and crypts

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Joanny, Jean-Francois; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.078104

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed \\emph{in vivo}. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  7. Instabilities of Monolayered Epithelia: Shape and Structure of Villi and Crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, E.; Prost, J.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2011-08-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of a dividing epithelial monolayer of cells lying on top of an elastic stroma. The negative tension created by cell division provokes a buckling instability at a finite wave vector leading to the formation of periodic arrays of villi and crypts. The instability is similar to the buckling of a metallic plate under compression. We use the results to rationalize the various structures of the intestinal lining observed in vivo. Taking into account the coupling between cell division and local curvature, we obtain different patterns of villi and crypts, which could explain the different morphologies of the small intestine and the colon.

  8. Reg4+ deep crypt secretory cells function as epithelial niche for Lgr5+ stem cells in colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sasaki, Nobuo; Sachs, Norman; Wiebrands, Kay; Ellenbroek, Saskia I J; Fumagalli, Arianna; Lyubimova, Anna; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; van Es, Johan H; Karthaus, Wouter R; Li, Vivian S W; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Peters, Peter J; van Rheenen, Jacco; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-positive (Lgr5(+)) stem cells reside at crypt bottoms of the small and large intestine. Small intestinal Paneth cells supply Wnt3, EGF, and Notch signals to neighboring Lgr5(+) stem cells. Whereas the colon lacks Paneth cells, deep crypt

  9. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints enhances jejunal motility in constipated and diarrheic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qing-Guang; Gao, Xin-Yan; Liu, Kun; Yu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Liang; Wang, Hai-Ping; Zhu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints on jejunal motility, particularly in pathological conditions. METHODS: Jejunal motility was assessed using a manometric balloon placed in the jejunum approximately 18-20 cm downstream from the pylorus and filled with approximately 0.1 mL warm water in anesthetized normal rats or rats with diarrhea or constipation. The heterotopic acupoints including LI11 (Quchi), ST37 (Shangjuxu), BL25 (Dachangshu), and the homotopic acupoint ST25 (Tianshu), and were stimulated for 60 s by rotating acupuncture needles right and left at a frequency of 2 Hz. To determine the type of afferent fibers mediating the regulation of jejunal motility by manual acupuncture, the ipsilateral sciatic A or C fibers of ST37 were inactivated by local application of the A-fiber selective demyelination agent cobra venom or the C fiber blocker capsaicin. Methoctramine, a selective M2 receptor antagonist, was injected intravenously to identify a specific role for M2 receptors in mediating the effect of acupuncture on jejunal motility. RESULTS: Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, such as LI11 and ST37, increased jejunal motility not only in normal rats, but also in rats with constipation or diarrhea. In normal rats, manual acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 enhanced jejunal pressure from 7.34 ± 0.19 cmH2O to 7.93 ± 0.20 cmH2O, an increase of 9.05% ± 0.82% (P acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 increased intrajejunal pressure from 8.17 ± 0.31 cmH2O to 9.86 ± 0.36 cmH2O, an increase of 20.69% ± 2.10% (P 0.05), respectively. In contrast, acupuncture ST25, a homotopic acupoint, decreased not only intrajejunal pressure, but also significantly decreased frequency in normal rats and rats with constipation or diarrhea. Following demyelination of Aδ fibers, acupuncture at ST37 again augmented intrajejunal pressure to 121.48% ± 3.06% of baseline. Following capsaicin application for 24 h, acupuncture at ipsilateral ST37 increased

  10. Intestinal crypt homeostasis revealed at single-stem-cell level by in vivo live imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsma, Laila; Ellenbroek, Saskia I. J.; Zomer, Anoek; Snippert, Hugo J.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Simons, Benjamin D.; Clevers, Hans; van Rheenen, Jacco

    2014-03-01

    The rapid turnover of the mammalian intestinal epithelium is supported by stem cells located around the base of the crypt. In addition to the Lgr5 marker, intestinal stem cells have been associated with other markers that are expressed heterogeneously within the crypt base region. Previous quantitative clonal fate analyses have led to the proposal that homeostasis occurs as the consequence of neutral competition between dividing stem cells. However, the short-term behaviour of individual Lgr5+ cells positioned at different locations within the crypt base compartment has not been resolved. Here we establish the short-term dynamics of intestinal stem cells using the novel approach of continuous intravital imaging of Lgr5-Confetti mice. We find that Lgr5+ cells in the upper part of the niche (termed `border cells') can be passively displaced into the transit-amplifying domain, after the division of proximate cells, implying that the determination of stem-cell fate can be uncoupled from division. Through quantitative analysis of individual clonal lineages, we show that stem cells at the crypt base, termed `central cells', experience a survival advantage over border stem cells. However, through the transfer of stem cells between the border and central regions, all Lgr5+ cells are endowed with long-term self-renewal potential. These findings establish a novel paradigm for stem-cell maintenance in which a dynamically heterogeneous cell population is able to function long term as a single stem-cell pool.

  11. Crypt base columnar stem cells in small intestines of mice are radioresistant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hua, G.; Thin, T.H.; Feldman, R.; Haimovitz-Friedman, A.; Clevers, H.; Fuks, Z.; Kolesnick, R.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Adult stem cells have been proposed to be quiescent and radiation resistant, repairing DNA double-strand breaks by nonhomologous end joining. However, the population of putative small intestinal stem cells (ISCs) at position +4 from the crypt base contradicts this model, in that t

  12. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sripathi M Sureban

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death. Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d, and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.

  13. Dietary Pectin Increases Intestinal Crypt Stem Cell Survival following Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureban, Sripathi M; May, Randal; Qu, Dongfeng; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Weygant, Nathaniel; Ali, Naushad; Lightfoot, Stan A; Ding, Kai; Umar, Shahid; Schlosser, Michael J; Houchen, Courtney W

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) mucosal damage is a devastating adverse effect of radiation therapy. We have recently reported that expression of Dclk1, a Tuft cell and tumor stem cell (TSC) marker, 24h after high dose total-body gamma-IR (TBI) can be used as a surrogate marker for crypt survival. Dietary pectin has been demonstrated to possess chemopreventive properties, whereas its radioprotective property has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pectin on ionizing radiation (IR)-induced intestinal stem cell (ISC) deletion, crypt and overall survival following lethal TBI. C57BL/6 mice received a 6% pectin diet and 0.5% pectin drinking water (pre-IR mice received pectin one week before TBI until death; post-IR mice received pectin after TBI until death). Animals were exposed to TBI (14 Gy) and euthanized at 24 and 84h post-IR to assess ISC deletion and crypt survival respectively. Animals were also subjected to overall survival studies following TBI. In pre-IR treatment group, we observed a three-fold increase in ISC/crypt survival, a two-fold increase in Dclk1+ stem cells, increased overall survival (median 10d vs. 7d), and increased expression of Dclk1, Msi1, Lgr5, Bmi1, and Notch1 (in small intestine) post-TBI in pectin treated mice compared to controls. We also observed increased survival of mice treated with pectin (post-IR) compared to controls. Dietary pectin is a radioprotective agent; prevents IR-induced deletion of potential reserve ISCs; facilitates crypt regeneration; and ultimately promotes overall survival. Given the anti-cancer activity of pectin, our data support a potential role for dietary pectin as an agent that can be administered to patients receiving radiation therapy to protect against radiation-induces mucositis.

  14. The Anatomic Course of the First Jejunal Branch of the Superior Mesenteric Vein in Relation to the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Papavasiliou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study is to determine the anatomic course of the first jejunal branch of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV in relation to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA. Methods. Three hundred consecutive contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scans were reviewed by a surgical oncologist with confirmation of findings by a radiologist. Results. The overall incidence of a first jejunal branch coursing anterior to the SMA was 41%. There was no correlation between patient gender and position of the jejunal branch. In addition, there was no correlation between size of the first jejunal branch and its location in relation to the SMA. The IMV drained into the SMV in 27% of the patients. The IMV drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence in 17% of patients and inserted into the splenic vein in 54%. An anterior coursing first jejunal branch statistically correlated with an IMV that drained into the SMV-portal vein confluence (=0.009. Conclusion. The first jejunal branch of the SMV has a highly variable course in relation to the SMA and has a higher incidence of an anterior location in this population than previously reported.

  15. The Combination of Gastroschisis, Jejunal Atresia, and Colonic Atresia in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Bauman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a rare case of gastroschisis associated with jejunal atresia and colonic atresia. In our case, the jejunal atresia was not discovered for 27 days after the initial abdominal wall closure. The colonic atresia was not discovered for 48 days after initial repair of the gastroschisis secondary to the rarity of the disorder. Both types of atresia were repaired with primary hand-sewn anastomoses. Other than the prolonged parenteral nutrition and hyperbilirubinemia, our patient did very well throughout his hospital course. Based on our case presentation, small bowel atresia and colonic atresia must be considered in patients who undergo abdominal wall closure for gastroschisis with prolonged symptoms suggestive of bowel obstruction. Our case report also demonstrates primary enteric anastomosis as a safe, well-tolerated surgical option for patients with types of intestinal atresia.

  16. A rare case of multiple jejunal diverticulosis presenting as intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Kumar Tiwari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverticulosis is rare in jejunum and its unusual presentation of mechanical obstruction is difficult to diagnose pre-operatively. We report a case of a 54-year old male patient who had symptoms of general abdominal pain and vomiting off and on for three years. He had been assessed elsewhere and had received a course of anti-tubercular treatment empirically based on features of recurrent intestinal obstruction due to prevalence of tuberculosis in this region. The patient had presented himself with signs and symptoms of dynamic intestinal obstruction. On examination, the abdomen was found to be swollen with a central abdominal distension and hyperactive bowel sounds. The erect abdominal radiograph showed multiple air-fluid levels and dilated jejunal loops. Following this, the patient underwent an emergency exploratory laparotomy. This revealed multiple jejunal diverticulae, multiple bands and adhesions involving jejunum and proximal ileum. The bands and adhesions were removed and the jejunum was resected along with the inflamed diverticulae.

  17. Stercoral colonic diverticulum perforation with jejunal diverticulitis mimicking upper gastrointestinal perforation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BI Jing-tao; GUO Yan-tong; ZHAO Jing-ming; ZHANG Zhong-tao

    2012-01-01

    Stercoral perforation of the colon is an unusual pathological condition with fewer than 150 cases reported in the literature to date.We present a case of stercoral colonic perforation mimicking upper gastrointestinal perforation,which was diagnosed by computed tomography preoperatively.However,at laparotomy,stercoral colonic diverticulum perforation with jejunal diverticulitis became the most appropriate diagnosis.Colonic perforation is a severe complication in surgery.It is a rather uncommon event usually caused by malignancy,diverticular disease,trauma or ulcerative colitis.Stercoral perforation of the colon was reported by Berry1 in 1894.Fewer than 150 cases have been reported in the literature to date.2,3 We present a rare case of stercoral diverticulum colonic perforation with jejunal diverticulitis mimicking upper gastrointestinal (GI) perforation,which was correctly diagnosed at laparotomy.

  18. Tips and tricks for deep jejunal enteral access: modifying techniques to maximize success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lena B; McClave, Stephen A; Bechtold, Matthew L; Nguyen, Douglas L; Martindale, Robert G; Evans, David C

    2014-10-01

    Endoscopic insertion of enteral feeding tubes is a major advance in the delivery of nutrition therapy. Since the first report of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in 1980 (Gauderer et al. J Pediatr Surg. 15:872-5, 1980), insertion techniques and equipment have been refined and improved. Despite this progress, deep jejunal enteral access remains a difficult procedure, and many endoscopists do not have experience with the techniques of nasojejunal (NJ) placement, percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy (PEGJ), or direct percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy (DPEJ) (Shike and Latkany, Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 8:569-80, 1998). The difference between an exasperating experience and a rewarding procedure lies in mastering the "tips and tricks" that make insertion easy. While the basic techniques are described elsewhere (McClave and Chang 2011), we review several universal basic principles to enhance deep jejunal access, which should promote a more efficient and successful procedure.

  19. A CASE OF MULTIPLE PROXIMAL JEJUNAL DIVERTICULAE CAUSING INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION : A VERY RARE PRESENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challapalli Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverticulosis of small intestine is an uncommon disease, with variable clinical presentation. Among the small bowel diverticulae, distal jejunal diverticulae form the most common subset. D iverticulosis of proximal jejunum represents an uncommon pathology of the small bowel. The condition is usually asymptomatic and should be taken into consideration in cases of unexplained malabsorption, anemia, chronic abdominal pain or discomfort. Complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, bleeding or intestinal obstruction appear in 10 - 30% of the patients increasing morbidity and mortality rates. We herein report a case of a 45 year - old man, who presented at the emergency department with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Preoperative radiol ogical examination followed by laparotomy revealed multiple proximal jejunal diverticulae, filled with food, adherent to and compressing upon the terminal ileum, causing intestinal obstruction.

  20. A theoretical investigation of the effect of proliferation and adhesion on monoclonal conversion in the colonic crypt

    KAUST Repository

    Mirams, Gary R.

    2012-11-01

    The surface epithelium lining the intestinal tract renews itself rapidly by a coordinated programme of cell proliferation, migration and differentiation events that is initiated in the crypts of Lieberkühn. It is generally believed that colorectal cancer arises due to mutations that disrupt the normal cellular dynamics of the crypts. Using a spatially structured cell-based model of a colonic crypt, we investigate the likelihood that the progeny of a mutated cell will dominate, or be sloughed out of, a crypt. Our approach is to perform multiple simulations, varying the spatial location of the initial mutation, and the proliferative and adhesive properties of the mutant cells, to obtain statistical distributions for the probability of their domination. Our simulations lead us to make a number of predictions. The process of monoclonal conversion always occurs, and does not require that the cell which initially gave rise to the population remains in the crypt. Mutations occurring more than one to two cells from the base of the crypt are unlikely to become the dominant clone. The probability of a mutant clone persisting in the crypt is sensitive to dysregulation of adhesion. By comparing simulation results with those from a simple one-dimensional stochastic model of population dynamics at the base of the crypt, we infer that this sensitivity is due to direct competition between wild-type and mutant cells at the base of the crypt. We also predict that increases in the extent of the spatial domain in which the mutant cells proliferate can give rise to counter-intuitive, non-linear changes to the probability of their fixation, due to effects that cannot be captured in simpler models. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Acute pancreatitis with pancreatic abscess secondary to sealed jejunal diverticular perforation

    OpenAIRE

    King, Angela; Peters, Christopher John; Shorvon, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Although most cases of acute pancreatitis are attributed to gallstones or alcohol, many remain idiopathic. The authors describe a case of acute pancreatitis in a 75-year-old gentleman who presented with acute epigastric pain, fevers and shortness of breath. Serum amylase was 2164. CT showed free mesenteric air, and a partly cystic/partly gas-containing mass in the uncinate lobe of the pancreas. Gastrograffin meal revealed duodenal and jejunal diverticular disease, but no contrast leak. Furthe...

  2. The in vitro metabolism of ethinyloestradiol, mestranol and levonorgestrel by human jejunal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Back, D J; Bates, M; Breckenridge, A M; Ellis, A.; Hall, J.M.; Maciver, M; Orme, M L; Rowe, P H

    1981-01-01

    1 Ethinyloestradiol was extensively metabolised in vitro by human jejunal mucosa to form ethinyloestradiol sulphate. 2 The amount of conjugation was directly related to the weight of biopsy tissue. 3 The degree of conjugation of mestranol and levonorgestrel was much lower than for ethinyloestradiol suggesting that the 17-position of the steroid nucleus is relatively inaccessible for conjugation. 4 No Phase I metabolism of ethinyloestradiol or levonorgestrel was apparent in the conditions used...

  3. Portal vein stent placement with or without varix embolization of jejunal variceal bleeding after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dong Jae; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Gi-Young; Kim, Yook; Han, Kichang; Gwon, Dong-Il; Ko, Heung-Kyu

    2017-04-01

    Background Extrahepatic portal hypertension after surgery involving the duodenum or jejunum might result in massive ectopic variceal bleeding. Purpose To report the results of portal vein stent placement with the addition of variceal embolization. Material and Methods Between January 2000 and June 2015, portal vein stent placement was attempted in 477 patients. Of these, 22 patients (age, 63 ± 10 years) with jejunal variceal bleeding caused by portal vein obstruction after surgery were included in this study. Computed tomography (CT) findings before and after treatment and the rates of technical and clinical success, complications, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results Stent placement was successful in 19 of 22 patients. Additional variceal embolization was performed in five cases. Clinical success, defined as the cessation of bleeding without recurrence within 1 month, was achieved in 18 of 19 patients with technical success. One patient developed recurrent bleeding 4 days after stent placement and was successfully treated with additional variceal embolization. There were no procedure-related complications. A regression of the jejunal varices was noted in 14 of 19 patients on follow-up CT scans. During the follow-up period (258 days; range, 7-1196 days), stent occlusion and recurrent bleeding occurred in six and four patients, respectively, of the 19 patients who achieved technical success. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences regarding stent patency between benign and malignant strictures. Conclusion Percutaneous, transhepatic, portal vein stent placement with or without jejunal variceal embolization appears to be a safe and effective treatment for jejunal variceal bleeding after surgery.

  4. Jejunal administration of glucose enhances acyl ghrelin suppression in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Robyn A; Sidani, Reem M; Garcia, Anna E; Antoun, Joseph; Isbell, James M; Albaugh, Vance L; Abumrad, Naji N

    2016-07-01

    Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates hunger and worsens glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin is decreased after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this change is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that jejunal nutrient exposure plays a significant role in ghrelin suppression after RYGB. Feeding tubes were placed in the stomach or jejunum in 13 obese subjects to simulate pre-RYGB or post-RYGB glucose exposure to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, respectively, without the confounding effects of caloric restriction, weight loss, and surgical stress. On separate study days, the plasma glucose curves obtained with either gastric or jejunal administration of glucose were replicated with intravenous (iv) infusions of glucose. These "isoglycemic clamps" enabled us to determine the contribution of the GI tract and postabsorptive plasma glucose to acyl ghrelin suppression. Plasma acyl ghrelin levels were suppressed to a greater degree with jejunal glucose administration compared with gastric glucose administration (P 0.05). Direct exposure of the proximal jejunum to glucose increases acyl ghrelin suppression independent of circulating glucose levels. The enhanced suppression of acyl ghrelin after RYGB may be due to a nutrient-initiated signal in the jejunum that regulates ghrelin secretion.

  5. Clinical analysis on the treatment of biliary complications after bilioenteric anastomosis via jejunal loop endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-ping LIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study summarizes the treatment of biliary complications after bilioenteric anastomosis via jejunal loop endoscopy.Methods The clinical data of nine cases(12 times of biliary complications after bilioenteric anastomosis were retrospectively analyzed.The patients were admitted to the Endoscopy Department of the General Hospital of the Shenyang Military Area from December 2005 to July 2011 and were treated via jejunal loop endoscopy.Results The success probability of the operation was 100%(12/12,and the incidence rate of anastomotic stenosis during operation was 88.9%(8/9.Seven cases experienced alleviation or no recurrence of reflux cholangitis after the operation.Bilirubin decreased significantly in six cases,and the stone clearance rate was 100%(3/3.Biliary metal stents were implanted in two cases,plastic stents were employed in five,and naso-biliary tubes were used in the other two.After operation,intestinal fistula occurred in one case,liver abscess occurred in another,and incision infection occurred in three other cases.Conclusion Jejunal loop endoscopy is a highly effective and minimally invasive treatment for biliary complications after bilioenteric anastomosis and,thus,should be widely applied in clinical practice.

  6. Auxerre, la crypte de la cathédrale Saint-Étienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sapin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Les investigations sur les élévations intérieures de la crypte romane, construite dans le second quart du XIe siècle par l’évêque Hugues de Chalon, ont repris au cours d’une campagne en juin 2003. Celle-ci a également entamé une reconnaissance des sols à l’extérieur de l’accès sud de la crypte. En effet, en 2002, nous avions montré que la salle centrale n’était pas accessible à l’origine par les escaliers construits à l’ouest, beaucoup plus tard à la fin du XIe siècle, et que les accès se fai...

  7. Appropriate Crypt Formation in the Uterus for Embryo Homing and Implantation Requires Wnt5a-ROR Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeyeon Cha

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Embryo homing and implantation occur within a crypt (implantation chamber at the antimesometrial (AM pole along the uterus. The mechanism by which this is achieved is not known. Here, we show that villi-like epithelial projections from the main uterine lumen toward the AM pole at regularly spaced intervals that form crypts for embryo implantation were disrupted in mice with uterine loss or gain of function of Wnt5a, or loss of function of both Ror1 and Ror2. This disruption of Wnt5a-ROR signaling resulted in disorderly epithelial projections, crypt formation, embryo spacing, and impaired implantation. These early disturbances under abnormal Wnt5a-ROR signaling were reflected in adverse late pregnancy events, including defective decidualization and placentation, ultimately leading to compromised pregnancy outcomes. This study presents deeper insight regarding the formation of organized epithelial projections for crypt formation and embryo implantation for pregnancy success.

  8. Aberrant Crypt Foci: The Case for Inclusion as a Biomarker for Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jay Morris; Michael J. Wargovich; Brown, Vondina R.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are one of the earliest histopathological manifestations of colon cancer. In this review, we critically present the molecular, cellular, histopathological, and chemopreventive evidence that ACF are relevant biomarkers for colon cancer. The laboratory and clinical evidence are highly suggestive that ACF are in the pathway leading to colon cancer, but not all ACF will do so. The possible fate and outcome of ACF in the progression toward colon cancer may be dependent on...

  9. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Santoro, M. Agostina; Mah, Amanda T.; Krebs, Adrienne E.; Dehmer, Jeffrey J.; McNaughton, Kirk K.; Helmrath, Michael A.; Magness, Scott T.; Lund, P. Kay

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFPLow) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFPHigh) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs. IGF1 was delivered for 5 days using subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps in uninjured mice or after 14 Gy abdominal radiation. ISC numbers, proliferation, and transcriptome were assessed. IGF1 increased epithelial growth in nonirradiated mice and enhanced crypt regeneration after radiation. In uninjured and regenerating intestines, IGF1 increased total numbers of Sox9-EGFPLow ISCs and percentage of these cells in M-phase. IGF1 increased percentages of Sox9-EGFPHigh ISCs in S-phase but did not expand this population. Microarray revealed that IGF1 activated distinct gene expression signatures in the 2 Sox9-EGFP ISC populations. In vitro IGF1 enhanced enteroid formation by Sox9-EGFPHigh facultative ISCs but not Sox9-EGFPLow actively cycling ISCs. Our data provide new evidence that IGF1 activates 2 ISC populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation.—Van Landeghem, L., Santoro, M. A., Mah, A. T., Krebs, A. E., Dehmer, J. J., McNaughton, K. K., Helmrath, M. A., Magness, S. T., Lund, P. K. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations. PMID:25837582

  10. Analysis of the spatial and dynamical properties of a multiscale model of intestinal crypts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antoniotti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary analyses on a multiscale model of intestinal crypt dynamics are here presented. The model combines a morphological model, based on the Cellular Potts Model (CPM, and a gene regulatory network model, based on Noisy Random Boolean Networks (NRBNs. Simulations suggest that the stochastic differentiation process is itself sufficient to ensure the general homeostasis in the asymptotic states, as proven by several measures.

  11. Application of Three-Dimensional Imaging to the Intestinal Crypt Organoids and Biopsied Intestinal Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor’s intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs in the muscle layer, while the recipient’s intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients.

  12. Energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along the crypt-villus axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huansheng; Wang, Xiaocheng; Xiong, Xia; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells continuously migrate and mature along crypt-villus axis (CVA), while the changes in energy metabolism during maturation are unclear in neonates. The present study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells would be changed during maturation along CVA in neonates. Eight 21-day-old suckling piglets were used. Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated sequentially along CVA, and proteomics was used to analyze the changes in proteins expression in epithelial cells along CVA. The identified differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in cellular process, metabolic process, biological regulation, pigmentation, multicellular organizational process and so on. The energy metabolism in intestinal epithelial cells of piglets was increased from the bottom of crypt to the top of villi. Moreover, the expression of proteins related to the metabolism of glucose, most of amino acids, and fatty acids was increased in intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along CVA, while the expression of proteins related to glutamine metabolism was decreased from crypt to villus tip. The expression of proteins involved in citrate cycle was also increased intestinal epithelial cells during maturation along CVA. Moreover, dietary supplementation with different energy sources had different effects on intestinal structure of weaned piglets. PMID:27558220

  13. Inhibition of Notch signaling reduces the number of surviving Dclk1+ reserve crypt epithelial stem cells following radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Dongfeng; May, Randal; Sureban, Sripathi M; Weygant, Nathaniel; Chandrakesan, Parthasarathy; Ali, Naushad; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence; Houchen, Courtney W

    2014-03-01

    We have previously reported that doublecortin-like kinase 1 (Dclk1) is a putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker. In this report, we evaluated the use of Dclk1 as a marker of surviving ISCs in response to treatment with high-dose total body irradiation (TBI). Both apoptotic and mitotic Dclk1(+) cells were observed 24 h post-TBI associated with a corresponding loss of intestinal crypts observed at 84 h post-TBI. Although the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating proliferation and lineage commitment within the intestine, its role in ISC function in response to severe genotoxic injury is not yet fully understood. We employed the microcolony assay to functionally assess the effects of Notch inhibition with difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT) on intestinal crypt stem cell survival following severe (>8 Gy) radiation injury. Following treatment with DAPT, we observed a nearly 50% reduction in the number of surviving Dclk1(+) crypt epithelial cells at 24 h after TBI and similar reduction in the number of surviving small intestinal crypts at 84 h. These data indicate that inhibition of Notch signaling decreases ISC survival following radiation injury, suggesting that the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in ISC-mediated crypt regeneration. These results also suggest that crypt epithelial cell Dclk1 expression can be used as one potential marker to evaluate the early survival of ISCs following severe radiation injury.

  14. Quantitative analysis of crypt cell population during postnatal development of the olfactory organ of the guppy, Poecilia reticulata (Teleostei, Poecilidae), from birth to sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Simone; Lazzari, Maurizio; Franceschini, Valeria

    2012-08-01

    Crypt cells are one of three types of olfactory sensory neuron, differing from ciliated and microvillar cells in shape, localization and number, and found only in fish. Although crypt cells are morphologically well characterized, their function remains unclear. They were hypothesized to be involved in reproductive behaviours by detecting sex pheromones, but electrophysiological investigations revealed sensitivity to only amino acids. However, the number of crypt cells in adult guppies is not the same in the two sexes. In this study, we compared the size of the crypt cell population in juvenile guppies during the first 90 days after birth. The purpose of our study was to clarify whether a correlation exists between sex and the number of these olfactory neurons. The data show that guppies reach adult crypt cell density when they become sexually mature. Despite a constant increment in volume during development of the olfactory organ, the minimum density of crypt neurons occurs at ~45 days. Moreover, in the early weeks, the density of crypt neurons is greater in males than in females because in females the total number of cells decreases significantly after just 7 days. In adults, however, crypt neurons are found in higher density in females than in males. These findings suggest that the number of crypt cells is sex specific, with independent developmental dynamics between males and females. A role in pheromone detection could explain such a difference, but the early appearance of crypt cells in the first days of life is suggestive of other, not sexually related, functions.

  15. Jejunal wall triglyceride concentration of morbidly obese persons is lower in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriguer, F.; García-Serrano, S.; Garrido-Sánchez, L.; Gutierrez-Repiso, C.; Rojo-Martínez, G.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; García-Arnés, J.; Gallego-Perales, J. L.; Delgado, V.; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of intestinal lipoproteins may contribute to the dyslipidemia found in diabetes. We studied the influence of diabetes on the fasting jejunal lipid content and its association with plasma lipids and the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of these lipoproteins. The study was undertaken in 27 morbidly obese persons, 12 of whom had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The morbidly obese persons with diabetes had higher levels of chylomicron (CM) triglycerides (P diabetes had a lower jejunal triglyceride content (P = 0.012) and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA expression (P = 0.043). However, the apoA-IV mRNA expression was significantly greater (P = 0.036). The jejunal triglyceride content correlated negatively with apoA-IV mRNA expression (r = −0.587, P = 0.027). The variables that explained the jejunal triglyceride content in a multiple linear regression model were the insulin resistance state and the apoA-IV mRNA expression. Our results show that the morbidly obese subjects with diabetes had lower jejunal lipid content and that this correlated negatively with apoA-IV mRNA expression. These findings show that the jejunum appears to play an active role in lipid homeostasis in the fasting state. PMID:20855567

  16. Smad3 contributes to positioning of proliferating cells in colonic crypts by inducing EphB receptor protein expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Kiyoshi [Department of Clinical Cell Biology (F5), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Sato, Toru [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Katsuno, Tatsuro, E-mail: katsuno@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Nakagawa, Tomoo; Noguchi, Yoshiko [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Tokumasa, Atsuko; Yokote, Kotaro [Department of Clinical Cell Biology (F5), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Yokosuka, Osamu [Department of Medicine and Clinical Oncology (K1), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan); Saito, Yasushi [Department of Clinical Cell Biology (F5), Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi 260-8670 (Japan)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Smad3{sup -/-} mice showed an increased number of proliferating epithelial cells in colonic crypts. {yields} Proliferating epithelial cells showed activated Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway. {yields} Smad3{sup -/-} mice also showed intermingling of proliferating cells with differentiated cells. {yields} Loss of EphB receptor expression was observed in the colonic crypts of Smad3{sup -/-} mice. {yields} Loss of EphB receptor expression is likely responsible for cell intermingling. -- Abstract: Deficiency of Smad3, an intracellular mediator of TGF-{beta}, was shown to significantly accelerate re-epithelialization of the colonic mucosa. This study was performed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which Smad3 controls colonic epithelial cell proliferation and crypt formation. Smad3{sup ex8/ex8} C57BL/6 mice were used in this study and wild-type littermates served as controls. The number of proliferating cells in the isolated colonic epithelium of Smad3{sup -/-} mice was significantly increased compared to that in wild-type littermates. Protein levels of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27 were significantly decreased, while that of c-Myc was increased in the isolated colonic epithelium from Smad3{sup -/-} mice. In the colonic tissue of wild-type mice, cell proliferation was restricted to the bottom of the crypts in accordance with nuclear {beta}-catenin staining, whereas proliferating cells were located throughout the crypts in Smad3{sup -/-} mice in accordance with nuclear {beta}-catenin staining, suggesting that Smad3 is essential for locating proliferating cells at the bottom of the colonic crypts. Notably, in Smad3{sup -/-} mice, there was loss of EphB2 and EphB3 receptor protein expression, critical regulators of proliferating cell positioning, while EphB receptor protein expression was confirmed at the bottom of the colonic crypts in wild-type mice. These observations indicated that disturbance of the EphB/ephrin B system brings

  17. [Reconstruction of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus using a free jejunal graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, P; Bumbasirević, M; Knezević, J; Dunjić, M; Djukić, V; Simić, A; Stojakov, D; Sabljak, P; Bjelović, M; Janković, Z; Micev, M; Saranović, D

    2000-01-01

    Extensive malignant tumors of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus continue to challenge surgeons in respect to both type and extent of resection as well as type of reconstruction. In the period between November 1st, 1996 and November 1st, 1998, at our Department, five patients have been operated due to squamocellular carcinoma of the hypopharynx using a free jejunal graft reconstruction method. The first free jejunal graft operation due to hypopharyngeal carcinoma, at the same time the first operation of this kind ever done in our Country, was performed on November 13th, 1998. There were 4 female and one male patient, average age 47.75 years. Disfagia for solid foods was a leading symptom in all patients (mean duration of 3.5 months) and was always accompanied with weight loss (average of 8 kg for two months). In all patients barium swallow, endoscopy, CT as well as intraoperative endoscopy was performed. Radical surgical procedure was always accompanied with the bilateral modified lympf node neck dissection. As a arterial donor vessel superior thyroid artery was used in all patients. As a venous drainage in three patients a external jugular vein was used and in two facial vein. Reconstruction using a free jejunal graft of approximately 25 cm long was performed in all patients creating upper, oropharingeal, anastomosis end to side and distal, esophageal, end to end (in only one patients side to end) using 3/0 apsorbable sutures. Mean duration of the operation was six hours. The postoperative course in all patients was uneventful. On the 9th postoperative day gastrografin and three days later barium swallow radiography was performed as a standard control study. Regular check ups were done on three, six, nine months, year and two years. On all controls all patients were symptom free and feeling well. It is our opinion that in the patients with isolated carcinoma of the hypopharynx due to low morbidity and mortality rate, free jejunal graft method is the surgical

  18. Multiple indomethacin-induced jejunal ulcerations with perforation: a case report with histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risty, Gina M; Najarian, Melissa M; Shapiro, Stephen B

    2007-04-01

    Gastric and duodenal inflammation and ulceration are well-known complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) usage. However, small bowel ulceration and perforation secondary to NSAID use is uncommon and has rarely been reported in the literature. We describe a perforated jejunal ulcer that developed in a patient using indomethacin for treatment of ankylosing spondylitis. We performed a literature review of NSAID-induced small bowel injury and compared the histology of NSAID-related injury with more familiar causes of small bowel perforation.

  19. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  20. Multiple jejunal cancers resulting from combination of germline APC and MLH1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindor, Noralane M; Smyrk, Tom C; Buehler, Sheila; Gunawardena, Shanaka R; Thomas, Brittany C; Limburg, Paul; Kirmani, Salman; Thibodeau, Stephen N

    2012-12-01

    Double heterozygotes for mutations in APC and a DNA mismatch repair gene are extremely rare. We report on an individual who had truncating mutations in APC and MLH1 whose clinical presentation initially resembled Familial Adenomatous Polyposis but then emerged as a novel phenotype with multiple jejunal carcinomas. We have reviewed the relevant literature on double heterozygotes and based on what has been reported to date, this phenotype was not anticipated. It may be useful for clinicians to be aware of this observation as clinical screening guidelines are proposed for such individuals.

  1. Kayexalate Intake (in Sorbitol and Jejunal Diverticulitis, a Causative Role or an Innocent Bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Pusztaszeri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Small intestine diverticulosis is a rare entity that is asymptomatic in the majority of cases. However, it may cause serious complications, such as infection, hemorrhage, intestinal obstruction and diverticulitis. Kayexalate (sodium polystyrene sulfonate in sorbitol has been associated with colonic necrosis and less frequently with upper gastrointestinal injuries in a subset of uremic patients treated for hyperkalemia. We report a case of jejunal diverticulosis with mucosal injury and diverticulitis in a uremic patient treated with Kayexalate and discuss the potential role of Kayexalate in the pathogenesis of diverticulitis.

  2. Multislice computed tomography angiography findings of chronic small bowel volvulus with jejunal diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Bing; Guan, Wen-Xian; Gao, Yuan

    2010-07-01

    A volvulus, which is torsion of the bowel and its mesentery, is a medical emergency. Small bowel volvulus rarely occurs in adults, although it has been reported in the presence of small bowel diverticulum. Multislice computed tomography (CT) angiography, by demonstrating the mesenteric vessels, can be of help in the diagnosis of small bowel volvulus, especially when CT or gastrointestinal studies fail to show the diverticulum. We present the multislice CT angiography findings of a 64-year-old woman with chronic intermittent volvulus resulting from jejunal diverticulosis, surgically confirmed. To our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously in the literature.

  3. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra;

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  4. Jejunal diverticulosis is not always a silent spectator: A report of 4 cases and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishal Arun Patel; Helen Jefferis; Ben Spiegelberg; Quamar Iqbal; Ashish Prabhudesai; Simon Harris

    2008-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis (JD) is a rare clinical entity. The potential complications of this condition are discussed here through a series of cases presented to our centre. A retrospective analysis of four cases, which were diagnosed and treated, was performed. These included two cases of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, one case of perforation and one case of enterolith obstruction. All of these cases were secondary to jejunal diverticulosis and treated surgically. This was accompanied by a literature search to identify the different modalities for diagnosis and treatment of this condition. JD is rare and may lead to a diagnostic delay. Awareness of the wide spectrum of potential complications can prevent this delay.

  5. Jejunal diverticulitis: an unusual cause of an intra-abdominal abscess - coronal Computed Tomography reconstruction can aid the diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Virjee

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulitis is a rare condition that can present with an acute abdomen and be referred for imaging.  We present the case of an elderly patient who at CT was diagnosed with an intra-abdominal abscess involving both jejunum and transverse colon. However, the underlying eitiology was not initially clear until small bowel barium follow-through.Pertinent points regarding CT findings in jejunal diverticulitis are discussed, and practical recommendations in small bowel diverticulum recognition and diagnosis are made. 

  6. IGF1 stimulates crypt expansion via differential activation of 2 intestinal stem cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Laurianne; Santoro, M Agostina; Mah, Amanda T; Krebs, Adrienne E; Dehmer, Jeffrey J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Helmrath, Michael A; Magness, Scott T; Lund, P Kay

    2015-07-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has potent trophic effects on normal or injured intestinal epithelium, but specific effects on intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are undefined. We used Sox9-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter mice that permit analyses of both actively cycling ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(Low)) and reserve/facultative ISCs (Sox9-EGFP(High)) to study IGF1 action on ISCs in normal intestine or during crypt regeneration after high-dose radiation-induced injury. We hypothesized that IGF1 differentially regulates proliferation and gene expression in actively cycling and reserve/facultative ISCs. IGF1 was delivered for 5 days using subcutaneously implanted mini-pumps in uninjured mice or after 14 Gy abdominal radiation. ISC numbers, proliferation, and transcriptome were assessed. IGF1 increased epithelial growth in nonirradiated mice and enhanced crypt regeneration after radiation. In uninjured and regenerating intestines, IGF1 increased total numbers of Sox9-EGFP(Low) ISCs and percentage of these cells in M-phase. IGF1 increased percentages of Sox9-EGFP(High) ISCs in S-phase but did not expand this population. Microarray revealed that IGF1 activated distinct gene expression signatures in the 2 Sox9-EGFP ISC populations. In vitro IGF1 enhanced enteroid formation by Sox9-EGFP(High) facultative ISCs but not Sox9-EGFP(Low) actively cycling ISCs. Our data provide new evidence that IGF1 activates 2 ISC populations via distinct regulatory pathways to promote growth of normal intestinal epithelium and crypt regeneration after irradiation.

  7. Hierarchy and plasticity in the crypt: back to the drawing board

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine Legraverend; Philippe Jay

    2011-01-01

    The prevailing concept in the field of stem cell research is that of a multipotent self-renewing cell,positioned at the origin of a hierarchical tree of branching specificities,increasing maturity and decreasing self-renewal ability.In the epithelium of the small intestine,until very recently,the supra-Paneth crypt base columnar (CBC) cell position +4(cp4) (counting from the bottom of the crypt) was widely assumed to be the preferred position of multipotent stem cells [1,2].Yet electron microscopy,as well as autoradiography and lineage tracing studies,supported the presence of undifferentiated [3],actively cycling [4],multipotent CBC stem cells located between Paneth cells in the crypt [5-7].Based on the results of expression and lineage studies with Lgr5-EGFP-IRES-CreERT2 knock-in mice and Rosa26-LacZ reporter mice,it was possible to show that multipotent CBC cells expressing the Lgr5 orphan receptor are present throughout the gastro-intestinal tract [7].But they are not alone.Another recent lineage study revealed the existence of multipotent,self-renewing Lgr5- CBC cells expressing the Bmi1 proto-oncogene and preferentially located above the highest Paneth cell [8].This discovery brought the cp4 model back under the spotlight,and subsequent expression studies revealed a partial overlap between the Lgr5+ and Bmi1+ CBC cell populations [9].In a recent issue of Nature,Huan Tian and colleagues now tackle the issue of their contribution to the turnover of the intestinal epithelium [10].

  8. Regulation of Ceramide Synthase-Mediated Crypt Epithelium Apoptosis by DNA Damage Repair Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotolo, Jimmy A.; Mesicek, Judith; Maj, Jerzy; Truman, Jean-Philip; Haimovitz-Friedman, Adriana; Kolesnick, Richard; Fuks, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Acute endothelial cell apoptosis and microvascular compromise couple GI tract irradiation to reproductive death of intestinal crypt stem cell clonogens (SCCs) following high-dose radiation. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of endothelial apoptosis prevents intestinal damage, but as the radiation dose is escalated, SCCs become directly susceptible to an alternate cell death mechanism, mediated via ceramide synthase (CS)-stimulated de novo synthesis of the pro-apoptotic sphingolipid ceramide, and p53-independent apoptosis of crypt SCCs. We previously reported that ATM deficiency resets the primary radiation lethal pathway, allowing CS-mediated apoptosis at the low-dose range of radiation. The mechanism for this event, termed target reordering, remains unknown. Here we show that inactivation of DNA damage repair pathways signal CS-mediated apoptosis in crypt SCCs, presumably via persistent unrepaired DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Genetic loss-of-function of sensors and transducers of DNA DSB repair confers the CS-mediated lethal pathway in intestines of sv129/B6Mre11ATLD1/ATLD1 and C57BL/6Prkdc/SCID (SCID) mice exposed to low-dose radiation. In contrast, CS-mediated SCC lethality was mitigated in irradiated gain-of-function Rad50S/S mice, and epistasis studies order Rad50 upstream of Mre11. These studies suggest unrepaired DNA DSBs as causative in target re-ordering in intestinal SCCs. As such, we provide an in vivo model of DNA damage repair that is standardized, can be exploited to understand allele-specific regulation in intact tissue, and is pharmacologically tractable. PMID:20086180

  9. An unusual presentation of a malignant jejunal tumor and a different management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaiya, Atul; Deo, Sv Suryanarayana; Thulkar, Sanjay; Hazarika, Sidhartha; Kumar, Sunil; Parida, Dillip K; Shukla, Nootan K

    2005-01-09

    BACKGROUND: Malignant small bowel tumors are very rare and leiomyosarcoma accounts for less than 15% of the cases. Management of these tumors is challenging in view of nonspecific symptoms, unusual presentation and high incidence of metastasis. In this case report, an unusual presentation of jejunal sarcoma and management of liver metastasis with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is discussed. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45-year-old male presented with anemia and features of small bowel obstruction. Operative findings revealed a mass lesion in jejunum with intussusception of proximal loop. Resection of bowel mass was performed. Histopathological findings were suggestive of leiomyosarcoma. After 3-years of follow-up, the patient developed recurrence in infracolic omentum and a liver metastasis. The omental mass was resected and liver lesion was managed with radiofrequency ablation. CONCLUSION: Jejunal leiomyosarcoma is a rare variety of malignant small bowel tumor and a clinical presentation with intussusception is unusual. We suggest that an aggressive management approach using a combination of surgery and a newer technique like RFA can be attempted in patients with limited metastatic spread to liver to prolong the long-term survival in a subset of patients.

  10. A CASE REPORT OF GAINT JEJUNAL DIVERTICULOSIS PRESENTING AS RECURRENT ACUTE ABDOMEN

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    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The diverticulum of the small bowel may be congenital or acquired. 80% of diverticula occur in the jejunum, 15% in the ileum and 5% in both . (1,2,3,4 Although it is often asymptomatic, it can lead to severe complications including perforation, haemorrhage, enterolith formation, diverticulitis, and intestinal obstruction (5,6,7,8 and occur in 10% - 30% of patients. We have a male aged 30yrs old came with h/o recurrent colicky pain abdomen and bilious vomiting since past 6 months (9,10,11 o/e he is anaemic , malnourished and dehydrated. P/abdomen – gaseous distension present , no mass palpable and no free fluid , p/r – no abnormality , plain X - ray abdomen shows multiple air fluid levels. (12 On laparotomy there are multiple giant jenjunal diverticuli with bowel distension and there is a band found attached to the middle ileum. The band is excised and the jejunum which had giant diverticula has been resected and e nd to end anastomosis is done. Jejunal diverticula are rare and mostly asymptomatic. Patients may have nonspecific symptoms, such as chronic abdominal pain and change in bowel habits. However, the morbidity and mortality rates may increase due to perforati on, obstruction, and bleeding. If acute abdomen in jejunal diverticulosis is suspected, a laparotomy and resection & anastomosis is considered and TB abdomen must be considered in the differential diagnosis

  11. A Metastatic Jejunal Tumor from Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung Found in an Intestinal Perforation

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    Takayuki Tanaka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available An 85-year-old male with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, who was diagnosed about 10 years prior to his current presentation, suddenly complained of abdominal pain and underwent an abdominal computed tomography scan, which revealed free air and massive ascites. He was admitted to our hospital for acute peritonitis and emergency surgery was performed. During the surgical procedure, a perforation of the jejunum was diagnosed and repaired. He was diagnosed to have a metastatic tumor originating from a squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. He improved and was transferred to the former hospital on the 27th postoperative day. Jejunal metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is rare, and the prognosis of peritonitis due to a perforated intestinal metastasis from lung cancer is poor. There have been 10 reports of jejunal metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung reported in Japan between 2000 and 2011. Therefore, when patients with advanced lung cancer present with acute abdomen, it is necessary to keep in mind the possibility of a gastrointestinal metastatic tumor.

  12. Effect of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and methylprednisolone on the healing of jejunal anastomoses in rats

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    A.A. Sousa

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Sodium carboxymethylcellulose (SCMC has been effective in reducing adhesion formation and corticosteroids reduce the inflammatory process. The objective of this study was to define the intraperitoneal (ip effects of SCMC combined with intramuscular (im methylprednisolone on peritoneal adhesion formation and on jejunal anastomosis healing in rats. Twenty Wistar rats (200-350 g were divided into four groups (N = 5: groups I and III (controls 5 and 21 days of treatment before sacrifice, respectively; groups II and IV (experimental groups 5 and 21 days of treatment, respectively. SCMC (1% was infused into the abdominal cavity and methylprednisolone (10 mg kg-1 day-1 was injected im daily from the day before surgery for animals of groups II and IV. All rats were submitted to a jejunal anastomosis. Sections of the anastomosis were prepared for routine histopathological analysis. The abdominal adhesion of group IV was less intense when compared with group III (P<0.0008. Anastomotic resistance was higher in groups II and IV when compared with groups I and III, respectively (P<0.05. There was no histological difference between groups I and II (exuberant granulation tissue on the serosal surface. Group III presented little peritoneal fibrinous tissue, with numerous thick collagen fibers. Group IV presented extensive although immature young fibrous tissue with rare thick collagen fibers. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose combined with corticosteroids seemed to diminish peritoneal adhesion but did not reduce anastomotic resistance.

