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  1. HCN channels are not required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

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    Geoffrey C Horwitz

    Full Text Available The molecular composition of the hair cell transduction channel has not been identified. Here we explore the novel hypothesis that hair cell transduction channels include HCN subunits. The HCN family of ion channels includes four members, HCN1-4. They were originally identified as the molecular correlates of the hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide gated ion channels that carry currents known as If, IQ or Ih. However, based on recent evidence it has been suggested that HCN subunits may also be components of the elusive hair cell transduction channel. To investigate this hypothesis we examined expression of mRNA that encodes HCN1-4 in sensory epithelia of the mouse inner ear, immunolocalization of HCN subunits 1, 2 and 4, uptake of the transduction channel permeable dye, FM1-43 and electrophysiological measurement of mechanotransduction current. Dye uptake and transduction current were assayed in cochlear and vestibular hair cells of wildtype mice exposed to HCN channel blockers or a dominant-negative form of HCN2 that contained a pore mutation and in mutant mice that lacked HCN1, HCN2 or both. We found robust expression of HCNs 1, 2 and 4 but little evidence that localized HCN subunits in hair bundles, the site of mechanotransduction. Although high concentrations of the HCN antagonist, ZD7288, blocked 50-70% of the transduction current, we found no reduction of transduction current in either cochlear or vestibular hair cells of HCN1- or HCN2- deficient mice relative to wild-type mice. Furthermore, mice that lacked both HCN1 and HCN2 also had normal transduction currents. Lastly, we found that mice exposed to the dominant-negative mutant form of HCN2 had normal transduction currents as well. Taken together, the evidence suggests that HCN subunits are not required for mechanotransduction in hair cells of the mouse inner ear.

  2. Induced thermal resistance in the mouse ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Coultas, P.G.; Field, S.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mouse ear (pinna) was used to investigate the effect of two hyperthermic treatments. Heating was by immersion in hot water at 43.5 0 C. A single treatment of about 50 minutes was required to cause necrosis in 50% of the ears treated. When heat treatment was given in two equal fractions the total heating time had to be increased if the interval between fractions was greater than four hours. By 24 hours a total treatment of about 100 minutes was required, indicating almost complete recovery from the first heating. Priming treatments at 43.5 0 C induced thermal resistance to a second heat treatment at 43.5 0 C. Maximum resistance was observed one day after a 20 minute priming and two days after a 40 minute priming, when the heating time had to be increased to 120 minutes, an increase by a factor of 2.4. Shorter priming treatments induced less resistance, the minimum heating time to produce an effect being two minutes. In all cases the effect decreased during the next four to five days. These results indicate that the reduced response of tissues to fractionated hyperthermia is due both to the repair of sublethal heat damage and induction of thermal resistance. (author)

  3. Sulfur mustard induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model

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    Chang, Yoke-Chen; Wang, James D. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Svoboda, Kathy K. [Texas A and M University, Baylor College of Dentistry, Center for Craniofacial Research 3302 Gaston Ave, Dallas, Texas 75246 (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [MRIGlobal, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Medicine, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gordon, Marion K. [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Gerecke, Donald R., E-mail: gerecke@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Pharmacology and Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a cell survival pathway upregulated when cells are under severe stress. Severely damaged mouse ear skin exposed to the vesicant, sulfur mustard (bis-2-chloroethyl sulfide, SM), resulted in increased expression of ER chaperone proteins that accompany misfolded and incorrectly made proteins targeted for degradation. Time course studies with SM using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM) showed progressive histopathologic changes including edema, separation of the epidermis from the dermis, persistent inflammation, upregulation of laminin γ2 (one of the chains of laminin-332, a heterotrimeric skin glycoprotein required for wound repair), and delayed wound healing from 24 h to 168 h post exposure. This was associated with time related increased expression of the cell survival ER stress marker, GRP78/BiP, and the ER stress apoptosis marker, GADD153/CHOP, suggesting simultaneous activation of both cell survival and non-mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Dual immunofluorescence labeling of a keratinocyte migration promoting protein, laminin γ2 and GRP78/BIP, showed colocalization of the two molecules 72 h post exposure indicating that the laminin γ2 was misfolded after SM exposure and trapped within the ER. Taken together, these data show that ER stress is induced in mouse skin within 24 h of vesicant exposure in a defensive response to promote cell survival; however, it appears that this response is rapidly overwhelmed by the apoptotic pathway as a consequence of severe SM-induced injury. - Highlights: ► We demonstrated ER stress response in the mouse ear vesicant model. ► We described the asymmetrical nature of wound repair in the MEVM. ► We identified the distribution of various ER stress markers in the MEVM.

  4. In vivo imaging of middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse guided by SD-OCT combined with a surgical microscope

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    Cho, Nam Hyun; Jang, Jeong Hun; Jung, Woonggyu; Kim, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    We developed an augmented-reality system that combines optical coherence tomography (OCT) with a surgical microscope. By sharing the common optical path in the microscope and OCT, we could simultaneously acquire OCT and microscope views. The system was tested to identify the middle-ear and inner-ear microstructures of a mouse. Considering the probability of clinical application including otorhinolaryngology, diseases such as middle-ear effusion were visualized using in vivo mouse and OCT images simultaneously acquired through the eyepiece of the surgical microscope during surgical manipulation using the proposed system. This system is expected to realize a new practical area of OCT application. PMID:24787787

  5. Isolation of sphere-forming stem cells from the mouse inner ear.

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    Oshima, Kazuo; Senn, Pascal; Heller, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear has very limited ability to regenerate lost sensory hair cells. This deficiency becomes apparent when hair cell loss leads to hearing loss as a result of either ototoxic insult or the aging process. Coincidently, with this inability to regenerate lost hair cells, the adult cochlea does not appear to harbor cells with a proliferative capacity that could serve as progenitor cells for lost cells. In contrast, adult mammalian vestibular sensory epithelia display a limited ability for hair cell regeneration, and sphere-forming cells with stem cell features can be isolated from the adult murine vestibular system. The neonatal inner ear, however, does harbor sphere-forming stem cells residing in cochlear and vestibular tissues. Here, we provide protocols to isolate sphere-forming stem cells from neonatal vestibular and cochlear sensory epithelia as well as from the spiral ganglion. We further describe procedures for sphere propagation, cell differentiation, and characterization of inner ear cell types derived from spheres. Sphere-forming stem cells from the mouse inner ear are an important tool for the development of cellular replacement strategies of damaged inner ears and are a bona fide progenitor cell source for transplantation studies.