  13. In vitro uptake of amino acids in the jejunal mucosa of patients with cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin Maung, U

    1993-06-01

    In vitro uptake of 14C-labelled amino acids was studied in jejunal mucosa biopsy specimens from 64 adults admitted for treatment of cholera (proven by stool culture) within 48 hours of onset of watery diarrhoea to determine the state of amino acid carriers in the jejunal mucosa during actively purging disease. Continued absorption of amino acids by the NBB carrier (for neutral amino acids), the Y+ system (for dibasic amino acids), and the PHE carrier were operative even during the actively purging stage of watery diarrhoea due to cholera. The IMINO carrier for absorption of N-substituted amino acids was found to be inoperative during cholera but the imino acids could be absorbed by the PHE carrier. This study demonstrates continued intestinal absorption of amino acids during cholera, provides scientific basis for use of amino acids in "improved" oral rehydration solutions utilising amino acid transport systems which are linked to the absorption of sodium (and water) so that reduction in diarrhoeal stools can be achieved, and emphasises the importance of maintaining feeding during acute diarrhoea to prevent the development of malnutrition.

  14. RGD-Dependent Epithelial Cell-Matrix Interactions in the Human Intestinal Crypt

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    Yannick D. Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between the extracellular matrix (ECM and integrin receptors trigger structural and functional bonds between the cell microenvironment and the cytoskeleton. Such connections are essential for adhesion structure integrity and are key players in regulating transduction of specific intracellular signals, which in turn regulate the organization of the cell microenvironment and, consequently, cell function. The RGD peptide-dependent integrins represent a key subgroup of ECM receptors involved in the maintenance of epithelial homeostasis. Here we review recent findings on RGD-dependent ECM-integrin interactions and their roles in human intestinal epithelial crypt cells.

  15. Behandling med duodenal-jejunal bypass-sleeve ved svær overvægt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Gylvin, Silas; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for several co-morbidities reducing life expectancy. Conservative treatment of obesity is generally ineffective in the long-term. Bariatric surgery has proven effective, but is associated with potential complications. Duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve is a novel...

  16. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehestanie, P.; Dogan, K.; Berends, F.; Janssen, I.; Wahab, P.J.; Groenen, M.; Müller, M.R.; Wit, de N.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this obs

  17. The ability of two cooked food mutagens to induce aberrant crypt foci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Meyer, Otto A.; Thorup, I.

    1997-01-01

    The aberrant crypt foci assay has been used extensively to study different compounds for chemopreventive action, but almost all investigations have used initiators not normally found in the diet, In the present study two food-borne initiators, 2-amino-3-methyl-imidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 2......-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) were used, To simulate the human exposure further, we chose a feeding regimen with continuous low IQ- and PhIP-doses, Throughout the study female mice were given diets with or without 0.03% IQ or 0.03% PhIP, Two additional groups were given...... azoxymethane (AOM) (5 mg/kg body weight) and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCI) (20 mg/kg body weight), respectively, one dose a week for two weeks, Animals were killed after four and 10 weeks, After four weeks only the mice dosed with IQ and PhIP had aberrant crypt foci, A much higher number...

  18. Impaired Cell Volume Regulation in Intestinal Crypt Epithelia of Cystic Fibrosis Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, M. A.; O'Brien, J. A.; Sepulveda, F. V.; Ratcliff, R. A.; Evans, M. J.; Colledge, W. H.

    1995-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a disease characterized by abnormalities in the epithelia of the lungs, intestine, salivary and sweat glands, liver, and reproductive systems, often as a result of inadequate hydration of their secretions. The primary defect in cystic fibrosis is the altered activity of a cAMP-activated Cl^- channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel. However, it is not clear how a defect in the CFTR Cl^- channel function leads to the observed pathological changes. Although much is known about the structural properties and regulation of the CFTR, little is known of its relationship to cellular functions other than the cAMP-dependent Cl^- secretion. Here we report that cell volume regulation after hypotonic challenge is also defective in intestinal crypt epithelial cells isolated from CFTR -/- mutant mice. Moreover, the impairment of the regulatory volume decrease in CFTR -/- crypts appears to be related to the inability of a K^+ conductance to provide a pathway for the exit of this cation during the volume adjustments. This provides evidence that the lack of CFTR protein may have additional consequences for the cellular function other than the abnormal cAMP-mediated Cl^- secretion.

  19. Chromoendoscopy with a Standard-Resolution Colonoscope for Evaluation of Rectal Aberrant Crypt Foci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kowalczyk

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cause of death worldwide. According to the theory by Vogelstein, colorectal carcinogenesis involves a series of successive changes in the normal colonic mucosa, starting with excessive proliferation and focal disorders of intestinal crypts, followed by adenoma and its subsequent malignant transformation. The first identifiable changes in CRC carcinogenesis are aberrant crypt foci (ACF. ACF are invisible during routine colonoscopy yet are well identifiable in chromoendoscopy using methylene blue or indigo carmine. High-resolution colonoscopes are used for assessment of ACF. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of standard-resolution colonoscopy for identification of rectal ACF. The following parameters were evaluated: duration of chromoendoscopy of a given rectal segment, type of ACF, sensitivity and specificity of endoscopy combined with histopathological evaluation. The mean duration of colonoscopy and chromoendoscopy was 26.8 min. In the study population, typical ACF were found in 73 patients (p = 0.489, hyperplastic ACF in 49 (p = 0.328, and dysplastic ACF in 16 patients (p = 0.107. Mixed ACF were observed in 11 individuals (p = 0.073. The sensitivity of the method was found to be 0.96 whereas its specificity 0.99. Identification of rectal ACF using standard-resolution colonoscopy combined with rectal mucosa staining with 0.25% methylene blue is characterised by high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. De Novo Formation of Insulin-Producing “Neo-β Cell Islets” from Intestinal Crypts

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    Yi-Ju Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to interconvert terminally differentiated cells could serve as a powerful tool for cell-based treatment of degenerative diseases, including diabetes mellitus. To determine which, if any, adult tissues are competent to activate an islet β cell program, we performed an in vivo screen by expressing three β cell “reprogramming factors” in a wide spectrum of tissues. We report that transient intestinal expression of these factors—Pdx1, MafA, and Ngn3 (PMN—promotes rapid conversion of intestinal crypt cells into endocrine cells, which coalesce into “neoislets” below the crypt base. Neoislet cells express insulin and show ultrastructural features of β cells. Importantly, intestinal neoislets are glucose-responsive and able to ameliorate hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. Moreover, PMN expression in human intestinal “organoids” stimulates the conversion of intestinal epithelial cells into β-like cells. Our results thus demonstrate that the intestine is an accessible and abundant source of functional insulin-producing cells.

  1. EP receptor expression in human intestinal epithelium and localization relative to the stem cell zone of the crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen Hult, Lene Th; Kleiveland, Charlotte R; Fosnes, Kjetil; Jacobsen, Morten; Lea, Tor

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for PGE2 affecting intestinal epithelial proliferation. PGE2 is also reported to be involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation in adult stem cells, both effects mediated by binding to EP-receptors. We have used the Lgr5 as a marker to scrutinize EP-receptor and COX expression in human intestinal epithelial cells with focus on the stem cell area of the crypts. Normal tissue from ileum and colon, but also duodenal biopsies from patients with untreated celiac disease, were investigated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The combination of fresh flash-frozen tissue and laser microdissection made it possible to isolate RNA from the epithelial cell layer, only. In the small intestine, Lgr5 labels cells are in the +4 position, while in the colon, Lgr5 positive cells are localized to the crypt bottoms. Epithelial crypt cells of normal small intestine expressed neither EP-receptor mRNA nor COX1/2. However, crypt cells in tissue from patients with untreated celiac disease expressed EP2/4 receptor and COX1 mRNA. In the colon, the situation was different. Epithelial crypt cells from normal colon were found to express EP2/4 receptor and COX1/2 transcripts. Thus, there are distinct differences between normal human small intestine and colon with regard to expression of EP2/4 receptors and COX1/2. In normal colon tissue, PGE2-mediated signaling through EP-receptors 2/4 could be involved in regulation of growth and differentiation of the epithelium, while the lack of EP-receptor expression in the small intestinal tissue exclude the possibility of a direct effect of PGE2 on the crypt epithelial cells.

  2. EP receptor expression in human intestinal epithelium and localization relative to the stem cell zone of the crypts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Th Olsen Hult

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for PGE2 affecting intestinal epithelial proliferation. PGE2 is also reported to be involved in the regulation of growth and differentiation in adult stem cells, both effects mediated by binding to EP-receptors. We have used the Lgr5 as a marker to scrutinize EP-receptor and COX expression in human intestinal epithelial cells with focus on the stem cell area of the crypts. Normal tissue from ileum and colon, but also duodenal biopsies from patients with untreated celiac disease, were investigated by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The combination of fresh flash-frozen tissue and laser microdissection made it possible to isolate RNA from the epithelial cell layer, only. In the small intestine, Lgr5 labels cells are in the +4 position, while in the colon, Lgr5 positive cells are localized to the crypt bottoms. Epithelial crypt cells of normal small intestine expressed neither EP-receptor mRNA nor COX1/2. However, crypt cells in tissue from patients with untreated celiac disease expressed EP2/4 receptor and COX1 mRNA. In the colon, the situation was different. Epithelial crypt cells from normal colon were found to express EP2/4 receptor and COX1/2 transcripts. Thus, there are distinct differences between normal human small intestine and colon with regard to expression of EP2/4 receptors and COX1/2. In normal colon tissue, PGE2-mediated signaling through EP-receptors 2/4 could be involved in regulation of growth and differentiation of the epithelium, while the lack of EP-receptor expression in the small intestinal tissue exclude the possibility of a direct effect of PGE2 on the crypt epithelial cells.

  3. Gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with free jejunal transfer (FJT) following total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Song; Zhu, Yiming; Li, Dezhi; Li, Zhengjiang; Wu, Yuehuang; Xu, Zhengang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE) still challenges surgeons because of the extreme length of removed tissue. Gastric pull-up reconstruction, one of the most common reconstructive methods after PLE, has many complications such as anastomotic fistula and gastric necrosis caused by the high anastomotic tension. However, modifications of gastric pull-up reconstruction aiming to reducing the high anastomotic tension have been less reported compared with other aspects with this technique. Here we report a modified gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with free jejunal transfer (FTJ) to reduce the anastomosis tension, and thus to reduce the risk of complications after PLE. Patients underwent a standard surgical procedure including total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy and bilateral internal jugular lymph nodal clearance. A free jejunal graft about 10 cm was harvested and placed in the appropriate position between mobilized stomach and oropharynx. The anastomosis between the free jejunal graft and the gastric tube was created through a stapler. Vascular anastomosis was made between the jejunal artery and the transverse cervical artery, and between the jejunal vein and the internal jugular vein. Hand suturing technique was used in the anastomosis between jejunum and pharynx. None of the patients suffered from any complications such as anastomotic fistula. Both patients resumed early postoperative oral intake. So far, they remain free of tumor recurrence and are in good health for 46 and 18 months, respectively. Considering the tumor status and the patient condition, the gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with FJT after PLE could be a reliable choice. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. First jejunal artery, an alternative graft for right hepatic artery reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Bibek; Komokata, Teruo; Kadono, Jun; Motodaka, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Tetsuya; Furoi, Akira; Imoto, Yutaka

    2015-04-01

    Common bile duct cancer invading right hepatic artery is sometimes diagnosed intraoperatively. Excision and safe reconstruction of the artery with suitable graft is essential. Arterial reconstruction with autologous saphenous vein graft is the preferred method practiced routinely. However the right hepatic artery reconstruction has also been carried out with several other vessels like gastroduodenal artery, right gastroepiploic artery or the splenic artery. We report a case of 63-year-old man presenting with history of progressive jaundice, pruritus and impaired appetite. Following various imaging modalities including computed tomography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, intraductal ultrasound extrahepatic bile duct cancer was diagnosed; however, none of those detected vessel invasion. Intraoperatively, right hepatic artery invasion was revealed. Right hepatic artery was resected and reconstructed with a graft harvested from the first jejunal artery (JA). Postoperative outcome was satisfactory with a long-term graft patency. First JA can be a reliable graft option for right hepatic artery reconstruction.

  5. Antimesenteric jejunal diverticulosis after a remote history of necrotising enterocolitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosebel; Schneble, Erica; Mino, Jeffrey; Stallion, Anthony

    2013-04-22

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare, acquired pathology of the small bowel. While most patients are asymptomatic, the condition is difficult to diagnose. It may present with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, bloating and complications including malabsorption, diverticulitis, bleeding, intestinal obstruction or perforation. This is a case presentation of a 27-year-old woman with a history of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) requiring surgical resection as a premature newborn who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and was found to have several small bowel diverticula intraoperatively. She underwent resection with complete resolution of symptoms over a 2-year follow-up. This is the first case report to suggest that small bowel diverticular disease as a long-term complication of NEC may result in chronic morbidity in long-term survivors.

  6. Intussusception of the small bowel secondary to an enterolith from a jejunal diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Aimee N; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Zacharakis, Emmanouil

    2012-09-01

    We report a case of acute, small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception caused by an enterolith from a jejunal diverticulum, in an elderly female with a history of chronic, intermittent abdominal pain. Diagnostic work-up of the patient included a computed tomographic (CT) scan which demonstrated the intussusception, but not the enterolith, which was characteristically radiolucent. A laparotomy was performed and the enterolith was found and delivered. A fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel was sought, but not found. Multiple diverticulae were found throughout the small bowel. Although small bowel diverticulosis is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the acute abdomen and chronic abdominal pain, especially in those with known colonic diverticulosis, in whom this condition is more common.

  7. Ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations in a premature neonate with gestational alloimmune liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M. McAdams, MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recovery after surgical repair of an ileal atresia with or without intestinal perforation requires prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition (PN that may lead to PN-associated liver disease. Early liver failure and cholestasis out of proportion for PN exposure may be a harbinger for gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD, a potentially life-threatening condition that often requires liver transplant if not treated in a timely manner. This case report presents a premature neonate with ileal atresia and multiple jejunal perforations who developed liver failure and was later determined to have GALD. Recognition of clinical and laboratory findings consistent with GALD is essential to promote early treatment, which can enhance neonatal outcomes and impact future pregnancies.

  8. Depression of jejunal dipeptide transport by pyridoxine deficiency in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, V J; Edwards, K D; Asatoor, A M

    1975-02-01

    Three dipeptides (L-alanyl-L-alanine, beta-alanyl-L-histidine and L-prolylglycine), representative of distinctly different transport groups, and a dicarboxylic acid dipeptide (L-glutamyl-L-glutamic acid) showed a quantitatively equivalent decrease of absorption (mean difference, 12% disappearance 15 min-1 5 cm-1) from jejunal loops in vivo in pyridoxine deficient rats, compared with pyridoxine-repleted controls. Analysis of results for seven dipeptides, including three studied previously, indicated that pyridoxine deficiency caused a general or non-specific reduction in dipeptide transport, similar for all dipeptides. Decrease in dipeptide transport in vitamin deficiency ran parallel to, but was significantly less than, the decrease in amino acid transport, suggesting in theory involvement of pyridoxine in a common cellular efflux mechanism or, less likely, in the energetics of active transport.

  9. Outcome after radial forearm, gastro-omental, and jejunal free flaps in oral and oropharyngeal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G I; Brennan, P A; Scott, P J; Ilankovan, V

    2002-08-01

    We undertook a retrospective study of the outcome of radial forearm, gastro-omental, and jejunal free tissue transfer for oral and oropharyngeal reconstruction in 30 patients (10 in each group). No significant differences were found between the type of free flap and the clinical outcome. More long-term difficulties were experienced with swallowing than with speech. The selection of free flap did not correlate with speech function (P=0.44), swallowing (P=0.68), or management of saliva (P=0.59). No significant difference was found between the patients' outcome and the site of resection of the tumour. There were more complications after gastro-omental flaps and this may influence the choice of reconstruction.

  10. A jejunal GIST presenting with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Peter; Lanzon-Miller, Sandro

    2015-11-02

    A 68-year-old man with episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was investigated with multiple upper and lower GI endoscopies, CT enterography and capsule endoscopy, but no cause was found. He then presented acutely with small bowel obstruction. A laparotomy revealed complete small bowel obstruction secondary to jejunal intussusception over a 4 cm intraluminal polyp. Following resection and primary anastomosis, histology revealed that the polyp was a GI stromal tumour (GIST). This is an exceptionally uncommon presentation of a rare tumour. It is surprising that this tumour was not detected by CT enterography and not seen on capsule endoscopy. Immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis of the GIST suggested that it had a low risk of metastatic disease, but a high risk of recurrence. Staging CT scans did not reveal evidence of distal spread. The patient is currently receiving 3 years of chemotherapy with imatinib.

  11. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  12. Surgery for nonobese type 2 diabetic patients: an interventional study with duodenal-jejunal exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Geloneze, Sylka R; Fiori, Carla; Stabe, Christiane; Tambascia, Marcos A; Chaim, Elinton A; Astiarraga, Brenno D; Pareja, Jose Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 24-week interventional prospective trial was performed to compare the benefits of open duodenal-jejunal exclusion surgery (GJB) with a matched control group on standard medical care. One-hundred eighty patients were screened for the surgical approach. Twelve patients accepted to be operated and presented the full eligibility criteria for surgery that includes overweight BMI (25-29.9 kg/m2), T2DM diagnosis for less than 15 years, insulin-treated patients, no history of major complications, preserved beta-cell function, and absence of autoimmunity. A matched control group (CG) of patients whom refused surgical treatment was placed to receive standard care. Patients had age of 50 (5) years, time of diagnosis 9 years (range, 3 to 15 years), time of insulin usage 6 months (range, 3 to 48 months), fasting glucose (FG), 9.8 (2.5) mg/dL, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) 8.90 (2.12)%. At 24 weeks after surgery, patients experienced greater reductions on FG (14% vs. 7% on CG), A1C (from 8.78 to 7.84 in GJB-p<0.01 and 8.93 to 8.71 in CG; p<0.05 between groups) and reductions on average daily insulin requirement (93% vs. 29%, p<0.01). Ten patients stopped insulin usage in GJB but they remain taking oral medications. No differences were observed in both groups regarding BMI, body distribution and composition, blood pressure, and lipids. In conclusion, duodenal-jejunal exclusion was an effective treatment for nonobese T2DM subjects. GJB was superior to standard care in achieving better glycemic control along with reduction in insulin requirements.

  13. Long-term functional speech and swallowing outcomes following pharyngolaryngectomy with free jejunal flap reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David A; Theile, David R; Cook, Renee; Coman, William B

    2010-06-01

    Surgery for advanced cancer of the hypopharynx is a complex issue. Surgical intervention needs to take into consideration the resultant quality of life, in particular fundamental functional outcomes such as speech and swallowing. The aim of this study is to look at these long-term functional outcomes, following pharyngolaryngectomy and free jejunal reconstruction. A total of 19 patients, each undergoing a pharyngolaryngectomy with free jejunal graft was included. Each had a primary tracheoesophageal puncture for insertion of an indwelling voice prosthesis for speech. Functional outcomes of speech and swallow were assessed by a qualified speech pathologist. The impact on patients' quality of life was assessed under 4 domains: impairment, disability, handicap, and well being. The mean time period to follow-up was 4 years. Eighteen of the 19 patients were tolerating an oral diet, with one patient reliant on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeds. Seventeen patients (89%) were assessed as either having either no--or only a mild degree--of dysphagia, with no evidence of aspiration. Of the 19 patients, 15 were utilizing tracheosophageal speech for communication with 11 (73%) having no--or only a mild degree--of dsyphonia. Patients assessed as having no evidence of dysphagia or dysphonia also reported reduced levels of handicap and distress compared with patients experiencing any degree of dysphagia (P = 0.46) or dysphonia (P = 0.01). While rates of pharyngolaryngectomy increase, most patients have a poor long-term prognosis, heightening the significance of postoperative outcomes. The results of this study highlight the importance of speech and swallow outcomes, and demonstrate the direct correlation between these functions and resultant quality of life.

  14. Suppressive effect of pioglitazone, a PPAR gamma ligand, on azoxymethane-induced colon aberrant crypt foci in KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiya; Teraoka, Naoya; Takasu, Shinji; Nakano, Katsuya; Takahashi, Mami; Yamamoto, Masafumi; Fujii, Gen; Komiya, Masami; Yanaka, Akinori; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Mutoh, Michihiro

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer. Pioglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ(PPARγ) agonist that induces differentiation in adipocytes and induces growth arrest and/or apoptosis in vitro in several cancer cell lines. In the present study, we investigated the effect of pioglitazone on the development of azoxymethane-induced colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in KK-Ay obesity and diabetes model mice, and tried to clarify mechanisms by which the PPARγ ligand inhibits ACF development. Administration of 800 ppm pioglitazone reduced the number of colon ACF / mouse to 30% of those in untreated mice and improved hypertrophic changes of adipocytes in KK-Ay mice with significant reduction of serum triglyceride and insulin levels. Moreover, mRNA levels of adipocytokines, such as leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, in the visceral fat were decreased. PCNA immunohistochemistry revealed that pioglitazone treatment suppressed cell proliferation in the colorectal epithelium with elevation of p27 and p53 gene expression. These results suggest that pioglitazone prevented obesity-associated colon carcinogenesis through improvement of dysregulated adipocytokine levels and high serum levels of triglyceride and insulin, and increase of p27 and p53 mRNA levels in the colorectal mucosa. These data indicate that pioglitazone warrants attention as a potential chemopreventive agent against obesity-associated colorectal cancer.

  15. Functional morphology, biology and sexual strategy of the circumboreal, adventitious crypt-building, Crenella decussata (Bivalvia: Mytiloidea: Crenellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Brian; Dinesen, Grete E.; Ockelmann, Kurt W.

    2016-01-01

    The anatomy of Crenella decussata (Mytiloidea) is described. Individuals of this circumboreal species occupy granular crypts composed of sand grains held in place by mucus. The swollen basal region of the tubule is occupied by an individual, which connects to the sediment surface by two posterior...

  16. Histological and electrophysiological properties of crypt cells from the olfactory epithelium of the marine teleost Trachurus symmetricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2006-03-01

    Crypt cells from the olfactory epithelium of the Pacific jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus were characterized by light and electron microscopy and analyzed in dissociation with the patch-clamp technique in its cell-attached, perforated patch and normal whole-cell mode. Isolated crypt cells remained united with their supporting cells, and both were electrically coupled through gap junctions. Under voltage-clamp, depolarizing voltage steps triggered a transient sodium current, a sustained calcium current, and two types of potassium currents with fast and slow inactivation kinetics. No calcium-dependent potassium current could be observed. The sodium current was blocked by saxitoxin, the calcium current by cobalt and furnidipine, and the potassium currents by tetraethylammonium chloride. In the cell-attached configuration, crypt cells displayed spontaneous spike activity and responded to amino acid solutions with dose-dependent excitation, followed by a period of spike inhibition. These first recordings of individual crypt cells provide the basis for future studies of their odorant specificity, transduction mechanism, and overall function in the fish olfactory epithelium.

  17. Effect of dietary galacto-oligosaccharides on azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal cancer in Fischer 344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Schoterman, H.C.; Bruijntjes, J.P.; Hollanders, V.M.H.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS, Elix'or) on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM). Two groups of 102 male Fischer 344 rats were injected twice with AOM to induce colore

  18. Measurement of the cell membrane capacitance and conductance of colonic crypt cells of the rat using the patch clamp technique

    CERN Document Server

    Schill, C

    2005-01-01

    Using the patch clamp technique the membrane capacitance and membrane conductance of colonic crypt cells of the rat was measured. The influence of the intracellular agonists Ca++, cAMP and of osmotic changes on the membrane capacitance and conductance was studied.

  19. Three-dimensionally Specific Inhibition of DNA Repair-Related Genes by Activated KRAS in Colon Crypt Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Tsunoda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth and differentiation of colonic epithelium are regulated in the three-dimensional (3D physiological architecture, colonic crypt, and deregulation of 3D interactions is involved in tumorigenesis. Cell-based 3D culture systems provide a suitable approach bridging the gap between two-dimensional (2D culture and animal models. KRAS mutations are found at high frequencies in human colorectal cancer (CRC; however, KRAS-targeted cancer therapy has not been developed. Here, we have established a 3D cell culture model resembling the colonic crypt by use of HKe3 cells, human CRC HCT116 cells disrupted at activated KRAS. In this 3D colonic crypt model, HKe3 cells showed the features of time course-dependent transit-amplifying and terminal-differentiated stages, which are characteristic of normal colonic crypt. On the basis of the features of HCT116 cells, activated KRAS inhibited normal cell polarity and apoptosis in 3D culture. The expression of DNA repair-related tumor suppressor genes including TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2, and EXO-1 was markedly suppressed by activated KRAS in 3D culture but not in 2D culture. These results together suggest that activated KRAS plays critical roles in the accumulation of genetic alterations through inhibition of DNA repair genes and apoptosis and that this 3D culture model will provide a useful tool for investigating the molecular mechanisms of CRC development.

  20. Do aberrant crypt foci have predictive value for the occurrence of colorectal tumours? Potential of gene expression profiling in tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Erk, van M.J.; Doornbos, R.P.; Krul, C.A.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of different dietary compounds on the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumours and on the expression of a selection of genes were studied in rats. Azoxymethane-treated male F344 rats were fed either a control diet or a diet containing 10% wheat bran (WB), 0.2%

  1. Effect of dietary zinc oxide on jejunal morphological and immunological characteristics in weaned piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P; Pieper, R; Tedin, L; Martin, L; Meyer, W; Rieger, J; Plendl, J; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related changes and the effect of dietary Zn concentration on morphological and immunological characteristics in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets. A total of 96 purebred Landrace piglets were weaned at the age of 26 ± 1 d, and randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups fed with low (57 mg Zn/kg), medium (164 mg Zn/kg), and high (2425 mg Zn/kg) dietary Zn (ZnO). Piglets (4 males and 4 females per treatment group) were killed at 33 ± 1, 40 ± 1, 47 ± 1, and 54 ± 1 d of age. In the jejunum, villus height, crypt depth, and the number of goblet cells producing neutral, acidic, sulfated, and sialylated mucins were measured. Intraepithelial lymphocytes were characterized by flow cytometry and the gene expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), mucin 20 (MUC20), β-defensin 3, and trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. Villus height and crypt depth in the jejunum showed age related differences (P < 0.01), whereas the dietary concentrations of Zn had no effect. The mucin types were modified mainly by age, and dietary Zn had no effect in the proximal jejunum. In the distal jejunum, age and Zn had effects on the mucin types. The abundance of sulfomucins decreased (P < 0.001) and sialomucins increased with age (P < 0.001), while high dietary ZnO reduced the sulfomucins (P < 0.001) and increased the sialomucins (P < 0.05) in the crypts. The phenotypes of lymphocytes in the epithelium of the proximal jejunum showed relatively constant percentages of T-cells, as well as natural killer cells. High dietary Zn treatment led to a reduced abundance of CD8(+) γδ T-cells (P < 0.05). The apportionment of different cytotoxic T-cell was age dependent. Although the percentage of CD4(-)CD8β(+) increased (P < 0.01), the relative amount of CD4(+)CD8β(+) decreased with age (P < 0.05). The expression of MUC2 and MUC20 was not influenced by age or dietary Zn concentration. High Zn intakes resulted in a reduced

  2. Aberrant crypt foci in the colo-rectal mucosa as reliable markers of tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Inger

    The aim of the present thesis has been to evaluate a recently developed short term in vivo model, the aberrant crypt foci bioassay (ACF), for its ability to predict the development of colo-rectal tumors. Based on the knowledge obtained during the last decade, it can be stated that no simple...... connection exists between occurrence of ACF (neither qualitatively nor quantita- tively) and later development of tumors. However, the literature has shown that part of the ACF show morphologic and genetic features characteristic for the tumorigenic process and a recent investigation indicate that all ACF...... belong to the same unity with basically the same chances for gradual progressing into tumors. It may be speculated that the progression depends on promo- tional conditions in the environment....

  3. INFLUENCE OF SEX AND EGG WEIGHT ON VILLUS AND CRYPT SIZE OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN BROILER EMBRYOS AND CHICKS INFLUÊNCIA DO SEXO E PESO DOS OVOS SOBRE A ALTURA DOS VILOS E PROFUNDIDADE DAS CRIPTAS DO INTESTINO DELGADO DE EMBRIÕES E PINTOS DE CORTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclidez Braga Malheiros

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The influence of sex and egg weight on small intestine villi height and crypt depth was analyzed at 18 d of incubation, at hatching, and 7 days post-hatch. Amounts of duodenum. jejunum and ileum were removed and fixed in Bouin solution for 24 hours. After rinse in 5% ethanol, the amounts were dehydrated in a graded alcohol series up to absolute ethanol (70%, 80%, 90% and 100%, diafanized in absolute xylene and embedded in paraplast. Sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Dta were submitted to analysis of variance. And significant treatment means were separated by Tukey´s test (p<0.05. In all three analyzed ages, birds from heavy eggs presented the heaviest body weights. At 7 days of age, female chicks were heavier than males. In the jejunum, villi were higher in male embryos as compared to female embryos, whereas in the ileum, villi were higher in females as compared to males. In the three intestinal segments, crypts were deeper in males than in females. Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum villi height and jejunum crypt depth were higher in embryos derived from heavy eggs. At hatching, duodenal crypts were deeper in male than in female chicks, while jejunum and ileum crypts were deeper in female chicks. Newly-hatched chicks from heavy eggs presented the highest villi. In the three intestinal segments, crypt was shallower in chicks hatched from light as compared to heavy eggs. At 7 days of age, jejunum villi were higher in male than in female chicks, whereas crypts were deeper in females in all intestinal segments. Chicks hatched from heavy eggs presented the highest jejunum and ileum villi, and the deepest ileum depth. The results of this study show that body weight and the intestinal mucosa are influenced by sex and egg weight, and that females from heavy eggs were the heaviest chicks, and their jejunum and ileum mucosa presented the highest growth.

    KEY WORDS: Broiler embryos, chicks

  4. TrueCrypt加密容器快速检测技术%TrueCrypt Container Fast Detection Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈长达; 尤俊生; 钱镜洁

    2014-01-01

    TrueCrypt作为目前较为流行的免费开源加密软件之一,在不同平台上得到了广泛的应用。取证过程中经常要对磁盘中的加密文件检测以便进行进一步的解密分析,但由于TrueCrypt加密容器在解密之前不具备任何的签名、结构等特征,因此TrueCrypt加密容器的检测成为了取证过程中的一个难点。目前,还没有精确的TrueCrypt加密容器的检测方法,现有的检测技术主要是通过签名排除结合文件大小信息进行检测。文章在现有检测技术的基础上结合了卡方检验以及信息熵的理论方法,提出了一种TrueCrypt加密容器快速检测技术。该技术不仅能够快速的检测加密容器,而且和现有的检测方法相比检测精确度更高。%TrueCrypt as one of the popular free open source encryption software has been widely applied on different platforms. Forensics process often to detected encrypted ifle for further decrypt and analysis, but TrueCrypt container has no signature and structure, so it is a dififcult to detect TrueCrypt container. In view of the TrueCrypt container ifle, there is no accurate detection method, the available technology is signature rule out combined ifle size limit to detect TrueCrypt container. In this paper, on the basis of the existing detection technology, combined with chi-square test and information entropy theory, we came up with a fast TrueCrypt container detection technology. This method not only can quickly detect TrueCrypt container, but higher precision compared with the existing detection methods.

  5. Crypts of Hélène Cixous’s Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Debrauwere-Miller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Through a reading of Cixous’s Inside (1986, Or: Les lettres de mon père (1997, Reveries of the Wild Woman (2006 and Si Près (2007, this article explores the diverse allegories of “enclosure” in the figure of the crypt containing Cixous’s father. Part of the allegory entails a process of mourning not only for the defunct father but for Algeria as well where he is encrypted. The crypt (father’s cave or tomb as the place and the process of writing imposes the de-cryption of the secret cavities of Cixous’s texts where she is enclosed, inside the father’s cave, in the cavity of his tuberculous lungs, the imagined site from where she writes. The essay focuses on how, with the passage of time, the rapport with the dead father evolves in Cixous’s work and how the figuration of Algeria linked to the disease and death of the father undergoes transformations. The father is described in great detail in Inside and Or, Les lettres de mon père . However in these two early texts, Cixous invents a majestic father incarnating the Law and phallogocentric power as opposed to his condition of a Jew during the Vichy regime, which banned him from practicing his profession and left him powerless. But Cixous never recurs specifically to either identitarian (Jewish or political (Vichy and Algeria values. I assert in this essay that it will not be until her later texts that the father’s tuberculosis becomes a foreshadowing of a Jewish condition in occupied Algeria during the Vichy period.

  6. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  7. The specialised structure of crypt epithelium in the human palatine tonsil and its functional significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M E

    1994-08-01

    Material from 25 human palatine tonsils was studied by light microscopy, immunocytochemistry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Special attention was focused on the structure of the epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts in the context of its ascribed immunological functions. This epithelium was not uniform and contained patches of stratified squamous nonkeratinising epithelium and patches of reticulated sponge-like epithelium. The degree of reticulation of the epithelial cells and the infiltration of nonepithelial cells varied. Reticulated patches were associated with disruptions in the continuity of basement membrane, and often also with desquamation of the upper cell layers, and contained numerous small blood vessels. The epithelial cells showed considerable variation in their morphology when surrounded by infiltrating cells. The rearrangement of their cytoskeleton and redistribution of desmosomal contacts indicate the responsiveness and dynamic nature of such epithelium. Cytoplasmic glycogen granules, located in the upper strata, suggest the possibility of energy-demanding functions such as absorption and secretion. The numerous membrane-coating granules may have contributed to cell membrane thickening and possibly also to tonsillar mucosal protection. Some areas contained a few keratohyalin granules but there was little evidence of keratinisation. The presence, and sometimes the predominance, of nonepithelial cells was characteristic of the reticulated epithelium. T and B cells often infiltrated the whole epithelial thickness, and many plasma cells were located around intraepithelial vessels, while macrophages and interdigitating cells showed a patchy distribution. It is proposed that the major functions of the reticulated epithelium are: (1) to provide a favourable environment for the intimate contact between the effector cells of immune responses; (2) to facilitate direct transport of antigens; (3) to synthesise the secretory component

  8. Molecular mapping to species level of the tonsillar crypt microbiota associated with health and recurrent tonsillitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Jensen

    Full Text Available The human palatine tonsils, which belong to the central antigen handling sites of the mucosal immune system, are frequently affected by acute and recurrent infections. This study compared the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts in children and adults affected by recurrent tonsillitis with that of healthy adults and children with tonsillar hyperplasia. An in-depth 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing approach combined with a novel strategy that included phylogenetic analysis and detection of species-specific sequence signatures enabled identification of the major part of the microbiota to species level. A complex microbiota consisting of between 42 and 110 taxa was demonstrated in both children and adults. This included a core microbiome of 12 abundant genera found in all samples regardless of age and health status. Yet, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria species, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were almost exclusively detected in children. In contrast, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae was present in all samples. Obligate anaerobes like Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Fusobacterium were abundantly present in children, but the species diversity of Porphyromonas and Prevotella was larger in adults and included species that are considered putative pathogens in periodontal diseases, i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, and Tannerella forsythia. Unifrac analysis showed that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with a shift in the microbiota of the tonsillar crypts. Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus intermedius and Prevotella melaninogenica/histicola were associated with recurrent tonsillitis in adults, whereas species traditionally associated with acute tonsillitis like pyogenic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus were scarce. The findings suggest that recurrent tonsillitis is a polymicrobial infection in which interactions within consortia of taxa play an etiologic role. The study contributes to the human microbiome data, to the

  9. Evaluation of the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars diagnosed with mixed mycotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielonka Łukasz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the proliferative activity of immunocompetent cells in the jejunal and iliac lymph nodes of prepubertal female wild boars exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in naturally contaminated feed. The evaluation was performed with the use of the MTT assay and 2 mitogens: lipopolysaccharide (LPS and concanavalin A. Intensified proliferative processes in T and B lymphocytes were revealed. The mitogenic activity of LPS was more expressed in the lymphocytes of both iliac and jejunal lymph nodes in comparison with the control group. Proliferative activity was higher in iliac lymph nodes than in jejunal lymph nodes. A reverse trend was observed in the percentage of live cells, which was higher in jejunal lymph nodes during the evaluation of lymphocyte proliferation.

  10. Safer intestinal invagination for a solid pancre-atico-jejunal anastomosis in presence of a soft texture pancreatic remnant and non-dilated duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Giudici; Benedetta Pesi; Daniela Zambonin; Stefano Scaringi; Paolo Bechi; Giacomo Batignani

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis after pancreato-duodenectomy still represents the Achilles’ heel of the proce-dure: the failure of this anastomosis is relatively common and it is the main cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Studies have described different reconstruction strategies for the control of the development of post-operative pancreatic ifstula, but the strategy to obtain a safer pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis is still far from satisfaction. We report a novel variation of the invagination technique based on preliminary clinical experience in 8 patients who underwent pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis after pancreatoduodenectomy in our hepatobiliopancreatic center from 2008 to 2014. The varia-tion could obtain a safer intestinal invagination for a solid pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis even in the presence of soft pancreatic remnant.

  11. Safer intestinal invagination for a solid pancre-atico-jejunal anastomosis in presence of a soft texture pancreatic remnant and non-dilated duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Giudici; Benedetta Pesi; Daniela Zambonin; Stefano Scaringi; Paolo Bechi; Giacomo Batignani

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis after pancreato-duodenectomy still represents the Achilles’ heel of the proce-dure: the failure of this anastomosis is relatively common and it is the main cause of post-operative morbidity and mortality. Studies have described different reconstruction strategies for the control of the development of post-operative pancreatic ifstula, but the strategy to obtain a safer pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis is still far from satisfaction. We report a novel variation of the invagination technique based on preliminary clinical experience in 8 patients who underwent pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis after pancreatoduodenectomy in our hepatobiliopancreatic center from 2008 to 2014. The varia-tion could obtain a safer intestinal invagination for a solid pancreatico-jejunal anastomosis even in the presence of soft pancreatic remnant.

  12. L-Glutamate supplementation improves small intestinal architecture and enhances the expressions of jejunal mucosa amino acid receptors and transporters in weaning piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lin

    Full Text Available L-Glutamate is a major oxidative fuel for the small intestine. However, few studies have demonstrated the effect of L-glutamate on the intestinal architecture and signaling of amino acids in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary L-glutamate supplementation on the intestinal architecture and expressions of jejunal mucosa amino acid receptors and transporters in weaning piglets. A total of 120 weaning piglets aged 35 ± 1 days with an average body weight at 8.91 ± 0.45 kg were randomly allocated to two treatments with six replicates of ten piglets each, fed with diets containing 1.21% alanine, or 2% L-glutamate. L-Glutamate supplementation increased the activity of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT in the jejunal mucosa. Also, the mRNA expression level of jejunal mucosa glutamine synthetase (GS was increased by L-glutamate supplementation. The height of villi in duodenal and jejunal segments, and the relative mRNA expression of occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1 in jejunal mucosa were increased by dietary L-glutamate supplementation. L-Glutamate supplementation increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine and threonine. L-Glutamate supplementation also increased the relative mRNA expression of the jejunal mucosa Ca(2+-sensing receptor (CaR, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1 and metabotropic glutamate receptor 4 (mGluR4, and neutral amino acid transporter B(0-like (SLC1A5 in the jejunal mucosa. These findings suggest that dietary addition of 2% L-glutamate improves the intestinal integrity and influences the expression of amino acid receptors and transporters in the jejunum of weaning, which is beneficial for the improvement of jejunal nutrients for digestion and absorption.

  13. Generation of L cells in mouse and human small intestine organoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Natalia; Reimann, Frank; Bartfeld, Sina;

    2014-01-01

    functional L cells from three-dimensional cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids selectively increase the number of L cells, resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by the upregulation of transcription factors associated with the endocrine......Upon a nutrient challenge, L cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate...... lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  14. A two-dimensional model of the colonic crypt accounting for the role of the basement membrane and pericryptal fibroblast sheath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara-Jane Dunn

    Full Text Available The role of the basement membrane is vital in maintaining the integrity and structure of an epithelial layer, acting as both a mechanical support and forming the physical interface between epithelial cells and the surrounding connective tissue. The function of this membrane is explored here in the context of the epithelial monolayer that lines the colonic crypt, test-tube shaped invaginations that punctuate the lining of the intestine and coordinate a regular turnover of cells to replenish the epithelial layer every few days. To investigate the consequence of genetic mutations that perturb the system dynamics and can lead to colorectal cancer, it must be possible to track the emerging tissue level changes that arise in the crypt. To that end, a theoretical crypt model with a realistic, deformable geometry is required. A new discrete crypt model is presented, which focuses on the interaction between cell- and tissue-level behaviour, while incorporating key subcellular components. The model contains a novel description of the role of the surrounding tissue and musculature, based upon experimental observations of the tissue structure of the crypt, which are also reported. A two-dimensional (2D cross-sectional geometry is considered, and the shape of the crypt is allowed to evolve and deform. Simulation results reveal how the shape of the crypt may contribute mechanically to the asymmetric division events typically associated with the stem cells at the base. The model predicts that epithelial cell migration may arise due to feedback between cell loss at the crypt collar and density-dependent cell division, an hypothesis which can be investigated in a wet lab. This work forms the basis for investigation of the deformation of the crypt structure that can occur due to proliferation of cells exhibiting mutant phenotypes, experiments that would not be possible in vivo or in vitro.

  15. Effects of long-term ethanol consumption on jejunal lipase and disaccharidase activities in male and female rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-Chang Huang; Jiun-Rong Chen; Chieh-Chung Liu; Kung-Tung Chen; Ming-Jer Shieh; Suh-Ching Yang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of long-term ethanol consumption on jejunal lipase and disaccharidase (sucrase, maltase,and lactase) activities in rats and its gender difference. METHODS: Age-matched male and female Wistar rats were fed control or ethanol-containing liquid diets for 12 wk following the Lieber-DeCarli model. According to both theplasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, 40 rats were divided into four groups as follows: male control group (MC), male ethanol group (ME), female control group (FC), and female ethanol group (FE).RESULTS: After ethanol feeding for 12 wk, the results revealed that plasma AST and ALT activities of group MEwere significantly increased by 58% and 92%, respectively,than those of group MC (P<0.05). Similarly, plasma AST and ALT activities of group FE were also significantly increased by 61% and 188%, respectively, than those of group FC (P<0.05). Fat accumulation was observed in both ethanol treated groups, while fatty changes were more severe in group FE than those in group ME. The induction of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) was obviously seen in group ME and group FE, but was not detected in group MC and group FC. Jejunal lipase activity of group ME was significantly increased by 1.25-fold than that of group MC (P<0.05). In contrast to, sucrase, maltase, and lactase activities of group ME were significantly decreased by 63%, 62% and 67%, respectively, than those of group MC (P<0.05). Similarly, activities of these three enzymes of group FE were also significantly decreased by 43%, 46% and 52%, respectively, than those of group FC (P<0.05).There were no significant epithelial changes of the duodenal mucosa in any group.CONCLUSION: Long-term ethanol consumption significantly can increase jejunal lipase and decrease jejunal disaccharidase activities in both male and female rats.

  16. A Jejunal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour: an unusual cause of massive acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage with emphasis on pre intervention MDCT

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) most commonly arise from the stomach followed by the small intestine and are common cause for an occult gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We present an unusual case of a jejunal GIST, which presented as an acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage. This case highlights the importance of an intravenous contrast enhanced abdominal CT with neutral oral contrast for the assessment of gastrointestinal bleeding where non-obstructive enhancing tumour, active extravasati...

  17. The complex arrangement of an "aorto-jejunal paraduodenal" fossa, as revealed by dissection of human posterior parietal peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberini, Fabrizio; Zani, Augusto; Ripani, Maurizio; Di Nitto, Valentina; Brunone, Francesca

    2007-01-01

    Peritoneal fossae derive from normal or anomalous coalescence of the peritoneum during fetal development, or from the course of retroperitoneal vessels. Clinically, internal abdominal hernias may be housed inside these fossae. In this report from an autopsy, a singular peritoneal fossa was delimited superiorly by an arcuate serous fold, raised up by the inferior mesenteric vein, and infero-posteriorly by two (right and left) avascular folds, extending from the abdominal aorta to the jejunum. The right fold reached the duodeno-jejunal flexure, which was located on the right side of the aorta. The left fold subdivided into two, anterior and posterior, secondary folds. The anterior fold reached the superior edge of the first jejunal loop, and the posterior fold turned medially to connect with the inferior edge of the proximal limb of the same loop. This fossa consisted of three recesses: superior, Located behind the subserous vascular arch, antero-inferior and postero-inferior, separated by interposition of the left posterior secondary fold, between the jejunum and aorta. The complex arrangement of this fossa suggests that it might have originated from a coalescence arising beyond the duodeno-jejunal flexure and including the first jejunal loop, and from the subserous course of the inferior mesenteric vein. Because of displacement to the right of the flexure, processes of coalescence in a location normally occupied by the ascending duodenum might have occurred in a similar pattern for the jejunum, involving the mesoduodenum and the proximal part of the mesentery. Labyrinthine fossae like this might cause strangulation of internal abdominal hernias and hinder intraoperative maneuvers.

  18. Emergency arterial embolization of upper gastrointestinal and jejunal tumors: An analysis of 12 patients with severe bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandrino, F; Tettoni, S M; Gallesio, I; Summa, M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with severe bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 74 years±14 (SD); range: 54-86 years) with severe bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, with failed endoscopic treatment not eligible for emergency surgery were treated by emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization. The bleeding cause was gastric tumor in 7 patients, duodenal tumor in 4 patients and jejunal tumor in one patient. Procedure details and follow-up were reviewed. Twelve embolization procedures were performed using various embolic agents. Embolization was achieved and bleeding was stopped in all patients. Five patients underwent surgery within the 30 days following embolization. In the remaining 7 patients, no bleeding occurred at 1 month follow-up in 6 patients and bleeding recurred in one patient at 1 month. In this later patient, endoscopic treatment was successful. The results of our study suggest that transcatheter arterial embolization is safe and effective in patients with severe arterial bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. In some patients, transcatheter arterial embolization can be used as a bridge to surgery. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A Case of Laparoscopic Resection for Carcinoma of the Gastric Remnant following Proximal Gastrectomy Reconstructed with Jejunal Interposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhito Yajima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old Japanese man had a history of proximal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach in 2007. Our usual treatment strategy for early gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach in 2007 was open proximal gastrectomy reconstructing by jejunal interposition with a 10 cm single loop. Upper gastrointestinal fiberscopy for annual follow-up revealed a type 0-IIc-shaped tumor with ulcer scar, 4.0 cm in size, located in the gastric remnant near the jejunogastrostomy. A clinical diagnosis of cancer of the gastric remnant, clinical T1b(SMN0M0, Stage IA, following the proximal gastrectomy was made and a laparoscopic approach was selected because of the cancer’s early stage. Remnant total gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out with five ports by a pneumoperitoneal method. Complete resection of the reconstructed jejunum was undergone along with the jejunal mesentery. Reconstruction by the Roux-en-Y method via the antecolic route was selected. Total operative time was 395 min and blood loss was 40 mL. Our patient was the first successful case of resection for carcinoma of the gastric remnant following proximal gastrectomy reconstructed with jejunal interposition in a laparoscopic approach.

  20. A Case of Laparoscopic Resection for Carcinoma of the Gastric Remnant following Proximal Gastrectomy Reconstructed with Jejunal Interposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yuu, Ken; Oohinata, Ryouki; Amaki, Misato; Kohira, Yoshinori; Natsume, Souichiro; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old Japanese man had a history of proximal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer located in the upper third of the stomach in 2007. Our usual treatment strategy for early gastric cancer in the upper third of the stomach in 2007 was open proximal gastrectomy reconstructing by jejunal interposition with a 10 cm single loop. Upper gastrointestinal fiberscopy for annual follow-up revealed a type 0-IIc-shaped tumor with ulcer scar, 4.0 cm in size, located in the gastric remnant near the jejunogastrostomy. A clinical diagnosis of cancer of the gastric remnant, clinical T1b(SM)N0M0, Stage IA, following the proximal gastrectomy was made and a laparoscopic approach was selected because of the cancer's early stage. Remnant total gastrectomy with D1 plus lymphadenectomy was carried out with five ports by a pneumoperitoneal method. Complete resection of the reconstructed jejunum was undergone along with the jejunal mesentery. Reconstruction by the Roux-en-Y method via the antecolic route was selected. Total operative time was 395 min and blood loss was 40 mL. Our patient was the first successful case of resection for carcinoma of the gastric remnant following proximal gastrectomy reconstructed with jejunal interposition in a laparoscopic approach. PMID:27034881

  1. Adenocarcinoma arising from jejunal ectopic pancreas mimicking peritoneal metastasis from colon cancer: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi; Numata, Masakatsu; Sugimoto, Shinya; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2015-12-01

    Adenocarcinoma arising from jejunal ectopic pancreas is very rare. We report a case of a 69-year-old female with adenocarcinoma arising from jejunal ectopic pancreas after resection of advanced colon cancer. She underwent right hemicolectomy for advanced ascending colon cancer (ypT3N0M0, stage IIA) after chemotherapy. Two and half years after colectomy, her tumor markers were elevated, and computed tomography revealed a mass measuring 20 × 20 mm in the small intestine, having an abnormal uptake of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)FDG-PET). Double-balloon enteroscopy revealed a submucosal tumor in the jejunum, and histopathology of biopsy specimens from that lesion showed ectopic pancreas without malignancy. Therefore, peritoneal metastasis from colon cancer concomitant with ectopic pancreas or adenocarcinoma arising from ectopic pancreas was considered as a differential diagnosis. She underwent laparoscopic jejunectomy. Pathological examination revealed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma arising from jejunal ectopic pancreas, not peritoneal metastasis from colon cancer. Even if histopathology of the biopsy specimen shows ectopic pancreas without malignancy, adenocarcinoma arising from ectopic pancreas should be considered when the tumor markers are elevated or the lesion has an abnormal uptake of (18)FDG.

  2. The effect of L-glutamine on salt and water absorption: a jejunal perfusion study in cholera in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, F P; Banik, A K; Nath, S K; Patra, F C; Wahed, M A; Darmaun, D; Desjeux, J F; Mahalanabis, D

    1996-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of an L-glutamine solution on jejunal salt and water absorption in cholera patients. A randomized double-blind jejunal perfusion study. International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh. Nineteen adults with acute cholera. Perfusion of balanced salt solutions alternated with defined glucose salt solution and glutamine glucose salt or alanine glucose salt solutions. Net jejunal water and sodium secretion. Perfusion of glutamine in the presence of glucose significantly reduced net water secretion (JnetH2O = -2.6 +/- 1.3 ml/h/cm) and also reduced net sodium secretion (JnetNa = -213 +/- 153 mumol/h/cm). Similar results were observed during the perfusion of solutions that contained alanine in addition to glucose (JnetH2O = -4.2 +/- 1.1 ml/h/cm and JnetNa = -444 U +/- 142 mumol/h/cm, respectively) or glucose alone (JnetH2O = -4.3 +/- 1.7 ml/h/cm and JnetNa = -452 +/- 212 mumol/h/cm, respectively). In addition, a higher basal secretion was associated with a greater stimulation of water absorption (F = 17, P solution warrants further study.

  3. Ground-penetrating radar investigation of St. Leonard's Crypt under the Wawel Cathedral (Cracow, Poland) - COST Action TU1208

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Andrea; Pajewski, Lara; Dimitriadis, Klisthenis; Avlonitou, Pepi; Konstantakis, Yannis; Musiela, Małgorzata; Mitka, Bartosz; Lambot, Sébastien; Żakowska, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    The Wawel ensemble, including the Royal Castle, the Wawel Cathedral and other monuments, is perched on top of the Wawel hill immediately south of the Cracow Old Town, and is by far the most important collection of buildings in Poland. St. Leonard's Crypt is located under the Wawel Cathedral of St Stanislaus BM and St Wenceslaus M. It was built in the years 1090-1117 and was the western crypt of the pre-existing Romanesque Wawel Cathedral, so-called Hermanowska. Pope John Paul II said his first Mass on the altar of St. Leonard's Crypt on November 2, 1946, one day after his priestly ordination. The interior of the crypt is divided by eight columns into three naves with vaulted ceiling and ended with one apse. The tomb of Bishop Maurus, who died in 1118, is in the middle of the crypt under the floor; an inscription "+ MAVRVS EPC MCXVIII +" indicates the burial place and was made in 1938 after the completion of archaeological works which resulted in the discovery of this tomb. Moreover, the crypt hosts the tombs of six Polish kings and heroes: Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), Jan III Sobieski (King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Commander at the Battle of Vienna), Maria Kazimiera (Queen of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and consort to Jan III Sobieski), Józef Poniatowski (Prince of Poland and Marshal of France), Tadeusz Kościuszko (Polish general, revolutionary and a Brigadier General in the American Revolutionary War) and Władysław Sikorski (Prime Minister of the Polish Government in Exile and Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Armed Forces). The adjacent six crypts and corridors host the tombs of the other Polish kings, from Sigismund the Old to Augustus II the Strong, their families and several Polish heroes. In May 2015, the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" organised and offered a Training School (TS) on the

  4. Stress and strain analysis of contractions during ramp distension in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2011-07-28

    Previous studies have demonstrated morphological and biomechanical remodeling in the intestine proximal to an obstruction. The present study aimed to obtain stress and strain thresholds to initiate contraction and the maximal contraction stress and strain in partially obstructed guinea pig jejunal segments. Partial obstruction and sham operations were surgically created in mid-jejunum of male guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7 and 14 days. Animals not being operated on served as normal controls. The segments were used for no-load state, zero-stress state and distension analyses. The segment was inflated to 10 cmH(2)O pressure in an organ bath containing 37°C Krebs solution and the outer diameter change was monitored. The stress and strain at the contraction threshold and at maximum contraction were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. Young's modulus was determined at the contraction threshold. The muscle layer thickness in obstructed intestinal segments increased up to 300%. Compared with sham-obstructed and normal groups, the contraction stress threshold, the maximum contraction stress and the Young's modulus at the contraction threshold increased whereas the strain threshold and maximum contraction strain decreased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05 and 0.01). In conclusion, in the partially obstructed intestinal segments, a larger distension force was needed to evoke contraction likely due to tissue remodeling. Higher contraction stresses were produced and the contraction deformation (strain) became smaller. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella nativa infections induce similar gene expression profiles in rat jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Näreaho, Anu; Lindén, Jere; Valo, Erkka; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Jokelainen, Pikka; Sukura, Antti

    2013-10-01

    Trichinella spiralis causes a significantly higher parasite burden in rat muscle than Trichinella nativa. To assess whether the difference in infectivity is due to the early intestinal response, we analyzed gene expression changes in the rat jejunum during Trichinella infection with a whole-genome microarray. The rats were euthanized on day five of infection, and their jejunal mucosa was sampled for microarray analysis. In addition, intestinal histology and hematology were examined. Against our expectations, the gene expression changes were similar in both T.nativa- and T. spiralis-infected groups. The two groups were hence pooled, and in the combined Trichinella-infected group, 551 genes were overexpressed and 427 underexpressed when compared to controls (false discovery rate ≤ 0.001 and fold change at least 2 in either direction). Pathway analysis identified seven pathways significantly associated with Trichinella infection (p Trichinella infection caused complex gene expression changes that indicate a host response to tissue damage in the mucosa of the jejunum, but the changes were not notably dependent on the studied species of Trichinella.

  6. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  7. Isolated Jejunal Perforation Following Bicycle Handlebar Injury in Adults: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The small intestine is the third in frequency intraperitoneal organ which is injured after blunt trauma of the abdomen. In most of the cases, this type of injuries is accompanied by other injuries, which make it more difficult to diagnose. Failure of diagnosis and delay in treating these injuries significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the handlebar of the bike are common in children. Such injuries can cause injury to both solid and hollow abdominal viscera. Unlike children, adults’ abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the bike’s handlebar are extremely rare. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our department due to progressively abdominal pain after an accident with the handlebar of his bike. The subsequent CT scan after per os administration of contrast medium revealed the presence of free intraperitoneal contrast. It is a rare case of jejunal perforation after flipping the handlebar of the bicycle which was treated by partial removal of the injured part of jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time we describe such an injury with this mechanism to an adult.

  8. Isolated jejunal perforation following bicycle handlebar injury in adults: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neofytou, Kyriakos; Michailidou, Maria; Petrou, Athanasios; Loizou, Sakis; Andreou, Charalampos; Pedonomou, Marios

    2013-01-01

    The small intestine is the third in frequency intraperitoneal organ which is injured after blunt trauma of the abdomen. In most of the cases, this type of injuries is accompanied by other injuries, which make it more difficult to diagnose. Failure of diagnosis and delay in treating these injuries significantly increase the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the handlebar of the bike are common in children. Such injuries can cause injury to both solid and hollow abdominal viscera. Unlike children, adults' abdominal visceral injuries after flipping the bike's handlebar are extremely rare. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our department due to progressively abdominal pain after an accident with the handlebar of his bike. The subsequent CT scan after per os administration of contrast medium revealed the presence of free intraperitoneal contrast. It is a rare case of jejunal perforation after flipping the handlebar of the bicycle which was treated by partial removal of the injured part of jejunum and end-to-end anastomosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time we describe such an injury with this mechanism to an adult.

  9. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  10. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Elisângela Olegário; Gerez, Juliana Rubira; do Carmo Drape, Thalisie; Bracarense, Ana Paula F R L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM), DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM), and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83%) and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3%) expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7%) and Cox-2 (48%) expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47%) compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  11. Changes of microvascular architecture, ultrastructure and permeability of rat jejunal villi at different ages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Min Chen; Jin-Sheng Zhang; Xiang-Lin Duan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the changes of microvascular architecture, ultrastructure and permeability of rat jejunal villi at different ages.METHODS: Microvascular corrosion casting, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Evans blue infiltration technique were used in this study.RESULTS: The intestinal villous plexus of adult rats consisted of arterioles, capillary network and venules. The marginal capillary extended to the base part of the villi and connected to the capillary networks of adjacent villi. In newborn rats,the villous plexus was rather simple, and capillary network was not formed. The villous plexus became cone-shaped and was closely arrayed in ablactation rats. In adult rats,the villous plexus became tongue-shaped and was enlarged both in height and width. In aged rats, the villous plexus shrank in volume and became shorter and narrower. The diametral ratio of villous arteriole to villous venule increased as animals became older. The number of endothelial holes,the thickness of basal membrane and the permeability of microvasculature were increased over the entire course of development from newborn period to aged period.CONCLUSION: The digestive and absorptive functions of the rat jejunum at different ages are highly dependent upon the state of villous microvascular architecture and permeability, and blood circulation is enhanced by collateral branches such as marginal capillary, through which blood is drained to the capillary networks of adjacent villi.

  12. [Digestive bleeding due to jejunal diverticula: A case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake-Siemsen, Jorge Cuauhtémoc; Kortright-Farías, Marisol; Casale-Menier, Dante Rafael; Gámez-Araujo, Jesús

    2017-01-02

    Bleeding from the small bowel is a rare pathology that represents 5-10% of gastrointestinal bleeding; 0.06% to 5% of cases are due to the presence of diverticula of the small intestine. The majority of diverticula are asymptomatic and present symptoms when there is a complication. We present the case of a 53-year-old male with a history of chronic renal failure and hypertension. While he was hospitalized due to cerebrovascular disease he recurrently presented lower gastrointestinal bleeding that required blood transfusion on several occasions. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding and colon bleeding were ruled out by endoscopy. It was not until an arteriography was performed that we identified bleeding at proximal jejunum level, and therefore we performed a laparotomy. We present the studies and management that the patient underwent. Although jejunal diverticula are rare, they must be included in the differential diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding when present in a patient. Arteriography is a study of great use in locating the site, provided the bleeding is more than 0.5ml/minute. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. Key details of the duodenal-jejunal bypass in type 2 diabetes mellitus rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ou Han; Li-Hong Zhou; Su-Jun Cheng; Chun Song; Chun-Fang Song

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate which surgical techniques and perioperative regimens yielded the best survival rates for diabetic rats undergoing gastric bypass.METHODS: We performed Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with reserved gastric volume, a procedure in which gastrointestinal continuity was reestablished while ex?cluding the entire duodenum and proximal jejunal loop. We observed the procedural success rate, long-term survival, and histopathological sequelae associated with a number of technical modifications. These included: use of anatomical markers to precisely identify Treitz's ligament; careful dissection along surgical planes; care?ful attention to the choice of regional transection sites; reconstruction using full-thickness anastomoses; use of a minimally invasive procedure with prohemostatic pre-treatment and hemorrhage control; prevention of hypo-thermic damage; reduction in the length of the proce?dure; and accelerated surgical recovery using fast-track surgical modalities such as perioperative permissive underfeeding and goal-directed volume therapy.RESULTS: The series of modifications we adopted reduced operation time from 110.02 ± 12.34 min to 78.39 ± 7.26 min (P < 0.01), and the procedural success rate increased from 43.3% (13/30) to 90% (18/20) (P < 0.01), with a long-term survival of 83.3% (15/18) (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Using a number of fast-track and damage control surgical techniques, we have success?fully established a stable model of gastric bypass in diabetic rats.

  14. [Study on detoxication of euphorbia pekinensis radix processed with vinegar on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu-Dan; Yan, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Li; Ding, An-Wei

    2014-03-01

    To compare the difference of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar in the toxicity on rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6, and make a preliminary study on the mechanism of detoxication of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar. With rat small intestinal crypt epithelial cells IEC-6 as the study object, the MTT method was adopted to detect the effect of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix before and after being processed with vinegar on IEC-6 cell activity. The morphology of cells were observed by the inverted microscope. The down-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of enterocytes caused by the vinegar processing was analyzed by using the high content screening. Compared with the negative control group, the proliferation inhibition experiment showed that Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix showed a relatively high intestinal cell toxicity (P IEC-6 cell membrane, so as to provide a basis for further explanation of the detoxication mechanism of Euphorbia Pekinensis Radix processed with vinegar.

  15. Influence of Different Diets on Development of DMH-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci and Colon Tumor Incidence in Wistar Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E.; Thorup, I.; Meyer, Otto A.

    1995-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate certain dietary factors known to affect the development of colon cancer for their ability to modulate aberrant crypt foci (ACI;). Male Wistar rats were initiated with oral noses of dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH-2HCl, 20 mg/kg body wt) once.......05) in the total number of ACF and number of small and medium ACF was observed. The values of large and extra-large foci reflected the same effect of diets on ACF. The results indicate that tumors in the group fed the diet high in refined carbohydrates were more prominent and occurred with a higher incidence....... However, the difference is based on few tumors and is not statistically significant. Our results do not show that the number of ACF and crypt multiplicity are conclusively predictive for tumor outcome with the present protocol, which did not include parameters to differentiate between ACF at the cellular...

  16. Knockout of the 15 kDa selenoprotein protects against chemically-induced aberrant crypt formation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra A Tsuji

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that selenium has cancer preventive properties that are largely mediated through selenoproteins. Our previous observations demonstrated that targeted down-regulation of the 15 kDa selenoprotein (Sep15 in murine colon cancer cells resulted in the reversal of the cancer phenotype. The present study investigated the effect of Sep15 knockout in mice using a chemically-induced colon cancer model. Homozygous Sep15 knockout mice, and wild type littermate controls were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg. Sep15 knockout mice developed significantly (p<0.001 fewer aberrant crypt foci than controls demonstrating that loss of Sep15 protects against aberrant crypt foci formation. Dietary selenium above adequate levels did not significantly affect aberrant crypt foci formation in Sep15 knockout mice. To investigate molecular targets affected by loss of Sep15, gene expression patterns in colonic mucosal cells of knockout and wild type mice were examined using microarray analysis. Subsequent analyses verified that guanylate binding protein-1 (GBP-1 mRNA and protein expression were strongly upregulated in Sep15 knockout mice. GBP-1, which is expressed in response to interferon-γ, is considered to be an activation marker during inflammatory diseases, and up-regulation of GBP-1 in humans has been associated with a highly significant, increased five-year survival rate in colorectal cancer patients. In agreement with these studies, we observed a higher level of interferon-γ in plasma of Sep15 knockout mice. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time, that Sep15 knockout mice are protected against chemically-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and that Sep15 appears to have oncogenic properties in colon carcinogenesis in vivo.

  17. Duodenal crypt health following exposure to Cr(VI): Micronucleus scoring, γ-H2AX immunostaining, and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Chad M.; Wolf, Jeffrey C.; Elbekai, Reem H.; Paranjpe, Madhav G.; Seiter, Jennifer M.; Chappell, Mark A.; Tappero, Ryan V.; Suh, Mina; Proctor, Deborah M.; Bichteler, Anne; Haws, Laurie C.; Harris, Mark A.

    2015-08-01

    Lifetime exposure to high concentrations of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water results in intestinal damage and an increase in duodenal tumors in B6C3F1 mice. To assess whether these tumors could be the result of a direct mutagenic or genotoxic mode of action, we conducted a GLP-compliant 7-day drinking water study to assess crypt health along the entire length of the duodenum. Mice were exposed to water (vehicle control), 1.4, 21, or 180 ppm Cr(VI) via drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Crypt enterocytes in Swiss roll sections were scored as normal, mitotic, apoptotic, karyorrhectic, or as having micronuclei. A single oral gavage of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide served as a positive control for micronucleus induction. Exposure to 21 and 180 ppm Cr(VI) significantly increased the number of crypt enterocytes. Micronuclei and γ-H2AX immunostaining were not elevated in the crypts of Cr(VI)-treated mice. In contrast, treatment with cyclophosphamide significantly increased numbers of crypt micronuclei and qualitatively increased γ-H2AX immunostaining. Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microscopy revealed the presence of strong Cr fluorescence in duodenal villi, but negligible Cr fluorescence in the crypt compartment. Together, these data indicate that Cr(VI) does not adversely effect the crypt compartment where intestinal stem cells reside, and provide additional evidence that the mode of action for Cr(VI)-induced intestinal cancer in B6C3F1 mice involves chronic villous wounding resulting in compensatory crypt enterocyte hyperplasia.

  18. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  19. Azoxymethane-induced rat aberrant crypt foci: Relevance in studying chemoprevention of colon cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jayadev Raju

    2008-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colon cancer involves sequential and multistep progression of epithelial cells initiated to a cancerous state with defined precancerous intermediaries.Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) represent the earliest identifiable intermediate precancerous lesions during colon carcinogenesis in both laboratory animals and humans.ACF are easily induced by colon-specific carcinogens in rodents and can be used to learn more about the process of colon carcinogenesis.For over two decades,since its first discovery,azoxymethane(AOM)-induced rodent ACF have served as surrogate biomarkers in the screening of various anticarcinogens and carcinogens.Several dietary constituents and phytochemicals have been tested for their colon cancer chemopreventive efficacy using the ACF system.There has been substantial effort in defining and refining ACF in terms of understanding their molecular make-up,and extensive research in this field is currently in progress.In chemoprevention studies,AOM-induced rat ACF have been very successful as biomarkers,and have provided several standardized analyses of data.There have been several studies that have reported that ACF data do not correlate to actual colon tumor outcome,however,and hence there has been an ambiguity about their role as biomarkers.The scope of this mini-review is to provide valuable insights and limitations of AOM-induced rat ACF as biomarkers in colon cancer chemoprevention studies.The role of the dynamics and biological heterogeneity of ACF is critical in understanding them as biomarkers in chemoprevention studies.

  20. Mast cells in Canine parvovirus-2-associated enteritis with crypt abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemeskel, M W; Saliki, J T; Blas-Machado, U; Whittington, L

    2013-11-01

    The role of mast cells (MCs) in allergic reactions and parasitic infections is well established. Their involvement in host immune response against bacterial and viral infections is reported. In this study, investigation is made to determine if MCs are associated with Canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2)-induced enteritis with crypt abscess (ECA). Mast cell count (MCC) was made on toluidine blue-stained intestinal sections from a total of 34 dogs. These included 16 dogs exhibiting ECA positive for CPV-2 and negative for Canine distemper virus and Canine coronavirus by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent antibody test, 12 dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and 6 non-ECA/non-IBD (control) dogs. The average total MCC per high-power field in ECA (40.8 ± 2.2) and IBD (24.7 ± 2.1) was significantly higher (P .05), MCC was also higher in ECA than in IBD. The present study for the first time has documented significantly increased MCs in CPV-2-associated ECA as was previously reported for IBD, showing that MCs may also play an important role in CPV-2-associated ECA. Further studies involving more CPV-infected dogs are recommended to substantiate the findings.

  1. Correspondence between flat aberrant crypt foci and mucin-depleted foci in rodent colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Paulsen, Jan Erik; Dolara, Piero; Alexander, Jan; Caderni, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    Flat aberrant crypt foci (flat ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are preneoplastic lesions identified in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents stained with methylene blue (MB) and high iron diamine-alcian blue (HID-AB), respectively. The correspondence between flat ACF and MDF in the same colon of Min mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) and of F344 rats treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was explored. The position of each flat ACF was recorded on a digitally constructed photographic map of the MB-stained colon. The same colons were then stained with HID-AB and the position of each MDF was compared with that of flat ACF. The fraction of coincident lesions, identified as both flat ACF and MDF with the two staining methods, was 57% and 42%, in the Min mice and F344 rats, respectively. Flat ACF or MDF not coincident with the two staining methods were either undetectable or ACF with one of the two methods. Flat ACF and MDF show considerable, but not total, overlap.

  2. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Pathway Changes with Intestinal Epithelial Cells Renewal Along Crypt-Villus Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huansheng Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Understanding the mechanism that involves in regulating epithelial cells renewal is the fundamental of regulating intestinal mucosa development and functions and related diseases. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR signaling pathway involves in controlling various major processes by integrating intracellular and extracellular cues. The present experiment was conducted to test the correlation between the mTOR signaling pathway and intestinal epithelial cells renewal along crypt-villus axis (CVA. Methods: Intestinal epithelial cells were sequentially isolated from the jejunum of piglets along CVA, and the amount or phosphorylation level of proteins involved in cell cycle, mTOR signaling pathway, gene expression, and the antioxidant capacity in the isolated cells were measured. Results: The results showed that the amount of proteins involved in cell cycle decreased from crypt to villus tip. The amount or phosphorylation level of proteins related to mTOR signaling pathway in intestinal epithelial cells mainly decreased during maturation along CVA. The amount of proteins involved in gene expression and the antioxidant capacity also decreased from crypt to the top of villi. Conclusions: These results indicate that the mTOR signaling pathway may be involved in regulating the intestinal epithelial cells renewal along CVA and it may partly through affecting the antioxidant capacity and gene expression of intestinal epithelial cells. Further histological verification is needed to confirm the results of the present experiments.

  3. Overlapping DNA Methylation Dynamics in Mouse Intestinal Cell Differentiation and Early Stages of Malignant Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forn, Marta; Díez-Villanueva, Anna; Merlos-Suárez, Anna; Muñoz, Mar; Lois, Sergi; Carriò, Elvira; Jordà, Mireia; Bigas, Anna; Batlle, Eduard; Peinado, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models of intestinal crypt cell differentiation and tumorigenesis have been used to characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying both processes. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark and plays an important role in cell identity and differentiation programs and cancer. To get insights into the dynamics of cell differentiation and malignant transformation we have compared the DNA methylation profiles along the mouse small intestine crypt and early stages of tumorigenesis. Genome-scale analysis of DNA methylation together with microarray gene expression have been applied to compare intestinal crypt stem cells (EphB2high), differentiated cells (EphB2negative), ApcMin/+ adenomas and the corresponding non-tumor adjacent tissue, together with small and large intestine samples and the colon cancer cell line CT26. Compared with late stages, small intestine crypt differentiation and early stages of tumorigenesis display few and relatively small changes in DNA methylation. Hypermethylated loci are largely shared by the two processes and affect the proximities of promoter and enhancer regions, with enrichment in genes associated with the intestinal stem cell signature and the PRC2 complex. The hypermethylation is progressive, with minute levels in differentiated cells, as compared with intestinal stem cells, and reaching full methylation in advanced stages. Hypomethylation shows different signatures in differentiation and cancer and is already present in the non-tumor tissue adjacent to the adenomas in ApcMin/+ mice, but at lower levels than advanced cancers. This study provides a reference framework to decipher the mechanisms driving mouse intestinal tumorigenesis and also the human counterpart. PMID:25933092

  4. Concerted actions of ameliorated colitis, aberrant crypt foci inhibition and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase induction by sonic hedgehog inhibitor led to prevention of colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangwan, Napapan; Kim, Yoon-Jae; Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Park, Jong-Min; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2016-03-15

    The sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling has been known to contribute to carcinogenesis in organ, where hedgehog exerted organogenesis and in cancers, which are developed based on mutagenic inflammation. Therefore, colitis-associated cancer (CAC) can be a good model to prove whether Shh inhibitors can be applied to prevent, as the efforts to discover potent anti-inflammatory agent are active to prevent CAC. Here, under the hypothesis that Shh inhibitors can prevent CAC, mouse model was generated to develop CAC by azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted carcinogenesis. Shh inhibitors, cerulenin and itraconazole were treated by oral gavage and the mice were sacrificed at early phase of 3 weeks and late phase of 16 weeks. Compared to control group, the number of aberrant crypt foci at 3 weeks and tumor incidence at 16 weeks were all significantly decreased with Shh inhibitor. Significant attenuations of macrophage infiltration accompanied with significant decreases of IL-6, COX-2, STAT3 and NF-κB as well as significant ameliorations of β-catenin nuclear translocation, cyclin D1 and CDK4 were imposed with Shh inhibitors. Especially, CAC was accompanied with significant cancellation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), but their levels were significantly preserved with Shh inhibitors. Among inflammatory mediators, significantly decreased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, regulated with repressed NF-κb and STAT3, were prominent with Shh inhibitor, whereas significant inductions of apoptosis were noted with Shh inhibitors. In conclusion, Shh inhibitors significantly prevented CAC covering either ameliorating oncogenic inflammation or suppressing tumor proliferation, especially supported with significant inhibition of IL-6 and STAT3 signaling, 15-PGDH preservation and apoptosis induction.

  5. Mucormicosis yeyunal en paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin Jejunal mucormycosis in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Madrigal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso de mucormicosis intestinal en un hombre de 46 años de edad, diagnosticado de enfermedad de Hodgkin clásica, estadio IV-B. Durante la primera fase de la quimioterapia, sufrió una hemorragia digestiva masiva secundaria a una úlcera yeyunal por zigomicosis tipo mucor, diagnosticada por biopsia endoscópica. El paciente fue tratado con antifúngicos y resección quirúrgica del intestino afectado. En la cirugía, se apreció una doble perforación yeyunal cubierta. El estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza confirmó el diagnóstico previo. Tras un año de seguimiento, el paciente está recuperado y su linfoma de Hodgkin en remisión completa. Tras una extensa revisión de la literatura, según nuestro conocimiento, este es el segundo caso publicado en la literatura de mucormicosis intestinal en un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin.We report a case of intestinal mucormycosis in a 46-year-old male diagnosed with classical Hodgkin's disease, IV-B stage. During the first phase of chemotherapy he had a massive digestive bleeding event secondary to a jejunal ulcer, and zygomicosis mucor-type was diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with antifungal drugs and surgical resection of the intestine involved. At surgery a double covered perforation of the jejunum was seen. Pathological examination confirmed the previous diagnosis. After one year of follow-up the patient is doing well, and his lymphoma is on remission. To our best knowledge this is the second case of intestinal mucormycosis in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma reported in the medical literature.

  6. Glycoprotein degradation in the blind loop syndrome: identification of glycosidases in jejunal contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizont, R

    1981-02-01

    Contents obtained from jejunum of normal controls, self-emptying and self-filling blind loop rats were analyzed for the presence of glycoprotein-degrading glycosidases. The blind loop syndrome was documented by the increased fat excretion and slower growth rate of self-filling blind loop rats 6 wk after surgery. With p-nitrophenylglycosides as substrate, the specific activity of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, a potential blood group A destroying glycosidase, was 0.90+/-0.40 mU/mg of protein. This level was 23-fold higher than the specific activity of normal controls. In partially purified self-filling blind loop contents, the activity of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was 9- to 70-fold higher than activities of self-emptying and normal controls. Antibiotic treatment with chloromycetin and polymyxin decreased 24-fold the glycosidase levels in self-filling blind loops. In experiments with natural substrate, the blood group A titer of a20,000g supernate from normal jejunal homogenates decreased 128-fold after 24-h incubation with blind loop contents. Normal contents failed to diminish the blood group reactivity of the natural substrate. Furthermore, blind loop contents markedly decreased the blood group A titer of isolated brush borders. Incubation between blind loop bacteria and mucosal homogenates or isolated brush borders labeled with d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine revealed increased production of labeled ether extractable organic acids. Likewise, intraperitoneal injection of d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine into self-filling blind loop rats resulted in incorporation of the label into luminal short chain fatty acids. These results suggest that glycosidases may provide a mechanism by which blind loop bacteria obtain sugars from intestinal glycoproteins. The released sugars are used and converted by bacteria into energy and organic acids. This use of the host's glycoproteins would allow blind loop bacteria to grow and survive within the lumen independent of exogenous sources.

  7. Transient ischemic jejunitis due to symptomatic isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection: case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOCAN, MIHAELA; JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; MOALE, MIHAI; CHIRA, ROMEO

    2017-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is one of the most common conditions encountered in the emergency department. The differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain is extensive and identifying the underlying etiology can be challenging. We report a case of acute transient ischemic jejunitis due to symptomatic isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection in a patient with no cardiovascular risk factors or autoimmune diseases. Symptomatic isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain usually treated in the surgical department. The patient had criteria for conservative treatment and rapidly recovered. We highlight a rare condition which should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

  8. Influence of dietary supplementation with flaxseed and lactobacilli on the cells of local innate immunity response in the jejunal mucosa in piglets after weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Stefan; Jonecova, Zuzana; Kruzliak, Peter; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Nemcova, Radomira

    2015-03-01

    A histological study was designed to determine the influence of flaxseed and/or lactobacilli inclusion in the diet of piglets from 10 days before to 21 days after weaning. The selected inflammatory cell population incidence in the piglet jejunal mucosa was investigated. Significantly higher numbers of myeloperoxidase-positive (Plactobacilli group was detected. In contrast, the number of CD163-positive cells in the flaxseed+lactobacilli group was significantly lower on the day of weaning (Plactobacilli alone during the first 3 days after weaning (Plactobacilli. The presence of lactobacilli in the diet had a stimulatory effect on goblet cell quantity in the epithelium (Plactobacilli group was the only significant difference (Plactobacilli on the cells of local innate immunity response in the jejunal mucosa in piglets after weaning might be linked with significant anti-inflammatory effects in the jejunal mucosa.

  9. Aberrant crypt foci and colon cancer: comparison between a short- and medium-term bioassay for colon carcinogenesis using dimethylhydrazine in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues M.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant crypt foci (ACF in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents are considered to be the earliest hallmark of colon carcinogenesis. In the present study the relationship between a short-term (4 weeks and medium-term (30 weeks assay was assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH in the rat. Six-week-old male Wistar rats were given subcutaneous injections of DMH (40 mg/kg twice a week for 2 weeks and killed at the end of the 4th or 30th week. ACF were scored for number, distribution pattern along the colon and crypt multiplicity in 0.1% methylene-blue whole-mount preparations. ACF were distinguished from normal crypts by their larger size and elliptical shape. The incidence, distribution and morphology of colon tumors were recorded. The majority of ACF were present in the middle and distal colon of DMH-treated rats and their number increased with time. By the 4th week, 91.5% ACF were composed of one or two crypts and 8.5% had three or more crypts, while by the 30th week 46.9% ACF had three or more crypts. Thus, a progression of ACF consisting of multiple crypts was observed from the 4th to the 30th week. Nine well-differentiated adenocarcinomas were found in 10 rats by the 30th week. Seven tumors were located in the distal colon and two in the middle colon. No tumor was found in the proximal colon. The present data indicate that induction of ACF by DMH in the short-term (4 weeks assay was correlated with development of well-differentiated adenocarcinomas in the medium-term (30 weeks assay.

  10. Perfuração de intestino delgado por doença diverticular jejunal Intestinal perforation in consequence of small intestine's diverticulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Moura Leal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Small Intestine's diverticulosis is an uncommon pathology of intestine. It's more evident at jejune and can be complicated by intestinal perforation, obstruction or diverticulitis, increasing the mortality. We describe a forty years old female patient that arrived at emergency service complained of diffuse abdominal pain. There aren't signals of peritonitis and the radiological evaluation showed small intestine's distension. Surgical intervention was performed revealing multiples diverticulums at jejune and intestinal perforation. The aim of this article is present a case of Small Intestine's diverticulosis and its complications that had precise intervention resulting in a favorable resolution.

  11. Long-segment, supercharged, pedicled jejunal flap for total esophageal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascioti, Anthony J; Hofstetter, Wayne L; Miller, Michael J; Rice, David C; Swisher, Stephen G; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Roth, Jack A; Putnam, J B; Smythe, W Roy; Feig, Barry W; Mansfield, Paul F; Pisters, Peter W T; Torres, Marla T; Walsh, Garrett L

    2005-11-01

    Many patients with cancer have limited esophageal reconstruction options when the stomach is unavailable as a replacement conduit or when long-segment discontinuity exists. Jejunum has been used as an alternative conduit, both as a pedicled or free flap interposition; however, reports of this are usually limited to short-segment repairs. Microvascular augmentation of a pedicled jejunal flap allows creation of a longer conduit, making it possible to replace the entire esophagus with jejunum. Few reports describe this technique in patients with cancer. We report our initial experience with "supercharged" pedicled jejunum as an alternative conduit for total esophageal reconstruction. Review of a prospectively collected departmental database was performed to identify those patients who underwent total esophageal reconstruction with supercharged pedicled jejunum. Data regarding their perioperative course and postoperative function were gathered from the prospectively collected clinical data, review of hospital records, and patient interviews. Total esophageal reconstruction with supercharged pedicled jejunum was attempted in 26 patients (age range, 37-74 years) between March 2000 and April 2004. Twenty-four of 26 patients were ultimately discharged with an intact supercharged pedicled jejunum flap, for an overall success rate of 92.3%. One patient experienced intraoperative flap loss caused by technical difficulties harvesting the flap and never had the flap interposed. One other flap loss occurred in the early postoperative period in a patient who had multisystem organ failure after a prolonged reconstruction. Cervical anastomotic leaks occurred in 19.2% (5/26) of the patients. Two midconduit leaks occurred that were suspicious for iatrogenic perforation from nasogastric tube placement; one required reoperation. One additional early reoperation was performed for cecal ischemia. There were no mortalities. Functional results were available in 95.4% (21/22) of the

  12. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alex Pasternak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs. In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  13. Dose-dependent increase and decrease in active glucose uptake in jejunal epithelium of broilers after acute exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Awad, Wageha A; Kröger, Susan; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of ethanol on gastrointestinal tract of chicken. In this study, we investigated the effects of low levels of ethanol on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of commercial broilers. Jejunal tissues from 35- to 39-day-old broilers were exposed to either 0 or 0.1% ethanol in Ussing chambers, and electrophysiological variables were monitored for 40 min. After 40 and 60 min of incubation, glucose (20 mM) and carbamoylcholine (200 μM), respectively, were introduced into the chambers. The absolute and percent increase in short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference (Vt) induced by glucose were increased significantly with 0.1% ethanol. There was no significant effect of 0.1% ethanol on carbamoylcholine-induced electrophysiological variables. To investigate if higher levels of ethanol have similar effects, we tested the effects of 0, 0.33, and 0.66% ethanol under similar experimental conditions until the glucose-addition step. Contrary to 0.1% ethanol, both the 0.33 and 0.66% ethanol levels significantly decreased the basal and glucose-induced Isc and Vt. Tissue conductivity remained unaffected in all cases. These results indicate that intestinal epithelia of chicken may be more sensitive to the effects of ethanol as compared with other species. This is the first report indicating dose-dependent increase and decrease in active glucose absorption in intestinal epithelia in the presence of ethanol.

  14. The inside mystery of jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhull, A K; Kaushal, V; Dhankhar, R; Atri, R; Singh, H; Marwah, N

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are malignant and rare form of soft tissue sarcoma of the digestive tract. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors is very low Kramer et al. 2005 Jejunal GISTs are extremely rare. Here we present a rare case of jejunal GIST with unusually large size at presentation. The patient presented with severe abdomen pain, exophytic growth, and dimorphic anemia. Surgical resection of the tumor was carried out, and operative findings revealed a 15 × 10 cm growth, arising from serosal surface of jejunum, at the antimesenteric surface. Diagnosis in this case was made by subjecting the resected specimen to immunohistochemical analysis. In view of large size of the resected tumor, and high-risk histopathological features, imatinib mesylate 400 mg once daily was given as adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient is asymptomatic without any evidence of tumor recurrence after six months of postoperative followup. Imatinib as such is recommended in metastatic, residual or recurrent cases of GISTs or which are surgically not removable; however, recent recommendations suggests the use of imatinib mesylate after radical surgery in high-risk cases, because it has shown a significant decrease in the recurrence rate, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has also approved the use of imatinib as adjuvant therapy after complete resection of localized, primary GIST.

  15. The Inside Mystery of Jejunal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Dhull

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are malignant and rare form of soft tissue sarcoma of the digestive tract. The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumors is very low Kramer et al. 2005 Jejunal GISTs are extremely rare. Here we present a rare case of jejunal GIST with unusually large size at presentation. The patient presented with severe abdomen pain, exophytic growth, and dimorphic anemia. Surgical resection of the tumor was carried out, and operative findings revealed a 15 × 10 cm growth, arising from serosal surface of jejunum, at the antimesenteric surface. Diagnosis in this case was made by subjecting the resected specimen to immunohistochemical analysis. In view of large size of the resected tumor, and high-risk histopathological features, imatinib mesylate 400 mg once daily was given as adjuvant chemotherapy. Patient is asymptomatic without any evidence of tumor recurrence after six months of postoperative followup. Imatinib as such is recommended in metastatic, residual or recurrent cases of GISTs or which are surgically not removable; however, recent recommendations suggests the use of imatinib mesylate after radical surgery in high-risk cases, because it has shown a significant decrease in the recurrence rate, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA has also approved the use of imatinib as adjuvant therapy after complete resection of localized, primary GIST.

  16. [Usefulness of endoscopically guided nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube placement in a case of aspiration pneumonia due to postgastrectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kosei; Totsuka, Osamu; Tamura, Jun'ichi

    2015-01-01

    A 79-year-old man with a history of gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction 27 years previously was admitted to our hospital due to recurrent pneumonia. Because he had dysphagia and had frequently developed pneumonia over the course of a year, enteral nutrition via nasogastric tube was initiated approximately six months before admission. The clinical and computed tomography findings showed that the cause of pneumonia was aspiration of tube feeding nutrients due to gastroesophageal reflux. To prevent gastroesophageal reflux, he was continuously kept in a 30-degree or greater reclining position. However, gastroesophageal reflux was seen at an injection rate of 50 ml/h or greater. After we inserted a nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube guided by endoscopy, gastroesophageal reflux, dumping syndrome and diarrhea were not seen up to an injection rate of 300 ml/h. Endoscopically guided nasogastric-jejunal feeding tube placement is a simple method and may be useful for patients with aspiration pneumonia due to postgastrectomy. Moreover, long-term postgastrectomy patients appear to tolerate the postopyloric injection of enteral nutrition. Because the number of elderly patients who have dysphagia with postgastrectomy is increasing, these findings provide a basis for treatment in elderly medical settings.

  17. Jejunal GIST causing acute massive gastrointestinal bleeding: role of multidetector row helical CT in the preoperative diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldoul, Sami; Moussi, Amir; Triki, Wissem; Baraket, Rym Bennaceur; Zaouche, Abdeljelil

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we describe a 34-year-old man with a jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) accompanied by an unusual severe haemorrhage. Because oesophagogastroduodenoscopy proved inconclusive in determining the source of the bleeding and also because of gradually dropping haemoglobin levels and persistence of the melena not allowing colonic preparation, colonoscopy was cancelled and a mesenteric angio-computed tomography (angio-CT) was deemed necessary. The results of this analysis showed a 5-cm heterogeneous mass located in the jejunal loop surrounded by abnormal arterial structures. This multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) appearance was highly suggestive of GIST. The patient then underwent an urgent laparotomy and, peroperative findings being compatible with angio-CT descriptions, a small-bowel resection was performed. The results of the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of GIST. Angio-CT helps define the size of GIST as well as its range and location and can be used as the primary routine test for patients suffering from lower-GI bleeding.

  18. Proliferation and mRNA expression of absorptive villous cell markers and mineral transporters in prolactin-exposed IEC-6 intestinal crypt cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerapornpuntakit, Jarinthorn; Wongdee, Kannikar; Thongbunchoo, Jirawan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-06-01

    During pregnancy and lactation, prolactin (PRL) enhances intestinal absorption of calcium and other minerals for fetal development and milk production. Although an enhanced absorptive efficiency is believed to mainly result from the upregulation of mineral transporters in the absorptive villous cells, some other possibilities, such as PRL-enhanced crypt cell proliferation and differentiation to increase the absorptive area, have never been ruled out. Here, we investigated cell proliferation and mRNA expression of mineral absorption-related genes in the PRL-exposed IEC-6 crypt cells. As expected, the cell proliferation was not altered by PRL. Inasmuch as the mRNA expressions of villous cell markers, including dipeptidylpeptidase-4, lactase and glucose transporter-5, were not increased, PRL was not likely to enhance crypt cell differentiation into the absorptive villous cells. In contrast to the previous findings in villous cells, PRL was found to downregulate the expression of calbindin-D(9k), claudin-3 and occludin in IEC-6 crypt cells, while having no effect on transient receptor potential vanilloid family channels-5/6, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA)-1b and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger-1 expression. In conclusion, IEC-6 crypt cells did not respond to PRL by increasing proliferation or differentiation into villous cells. The present results thus supported the previous hypothesis that PRL enhanced mineral absorption predominantly by increasing transporter expression and activity in the absorptive villous cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Apc Restoration Promotes Cellular Differentiation and Reestablishes Crypt Homeostasis in Colorectal Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dow, Lukas E; O'Rourke, Kevin P; Simon, Janelle; Tschaharganeh, Darjus F; van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans; Lowe, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated in the vast majority of human colorectal cancers (CRC) and leads to deregulated Wnt signaling. To determine whether Apc disruption is required for tumor maintenance, we developed a mouse model of CRC whereby Apc can be conditionally su

  20. Occult progression by Apc-deficient intestinal crypts as a target for chemoprevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Jared M; Schepers, Arnout G; Clevers, Hans; Shibata, Darryl; Liskay, R Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although Apc mutation is widely considered an initiating event in colorectal cancer, little is known about the earliest stages of tumorigenesis following sporadic Apc loss. Therefore, we have utilized a novel mouse model that facilitates the sporadic inactivation of Apc via frameshift reversion of C

  1. Diagnosis of bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine. Comparison of the 14C-D-xylose breath test and jejunal cultures in 60 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Bachmann, E

    1985-01-01

    Sixty consecutive patients suspected of having bacterial overgrowth of the small intestine (BOG) had aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures made of fasting upper jejunal fluid and also a 14C-D-xylose breath test (XBT). Culture-proven BOG was present in 23 patients. In another 15 patients...

  2. Rehabilitation program for prosthetic tracheojejunal voice production and swallowing function following circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy and neopharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijens, L.W.J.; Speijer, R.; Roodenburg, N.; Hilgers, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The case of a 68-year-old woman with postoperative speech and swallowing problems following a circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy and neopharyngeal reconstruction with a jejunal free flap is presented. The primary tumor was an extended papillary thyroid carcinoma (pT4N0M0). For vocal restoration,

  3. Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on colon aberrant crypts and breast tumors in a rat dual-organ tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, K W; Meline, B

    2001-01-01

    Cancers of the colon and breast are two of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. The present experiments were conducted to determine the influence of several dietary doses of grape seed proanthocyanidins on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis and azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in a dual-organ tumor model. In addition, the effects of the grape seed proanthocyanidins on liver cytochrome P-450 1A and 2E1 and glutathione S-transferase activities and on colonic ornithine decarboxylase activity were examined to determine possible mechanisms of action. Feeding female rats diets containing 0.1-1.0% grape seed proanthocyanidins was associated with a significant 72-88% inhibition of AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and a 20-56% inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the distal third of the colon. Feeding the grape proanthocyanidins resulted in no significant effect on the activity of liver cytochrome P-450 2E1. There was no effect of feeding these doses of proanthocyanidins on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. This lack of action on mammary tumorigenesis in part may be due to lack of effect of dietary proanthocyanidins on the liver carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P-450 1A and glutathione S-transferase. These results indicate that grape polyphenolics warrant further evaluation as potential colon cancer chemopreventive agents.

  4. Oral 5-fluorouracil colon-specific delivery through in vivo pellet coating for colon cancer and aberrant crypt foci treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, A; Elyagoby, A; Wong, T W

    2014-07-01

    In situ coating of 5-fluorouracil pellets by ethylcellulose and pectin powder mixture (8:3 weight ratio) in capsule at simulated gastrointestinal media provides colon-specific drug release in vitro. This study probes into pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of intra-capsular pellets coated in vivo in rats with reference to their site-specific drug release outcomes. The pellets were prepared by extrusion-spheronization technique. In vitro drug content, drug release, in vivo pharmacokinetics, local colonic drug content, tumor, aberrant crypt foci, systemic hematology and clinical chemistry profiles of coated and uncoated pellets were examined against unprocessed drug. In vivo pellet coating led to reduced drug bioavailability and enhanced drug accumulation at colon (179.13 μg 5-FU/g rat colon content vs 4.66 μg/g of conventional in vitro film-coated pellets at 15 mg/kg dose). The in vivo coated pellets reduced tumor number and size, through reforming tubular epithelium with basement membrane and restricting expression of cancer from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. Unlike uncoated pellets and unprocessed drug, the coated pellets eliminated aberrant crypt foci which represented a putative preneoplastic lesion in colon cancer. They did not inflict additional systemic toxicity. In vivo pellet coating to orally target 5-fluorouracil delivery at cancerous colon is a feasible therapeutic treatment approach.