  6. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Polygonum cuspidatum extract in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation

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    Wicker Louise

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the ability of a characterized extract of Polygonum cuspidatum (PCE to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA. Methods A 50% (wt:vol ethanolic solution of commercial 200:1 PCE was applied to both ears of female Swiss mice (n = 8 at 0.075, 0.15, 0.3, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ear 30 min after TPA administration (2 μg/ear. For comparison, 3 other groups were treated with TPA and either 1 the vehicle (50% ethanol alone, 2 indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear, or 3 trans-resveratrol (0.62 mg/ear. Ear thickness was measured before TPA and at 4 and 24 h post-TPA administration to assess ear edema. Ear punch biopsies were collected at 24 h and weighed as a second index of edema. Myeloperoxidase activity was measured in each ear punch biopsy to assess neutrophil infiltration. Results PCE treatment at all doses significantly reduced ear edema compared to the TPA control. The PCE response was dose-dependent and 2.5 mg PCE significantly inhibited all markers of inflammation to a greater extent than indomethacin (0.5 mg. MPO activity was inhibited at PCE doses ≥ 1.25 mg/ear. Trans-resveratrol inhibited inflammation at comparable doses. Conclusion PCE inhibits development of edema and neutrophil infiltration in the TPA-treated mouse ear model of topical inflammation.

  7. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

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    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  8. Conditional Gene Expression in the Mouse Inner Ear Using Cre-loxP

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Brandon C.; Liu, Zhiyong; Lagarde, Marcia M. Mellado; Zuo, Jian

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant progress in the use of Cre-loxP technology for conditional gene expression in the inner ear. Here, we introduce the basic concepts of this powerful technology, emphasizing the differences between Cre and CreER. We describe the creation and Cre expression pattern of each Cre and CreER mouse line that has been reported to have expression in auditory and vestibular organs. We compare the Cre expression patterns between Atoh1-CreERTM and Atoh1-CreERT2 a...

  9. Social learning within and across species: information transfer in mouse-eared bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarin, T. M. A.; Borissov, I.; Page, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    of observation versus interaction in intraspecific social learning and by considering interspecific social learning in sympatric bat species. Observers learned from demonstrators to identify food sources using a light cue. We show that intraspecific social learning exists in the greater mouse-eared bat (Myotis......). Additionally, we opportunistically retested one individual that we recaptured from the wild 1 year after initial learning and found long-term memory of the trained association. Our study adds to the understanding of learning, information transfer, and long-term memory in wild-living animals....

  10. Differential effect of prior heat treatment on the thermal enhancement of radiation damage in the ear of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, M.P.; Ahier, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of prior heat treatment on thermal enhancement of radiodermatitis was investigated in the ear of the mouse. Ears were heated by immersion in hot water. A priming treatment of 43.5 0 C for 30 min (H) was given at various times before a second combined treatment of hypethermia at 43.5 0 C (h) given immediately before (hX) or after (Xh) a dose of X rays (X). The effect of H was measured in two ways. The heating time h, required to cause a given enhancement of radiodermatitis was estimated by fixing X and varying the duration of h. The thermal enhancement ratio, defined as the dose of X rays alone divided by the dose of X rays with heat required to cause a given reaction, was measured by fixing h and varying X. The priming treatment H reduced the skin response to hX. This effect was such that at 24 to 96 hr after H, the heating time h, had to be increased to about 1.5 times that required without prior hyperthermia. In contrast, the priming treatment had no effect on the response to Xh

  11. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

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    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Fgf8 and Fgf3 are required for zebrafish ear placode induction, maintenance and inner ear patterning.

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    Léger, Sophie; Brand, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The vertebrate inner ear develops from initially 'simple' ectodermal placode and vesicle stages into the complex three-dimensional structure which is necessary for the senses of hearing and equilibrium. Although the main morphological events in vertebrate inner ear development are known, the genetic mechanisms controlling them are scarcely understood. Previous studies have suggested that the otic placode is induced by signals from the chordamesoderm and the hindbrain, notably by fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) and Wnt proteins. Here we study the role of Fgf8 as a bona-fide hindbrain-derived signal that acts in conjunction with Fgf3 during placode induction, maintenance and otic vesicle patterning. Acerebellar (ace) is a mutant in the fgf8 gene that results in a non-functional Fgf8 product. Homozygous mutants for acerebellar (ace) have smaller ears that typically have only one otolith, abnormal semi-circular canals, and behavioral defects. Using gene expression markers for the otic placode, we find that ace/fgf8 and Fgf-signaling are required for normal otic placode formation and maintenance. Conversely, misexpression of fgf8 or Fgf8-coated beads implanted into the vicinity of the otic placode can increase ear size and marker gene expression, although competence to respond to the induction appears restricted. Cell transplantation experiments and expression analysis suggest that Fgf8 is required in the hindbrain in the rhombomere 4-6 area to restore normal placode development in ace mutants, in close neighbourhood to the forming placode, but not in mesodermal tissues. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are expressed in hindbrain rhombomere 4 during the stages that are critical for placode induction. Joint inactivation of Fgf3 and Fgf8 by mutation or antisense-morpholino injection causes failure of placode formation and results in ear-less embryos, mimicking the phenotype we observe after pharmacological inhibition of Fgf-signaling. Fgf8 and Fgf3 together therefore act during induction

  13. Bone pain caused by swelling of mouse ear capsule static xylene and effects on rat models of cervical spondylosis

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    Zhang, Xuhui; Xia, Lei; Hao, Shaojun; Chen, Weiliang; Guo, Junyi; Ma, Zhenzhen; Wang, Huamin; Kong, Xuejun; Wang, Hongyu; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of intravenous bone pain Capsule on the ear of mice induced by xylene, swelling of rat models of cervical spondylosis. Weighing 18 ˜ 21g 50 mice, male, were randomly divided into for five groups, which were fed with service for bone pain static capsule suspension, Jingfukang granule suspension 0.5%CMC liquid and the same volume of. Respectively to the mice ear drop of xylene 0.05 ml, 4h after cervical dislocation, the mice were sacrificed and the cut two ear, rapid analytical balance weighing, and calculate the ear swelling degree and the other to take the weight of 200 - 60 250g male SD rats, were randomly divided into for 6 groups, 10 rats in each group, of which 5 groups made cervical spondylosis model. Results: with the blank group than bone pain static capsule group and Jingfukang granule group can significantly reduce mouse auricular dimethylbenzene swelling, significantly reduce ear swelling degree (P cervical spondylosis. With the model group ratio, large, medium and small dose of bone pain static capsule group, Jingfukang granule group (P pain static capsule group, Jingfukang granule group can significantly reduce the rat X-ray scores (P pain static capsule can significantly reduce mouse auricular dimethylbenzene swelling. The bone pain capsule has a good effect on the rat model of cervical spondylosis.