  5. Dark Aberrant Crypt Foci with activated Wnt pathway are related to tumorigenesis in the colon of AOM-treated rat

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    Lin Chen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the relationship between Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF and tumorigenesis, we observed the sequential development from ACF to tumor in the colon of azoxymethane-exposed wistar rats. Methods Sixty wistar rats were sacrificed at different time points after exposure to azoxymethane and the colons were stained with methylene blue for stereomicroscopic analysis. Results We found two types of early lesions: classic ACF and dark ACF. Dark ACF were characterized by dark blue staining, mildly enlarged or small compressed crypts that are not elevated from the surrounding epithelium. Large dark ACF and nascent tumors displayed the same surface morphology. Furthermore, dark ACF grew significantly faster than classic ACF and showed dysplasia without hyperplasia. In contrast, classic ACF showed hyperplasia without dysplasia. Dark ACF has significant higher expression rate of β-catenin (100% and MMP-7 (81.82% compared with the expression of β-catenin and MMP-7 in classic ACF (4.84% and 7.87%, respectively. Conclusion Our data indicated that dark ACF is closely related to tumorigenesis while classic ACF is not. Furthermore, Wnt signal pathway was activated during the early period of dark ACF.

  6. Direct Measurements of Human Colon Crypt Stem Cell Niche Genetic Fidelity: The Role of Chance in Non-Darwinian Mutation Selection

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    Haeyoun eKang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Perfect human stem cell genetic fidelity would prevent aging and cancer. However, perfection would be difficult to achieve, and aging is universal and cancers common. A hypothesis is that because mutations are inevitable over a human lifetime, downstream mechanisms have evolved to manage the deleterious effects of beneficial and lethal mutations. In the colon, a crypt stem cell architecture reduces the number of mitotic cells at risk for mutation accumulation, and multiple niche stem cells ensure that a lethal mutation within any single stem cell does not lead to crypt death. In addition, the architecture of the colon crypt stem cell niche may harness probability or chance to randomly discard many beneficial mutations that might lead to cancer. An analysis of somatic chromosome copy number alterations (CNAs reveals a lack of perfect fidelity in individual normal human crypts, with age-related increases and higher frequencies in ulcerative colitis, a proliferative, inflammatory disease. The age-related increase in somatic CNAs appears consistent with relatively normal replication error and cell division rates. Surprisingly, and similar to point mutations in cancer genomes, the types of crypt mutations were more consistent with random fixation rather than selection. In theory, a simple non-Darwinian way to nullify selection is to reduce the size of the reproducing population. Fates are more determined by chance rather than selection in very small populations, and therefore selection may be minimized within small crypt niches. The desired effect is that many beneficial mutations that might lead to cancer are randomly lost by drift rather than fixed by selection. The subdivision of the colon into multiple very small stem cell niches may trade Darwinian evolution for non-Darwinian somatic cell evolution, capitulating to aging but reducing cancer risks.

  7. Is laparoscopic resection the appropriate management of a jejunal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)? Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiakoudis, Michail; Zezos, Petros; Courcoutsakis, Nikos; Papanas, Nikolaos; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Kouklakis, Georgios; Simopoulos, Constantinos

    2010-10-01

    A 51-year-old female patient presented with iron deficiency anemia. Upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy were unremarkable. Computed tomography enteroclysis showed an ovoid 3×4-cm jejunal tumor with intraluminal protrusion and exophytic growth pattern, without lymphadenopathy or metastatic disease. Laparoscopic resection of the tumor was successfully carried out. Histologically, a mesenchymal tumor composed of spindle cells with an interlacing bundle pattern and high-mitotic activity greater than 10 mitoses/50 high-power fields were observed. The immunohistochemistry showed that the tumor was KIT (CD117)-, vimentin-, smooth muscle actin-, and S-100-positive, whereas it was CD34-negative. These findings were consistent with the features of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and after 10 months of follow-up, she is well without any evidence of tumor recurrence.

  8. Phase I Clinical Research of Jejunal Interposition in Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagogastric Junction II/III Proximal Gastrectomy

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    Kai Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the feasibility and specific methods of single-tract jejunal interposition between esophagus and remnant stomach (ers-STJI in adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II/III proximal gastrectomy. Methods. 15 AEG II/III gastric cancer (GC patients in phase T1-3N0M0 with tumor size <5 cm were selected and they underwent proximal gastrectomy with ers-STJI from August 2013 to August 2014. Results. All of the 15 patients successfully completed GC R0 proximal gastrectomy with ers-STJI and no operative death or no significant complication occurred; one patient had anastomotic inflammatory granuloma. The digestive tract reconstruction time was 29.5 ± 5.7 min; the intraoperative blood loss was 96.7 ± 20.2 mL, and the number of lymph node dissections was 21.3 ± 3.0; the postoperative flatus time was 48.2 ± 11.9 h; the average length of hospital stay was 10.7 ± 2.3 d, and the average hospital stay cost was 60 ± 3 thousands. All of the patients were followed up for 12 months, and their postoperative single food intake, body weight, hemoglobin, and albumin were all recovered to the preoperative levels. Conclusions. The applications of ers-STJI in proximal gastrectomy were safe and feasible, and the length of jejunal interposition could be 15–25 cm.

  9. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA efficacy for colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higurashi Takuma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most commonly occurring neoplasms and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and new preventive strategies are needed to lower the burden of this disease. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that is widely used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease, has recently been suggested to have a suppressive effect on tumorigenesis and cancer cell growth. In CRC chemoprevention trials, in general, the incidence of polyps or of the cancer itself is set as the study endpoint. Although the incidence rate of CRC would be the most reliable endpoint, use of this endpoint would be unsuitable for chemoprevention trials, because of the relatively low occurrence rate of CRC in the general population and the long-term observation period that it would necessitate. Moreover, there is an ethical problem in conducting long-term trials to determine whether a test drug might be effective or harmful. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF, defined as lesions containing crypts that are larger in diameter and stain more darkly with methylene blue than normal crypts, are considered as a reliable surrogate biomarker of CRC. Thus, we devised a prospective randomized controlled trial as a preliminary study prior to a CRC chemoprevention trial to evaluate the chemopreventive effect of EPA against colorectal ACF formation and the safety of this drug, in patients scheduled for polypectomy. Methods This study is a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized controlled trial to be conducted in patients with both colorectal ACF and colorectal polyps scheduled for polypectomy. Eligible patients shall be recruited for the study and the number of ACF in the rectum counted at the baseline colonoscopy. Then, the participants shall be allocated randomly to either one of two groups, the EPA group and the placebo group. Patients in the EPA group shall receive oral

  10. An APC:WNT counter-current-like mechanism regulates cell division along the colonic crypt axis: a mechanism that explains how APC mutations induce proliferative abnormalities that drive colon cancer development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M Boman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available APC normally down-regulates WNT signaling in human colon, and APC mutations cause proliferative abnormalities in premalignant crypts leading to colon cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear at the level of spatial and functional organization of the crypt. Accordingly, we postulated a counter-current-like mechanism based on gradients of factors (APC;WNT that regulate colonocyte proliferation along the crypt axis. During crypt renewal, stem cells (SCs at the crypt bottom generate non-SC daughter cells that proliferate and differentiate while migrating upwards. The APC concentration is low at the crypt bottom and high at the top (where differentiated cells reside. WNT signaling, in contrast, is high at the bottom (where SCs reside and low at the top. Given that WNT and APC gradients are counter to one another, we hypothesized that a counter-current-like mechanism exists. Since both APC and WNT signaling components (e.g. survivin are required for mitosis, this mechanism establishes a zone in the lower crypt where conditions are optimal for maximal cell division and mitosis orientation (symmetric versus asymmetric. APC haploinsufficiency diminishes the APC gradient, shifts the proliferative zone upwards, and increases symmetric division, which causes SC overpopulation. In homozygote mutant crypts, these changes are exacerbated. Thus, APC-mutation-induced changes in the counter-current-like mechanism cause expansion of proliferative populations (SCs, rapidly-proliferating cells during tumorigenesis. We propose this mechanism also drives crypt fission, functions in the crypt cycle, and underlies adenoma development. Novel chemoprevention approaches designed to normalize the two gradients and readjust the proliferative zone downwards, might thwart progression of these premalignant changes.

  11. TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    TRIBROMOMETHANE EXPOSURE AND DIETARY FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN THE FORMATION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI IN THE COLONS OF F344/N RATSDavid R. Geter', Tanya M. Moore', Michael H. George', Steve R. Kilburn', Gloria Huggins-Clark', James W. Allen', and Anthony B. DeAngelo' 'National H...

  12. Effects of high fat fish oil and high fat corn oil diets on initiation of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in male F344 rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommels, Y.E.M.; Heemskerk, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Alink, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Modulating effects of high fat fish oil (HFFO) and high fat corn oil (HFCO) diets on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were studied in male F344 rats following 8 weeks of dietary treatment. The incidence of AOM-induced ACF was significantly lower in the proximal colon of r

  13. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M3 receptor subtype (CHO-M3). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC50 of 14 μM. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC50 (pKb) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M3 receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC50=880 nM). In CHO-M3 cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M3 cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M3 receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action in IBS patients suffering with diarrhoea. PMID

  14. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-12-01

    1. Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. 2. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype (CHO-M(3)). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. 3. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC(50) of 14 micro M. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC(50) (pK(b)) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). 4. Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M(3) receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. 5. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)=880 nM). 6. In CHO-M(3) cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. 7. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M(3) cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action

  15. Lawsonia intracellularis exploits β-catenin/Wnt and Notch signalling pathways during infection of intestinal crypt to alter cell homeostasis and promote cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Yang W.; Bengtsson, Rebecca J.; MacIntyre, Neil; Guthrie, Jack; Finlayson, Heather; Smith, Sionagh H.; Archibald, Alan L.; Ait-Ali, Tahar

    2017-01-01

    Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in pigs. L. intracellularis infection causes extensive intestinal crypt cell proliferation and inhibits secretory and absorptive cell differentiation. However, the affected host upstream cellular pathways leading to PE are still unknown. β-catenin/Wnt signalling is essential in maintaining intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and self-renewal capacity, while Notch signalling governs differentiation of secretory and absorptive lineage specification. Therefore, in this report we used immunofluorescence (IF) and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTqPCR) to examine β-catenin/Wnt and Notch-1 signalling levels in uninfected and L. intracellularis infected pig ileums at 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post challenge (dpc). We found that while the significant increase in Ki67+ nuclei in crypts at the peak of L. intracellularis infection suggested enhanced cell proliferation, the expression of c-MYC and ASCL2, promoters of cell growth and ISC proliferation respectively, was down-regulated. Peak infection also coincided with enhanced cytosolic and membrane-associated β-catenin staining and induction of AXIN2 and SOX9 transcripts, both encoding negative regulators of β-catenin/Wnt signalling and suggesting a potential alteration to β-catenin/Wnt signalling levels, with differential regulation of the expression of its target genes. We found that induction of HES1 and OLFM4 and the down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels was consistent with the increased Notch-1 signalling in crypts at the peak of infection. Interestingly, the significant down-regulation of ATOH1 transcript levels coincided with the depletion of MUC2 expression at 14 dpc, consistent with the role of ATOH1 in promoting goblet cell maturation. The lack of significant change to LGR5 transcript levels at the peak of infection suggested that the crypt hyperplasia was not due to the expansion

  16. Mismatch repair-deficient crypt foci in Lynch syndrome--molecular alterations and association with clinical parameters.

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    Laura Staffa

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is caused by germline mutations of DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes, most frequently MLH1 and MSH2. Recently, MMR-deficient crypt foci (MMR-DCF have been identified as a novel lesion which occurs at high frequency in the intestinal mucosa from Lynch syndrome mutation carriers, but very rarely progress to cancer. To shed light on molecular alterations and clinical associations of MMR-DCF, we systematically searched the intestinal mucosa from Lynch syndrome patients for MMR-DCF by immunohistochemistry. The identified lesions were characterised for alterations in microsatellite-bearing genes with proven or suspected role in malignant transformation. We demonstrate that the prevalence of MMR-DCF (mean 0.84 MMR-DCF per 1 cm2 mucosa in the colorectum of Lynch syndrome patients was significantly associated with patients' age, but not with patients' gender. No MMR-DCF were detectable in the mucosa of patients with sporadic MSI-H colorectal cancer (n = 12. Microsatellite instability of at least one tested marker was detected in 89% of the MMR-DCF examined, indicating an immediate onset of microsatellite instability after MMR gene inactivation. Coding microsatellite mutations were most frequent in the genes HT001 (ASTE1 with 33%, followed by AIM2 (17% and BAX (10%. Though MMR deficiency alone appears to be insufficient for malignant transformation, it leads to measurable microsatellite instability even in single MMR-deficient crypts. Our data indicate for the first time that the frequency of MMR-DCF increases with patients' age. Similar patterns of coding microsatellite instability in MMR-DCF and MMR-deficient cancers suggest that certain combinations of coding microsatellite mutations, including mutations of the HT001, AIM2 and BAX gene, may contribute to the progression of MMR-deficient lesions into MMR-deficient cancers.

  17. Naturally Occurring Deletion Mutants of the Pig-Specific, Intestinal Crypt Epithelial Cell Protein CLCA4b without Apparent Phenotype.

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    Stephanie Plog

    Full Text Available The human CLCA4 (chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated modulates the intestinal phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF patients via an as yet unknown pathway. With the generation of new porcine CF models, species-specific differences between human modifiers of CF and their porcine orthologs are considered critical for the translation of experimental data. Specifically, the porcine ortholog to the human CF modulator gene CLCA4 has recently been shown to be duplicated into two separate genes, CLCA4a and CLCA4b. Here, we characterize the duplication product, CLCA4b, in terms of its genomic structure, tissue and cellular expression patterns as well as its in vitro electrophysiological properties. The CLCA4b gene is a pig-specific duplication product of the CLCA4 ancestor and its protein is exclusively expressed in small and large intestinal crypt epithelial cells, a niche specifically occupied by no other porcine CLCA family member. Surprisingly, a unique deleterious mutation of the CLCA4b gene is spread among modern and ancient breeds in the pig population, but this mutation did not result in an apparent phenotype in homozygously affected animals. Electrophysiologically, neither the products of the wild type nor of the mutated CLCA4b genes were able to evoke a calcium-activated anion conductance, a consensus feature of other CLCA proteins. The apparently pig-specific duplication of the CLCA4 gene with unique expression of the CLCA4b protein variant in intestinal crypt epithelial cells where the porcine CFTR is also present raises the question of whether it may modulate the porcine CF phenotype. Moreover, the naturally occurring null variant of CLCA4b will be valuable for the understanding of CLCA protein function and their relevance in modulating the CF phenotype.

  18. The Underground Domed Crypt in the Mound no. 5 From the A.V. Tereshchenko’s Excavations in Tsarev Hillfort in 1843

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    Glukhov Aleksandr Anatolyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the A. Tereshchenko’s archaeological excavations of the underground domed crypt in 1843 in Tsarev hillfort - the second largest monument of the Golden Horde period in the Lower Volga located on the left bank of Akhtuba-river. Based on archival information, the author analyzes the circumstances of the underground crypt’s discovery, gives a description of the object. The author found that the crypt in Tsarev belongs to the type of cruciform crypts, located under the above-ground constructions (mausoleums. The constructions of this type have analogies on the territory of the Golden Horde, and in other regions: Central Asia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan. For the first time introduced into scientific circulation unique pattern of Golden Horde’s object was investigated by Tereschenko on Tsarev hillfort. This image is the only surviving graphics of excavated structures that Tereschenko was accompanied by his diaries and reports. The rest of the image are not kept or are not found in the archives yet. The article also gives a dating of the investigated construction. Copper coin of 766 AH (1364/64 A.D. found here to determine that burial structure was built no later than the mid-1360s. The author has taken into account the large size, complex structure, the findings made in the underground crypt and concluded that the burial complex, researched by Tereshchenko, was elitist. Use of comprehensive information (Tereshchenko’s diary descriptions, topographical plans of 1842-1843 and satellite images helped the author to locate the place of excavation of the crypt on the ground.

  19. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs.

  20. Histoplanimetrical study on the relationship between invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and proliferation of epithelial cells in rat ascending colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantani, Youhei; Takahara, Ei-Ichirou; Takeuchi, Takashi; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-07-31

    The relationship between the invasion of indigenous bacteria into intestinal crypts and the proliferation of epithelial cells was histoplanimetrically investigated in the rat ascending colon. Indigenous bacteria preferentially adhered to the intestinal superficial epithelial cells in the mesenterium-attached mucosa (MAM) compared to those in the mesenterium-non-attached mucosa (MNM). Intestinal crypts with indigenous bacteria were also significantly more frequently found in MAM than in MNM. Total epithelial cells, columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells were significantly more abundant in the intestinal crypts with no-indigenous bacteria in MAM (MAM-C) than those in MNM (MNM-C), whereas the columnar epithelial cells were less abundant in MAM-C than in the intestinal crypts with indigenous bacteria in MAM (MAM-C-B). Columnar epithelial cells and goblet cells immuno-positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in MAM-C were more abundant than those in MNM-C, but less abundant than those in MAM-C-B. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, -4 and -9 were immuno-positive in the striated borders of the intestinal superficial epithelial cells, but their positive intensities were weaker in MAM than in MNM. From these findings, indigenous bacteria were confirmed to preferentially settle on the intestinal superficial epithelium of MAM in the rat ascending colon, and low TLRs-expression might contribute to the preferential settlement of indigenous bacteria in MAM. The increase of proliferating epithelial cells is probably induced by the invasion of indigenous bacteria into the intestinal crypts of MAM.

  1. Mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Adler, Thure; Aguilar-Pimentel, Juan Antonio; Becker, Lore; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Da Silva-Buttkus, Patricia; Neff, Frauke; Götz, Alexander; Hans, Wolfgang; Hölter, Sabine M; Horsch, Marion; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Kemter, Elisabeth; Lengger, Christoph; Maier, Holger; Matloka, Mikolaj; Möller, Gabriele; Naton, Beatrix; Prehn, Cornelia; Puk, Oliver; Rácz, Ildikó; Rathkolb, Birgit; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Rozman, Jan; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Schrewe, Anja; Stöger, Claudia; Tost, Monica; Adamski, Jerzy; Aigner, Bernhard; Beckers, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Busch, Dirk H; Esposito, Irene; Graw, Jochen; Illig, Thomas; Ivandic, Boris; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Mempel, Martin; Neschen, Susanne; Ollert, Markus; Schulz, Holger; Suhre, Karsten; Wolf, Eckhard; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Andreas; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2011-02-01

    Model organisms like the mouse are important tools to learn more about gene function in man. Within the last 20 years many mutant mouse lines have been generated by different methods such as ENU mutagenesis, constitutive and conditional knock-out approaches, knock-down, introduction of human genes, and knock-in techniques, thus creating models which mimic human conditions. Due to pleiotropic effects, one gene may have different functions in different organ systems or time points during development. Therefore mutant mouse lines have to be phenotyped comprehensively in a highly standardized manner to enable the detection of phenotypes which might otherwise remain hidden. The German Mouse Clinic (GMC) has been established at the Helmholtz Zentrum München as a phenotyping platform with open access to the scientific community (www.mousclinic.de; [1]). The GMC is a member of the EUMODIC consortium which created the European standard workflow EMPReSSslim for the systemic phenotyping of mouse models (http://www.eumodic.org/[2]). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A high amount of dietary zinc changes the expression of zinc transporters and metallothionein in jejunal epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo but does not prevent zinc accumulation in jejunal tissue of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lena; Lodemann, Ulrike; Bondzio, Angelika; Gefeller, Eva-Maria; Vahjen, Wilfried; Aschenbach, Jörg Rudolf; Zentek, Jürgen; Pieper, Robert

    2013-08-01

    High dietary zinc concentrations are used to prevent or treat diarrhea in piglets and humans, but long-term adaptation to high zinc supply has yet not been assessed. Intestinal zinc uptake is facilitated through members of zinc transporter families SLC30 (ZnT) and SLC39 (ZIP). Whereas in rodents, regulation of zinc homeostasis at low or adequate zinc supply has been described, such mechanisms are unclear in piglets. A total of 54 piglets were fed diets containing 57 [low dietary zinc (LZn)], 164 [normal dietary zinc (NZn)], or 2425 [high dietary zinc (HZn)] mg/kg dry matter zinc. After 4 wk, 10 piglets/group were killed and jejunal tissues taken for analysis of zinc transporters SLC30A1 (ZnT1), SLC30A2 (ZnT2), SLC30A5 (ZnT5), SLC39A4 (ZIP4), divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), and metallothionein-1 (MT). Weight gain was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs fed HZn than in the LZn and NZn groups during the first 2 wk. Food intake did not differ between groups. The digesta and jejunal tissue zinc concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn pigs than in NZn and LZn pigs. Expression of ZnT1 was higher (P < 0.05) and ZIP4 lower (P < 0.05) in HZn pigs than in the 2 other groups, whereas expression of ZnT5 and DMT1 did not differ between treatments. Expression of ZnT2 was lower (P < 0.05) in the LZn group than in the HZn and NZn groups. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of MT was higher (P < 0.05) in the HZn group than in the NZn and LZn groups. Studies with intestinal porcine cell line intestinal epithelial cell-J2 confirmed the dose-dependent downregulation of ZIP4 and upregulation of ZnT1 and MT (P < 0.05) with increasing zinc concentration within 24 h. In conclusion, high dietary zinc concentrations increase intracellular zinc, promote increased zinc export from intestinal tissues into extracellular compartments, and decrease zinc uptake from the gut lumen. The adaptive process appears to be established within 24 h; however, it does not prevent tissue zinc

  3. Endogenous growth hormone and insulin after interposition of a reversed jejunal segment in short bowel syndrome. An experimental study on pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichail Michail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interposition of a reversed jejunal loop in short bowel sydrome has previously been investigated in human along with animal models and seemed able to facilitate intestinal adaptation. However, it is unclear if growth hormone and insulin, well known for their implication in short bowel pathophysiology, intervene on this effect. Findings Porcine models were randomly allocated to two cohorts: (1 short bowel (SB group (n = 8 and (2 short bowel reverse jejunal segment (SB-RS group (n = 8. Amongst other parameters serum growth hormone and insulin were measured at baseline, as well as on postoperative day 30 and 60. Conclusion Both endogenous hormones failed to demonstrate significant difference in respect to potential direct effect to mechanisms of enhanced intestinal adaptation in reversed group

  4. Effect of different levels of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli colonization and jejunal morphology in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, J; Mahdavi, A H; Samie, A H; Jahanian, R

    2014-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.) on performance, intestinal Escherichia coli count and morphology of jejunal epithelial cells in laying hens. A total of 100 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) of 49 weeks old were randomly distributed among five cage replicates of five birds each. Experimental diets consisted of different levels (0%, 1%, 2% and 3% of diet) of dietary black cumin inclusion. The experimental period lasted for a total of 10 weeks, and egg quality indexes and laying hens' performance were measured as two 35-day trial periods. At the final day, two hens per replicate were slaughtered to investigate the influence of dietary treatments on intestinal E. coli colonization and morphology of jejunal cells. Although dietary black cumin in all supplementation levels decreased (p hens' performance were obtained by at least 2% black cumin seeds.

  5. Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Gastrointestinal Digestive Enzyme Activity and Jejunal Morphology in Minks during Winter Hair Period%饲粮蛋白质水平对冬毛期水貂胃肠道消化酶活性以及空肠形态结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铁涛; 崔虎; 岳志刚; 杨颖; 高秀华; 杨福合; 邢秀梅

    2012-01-01

    were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 replicates in each group, and 1 mink in each replicate. The minks in the 6 groups were fed experimental diets containing different levels of protein, which were 28% (group I ) , 30% ( group II ) , 32% ( group Ⅲ) , 34% ( group IV ) , 36% ( group V ) and 38% (group VI) , respectively. There was a 7-day pretrial period followed by a 115-day experimental period. The minks were slaughtered at the end of the feeding experiment. The supernatant of gastrointestinal content was prepared to determine the digestive enzyme activity, and the jejunal tissue section was prepared to observe the jejunal morphology. The results showed as follows; the pepsin activity in the group V was significantly higher than that in the groups I , II and Ⅲ (P 0. 05). The amylopsin activity of duodenum and jejunum in the group IV was significantly higher than that in the groups I , II , Ⅲ , V and VI (P 0.05). The pancrelipase activity of duodenum in the group VI was significantly higher than that in the groups II , IV and V (P 0. 05). The villus height, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio, mucosal thickness and intestinal wall thickness of jejunum all kept a higher level when dietary protein level was 36%. In conclusion, the dietary protein level can affect the digestive enzyme activity of gastrointestinal tract, and regulate the morphology of jejunum in minks during winter hair period. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2012, 24 (2) : 376-382

  6. Changes in the transcriptional profile of transporters in the intestine along the anterior-posterior and crypt-villus axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delorenzi Mauro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this work was to characterize the expression of drug and nutrient carriers along the anterior-posterior and crypt-villus axes of the intestinal epithelium and to study the validity of utilizing whole gut tissue rather than purified epithelial cells to examine regional variations in gene expression. Results We have characterized the mRNA expression profiles of 76 % of all currently known transporters along the anterior-posterior axis of the gut. This is the first study to describe the expression profiles of the majority of all known transporters in the intestine. The expression profiles of transporters, as defined according to the Gene Ontology consortium, were measured in whole tissue of the murine duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon using high-density microarrays. For nine transporters (Abca1, Abcc1, Abcc3, Abcg8, Slc10a2, Slc28a2, Slc2a1, Slc34a2 and Slc5a8, the mRNA profiles were further measured by RT-PCR in laser micro-dissected crypt and villus epithelial cells corresponding to the aforementioned intestinal regions. With respect to differentially regulated transporters, the colon had a distinct expression profile from small intestinal segments. The majority (59 % for p cutoff ≤ 0.05 of transporter mRNA levels were constant across the intestinal sections studied. For the transporter subclass "carrier activity", which contains the majority of known carriers for biologically active compounds, a significant change (p ≤ 0.05 along the anterior-posterior axis was observed. Conclusion All nine transporters examined in laser-dissected material demonstrated good replication of the region-specific profiles revealed by microarray. Furthermore, we suggest that the distribution characteristics of Slc5a8 along the intestinal tract render it a suitable candidate carrier for monocarboxylate drugs in the posterior portion of the intestine. Our findings also predict that there is a significant difference in the

  7. EUS-Guided Antegrade Transhepatic Placement of a Self-Expandable Metal Stent in Hepatico-Jejunal Anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everson LA Artifon

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context To demonstrate an EUS-guided biliary drainage in patient with gastrointestinal tract modified surgically. Case report An EUS guided access to the left intra hepatic duct, followed by an antegrade passage of a partially self-expandable metal stent that was removed by using an enteroscope, in one patient with hepatico-jejunal anastomosis. There were no early or delayed complications and the procedure was effective in relieving jaundice until the self-expandable metal stent was removed, 3 months later. A cholangiogram was obtained via enteroscopy, after removal of self-expandable metal stent, and found to be normal. The patient had an uneventful evaluation afterwards. Conclusion The indication of these procedures must be made under a multidisciplinary view while sharing information with the patient or legal guardian. EUS-guided biliary drainage is feasible when performed by professionals with expertise in biliopancreatic endoscopy and advanced echo-endoscopy and should be performed currently under rigorous protocol in educational institutions.

  8. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  9. Antitumor activity of the β-glucan paramylon from Euglena against preneoplastic colonic aberrant crypt foci in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiaki; Shimada, Ryoko; Matsuyama, Ai; Yuasa, Masahiro; Sawamura, Hiromi; Yoshida, Eriko; Suzuki, Kengo

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, the effects of β-glucans isolated from Euglena on the formation of preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon were examined in mice. Mice were fed a semi-purified AIN-93M diet containing cellulose or the same diet but with the cellulose replaced with β-glucans in the form of Euglena, paramylon, or amorphous paramylon, for 11 weeks. After consuming these dietary supplements for 8 days, half of the mice were intraperitoneally administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) body weight every week for 6 weeks. Among the DMH-treated groups, the paramylon- and amorphous paramylon-fed mice displayed a significantly lower number of ACF than the control group. Also, the liver weight of the paramylon group was markedly decreased compared with those of the control and Euglena groups, whereas the cecal content weight and fecal volume of the paramylon group were significantly increased. As for the levels of organic acids in the cecal contents, the paramylon group displayed significantly increased lactic acid levels compared with the control and Euglena groups. From these findings, although the mechanism of the ACF-inhibiting effects of paramylon remains unclear, it is considered that β-glucans, such as paramylon and its isomer amorphous paramylon, have preventive effects against colon cancer and are more effective against the condition than Euglena.

  10. Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit Influence on Aberrant Crypt Formation and Blood Cells in Colitis-Associated Colorectal Cancer in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Liu, Chung-Teng; Wu, Wang-Hung; Chien, Se-Ping; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2015-01-01

    Ziziphus jujuba (ZJ) fruit is rich in bioactive functional components such as polysaccharides, triterpenoid acid, flavonoids and oleamide. It has been commonly used in the treatment of various diseases including diabetes, digestive disorders, diarrhea, skin infections, liver and urinary complaints. However, dietary effects with regard to chemoprevention of colon cancer have not been studied. The present study was performed to evaluate the protective effects of dietary ZJ against colitis-associated colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane (AOM)-dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-treated mice. AOM was injected (10 mg/kg b.wt., i.p.) and three cycles of 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days with 14 days of normal drinking water in-between were administered to induce colitis-associated colon cancer. ZJ fruit was supplemented into feed at levels of 5 and 10%. Dietary ZJ significantly attenuated aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and also decreased the progression of hyperplasia to dysplasia. In addition, it significantly reduced circulating white blood cells, lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils and platelets compared to colon cancer mice. We conclude that ZJ supplementation may delay the progression of colon cancer from hyperplasia to dysplasia and ultimately adenocarcinoma and cancer. In addition, it decreased circulating tumor-related leukocytes, main regulators of cancer inflammation. Dietary consumption of ZJ fruit attenuated the formation of ACF and delayed the progression of colon cancer.

  11. Efficacy of garbanzo and soybean flour in suppression of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of CF-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Genoveva; Choi, Juliana K; Pan, Olivia; Constantinou, Andreas I; Mehta, Rajendra G

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported a low incidence of colon cancer in countries with high legume consumption. Moreover, experimental studies have found that legumes, such as soybeans and pinto beans, have anticancer properties. While garbanzo beans are a rich source of various phytochemicals, they have not been well studied. In the present study, the azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in CF-1 mice was utilized as a model to assess and compare the effects of garbanzo flour to that of soy flour. Twenty, 5-week-old CF-1 mice were divided into four groups of 5 animals each: 10% garbanzo, 10% soy, 10% mixed (soy and garbanzo flours), and control (rodent chow). Animals received subcutaneous injections of AOM (10-mg/kg B. W.) once a week for two weeks to induce ACF. At week ten, the animals were sacrificed and the colons were scored. There was a 64% (p garbanzo flour, versus an inhibition of 58 and 55% (pgarbanzo beans possess bioactive compounds capable of inhibiting the formation of pre-cancerous lesions in mice and suggest that, like soybeans, their consumption contributes to a reduction in colon cancer incidence.

  12. Beef tallow increases apoptosis and decreases aberrant crypt foci formation relative to soybean oil in rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khil, Jinmo; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2004-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have implicated red meat as increasing colon cancer risk, animal studies have generally not been supportive of such an effect. This study examined red meat components, such as beef protein and tallow, on markers of colon cancer risk. Rats administered dimethylhydrazine were fed either casein or beef protein as the protein source and soybean oil or tallow as the fat source in a 2 2 factorial design for 9 wk. There were fewer preneoplastic lesions [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] and a greater apoptotic labeling index (P tallow compared with soybean oil. Fecal bile acid concentrations were significantly lower in rats fed tallow compared with soybean oil. There were no significant differences in mucosal cell proliferation. No significant effects were found due to protein source or to interactions between fat and protein sources for ACF, cell proliferation labeling indexes, or bile acid concentrations. However, there was a significant protein by fat source interaction for the apoptotic labeling index. The decreased number of ACF, decreased fecal bile acid concentration, and increased mucosal apoptosis with tallow consumption are not consistent with a role for this fat in increasing risk of colon cancer.

  13. Chemopreventive Potential of Synergy1 and Soybean in Reducing Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci in Fisher 344 Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Gourineni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergy1, a prebiotic composed of Inulin and Oligofructose (1 : 1. Soybean meal is a natural source of isoflavones. The objective was to investigate the effects of feeding Synergy1 and SM on the incidence of azoxymethane- (AOM- induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF in Fisher 344 male rats. Rats (54 were randomly assigned to 9 groups (n=6. Control group (C was fed AIN-93G and treatment groups Syn1 and SM at 5% and 10% singly and in combinations. Rats were injected with two s/c injections of AOM at 7 and 8 weeks of age at 16 mg/kg body weight and killed at 17 weeks by CO2 asphyxiation. Colonic ACF enumeration and hepatic enzyme activities were measured. Reductions (% in total ACF among treatment groups fed combinations were higher (67–77 compared to groups fed singly (52–64. Synergistic mechanisms among phytochemicals may be responsible suggesting protective role in colon carcinogenesis with implications in food product development.

  14. Onset of transcription of the aminopeptidase N (leukemia antigen CD 13) gene at the crypt/villus transition zone during rabbit enterocyte differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, O; Dabelsteen, E; Høyer, P E

    1989-01-01

    The sequence of a cDNA clone (2.82 kbp) of rabbit intestinal aminopeptidase N (CD 13) is reported. Using the corresponding anti-sense RNA probe, the distribution of aminopeptidase N mRNA along the crypt/villus axis of the rabbit small intestine was studied by in situ hybridization. The aminopepti......The sequence of a cDNA clone (2.82 kbp) of rabbit intestinal aminopeptidase N (CD 13) is reported. Using the corresponding anti-sense RNA probe, the distribution of aminopeptidase N mRNA along the crypt/villus axis of the rabbit small intestine was studied by in situ hybridization....... The aminopeptidase N gene is expressed along the whole length of the villus with a maximum at its base. Expression was not detected in the crypt cells. The distribution of aminopeptidase N mRNA correlates with the presence of active enzyme as monitored by histochemical staining. The results are compatible with onset...

  15. Prostaglandin-induced radioprotection of murine intestinal crypts and villi by a PGE diene analog (SC-44932) and a PGI analog (Iloprost)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Wayne R.; Collins, Paul W.

    The aminothiols exemplified by WR-2721 are effective radioprotectors; however, their toxicity associated with hypotension, nausea, and emesis has limited their development for applications in medicine or in hazardous radiation environments. There is a need for new radioprotectors that have fewer toxic side effects when given alone or combined with reduced amounts of thiols. A variety of prostaglandins (PGs) have been shown to be radioprotective agents and some appear to have fewer toxic side effects than the aminothiols. Iloprost, a stable PGI, analog protects the clonogenic epithelial cells of intestinal crypts but does not protect epithelial cells of the villi. In contrast, an E-series omega chain diene analog designated SC-44932 protects epithelial cells of both crypts and villi. When the two are combined, protection of the crypts is additive and the villi are protected to the same degree as when SC-44932 is given alone. Since radioprotection for some PGs has been shown to be dependent upon receptors, we suggest that the pattern of radioprotection seen with these two analogs depend on the location of the respective receptors or on the ability of differentiated villus cells to respond to PGs. By studying different analogs, we hope to identify mechanisms associated with PG-induced radioprotection and to identify the most protective PG analogs for applications of radioprotection.

  16. Expression of lactoperoxidase in differentiated mouse colon epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Wook; Esworthy, R Steven; Hahn, Maria A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Chu, Fong-Fong

    2012-05-01

    Lactoperoxidase (LPO) is known to be present in secreted fluids, such as milk and saliva. Functionally, LPO teams up with dual oxidases (DUOXs) to generate bactericidal hypothiocyanite in the presence of thiocyanate. DUOX2 is expressed in intestinal epithelium, but there is little information on LPO expression in this tissue. To fill the gap of knowledge, we have analyzed Lpo gene expression and its regulation in mouse intestine. In wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 (B6) mouse intestine, an appreciable level of mouse Lpo gene expression was detected in the colon, but not the ileum. However, in B6 mice deficient in glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 and -2, GPx1/2-double-knockout (DKO), which had intestinal pathology, the colon Lpo mRNA levels increased 5- to 12-fold depending on mouse age. The Lpo mRNA levels in WT and DKO 129S1/SvlmJ (129) colon were even higher, 9- and 5-fold, than in B6 DKO colon. Higher levels of Lpo protein and enzymatic activity were also detected in the 129 mouse colon compared to B6 colon. Lpo protein was expressed in the differentiated colon epithelial cells, away from the crypt base, as shown by immunohistochemistry. Similar to human LPO mRNA, mouse Lpo mRNA had multiple spliced forms, although only the full-length variant 1 was translated. Higher methylation was found in the 129 than in the B6 strain, in DKO than in control colon, and in older than in juvenile mice. However, methylation of the Lpo intragenic CpG island was not directly induced by inflammation, because dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis did not increase DNA methylation in B6 DKO colon. Also, Lpo DNA methylation is not correlated with gene expression.

  17. Relative biological effectiveness of fast neutrons in a multiorgan assay for apoptosis in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Joong-Sun; Moon, Changjong; Kim, Jong-Choon; Jo, Sung-Kee; Kim, Sung-Ho

    2008-04-01

    This study compared the effects of high linear energy transfer (LET) fast neutrons on the induction of apoptosis in several tissue types (hair follicle, intestine crypt, testis) of ICR mouse exposed to low LET 60Co gamma-rays. The changes that occurred from 0 to 24 h after exposing the mice to either 2 Gy of gamma-rays (2 Gy/min) or 0.8 Gy of neutrons (94 mGy/min, 35 MeV) were examined. The maximum frequency of apoptosis was observed at 8 or 12 h after irradiation. The mice that had received 0-8 Gy of gamma-rays or 0-1.6 Gy of neutrons were examined 8 h after irradiation. The best-fitting dose-response curves were linear-quadratic, and there was a significant relationship between the number of apoptotic cells and the dose. The stained products in the TUNEL-positive cells or bodies correlated with the typical morphologic characteristics of apoptosis observed by optical microscopy. In the follicles showing an apoptosis frequency between 2 and 14 per hair follicle, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons in the small and large follicles was 2.09 +/- 0.31 and 2.15 +/- 0.18, respectively. In the intestine crypts showing an apoptosis frequency between 1 and 3 per crypt, the RBE of the neutrons was 4.03 +/- 0.06 and 3.87 +/- 0.04 in the base and total crypts, respectively. The RBE of the neutrons in the seminiferous tubule showing an apoptosis frequency between 0.5 and 2 per tubule was 5.18 +/- 0.06. The results determined the time-response relations and the RBE for fast neutron-induced apoptosis in several organs at the same time. The differences in RBE observed between the high and low LET radiation and it is believed that the difference in the DSB repair capacity in hair follicle, intestine crypt, and seminiferous tubule cells plays a role in determining the RBE of the high-LET radiation for the induced apoptotic cell formation.

  18. c-Jun, Fra-2, and ATF-2 immunoreactivity in the jejunal tissues of the healthy rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keklikoglu, Nurullah

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the localization of some activator protein-1 (AP-1) proteins in healthy rat jejunum. For this purpose, the AP-1 members c-Jun, Fra-2, and ATF-2 immunoreactivity (c-Jun-IR, Fra-2-IR, ATF-2-IR) in villus epithelial cells (ECs), intravillous lamina propria cells (LPCs), crypt cells (CCs), and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were analyzed by immunohistochemical methods. Among all the cell groups, the lowest positivity ratio was found in c-Jun-IR and the highest positivity ratio was found in ATF-2-IR. For each group of ECs, LPCs, CCs, and SMCs, c-Jun-IR, Fra-2-IR, and ATF-2-IR were compared and statistically significant differences found. There were no significant differences among the cell groups with respect to c-Jun-IR and Fra-2-IR, but there was a statistically significant difference in ATF-2-IR. These findings suggest that each member of AP-1 is expressed differently and that ATF-2 is more active than c-Jun and Fra-2 in physiological conditions in healthy rat jejunum.

  19. Adaptation of the jejunal mucosa in the experimental blind loop syndrome: changes in paracellular conductance and tight junction structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulzke, J D; Fromm, M; Bentzel, C J; Menge, H; Riecken, E O

    1987-01-01

    Self-filling blind loops of rat jejunum exhibit hyperregenerative transformation of the mucosa. We used this experimental model to characterise mechanisms, which may occur under similar conditions in man (stagnant loop syndrome). Epithelial and subepithelial resistance were measured in the Ussing-chamber by voltage divider ratio measurements after positioning a microelectrode between epithelium and subepithelial tissue layers. In the blind loop, epithelial resistance increased from 8 +/- 1 to 23 +/- 1 omega cm2 and subepithelial resistance from 39 +/- 4 to 86 +/- 8 omega cm2 as compared with control jejunum. The increase in the subepithelial resistance was paralleled anatomically by an increase in the thickness of the subepithelial tissue layers from 63 +/- 4 microns to 177 +/- 19 microns. Ultrastructural analysis of the tight junction area by freeze fracture electron microscopy revealed an increase in the total junctional 'depth' in the crypts from 243 +/- 9 nm in control jejunum to 396 +/- 17 nm in the blind loop, while the number of horizontally oriented 'strands' remained unchanged. Villus tight junctions did not differ between blind loop and control. We interpret the alterations in the self-filling blind loop as an adaptive response of the epithelium which reduces backleakage of already absorbed electrolytes across the tight junction into the intestinal lumen. This mechanism is suitable to support the intestine in maintaining body electrolyte and water contents during cellular electrolyte malabsorption.

  20. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  1. [Multi-disciplinary treatment increases the survival rate of late stage pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers treated by free jejunal flap reconstruction after cancer resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Zhang, H; Ni, S; Wang, J; Li, D Z; Liu, S Y

    2016-05-23

    To investigate the survival status of patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancers, who received free jejunal flap (FJF) to repair the defects following tumor resection, and to analyze the effect of multi-disciplinary treatment on their survival. Fifty-eight patients with pharyngeal, laryngeal or cervical esophageal cancer underwent free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction after cancer resection between 2010 and 2013. All their clinical records were reviewed and analyzed. The success rate of flap transplantation was 91.4% (53/58). The 2-year overall survival rates (OSR) of cervical esophageal cancer and hypopharyngeal cancer patients were 67.5% and 49.3%, respectively, both were significantly better than that of laryngeal cancer. The main causes of death were local recurrence and distant metastases. The group with no short-term complications had a better two-year OSR (59.0%) than the group with short-term complications (46.6%), however, the difference between them was not significant (P=0.103). The 2-year survival rate of the initial treatment group was 65.0%, better than that of the salvage treatment group (49.4%), but the difference was not significant (P=0.051). For the stage III and IV patients, the multi-disciplinary treatment group had a significantly better 2-year OSR (64.7%) than the single or sequential treatment group (37.0%, P=0.016). Free jejunal flap reconstruction is an ideal option for repairing the cervical digestive tract circumferential defects caused by tumor resection with a high success rate and a low mortality. Compared with the single or sequential treatment, multi-disciplinary treatment can significantly improve the survival rate of late-stage hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer patients.

  2. The chemopreventive potential of Curcuma purpurascens rhizome in reducing azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhollahi, Elham; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kunasegaran, Thubasni; Hasanpourghadi, Mohadeseh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri; Awang, Khalijah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma purpurascens BI. rhizome, a member of the Zingiberaceae family, is a popular spice in Indonesia that is traditionally used in assorted remedies. Dichloromethane extract of C. purpurascens BI. rhizome (DECPR) has previously been shown to have an apoptosis-inducing effect on colon cancer cells. In the present study, we examined the potential of DECPR to prevent colon cancer development in rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg) by determining the percentage inhibition in incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Starting from the day immediately after AOM treatment, three groups of rats were orally administered once a day for 2 months either 10% Tween 20 (5 mL/kg, cancer control), DECPR (250 mg/kg, low dose), or DECPR (500 mg/kg, high dose). Meanwhile, the control group was intraperitoneally injected with 5-fluorouracil (35 mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days. After euthanizing the rats, the number of ACF was enumerated in colon tissues. Bax, Bcl-2, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein expressions were examined using immunohistochemical and Western blot analyses. Antioxidant enzymatic activity was measured in colon tissue homogenates and associated with malondialdehyde level. The percentage inhibition of ACF was 56.04% and 68.68% in the low- and high-dose DECPR-treated groups, respectively. The ACF inhibition in the treatment control group was 74.17%. Results revealed that DECPR exposure at both doses significantly decreased AOM-induced ACF formation, which was accompanied by reduced expression of PCNA. Upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 suggested the involvement of apoptosis in the chemopreventive effect of DECPR. In addition, the oxidative stress resulting from AOM treatment was significantly attenuated after administration of DECPR, which was shown by the elevated antioxidant enzymatic activity and reduced malondialdehyde level. Taken together, the present data clearly indicate that DECPR significantly inhibits ACF formation

  3. Intracellular Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) signals during monochloramine-induced oxidative stress in isolated rat colon crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cima, Robert R; Dubach, J Matthew; Wieland, Aaron M; Walsh, Breda M; Soybel, David I

    2006-02-01

    During acute exacerbations of inflammatory bowel diseases, oxidants are generated through the interactions of bacteria in the lumen, activated granulocytes, and cells of the colon mucosa. In this study we explored the ability of one such class of oxidants, represented by monochloramine (NH(2)Cl), to serve as agonists of Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) accumulation within the colonocyte. Individual colon crypts prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats were mounted in perfusion chambers after loading with fluorescent reporters fura 2-AM and fluozin 3-AM. These reporters were characterized, in situ, for responsiveness to Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) in the cytoplasm. Responses to different concentrations of NH(2)Cl (50, 100, and 200 microM) were monitored. Subsequent studies were designed to identify the sources and mechanisms of NH(2)Cl-induced increases in Ca(2+) and Zn(2+) in the cytoplasm. Exposure to NH(2)Cl led to dose-dependent increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the range of 200-400 nM above baseline levels. Further studies indicated that NH(2)Cl-induced accumulation of Ca(2+) in the cytoplasm is the result of release from intracellular stores and basolateral entry of extracellular Ca(2+) through store-operated channels. In addition, exposure to NH(2)Cl resulted in dose-dependent and sustained increases in intracellular Zn(2+) concentration ([Zn(2+)](i)) in the nanomolar range. These alterations were neutralized by dithiothreitol, which shields intracellular thiol groups from oxidation. We conclude that Ca(2+)- and Zn(2+)-handling proteins are susceptible to oxidation by chloramines, leading to sustained, but not necessarily toxic, increases in [Ca(2+)](i) and [Zn(2+)](i). Under certain conditions, NH(2)Cl may act not as a toxin but as an agent that activates intracellular signaling pathways.

  4. The cAMP-regulated and 293B-inhibited K+ conductance of rat colonic crypt base cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, R; Riedemann, N; Bleich, M; Van Driessche, W; Busch, A E; Greger, R

    1996-05-01

    We have shown previously that secretagogues acting via the second messenger adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) activate, besides their marked effect on the luminal Cl- conductance, a K+ conductance in the basolateral membrane of colonic crypt cells. This conductance is blocked by the chromanol 293B. This K+ conductance is examined here in more detail in cell-attached (c.a.) and cell-excised (c.e.) patch- clamp studies. Addition of forskolin (5 micromol/l) to the bath led to the activation of very small-conductance (probably Hz (n = 30). The current/voltage curves of this noise indicated that the underlying ion channels were K+ selective. 293B reduced the power density of the noise (So) to 46 +/- 8.7% of its control value and shifted fc from 291 +/- 26 to 468 +/- 54 Hz (n = 8). In c.e. patches from cells previously stimulated by forskolin, the same type of current persisted in 3 out of 18 experiments when the bath solution was a cytosolic-type solution without adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) (CYT). In 15 experiments the addition of ATP (1 mmol/l) to CYT solution was necessary to induce or augment channel activity. In six experiments excision was performed into CYT + ATP solution and channel activity persisted. 293B exerted a reversible inhibitory effect. The channel activity was reduced by 5 mmol/l Ba2+ and was completely absent when K+ in the bath was replaced by Na+. These data suggest that forskolin activates a K+ channel of very small conductance which can be inhibited directly and reversibly by 293B.

  5. CT and MRI of jejunal patches after oropharyngeal tumor resections; CT und MRT von Duenndarminterponaten nach oropharyngealen Tumorresektionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasel, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Glaser, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Wien (Austria); Krestan, C. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Millesi, W. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Wien (Austria); Breitenseher, M. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria); Steiner, E. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Wien (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT; n=30) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; n=13) were used for follow-up examinations in patients who had an operative reconstruction with a jejunal patch. Three parts of a patch were differentiated with both imaging modalities: the region of the anastomosis, the mesenterial fatty tissue and the interstinal wall. The morphology of the patches correlated with clinical findings in the following cases. The patches were identified satisfactorily by CT and MRI. The appearance of patches without complications was influenced by a variable degree of fibrosis and by persistent intestinal folds. Recurrent tumors only infiltrated the margins of the patches. Destructive alterations in the patches were always less severe than those in the original orofacial soft tissue. Postoperative follow-up examinations with CT and MRI are particularly important when tumor recurrences spread under a patch, since these tumors are invisible in the clinical examinations. CT was advantageous in demonstrating osseous alterations and showed less loss of image quality in patients for whom the implantation of multiple metallic hardware during the operation had been necessary. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Mittels Computertomographie (CT) (n=30) und Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) (n=13) wurden im Rahmen der postoperativen Tumornachsorge Patienten mit Duenndarminterponaten untersucht. An den Interponaten wurden folgende Anteile unterschieden: Die Anastomosenregion, das Mesenterium und die Darmwand. Die Morphologie dieser Anteile wurde mit dem klinischen Befund korreliert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen eine zufriedenstellende Abgrenzbarkeit der einzelnen Anteile der Transplantate mit beiden tomographischen Methoden. Die morphologische Heterogenitaet der als komplikationslos eingestuften Transplantate zeigte sich v.a. in einer unterschiedlichen Auspraegung postoperativer Veraenderungen, wie Fibrosierung oder der Persistenz des intestinalen Faltenreliefs. Lokale Tumorrezidive infiltrieren die

  6. Multiplex PCR-Based Serogrouping and Serotyping of Salmonella enterica from Tonsil and Jejunum with Jejunal Lymph Nodes of Slaughtered Swine in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kamela Charmaine S; Rivera, Windell L

    2015-05-01

    Food poisoning outbreaks and livestock mortalities caused by Salmonella enterica are widespread in the Philippines, with hogs being the most commonly recognized carriers of the pathogen. To prevent and control the occurrence of S. enterica infection in the country, methods were used in this study to isolate and rapidly detect, differentiate, and characterize S. enterica in tonsils and jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes of swine slaughtered in four locally registered meat establishments (LRMEs) and four meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services in Metro Manila. A total of 480 samples were collected from 240 animals (120 pigs from each type of meat establishment). A significantly higher proportion of pigs were positive for S. enterica in LRMEs (60 of 120) compared with meat establishments accredited by the National Meat Inspection Services (38 of 120). More S. enterica-positive samples were found in tonsils compared with jejuna with jejunal lymph nodes in LRMEs, but this difference was not significant. A PCR assay targeting the invA gene had sensitivity that was statistically similar to that of the culture method, detecting 93 of 98 culture-confirmed samples. Multiplex PCR-based O-serogrouping and H/Sdf I typing revealed four S. enterica serogroups (B, C1, D, and E) and six serotypes (Agona, Choleraesuis, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, Typhimurium, and Weltevreden), respectively, which was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the PCR products. This study was the first to report detection of S. enterica serotype Agona in the country.

  7. The Sommersdorf mummies-An interdisciplinary investigation on human remains from a 17th-19th century aristocratic crypt in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterauge, Amelie; Kellinghaus, Manuel; Jackowski, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Rühli, Frank; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Lösch, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Sommersdorf Castle (Bavaria, Germany) is a medieval castle complex which has been inhabited by the aristocratic family von Crailsheim. The deceased were entombed in a crypt located in the parapets underneath the castle's church, resulting in mummification of the bodies. Based on the family chronicle and oral history, identities have been ascribed to the mummies. The aim of the study is therefore to test the accuracy of the historical records in comparison to archaeological, anthropological and genetic data. Today, the crypt houses eleven wooden coffins from the 17th to 19th century AD. In ten of these, mummified and scattered human remains were found. Archive records were studied in order to identify names, ancestry, titles, occupation, date of birth and death, and place of interment of the individuals. The coffins were visually inspected and dated by typo-chronology, and the mummified and scattered skeletal remains were subjected to a physical anthropological examination. In total, the crypt contains the remains of a minimum number of nine individuals, among them three adult males, five adult females and one infant. A detailed scientific examination, including prior conservation, ancient DNA analyses, and computed tomography (CT), was performed on five mummies. By means of the CT data age at death, sex, body height, pathologies, and anatomical variants were investigated. CT analysis further showed that the bodies were naturally mummified. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that the tested individuals are not maternally related. In addition, health, living conditions and circumstances of death of the entombed individuals could be highlighted. Being confronted with the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of each methodological approach, probable identification was achieved in two cases.

  8. CD44 and TLR4 mediate hyaluronic acid regulation of Lgr5+ stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal growth in postnatal and adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Terrence E; Santhanam, Srikanth; Foster, Lynne; Ciorba, Matthew; Stenson, William F

    2015-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan in the extracellular matrix, binds to CD44 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). We previously addressed the role of hyaluronic acid in small intestinal and colonic growth in mice. We addressed the role of exogenous hyaluronic acid by giving hyaluronic acid intraperitoneally and the role of endogenous hyaluronic acid by giving PEP-1, a peptide that blocks hyaluronic acid binding to its receptors. Exogenous hyaluronic acid increased epithelial proliferation but had no effect on intestinal length. PEP-1 resulted in a shortened small intestine and colon and diminished epithelial proliferation. In the current study, we sought to determine whether the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth were mediated by signaling through CD44 or TLR4 by giving exogenous hyaluronic acid or PEP-1 twice a week from 3-8 wk of age to wild-type, CD44(-/-), and TLR4(-/-) mice. These studies demonstrated that signaling through both CD44 and TLR4 were important in mediating the effects of hyaluronic acid on growth in the small intestine and colon. Extending our studies to early postnatal life, we assessed the effects of exogenous hyaluronic acid and PEP-1 on Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation and crypt fission. Administration of PEP-1 to Lgr5(+) reporter mice from postnatal day 7 to day 14 decreased Lgr5(+) cell proliferation and decreased crypt fission. These studies indicate that endogenous hyaluronic acid increases Lgr5(+) stem cell proliferation, crypt fission, and intestinal lengthening and that these effects are dependent on signaling through CD44 and TLR4.

  9. Lubiprostone ameliorates the cystic fibrosis mouse intestinal phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis (CF is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene that impair the function of CFTR, a cAMP-regulated anion channel. In the small intestine loss of CFTR function creates a dehydrated, acidic luminal environment which is believed to cause an accumulation of mucus, a phenotype characteristic of CF. CF mice have small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, an altered innate immune response, and impaired intestinal transit. We investigated whether lubiprostone, which can activate the CLC2 Cl- channel, would improve the intestinal phenotype in CF mice. Methods Cftrtm1UNC (CF and wildtype (WT littermate mice on the C57BL/6J background were used. Lubiprostone (10 μg/kg-day was administered by gavage for two weeks. Mucus accumulation was estimated from crypt lumen widths in periodic acid-Schiff base, Alcian blue stained sections. Luminal bacterial load was measured by qPCR for the bacterial 16S gene. Gastric emptying and small intestinal transit in fasted mice were assessed using gavaged rhodamine dextran. Gene expression was evaluated by Affymetrix Mouse430 2.0 microarray and qRT-PCR. Results Crypt width in control CF mice was 700% that of WT mice (P P = 0.001. Lubiprostone increased bacterial load in WT mice to 490% of WT control levels (P = 0.008. Conversely, lubiprostone decreased bacterial overgrowth in CF mice by 60% (P = 0.005. Lubiprostone increased gastric emptying at 20 min postgavage in both WT (P P P = 0.024 but not in CF mice (P = 0.377. Among other innate immune markers, expression of mast cell genes was elevated 4-to 40-fold in the CF intestine as compared to WT, and lubiprostone treatment of CF mice decreased expression to WT control levels. Conclusions These results indicate that lubiprostone has some benefits for the CF intestinal phenotype, especially on bacterial overgrowth and the innate immune response. The unexpected observation of increased mucus accumulation in the crypts of lubiprostone-treated CF mice

  10. The influence of simple sugars and starch given during pre- or post-initiation on aberrant crypt foci in rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Thorup, Inger;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the enhancing effect of dietary sugar on the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane (AOM). The potential role of sugar as either a co-initiator or a promoter was investigated by giving diets high...... was seen. The level of oxidative stress in the cytosol from the proximal colon and colonic glutathione transferase and quinone reductase was not affected by the sugar treatments. The overall results from this study show that sucrose and dextrin enhance the number of preneoplastic lesions in AOM...

  11. Different effects of short- and long-chained fructans on large intestinal physiology and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Morten; Molck, Anne-Marie; Jacobsen, Bodil Lund

    2002-01-01

    -type fructan on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat colon. In addition, the present study investigated the influence of chain length, dietary level (5% or 15%), and duration of feeding (5 or 10 wk) on the following intestinal parameters supposed to be involved......Inulin-type fructans, which are nondigestible carbohydrates, have been shown to modulate the number of induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon as well as the colonic microflora in laboratory animals. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a short- and long-chained inulin...

  12. Description of a new species of Euderus Haliday from the southeastern United States (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae): the crypt-keeper wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Scott P.; Weinersmith, Kelly L.; Liu, Sean; Ridenbaugh, Ryan D.; Zhang, Y. Miles; Forbes, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Euderus Haliday, Euderus set sp. n., is described and illustrated from the southeastern United States, where it parasitizes the crypt gall wasp, Bassettia pallida Ashmead, 1896, on live oaks in the genus Quercus (subsection Virentes). This is the 1st species of the genus reported from the southeastern United States to parasitize cynipid gall wasps and the 3rd species of the genus reported to attack cynipids in North America. Modified sections of the identification keys to subgenera and species of Euderus (Yoshimoto, 1971) are included to integrate the new species. PMID:28228666

  13. MirrorCrypt

    OpenAIRE

    García Martínez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto muestra la creación de una aplicación que permite trabajar con sistemas de almacenamiento en la nube de manera encriptada. Aquest projecte mostra la creació d'una aplicació que permet treballar amb sistemes d'emmagatzematge en el núvol de manera encriptada. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Computer security.

  14. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  15. Chemopreventive effect of myrtenal on bacterial enzyme activity and the development of 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced aberrant crypt foci in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Kumar Booupathy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer remains as a serious health problem around the world despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Dietary fibers are considered to reduce the risk of colon cancer as they are converted to short chain fatty acids by the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the intestine, but imbalanced diet and high fat consumption may promote tumor formation at different sites, including the large bowel via increased bacterial enzymes activity. The present study was conducted to characterize the inhibitory action of myrtenal on bacterial enzymes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF. Experimental colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine is histologically, morphologically, and anatomically similar to human colonic epithelial neoplasm. Discrete microscopic mucosal lesions such as ACF and malignant tumors function as important biomarkers in the diagnosis of colon cancer. Methylene blue staining was carried out to visualize the impact of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine and myrtenal. Myrtenal-treated animals showed decreased levels of bacterial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase, and mucinase. Characteristic changes in the colon were noticed by inhibiting ACF formation in the colon. In conclusion, treatment with myrtenal provided altered pathophysiological condition in colon cancer-bearing animals with evidence of decreased crypt multiplicity and tumor progression.

  16. Comparison of the preserving or removing jejunal mucosa pancreatico-jejunal invaginated anastomosis in pancreatoduodenectomy%保留与去空肠黏膜的胰肠套入吻合方式在胰十二指肠切除术中的应用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力斌; 陈思远; 覃谦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluated the preserving or removing jejunal mucosa pancreatico-jejunal invaginated anastomosis in pancreaticoduodenectomy.Methods Between February 2003 and December 2012,58 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy using pancreaticojejunal invaginated anastomosis in our department.In group A,28 patients received pancreatico-jejunal invaginated anastomosis using jejunum preserving technique.Briefly,3 to 4 cm remanent pancreas was inserted into jejunum and thc jcjunum was bundled up using No.7 silk thread at 2 to 3 cm distant to the cutting surface of the pancreas.In group B,30 patients received pancreatico-jejunal invaginated anastomosis using jejunum removing technique.Briefly,the jejunum mucosa was everted and the proximal 3 cmlong mucosa was removed.Then the everted jejunum was re-positioned and the ending of the jejunum was interruptedly sutured to the remanent pancreas.Finally,the covered jejunum was tied up as the group A.Results The pancrcatico-jejunal anastomosis time was 36 ±0.34 minutes shorter in group A than group B (P <0.001).The incidence of pancreatic fistula was higher in group B (20.0%) than group A (0%).In contrast,the incidence of post-operative pancreatic bleeding was compared between the two groups (3.6% vs 3.3%,P =1.000).Conclusions Preserving ejunum mucosa pancreatico-jejunal invaginated anastomosis was unaffected by pancreatic texture pancreatic duct size and position.This method takes the advantages of simple operation and reducing the incidence of pancreatic fistula.%目的 对胰十二指肠切除术采用保留空肠黏膜与去空肠黏膜胰肠直接套入加捆扎两种不同的吻合方式进行探讨.方法 2003年2月 2012年12月对58例胰十二指肠切除术患者采用胰空肠套入吻合术;其中A组28例采用保留空肠黏膜残胰直接套入空肠3~4 cm,在距离残胰腺断端2~3 cm处将包盖于残胰腺体的空肠段用7-0丝线予以捆扎.B组30例则为

  17. Oral Morphine Pharmacokinetic in Obesity: The Role of P-Glycoprotein, MRP2, MRP3, UGT2B7, and CYP3A4 Jejunal Contents and Obesity-Associated Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret-Linares, Célia; Miyauchi, Eisuke; Luo, Huilong; Labat, Laurence; Bouillot, Jean-Luc; Poitou, Christine; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Mouly, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Uchida, Yasuo; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Bergmann, Jean-François; Declèves, Xavier

    2016-03-07

    The objective of our work was to study the association between the jejunal expression levels of P-gp, MRP2, MRP3, UGT2B7, CYP3A4, the ABCB1 c.3435C > T polymorphism, and several obesity-associated biomarkers, as well as oral morphine and glucuronides pharmacokinetics in a population of morbidly obese subjects. The pharmacokinetics of oral morphine (30 mg) and its glucuronides was performed in obese patients candidate to bariatric surgery. A fragment of jejunal mucosa was preserved during surgery. Subjects were genotyped for the ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.3435C > T. The subjects were 6 males and 23 females, with a mean body mass index of 44.8 (35.4-61.9) kg/m(2). The metabolic ratios AUC0-inf M3G/morphine and AUC0-inf M6G/morphine were highly correlated (rs = 0.8, p morphine and its glucuronides were not associated with the jejunal contents of P-gp, CYP3A4, MRP2, and MRP3. The jejunal content of UGT2B7 was positively associated with morphine AUC0-inf (rs = 0.4, p = 0.03). Adiponectin was inversely correlated with morphine Cmax (rs = -0.44, p = 0.03). None of the factors studied was associated with morphine metabolic ratios. The interindividual variability in the jejunal content of drug transporters and metabolizing enzymes, the ABCB1 gene polymorphism, and the low-grade inflammation did not explain the variability in morphine and glucuronide exposure. High morphine metabolic ratio argued for an increased morphine glucuronidation in morbidly obese patients.

  18. Wnt-reporter expression pattern in the mouse intestine during homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Kevin H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is a known regulator of cell proliferation during development and maintenance of the intestinal epithelium. Perturbations in this pathway lead to aberrant epithelial proliferation and intestinal cancer. In the mature intestine, proliferation is confined to the relatively quiescent stem cells and the rapidly cycling transient-amplifying cells in the intestinal crypts. Although the Wnt signal is believed to regulate all proliferating intestinal cells, surprisingly, this has not been thoroughly demonstrated. This important determination has implications on intestinal function, especially during epithelial expansion and regeneration, and warrants an extensive characterization of Wnt-activated cells. Methods To identify intestinal epithelial cells that actively receive a Wnt signal, we analyzed intestinal Wnt-reporter expression patterns in two different mouse lines using immunohistochemistry, enzymatic activity, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR, then corroborated results with reporter-independent analyses. Wnt-receiving cells were further characterized for co-expression of proliferation markers, putative stem cell markers and cellular differentiation markers using an immunohistochemical approach. Finally, to demonstrate that Wnt-reporter mice have utility in detecting perturbations in intestinal Wnt signaling, the reporter response to gamma-irradiation was examined. Results Wnt-activated cells were primarily restricted to the base of the small intestinal and colonic crypts, and were highest in numbers in the proximal small intestine, decreasing in frequency in a gradient toward the large intestine. Interestingly, the majority of the Wnt-reporter-expressing cells did not overlap with the transient-amplifying cell population. Further, while Wnt-activated cells expressed the putative stem cell marker Musashi-1, they did not co-express DCAMKL-1 or cell differentiation markers. Finally, gamma

  19. Combined duodenal and jejunal atresia forming a bile filled cyst, presenting as an abdominal mass: A case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Zaghal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous occurrence of duodenal and jejunoileal atresia in the newborn is very rare. This is not surprising considering the unrelated embryogenesis behind the development of the two congenital anomalies. We present a case of duodenal atresia associated with an apple peel jejunoileal atresia in a newborn presenting with a prenatal diagnosis of an abdominal cystic mass and a palpable abdominal mass at birth. Exploration revealed a type 3 duodenal atresia followed by a type 3b proximal jejunal atresia (apple peel configuration, with a dilated short segment of bowel between the two. This segment of bowel was the cystic structure detected prenatally and preoperatively on exam. Double foregut atresias should be considered in the differential diagnosis of right upper quadrant cystic masses in the newborn period.

  20. Impact of a probiotic Bacillus cereus strain on the jejunal epithelial barrier and on the NKG2D expressing immune cells during the weaning phase of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmeyer, Sara; Kröger, Susan; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen; Scharek-Tedin, Lydia

    2014-09-15

    In a feeding experiment, the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi was fed to sows and piglets in order to test whether it influences the stress response of enterocytes, thereby causing intestinal immune activation, possibly accompanied by an impairment of the epithelial integrity. The impact of B. cereus on the piglets' intestinal enterocytes (EC) and on the communicating intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was investigated during the weaning phase where significant immunological changes might be expected. The expression of the stress-induced MHC class I-related molecule 2 (MIC2) and the UL16 binding protein (ULBP) was measured in jejunal EC and the frequencies of the main present IEL populations in the jejunum were monitored. To find out which of the IEL populations can be activated by the stress-induced molecules the sorted IEL were tested for the expression of the activating natural killer receptor 2D (NKG2D). The piglets fed with B. cereus showed an impaired intestinal barrier function shortly after weaning. However, a significant impact on the expression of stress-induced molecules was not observed. The mRNA expression of NKG2D was confirmed in intraepithelial CD5+ γδ T cells. The ratio of IEL (CD45+) to EC was lower in the B. cereus treated group, which could be explained by lower frequencies of CD8αβ+ T cells in the jejunal epithelium (p ≤ 0.005 for ages 32 and 34). Although a consistently increased expression of stress-induced MHC class I-related molecules was not found, this study suggests a negative impact of B. cereus on the intestinal barrier function and supports immune-modulating properties of the probiotic feed supplement.

  1. Duodenal-jejunal bypass surgery on type 2 diabetic rats reduces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in the thoracic aorta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maimaitiyusufu Wubulikasimu; Han Haifeng; Yan Zhibo; Zhang Xiang; Liu Shaozhuang; Zhang Guangyong; Kasimu Aimaiti

    2014-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery offers a productive resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The development of T2DM vasculopathy is due to chronic inflammation,which increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) expression.This study sought to examine MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in the thoracic aorta after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery on a T2DM rat model induced by a high-fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ).Methods Twenty-one T2DM Wistar rats induced by high-fat diet and low dose STZ were randomly divided into DJB and sham duodenal-jejunal bypass (S-DJB) groups.Ten Wistar rats were fed a normal diet as a control.Recovery of gastrointestinal function post-operation and resumption of a normal diet completed the experiment.Body weight,blood glucose,blood lipid levels,and MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression levels in aortic endothelial cells were measured throughout.Results DJB rats showed significant weight loss 2 weeks post-operation compared with S-DJB rats.After surgery,DJB rats showed significant improvement and steady glycemic control with improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance.They also exhibited improved lipid metabolism with a decrease in fasting free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides (all P <0.05).Immunohistochemistry showed decreased MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression 12 weeks after surgery (P < 0.01).Conclusions DJB surgery on an induced T2DM rat model improves blood glucose levels and lipids,following a high-fat diet and low dose STZ treatment.In addition,DJB decreased MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells,which may play an important role in delaying the development of T2DM vascular disease.

  2. Jejunal microvilli atrophy and reduced nutrient transport in rats with advanced liver cirrhosis: improvement by Insulin-like Growth Factor I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castilla-Cortázar Inma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous results have shown that in rats with non-ascitic cirrhosis there is an altered transport of sugars and amino acids associated with elongated microvilli. These alterations returned to normal with the administration of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I. The aims of this study were to explore the evolution of these alterations and analyse the effect of IGF-I in rats with advanced cirrhosis and ascites. Thus, jejunal structure and nutrient transport (D-galactose, L-leucine, L-proline, L-glutamic acid and L-cystine were studied in rats with ascitic cirrhosis. Methods Advanced cirrhosis was induced by CCl4 inhalation and Phenobarbital administration for 30 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were divided into two groups which received IGF-I or saline during two weeks. Control group was studied in parallel. Jejunal microvilli were studied by electron microscopy. Nutrient transport was assessed in brush border membrane vesicles using 14C or 35S-labelled subtracts in the three experimental groups. Results Intestinal active Na+-dependent transport was significantly reduced in untreated cirrhotic rats. Kinetic studies showed a decreased Vmax and a reduced affinity for sugar and four amino acids transporters (expressed as an increased Kt in the brush border membrane vesicles from untreated cirrhotic rats as compared with controls. Both parameters were normalised in the IGF-I-treated cirrhotic group. Electron microscopy showed elongation and fusion of microvilli with degenerative membrane lesions and/or notable atrophy. Conclusions The initial microvilli elongation reported in non ascitic cirrhosis develops into atrophy in rats with advanced cirrhosis and nutrient transports (monosaccharides and amino acids are progressively reduced. Both morphological and functional alterations improved significantly with low doses of IGF-I.

  3. Light and electron microscopic cytochemistry of glycoconjugates in the rectosigmoid colonic epithelium of the mouse and rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomopoulos, G N; Schulte, B A; Spicer, S S

    1983-10-01

    The several cell types in mouse and rat rectosigmoid colon have been examined with light and electron microscopic methods for localizing and characterizing complex carbohydrates. Mucous cells, also termed vacuolated cells, and goblet cells comprised most of the deep crypt epithelium in both species, and absorptive columnar cells and goblet cells mainly populated the more superficial epithelium of the upper crypts and main lumen. Occasional tuft cells and enteroendocrine cells were also encountered. Transitional cells structurally intermediate between mucous cells and absorptive cells contained granules characteristic of mucous cells and vesicles like those of columnar absorptive cells. These intermediate cells supported the concept of replacement of mucous by absorptive cells through transformation of mucous into absorptive cells. The intermediate cells also contained numerous lysosomes often in apparent fusion with mucous granules, indicating crinophagic disposal of mucous granules as a mechanism in the cell transformation. Glycoconjugate in absorptive cell vesicles resembled that coating the apical plasmalemma and appeared to represent the source of the glycocalyx of the brush border. Complex carbohydrate in these vesicles differed cytochemically from that of the mucous cell granules, which release their content into the crypt lumen. The absorptive cell vesicles, therefore, constitute an organelle distinct from the mucous cell granules rather than an atrophic form of the latter in a more mature cell. Goblet cells differed in failing to transform morphologically with age but changed in the cytochemical characteristic of their secretion during migration up the crypts. Terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues diminished, while terminal sialic acid-galactose dimers increased during the upward migration, indicating activation of glycosyl transferase synthesis in relation to goblet cell maturation. Glycoconjugate in secretion of mucous cell granules differed markedly from

  4. The environmental monitoring of Cultural Heritage through Low Cost strategies: The frescoes of the crypt of St. Francesco d'Assisi's, Irsina (Basilicata, Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Maria; Gizzi, Fabrizio; Masini, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    One of the main tools of assessment and diagnosis used to define appropriate strategies for the preservation of cultural heritage is the environmental monitoring. To achieve an environmental monitoring are needed high costs of purchase and maintenance, high costs of instrumental and for the management of the plants and processing of results. These costs imply that the technologies for environmental monitoring are not as common but their use is limited to the study very famous monuments or sites. To extend the use and dissemination of such technologies to a greater number of monuments, through the project Pro_Cult (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage) a research aimed at testing low cost technologies has been performed. The aim of the research is to develop low cost monitoring systems, assessing their effectiveness in a comparative way with commercial high cost ones. To this aim an environmental monitoring system using the Arduino system was designed and developed. It is an electronics prototyping platform based on open-source hardware and software flexible and user friendly. This system is connected to sensors for the detection of environmental parameters of non high purchase cost but with respect to the medium potential detection sensors accurately. This low cost system was tested in the framework of a microclimate monitoring project of the crypt of St. Francis of Assisi in Irsina (Southern Italy) enriched by a precious cycle of medieval frescoes. The aim of this research was to compare two monitoring systems, the first, at low cost, using Arduino system, and the second, a standard commercial product for a full yearly cycle and assess the reliability and the results obtained by the two systems. This paper shows the results of the comparative analysis of an entire monitoring yearly cycle in relation to the problems of degradation affecting the paintings of medieval crypt [1]. The obtained results

  5. Long-term aerobic swimming training by rats reduces the number of aberrant crypt foci in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Lunz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of long-term aerobic swimming training regimens of different intensities on colonic carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats (11 weeks old were given 4 subcutaneous injections (40 mg/kg body weight each of 1,2-dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH, dissolved in 0.9% NaCl containing 1.5% EDTA, pH 6.5, at 3-day intervals and divided into three exercise groups that swam with 0% body weight (EG1, N = 11, 2% body weight (EG2, N = 11, and 4% body weight of load (EG3, N = 10, 20 min/day, 5 days/week for 35 weeks, and one sedentary control group (CG, N = 10. At sacrifice, the colon was removed and counted for tumors and aberrant crypt foci. Tumor size was measured and intra-abdominal fat was weighed. The mean number of aberrant crypt foci was reduced only for EG2 compared to CG (26.21 ± 2.99 vs 36.40 ± 1.53 crypts; P < 0.05. Tumor incidence was not significantly different among groups (CG: 90%; EG1: 72.7%; EG2: 90%; EG3: 80%. Swimming training did not affect either tumor multiplicity (CG: 2.30 ± 0.58; EG1: 2.09 ± 0.44; EG2: 1.27 ± 0.19; EG3: 1.50 ± 0.48 tumors or size (CG: 1.78 ± 0.24; EG1: 1.81 ± 0.14; EG2: 1.55 ± 0.21; EG3: 2.17 ± 0.22 cm³. Intra-abdominal fat was not significantly different among groups (CG: 10.54 ± 2.73; EG1: 6.12 ± 1.15; EG2: 7.85 ± 1.24; EG3: 5.11 ± 0.74 g. Aerobic swimming training with 2% body weight of load protected against the DMH-induced preneoplastic colon lesions, but not against tumor development in the rat.

  6. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...... pointing was faster than mouse pointing, while maintaining a similar error rate. EMG and mouse-button selection had a comparable performance. From analyses of completion time, throughput and error rates, we concluded that the combination of gaze and facial EMG holds potential for outperforming the mouse....

  7. IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline)- induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumour development in rats fed two different carbohydrate diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, A.M.; Meyer, Otto A.; Kristiansen, E.

    2001-01-01

    In most aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colorectal tumour studies, chemical carcinogens not normally found in food have been used as initiators. In the present study the food-related compound, IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline), has been used. A diet high in refined carbohydrates has been...... on the development of IQ-induced ACF over time and (2) possible correlation between early and late ACF and/or colorectal tumour development. The study showed that a feeding regimen with continuous doses of 0.03% IQ in the diet for 14 weeks, followed by 32 weeks without IQ was able to induce tumours in the rat colon...

  8. The combination of 1α, 25(OH)2 – Vitamin D3, calcium and acetylsalicyclic acid affects azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci and colorectal tumours in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-Marie; Poulsen, Morten; Meyer, Otto A.

    2002-01-01

    Effects of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at various dietary levels of calcium (CaCO(3)) on development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumours in colon were examined in groups of 16 male F344 rats initiated with azoxymethane and observed for 16 weeks. Calcium was the most...... potent modulator of ACF development. The total number of ACF increased with low calcium and decreased with high calcium. The number of large ACF decreased with any addition of calcium, acetylsalicylic acid and 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3). High levels of calcium alone or in combination with 1alpha,25(OH......)(2)-vitamin D(3) increased the incidence of tumour-bearing animals. 1alpha,25(OH)(2)-vitamin D(3) and acetylsalicylic acid at 5,000 ppm calcium increased the incidence as well....

  9. Total gastrectomy with substitution of stomach by jejunal pouch with and without duodenal passage: study in rats Gastrectomy total com substituição do estômago por bolsa jejunal com e sem passagem do alimento pelo duodeno: estudo em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertuliano Aires Neto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A comparison was done between the F. Paulino jejunal pouch (FP and a jejunal pouch (JP as esophagus-duodenum interpositional graft, for replacing the stomach after total gastrectomy. It was investigated the effect of the two procedures on esophagus histology, nutritional state and serum gastrin in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats weighing 282±17g were randomly submitted to sham operation (S, FP and JP after total gastrectomy. After eight weeks the rats were killed with overdose of anesthetic and tissue was taken from the distal esophagus for histology. Serum levels of total proteins, albumin, iron, transferring, folate, cobalamine, calcium, as well as serum gastrin were determined. Survival was considered. RESULTS: Fourty six rats were operated and thirty survived for eight weeks. Five (33.3% died after FP and 11 (52.3% after JP (p0.05. The JP rats had a significant decrease in serum albumin, glucose, transferrin, iron, folate and calcium, compared to sham (pOBJETIVO: Estudo comparativo foi realizado entre a bolsa jejunal de Fernando Paulino (FP e uma bolsa jejunal (JP interposta entre o esôfago e duodeno, para substituir o estômago após gastrectomia . Foi investigado o efeito dos dois procedimentos na histologia do esôfago, estado nutricional e gastrinemia sérica em ratos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta e seis ratos Wistar pesando 282±17g foram aleatoriamente submetidos a sham operation (S, FP e JP após gastectomia total. Decorridas 8 semanas, foi colhido sangue por punção cardíaca para dosagem de proteínas totais, albumina, ferro, transferrina, folato, cobalamina, calcio, e gastrina. Os animais receberam dose letal de anestésico e tecido do esôfago terminal foi retirado para histologia. Foi observada a mortalidade operatória dos animais. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e seis ratos foram operados e 30 sobreviveram por 8 semanas. Cinco (33,3 % morreram após FP e 11 (52,3% após JP (p0.05. Os ratos submetidos a JP tiveram uma diminui

  10. Structural alteration of tight and adherens junctions in villous and crypt epithelium of the small and large intestine of conventional nursing piglets infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwonil; Eyerly, Bryan; Annamalai, Thavamathi; Lu, Zhongyan; Saif, Linda J

    2015-06-12

    Integrity of the intestinal epithelium is critical for proper functioning of the barrier that regulates absorption of water and restricts uptake of luminal bacteria. It is maintained mainly by tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). We conducted immunofluorescence (IF) staining for in situ identification of zonula occludin (ZO)-1 proteins for TJ and E-Cadherin proteins for AJ in the small and large intestinal villous and crypt epithelium of nursing pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Twenty 9-day-old piglets [PEDV-infected (n=9) and Mock (n=11)] from PEDV seronegative sows, were orally inoculated [8.9 log₁₀ genomic equivalents/pig] with PEDV PC21A strain or mock. At post-inoculation days (PIDs) 1-5, infected pigs showed severe watery diarrhea and/or vomiting and severe atrophic enteritis. By immunohistochemistry, PEDV antigens were evident in enterocytes lining the villous epithelium. At PIDs 1-5, PEDV-infected pigs exhibited mildly to extensively disorganized, irregular distribution and reduced expression of ZO-1 or E-Cadherin in villous, but not crypt epithelial cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not in the large intestine, when compared to the negative controls. The structural destruction and disorganization of TJ and AJ were extensive in PEDV-infected pigs at PIDs 1-3, but then appeared to reversibly recover at PID 5, as evident by increased numbers of ZO-1-positive epithelial cells and markedly improved appearance of E-Cadherin-positive villous epithelium. Our results suggest a possible involvement of structurally impaired TJ and AJ in the pathogenesis of PEDV, potentially leading to secondary bacterial infections.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein: localization in secretory granules of Paneth cells in the mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte;

    2009-01-01

    in closer detail the synthesis and storage of LBP in the intestinal mucosal epithelium, we performed an immunolocalization of LBP in mouse small intestine. By immunofluorescence microscopy, an antibody recognizing the 58-60 kDa protein of LBP distinctly labeled a small population of cells located deep......Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) is an acute-phase protein involved in the host's response to endotoxin and mainly synthesized and secreted to the blood by the liver. But in addition, LBP is also made by extrahepatic cells, including the enterocyte-like cell line Caco-2. To study...... into the crypts. This cell population was also positive for lysozyme and alpha-defensin 4, identifying Paneth cells as the main intestinal LBP-producing cells. By immunogold electron microscopy, intense labeling was observed in the secretory granules of these cells. We conclude that Paneth cells express LBP...

  12. Granule proteinases define mast cell heterogeneity in the serosa and the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H R; Huntley, J F; Newlands, G F; Mackellar, A; Lammas, D A; Wakelin, D

    1988-12-01

    In order to define further mast cell heterogeneity in the mouse, affinity-purified antibodies against a 28,000 MW serine proteinase from mouse intestinal mast cells (IMCP) and against rat mast cell proteinase I (RMCPI) were used to characterize mast cell cytoplasmic granules immunohistochemically. On Western blot, anti-IMCP cross-reacted with RMCPI and with a 25,000 MW antigen from isolated mouse serosal mast cells (SMC). Anti-RMCPI did not react with IMCP, although it identified the same 25,000 MW antigen from SMC. Isolated SMC (85-90% pure) lacked the 28,000 MW IMCP on Western blot, even though, immunohistochemically, the cells were stained with both anti-RMCPI and anti-IMCP. Anti-IMCP stained the granules of more than 85% of all mast cells detected with toluidine blue in the tongue or gastrointestinal mucosa. The specificity of anti-RMCPI which, in the rat, detects very few mucosal mast cells was almost identical to that of anti-IMCP for murine tongue and gastric and large intestinal mucosae, but a significant proportion of cells in distal jejunal, ileal and caecal mucosae were not stained with this antibody. The immunohistochemistry of the large numbers of mast cells recruited to jejunum following infection 10 days previously with 300 Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae was similar to that of uninfected control mice. The results show that considerable mast cell heterogeneity exists within the gastrointestinal mucosa of the mouse and indicate that there are both similarities and differences between mouse and rat in the distribution of mast cells and of their granule proteinases.

  13. Clinical Applications of the Placement of Blind Nasal Jejunal Tube in Critically Ill Patients%盲视放置鼻空肠管在重症患者中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏威; 唐元旭; 杨聪

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The placement of blind nasal jejunal tube which is a treatment for critically ill patients could solve the problem of enteral nutrition,protect the food from regurgitation and aspiration,reduce aspiration pneumonia,as well as the corrosive esophageal stricture caused by toxic poisoning.Methods: Blind insertion technique of spiral nasal jejunal tube,together with early enteral nutrition therapy,was applied to various patients.Results: Blind insertion technique of spiral nasal jejunal tube had higher concordant and less injury.Conclusion: Blind insertion technique of spiral nasal jejunal tube,which was a clinical research with practical significance,could be used to all kinds of critically ill patients support nutrition,improve prognosis,cure rate and survival rate.%目的:探讨放置鼻空肠管在临床上抢救危重病人时解决肠内营养问题,防止食物返流、误吸,减少吸入性肺炎发生,减轻腐蚀性毒物中毒所致食道狭窄的临床应用效果。方法:对各种危重病人进行手法盲插留置螺旋型鼻空肠管,实施早期肠内营养支持治疗。结果:通过手法盲插留置螺旋型鼻空肠管,成功率较高,对病人损伤小。结论:通过留置鼻空肠管对各种重症患者进行营养支持治疗,可改善重症患者的预后,提高治愈率和存活率,是临床具有实用性意义的研究。

  14. The Knockout Mouse Project

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Christopher P.; Battey, James F.; Bradley, Allan; Bucan, Maja; Capecchi, Mario; Collins, Francis S; Dove, William F.; Duyk, Geoffrey; Dymecki, Susan; Eppig, Janan T.; Grieder, Franziska B.; Heintz, Nathaniel; Hicks, Geoff; Insel, Thomas R; Joyner, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Mouse knockout technology provides a powerful means of elucidating gene function in vivo, and a publicly available genome-wide collection of mouse knockouts would be significantly enabling for biomedical discovery. To date, published knockouts exist for only about 10% of mouse genes. Furthermore, many of these are limited in utility because they have not been made or phenotyped in standardized ways, and many are not freely available to researchers. It is time to harness new technologies and e...

  15. Replacing the computer mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Dernoncourt, Franck

    2014-01-01

    In a few months the computer mouse will be half-a-century-old. It is known to have many drawbacks, the main ones being: loss of productivity due to constant switching between keyboard and mouse, and health issues such as RSI. Like the keyboard, it is an unnatural human-computer interface. However the vast majority of computer users still use computer mice nowadays. In this article, we explore computer mouse alternatives. Our research shows that moving the mouse cursor can be done efficiently ...

  16. Increased cholinergic contractions of jejunal smooth muscle caused by a high cholesterol diet are prevented by the 5-HT4 agonist – tegaserod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Eldon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess cholesterol in bile and in blood is a major risk factor for the respective development of gallbladder disease and atherosclerosis. This lipid in excess negatively impacts the functioning of other smooth muscles, including the intestine. Serotonin is an important mediator of the contractile responses of the small intestine. Drugs targeting the serotonin receptor are used as prokinetic agents to manage intestinal motor disorders, in particular irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, tegaserod, acting on 5-HT4 receptor, ideally should obviate detrimental effects of excessive cholesterol on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. In this study we examined the effect of tegaserod on cholesterol-induced changes in the contractile responses of intestinal smooth muscle. Methods The effects of a high cholesterol (1% diet on the in vitro contractile responses of jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle from Richardson ground squirrels to the cholinergic agonist carbachol were examined in the presence or absence of tetrodrodotoxin (TTX. Two groups of animals, fed either low (0.03% or high cholesterol rat chow diet, were further divided into two subgroups and treated for 28 days with either vehicle or tegaserod. Results The high cholesterol diet increased, by nearly 2-fold, contractions of the jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle elicited by carbachol. These cholinergic contractions were mediated by muscarinic receptors since they were blocked by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, but not by the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium. Tegaserod treatment, which did not affect cholinergic contractions of tissues from low cholesterol fed animals, abrogated the increase caused by the high cholesterol diet. With low cholesterol diet TTX enhanced carbachol-evoked contractions, whereas this action potential blocker did not affect the augmented cholinergic contractions seen with tissues from animals on the high cholesterol diet. Tegaserod

  17. An encyclopedia of mouse DNA elements (Mouse ENCODE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, John A; Snyder, Michael; Hardison, Ross; Ren, Bing; Gingeras, Thomas; Gilbert, David M; Groudine, Mark; Bender, Michael; Kaul, Rajinder; Canfield, Theresa; Giste, Erica; Johnson, Audra; Zhang, Mia; Balasundaram, Gayathri; Byron, Rachel; Roach, Vaughan; Sabo, Peter J; Sandstrom, Richard; Stehling, A Sandra; Thurman, Robert E; Weissman, Sherman M; Cayting, Philip; Hariharan, Manoj; Lian, Jin; Cheng, Yong; Landt, Stephen G; Ma, Zhihai; Wold, Barbara J; Dekker, Job; Crawford, Gregory E; Keller, Cheryl A; Wu, Weisheng; Morrissey, Christopher; Kumar, Swathi A; Mishra, Tejaswini; Jain, Deepti; Byrska-Bishop, Marta; Blankenberg, Daniel; Lajoie, Bryan R; Jain, Gaurav; Sanyal, Amartya; Chen, Kaun-Bei; Denas, Olgert; Taylor, James; Blobel, Gerd A; Weiss, Mitchell J; Pimkin, Max; Deng, Wulan; Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; Fisher-Aylor, Katherine I; Desalvo, Gilberto; Kiralusha, Anthony; Trout, Diane; Amrhein, Henry; Mortazavi, Ali; Edsall, Lee; McCleary, David; Kuan, Samantha; Shen, Yin; Yue, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Davis, Carrie A; Zaleski, Chris; Jha, Sonali; Xue, Chenghai; Dobin, Alex; Lin, Wei; Fastuca, Meagan; Wang, Huaien; Guigo, Roderic; Djebali, Sarah; Lagarde, Julien; Ryba, Tyrone; Sasaki, Takayo; Malladi, Venkat S; Cline, Melissa S; Kirkup, Vanessa M; Learned, Katrina; Rosenbloom, Kate R; Kent, W James; Feingold, Elise A; Good, Peter J; Pazin, Michael; Lowdon, Rebecca F; Adams, Leslie B

    2012-08-13

    To complement the human Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project and to enable a broad range of mouse genomics efforts, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium is applying the same experimental pipelines developed for human ENCODE to annotate the mouse genome.

  18. The MOUSE Squad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a New York city after-school program started by MOUSE (Making Opportunities for Upgrading Schools and Education), a national nonprofit group that teaches students how to fix computers, and equips them with the communication and problem-solving skills to help them in the working world. The MOUSE program is part of a trend…

  19. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yetisir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP. Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient.

  20. Mouse genome database 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  1. Usefulness of jejunal biopsy in the study of intestinal malabsorption in the elderly Utilidad de la biopsia yeyunal en el estudio de la malabsorción intestinal en el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lobo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: small bowel structure and function are not different between elderly people and young people. Thus, in principle it is advisable to perform diagnostic investigation of elderly patients as well as younger patients when they present with symptoms suggestive of intestinal malabsorption. A key test for the etiologic diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption, jejunal biopsy, has not been specifically examined to assess its usefulness and risk of complications in this advanced age patients. Aim: to establish the usefulness of jejunal biopsy with the Watson's capsule in the elderly patients with suspected intestinal malabsorption. Patients: patients older than 65 years referred to our Unit for performance of a jejunal biopsy from 1996 to 2001 for suspicion of intestinal malabsorption. Results: forty-seven patients were included. Appropriate biopsy sample was obtained in 45 cases, although in 3 patients a second try was required. Histologic findings: partial villous atrophy in 10 cases (22.2%, complete villous atrophy in 5 cases (11.1%, intraepithelial lymphocytosis in 5 cases (11.1%, and single cases of intestinal lymphangiectasia, amyloidosis, unspecific jejunitis, and Whipple's disease. Histology was normal in 19 cases (42%. Definitive diagnosis was celiac disease in 14 patients, bacterial overgrowth in 3, jejunitis in 3, Whipple's disease in 1, lymphangiectasia in 1, atrophic gastritis in 3, amyloidosis in 1, and ischemic colitis in 1. Jejunal biopsy achieved an etiologic diagnosis in 20 patients. There were no cases of perforations or bleeding. Conclusion: jejunal biopsy is a useful and safe test for the etiologic diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption in elderly patients.Fundamento: la estructura y función del intestino delgado en el anciano sano y en el joven no difieren. Por este motivo ante la sospecha clínica de malabsorción intestinal en el anciano siempre deben realizarse las pruebas necesarias para identificar su causa. Una prueba

  2. A phase IIa randomized, double-blind trial of erlotinib in inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in aberrant crypt foci of the colorectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Daniel L; Meyskens, Frank L; Morgan, Timothy R; Zell, Jason A; Carroll, Robert; Benya, Richard; Chen, Wen-Pin; Mo, Allen; Tucker, Chris; Bhattacharya, Asmita; Huang, Zhiliang; Arcilla, Myra; Wong, Vanessa; Chung, Jinah; Gonzalez, Rachel; Rodriguez, Luz Maria; Szabo, Eva; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Lipkin, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer progresses through multiple distinct stages that are potentially amenable to chemopreventative intervention. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are efficacious in advanced tumors including colorectal cancer. There is significant evidence that EGFR also plays important roles in colorectal cancer initiation, and that EGFR inhibitors block tumorigenesis. We performed a double-blind randomized clinical trial to test whether the EGFR inhibitor erlotinib given for up to 30 days had an acceptable safety and efficacy profile to reduce EGFR signaling biomarkers in colorectal aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a subset of which progress to colorectal cancer, and normal rectal tissue. A total of 45 patients were randomized to one of three erlotinib doses (25, 50, and 100 mg) with randomization stratified by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use. There were no unanticipated adverse events with erlotinib therapy. Erlotinib was detected in both normal rectal mucosa and ACFs. Colorectal ACF phosphorylated ERK (pERK), phosphorylated EGFR (pEGFR), and total EGFR signaling changes from baseline were modest and there was no dose response. Overall, this trial did not meet is primary efficacy endpoint. Colorectal EGFR signaling inhibition by erlotinib is therefore likely insufficient to merit further studies without additional prescreening stratification or potentially longer duration of use.