  14. Inner ear morphology is perturbed in two novel mouse models of recessive deafness.

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    Kerry A Miller

    Full Text Available Human MYO7A mutations can cause a variety of conditions involving the inner ear. These include dominant and recessive non-syndromic hearing loss and syndromic conditions such as Usher syndrome. Mouse models of deafness allow us to investigate functional pathways involved in normal and abnormal hearing processes. We present two novel mouse models with mutations in the Myo7a gene with distinct phenotypes. The mutation in Myo7a(I487N/I487N ewaso is located within the head motor domain of Myo7a. Mice exhibit a profound hearing loss and manifest behaviour associated with a vestibular defect. A mutation located in the linker region between the coiled-coil and the first MyTH4 domains of the protein is responsible in Myo7a(F947I/F947I dumbo. These mice show a less severe hearing loss than in Myo7a(I487N/I487N ewaso; their hearing loss threshold is elevated at 4 weeks old, and progressively worsens with age. These mice show no obvious signs of vestibular dysfunction, although scanning electron microscopy reveals a mild phenotype in vestibular stereocilia bundles. The Myo7a(F947I/F947I dumbo strain is therefore the first reported Myo7a mouse model without an overt vestibular phenotype; a possible model for human DFNB2 deafness. Understanding the molecular basis of these newly identified mutations will provide knowledge into the complex genetic pathways involved in the maintenance of hearing, and will provide insight into recessively inherited sensorineural hearing loss in humans.

  15. Adeno-associated virus-mediated gene delivery into the scala media of the normal and deafened adult mouse ear.

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    Kilpatrick, L A; Li, Q; Yang, J; Goddard, J C; Fekete, D M; Lang, H

    2011-06-01

    Murine models are ideal for studying cochlear gene transfer, as many hearing loss-related mutations have been discovered and mapped within the mouse genome. However, because of the small size and delicate nature, the membranous labyrinth of the mouse is a challenging target for the delivery of viral vectors. To minimize injection trauma, we developed a procedure for the controlled release of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) into the scala media of adult mice. This procedure poses minimal risk of injury to structures of the cochlea and middle ear, and allows for near-complete preservation of low and middle frequency hearing. In this study, transduction efficiency and cellular specificity of AAV vectors (serotypes 1, 2, 5, 6 and 8) were investigated in normal and drug-deafened ears. Using the cytomegalovirus promoter to drive gene expression, a variety of cell types were transduced successfully, including sensory hair cells and supporting cells, as well as cells in the auditory nerve and spiral ligament. Among all five serotypes, inner hair cells were the most effectively transduced cochlear cell type. All five serotypes of AAV vectors transduced cells of the auditory nerve, though serotype 8 was the most efficient vector for transduction. Our findings indicate that efficient AAV inoculation (via the scala media) can be performed in adult mouse ears, with hearing preservation a realistic goal. The procedure we describe may also have applications for intra-endolymphatic drug delivery in many mouse models of human deafness.

  16. Zika virus transmission to mouse ear by mosquito bite: a laboratory model that replicates the natural transmission process.

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    Secundino, Nagila Francinete Costa; Chaves, Barbara Aparecida; Orfano, Alessandra Silva; Silveira, Karine Renata Dias; Rodrigues, Nilton Barnabe; Campolina, Thais Bonifácio; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Villegas, Luiz Eduardo Martinez; Silva, Breno Melo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Norris, Douglas Eric; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2017-07-20

    Zika disease has transformed into a serious global health problem due to the rapid spread of the arbovirus and alarming severity including congenital complications, microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus (ZIKV) is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of an infective mosquito, with Aedes aegypti being the main vector. We successfully developed a ZIKV experimental transmission model by single infectious Ae. aegypti bite to a laboratory mouse using circulating Brazilian strains of both arbovirus and vector. Mosquitoes were orally infected and single Ae. aegypti were allowed to feed on mouse ears 14 days post-infection. Additionally, salivary gland (SG) homogenates from infected mosquitoes were intrathoracically inoculated into naïve Ae. aegypti. Mosquito and mouse tissue samples were cultured in C6/36 cells and processed by quantitative real-time PCR. A total of 26 Ae. aegypti were allowed to feed individually on mouse ears. Of these, 17 mosquitoes fed, all to full engorgement. The transmission rate of ZIKV by bite from these engorged mosquitoes to mouse ears was 100%. The amount of virus inoculated into the ears by bites ranged from 2 × 10 2 -2.1 × 10 10 ZIKV cDNA copies and was positively correlated with ZIKV cDNA quantified from SGs dissected from mosquitoes post-feeding. Replicating ZIKV was confirmed in macerated SGs (2.45 × 10 7 cDNA copies), mouse ear tissue (1.15 × 10 3 cDNA copies, and mosquitoes 14 days post-intrathoracic inoculation (1.49 × 10 7 cDNA copies) by cytopathic effect in C6/36 cell culture and qPCR. Our model illustrates successful transmission of ZIKV by an infectious mosquito bite to a live vertebrate host. This approach offers a comprehensive tool for evaluating the development of infection in and transmission from mosquitoes, and the vertebrate-ZIKV interaction and progression of infection following a natural transmission process.