  3. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinley John N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  4. Differentiating between endocervical glandular neoplasia and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in endocervical crypts: cytological features in ThinPrep and SurePath cervical cytology samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiryayi, Sakinah A; Marshall, Janet; Rana, Durgesh N

    2009-05-01

    A recent audit at our institution revealed a higher number of cases diagnosed as endocervical glandular neoplasia on ThinPrep (TP) cervical cytology samples (9 cases) as opposed to SurePath (SP) (1 case), which on histology showed only high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) with endocervical crypt involvement (CI). We attempted to ascertain the reasons for this finding by reviewing the available slides of these cases, as well as slides of cases diagnosed as glandular neoplasia on cytology and histology; cases diagnosed as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) on cytology which had CIN with CI on histology and cases with mixed glandular and squamous abnormalities diagnosed both cytologically and histologically. Single neoplastic glandular cells and short pseudostratified strips were more prevalent in SP than TP with the cell clusters in glandular neoplasia 3-4 cells thick, in contrast to the dense crowded centre of cell groups in HSIL with CI. The cells at the periphery of groups can be misleading. Cases with HSIL and glandular neoplasia have a combination of the features of each entity in isolation. The diagnosis of glandular neoplasia remains challenging and conversion from conventional to liquid based cervical cytology requires a period of learning and adaptation, which can be facilitated by local audit and review of the cytology slides in cases with a cytology-histology mismatch.

  5. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) on Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in F344 Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, In Suk; Lee, Jeong Soon; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Chong Suk

    2014-06-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) has long been used as a health food and oriental folk medicine because of its nutritional fortification, tonic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to be implicated in a range of diseases, may be important progenitors of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of yam on antioxidant status and inflammatory conditions during azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. We measured the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), hemolysate antioxidant enzyme activities, colonic mucosal antioxidant enzyme gene expression, and colonic mucosal inflammatory mediator gene expression. The feeding of yam prior to carcinogenesis significantly inhibited AOM-induced colonic ACF formation. In yam-administered rats, erythrocyte levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were increased and colonic mucosal gene expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, and GPx were up-regulated compared to the AOM group. Colonic mucosal gene expression of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nuclear factor kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1beta) was suppressed by the yam-supplemented diet. These results suggest that yam could be very useful for the prevention of colon cancer, as they enhance the antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory mediators.

  6. Anti-carcinogenic properties of omeprazole against human colon cancer cells and azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlolla, Jagan M R; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Qian; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2012-01-01

    Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, a widely used drug to treat ulcers and gastroesophageal refluxdisease. We have evaluated colon cancer chemopreventive properties of omeprazole using azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats and analyzed cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cells. Five-week-old male F344 rats were fed a control or experimental diet containing two doses of omeprazole (200 and 400 ppm). After one week, all animals were s.c. injected with AOM (15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for two weeks). Rats continued on experimental diets for seven more weeks before being sacrificed. Colons were histopathologically evaluated for ACF. Human colon cancer HCT-116 and HCA-7 cells treated with omeprazole were evaluated for different markers associated with proliferation and apoptotic markers using Western blot technique. Rats fed with 200 and 400 ppm of omeprazole significantly suppressed total colonic ACF formation (~30%, Pcancer cell lines HCT-116 and HCA-7 cells resulted in induction of p21waf1/cip1 and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin in a dose-dependent manner. Anticancer properties observed in colon cancer cell lines suggest that omeprazole may induce key signaling molecules of antiproliferation and inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  7. Food-grade TiO2 impairs intestinal and systemic immune homeostasis, initiates preneoplastic lesions and promotes aberrant crypt development in the rat colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Sarah; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Cartier, Christel; Coméra, Christine; Gaultier, Eric; Dupuy, Jacques; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Grysan, Patrick; Reguer, Solenn; Thieriet, Nathalie; Réfrégiers, Matthieu; Thiaudière, Dominique; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Carrière, Marie; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Pierre, Fabrice H.; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence; Houdeau, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2) containing a nanoscale particle fraction (TiO2-NPs) is approved as a white pigment (E171 in Europe) in common foodstuffs, including confectionary. There are growing concerns that daily oral TiO2-NP intake is associated with an increased risk of chronic intestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. In rats orally exposed for one week to E171 at human relevant levels, titanium was detected in the immune cells of Peyer’s patches (PP) as observed with the TiO2-NP model NM-105. Dendritic cell frequency increased in PP regardless of the TiO2 treatment, while regulatory T cells involved in dampening inflammatory responses decreased with E171 only, an effect still observed after 100 days of treatment. In all TiO2-treated rats, stimulation of immune cells isolated from PP showed a decrease in Thelper (Th)-1 IFN-γ secretion, while splenic Th1/Th17 inflammatory responses sharply increased. E171 or NM-105 for one week did not initiate intestinal inflammation, while a 100-day E171 treatment promoted colon microinflammation and initiated preneoplastic lesions while also fostering the growth of aberrant crypt foci in a chemically induced carcinogenesis model. These data should be considered for risk assessments of the susceptibility to Th17-driven autoimmune diseases and to colorectal cancer in humans exposed to TiO2 from dietary sources. PMID:28106049

  8. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinley John

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  9. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-01-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76–151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention. PMID:27490566

  10. Novel Combination of Prebiotics Galacto-Oligosaccharides and Inulin-Inhibited Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Biomarkers of Colon Cancer in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Tahir Rasool; Syed, Fatima; Nasir, Muhammad; Rehman, Habib; Zahid, Muhammad Nauman; Liu, Rui Hai; Iqbal, Sanaullah

    2016-08-01

    The selectivity and beneficial effects of prebiotics are mainly dependent on composition and glycosidic linkage among monosaccharide units. This is the first study to use prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) that contains β-1,6 and β-1,3 glycosidic linkages and the novel combination of GOS and inulin in cancer prevention. The objective of the present study is to explore the role of novel GOS and inulin against various biomarkers of colorectal cancer (CRC) and the incidence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH)-induced rodent model. Prebiotic treatments of combined GOS and inulin (57 mg each), as well as individual doses (GOS: 76-151 mg; inulin 114 mg), were given to DMH-treated animals for 16 weeks. Our data reveal the significant preventive effect of the GOS and inulin combination against the development of CRC. It was observed that inhibition of ACF formation (55.8%) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher using the GOS and inulin combination than GOS (41.4%) and inulin (51.2%) treatments alone. This combination also rendered better results on short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and bacterial enzymatic activities. Dose-dependent effects of prebiotic treatments were also observed on cecum and fecal bacterial enzymes and on SCFA. Thus, this study demonstrated that novel combination of GOS and inulin exhibited stronger preventive activity than their individual treatments alone, and can be a promising strategy for CRC chemoprevention.

  11. Synbiotic preparation with Lactic acid bacteria and inulin as a functional food: In vivo evaluation of microbial activities, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    Full Text Available Abstract Host microbiome and metabolome are associated with the incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, one of the major health problems in developed countries. The pro and prebiotic supplementation helps to improve the host health. Inulin is one such prebiotic used for the enhancement of naïve probiotic bacterial population. This paper explains the impact of inulin (PRE extracted from Jerusalem artichoke (JA, Lactobacillus plantarum HII11 (PRO, and synbiotic (SYN; inulin + L. plantarum HII11 preparation on Azoxymethane mediated CC induced rat model with respect to changes in microbial load, microbial enzymes, and preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci. The results suggested that the PRE and SYN supplementation effectively reduced the selected pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli, microbial enzymes and increased the probiotic load. The intervention of SYN significantly reduced the colonic ACF in CC model. The study results revealed that the supplementation of SYN diet (inulin and L. plantarum HII11 protects the AOM-mediated colon cancer induced host.

  12. Histological research of tracheal reconstruction by free jejunal%游离空肠重建气管部分缺损后的组织学变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓海燕; 宋文光; 陈恩宽; 梁佩红; 华兴

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究游离空肠修复气管部分缺损后的组织学变化,为其应用于临床提供实验依据.方法 通过建立游离空肠重建气管部分缺损动物实验模型,包括A组Beagle犬6条(不去除肠黏膜组),B组Beagle犬6条(部分去除肠黏膜组)及C组Beagle犬6条(全部去除肠黏膜组),观察术后犬的存活及肠腺分泌对呼吸道的影响,动态观察各实验组的空肠腺上皮在光镜和电镜下的变化及上皮化生情况.结果 所有实验犬术中无死亡,创口Ⅰ期愈合,移植游离空肠全部成活.A组有2条Beagle犬在术后第2周因肺部感染死亡,C组有1条Beagle犬在术后第50天因移植空肠感染而死亡,其余Beagle犬均存活6个月以上.A组术后3个月,移植空肠肠腔表面出现少量非角化鳞状上皮;术后6个月时,移植空肠表面见假复层纤毛柱状皮覆盖.B、C组术后2个月,移植空肠表面见鳞状上皮化生;术后3个月,移植空肠肠腔表面见少量假复层纤毛柱状上皮;术后6个月,移植空肠表面全部见假复层纤毛柱状上皮覆盖,C组黏膜下层有明显胶原纤维增厚.结论 去部分黏膜游离空肠重建气管,能有效减少术后肠液分泌,减少对呼吸道的影响,能加速肠黏膜腺上皮萎缩,促进假复层纤毛柱状上皮覆盖,为其应用于临床提供了实验依据.%Objective To study histological changes after the reconstruction with free jejunal interposition for defect,to provide experimental basis for its clinical application.Methods Animal experimental model of tracheal reconstruction by free jejunal were established and divided into group A (non-mucosal stripping group),group B (partly mucosal stripping group),group C (entire mucosal stripping group) with 6 dogs in each group.Survival situation and intestinal gland secretion of respiratory effects after the operation were observed; the changes of jejunal epithelium and metaplasia situation were observed dynamically under the light and

  13. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  14. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  15. Performance, organ zinc concentration, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA expression in piglets fed with different levels of dietary zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lena; Pieper, Robert; Schunter, Nadine; Vahjen, Wilfried; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of dietary zinc on performance, jejunal brush border membrane enzyme activities and mRNA levels of enzymes and two zinc transporters in piglets. A total of 126 piglets were weaned at 26 ±1 days of age and randomly allocated into three groups fed with diets 50, 150 and 2500 mg zinc/kg. Performance was recorded and at weekly intervals, eight piglets per group were killed. The activities of isolated brush border membrane enzymes including lactase, maltase, sucrase, aminopeptidase-N and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), and the relative transcript abundance of aminopeptidase-N (APN), sucrase-isomaltase (SUC), IAP and the two zinc transporters SLC39A4 (ZIP4) and SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were investigated in the jejunum. Feeding pharmacological zinc levels increased weight gain (p < 0.001) during the first week, but performance was lower (p < 0.05) in the third week. Organ zinc concentrations were increased by high dietary zinc level. The activity of IAP was higher (p < 0.05) with the highest dietary zinc level, no effects were determined for other enzymes. Dietary zinc level had no effect on transcript abundance of digestive enzymes. The mRNA levels decreased (p < 0.001) for ZIP4, and increased for ZnT1 (p < 0.05) with pharmacological zinc levels. In conclusion, pharmacological zinc levels improved performance in the short-term. Intestinal mRNA level of zinc transporters changed with high zinc supply, but this did not prevent zinc accumulation in tissues, suggesting hampered homoeostatic regulation. This might cause impaired performance during longer supply.

  16. Pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy: A comparison between the two pancreaticojejunostomy methods for approximating the pancreatic parenchyma to the jejunal seromuscular layer: Interrupted vs continuous stitches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study is to find a better operative technique by comparing interrupted stitches with continuous stitches for the outer layer of the pancreaticojejunostomy, i.e. the stitches between the stump parenchyma of the pancreas and the jejunal seromuscular layer, and other risk factors for the incidence of pancreatic leakage. METHODS: During the period January 1997 to October 2004, 133 patients have undergone the end-to-side and duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy reconstruction after pancreaticoduodenectomy with interrupted suture for outer layer of the pancreaticojejunostomy and 170 patients with a continuous suture at our institution by one surgeon. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnosis, texture of the pancreas, use of octreotide and pathologic stage. Pancreatic fistula occurred in 14 patients (11%) among the interrupted suture cases and in 10 (6%) among the continuous suture cases (P = 0.102). Major pancreatic leakage developed in three interrupted suture patients (2%) and zero continuous suture patients (P = 0.026). In multivariate analysis, soft pancreatic consistency (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval 2.3-13.1) and common bile duct cancer (odds ratio, 3.7; 95%CI 1.6-8.5) were predictive of pancreatic leakage. CONCLUSION: Pancreatic texture and pathology are the most important factors in determining the fate of pancreaticojejunal anastomosis and our continuous suture method was performed with significantly decreased occurrence of major pancreatic fistula. In conclusion, the continuous suture method is more feasible and safer in performing duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy.

  17. Effect of phytic acid from rice and corn on morphology, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytic acid (IP6 is a potent antioxidant present in several natural foods. Beneficial effects on colon cancer and inflammation have been associated to IP6 in several studies, however, scarce data about the effect on small intestine are available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of IP6 from rice and corn on intestinal morphology, cellular proliferation, apoptosis and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 expression using swine jejunal explants as experimental model. This report demonstrated that explants treated with 0.5 mM, 2.5 mM and 5 mM of IP6 from rice and 2.5 mM and 5 mM from corn showed higher villi height compared to control. Explants treated with 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 from rice exhibited a significant reduction on intestinal histological changes (villi atrophy and fusion, edema, lymphatic vessel dilation, loss of apical enterocytes, cell vacuolation, necrotic debris, morphology of enterocytes and microvilli and number of villi. The cellular proliferation decreased in the explants treated with the dosages of 2.5 mM and 5 mM from rice and a significant decrease in cell apoptosis was observed in the treatments with 2.5 mM IP6 from rice and 5 mM IP6 from corn compared to the control. The explants treated with 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 from rice and corn showed a significant reduction of the Cox-2 expression. Higher dosages of IP6 from rice and corn used in this experiment increased the viability and preservation of intestinal tissue as evidenced by morphological and immunohistochemical assays.

  18. Influência da vitamina C e da hidrocortisona sobre a tensão anastomótica jejunal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da vitamina C e da hidrocortisona sobre os processos cicatriciais anastomóticos apresenta resultados conflitantes na literatura. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de comparar a resistência cicatricial de anastomoses jejunais em ratos, submetidos à administração de vitamina C e de hidrocortisona, em distintos períodos pós-operatórios. Foram estudados 40 ratos Wistar, submetidos a secção e subseqüente anastomose término-terminal de segmento jejunal, a 10 cm da flexura duodenojejunal. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=10: Grupo I - controle; Grupo II - administração de vitamina C oral 100 mg/kg; Grupo III - administração de hidrocortisona intraperitoneal 10 mg/kg; Grupo IV - administração de vitamina C mais hidrocortisona nas doses e vias de administração acima. Avaliaram-se as pressões de ruptura anastomótica nos 5 º e 21º dias pós-operatórios. Os ratos que receberam vitamina C isolada ou associada a hidrocortisona tenderam a uma pressão de ruptura maior do que os demais grupos, tanto no 5º quanto no 21º dias pós-operatórios. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a vitamina C contribui para aumentar a resistência das anastomoses jejunais dos ratos durante os primeiros 5 dias pós-operatórios. A resistência das anastomoses jejunais murinas foi pouco influenciada pela administração de corticóide intraperitoneal.

  19. Preterm infant gut microbiota affects intestinal epithelial development in a humanized microbiome gnotobiotic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Lu, Lei; Sun, Jun; Petrof, Elaine O; Claud, Erika C

    2016-09-01

    Development of the infant small intestine is influenced by bacterial colonization. To promote establishment of optimal microbial communities in preterm infants, knowledge of the beneficial functions of the early gut microbiota on intestinal development is needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of early preterm infant microbiota on host gut development using a gnotobiotic mouse model. Histological assessment of intestinal development was performed. The differentiation of four epithelial cell lineages (enterocytes, goblet cells, Paneth cells, enteroendocrine cells) and tight junction (TJ) formation was examined. Using weight gain as a surrogate marker for health, we found that early microbiota from a preterm infant with normal weight gain (MPI-H) induced increased villus height and crypt depth, increased cell proliferation, increased numbers of goblet cells and Paneth cells, and enhanced TJs compared with the changes induced by early microbiota from a poor weight gain preterm infant (MPI-L). Laser capture microdissection (LCM) plus qRT-PCR further revealed, in MPI-H mice, a higher expression of stem cell marker Lgr5 and Paneth cell markers Lyz1 and Cryptdin5 in crypt populations, along with higher expression of the goblet cell and mature enterocyte marker Muc3 in villus populations. In contrast, MPI-L microbiota failed to induce the aforementioned changes and presented intestinal characteristics comparable to a germ-free host. Our data demonstrate that microbial communities have differential effects on intestinal development. Future studies to identify pioneer settlers in neonatal microbial communities necessary to induce maturation may provide new insights for preterm infant microbial ecosystem therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Influência do ácido ascórbico em anastomoses e alças jejunais íntegras de rato Influence of ascorbic acid on anastomotic and jejunal resistance in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy PETROIANU

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - O efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre os processos cicatriciais anastomóticos apresenta resultados conflitantes na literatura. Objetivo - Comparar a resistência cicatricial de anastomoses e de segmentos íntegros jejunais de ratos submetidos a administração de vitamina C, em distintos períodos pós-operatórios. Método - Foram estudados 50 ratos Wistar, submetidos a secção e subseqüente anastomose término-terminal de segmento jejunal, a 10 cm da flexura duodenojejunal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (n = 25: Grupo I - controle; Grupo II - administração de vitamina C oral, 100 mg/kg. Avaliaram-se as pressões de ruptura anastomótica e do segmento íntegro jejunal nos 3º, 5º, 7º, 21º e 28º dias pós-operatórios. Resultados - Os ratos que receberam vitamina C apresentaram uma pressão de ruptura anastomótica maior nos 5º, 7º e 28º dias pós-operatórios. O mesmo ocorreu com as pressões de ruptura do segmento íntegro jejunal dos ratos. Conclusões - A vitamina C aumentou a resistência das anastomoses jejunais dos ratos, tanto no pós-operatório imediato, quanto no tardio. Além disso, a resistência final dos segmentos jejunais íntegros dos ratos submetidos a administração de vitamina C foi significativamente maior do que no Grupo Controle.Backgroud - The effects of vitamin C on anastomotic healing process are controversial. Objective - To compare the jejunal anastomotic tension and in the upright segment in different postoperative periods. Method - Fifty male rats weighing 250 to 400 grams were submitted to laparotomy. The jejunum was transversally cut 10 cm from the duodenojejunal flexure, and subsequently anastomosed. The rats were divided into two groups (n = 25. Group I - control, Group II - oral administration of vitamin C (100 mg/kg. The anastomotic and the upright segment resistance was determined by using bursting pressure test on the 3rd, 5th , 7th , 21st and 28th postoperative days

  1. Application of reserved jejunal feeding tube during postoperative chemotherapy of gastric cancer%保留空肠营养管在胃癌术后化疗期间的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马汉军; 李三荣; 金汉生; 孙坚; 舒先林; 叶亚林; 吕清泉; 魏琦

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of reserved jejunal feeding tube during postoperative chemotherapy of gastric cancer. Methods Forty-two patients with gastric cancer underwent radical gastrectomy and going to adjuvant chemotherapy,conventional placed jejunal feeding tube. All of the patients weredivided into group A and group B randomly by pathological staging and tumor site, group A reserved jejunal feeding tube and received enteral nutrition through the tube during chemotherapy, and group B non-reservedjejunal feeding tube and been given daily diet,compared nutrition and immune indicators of two groups beforeand after chemotherapy ,compared the rate of vomiting,and observed complications long-term reserved jejunal feeding tube. Results In post-chemotherapy,nutrition and immune indicators of group A were betterthan those of group B, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) ,the rate of vomiting in group Awas significantly lower than that of in group B (X2= 9.75, P<0.01 ), no serious complieations occurred forlong-term reserved jejunal feeding tube. Conclusions Reserved jejunal feeding tube and received enteralnutrition through the tube during postoperative chemotherapy of gastric cancer can significantly improve the nutritional and immune status. It is safe and reliable, worth promoting.%目的 探讨保留空肠营养管在胃癌术后化疗期间的应用价值.方法 总结42例胃癌根治术后行辅助化疗患者的临床资料,术中常规放置空肠营养管,将所有病例按术后病理分期及肿瘤部位随机分为A、B两组,每组各21例,A组保留空肠营养管并在化疗期间经空肠营养管行肠内营养,B组不保留空肠营养管在化疗期间按日常进食,分别比较两组化疗前后营养及免疫指标,比较两组患者呕吐的发生率.观察长期保留空肠营养管的并发症.结果 化疗后A组营养及免疫指标较B组明显提高,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).A

  2. Investigation of three doses of oral insulin-like growth factor-I on jejunal lactase phlorizin hydrolase activity and gene expression and enterocyte proliferation and migration in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, V M; Park, Y K; Laswell, S C; Freund, G G; Dudley, M A; Donovan, S M

    2000-10-01

    In a previous study, oral IGF-I at 65 nM increased lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) activity and villus height in piglets, however, the mechanisms were unknown. Herein, the response to a range of doses of IGF-I was investigated and we hypothesized that LPH and villus height would respond to oral IGF-I in a dose-dependent manner. Two 14-d experiments were conducted using cesarean-derived piglets. In experiment 1, piglets (n = 28) were fed formula containing 0, 33, 65, or 131 nmol/L (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/L) recombinant human IGF-I. In experiment 2, 5'-bromodeoxyuridine was administered to piglets fed formula alone (n = 4) or containing 131 nmol/L IGF-I (n = 4). IGF-I did not affect body weight gain or intestinal weight or length. Jejunal villus height and LPH activity were significantly greater in piglets fed 131 nmol IGF-I/L than control piglets. Villus height and lactase activity in piglets fed the 33 and 65 nmol/L IGF-I doses were similar and intermediate between control and 131 nmol IGF-I/L. Jejunal mRNA expression and LPH polypeptide abundance were investigated in piglets receiving 0 or 131 nmol/L IGF-I. Steady state LPH mRNA abundance was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in IGF-I-treated piglets. The relative abundance of proLPH(h) was not significantly increased (p = 0.06) by IGF-I treatment. Mucosal DNA content and DNA synthesis were greater in piglets receiving 131 nmol IGF-I/L than control, however, enterocyte migration and mucosal protein content were unaffected. Thus, oral IGF-I increased jejunal LPH activity and LPH mRNA abundance and stimulated intestinal cell hyperplasia in normal piglets.

  3. Number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the sperm reservoir at about 24 h after a low-dose intrauterine and deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, P; Tienthai, P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the number of spermatozoa in the crypts of the utero-tubal junction (UTJ) and the oviduct of sows approximately 24 h after intrauterine insemination (IUI) and deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) and compared with that of conventional artificial insemination (AI). Fifteen crossbred Landrace x Yorkshire (LY) multiparous sows were used in the experiment. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every 4 h to examine the time of ovulation in relation to oestrous behaviour. The sows were inseminated with a single dose of diluted fresh semen by the AI (n = 5), IUI (n = 5) and DIUI (n = 5) at approximately 6-8 h prior to the expected time of ovulation, during the second oestrus after weaning. The sperm dose contained 3000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 100 ml for AI, 1,000 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 50 ml for IUI and 150 x 10(6) spermatozoa in 5 ml for DIUI. The sows were anaesthetized and ovario-hysterectomized approximately 24 h after insemination. The oviducts and the proximal part of the uterine horns (1 cm) on each side of the reproductive tracts were collected. The section was divided into four parts, i.e. UTJ, caudal isthmus, cranial isthmus and ampulla. The spermatozoa in the lumen in each part were flushed several times with phosphate buffer solution. After flushing, the UTJ and all parts of the oviducts were immersed in a 10% neutral buffered formalin solution. The UTJ and each part of the oviducts were cut into four equal parts and embedded in a paraffin block. The tissue sections were transversely sectioned to a thickness of 5 mum. Every fifth serial section was mounted and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The total number of spermatozoa from 32 sections in each parts of the tissue (16 sections from the left side and 16 sections from the right side) was determined under light microscope. The results reveal that most of the spermatozoa in the histological section were located in groups in the epithelial crypts. The means of

  4. Chemopreventive Effects of Germinated Rough Rice Crude Extract in Inhibiting Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, Elnaz; Saiful Yazan, Latifah; Mohd Ali, Razana; Ahmad, Zalinah

    2017-01-01

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to low success rate of current therapeutic modalities. Diet plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This research was carried out to study the chemopreventive properties of germinated rough rice (GRR) crude extract in Sprague-Dawley rats induced with azoxymethane. Germination of rough rice causes significant changes in several chemical compositions of presently bioactive compounds. These compounds may prevent or postpone the inception of cancer. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups which were (G1) induced with azoxymethane (AOM) and not given GRR (positive control), (G2) induced with AOM and given 2000 mg/kg GRR, (G3) induced with AOM and given 1000 mg/kg GRR, (G4) induced with AOM and given 500 mg/kg GRR, and (G5) not induced with AOM and not given GRR crude extract (negative control). To induce colon cancer, rats received two IP injections of AOM in saline (15 mg/kg) for two subsequent weeks. Organs were removed and weighed. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. β-Catenin expressions were determined by Western blot. Treatment with 2000 mg/kg GRR crude extract not only resulted in the greatest reduction in the size and number of ACF but also displayed the highest percentage of nondysplastic ACF. Treatment with 2000 mg/kg GRR also gave the lowest level of expression in β-catenin. Thus, GRR could be a promising dietary supplement for prevention of CRC.

  5. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  6. Bacillus subtilis spores reduce susceptibility to Citrobacter rodentium-mediated enteropathy in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arienzo, Rossana; Maurano, Francesco; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Luongo, Diomira; Stefanile, Rosita; Ricca, Ezio; Rossi, Mauro

    2006-11-01

    The present work was aimed at investigating whether Bacillus subtilis spores, widely used in probiotic as well as pharmaceutical preparations for mild gastrointestinal disorders, can suppress enteric infections. To address this issue, we developed a mouse model of infection using the mouse enteropathogen Citrobacter rodentium, a member of a family of human and animal pathogens which includes the clinically significant enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli strains. This group of pathogens causes transmissible colonic hyperplasia by using attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions to colonize the host colon. Because of its similarities to human enteropathogens, C. rodentium is now widely used as an in vivo model for gastrointestinal infections. Swiss NIH mice were orally administered B. subtilis spores one day before infection with C. rodentium. Mice were sacrificed on day 15 after infection, and distal colon, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes were removed for bacteria counts, morphology, immunohistology and IFNgamma mRNA analysis. We observed that spore predosing was effective in significantly decreasing infection and enteropathy in suckling mice infected with a dose of C. rodentium sufficient to cause colon colonization, crypt hyperplasia and high mortality rates. Moreover, in mice predosed with spores, the number of CD4(+) cells and IFNgamma transcript levels remained high. These results thus indicate that our newly established model of C. rodentium infection is a suitable system for analyzing the effects of probiotic bacteria on enteroinfections and that B. subtilis spores are efficient at reducing C. rodentium infection in mice, leaving unaltered the immune response against the pathogen.

  7. Tissue-Specific Effects of Reduced β-catenin Expression on Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation-Instigated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Colon and Ovarian Epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC inactivating mutations are present in most human colorectal cancers and some other cancers. The APC protein regulates the β-catenin protein pool that functions as a co-activator of T cell factor (TCF-regulated transcription in Wnt pathway signaling. We studied effects of reduced dosage of the Ctnnb1 gene encoding β-catenin in Apc-mutation-induced colon and ovarian mouse tumorigenesis and cell culture models. Concurrent somatic inactivation of one Ctnnb1 allele, dramatically inhibited Apc mutation-induced colon polyposis and greatly extended Apc-mutant mouse survival. Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose markedly inhibited increases in β-catenin levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus following Apc inactivation in colon epithelium, with attenuated expression of key β-catenin/TCF-regulated target genes, including those encoding the EphB2/B3 receptors, the stem cell marker Lgr5, and Myc, leading to maintenance of crypt compartmentalization and restriction of stem and proliferating cells to the crypt base. A critical threshold for β-catenin levels in TCF-regulated transcription was uncovered for Apc mutation-induced effects in colon epithelium, along with evidence of a feed-forward role for β-catenin in Ctnnb1 gene expression and CTNNB1 transcription. The active β-catenin protein pool was highly sensitive to CTNNB1 transcript levels in colon cancer cells. In mouse ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (OEAs arising from Apc- and Pten-inactivation, while Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose affected β-catenin levels and some β-catenin/TCF target genes, Myc induction was retained and OEAs arose in a fashion akin to that seen with intact Ctnnb1 gene dose. Our findings indicate Ctnnb1 gene dose exerts tissue-specific differences in Apc mutation-instigated tumorigenesis. Differential expression of selected β-catenin/TCF-regulated genes, such as Myc, likely underlies context-dependent effects of Ctnnb1 gene dosage in tumorigenesis.

  8. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  9. Effect of Powder and Hydroalcoholic Extract of Origanum vulgare and Virginiamycin on Performance, Blood Metabolites, Ileal Microflora, Jejunal Morphology and Meat Quality of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad Reza Gangeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Antibiotic feed additives have long been used as growth promoters in poultry nutrition. However, concern has been expressed about the potential development of antibiotic resistant bacteria (25. Consequently, the animal feed industry, exposed to increasing consumer pressure to reduce the use of antibiotic growth promoters in poultry diets, has to find alternative feed additives. Marjoram (Origonum vulgar is a very popular and a common medicinal plant. The main chemical components of marjoram oil are carvacrol, thymol, myrsene, p-cymene, terpinene and pinene (29. The plant is reported to possess antibacterial and antioxidant activities (2, 36. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of adding different levels of marjoram leaves (powder and hydroalcoholic extract into broiler diets on growth performance, blood metabolites, relative weight of internal organs, ileal microflora, jejunal histomorphology and meat quality of broiler chicks. Materials and methods Two hundred and eighty eight one-day old Ross 308 broiler chicks (male were obtained from a commercial local source and used in this study. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 8 treatments, 3 replicates and 12 birds in each replicate. Experimental treatments consisted of control diet (without any additives, antibiotic virginiamycin (100 mg/kg, Origanum vulgare leaves powder (1, 2 and 3% and Origanum vulgare extract (150, 250 and 350 mg/kg. The experimental period lasted up to the 42 d of age. The rearing and management conditions were equal for all groups. Experimental diets were formulated to meet the nutrients requirements of the Ross broiler chicks (3. Chicks had full access to feed and water during the experimental period. Live body weight and feed intake were recorded at 10, 24 and 42 d of age for each replicate. At the end of the experiment, the blood samples (from one chick per replicate were collected to determine

  10. A high-fat diet reverses improvement in glucose tolerance induced by duodenal-jejunal bypass in type 2 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shao-zhuang; SUN Dong; ZHANG Guang-yong; WANG Lei; LIU Teng; SUN Yu; LI Ming-xia; HU San-yuan

    2012-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery offers successful resolution of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).However,recurrence of T2DM has been observed in a number of patients with initial resolution after bariatric surgery.This study aimed to induce reversal of the improvement of diabetes in T2DM rats after duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB),and identify the effects of weight changes and gut hormones that might be involved.Methods DJB surgery was performed in two T2DM rat models (n=20 for each group):non-obese Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats,and moderately-obese T2DM rats induced by a combination of a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-dose streptozotocin (HS rats).The controls were sham-operated and non-treated rats.All rats were then randomly divided into HFD- and low-fat diet (LFD)-fed groups.Glucose tolerance,insulin tolerance,glucose-stimulated insulin,glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) secretion,food intake and body weight were measured and compared with controls.Results DJB surgery resulted in a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in both GK and HS rats fed with either HFD or LFD.In contrast to LFD-fed rats,improved glucose tolerance was impaired in GK and HS rats fed with an HFD,accompanied by re-impairment of insulin tolerance and failure in enhancement of insulin secretion.There was no significant difference in food intake and body weight between DJB-operated and control rats,and between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Glucose-stimulated GLP-1 and PYY levels were significantly increased after DJB surgery; however,they were not significantly different between HFD- and LFD-fed rats.Conclusion An HFD reverses the improvement in glucose tolerance induced by DJB surgery in T2DM rats,primarily ascribing to the re-impairment of insulin sensitivity,but does not change body weight,GLP-1 and PYY levels.

  11. The deconjugation ability of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids in the blind loop syndrome with high sup 14 CO sub 2 excretion. Using the breath analysis technique and thin-layer chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Mizuno, T.; Shionoiri, H.; Sugiyama, M. (Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    Five patients with blind loop syndrome (Billroth II) were examined by measuring {sup 14}CO{sub 2} specific activity of expired breath samples taken at intervals after a meal containing glycine-1-{sup 14}C cholate. The 5 patients tested showed a marked increase of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} specific activity. Furthermore, the ability of deconjugation of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids in the efferent loop of these patients was tested by thin-layer chromatography. The bacterial species identified from the samples were as follows: enterococcus, Lactobacillus buchneri, L. bifidus, L. brevis, Eubacterium lentum, Bacteroides vulgaricus, B. filamentosum, Corynebacterium granulosum, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Aerobacter aerogenes. These species of bacteria, except E. coli and A. aerogenes, showed the deconjugation ability by which conjugated bile acids in ox gall was hydrolyzed. Administration of chloramphenicol to the 5 patients reduced {sup 14}CO{sub 2} specific activity significantly. On the other hand, 9 healthy men who were tested showed a flat curve, and 8 of the 9 had no growth of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids. The remaining healthy man showed an over growth of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the species did not have the ability of deconjugation.

  12. Adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid (appendiceal-type crypt cell adenocarcinoma) is a morphologically distinct entity with highly aggressive behavior and frequent association with peritoneal/intra-abdominal dissemination: an analysis of 77 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Michelle D; Basturk, Olca; Shaib, Walid L; Xue, Yue; Balci, Serdar; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Akkas, Gizem; Memis, Bahar; Robinson, Brian S; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Staley, Charles A; Staley, Christopher A; Winer, Joshua H; Russell, Maria C; Knight, Jessica H; Goodman, Michael; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Adsay, Volkan

    2016-10-01

    High-grade versions of appendiceal goblet cell carcinoids ('adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoids') are poorly characterized. We herein document 77 examples. Tumors occurred predominantly in females (74%), mean age 55 years (29-84), most with disseminated abdominal (77% peritoneal, 58% gynecologic tract involvement) and stage IV (65%) disease. Many presented to gynecologic oncologists, and nine had a working diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. Metastases to liver (n=3) and lung (n=1) were uncommon and none arose in adenomatous lesions. Tumors had various histologic patterns, in variable combinations, most of which were fairly specific, making them recognizable as appendiceal in origin, even at metastatic sites: I: Ordinary goblet cell carcinoid/crypt pattern (rounded, non-luminal acini with well-oriented goblet cells), in variable amounts in all cases. II: Poorly cohesive goblet cell pattern (diffusely infiltrative cords/single files of signet ring-like/goblet cells). III: Poorly cohesive non-mucinous cell (diffuse-infiltrative growth of non-mucinous cells). IV: Microglandular (rosette-like glandular) pattern without goblet cells. V: Mixed 'other' carcinoma foci (including ordinary intestinal/mucinous). VI: goblet cell carcinoid pattern with high-grade morphology (marked nuclear atypia). VII: Solid sheet-like pattern punctuated by goblet cells/microglandular units. Ordinary nested/trabecular ('carcinoid pattern') was very uncommon. In total, 33(52%) died of disease, with median overall survival 38 months and 5-year survival 32%. On multivariate analysis perineural invasion and younger age (tumor progression. In conclusion, 'adenocarcinoma ex-goblet cell carcinoid' is an appendix-specific, high-grade malignant neoplasm with distinctive morphology that is recognizable at metastatic sites and recapitulates crypt cells (appendiceal crypt cell adenocarcinoma). Unlike intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, it occurs predominantly in women, is disguised as gynecologic malignancy

  13. The suppression of aberrant crypt multiplicity in colonic tissue of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-treated C57BL/6J mice by dietary flavone is associated with an increased expression of Krebs cycle enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Isabel; Diehl, Daniela; Oesterle, Doris; Daniel, Hannelore; Wenzel, Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide with diet playing a prominent role in disease initiation and progression. Flavonoids are secondary plant compounds that are suggested as protective ingredients of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. We here tested whether flavone, a flavonoid that proved to be an effective apoptosis inducer in colon cancer cells in culture, can affect the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) in C57BL/6J mice in vivo when preneoplastic lesions were induced by the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Flavone applied at either a low dose (15 mg/kg body wt per day) or a high dose (400 mg/kg body wt per day) reduced the numbers of ACFs significantly, independent of whether it was supplied simultaneously with the carcinogen (blocking group) or subsequent to the tumor induction phase (suppressing group). Proteome analysis performed in colonic tissue samples revealed that flavone treatment increased the expression of a number of Krebs cycle enzymes in the suppressing group and this was associated with reduced crypt multiplicity. It suggests that mitochondrial substrate oxidation is increased by flavone in colonic cells in vivo as already observed in HT-29 cells in vitro as the prime mechanism underlying tumor cell apoptosis induction by flavone. In conclusion, flavone reduces the number of ACFs in DMH-treated mice at doses that can be achieved for flavonoids by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. Moreover, reduction in crypt multiplicity by flavone is most probably due to the preservation of a normal oxidative metabolism.

  14. 游离空肠移植重建下咽及颈段食管的临床分析%Reconstruction with free jejunal interposition for defect after tumor resection of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵德安; 高兴强

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨游离空肠修复下咽及颈段食管肿瘤切除术后组织缺损的方法 和疗效.方法 回顾性分析采用游离空肠重建下咽颈段食管7例,为下咽癌侵及颈段食管,均行全喉、下咽及颈段食管切除.术前均行X线食管造影及胃镜检查,了解病变范围,术后复查X线食管造影.术后均补充放疗.随访7个月~24个月.结果 本组7例患者移植游离空肠全部成活.1例于术后13 d发现咽瘘,经换药、抗炎等处理后18 d痊愈.1例患者于术后95 d无明确诱因出现上消化道大出血死亡.1例患者术后5个月出现进食困难,发现胸段食管癌,放弃治疗于术后11个月死亡.5例患者随访至今游离空肠均成活良好,无吻合口狭窄及进食困难.结论 以游离空肠修复下咽及颈段食管部位肿瘤切除术所致缺损,并发症较少,成功率高,恢复消化道的连续性安全可靠.%Objective To discuss the use of free jejunal flap reconstruction for circumferential defect after tumor resection of hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer. Methods Retrospective review of 7 pa-tients who underwent hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal reconstruction with free jejunal interposition from 2005 to 2007. All 7 cases who suffered from hypopharyngeal and cervical esophageal cancer were given resection of the larynx, hypopharynx and cervical esophagus. Neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy were carried out for all patients. Results All the 7 free jejunal flaps survived completely and the flap success rate was 100%. For successful cases,one case occurred pharyngeal fistula on postoperative thirteenth day and healed on postoperative eighteenth day, One patient was died of the gastrointestinal bleeding on postoperative ninety-five day. one patient couldn' t swallow after five months because of recurrence of pectoral esophageal cancer and died after eleven months. Follow-up 7 to 24 months, five survived cases were no recurrence and dysphagia

  15. Apllication of enteral nutrition by the nasal jejunal tube in severe traumatic brain injury%鼻肠管喂养在重型颅脑损伤病人中的应用和疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛杏果; 焦宪法; 李伟丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition by the nasal jejunal tube in severe traumatic brain injury.Methonds:54 cases were divided into two groups:nasogastric tube group (28 cases)and nasal jejunal tube group(26 cases).Plasma albumin,pre-albumin and tansferrin levels were measured immediately after hospitalization and day 7,14 after treatment.Results:Compared with nasogastric tube group,at the same time after treatment,plasma pre-albumin and tansferrin levels in nasal jejunal tube group were higher(P<0.01 and P<0.05).The nasal jejunal tube group had lower incidence of reflux(P<0.01)and pneumonia(P<0.01)less days staying in ICU(P<0.01),lower rate of back to ICU within 30 days(P<0.01).Conclusion:Compared with gastric feeding,enteral nutrition by the nasal jejunal tube can improve nutritional efficacy,reduce the incidence of reflux and pneumonia,shorten the days in ICU,and reduce the rate of back to ICU within 30 days.%目的:探讨通过留置鼻肠管对重型颅脑损伤病人进行肠内营养(EN)的疗效. 方法:54例重型颅脑损伤病人按EN方式不同分为鼻胃管组(n=28)和鼻肠管组(n=26).监测并比较两组病人入院时、入院第7和第14天血清清蛋白、前清蛋白和转铁蛋白水平.观察并比较两组病人14d内腹胀、腹泻、反流、上消化道出血、肝损害、肺炎等并发症的发生率.计算两组病人平均ICU入住时间和30d内再次入住ICU率. 结果:与鼻胃管组比,鼻肠管组入院第7和第14天前清蛋白和转铁蛋白水平均明显升高(P<0.01,P<0.05).两组14d内腹胀、腹泻、上消化道出血、肝损害发生率比较无显著性差异(P>0.05).与鼻胃管组比,鼻肠管组病人14d内反流和肺炎发生率明显降低(P<0.01),平均ICU入住时间和30d内再次入住ICU率亦明显降低(P<0.01). 结论:与鼻胃管喂养比,鼻肠管喂养更能改善病人的营养状况,明显减少反流和肺炎发生率,缩短ICU停留时间,降低30d内再次入住ICU率.

  16. Colonization, mouse-style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Searle Jeremy B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several recent papers, including one in BMC Evolutionary Biology, examine the colonization history of house mice. As well as background for the analysis of mouse adaptation, such studies offer a perspective on the history of movements of the humans that accidentally transported the mice. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/10/325

  17. Mouse Leydig Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Syong Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS. We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A1, A 2A , A 2B , and A3, AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

  18. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jirí

    2004-01-01

    The Mouse SAGE Site is a web-based database of all available public libraries generated by the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) from various mouse tissues and cell lines. The database contains mouse SAGE libraries organized in a uniform way and provides web-based tools for browsing, comparing and searching SAGE data with reliable tag-to-gene identification. A modified approach based on the SAGEmap database is used for reliable tag identification. The Mouse SAGE Site is maintained on an ongoing basis at the Institute of Molecular Genetics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and is accessible at the internet address http://mouse.biomed.cas.cz/sage/.

  19. Fish Oil Contaminated with Persistent Organic Pollutants Induces Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation and Reduces Antioxidant Enzyme Gene Expression in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Hoh, Eunha; Kang, Brian; DeHamer, Rebecca; Kim, Jin Young; Lumibao, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Background: Epidemiologic, clinical, and experimental studies have suggested that fish oil (FO), a rich source of n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, protects against colon cancer. However, this message is confounded by the FDA's warning that the consumption of certain types of fish should be restricted because of contamination with persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides.Objective: We examined FO contaminated with POPs (PCBs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and chlordane) compared with unmodified FO on the risk factors of colon cancer development.Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 28 d (n = 30) were allocated into 3 groups and fed 15% corn oil (CO), FO, or POP-contaminated FO for 9 wk with a subcutaneous injection of colon carcinogen azoxymethane at weeks 3 and 4. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and cell proliferation were enumerated, and the gene expression of inflammation, antioxidant enzymes, and repair enzymes were determined with the use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis.Results: FO-fed rats had a lower number of ACF (mean ± SE: 29 ± 4.0 for FO compared with 53 ± 8.4 for CO and 44 ± 4.6 for POP FO) and higher-multiplicity ACF than the CO and POP FO groups (4.7 ± 0.9 for FO compared with 11 ± 1.5 for CO and 9.6 ± 1.8 for POP FO) (P < 0.05). FO feeding lowered the proliferation index compared with the CO and POP FO feeding groups (18% ± 1.1% for FO compared with 25% ± 1.6% for CO and 23% ± 0.7% for POP FO) (P = 0.009). Superoxide dismutase [2.4 ± 0.6 relative quantification (RQ) for FO compared with 1.2 ± 0.2 RQ for CO and 1.3 ± 0.3 RQ for POP FO] and catalase gene expression (10 ± 2.0 RQ for FO compared with 5.4 ± 1.1 RQ for CO and 6.6 ± 1.5 RQ for POP FO) were higher in the FO group than in the CO and POP FO groups (P < 0.05). There were no differences between CO and POP FO on the variables.Conclusion: These results indicate that POPs in

  20. Hydrolysed inulin alleviates the azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci by altering selected intestinal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattananandecha, Thanawat; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Duangjitcharoen, Yodsawee; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Suwannalert, Prasit; Peerajan, Sartjin; Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat

    2016-09-01

    Context Inulin, a non-digestible carbohydrate isolated from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae), has been shown to alter the gut beneficial bacteria including Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria. Inulin also influences the activities of intestinal microbiota that could prevent the colon cancer development. Objective This study determines the effect of hydrolysed inulin with different degrees of polymerisation on alteration of intestinal microbiota and their activities on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Materials and methods Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (three control and three AOM-treated groups) and the animal were fed with either a normal diet or diet containing 10% of long-chain inulin (InuL) or short-chain inulin (InuS), respectively, for 17 weeks. Colon cancer was induced in rats by injecting AOM subcutaneously at the 8th and 9th week of the study period. At the end of the experiment, cecal contents of rats were examined for selected microbiota, organic acids, putrefactive compounds and microbial enzymes. ACF formation was microscopically examined. Results The inulin diets significantly increased the weight and decreased the pH of the caecal content. The rats fed with InuL-supplemented diet showed approximately 2.9- and 6.8-fold increases in the biomass of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacteria, respectively. Naive and AOM-treated rats fed with inulin-supplemented diet showed ∼1.3- and ∼2.2-fold decreases in the biomass of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, respectively. Inulins significantly decreased the colonic concentration of phenol, p-cresol and indole. Reduction in the activity of microbial enzymes such as β-glucuronidase, azoreductase and nitroreductase were observed in inulin-treated animals. Reduction in the ACF formation has been observed in inulin-treated groups. Discussion and conclusion The present study demonstrates that dietary

  1. A Simple Device to Rapidly Prepare Whole Mounts of the Mouse Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Mitsuhiro; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko; Goodlad, Robert A

    2015-10-27

    Preparing whole mounts of the mouse small intestine and colon for subsequent analysis or quantification can be time consuming and difficult. We describe the use of a simple device to cut and 'roll' mouse intestines to rapidly prepare whole mount preparations of superior and uniform quality to that which can be achieved by hand. The device comprises a base that holds 4 stainless steel rods and a top, which acts a cutting guide. The rods are inserted into the lumen of the small intestine [divided into thirds] and the colon. The rods and samples are then placed over a piece of filter paper or card into the holding slots in the base of the device. The top of the device is then positioned and serves as a cutting guide. The two angled sections in the center of the top piece are used to guide a knife or scalpel and cut the intestines longitudinally on the top of the rods. Once the intestinal sections have been cut, the top is removed and the card, tissue and rods gently removed from the device and placed on the bench. The rods are then gently rolled sideways to flatten and stick the intestinal segments onto the underlying piece of filter paper or card. The final preparation can then be examined or fixed and stored for later analysis. The preparations are invaluable for the study of intestinal changes in normal or genetically modified mouse models. The preparations have been used for the study and quantification of the effects of inflammation (colitis), damage, pre-cancerous lesions (aberrant crypt foci (ACFs) and mucin depleted foci (MDFs)) and polyps or tumors.