  17. The Notch ligand JAG1 is required for sensory progenitor development in the mammalian inner ear.

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    Amy E Kiernan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, six separate sensory regions in the inner ear are essential for hearing and balance function. Each sensory region is made up of hair cells, which are the sensory cells, and their associated supporting cells, both arising from a common progenitor. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the development of these sensory organs. Notch signaling plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of hair cells and supporting cells by mediating lateral inhibition via the ligands Delta-like 1 and Jagged (JAG 2. However, another Notch ligand, JAG1, is expressed early in the sensory patches prior to cell differentiation, indicating that there may be an earlier role for Notch signaling in sensory development in the ear. Here, using conditional gene targeting, we show that the Jag1 gene is required for the normal development of all six sensory organs within the inner ear. Cristae are completely lacking in Jag1-conditional knockout (cko mutant inner ears, whereas the cochlea and utricle show partial sensory development. The saccular macula is present but malformed. Using SOX2 and p27kip1 as molecular markers of the prosensory domain, we show that JAG1 is initially expressed in all the prosensory regions of the ear, but becomes down-regulated in the nascent organ of Corti by embryonic day 14.5, when the cells exit the cell cycle and differentiate. We also show that both SOX2 and p27kip1 are down-regulated in Jag1-cko inner ears. Taken together, these data demonstrate that JAG1 is expressed early in the prosensory domains of both the cochlear and vestibular regions, and is required to maintain the normal expression levels of both SOX2 and p27kip1. These data demonstrate that JAG1-mediated Notch signaling is essential during early development for establishing the prosensory regions of the inner ear.

  18. Evaluation of the in vivo and ex vivo optical properties in a mouse ear model

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    Salomatina, E; Yaroslavsky, A N [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, 40 Blossom Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)], E-mail: Yaroslav@helix.mgh.harvard.edu

    2008-06-07

    Determination of in vivo optical properties is a challenging problem. Absorption and scattering measured ex vivo are often used for in vivo applications. To investigate the validity of this approach, we have obtained and compared the optical properties of mouse ears in vivo and ex vivo in the spectral range from 370 to 1650 nm. Integrating sphere spectrophotometry in combination with the inverse Monte Carlo technique was employed to determine absorption coefficients, {mu}{sub a}, scattering coefficients, {mu}{sub s}, and anisotropy factors, g. Two groups of mice were used for the study. The first group was measured in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem. The second group was measured in vivo and ex vivo every 24 h for up to 72 h after sacrifice. Between the measurements the tissues were kept at 4 deg. C wrapped in a gauze moistened with saline solution. Then the specimens were frozen at -25 deg. C for 40 min, thawed and measured again. The results indicate that the absorption coefficients determined in vivo and ex vivo within 5-10 min post mortem differed considerably only in the spectral range dominated by hemoglobin. These changes can be attributed to rapid deoxygenation of tissue and blood post mortem. Absorption coefficients determined ex vivo up to 72 h post mortem decreased gradually with time in the spectral regions dominated by hemoglobin and water, which can be explained by the continuing loss of blood. Absorption properties of the frozen-thawed ex vivo tissues showed increase in oxygenation, which is likely caused by the release of hemoglobin from hemolyzed erythrocytes. Scattering of the ex vivo tissues decreased gradually with time in the entire spectral range due to the continuing loss of blood and partial cell damage. Anisotropy factors did not change considerably.

  19. Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruczyński, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

    2014-11-15

    Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, M; Klug, T E; Ovesen, T

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics, m...

  1. The function and molecular identity of inward rectifier channels in vestibular hair cells of the mouse inner ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michaela E.

    2012-01-01

    Inner ear hair cells respond to mechanical stimuli with graded receptor potentials. These graded responses are modulated by a host of voltage-dependent currents that flow across the basolateral membrane. Here, we examine the molecular identity and the function of a class of voltage-dependent ion channels that carries the potassium-selective inward rectifier current known as IK1. IK1 has been identified in vestibular hair cells of various species, but its molecular composition and functional contributions remain obscure. We used quantitative RT-PCR to show that the inward rectifier gene, Kir2.1, is highly expressed in mouse utricle between embryonic day 15 and adulthood. We confirmed Kir2.1 protein expression in hair cells by immunolocalization. To examine the molecular composition of IK1, we recorded voltage-dependent currents from type II hair cells in response to 50-ms steps from −124 to −54 in 10-mV increments. Wild-type cells had rapidly activating inward currents with reversal potentials close to the K+ equilibrium potential and a whole-cell conductance of 4.8 ± 1.5 nS (n = 46). In utricle hair cells from Kir2.1-deficient (Kir2.1−/−) mice, IK1 was absent at all stages examined. To identify the functional contribution of Kir2.1, we recorded membrane responses in current-clamp mode. Hair cells from Kir2.1−/− mice had significantly (P < 0.001) more depolarized resting potentials and larger, slower membrane responses than those of wild-type cells. These data suggest that Kir2.1 is required for IK1 in type II utricle hair cells and contributes to hyperpolarized resting potentials and fast, small amplitude receptor potentials in response to current inputs, such as those evoked by hair bundle deflections. PMID:22496522

  2. Expression of the Norrie disease gene (Ndp) in developing and adult mouse eye, ear, and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Smallwood, Philip; Nathans, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The Norrie disease gene (Ndp) codes for a secreted protein, Norrin, that activates canonical Wnt signaling by binding to its receptor, Frizzled-4. This signaling system is required for normal vascular development in the retina and for vascular survival in the cochlea. In mammals, the pattern of Ndp expression beyond the retina is poorly defined due to the low abundance of Norrin mRNA and protein. Here, we characterize Ndp expression during mouse development by studying a knock-in mouse that carries the coding sequence of human placental alkaline phosphatase (AP) inserted at the Ndp locus (Ndp(AP)). In the CNS, Ndp(AP) expression is apparent by E10.5 and is dynamic and complex. The anatomically delimited regions of Ndp(AP) expression observed prenatally in the CNS are replaced postnatally by widespread expression in astrocytes in the forebrain and midbrain, Bergman glia in the cerebellum, and Müller glia in the retina. In the developing and adult cochlea, Ndp(AP) expression is closely associated with two densely vascularized regions, the stria vascularis and a capillary plexus between the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion. These observations suggest the possibility that Norrin may have developmental and/or homeostatic functions beyond the retina and cochlea. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  4. Isolation of Sphere-Forming Stem Cells from the Mouse Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima, Kazuo; Senn, Pascal; Heller, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian inner ear has very limited ability to regenerate lost sensory hair cells. This deficiency becomes apparent when hair cell loss leads to hearing loss as a result of either ototoxic insult or the aging process. Coincidently, with this inability to regenerate lost hair cells, the adult cochlea does not appear to harbor cells with a proliferative capacity that could serve as progenitor cells for lost cells. In contrast, adult mammalian vestibular sensory epithelia display a limited ...

  5. Assessment of edema volume in skin upon injury in a mouse ear model with optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wan

    2017-01-01

    Accurate measurement of edema volume is essential for the investigation of tissue response and recovery following a traumatic injury. The measurements must be noninvasive and repetitive over time so as to monitor tissue response throughout the healing process. Such techniques are particularly necessary for the evaluation of therapeutics that are currently in development to suppress or prevent edema formation. In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography (OCT) technique to image and quantify edema in a mouse ear model where the injury is induced by a superficial-thickness burn. Extraction of edema volume is achieved by an attenuation compensation algorithm performed on the three-dimensional OCT images, followed by two segmentation procedures. In addition to edema volume, the segmentation method also enables accurate thickness mapping of edematous tissue, which is an important characteristic of the external symptoms of edema. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method for noninvasively measuring absolute edema volume. PMID:27282161

  6. Molecular characterization and expression of maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3/Gtl2) RNA in the mouse inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manji, S.S.; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Klockars, T.

    2006-01-01

    The pathways responsible for sound perception in the cochlea involve the coordinated and regulated expression of hundreds of genes. By using microarray analysis, we identified several transcripts enriched in the inner ear, including the maternally expressed gene 3 (Meg3/Gtl2), an imprinted...... noncoding RNA. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that Meg3/Gtl2 was highly expressed in the cochlea, brain, and eye. Molecular studies revealed the presence of several Meg3/Gtl2 RNA splice variants in the mouse cochlea, brain, and eye. In situ hybridizations showed intense Meg3/Gtl2 RNA staining...... otocyst and localized to the spiral ganglion, stria vascularis, Reissner's membrane, and greater epithelial ridge (GER) in the cochlear duct. RT-PCR analysis performed on cell lines derived from the organ of Corti, representing neural, supporting, and hair cells, showed significantly elevated levels...

  7. The dynein regulatory complex is required for ciliary motility and otolith biogenesis in the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Jessica R; Vermot, Julien; Wu, David; Langenbacher, Adam D; Fraser, Scott; Chen, Jau-Nian; Hill, Kent L

    2009-01-08

    In teleosts, proper balance and hearing depend on mechanical sensors in the inner ear. These sensors include actin-based microvilli and microtubule-based cilia that extend from the surface of sensory hair cells and attach to biomineralized 'ear stones' (or otoliths). Otolith number, size and placement are under strict developmental control, but the mechanisms that ensure otolith assembly atop specific cells of the sensory epithelium are unclear. Here we demonstrate that cilia motility is required for normal otolith assembly and localization. Using in vivo video microscopy, we show that motile tether cilia at opposite poles of the otic vesicle create fluid vortices that attract otolith precursor particles, thereby biasing an otherwise random distribution to direct localized otolith seeding on tether cilia. Independent knockdown of subunits for the dynein regulatory complex and outer-arm dynein disrupt cilia motility, leading to defective otolith biogenesis. These results demonstrate a requirement for the dynein regulatory complex in vertebrates and show that cilia-driven flow is a key epigenetic factor in controlling otolith biomineralization.

  8. Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, a spontaneous mouse Lmna mutation modeling human laminopathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R Odgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigations of naturally-occurring mutations in animal models provide important insights and valuable disease models. Lamins A and C, along with lamin B, are type V intermediate filament proteins which constitute the proteinaceous boundary of the nucleus. LMNA mutations in humans cause a wide range of phenotypes, collectively termed laminopathies. To identify the mutation and investigate the phenotype of a spontaneous, semi-dominant mutation that we have named Disheveled hair and ear (Dhe, which causes a sparse coat and small external ears in heterozygotes and lethality in homozygotes by postnatal day 10. FINDINGS: Genetic mapping identified a point mutation in the Lmna gene, causing a single amino acid change, L52R, in the coiled coil rod domain of lamin A and C proteins. Cranial sutures in Dhe/+ mice failed to close. Gene expression for collagen types I and III in sutures was deficient. Skulls were small and disproportionate. Skeletons of Dhe/+ mice were hypomineralized and total body fat was deficient in males. In homozygotes, skin and oral mucosae were dysplastic and ulcerated. Nuclear morphometry of cultured cells revealed gene dose-dependent blebbing and wrinkling. CONCLUSION: Dhe mice should provide a useful new model for investigations of the pathogenesis of laminopathies.

  9. A Protocol for Decellularizing Mouse Cochleae for Inner Ear Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Christopher A; Nelson-Brantley, Jennifer G; Detamore, Michael S; Staecker, Hinrich; Mellott, Adam J

    2018-01-01

    In mammals, mechanosensory hair cells that facilitate hearing lack the ability to regenerate, which has limited treatments for hearing loss. Current regenerative medicine strategies have focused on transplanting stem cells or genetic manipulation of surrounding support cells in the inner ear to encourage replacement of damaged stem cells to correct hearing loss. Yet, the extracellular matrix (ECM) may play a vital role in inducing and maintaining function of hair cells, and has not been well investigated. Using the cochlear ECM as a scaffold to grow adult stem cells may provide unique insights into how the composition and architecture of the extracellular environment aids cells in sustaining hearing function. Here we present a method for isolating and decellularizing cochleae from mice to use as scaffolds accepting perfused adult stem cells. In the current protocol, cochleae are isolated from euthanized mice, decellularized, and decalcified. Afterward, human Wharton's jelly cells (hWJCs) that were isolated from the umbilical cord were carefully perfused into each cochlea. The cochleae were used as bioreactors, and cells were cultured for 30 days before undergoing processing for analysis. Decellularized cochleae retained identifiable extracellular structures, but did not reveal the presence of cells or noticeable fragments of DNA. Cells perfused into the cochlea invaded most of the interior and exterior of the cochlea and grew without incident over a duration of 30 days. Thus, the current method can be used to study how cochlear ECM affects cell development and behavior.