  2. Nursing observation early postoperative gastrointestinal surgery in elderly patients with jejunal enteral nutrition infusion%胃肠外科老人术后早期空肠输注肠内营养护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗美珍

    2015-01-01

    目的: 对应用综合护理干预模式对接受胃肠外科手术治疗的老年患者在术后早期空肠输注肠内营养支持过程中实施护理的临床效果进行研究.方法:选择接受胃肠外科手术治疗的老年患者86例,随机分为对照组和观察组,每组43例,在术后均实施早期空肠输注肠内营养支持.采用综合护理干预模式对观察组患者在营养支持期间实施护理;采用常规护理模式对对照组患者在营养支持期间实施护理.结果:观察组患者对术后营养支持期间的护理服务满意度明显高于对照组;术后营养支持计划实施时间和住院时间明显短于对照组.结论:应用综合护理干预模式对接受胃肠外科手术治疗的老年患者在术后早期空肠输注肠内营养支持过程中实施护理的临床效果非常明显.%Objective:The clinical effect of comprehensive nursing intervention model for application acceptance of gastrointestinal surgical treatment of elderly patients in the early postoperative jejunal enteral nutrition infusion during the implementation of nursing research. Methods:In our hospital receiving treatment in elderly gastrointestinal surgery 86 patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group, 43 cases on average each group, in implementation of early postoperative jejunal infusion of enteral nutrition. Integrated nursing intervention model to observe patients during nutritional support of nursing; conventional nursing model for the control group of patients nutritional support during the implementation of care. Results:The patient satisfaction with care during the postoperative nutritional support significantly higher; postoperative nutritional support program implementation time and total time in hospital receiving treatment was significantly shorter than the control group. Conclusion:Comprehensive nursing intervention model for accepting gastrointestinal surgery in elderly patients in the early

  3. The deconjugation ability of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids in the blind loop syndrome with high 14CO2 excretion--using the breath analysis technique and thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, K; Yamazaki, R; Mizuno, T; Shionoiri, H; Sugiyama, M

    1989-01-01

    Five patients with blind loop syndrome (Billroth II) were examined by measuring 14CO2 specific activity of expired breath samples taken at intervals after a meal containing glycine-1-14C cholate. The 5 patients tested showed a marked increase of 14CO2 specific activity. Furthermore, the ability of deconjugation of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids in the efferent loop of these patients was tested by thin layer chromatography. The bacterial species identified from the samples were as follows: enterococcus, Lactobacillus (L) buchneri, L. bifidus, L. brevis, Eubacterium (E) lentum, Bacteroides (B) vulgaricus, B. filamentosum, Corynebacterium (C) granulosum, Escherichia (E) coli, Staphylococcus (S) epidermidis, and Aerobacter (A) aerogenes. These species of bacteria, except E. coli and A. aerogenes, showed the deconjugation ability by which conjugated bile acids in ox gall was hydrolyzed. Administration of chloramphenicol (1g per day for 14 days orally divided doses) to the 5 patients reduced 14CO2 specific activity significantly. On the other hand, 9 healthy men (control subjects) who were tested showed a flat curve, and 8 of the 9 had no growth of bacteria isolated from the jejunal fluids. The remaining healthy man showed an overgrowth of E. coli and Pseudomonas (P) aeruginosa, but the species did not have the ability of deconjugation. Thus, we concluded that the patients with blind loop syndrome(Billroth II) had the bacterial overgrowth in the efferent loop that contained species with deconjugation ability, and, as a result the bacterial overgrowth contributed to causing abnormalities (increased deconjugation) in the metabolism of bile acids in the small intestine. When the concentration of conjugated bile acids in the small intestine was reduced to levels below the critical micellar concentration by several factors, fat malabsorption and subsequent steatorrhea were induced (1,-4). Furthermore, H. Fromm and A. F. Hofmann presented in vivo that the patients

  4. Estudo comparativo do tratamento de ferimento de colon de coelho com reparo seroso da parede de jejunum e sutura primária Comparative study of colon wound repair using jejunal serosal wall and primary suture, in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edmundo Fontes

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob anestesia geral para a produção de dois ferimentos padronizados em colo não preparado, usando instrumento desenvolvido para esta finalidade. O primeiro ferimento foi produzido a 2 cm do ceco e o segundo 20 cm eqüidistante deste, no sentido caudal. Estes ferimentos foram reparados obedecendo a resultado de sorteio que determinou a técnica a ser usada, se com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno ou por sutura primária. Nas duas técnicas foram usados pontos separados de fio monofilamentar de poliglecaprone 4-0 , sendo que o animal serviu de controle para si mesmo. Realizou-se eutanásia no 7º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo A e no 30º P.O. para os animais do sub-grupo B para avaliação macroscópica e microscópica. O experimento demonstrou que é viável o uso do lado seroso da parede de jejuno para reparar ferimento em colo não preparado e apresentou resultados com tendências a serem superiores aos da sutura primária , não dual de MaringáThe present research aimed to compare the repair of colon wound using both the jejunal wall and the primary suture . Thirty young rabbits white New Zeland were used, weighing about 3,2 Kg. and were born and raised at the University of Maringá's Experimental farm. The animals were deeply anaesthetized and then submited to a surgery during wich two similar wounds were made in unprepared colon . An instrument created for this purpose was used. The first wound was made 2 cm away from the ceco , and the second one was made 20 cm from the first wound in the caudal location. The wounds were repaired using either the jejunal serosal wall or the primary suture. In both techniques were used separated stitches , made by monofilament poliglecaprone 4-0. The animal was used to control itself. The animals were submited to euthanasia either in the 7th or in 30th day after surgery, at random.Then a macroscopic and microscopic study was made. This research

  5. Isolation of Mouse Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamydas, Muthulekha; Luo, Yi; Dorf, Martin E; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-08-03

    Neutrophils represent the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Indeed, patients with inherited and acquired qualitative and quantitative neutrophil defects are at high risk for developing bacterial and fungal infections and suffering adverse outcomes from these infections. Therefore, research aiming at defining the molecular factors that modulate neutrophil effector function under homeostatic conditions and during infection is essential for devising strategies to augment neutrophil function and improve the outcome of infected individuals. This unit describes a reproducible density gradient centrifugation-based protocol that can be applied in any laboratory to harvest large numbers of highly enriched and highly viable neutrophils from the bone marrow of mice both at the steady state and following infection with Candida albicans as described in UNIT. In another protocol, we also present a method that combines gentle enzymatic tissue digestion with a positive immunomagnetic selection technique or Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to harvest highly pure and highly viable preparations of neutrophils directly from mouse tissues such as the kidney, the liver or the spleen. Finally, methods for isolating neutrophils from mouse peritoneal fluid and peripheral blood are included. Mouse neutrophils isolated by these protocols can be used for examining several aspects of cellular function ex vivo including pathogen binding, phagocytosis and killing, neutrophil chemotaxis, oxidative burst, degranulation and cytokine production, and for performing neutrophil adoptive transfer experiments.

  6. RIKEN mouse genome encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashizaki, Yoshihide

    2003-01-01

    We have been working to establish the comprehensive mouse full-length cDNA collection and sequence database to cover as many genes as we can, named Riken mouse genome encyclopedia. Recently we are constructing higher-level annotation (Functional ANnoTation Of Mouse cDNA; FANTOM) not only with homology search based annotation but also with expression data profile, mapping information and protein-protein database. More than 1,000,000 clones prepared from 163 tissues were end-sequenced to classify into 159,789 clusters and 60,770 representative clones were fully sequenced. As a conclusion, the 60,770 sequences contained 33,409 unique. The next generation of life science is clearly based on all of the genome information and resources. Based on our cDNA clones we developed the additional system to explore gene function. We developed cDNA microarray system to print all of these cDNA clones, protein-protein interaction screening system, protein-DNA interaction screening system and so on. The integrated database of all the information is very useful not only for analysis of gene transcriptional network and for the connection of gene to phenotype to facilitate positional candidate approach. In this talk, the prospect of the application of these genome resourced should be discussed. More information is available at the web page: http://genome.gsc.riken.go.jp/.

  7. Mouse models in oncoimmunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Pitt, Jonathan M; Daillère, Romain; Smyth, Mark J; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental cancer research and the development of efficacious antineoplastic treatments both rely on experimental systems in which the relationship between malignant cells and immune cells can be studied. Mouse models of transplantable, carcinogen-induced or genetically engineered malignancies - each with their specific advantages and difficulties - have laid the foundations of oncoimmunology. These models have guided the immunosurveillance theory that postulates that evasion from immune control is an essential feature of cancer, the concept that the long-term effects of conventional cancer treatments mostly rely on the reinstatement of anticancer immune responses and the preclinical development of immunotherapies, including currently approved immune checkpoint blockers. Specific aspects of pharmacological development, as well as attempts to personalize cancer treatments using patient-derived xenografts, require the development of mouse models in which murine genes and cells are replaced with their human equivalents. Such 'humanized' mouse models are being progressively refined to characterize the leukocyte subpopulations that belong to the innate and acquired arms of the immune system as they infiltrate human cancers that are subjected to experimental therapies. We surmise that the ever-advancing refinement of murine preclinical models will accelerate the pace of therapeutic optimization in patients.

  8. Clinical significance of double-contrast imaging of the small intestine for diagnostic evaluation of symptomatic jejunal diverticulosis; Stellenwert der Doppelkontrastdarstellung des Duenndarms in der Diagnostik der symptomatischen Jejunaldivertikulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grust, A.; Hacklaender, T.; Cramer, B.M. [Klinikum Wuppertal, Klinik fuer Radiologie, Wuppertal (Germany); Janssen, J.; Greiner, L. [Klinikum Wuppertal, Medizinsche Klinik A, Wuppertal (Germany)

    1998-05-01

    Chronic symptoms that seem to indicate jejunal diverticulosis can be further examined by double-contrast imaging of the small intestine according to Sellink`s approach, which is an important diagnostic tool yielding information that cannot be obtained by endoscopic methods. The double-contrast scans reveal diverticula of the small intestine, in particular the large, multiple diverticula which in general are causing the symptoms. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei chronischen Beschwerden, welche sich mit einer jejunoilealen Divertikulose vereinbaren lassen, ist die Doppelkontrastdarstellung des Duenndarmes nach Sellink eine wichtige diagnostische Methode, welche sich auch mit den oft primaer eingesetzten endoskopischen Verfahren nicht ersetzen laesst. Hierbei lassen sich Divertikel des Duenndarmes sicher darstellen, insbesondere die in der Regel fuer Beschwerden verantwortlichen multiplen grossen Divertikel. (orig./MG)

  9. Estudo do reparo do ferimento de colon com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno, utilizando cianoacrilato e cola de fibrina Study of repair of rat's colon wound whith serosal of jejunal wall using cyanoacrylate and fibrin glue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Edmundo Rodrigues Fontes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o efeito do cianoacrilato e da cola de fibrina como adesivo das bordas do ferimento de cólon reparado com o lado seroso da parede de jejuno. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 45 ratos wistar adultos jovens, machos , com peso médio de 260 gramas procedentes do Biotério Central da Universidade Estadual de Maringá.Os animais foram submetidos a procedimento operatório sob sedação com thiopental para produção de ferimento pradonizado de 0,5 cm distante caudalmente a 2 cm do ceco que foi reparado no grupo I pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e sutura, no grupo II, pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e cola de fibrina, e o grupo III pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno e cianoacrilato. No 4º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram submetidos a um enema opaco, para estudo o de estenose. No 7º dia de pós-operatório os animais foram submetidos a laparotomia sob sedação para estudo macroscópico da cavidade , e coleta dos segmentos que foram processados para análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A cola de fibrina teve uma tendência de ser melhor reparadora, estimulando a proliferação de fibras de colágeno a partir da borda da ferida. CONCLUSÃO: O experimento demonstrou que o ferimento em cólon de rato pode ser reparado pelo lado seroso da parede de jejuno colado às bordas da ferida por cola de fibrina ou cianoacrilato.BACKGROUND: The present experiment aimed to compare the effect of the use of cyanoacrylate and fibrine glue as adesive on repared colon's wounds with the serosal side of jejuno's wall. METHODS: Forty five male, young adult Wister rats, weighting about 260 g , from the University of Maringá were used.After having been deeply anaesthetized (thiopental was used, the animals underwent a surgery, and a pattern 0,5 cm wound was made, 2 cm away from the cecum, in the caudal location. Group one the wound was repaired by using the jejunal serosal wall and suture.On group two the jejunal serosal wall and fibrine glue

  10. Mouse genetics: Catalogue and scissors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Woong Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO mice hasrevolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. Asthe use of mouse embryonic stem (ES cells is inevitable forconventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout miceremains a very time-consuming and expensive process. Toaccelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses ofKO mice, international efforts have organized global consortiasuch as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMCand International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC, andthey are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that ispublicly available for the researches studying specific genes ofinterests in vivo. However, new technologies, adoptingzinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs or Transcription Activator-LikeEffector (TALE Nucleases (TALENs to edit the mouse genome,are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternativefor the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, weintroduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate thesignificance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics.

  11. Mouse genetics: catalogue and scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Young Hoon; Baek, In-Jeoung; Seong, Je Kyung; Kim, Jin Soo; Lee, Han-Woong

    2012-12-01

    Phenotypic analysis of gene-specific knockout (KO) mice has revolutionized our understanding of in vivo gene functions. As the use of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells is inevitable for conventional gene targeting, the generation of knockout mice remains a very time-consuming and expensive process. To accelerate the large-scale production and phenotype analyses of KO mice, international efforts have organized global consortia such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) and International Mouse Phenotype Consortium (IMPC), and they are persistently expanding the KO mouse catalogue that is publicly available for the researches studying specific genes of interests in vivo. However, new technologies, adopting zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) or Transcription Activator-Like Effector (TALE) Nucleases (TALENs) to edit the mouse genome, are now emerging as valuable and effective shortcuts alternative for the conventional gene targeting using ES cells. Here, we introduce the recent achievement of IKMC, and evaluate the significance of ZFN/TALEN technology in mouse genetics.

  12. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Léguillier

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically required in intestinal progenitors. In absence of OMCG1, proliferating intestinal epithelial cells underwent abnormal mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death. As a consequence, the crypt proliferative compartment of the small intestine was quickly and totally abrogated leading to the rapid death of the mice. Lack of OMCG1 in embryonic stem cells led to a similar cellular phenotype, with multiple mitotic defects and rapid cell death. We showed that mutant intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells exhibited a reduced cell cycle arrest following irradiation, suggesting that mitotic defects may be consecutive to M phase entry with unrepaired DNA damages. These findings unravel a crucial role for pre-mRNA processing in the homeostasis of the small intestine and point to a major role of OMCG1 in the maintenance of genome integrity.

  13. Transgenic Expression of Human Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor LPA2 in Mouse Intestinal Epithelial Cells Induces Intestinal Dysplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michihiro Yoshida

    Full Text Available Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA acts on LPA2 receptor to mediate multiple pathological effects that are associated with tumorigenesis. The absence of LPA2 attenuates tumor progression in rodent models of colorectal cancer, but whether overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to malignant transformation in the intestinal tract has not been studied. In this study, we expressed human LPA2 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs under control of the villin promoter. Less than 4% of F1-generation mice had germline transmission of transgenic (TG human LPA2; as such only 3 F1 mice out of 72 genotyped had TG expression. These TG mice appeared anemic with hematochezia and died shortly after birth. TG mice were smaller in size compared with the wild type mouse of the same age and sex. Morphological analysis showed that TG LPA2 colon had hyper-proliferation of IECs resulting in increased colonic crypt depth. Surprisingly, TG small intestine had villus blunting and decreased IEC proliferation and dysplasia. In both intestine and colon, TG expression of LPA2 compromised the terminal epithelial differentiation, consistent with epithelial dysplasia. Furthermore, we showed that epithelial dysplasia was observed in founder mouse intestine, correlating LPA2 overexpression with epithelial dysplasia. The current study demonstrates that overexpression of LPA2 alone can lead to intestinal dysplasia.

  14. Human anti-mouse antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, G G

    2000-06-01

    Human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) are human immunoglobulins with specificity for mouse immunoglobulins. This topic currently is of interest because of the increased use of monoclonal mouse antibodies as diagnostic reagents both for in vitro laboratory measurements and for in vivo imaging studies. Monoclonal mouse antibodies also are being used therapeutically. This short article reviews the production of HAMA in patients receiving monoclonal antibodies and illustrates the potential ways that HAMA can interfere with immunoassay measurements. Methods for measuring and neutralizing HAMA also are discussed.

  15. Mouse models of medulloblastoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaochong Wu; Paul A. Northcott; Sidney Croul; Michael D. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Despite its prevalence and importance in pediatric neuro-oncology, the genes and pathways responsible for its initiation, maintenance,and progression remain poorly understood. Genetically engineered mouse models are an essential tool for uncovering the molecular and cellular basis of human diseases, including cancer, and serve a valuable role as preclinical models for testing targeted therapies. In this review, we summarize how such models have been successfully applied to the study of medulloblastoma over the past decade and what we might expect in the coming years.

  16. Morphological criteria for comparing effects of X-rays and neon ions on mouse small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, K.E.; Hayes, T.L.; Indran, M.; Bastacky, S.J.; McAlinden, G.; Ainsworth, E.J.; Ellis, S.

    1987-06-01

    Several techniques have been used to assess changes in different parts of mouse small intestine three days after a single dose of either 16.5 Gy X-rays or 11 Gy neon beam. The doses were chosen to be approximately equivalent in terms of their effect on the number of microcolonies present. In qualitative terms, villous damage was seen after both types of radiation exposure: collared crypts, similar to those seen in biopsies taken from patients suffering from coeliac disease, were conspicuous after neon irradiation. In semi quantitative terms the doses used, although estimated from previous work to give biologically equivalent damage, produced a greater drop in microcolony numbers after X-irradiation. This makes all the more important the fact that significantly greater changes were seen after neon irradiation-a greater drop was seen in the number of villous profiles and the number of goblet cells per villus. There was also greater breakdown in the integrity of the villous basement membrane. Different responses after the two types of irradiation are therefore seen in the cryptal and villous compartment. Progress is being made towards identifying and quantitating radiation induced changes in different populations of cells or tissues in the small intestine.

  17. A Multicellular Approach Forms a Significant Amount of Tissue-Engineered Small Intestine in the Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Frédéric G.; Matthews, Jamil A.; Speer, Allison L.; Torashima, Yasuhiro; Barthel, Erik R.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) has successfully been used to rescue Lewis rats after massive small bowel resection. In this study, we transitioned the technique to a mouse model, allowing investigation of the processes involved during TESI formation through the transgenic tools available in this species. This is a necessary step toward applying the technique to human therapy. Multicellular organoid units were derived from small intestines of transgenic mice and transplanted within the abdomen on biodegradable polymers. Immunofluorescence staining was used to characterize the cellular processes during TESI formation. We demonstrate the preservation of Lgr5- and DcamKl1-positive cells, two putative intestinal stem cell populations, in proximity to their niche mesenchymal cells, the intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs), at the time of implantation. Maintenance of the relationship between ISEMF and crypt epithelium is observed during the growth of TESI. The engineered small intestine has an epithelium containing a differentiated epithelium next to an innervated muscularis. Lineage tracing demonstrates that all the essential components, including epithelium, muscularis, nerves, and some of the blood vessels, are of donor origin. This multicellular approach provides the necessary cell population to regenerate large amounts of intestinal tissue that could be used to treat short bowel syndrome. PMID:21395443

  18. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third......-degree burn injury was induced with a hot-air blower. The third-degree burn was confirmed histologically. At 48 h, a decline in the concentration of peripheral blood leucocytes was observed in the group of mice with burn wound. The reduction was ascribed to the decline in concentration of polymorphonuclear...... neutrophil leucocytes and monocytes. When infecting the skin with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dissemination of bacteria was observed only in the burn wound group. Histological characterization of the skin showed an increased polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes dominated inflammation in the group of mice...

  19. Gankyrin expression during mouse embryogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦建民; 刘淑琴; 曾锦章; 李慎菁; 付晓勇; 邱秀华; 吴孟超; 王红阳

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the gene expression of Gankyrin during mouse embryogenesis and reveal the gene biological significance during organs and tissues formation. Methods: The expressions of Gankyrin mRNA in various organs and tissues were detected by in situ hybridization at indicated times during embryogenesis. Results: The expression of Gankyrin mRNA in mouse day 12.5 embryo was mainly in midbrain, interbrain and endbrain; in mouse day 14.5 embryo mainly in midbrain, aorta, liver, gonad, cranium and rib; in mouse day 16.5 embryo mainly in cranium, rib and vertebra;and in mouse day 18.5 embryo mainly in cranium, rib and intestinal mucosa. Conclusion: Gankyrin gene probably participates in the development of the neural tissues (such as midbrain, interbrain and endbrain etc. ), aorta, liver and gonad, intestinal mucosa and bone tissues, which may be closely associated with the function of the organs and tissues.

  20. Amelioration of Chemotherapy-Induced Intestinal Mucositis by Orally Administered Probiotics in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chun-Bin; Cheng, Mei-Lien; Liu, Chia-Yuan; Chang, Szu-Wen; Chiang Chiau, Jen-Shiu; Lee, Hung-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Intestinal mucositis is a frequently encountered side effect in oncology patients undergoing chemotherapy. No well-established or up to date therapeutic strategies are available. To study a novel way to alleviate mucositis, we investigate the effects and safety of probiotic supplementation in ameliorating 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. Methods Seventy-two mice were injected saline or 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) intraperitoneally daily. Mice were either orally administrated daily saline, probiotic suspension of Lactobacillus casei variety rhamnosus (Lcr35) or Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum (LaBi). Diarrhea score, pro-inflammatory cytokines serum levels, intestinal villus height and crypt depth and total RNA from tissue were assessed. Samples of blood, liver and spleen tissues were assessed for translocation. Results Marked diarrhea developed in the 5-FU groups but was attenuated after oral Lcr35 and LaBi administrations. Diarrhea scores decreased significantly from 2.64 to 1.45 and 0.80, respectively (Pprobiotics administration. We also found TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expressions were up-regulated in intestinal mucositis tissues following 5-FU treatment (TNF-α: 4.35 vs. 1.18, IL-1β: 2.29 vs. 1.07, IL-6: 1.49 vs. 1.02) and that probiotics treatment suppressed this up-regulation (Pprobiotics Lcr35 and LaBi can ameliorate chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in a mouse model. This suggests probiotics may serve as an alternative therapeutic strategy for the prevention or management of chemotherapy-induced mucositis in the future. PMID:26406888

  1. Mouse anesthesia and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Sean; Pacharinsak, Cholawat

    2015-03-02

    Providing anesthesia and analgesia for mouse subjects is a common and critical practice in the laboratory setting. These practices are necessary for performing invasive procedures, achieving prolonged immobility for sensitive imaging modalities (magnetic resonance imaging for instance), and providing intra- and post-procedural pain relief. In addition to facilitating the procedures performed by the investigator, the provision of anesthesia and analgesia is crucial for the preservation of animal welfare and for humane treatment of animals used in research. Furthermore, anesthesia and analgesia are important components of animal use protocols reviewed by Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees, requiring careful consideration and planning for the particular animal model. In this article, we provide technical outlines for the investigator covering the provision of anesthesia by two routes (injectable and inhalant), guidelines for monitoring anesthesia, current techniques for recognition of pain, and considerations for administering preventative analgesia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. MouseCyc: a curated biochemical pathways database for the laboratory mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Evsikov, Alexei V.; Dolan, Mary E.; Genrich, Michael P; Patek, Emily; Bult, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Linking biochemical genetic data to the reference genome for the laboratory mouse is important for comparative physiology and for developing mouse models of human biology and disease. We describe here a new database of curated metabolic pathways for the laboratory mouse called MouseCyc . MouseCyc has been integrated with genetic and genomic data for the laboratory mouse available from the Mouse Genome Informatics database and with pathway data from other organisms, including human.

  3. Whole mouse cryo-imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Roy, Debashish; Steyer, Grant; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Stone, Meredith; McKinley, Eliot

    2008-03-01

    The Case cryo-imaging system is a section and image system which allows one to acquire micron-scale, information rich, whole mouse color bright field and molecular fluorescence images of an entire mouse. Cryo-imaging is used in a variety of applications, including mouse and embryo anatomical phenotyping, drug delivery, imaging agents, metastastic cancer, stem cells, and very high resolution vascular imaging, among many. Cryo-imaging fills the gap between whole animal in vivo imaging and histology, allowing one to image a mouse along the continuum from the mouse -> organ -> tissue structure -> cell -> sub-cellular domains. In this overview, we describe the technology and a variety of exciting applications. Enhancements to the system now enable tiled acquisition of high resolution images to cover an entire mouse. High resolution fluorescence imaging, aided by a novel subtraction processing algorithm to remove sub-surface fluorescence, makes it possible to detect fluorescently-labeled single cells. Multi-modality experiments in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cryo-imaging of a whole mouse demonstrate superior resolution of cryo-images and efficiency of registration techniques. The 3D results demonstrate the novel true-color volume visualization tools we have developed and the inherent advantage of cryo-imaging in providing unlimited depth of field and spatial resolution. The recent results continue to demonstrate the value cryo-imaging provides in the field of small animal imaging research.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of the membrane skeletal protein, membrane protein palmitoylated 6 (MPP6), in the mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Akio; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Shinichi; Terada, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein palmitoylated (MPP) family belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. MPP1 interacts with the protein 4.1 family member, 4.1R, as a membrane skeletal protein complex in erythrocytes. We previously described the interaction of another MPP family, MPP6, with 4.1G in the mouse peripheral nervous system. In the present study, the immunolocalization of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine was examined and compared with that of E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and 4.1B, which we previously investigated in intestinal epithelial cells. The immunolocalization of MPP6 was also assessed in the small intestines of 4.1B-deficient (-/-) mice. In the small intestine, Western blotting revealed that the molecular weight of MPP6 was approximately 55-kDa, and MPP6 was immunostained under the cell membranes in the basolateral portions of almost all epithelial cells from the crypts to the villi. The immunostaining pattern of MPP6 in epithelial cells was similar to that of E-cadherin, but differed from that of ZO-1. In intestinal epithelial cells, the immunostained area of MPP6 was slightly different from that of 4.1B, which was restricted to the intestinal villi. The immunolocalization of MPP6 in small intestinal epithelial cells was similar between 4.1B(-/-) mice and 4.1B(+/+) mice. In the immunoprecipitation study, another MAGUK family protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK), was shown to molecularly interact with MPP6. Thus, we herein showed the immunolocalization and interaction proteins of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine, and also that 4.1B in epithelial cells was not essential for the sorting of MPP6.

  5. Effect of enteral nutrition via nasal jejunal tube on liver function%经鼻空肠管行肠内营养对肝功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红宇; 焦宪法; 牛杏果

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the liver function changes in patients after enteral nutrition through nasal jejunal tube.Methods Altogether 74 inpatients requiring enteral nutrition were collected for this study from September 2011 to August 2014 in the Intensive Care Unit of Zhengzhou People's Hospital and divided into 2 groups with random number table:the nasal jejunal tube group (n =36) and the nasogastric tube group (n =38),with nasal jejunal tube and nasogastric tube inserted,respectively,for early enteral nutrition.We observed the two groups of patients in terms of liver function indexes on day 7 and day 14 after starting enteral nutrition.Results In the nasal jejunal tube group,31 patients (86.11%) showed abnormality in at least 1 liver function index,while that number was 23 in the nasogastric tube group (60.53%),with significant inter-group difference (x2 =6.136,P =0.013).On day 7 after enteral nutrition,there were no significant differences in alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate transaminase (AST),alkaline phosphatase (ALP),γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GGT) and albumin (ALB) between the two groups [(39.1 ± 8.6) U/L vs.(42.3 ±8.9) U/L,t=-1.475,P=0.145;(36.2±6.8) U/Lvs.(38.0±7.1) U/L,t=-1.237,P=0.220;(61.8±11.5) U/Lvs.(63.1 ±13.2) U/L,t=-0.696,P=0.489;(47.3±8.2) U/Lvs.(50.5±7.5) U/L,t=-1.640,P=0.106;(35.2±6.7) g/Lvs.(36.2±7.4) g/L,t=-0.610,P=0.543];but on day 14,the nasal jejunal tube group had significantly higher levels of ALP,γ-GGT,and ALB compared with the nasogastric tube group [(201.2 ± 15.2) U/L vs.(116.5 ± 13.6) U/L,t =-25.380,P =0.000;(109.4±7.2) U/Lvs.(49.2±6.5) U/L,t=-37.665,P=0.000;(37.2±7.1) g/Lvs.(30.1±6.5) g/L,t =-4.490,P =0.000].On day 7 and day 14,there were no statistically significant differences in totalbilirubin [(4.6±0.9) μmol/L vs.(4.8 ± 1.0) μmol/L,t =-0.905,P=0.368;(4.8±12) μmol/Lvs.(5.2±1.1) μmol/L,t=-1.492,P=0.140],indirect bilirubin [(6.1 ±0.8) μmol/Lvs.(6.3±0.9) μmol/L,t=-1.012,P=0.315;(6.9±0.9)

  6. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  7. Computer Workstation: Pointer/Mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Program Recommendations It's the Law Poster REGULATIONS Law and Regulations Standard Interpretations Training Requirements ... when evaluating your computer workstation. Pointer Placement Pointer Size, Shape, and Settings Pointer/Mouse Quick Tips Keep ...

  8. Hand gestures mouse cursor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian-Avram Vincze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the implementation of a human-computer interface for controlling the mouse cursor. The test reveal the fact: a low-cost web camera some processing algorithms are quite enough to control the mouse cursor on computers. Even if the system is influenced by the illuminance level on the plane of the hand, the current study may represent a start point for some studies on the hand tracking and gesture recognition field.

  9. Loss of MLK3 signaling impedes ulcer healing by modulating MAPK signaling in mouse intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, Pavlo L; Kunovska, Lyudmyla; Chen, Jian; Gallo, Kathleen A; Basson, Marc D

    2012-10-15

    Mixed-lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) activates multiple MAPK pathways and can initiate apoptosis, proliferation, migration, or differentiation in different cell types. However, whether MLK3 signaling regulates intestinal epithelial cell sheet migration in vivo is not known. We sought to investigate whether MLK3 signaling is important in intestinal mucosal healing and epithelial cell motility in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, we compared the healing of jejunal mucosal ulcers induced in MLK3 knockout (KO) mice with healing in wild-type (WT) mice. Ulcer healing was 20.8% less at day 3 (P MLK3 KO than WT mice. Within the intestinal mucosa of MLK3 KO mice, ERK and JNK signaling were reduced, phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) level was increased, and p38 signaling was unchanged. Parallel in vitro studies using an MLK inhibitor assessed the role of MLK signaling in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial migration across collagen substrates. The MLK inhibitor reduced closure of circular wounds in Caco-2 monolayers. MLK inhibition reduced ERK and JNK, but not p38, signaling in Caco-2 cells. Although PTEN is increased after MLK inhibition, it does not influence MLK-mediated cell migration. These findings indicate that disruption of MLK3 signaling impairs ulcer healing by suppressing ERK and JNK signaling in vitro and in mouse intestinal mucosa in vivo. These results reveal a novel role for MLK3 signaling in the regulation of intestinal epithelial migration in vivo and suggest that MLK3 may be an important target for the regulation of intestinal mucosal healing.

  10. Autocrine DNA fragmentation of intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in mouse small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Masaki; Ota, Yuta; Nanno, Masanobu; Suzuki, Ryuji; Itoh, Tsunetoshi

    2015-09-01

    Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are present in the intestinal epithelium. Mechanisms of IELs for the protection of villi from foreign antigens and from infections by micro-organisms have not been sufficiently explained. Although more than 70% of mouse duodenal and jejunal IELs bear γδTCR (γδIELs), the functions of γδIELs are little investigated. We stimulate γδIELs by anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) injection. The mAb activates γδIELs to release Granzyme B (GrB) into the spaces surrounding the γδIELs and intestinal villous epithelial cells (IECs). Released GrB induces DNA fragmentation in IECs independently of Perforin (Pfn). IECs immediately repair their fragmented DNA. Activated IELs reduce their cell size, remain for some time in the epithelium after the activation and are ultimately eliminated without leaving the site. We focus our attention on the response of IELs to the released GrB present in the gap surrounding IELs, after activation, in order to examine whether the released GrB has a similar effect on IELs to that observed on IECs in our previous studies. DNA fragmentation is also induced in IELs together with the repair of fragmented DNA thereafter. The time-kinetics of both events were found to be identical to those observed in IECs. DNA fragmentation in IELs is Pfn-independent. Here, we present Pfn-independent "autocrine DNA fragmentation" in IELs and the repair of fragmented DNA in IELs and discuss their biological significance. Autocrine DNA fragmentation has never been reported to date in vivo.

  11. Contribution of mucosal maltase-glucoamylase activities to mouse small intestinal starch alpha-glucogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Robayo-Torres, Claudia C; Opekun, Antone R; Sen, Partha; Ao, Zihua; Hamaker, Bruce R; Quaroni, Andrea; Brayer, Gary D; Wattler, Sigrid; Nehls, Michael C; Sterchi, Erwin E; Nichols, Buford L

    2007-07-01

    Digestion of starch requires activities provided by 6 interactive small intestinal enzymes. Two of these are luminal endo-glucosidases named alpha-amylases. Four are exo-glucosidases bound to the luminal surface of enterocytes. These mucosal activities were identified as 4 different maltases. Two maltase activities were associated with sucrase-isomaltase. Two remaining maltases, lacking other identifying activities, were named maltase-glucoamylase. These 4 activities are better described as alpha-glucosidases because they digest all linear starch oligosaccharides to glucose. Because confusion persists about the relative roles of these 6 enzymes, we ablated maltase-glucoamylase gene expression by homologous recombination in Sv/129 mice. We assayed the alpha-glucogenic activities of the jejunal mucosa with and without added recombinant pancreatic alpha-amylase, using a range of food starch substrates. Compared with wild-type mucosa, null mucosa or alpha-amylase alone had little alpha-glucogenic activity. alpha-Amylase amplified wild-type and null mucosal alpha-glucogenesis. alpha-Amylase amplification was most potent against amylose and model resistant starches but was inactive against its final product limit-dextrin and its constituent glucosides. Both sucrase-isomaltase and maltase-glucoamylase were active with limit-dextrin substrate. These mucosal assays were corroborated by a 13C-limit-dextrin breath test. In conclusion, the global effect of maltase-glucoamylase ablation was a slowing of rates of mucosal alpha-glucogenesis. Maltase-glucoamylase determined rates of digestion of starch in normal mice and alpha-amylase served as an amplifier for mucosal starch digestion. Acarbose inhibition was most potent against maltase-glucoamylase activities of the wild-type mouse. The consortium of 6 interactive enzymes appears to be a mechanism for adaptation of alpha-glucogenesis to a wide range of food starches.

  12. 留置空肠造瘘管并发肠外瘘患者的护理%Nursing care of a patient indwelling jejunal fistula complicated with enterocutaneou fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱亚丽; 黄蔚萍; 孙岚; 郑玉文

    2012-01-01

    报告了1例晚期食管破裂留置空肠造瘘管并发肠外瘘患者的护理过程.根据患者肠外瘘特点,采用暴露瘘口周围皮肤,局部辅以药物及物理疗法,造瘘口近端置入双腔气囊导尿管引流消化液并回输,使用床上支架等综合护理干预措施,既保护了瘘口周围皮肤,又促进了营养液吸收,最终行手术治疗肠瘘并获得成功.%This paper reports the nursing care of a patient suffering esophageal rupture and indwelling jejunal fistula complicated with enterocutaneou fistula. On the condition of the patient,several nursing measures were adopted, such as exposing skin around the fistula, applying drugs and physical therapy,indwelling the double lumen catheter through proximal stoma for drainage and transfusion of digestive juice, using a frame on the bed to protect the skin,and other nursing measures. As a result, the peristomal skin was cured, and the nutrient absorption was accomplished, and the patient received an earlier operation for the intestinal fistula successfully.

  13. Dietary whey protein lowers serum C-peptide concentration and duodenal SREBP-1c mRNA abundance, and reduces occurrence of duodenal tumors and colon aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-treated male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rijin; Carter, Julie A; Linz, Amanda L; Ferguson, Matthew; Badger, Thomas M; Simmen, Frank A

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated partially hydrolyzed whey protein (WPH) for inhibitory effects on the development of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and intestinal tumors in azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats and their progeny were fed AIN-93G diets containing casein (CAS, control diet) or WPH as the sole protein source. Colons and small intestines from the male progeny were obtained at 6, 12, 20 and 23 weeks after AOM treatment. At 6 and 23 weeks, post-AOM, WPH-fed rats had fewer ACF than did CAS-fed rats. Intestinal tumors were most frequent at 23 weeks, post-AOM. At this time point, differences in colon tumor incidence with diet were not observed; however, WPH-fed rats had fewer tumors in the small intestine (7.6% vs. 26% incidence, P=.004). Partially hydrolized whey protein suppressed circulating C-peptide concentration (a stable indicator of steady-state insulin secretion) at all four time points relative to the corresponding CAS-fed animals. The relative mRNA abundance for the insulin-responsive, transcription factor gene, SREBP-1c, was reduced by WPH in the duodenum but not colon. Results indicate potential physiological linkages of dietary protein type with circulating C-peptide (and by inference insulin), local expression of SREBP-1c gene and propensity for small intestine tumorigenesis.

  14. Germinated brown rice (GBR) reduces the incidence of aberrant crypt foci with the involvement of beta-catenin and COX-2 in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Saiful Yazan; Armania, Nurdin; Tze, Tan Hern; Azhar, Yaacob; Nordiana, Abdul Hadi; Norazalina, Saad; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Saidi, Moin; Maznah, Ismail

    2010-03-26

    Chemoprevention has become an important area in cancer research due to the failure of current therapeutic modalities. Epidemiological and preclinical studies have demonstrated that nutrition plays a vital role in the etiology of cancer. This study was conducted to determine the chemopreventive effects of germinated brown rice (GBR) in rats induced with colon cancer. GBR is brown rice that has been claimed to be richer in nutrients compared to the common white rice. The male Sprague Dawley rats (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into 5 groups: (G1) positive control (with colon cancer, unfed with GBR), (G2) fed with 2.5 g/kg of GBR (GBR (g)/weight of rat (kg)), (G3) fed with 5 g/kg of GBR, (G4) fed with 10 g/kg of GBR and (G5) negative control (without colon cancer, unfed with GBR). GBR was administered orally once daily via gavage after injection of 15 mg/kg of body weight of azoxymethane (AOM) once a week for two weeks, intraperitonially. After 8 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and colons were removed. Colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were evaluated histopathologically. Total number of ACF and AC, and multicrypt of ACF, and the expression of beta-catenin and COX-2 reduced significantly (p cancer.

  15. Chemoprevention of Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci by Novel Schiff Based Dichlorido(4-Methoxy-2-{[2-(Piperazin-4-Ium-1-Yl)Ethyl]Iminomethyl}Phenolate)Cd Complex in Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Cancer in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Karimian, Hamed; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Emtyazjoo, Mozhgan; Zahedifard, Maryam; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-07-23

    Schiff-based complexes as a source of cancer chemotherapeutic compounds have been subjected to the variety of anticancer studies. The in-vitro analysis confirmed the CdCl2(C14H21N3O2) complex possess cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction properties in colon cancer cells, so lead to investigate the inhibitory efficiency of the compound on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Five groups of adult male rats were used in this study: Vehicle, cancer control, positive control groups and the groups treated with 25 and 50 mg/kg of complex for 10 weeks. The rats in vehicle group were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg of sterile normal saline once a week for 2 weeks and orally administered with 5% Tween-20 (5 ml/kg) for 10 weeks, other groups were injected subcutaneously with 15 mg/kg azoxymethane once a week for 2 weeks. The rats in positive groups were injected intra-peritoneally with 35 mg/kg 5-Flourouracil four times in a month. Administration of the complex suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to 73.4% (P < 0.05). The results also showed that treatment with the complex significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde while increasing superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Furthermore, the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl2 and the up-regulation of Bax was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining.

  16. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  17. 10. international mouse genome conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisler, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    Ten years after hosting the First International Mammalian Genome Conference in Paris in 1986, Dr. Jean-Louis Guenet presided over the Tenth Conference at the Pasteur Institute, October 7--10, 1996. The 1986 conference was a satellite to the Human Gene Mapping Workshop and had approximately 50 attendees. The 1996 meeting was attended by 300 scientists from around the world. In the interim, the number of mapped loci in the mouse increased from 1,000 to over 20,000. This report contains a listing of the program and its participants, and two articles that review the meeting and the role of the laboratory mouse in the Human Genome project. More than 200 papers were presented at the conference covering the following topics: International mouse chromosome committee meetings; Mutant generation and identification; Physical and genetic maps; New technology and resources; Chromatin structure and gene regulation; Rate and hamster genetic maps; Informatics and databases; and Quantitative trait analysis.

  18. Teratology studies in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Edward; Leroy, Mariline

    2013-01-01

    The rat is the routine species of choice as the rodent model for regulatory safety testing of xenobiotics such as medicinal products, food additives, and other chemicals. However, the rat is not always suitable for pharmacological, toxicological, immunogenic, pharmacokinetic, or even practical reasons. Under such circumstances, the mouse offers an alternative for finding a suitable rodent model acceptable to the regulatory authorities. Since all essential routes of administration are possible, the short reproductive cycle and large litter size of the mouse make it a species well adapted for use in teratology studies. Given that good quality animals, including virgin mated females, can be acquired relatively easily and inexpensively, the mouse has been used in reproductive toxicity studies for decades and study protocols are well established.

  19. Gesture Recognition Based Mouse Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachit Puri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the maneuver of mouse pointer a nd performs various mouse operations such as left click, right click, double click, drag etc using ge stures recognition technique. Recognizing gestures is a complex task which involves many aspects such as mo tion modeling, motion analysis, pattern recognition and machine learning. Keeping all the essential factors in mind a system has been created which recognizes the movement of fingers and various patterns formed by them. Color caps have been used for fingers to distinguish it f rom the background color such as skin color. Thus recog nizing the gestures various mouse events have been performed. The application has been created on MATL AB environment with operating system as windows 7.

  20. Enteral nutrition with jejunal feeding pump during postoperative chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer%肠内营养泵在胃癌术后化疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡培英; 孙元水

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of enteral nutrition(EN) with jejunal feeding pump during postoperative chemotherapy in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods One hundred and six patients with gastric cancer underwent gas-trectomy with radical resection and jejunostomy, all patients received postoperative chemotherapy. The patients were randomly assigned to receive EN by jejunal feeding pump(n=53, group A) or by normal infusion tube(n=53, group B). The EN tolerance, complication of feeding tube and improvement of nutrition status were analyzed and compared between two groups. Results Total 82 patients completed 6 cycles of chemotherapy, 47 in group A and 35 in group B. The rate of complications of feeding tube in group A was lower than that in group B(6.12% vs 26.19%,P0.05), and the latter was much higher than the former (P<0.01 ). Conclusion Enteral nutrition with jejuna feeding pump during chemotherapy after gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma can enhance the tolerance of EN, reduce the complication of feeding tube and improve the nutrition status of patients.%目的 探讨肠内营养泵在胃癌术后化疗期间经空肠造口管实施肠内营养(EN)中的作用.方法 选取经手术切除并术中放置空肠造口管的106例胃癌患者,其中使用肠内营养泵在化疗期间经空肠造口管实施EN者53例(观察组),使用一般输液器在化疗期间经空肠造口管实施EN者53例(对照组).经6周期静脉化疗结束后评估两组患者的EN耐受程度、造口管并发症及营养改善程度.结果 观察组完成实验47例,对照组完成实验35例.对照组导管并发症发生率为26.19%,耐受率为100%;观察组并发症发生率为6.12%,耐受率为95.92%;两组患者并发症发生率及耐受率的差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或0.01).化疗结束后观察组体重下降度显著低于对照组(P<0.01),观察组第6次化疗结束后预后营养指数(PNI)显著高于对照组(P<0.01);

  1. Mouse Models of Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplazi, P; Baca, M; Barck, K; Carano, R A D; DeVoss, J; Lee, W P; Bolon, B; Diehl, L

    2015-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic debilitating autoimmune disorder characterized by synovitis that leads to cartilage and bone erosion by invading fibrovascular tissue. Mouse models of RA recapitulate many features of the human disease. Despite the availability of medicines that are highly effective in many patient populations, autoimmune diseases (including RA) remain an area of active biomedical research, and consequently mouse models of RA are still extensively used for mechanistic studies and validation of therapeutic targets. This review aims to integrate morphologic features with model biology and cover the key characteristics of the most commonly used induced and spontaneous mouse models of RA. Induced models emphasized in this review include collagen-induced arthritis and antibody-induced arthritis. Collagen-induced arthritis is an example of an active immunization strategy, whereas antibody- induced arthritis models, such as collagen antibody-induced arthritis and K/BxN antibody transfer arthritis, represent examples of passive immunization strategies. The coverage of spontaneous models in this review is focused on the TNFΔ (ARE) mouse, in which arthritis results from overexpression of TNF-α, a master proinflammatory cytokine that drives disease in many patients.

  2. Mouse models of myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Joanne; Phillips, William D

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a muscle weakness disease characterized by autoantibodies that target components of the neuromuscular junction, impairing synaptic transmission. The most common form of myasthenia gravis involves antibodies that bind the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. Many of the remaining cases are due to antibodies against muscle specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK). Recently, autoantibodies against LRP4 (another component of the MuSK signaling complex in the postsynaptic membrane) were identified as the likely cause of myasthenia gravis in some patients. Fatiguing weakness is the common symptom in all forms of myasthenia gravis, but muscles of the body are differentially affected, for reasons that are not fully understood. Much of what we have learnt about the immunological and neurobiological aspects of the pathogenesis derives from mouse models. The most widely used mouse models involve either passive transfer of autoantibodies, or active immunization of the mouse with acetylcholine receptors or MuSK protein. These models can provide a robust replication of many of the features of the human disease. Depending upon the protocol, acute fatiguing weakness develops 2 - 14 days after the start of autoantibody injections (passive transfer) or might require repeated immunizations over several weeks (active models). Here we review mouse models of myasthenia gravis, including what they have contributed to current understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and their current application to the testing of therapeutics.