  10. Corticofugal modulation of initial neural processing of sound information from the ipsilateral ear in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuping Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Cortical neurons implement a high frequency-specific modulation of subcortical nuclei that includes the cochlear nucleus. Anatomical studies show that corticofugal fibers terminating in the auditory thalamus and midbrain are mostly ipsilateral. Differently, corticofugal fibers terminating in the cochlear nucleus are bilateral, which fits to the needs of binaural hearing that improves hearing quality. This leads to our hypothesis that corticofugal modulation of initial neural processing of sound information from the contralateral and ipsilateral ears could be equivalent or coordinated at the first sound processing level.With the focal electrical stimulation of the auditory cortex and single unit recording, this study examined corticofugal modulation of the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus. The same methods and procedures as described in our previous study of corticofugal modulation of contralateral cochlear nucleus were employed simply for comparison. We found that focal electrical stimulation of cortical neurons induced substantial changes in the response magnitude, response latency and receptive field of ipsilateral cochlear nucleus neurons. Cortical stimulation facilitated auditory response and shortened the response latency of physiologically matched neurons whereas it inhibited auditory response and lengthened the response latency of unmatched neurons. Finally, cortical stimulation shifted the best frequencies of cochlear neurons towards those of stimulated cortical neurons.Our data suggest that cortical neurons enable a high frequency-specific remodelling of sound information processing in the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus in the same manner as that in the contralateral cochlear nucleus.

  11. Ear Infection (Middle Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... secretions from the middle ear Swelling, inflammation and mucus in the eustachian tubes from an upper respiratory ... your baby for at least six months. Breast milk contains antibodies that may offer protection from ear ...

  12. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  13. Human papillomavirus E6/E7 oncogenes promote mouse ear regeneration by increasing the rate of wound re-epithelization and epidermal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Concepción; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Oktaba, Katarzyna; Ocádiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Gariglio, Patricio; Covarrubias, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Mammals have limited regeneration capacity. We report here that, in transgenic mice (Tg(bK6-E6/E7)), the expression of the E6/E7 oncogenes of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) under the control of the bovine keratin 6 promoter markedly improves the mouse's capacity to repair portions of the ear after being wounded. Increased repair capacity correlates with an increased number of epidermal proliferating cells. In concordance with the expected effects of the E6 and E7 oncogenes, levels of p53 decreased and those of p16 in epidermal cells increased. In addition, we observed that wound re-epithelization proceeded faster in transgenic than in wild-type animals. After the initial re-epithelization, epidermal cell migration from the intact surrounding tissue appears to be a major contributor to the growing epidermis, especially in the repairing tissue of transgenic mice. We also found that there is a significantly higher number of putative epidermal stem cells in Tg(bK6-E6/E7) than in wild-type mice. Remarkably, hair follicles and cartilage regenerated within the repaired ear tissue, without evidence of tumor formation. We propose that the ability to regenerate ear portions is limited by the capacity of the epidermis to repair itself and grow.

  14. Use of the mouse ear vesicant model to evaluate the effectiveness of ebselen as a countermeasure to the nitrogen mustard mechlorethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Anju; Reznik, Sandra; Trombetta, Louis; Billack, Blase

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies in this and other laboratories have demonstrated that ebselen (EB-1), an organoselenium compound, spares cells from mechlorethamine (HN2) toxicity in vitro. In the present study, the hypothesis that EB-1 will reduce dermal toxicity of HN2 in vivo is put forward and found to have merit. Using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM), HN2, applied topically, showed a dose-dependent effect upon ear swelling and thickness 24 h after treatment; whereas tissue injury consistent with vesication was observed at the higher test doses of HN2 (≥ 0.250 µmol per ear). To examine HN2 countermeasure activity using the MEVM, either hydrocortisone (HC), as a positive control, or EB-1, the test countermeasure, was administered as three topical treatments 15 min, 4 and 8 h after HN2 exposure. Using this approach, both HC and EB-1 were found to reduce tissue swelling associated with HN2 toxicity 24 h after exposure to the vesicant. Taken together, these data demonstrate for the first time the effectiveness of EB-1 as a vesicant countermeasure in a relevant in vivo model. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Swimmer's Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eardrum Taking Care of Your Ears Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Your Ears What's Earwax? How Do Pain Relievers Work? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  16. Lineage analysis of the late otocyst stage mouse inner ear by transuterine microinjection of a retroviral vector encoding alkaline phosphatase and an oligonucleotide library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Jiang

    Full Text Available The mammalian inner ear subserves the special senses of hearing and balance. The auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia consist of mechanically sensitive hair cells and associated supporting cells. Hearing loss and balance dysfunction are most frequently caused by compromise of hair cells and/or their innervating neurons. The development of gene- and cell-based therapeutics will benefit from a thorough understanding of the molecular basis of patterning and cell fate specification in the mammalian inner ear. This includes analyses of cell lineages and cell dispersals across anatomical boundaries (such as sensory versus nonsensory territories. The goal of this study was to conduct retroviral lineage analysis of the embryonic day 11.5(E11.5 mouse otic vesicle. A replication-defective retrovirus encoding human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP and a variable 24-bp oligonucleotide tag was microinjected into the E11.5 mouse otocyst. PLAP-positive cells were microdissected from cryostat sections of the postnatal inner ear and subjected to nested PCR. PLAP-positive cells sharing the same sequence tag were assumed to have arisen from a common progenitor and are clonally related. Thirty five multicellular clones consisting of an average of 3.4 cells per clone were identified in the auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia, ganglia, spiral limbus, and stria vascularis. Vestibular hair cells in the posterior crista were related to one another, their supporting cells, and nonsensory epithelial cells lining the ampulla. In the organ of Corti, outer hair cells were related to a supporting cell type and were tightly clustered. By contrast, spiral ganglion neurons, interdental cells, and Claudius' cells were related to cells of the same type and could be dispersed over hundreds of microns. These data contribute new information about the developmental potential of mammalian otic precursors in vivo.

  17. Targeted deletion of Sox10 by Wnt1-cre defects neuronal migration and projection in the mouse inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YanYan Mao

    Full Text Available Sensory nerves of the brainstem are mostly composed of placode-derived neurons, neural crest-derived neurons and neural crest-derived Schwann cells. This mixed origin of cells has made it difficult to dissect interdependence for fiber guidance. Inner ear-derived neurons are known to connect to the brain after delayed loss of Schwann cells in ErbB2 mutants. However, the ErbB2 mutant related alterations in the ear and the brain compound interpretation of the data. We present here a new model to evaluate exclusively the effect of Schwann cell loss on inner ear innervation. Conditional deletion of the neural crest specific transcription factor, Sox10, using the rhombic lip/neural crest specific Wnt1-cre driver spares Sox10 expression in the ear. We confirm that neural crest-derived cells provide a stop signal for migrating spiral ganglion neurons. In the absence of Schwann cells, spiral ganglion neurons migrate into the center of the cochlea and even out of the ear toward the brain. Spiral ganglion neuron afferent processes reach the organ of Corti, but many afferent fibers bypass the organ of Corti to enter the lateral wall of the cochlea. In contrast to this peripheral disorganization, the central projection to cochlear nuclei is normal. Compared to ErbB2 mutants, conditional Sox10 mutants have limited cell death in spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that the absence of Schwann cells alone contributes little to the embryonic survival of neurons. These data suggest that neural crest-derived cells are dispensable for all central and some peripheral targeting of inner ear neurons. However, Schwann cells provide a stop signal for migratory spiral ganglion neurons and facilitate proper targeting of the organ of Corti by spiral ganglion afferents.

  18. Targeted Deletion of Sox10 by Wnt1-cre Defects Neuronal Migration and Projection in the Mouse Inner Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, YanYan; Reiprich, Simone; Wegner, Michael; Fritzsch, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves of the brainstem are mostly composed of placode-derived neurons, neural crest-derived neurons and neural crest-derived Schwann cells. This mixed origin of cells has made it difficult to dissect interdependence for fiber guidance. Inner ear-derived neurons are known to connect to the brain after delayed loss of Schwann cells in ErbB2 mutants. However, the ErbB2 mutant related alterations in the ear and the brain compound interpretation of the data. We present here a new model to evaluate exclusively the effect of Schwann cell loss on inner ear innervation. Conditional deletion of the neural crest specific transcription factor, Sox10, using the rhombic lip/neural crest specific Wnt1-cre driver spares Sox10 expression in the ear. We confirm that neural crest-derived cells provide a stop signal for migrating spiral ganglion neurons. In the absence of Schwann cells, spiral ganglion neurons migrate into the center of the cochlea and even out of the ear toward the brain. Spiral ganglion neuron afferent processes reach the organ of Corti, but many afferent fibers bypass the organ of Corti to enter the lateral wall of the cochlea. In contrast to this peripheral disorganization, the central projection to cochlear nuclei is normal. Compared to ErbB2 mutants, conditional Sox10 mutants have limited cell death in spiral ganglion neurons, indicating that the absence of Schwann cells alone contributes little to the embryonic survival of neurons. These data suggest that neural crest-derived cells are dispensable for all central and some peripheral targeting of inner ear neurons. However, Schwann cells provide a stop signal for migratory spiral ganglion neurons and facilitate proper targeting of the organ of Corti by spiral ganglion afferents. PMID:24718611

  19. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  20. Ear Pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Betsy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students make fanciful connections between art and medicine. This project challenges students to interpret "ear idioms" (e.g. "blow it out your ear," "in one ear and out the other") by relying almost entirely on realistic ear drawings, the placement of them, marks, and values. In that…

  1. Ear examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be present. The eardrum is a light-gray color or a shiny pearly-white. Light should ... discharge or bleeding Alternative Names Otoscopy Images Ear anatomy Medical findings based on ear anatomy Otoscopic exam ...

  2. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  3. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calea prunifolia HBK (Asteraceae) in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Milton; Gil, Juan F.

    2011-01-01

    Phytochemical study of Calea prunifolia HBK identified two compounds derived from p-hydroxyacetophenone, the 1-(2-hydroxy-5-(1-methoxyethyl)phenyl)-3-methylbut-2.en-1-one showed a satisfactory anti-inflammatory activity (58.33%), when considering that this is a natural product. Although the two derived compounds are structurally similar, the anti-inflammatory activity of 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbut-2-en-1-one was not significant (2.08%). The test was conducted in a model of inflammation induced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the ear of mice. The positive control was tested with indomethacin and the negative control was done only with vehicle. These results allow the identification of a pharmacophore group that through molecular modeling studies and organic synthesis can result in compounds with improved anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  4. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calea prunifolia HBK (Asteraceae) in the TPA model of mouse ear inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Milton; Gil, Juan F., E-mail: miltongoba@uniquindio.edu.co [Grupo de Busqueda de Principios Bioactivos, Programa de Quimica, Universidad del Quindio, Armenia (Colombia)

    2011-09-15

    Phytochemical study of Calea prunifolia HBK identified two compounds derived from p-hydroxyacetophenone, the 1-(2-hydroxy-5-(1-methoxyethyl)phenyl)-3-methylbut-2.en-1-one showed a satisfactory anti-inflammatory activity (58.33%), when considering that this is a natural product. Although the two derived compounds are structurally similar, the anti-inflammatory activity of 1-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)-3-methylbut-2-en-1-one was not significant (2.08%). The test was conducted in a model of inflammation induced by topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in the ear of mice. The positive control was tested with indomethacin and the negative control was done only with vehicle. These results allow the identification of a pharmacophore group that through molecular modeling studies and organic synthesis can result in compounds with improved anti-inflammatory activity. (author)

  5. Transplantation and survival of mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy of hearing-impaired guinea pigs: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.M. Barboza Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, damage to sensory receptor cells (hair cells of the inner ear results in permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we investigated whether postnatal mouse inner ear progenitor/stem cells (mIESCs are viable after transplantation into the basal turns of neomycin-injured guinea pig cochleas. We also examined the effects of mIESC transplantation on auditory functions. Eight adult female Cavia porcellus guinea pigs (250-350g were deafened by intratympanic neomycin delivery. After 7 days, the animals were randomly divided in two groups. The study group (n=4 received transplantation of LacZ-positive mIESCs in culture medium into the scala tympani. The control group (n=4 received culture medium only. At 2 weeks after transplantation, functional analyses were performed by auditory brainstem response measurement, and the animals were sacrificed. The presence of mIESCs was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of sections of the cochlea from the study group. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Intratympanic neomycin delivery damaged hair cells and increased auditory thresholds prior to cell transplantation. There were no significant differences between auditory brainstem thresholds before and after transplantation in individual guinea pigs. Some mIESCs were observed in all scalae of the basal turns of the injured cochleas, and a proportion of these cells expressed the hair cell marker myosin VIIa. Some transplanted mIESCs engrafted in the cochlear basilar membrane. Our study demonstrates that transplanted cells survived and engrafted in the organ of Corti after cochleostomy.