  3. Human/mouse homology relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBry, R.W.; Seldin, M.F. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Conservation of genomic organization in different mammalian species has long been recognized, but only recently has it been possible to examine these relationships systematically on a genome-wide scale in some detail. Mapping of several mammalian species in progressing rapidly, but by far the most detailed information is still to be found in the human and mouse databases. Perhaps the most important aspect of recent progress in genome mapping data. With mapping databases continuing to expand at a greater than linear rate, any attempt at a comprehensive comparative map is doomed to be out of date by the time it is published. However, we feel that it is valuable to provide a summary that is as nearly up to date as possible. We have made a particular effort to include recent human physical mapping data and to identify those mouse genes that have been well-mapped with respect to each other by virtue of having been examined in the same cross. As the human-mouse comparative map becomes more dense, it is not surprising that the observed number of conserved linkage groups continues to increase. Nadeau et al. placed 425 loci on both maps, which delineated over 100 conserved linkage groups. Copeland et al. put a total of 917 markers on both the human and the mouse maps, marking 101 segments of conserved linkage groups. In the present summary, we have placed 1416 loci, and these define at least 181 different conserved linkage groups. 47 refs., 1 fig.

  4. An encyclopedia of mouse genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M; Hillier, L; Kucaba, T; Allen, M; Barstead, R; Beck, C; Blistain, A; Bonaldo, M; Bowers, Y; Bowles, L; Cardenas, M; Chamberlain, A; Chappell, J; Clifton, S; Favello, A; Geisel, S; Gibbons, M; Harvey, N; Hill, F; Jackson, Y; Kohn, S; Lennon, G; Mardis, E; Martin, J; Mila, L; McCann, R; Morales, R; Pape, D; Person, B; Prange, C; Ritter, E; Soares, M; Schurk, R; Shin, T; Steptoe, M; Swaller, T; Theising, B; Underwood, K; Wylie, T; Yount, T; Wilson, R; Waterston, R

    1999-02-01

    The laboratory mouse is the premier model system for studies of mammalian development due to the powerful classical genetic analysis possible (see also the Jackson Laboratory web site, http://www.jax.org/) and the ever-expanding collection of molecular tools. To enhance the utility of the mouse system, we initiated a program to generate a large database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that can provide rapid access to genes. Of particular significance was the possibility that cDNA libraries could be prepared from very early stages of development, a situation unrealized in human EST projects. We report here the development of a comprehensive database of ESTs for the mouse. The project, initiated in March 1996, has focused on 5' end sequences from directionally cloned, oligo-dT primed cDNA libraries. As of 23 October 1998, 352,040 sequences had been generated, annotated and deposited in dbEST, where they comprised 93% of the total ESTs available for mouse. EST data are versatile and have been applied to gene identification, comparative sequence analysis, comparative gene mapping and candidate disease gene identification, genome sequence annotation, microarray development and the development of gene-based map resources.

  5. High-throughput mouse phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Hilary; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2011-04-01

    Comprehensive phenotyping will be required to reveal the pleiotropic functions of a gene and to uncover the wider role of genetic loci within diverse biological systems. The challenge will be to devise phenotyping approaches to characterise the thousands of mutants that are being generated as part of international efforts to acquire a mutant for every gene in the mouse genome. In order to acquire robust datasets of broad based phenotypes from mouse mutants it is necessary to design and implement pipelines that incorporate standardised phenotyping platforms that are validated across diverse mouse genetics centres or mouse clinics. We describe here the rationale and methodology behind one phenotyping pipeline, EMPReSSslim, that was designed as part of the work of the EUMORPHIA and EUMODIC consortia, and which exemplifies some of the challenges facing large-scale phenotyping. EMPReSSslim captures a broad range of data on diverse biological systems, from biochemical to physiological amongst others. Data capture and dissemination is pivotal to the operation of large-scale phenotyping pipelines, including the definition of parameters integral to each phenotyping test and the associated ontological descriptions. EMPReSSslim data is displayed within the EuroPhenome database, where a variety of tools are available to allow the user to search for interesting biological or clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-organ variation in age-related mutation accumulation in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita A Busuttil

    Full Text Available Using a transgenic mouse model harboring chromosomally integrated lacZ mutational target genes, we previously demonstrated that mutations accumulate with age much more rapidly in the small intestine than in the brain. Here it is shown that in the small intestine point mutations preferentially accumulate in epithelial cells of the mucosa scraped off the underlying serosa. The mucosal cells are the differentiated villus cells that have undergone multiple cell divisions. A smaller age-related increase, also involving genome rearrangements, was observed in the serosa, which consists mainly of the remaining crypts and non-dividing smooth muscle cells. In the brain we observed an accumulation of only point mutations in no other areas than hypothalamus and hippocampus. To directly test for cell division as the determining factor in the generation of point mutations we compared mutation induction between mitotically active and quiescent embryonic fibroblasts from the same lacZ mice, treated with either UV (a point mutagen or hydrogen peroxide (a clastogen. The results indicate that while point mutations are highly replication-dependent, genome rearrangements are as easily induced in non-dividing cells as in mitotically active ones. This strongly suggests that the point mutations found to have accumulated in the mucosal part of the small intestine are the consequence of replication errors. The same is likely true for point mutations accumulating in hippocampus and hypothalamus of the brain since neurogenesis in these two areas continues throughout life. The observed intra-organ variation in mutation susceptibility as well as the variation in replication dependency of different types of mutations indicates the need to not only extend observations made on whole organs to their sub-structures but also take the type of mutations and mitotic activity of the cells into consideration. This should help elucidating the impact of genome instability and its

  7. Modulatory activity of Lactobacillus rhamnosus OLL2838 in a mouse model of intestinal immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Tasuku; Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; D'Arienzo, Rossana; Mazzarella, Giuseppe; Bozzella, Giuseppina; Luongo, Diomira; Sashihara, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Takuya; Tanabe, Soichi; Rossi, Mauro

    2015-06-01

    Gut microbiota and probiotic strains play an important role in oral tolerance by modulating regulatory and effector cell components of the immune system. We have previously described the ability of Lactobacilli to influence both the innate and adaptive immunity to wheat gluten, a food antigen, in mouse. In this study, we further explored the immunomodulatory mechanisms elicited in this model by testing three specific probiotic strains, namely L. rhamnosus OLL2838, B. infantis ATCC15697 and S. thermophilus Sfi39. In vitro analysis showed the all tested strains induced maturation of bone marrow derived dendritic cells (DCs). However, only L. rhamnosus induced appreciable levels of IL-10 and nitric oxide productions, whereas S. thermophilus essentially elicited IL-12 and TNF-α. The anti-inflammatory ability of OLL2838 was then tested in vivo by adopting mice that develop a gluten-specific enteropathy. This model is characterized by villus blunting, crypt hyperplasia, high levels of intestinal IFN-γ, increased cell apoptosis in lamina propria, and reduced intestinal total glutathione (GSHtot) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. We found that, following administration of OLL2838, GSHtot and GST activity were enhanced, whereas caspase-3 activity was reduced. On the contrary, this probiotic strain failed in recovering the normal histology and further increased intestinal IFN-γ. Confocal microscopy revealed the inability of the probiotic strain to appropriately interact with enterocytes of the small intestine and with Peyer's patches in treated mice. In conclusion, these data highlighted the potential of L. rhamnosus OLL2838 to recover specific toxicity parameters induced by gluten in enteropathic mice through mechanisms that involve induction of low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Tooth-bone morphogenesis during postnatal stages of mouse first molar development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungová, Vlasta; Radlanski, Ralf J; Tucker, Abigail S; Renz, Herbert; Míšek, Ivan; Matalová, Eva

    2011-06-01

    The first mouse molar (M1) is the most common model for odontogenesis, with research particularly focused on prenatal development. However, the functional dentition forms postnatally, when the histogenesis and morphogenesis of the tooth is completed, the roots form and the tooth physically anchors into the jaw. In this work, M1 was studied from birth to eruption, assessing morphogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis, and correlating these with remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. The M1 completed crown formation between postnatal (P) days 0-2, and the development of the tooth root was initiated at P4. From P2 until P12, cell proliferation in the dental epithelium reduced and shifted downward to the apical region of the forming root. In contrast, proliferation was maintained or increased in the mesenchymal cells of the dental follicle. At later stages, before tooth eruption (P20), cell proliferation suddenly ceased. This withdrawal from the cell cycle correlated with tooth mineralization and mesenchymal differentiation. Apoptosis was observed during all stages of M1 postnatal morphogenesis, playing a role in the removal of cells such as osteoblasts in the mandibular region and working together with osteoclasts to remodel the bone around the developing tooth. At more advanced developmental stages, apoptotic cells and bodies accumulated in the cell layers above the tooth cusps, in the path of eruption. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the developing postnatal tooth and bone indicates that the alveolar crypts form by resorption underneath the primordia, whereas the ridges form by active bone growth between the teeth and roots to form a functional complex. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Tooth-bone morphogenesis during postnatal stages of mouse first molar development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungová, Vlasta; Radlanski, Ralf J; Tucker, Abigail S; Renz, Herbert; Míšek, Ivan; Matalová, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The first mouse molar (M1) is the most common model for odontogenesis, with research particularly focused on prenatal development. However, the functional dentition forms postnatally, when the histogenesis and morphogenesis of the tooth is completed, the roots form and the tooth physically anchors into the jaw. In this work, M1 was studied from birth to eruption, assessing morphogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis, and correlating these with remodeling of the surrounding bony tissue. The M1 completed crown formation between postnatal (P) days 0–2, and the development of the tooth root was initiated at P4. From P2 until P12, cell proliferation in the dental epithelium reduced and shifted downward to the apical region of the forming root. In contrast, proliferation was maintained or increased in the mesenchymal cells of the dental follicle. At later stages, before tooth eruption (P20), cell proliferation suddenly ceased. This withdrawal from the cell cycle correlated with tooth mineralization and mesenchymal differentiation. Apoptosis was observed during all stages of M1 postnatal morphogenesis, playing a role in the removal of cells such as osteoblasts in the mandibular region and working together with osteoclasts to remodel the bone around the developing tooth. At more advanced developmental stages, apoptotic cells and bodies accumulated in the cell layers above the tooth cusps, in the path of eruption. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the developing postnatal tooth and bone indicates that the alveolar crypts form by resorption underneath the primordia, whereas the ridges form by active bone growth between the teeth and roots to form a functional complex. PMID:21418206

  10. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters of blood in adolescent rats and histomorphological changes in the jejunal epithelium and liver after chronic exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green tea vs black, red or white tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Dobrowolski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, or white tea would have a protective effect similar to the action of green tea on the intestine and liver in the case of exposure to Cd and Pb within the limits of human environmental exposure to these elements. Rats at the age of 6 weeks were divided into the control and four groups supplemented with green (GT), black (BT), red (RT), or white (WT) tea extracts. Their diet (except the control) was mixed with 7 mg Cd/kg and 50mg Pb/kg. The experiment lasted 12 weeks. The effects of administration of tea in Cd- and Pb-poisoned rats on plasma biochemical parameters and the jejunal epithelium and liver were determined. The highest body mass was found in the GT group. The highest hemoglobin and Fe concentrations were in the control and GT groups. The highest activity of AST was in groups poisoned with Cd and Pb independently on supplementation. The highest ALT activity was in BT and RT groups with lower content of polifenoles. Pb and Cd disturbed the liver leading to necrosis and fatty degenerative changes, and a loss of normal architecture of the hepatocytes. Rats from the GT group had the highest cell proliferation rate in intestinal glands and the largest absorptive surface. Black, red, and white tea exerted a varied impact on the histological structure and innervation of the small intestine wall as well as on the absorptive function of small intestine mucosa in rats poisoned with Pb and Cd than green tea. On the other hand, taking into account the number of apoptotic cells, the effect of the teas was the same. Moreover, it is clear that long term exposure to Cd and Pb contamination causes toxic effect in the liver.

  11. EVOLUÇÃO DA FIBROSE BILIAR SECUNDÁRIA EM RATOS TRATADOS MEDIANTE DERIVAÇÃO BÍLIO-DUODENAL OU BÍLIO-JEJUNAL COM AL��A DE ROUX MEDINDO 5, 10 E 15 CM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandolfi Jr. H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A modalidade de derivação bílio-digestiva empregada no tratamento da colestase extra-hepática crônica pode influenciar na reparação das lesões hepáticas. Avaliou-se o desempenho das derivações bílio-duodenal e bílio-jejunal em Y de Roux com alça exclusa de diferentes comprimentos na reparação das lesões morfológicas e funcionais do fígado de ratos com fibrose biliar secundária. Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, com 15 dias de obstrução biliar, alocados em 5 grupos de 6 animais. O grupo OB caracterizou as alterações da fibrose biliar. Os animais remanescentes foram tratados mediante derivação com o duodeno (grupo DBD, e com o jejuno, em alça exclusa de 5cm (grupo DBJ5, 10cm (grupo DBJ10 e 15cm (grupo DBJ15, sendo reavaliados 3 meses depois. Outros 6 animais foram submetidos à intervenção simulada e considerados grupo controle (IS. Todos animais foram submetidos à avaliação morfométrica do fígado, análise bioquímica do sangue e microbiológica da bile, estudo da função mitocondrial hepática e verificação do peso úmido do fígado e do baço. Na análise estatística adotou-se o nível de significância de 5%. Houve aumento significativo do peso estimado, em g/Kg de peso corporal, dos ductos biliares, da fibrose e dos hepatócitos nos animais do grupo OB (medianas de 1,30; 10,03 e 37,0 em relação aos animais controles (IS (medianas de 0,03; zero e 29,37. Após tratamento, ocorreu regressão significativa do peso estimado dos ductos biliares e da fibrose, com valores medianos de 0,22 e 0,22 para o grupo DBD, 0,45 e 3,31 para o grupo DBJ5 e 0,22 e 5,0 para o grupo DBJ15. Houve regressão significativa do peso estimado dos hepatócitos apenas nos grupos derivados com o jejuno, com valores medianos de 31,93; 24,46 e 28,52. Ocorreu aumento significativo do peso úmido do fígado e do baço no grupo OB (medianas em g/Kg de peso corporal de 49,85 e 5,71 em relação ao grupo IS (30,0 e 3,04. Houve regress

  12. Effects of jejunal infusion of amino acids on secretion of gastrointestinal hormone in dog model%空肠输注氨基酸单体对犬胃肠道激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建福; 周宏; 方阳; 李霄阳; 余震

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察空肠输注氨基酸单体对健康犬胃肠道激素的影响.方法 6只健康成年犬行空肠造瘘及股静脉插管,手术后24 h开始分别向空肠输注各种氨基酸单体(实验组)和生理盐水(对照组),各溶液输注间隔时间为24 h.输注前及输注后30、60、90、120 min收集血标本,采用放射免疫分析法检测血浆胆囊收缩素(CCK)、胃动素和胃泌素浓度.结果 空肠输注不同氨基酸单体后,仅苯丙氨酸和色氨酸引起血浆CCK浓度升高,犬空肠输注苯丙氨酸30、60 min时CCK浓度高于输注生理盐水组[(1.25±0.19) ng/L比(0.66±0.14) ng/L, (1.23 ±0.12) ng/L比(0.80±0.03) ng/L,均P<0.01],犬空肠输注色氨酸30 min时CCK浓度高于输注生理盐水组[(1.08±0.26) ng/L比(0.66±0.14) ng/L,P<0.01].结论 空肠输注苯丙氨酸或色氨酸在一定程度上能促进胃肠道激素释放;芳香族氨基酸(苯丙氨酸和色氨酸)比脂肪族氨基酸(亮氨酸、异亮氨酸和甲硫氨酸)和带电荷氨基酸(门冬氨酸、精氨酸和谷氨酸)更能刺激CCK释放,这可能跟氨基酸自身的性质有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of jejunal infusion of amino acids on secretion of gastrointestinal hormone in healthy dogs.Methods Six healthy adult dogs were treated with jejunal fistulas and femoral vein intubation.Twenty-four hours after the operation,solution of 8 different amino acid monomers (experimental group) or normal saline (control group) were infused into the jejunum of the dogs every 24hours.The levels of cholecystokinin (CCK),motilin,and gastrin in the peripheral plasma were measured using radioimmunoassay at the start of infusion (0 minute),and 30,60,90,and 120 minutes after infusion.Results Compared with the control group,the serum CCK level in the phenylalanine group was significantly higher 30 and 60 minutes after infusion [(1.25 ±0.19) ng/L vs.(0.66 ±0.14) ng/L,(1.23 ±0.12) ng/L vs.(0.80 ± 0.03) ng/L,both P < 0.01],while that

  13. The role of Fas ligand protein in the oxidative stress induced by azoxymethane on crypt colon of rats O papel da proteína ligante Fas no estresse oxidativo induzido pelo azoximetano em criptas do colo de ratos

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    Luiz Antonio Maksoud Bussuan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the protein Fas ligand (FasL on the expression of apoptosis, using a model of oxidative stress induced by azoxymethane (AOM, in the crypt of colon in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats (n=14 were assigned into two groups: control (n=7 and AOM (n=7. A single subcutaneous administration of AOM (5mg/kg or saline solution was performed at the beginning of third week and after three hours samples of proximal colon were collected. The expression of FasL was quantified (Software ImageLab in percentage of areas in the top, base and all crypt. Results were expressed as mean ± sd (Shapiro-Wilks test and t Student test (p OBJETIVO: Avaliar o marcador de apoptose Fas ligante (FasL em um modelo de estresse oxidativo induzido pelo azoximetano (AOM na cripta de cólon em ratos. MÉTODOS: 14 ratos Wistar foram distribuídos em dois grupos: controle (n=7 e AOM (n=7. A AOM (5mg/kg ou solução salina foi aplicada via subcutânea e a coleta de amostras de colo proximal ocorreu 3 horas após. A FasL foi quantificada pelo percentual de áreas no topo, base e toda a cripta. Os resultados foram submetidos aos testes de Shapiro-Wilks e t de Student (p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: No grupo GC, não houve diferença significativa entre a expressão da FasL no topo (10,75 ± 3,33 e base (11,14 ± 3,53 da cripta (p=0,34293740. No grupo AOM não houve diferença significativa entre a expressão da FasL no topo (8,86 ± 4,19 e base (8,99 ± 4,08 e cripta (p=0,78486003. No grupo GC (10,95 ± 3,43 e AOM (8,92 ± 4,13, houve uma diferença significativa da expressão da FasL (p=0,026466821. Redução significativa na expressão da FasL ocorreu nos em GC (10,75 ± 3,33 e AOM (8,86 ± 4,19 no topo da cripta (p = 0,00003755*. Foi observada diminuição significativa em GC (11,14 ± 3,53 e AOM (8,99 ± 4,08 na base da cripta (p=0,00000381**. CONCLUSÃO: Azoximetano induziu o estresse oxidativo identificado pela diminuição significativa da expressão da FasL, embora não haja

  14. GENE KICKED MOUSE: KNOCK OUT MOUSE AND ITS APPLICATION

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    Rajashekar B

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A knockout mouse is a laboratory mouse in which genes are inactivated, or "knocked out," an existing gene by replacing it or disrupting it with an artificial piece of DNA. The 2007 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine is awarded to Drs Mario R. Capecchi, Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by using embryonic stem cells. Progress to gene targeting using embryonic cell was developed by Evans and his co-workers. Ingenious development of gene targeting has been made by introducing recognition sites for the enzyme Cre recombinase, called loxP sites, into existing genes. When mice carrying such "floxed" genes are mated with transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase, the target gene of the offspring is modified through Cre action. Gene targeting has transformed scientific medicine by permitting experimental testing of hypotheses regarding the function of specific genes. The first area to which experimental geneticists turned their attention after the birth of gene targeting in mammals was monogenic diseases. Gene targeting has been exceptionally useful in cancer research. A large number of protooncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, angiogenetic factors etc have been targeted in different tissues in mice to shed light on the induction and spreading of tumours. Gene-targeted mouse models have also become increasingly important in studies of host defense against pathogens. Gene targeted mice have become indispensable in virtually all aspects of medical research.

  15. Mouse models for methylmalonic aciduria.

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    Heidi L Peters

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA is a disorder of organic acid metabolism resulting from a functional defect of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM. MMA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus therapies are necessary to help improve quality of life and prevent renal and neurological complications. Transgenic mice carrying an intact human MCM locus have been produced. Four separate transgenic lines were established and characterised as carrying two, four, five or six copies of the transgene in a single integration site. Transgenic mice from the 2-copy line were crossed with heterozygous knockout MCM mice to generate mice hemizygous for the human transgene on a homozygous knockout background. Partial rescue of the uniform neonatal lethality seen in homozygous knockout mice was observed. These rescued mice were significantly smaller than control littermates (mice with mouse MCM gene. Biochemically, these partial rescue mice exhibited elevated methylmalonic acid levels in urine, plasma, kidney, liver and brain tissue. Acylcarnitine analysis of blood spots revealed elevated propionylcarnitine levels. Analysis of mRNA expression confirms the human transgene is expressed at higher levels than observed for the wild type, with highest expression in the kidney followed closely by brain and liver. Partial rescue mouse fibroblast cultures had only 20% of the wild type MCM enzyme activity. It is anticipated that this humanised partial rescue mouse model of MMA will enable evaluation of long-term pathophysiological effects of elevated methylmalonic acid levels and be a valuable model for the investigation of therapeutic strategies, such as cell transplantation.

  16. Mouse Models for Methylmalonic Aciduria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heidi L.; Pitt, James J.; Wood, Leonie R.; Hamilton, Natasha J.; Sarsero, Joseph P.; Buck, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) is a disorder of organic acid metabolism resulting from a functional defect of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MCM). MMA is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus therapies are necessary to help improve quality of life and prevent renal and neurological complications. Transgenic mice carrying an intact human MCM locus have been produced. Four separate transgenic lines were established and characterised as carrying two, four, five or six copies of the transgene in a single integration site. Transgenic mice from the 2-copy line were crossed with heterozygous knockout MCM mice to generate mice hemizygous for the human transgene on a homozygous knockout background. Partial rescue of the uniform neonatal lethality seen in homozygous knockout mice was observed. These rescued mice were significantly smaller than control littermates (mice with mouse MCM gene). Biochemically, these partial rescue mice exhibited elevated methylmalonic acid levels in urine, plasma, kidney, liver and brain tissue. Acylcarnitine analysis of blood spots revealed elevated propionylcarnitine levels. Analysis of mRNA expression confirms the human transgene is expressed at higher levels than observed for the wild type, with highest expression in the kidney followed closely by brain and liver. Partial rescue mouse fibroblast cultures had only 20% of the wild type MCM enzyme activity. It is anticipated that this humanised partial rescue mouse model of MMA will enable evaluation of long-term pathophysiological effects of elevated methylmalonic acid levels and be a valuable model for the investigation of therapeutic strategies, such as cell transplantation. PMID:22792386

  17. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

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    Timothy C. Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field.

  18. Adenoma formation following limited ablation of p120-catenin in the mouse intestine.

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    Whitney G Smalley-Freed

    Full Text Available p120 loss destabilizes E-cadherin and could therefore result in tumor and/or metastasis-promoting activities similar to those caused by E-cadherin downregulation. Previously, we reported that p120 is essential in the intestine for barrier function, epithelial homeostasis and survival. Conditional p120 ablation in the mouse intestine induced severe inflammatory bowel disease, but long-term cancer-related studies were impossible because none of the animals survived longer than 21 days. Here, we used a tamoxifen-inducible mouse model (Vil-Cre-ER(T2;p120(fl/fl to limit the extent of p120 ablation and thereby enable long-term studies. Reducing p120 KO to ∼10% of the intestinal epithelium produced long-lived animals outwardly indistinguishable from controls. Effects of prolonged p120 absence were then evaluated at intervals spanning 2 to 18 months. At all time points, immunostaining revealed microdomains of p120-null epithelium interspersed with normal epithelium. Thus, stochastic p120 ablation is compatible with crypt progenitor cell function and permitted lifelong renewal of the p120-null cells. Consistent with previous observations, a barrier defect and frequent infiltration of neutrophils was observed, suggesting that focal p120 loss generates a microenvironment disposed to chronic inflammation. We report that 45% of these animals developed tumors within 18 months of tamoxifen induction. Interestingly, β-catenin was upregulated in the majority, but none of the tumors were p120 null. Although further work is required to directly establish mechanism, we conclude that limited p120 ablation can promote tumorigenesis by an indirect non-cell autonomous mechanism. Given that byproducts of inflammation are known to be highly mutagenic, we suggest that tumorigenesis in this model is ultimately driven by the lifelong inability to heal chronic wounds and the substantially increased rates of stochastic gene mutation in tissue microenvironments subjected to

  19. A carvacrol-thymol blend decreased intestinal oxidative stress and influenced selected microbes without changing the messenger RNA levels of tight junction proteins in jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H-K; Xue, H-X; Zhou, Z X; Peng, J

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that intestinal oxidative stress and microbiota imbalance is involved in weaning-induced intestinal dysfunction in piglets. We have investigated the effect of feeding a carvacrol-thymol blend supplemented diet on intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations and the intestinal barrier in weaning piglets. The piglets (weaned at 21 days of age) were randomly allocated to two groups with six pens per treatment and 10 piglets per pen. At weaning day (21 days of age), six piglets were sacrificed before weaning to serve as the preweaning group. The weaned group was fed with a basal diet, while the weaned-CB group was fed with the basal diet supplemented with 100 mg/kg carvacrol-thymol (1 : 1) blend for 14 days. On day 7 post-weaning, six piglets from each group were sacrificed to determine intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biomarkers of intestinal barrier function. Weaning resulted in intestinal oxidative stress, indicated by the increased concentration of reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances present in the intestine. Weaning also reduced the population of Lactobacillus genus and increased the populations of Enterococcus genus and Escherichia coli in the jejunum, and increased mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β and interleukin 6 (IL-6). In addition, decreased mRNA levels of zonula occludens and occludin in the jejunal mucosa and increased plasma diamine oxidase concentrations indicated that weaning induced dysfunction of the intestinal barrier. On day 7 post-weaning, supplementation with the carvacrol-thymol blend restored weaning-induced intestinal oxidative stress. Compared with the weaned group, the weaned-CB group had an increased population of Lactobacillus genus but reduced populations of Enterococcus genus and E. coli in the jejunum and decreased mRNA levels of TNF-α. The

  20. Efficacy of total gastrectomy jejunal loop p-generation treatment of gastric cardia gastric fundus%全胃切除空肠p袢代胃术治疗胃底贲门癌的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莱; 黄灿; 徐春华

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨全胃切除空肠p袢代胃术治疗胃底贲门癌的临床应用价值,提高患者生存质量。方法从本院收治的胃底贲门癌患者中选取57例符合研究条件的患者作为研究对象,采用单盲抽样方法抽取其中30例作为实验组,采用全胃切除空肠p袢代胃术治疗,其余患者作为对照组,采用标准Roux-en-Y吻合术式治疗,并收集两组患者的相关数据进行对比,包括手术时间、术中的出血情况、排空时间、饮食的次数、饮食量以及并发症的发生率。结果通过对比我们发现,实验组与对照组的手术所需时间以及手术中出血量的差异无统计学意义( p>0.05),实验组患者的饮食次数、排空时间、饮食量均显著优于对照组(p 0.05), the experimental group of patients with eating times, emptying time, the diet were significantly superior in the control group (p <0.05). The complication rate in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (p <0.05). Conclusion: p total gastrectomy jejunal loop generation stomach and gastric cardia cancer treatment has a good effect, can improve the survival of patients, there is a high clinical value.

  1. Utilização da glutamina no tratamento de lesões de isquemia e reperfusão no jejuno em eqüinos Use of glutamine to treatment of ischemia and reperfusion lesions in equine jejune

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    Geane Maciel Pagliosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sob anestesia geral e com controle da pressão arterial, 12 eqüinos foram submetidos simultaneamente a modelos de isquemia venosa e distensão intraluminal em segmentos do jejuno por 2 h, seguidos de 12 h de reperfusão. Seis eqüinos foram tratados com glutamina a 2% (50mg/kg por via intravenosa e seis com solução fisiológica em igual volume, 1 h após o início da isquemia e às 6h de reperfusão. Foram colhidas amostras de tecido intestinal antes e com 2 h de isquemia e com 2 e 12 h de reperfusão para avaliações histopatológica e ultraestrutural, mensuração da área e número das vilosidades por mm² e atividade de mieloperoxidade (MPO. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os grupos controle e tratado. Concluiu-se que a glutamina, nas condições deste trabalho, não atenua lesões de isquemia e reperfusão intestinal em eqüinos.Under general anesthesia and arterial pressure control, twelve horses were submitted simultaneously to intraluminal distension and venous ischemia of jejune for 2 hours, followed by 12 hours of reperfusion. Six horses were treated with intravenous 2% glutamine (50mg/kg, and six others were treated with the same volume of saline solution 1h after the beginning of ischemia and 6 hours after reperfusion. Intestinal samples were collected before and after 2 hours of ischemia and after 2 and 12 hours of reperfusion, and were submitted to hystopatological analyses, ultrastructural examination, measurement of area and number of villi per mm², and to myeloperoxidases activity. No statistical differences between the groups were found. It was concluded that glutamine did not attenuate the ischemia and reperfusion lesions under the methodology used in this study.

  2. Influência da suplementação de glutamina sobre o desempenho e o desenvolvimento de vilos e criptas do intestino delgado de frangos Influence of glutamine supplementation on performance and intestinal villous and crypt development in broiler chickens

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    A. Maiorka

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se o efeito da suplementação de glutamina na dieta sobre o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e sobre a estrutura da mucosa intestinal de frangos. Foram utilizados 320 pintos de corte machos distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com dois tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo T1 suplementado com 1% de L-glutamina na dieta e T2 controle. Os índices de desempenho foram analisados aos 7, 21 e 49 dias de idade das aves. Aos 7 e 14 dias de idade oito aves foram sacrificadas para colheita de fragmentos de cada porção do intestino delgado para avaliação da morfometria intestinal em microscopia de luz em sistema analisador de imagens "Video Plan". As variáveis estudadas foram altura dos vilos, profundidade de cripta e relação vilo: cripta. A adição de 1% de glutamina à dieta de frangos não influenciou (P>0,05 o seu desempenho zootécnico. Entretanto, 1% de glutamina na ração foi capaz de alterar (PThis investigation was carried out in order to study the influence of glutamine supplementation in the ration on performance and on the intestinal structure development of broiler chickens. Three hundred and twenty day-old broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized experiment with two treatments and four repetitions, being T1 supplemented with 1% L-glutamine and T2 - control (not supplemented. The performance was evaluated (feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion at 7, 21 and 49 days of age. At the same ages birds were sacrificed and samples from different parts of the intestine were collected (duodenum, jejunum and ileum to be submitted to morphometric studies under light microscopy using an image analysis system (Video Plan. The variables studied were villous height, crypt depth and villous:crypt ratio. It was demonstrated that 1% glutamine supplementation in the ration did not influence the broiler chicken performance (P>0.05 during the different phases of growth

  3. Mouse models of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Herreros-Villanueva; Elizabeth Hijona; Angel Cosme; Luis Bujanda

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of human malignancies ranking 4th among cancer-related death in the western world and in the United States,and potent therapeutic options are lacking.Although during the last few years there have been important advances in the understanding of the molecular events responsible for the development of pancreatic cancer,currently specific mechanisms of treatment resistance remain poorly understood and new effective systemic drugs need to be developed and probed.In vivo models to study pancreatic cancer and approach this issue remain limited and present different molecular features that must be considered in the studies depending on the purpose to fit special research themes.In the last few years,several genetically engineered mouse models of pancreatic exocrine neoplasia have been developed.These models mimic the disease as they reproduce genetic alterations implicated in the progression of pancreatic cancer.Genetic alterations such as activating mutations in KRas,or TGFb and/or inactivation of tumoral suppressors such as p53,INK4A/ARF BRCA2 and Smad4 are the most common drivers to pancreatic carcinogenesis and have been used to create transgenic mice.These mouse models have a spectrum of pathologic changes,from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to lesions that progress histologically culminating in fully invasive and metastatic disease and represent the most useful preclinical model system.These models can characterize the cellular and molecular pathology of pancreatic neoplasia and cancer and constitute the best tool to investigate new therapeutic approaches,chemopreventive and/or anticancer treatments.Here,we review and update the current mouse models that reproduce different stages of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and will have clinical relevance in future pancreatic cancer developments.

  4. Pomegranate polyphenolics suppressed azoxymethane-induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci and inflammation: possible role of miR-126/VCAM-1 and miR-126/PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nivedita; Kim, Hyemee; Talcott, Stephen; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    The antitumorigenic activities of polyphenols such as ellagitannins and anthocyanins in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) have been previously studied where cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were evident in various cancer models. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of miR-126/vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and miR-126/phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in pomegranate-mediated anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects in vivo and in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10 per group) received pomegranate juice (2504.74 mg gallic acid equivalents/l) or a polyphenol-free control beverage ad libitum for 10 weeks and were injected with azoxymethane (AOM) subcutaneously (15mg/kg) at weeks 2 and 3. Consumption of pomegranate juice suppressed the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and dysplastic ACF by 29 and 53.5% (P = 0.05 and 0.04), respectively, and significantly lowered proliferation of mucosa cells. Pomegranate juice significantly downregulated proinflammatory enzymes nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression. In addition, it suppressed nuclear factor-κB and VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expression in AOM-treated rats. Pomegranate also inhibited phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and mTOR expression and increased the expression of miR-126. The specific target and functions of miR-126 were investigated in HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. In vitro, the involvement of miR-126 was confirmed using the antagomiR for miR-126, where pomegranate reversed the effects of the antagomiR on the expression of miR-126, VCAM-1 and PI3K p85β. In summary, therapeutic potentials of pomegranate in colon tumorigenesis were due in part to targeting miR-126-regulated pathways, which contributes in the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  5. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the

  6. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    Full Text Available Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg, EEAML (500 mg/kg and positive control (5-fluorouracil. Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing

  7. Therapeutic cloning in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombaerts, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear transfer technology can be applied to produce autologous differentiated cells for therapeutic purposes, a concept termed therapeutic cloning. Countless articles have been published on the ethics and politics of human therapeutic cloning, reflecting the high expectations from this new opportunity for rejuvenation of the aging or diseased body. Yet the research literature on therapeutic cloning, strictly speaking, is comprised of only four articles, all in the mouse. The efficiency of derivation of embryonic stem cell lines via nuclear transfer is remarkably consistent among these reports. However, the efficiency is so low that, in its present form, the concept is unlikely to become widespread in clinical practice. PMID:12949262

  8. Preclinical Mouse Models of Neurofibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    arachnoidal cells is rate-limiting for meningioma development in the mouse. Genes & Development, 2002, 16:1060-1065. Kissil JL, Johnson KC, Eckman MS and...doubly mutant Nf1 and Wv hematopoietic cells. Blood 2003; 101: 1984-1986. Shannon, K.M. 35 Kissil JL, Wilker EW, Johnson KC, Eckman MS, Yaffe M, and... Paul E. McKeever, Shannon, K.M. 38 Megan Lim, Simon J. Conway, Luis F. Parada, Yuan Zhu, and Sean J. Morrison. 2007. The loss of Nf1 transiently

  9. Hip Arthroscopy: Tales From the Crypt.

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    Matsuda, Dean K; Philippon, Marc J; Safran, Marc R; Sampson, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Complications after hip arthroscopy vary in frequency and severity, even for experienced surgeons. It is important for surgeons to be aware of some of the more dramatic, often unusual, and always memorable (nightmarish) complications of hip arthroscopy and understand how they are caused, how they can be treated, and how they can be prevented.

  10. The Crypt, the Haunted House, of Cinema

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    Alan Cholodenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As we know, it is a cliché that what we see on the screen is ghosts, phantoms, spectres. What I propose in this essay is that that cliché be taken seriously—do I dare say it, ‘deadly’ seriously—be given rigorous analytic attention for its relevance to the thinking of cinema and its senses, while at the same time acknowledging that even the finest account must come face to face with the ‘fact’ that there is no ghostbuster, not even the analyst/theorist of cinema, not even the Marxist analyst/theorist of cinema, so powerful as to master, defeat and eradicate the spectre of cinema. It is a key premise of this essay that not only is the spectre a privileged subject of film but that it would be the ur figure of cinema, if cinema could have an ur figure, if the spectre could be an ur figure, a figure not only operating at every second at every level in every aspect of every film but also at the level of the cinematic, or rather animatic, apparatus of film, hence at the level of film ‘as such’.

  11. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Buttet

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome (MetS greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD. By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP and blood clearance (ApoC2. These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG, while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the

  12. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Marjorie; Poirier, Hélène; Traynard, Véronique; Gaire, Kévin; Tran, Thi Thu Trang; Sundaresan, Sinju; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A; Niot, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD). By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP) and blood clearance (ApoC2). These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG), while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the reported

  13. Deregulated Lipid Sensing by Intestinal CD36 in Diet-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Obese Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttet, Marjorie; Poirier, Hélène; Traynard, Véronique; Gaire, Kévin; Tran, Thi Thu Trang; Sundaresan, Sinju; Besnard, Philippe; Abumrad, Nada A.; Niot, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) greatly increases risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes and is generally associated with abnormally elevated postprandial triglyceride levels. We evaluated intestinal synthesis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in a mouse model of the MetS obtained by feeding a palm oil-rich high fat diet (HFD). By contrast to control mice, MetS mice secreted two populations of TRL. If the smaller size population represented 44% of total particles in the beginning of intestinal lipid absorption in MetS mice, it accounted for only 17% after 4 h due to the secretion of larger size TRL. The MetS mice displayed accentuated postprandial hypertriglyceridemia up to 3 h due to a defective TRL clearance. These alterations reflected a delay in lipid induction of genes for key proteins of TRL formation (MTP, L-FABP) and blood clearance (ApoC2). These abnormalities associated with blunted lipid sensing by CD36, which is normally required to optimize jejunal formation of large TRL. In MetS mice CD36 was not downregulated by lipid in contrast to control mice. Treatment of controls with the proteosomal inhibitor MG132, which prevented CD36 downregulation, resulted in blunted lipid-induction of MTP, L-FABP and ApoC2 gene expression, as in MetS mice. Absence of CD36 sensing was due to the hyperinsulinemia in MetS mice. Acute insulin treatment of controls before lipid administration abolished CD36 downregulation, lipid-induction of TRL genes and reduced postprandial triglycerides (TG), while streptozotocin-treatment of MetS mice restored lipid-induced CD36 degradation and TG secretion. In vitro, insulin treatment abolished CD36-mediated up-regulation of MTP in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, HFD treatment impairs TRL formation in early stage of lipid absorption via insulin-mediated inhibition of CD36 lipid sensing. This impairment results in production of smaller TRL that are cleared slowly from the circulation, which might contribute to the reported

  14. Comparative stereology of mouse atria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossen, E H; Sommer, J R; Waugh, R A

    1981-01-01

    The left and right atria of the mouse were compared to each other and to the mouse left ventricle using stereologic techniques. The volume fraction (Vv) and surface area per unit cell volume (Sv) of the interior junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (IJSR), total JSR and extended JSR were greater in the left atrium than in right. The Vv and Sv of the free SR, transverse tubules, and mitochondria were similar in the two atria. It is suggested that the differences in junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum between the atria can be accounted for by a difference in distribution of two types of cells whose anatomy is analogous to working and conducting fibers in the ventricle. The Sv and Vv of the transverse tubules, mitochondria, and all the components of the sarcoplasmic reticulum except for the free SR were greater in the left ventricle than in either atrium. The greater calcium content and sensitivity to extracellular calcium of the atria may explain the greater volume of free SR in the atria as compared to the left ventricle. The Sv of the plasmalemma of the atria and of the Sv of the plasmalemma of the transverse tubules of the left ventricles supports the suggestion of others that there is a constant ratio of surface area to cell volume in cardiac cells.

  15. Take care of your mouse!

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    “Stop --- Think --- Click" is the basic recommendation for securely browsing the Internet and for securely reading e-mails. Users who have followed this recommendation in the past were less likely to have their computer infected or their computing account compromised. We would like to thank all those who donated their mouse to the CERN Animal Shelter for Computer Mice (http://cern.ch/c-a-s). For those who still use a mouse, please stay vigilant and  alert: do not click on links whose origin you do not trust or which look like gibberish. Do not install untrusted software or plug-ins, since software from untrusted sources may infect or compromise your computer, or violate copyrights. Finally, take particular care with e-mails: Do not open unexpected or suspicious e-mails or attachments. Delete them if they do not concern you or if they appear strange. If in doubt, or if you have questions, please do not hesitate to contact Computer.Security@cern.ch

  16. Mutations of APC and K-ras gene in aberrant crypt foci from human colon%结直肠粘膜隐窝异常病灶K-ras、APC基因突变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁平; 张锦生; 孙孟红; 朱雄增; 施达仁

    2001-01-01

    目的 分析隐窝异常病灶(aberrant crypt foci,ACF)的基因水平变化特点及其作为结直肠癌最早期形态变化的分子依据,探讨ACF与腺瘤之间的关系。方法 经微解剖分离提取15例正常粘膜腺体、34例ACF、15例腺瘤和35例结直肠癌组织进行DNA测序,检测K-ras第12、13、61密码子和APC第15外显子“突变密集区”的突变。结果 正常粘膜无K-ras和APC基因突变,ACF、腺瘤和癌组织K-ras突变率分别为17.6%(6/34)、13.3%(2/15)和14.3%(5/35),3者突变率相近。4例ACF、腺瘤和癌组织的突变位于12密码子的第2碱基(GGT→GAT),2例ACF突变发生在13密码子的第2碱基(GGC→GAC)。ACF中K-ras的突变特点与同来源的癌组织保持一致,即患者年龄较大,大体以隆起型为主,所有组织未发现有61密码子的突变。癌和腺瘤APC基因突变率相近,癌为22.9%(8/35),腺瘤为26.7%(4/15)明显高于ACF的2.9%(1/34,P<0.05),癌组织APC与患者的年龄、肿瘤位置、大体类型、组织分化程度无关。结论 ACF可能是结直肠癌最早期的形态改变,ACF的形态学变化、部分基因的改变均有别于腺瘤,提示:(1)ACF有可能是腺瘤前的形态改变;(2) 结直肠癌的发生可能存在“正常上皮→ACF→癌变”这一途径。%Objective To analyze the mutations of K-ras and APC gene in normal colorectal mucosa, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), adenoma and colorectal carcinoma(CRC); To study the genetic alteration in ACF and its possibility of being a molecular marker of very early colon cancer and to explore the relationship of ACF and colorectal adenoma. Methods DNA from 35 CRC, 15 adenomas, 34 ACF and 15 cases of normal mucosa with mucous glands were isolated by micro-dissection. Direct gene sequencing of k-ras gene including codon 12, 13 and 61 as well as the mutation cluster region (MCR) of APC gene. Results Mutation frequency of

  17. A physical map of the mouse genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregory, SG; Sekhon, M; Schein, J; Zhao, SY; Osoegawa, K; Scott, CE; Evans, RS; Burridge, PW; Cox, TV; Fox, CA; Hutton, RD; Mullenger, IR; Phillips, KJ; Smith, J; Stalker, J; Threadgold, GJ; Birney, E; Wylie, K; Chinwalla, A; Wallis, J; Hillier, L; Carter, J; Gaige, T; Jaeger, S; Kremitzki, C; Layman, D; McGrane, R; Mead, K; Walker, R; Jones, S; Smith, M; Asano, J; Bosdet, I; Chan, S; Chittaranjan, S; Chiu, R; Fjell, C; Fuhrmann, D; Girn, N; Gray, C; Guin, R; Hsiao, L; Krzywinski, M; Kutsche, R; Lee, SS; Mathewson, C; McLeavy, C; Messervier, S; Ness, S; Pandoh, P; Prabhu, AL; Saeedi, P; Smailus, D; Spence, L; Stott, J; Taylor, S; Terpstra, W; Tsai, M; Vardy, J; Wye, N; Yang, G; Shatsman, S; Ayodeji, B; Geer, K; Tsegaye, G; Shvartsbeyn, A; Gebregeorgis, E; Krol, M; Russell, D; Overton, L; Malek, JA; Holmes, M; Heaney, M; Shetty, J; Feldblyum, T; Nierman, WC; Catanese, JJ; Hubbard, T; Waterston, RH; Rogers, J; de Jong, PJ; Fraser, CM; Marra, M; McPherson, JD; Bentley, DR

    2002-01-01

    A physical map of a genome is an essential guide for navigation, allowing the location of any gene or other landmark in the chromosomal DNA. We have constructed a physical map of the mouse genome that contains 296 contigs of overlapping bacterial clones and 16,992 unique markers. The mouse contigs w

  18. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...

  19. A physical map of the mouse genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregory, SG; Sekhon, M; Schein, J; Zhao, SY; Osoegawa, K; Scott, CE; Evans, RS; Burridge, PW; Cox, TV; Fox, CA; Hutton, RD; Mullenger, IR; Phillips, KJ; Smith, J; Stalker, J; Threadgold, GJ; Birney, E; Wylie, K; Chinwalla, A; Wallis, J; Hillier, L; Carter, J; Gaige, T; Jaeger, S; Kremitzki, C; Layman, D; McGrane, R; Mead, K; Walker, R; Jones, S; Smith, M; Asano, J; Bosdet, I; Chan, S; Chittaranjan, S; Chiu, R; Fjell, C; Fuhrmann, D; Girn, N; Gray, C; Guin, R; Hsiao, L; Krzywinski, M; Kutsche, R; Lee, SS; Mathewson, C; McLeavy, C; Messervier, S; Ness, S; Pandoh, P; Prabhu, AL; Saeedi, P; Smailus, D; Spence, L; Stott, J; Taylor, S; Terpstra, W; Tsai, M; Vardy, J; Wye, N; Yang, G; Shatsman, S; Ayodeji, B; Geer, K; Tsegaye, G; Shvartsbeyn, A; Gebregeorgis, E; Krol, M; Russell, D; Overton, L; Malek, JA; Holmes, M; Heaney, M; Shetty, J; Feldblyum, T; Nierman, WC; Catanese, JJ; Hubbard, T; Waterston, RH; Rogers, J; de Jong, PJ; Fraser, CM; Marra, M; McPherson, JD; Bentley, DR

    2002-01-01

    A physical map of a genome is an essential guide for navigation, allowing the location of any gene or other landmark in the chromosomal DNA. We have constructed a physical map of the mouse genome that contains 296 contigs of overlapping bacterial clones and 16,992 unique markers. The mouse contigs w

  20. Are You a Man or a Mouse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2008-01-01

    Are you a man or a mouse? This expression is used to encourage someone to be brave when they are frightened of doing something. It is also an expression which bears associations to John Steinbeck's novella Of Mice and Men, the title of which is taken from Robert Burns' poem To a Mouse, which is o...