  6. Multiple requirements of PLK1 during mouse oocyte maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Solc

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1 orchestrates multiple events of cell division. Although PLK1 function has been intensively studied in centriole-containing and rapidly cycling somatic cells, much less is known about its function in the meiotic divisions of mammalian oocytes, which arrest for a long period of time in prophase before meiotic resumption and lack centrioles for spindle assembly. Here, using specific small molecule inhibition combined with live mouse oocyte imaging, we comprehensively characterize meiotic PLK1's functions. We show that PLK1 becomes activated at meiotic resumption on microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs and later at kinetochores. PLK1 is required for efficient meiotic resumption by promoting nuclear envelope breakdown. PLK1 is also needed to recruit centrosomal proteins to acentriolar MTOCs to promote normal spindle formation, as well as for stable kinetochore-microtubule attachment. Consequently, PLK1 inhibition leads to metaphase I arrest with misaligned chromosomes activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC. Unlike in mitosis, the metaphase I arrest is not bypassed by the inactivation of the SAC. We show that PLK1 is required for the full activation of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C by promoting the degradation of the APC/C inhibitor EMI1 and is therefore essential for entry into anaphase I. Moreover, our data suggest that PLK1 is required for proper chromosome segregation and the maintenance of chromosome condensation during the meiosis I-II transition, independently of the APC/C. Thus, our results define the meiotic roles of PLK1 in oocytes and reveal interesting differential requirements of PLK1 between mitosis and oocyte meiosis in mammals.

  7. Requirement of mouse BCCIP for neural development and progenitor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan Huang

    Full Text Available Multiple DNA repair pathways are involved in the orderly development of neural systems at distinct stages. The homologous recombination (HR pathway is required to resolve stalled replication forks and critical for the proliferation of progenitor cells during neural development. BCCIP is a BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein implicated in HR and inhibition of DNA replication stress. In this study, we determined the role of BCCIP in neural development using a conditional BCCIP knock-down mouse model. BCCIP deficiency impaired embryonic and postnatal neural development, causing severe ataxia, cerebral and cerebellar defects, and microcephaly. These development defects are associated with spontaneous DNA damage and subsequent cell death in the proliferative cell populations of the neural system during embryogenesis. With in vitro neural spheroid cultures, BCCIP deficiency impaired neural progenitor's self-renewal capability, and spontaneously activated p53. These data suggest that BCCIP and its anti-replication stress functions are essential for normal neural development by maintaining an orderly proliferation of neural progenitors.

  8. Effect of anti-vertigo granule on the opening number and blood flow of mouse ear capillary network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chongxian; Liu, Xiaobin; Li, Jun; Hao, Shaojun; Wang, Xidong; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effects of anti-glare particles on the open number and blood flow in the auricle of mice with microcirculation disturbance model. Sixty mice, half male and half female, were randomly divided into 6 groups. The mice were given Kangxuan granule suspension, serum brain granule suspension and normal saline of the same volume, respectively, once a day. The mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of chloral hydrate at 1 hour after the last administration. The mouse was fixed on the observation platform and the auricle was placed on the transmission stage. BZ-2000 microcirculation microscope and microcirculation analysis system were used to observe the changes of blood velocity and capillary opening volume in auricle of mice before administration. The changes of blood velocity and capillaries opening volume of mouse auricle were observed 2 min after epinephrine injection into tail vein of mice. Bear fruit: Compared with those before epinephrine, the opening number of capillary reticulum of auricle in large dose Kangxuan granule group was significantly decreased (Pgroup and middle group. In the small dose Kangxuan granule group, the opening number of capillary network of auricle decreased significantly (Pgroup, the large dose Kangxuan granule group could significantly increase the opening number of the auricle capillary network in mice (Pgroup could significantly increase the opening number of auricle capillary reticulum in mice (Pgroup by Ridit test. Both Kangxuan granule group and Yangxuannao granule group could significantly improve the auricle hair of mice with microcirculation disorder. The blood flow in fine blood vessels (Pblood flow in mice with microcirculation disorder.

  9. Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More on this topic for: Kids Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Senses Experiment: Model Eardrum Going to the Audiologist What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  10. Integrated annotation and analysis of in situ hybridization images using the ImAnno system: application to the ear and sensory organs of the fetal mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, Raymond; Ripp, Raymond; Poidevin, Laetitia; Boeglin, Marcel; Geffers, Lars; Dollé, Pascal; Poch, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    An in situ hybridization (ISH) study was performed on 2000 murine genes representing around 10% of the protein-coding genes present in the mouse genome using data generated by the EURExpress consortium. This study was carried out in 25 tissues of late gestation embryos (E14.5), with a special emphasis on the developing ear and on five distinct developing sensory organs, including the cochlea, the vestibular receptors, the sensory retina, the olfactory organ, and the vibrissae follicles. The results obtained from an analysis of more than 11,000 micrographs have been integrated in a newly developed knowledgebase, called ImAnno. In addition to managing the multilevel micrograph annotations performed by human experts, ImAnno provides public access to various integrated databases and tools. Thus, it facilitates the analysis of complex ISH gene expression patterns, as well as functional annotation and interaction of gene sets. It also provides direct links to human pathways and diseases. Hierarchical clustering of expression patterns in the 25 tissues revealed three main branches corresponding to tissues with common functions and/or embryonic origins. To illustrate the integrative power of ImAnno, we explored the expression, function and disease traits of the sensory epithelia of the five presumptive sensory organs. The study identified 623 genes (out of 2000) concomitantly expressed in the five embryonic epithelia, among which many (∼12%) were involved in human disorders. Finally, various multilevel interaction networks were characterized, highlighting differential functional enrichments of directly or indirectly interacting genes. These analyses exemplify an under-represention of "sensory" functions in the sensory gene set suggests that E14.5 is a pivotal stage between the developmental stage and the functional phase that will be fully reached only after birth.

  11. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina

    2012-11-01

    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  12. Multiple Requirements of PLK1 during Mouse Oocyte Maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolc, Petr; Kitajima, T.; Yoshida, S.; Brzáková, Adéla; Kaido, M.; Baran, V.; Mayer, Alexandra; Šámalová, P.; Motlík, Jan; Ellenberg, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA ČR(CZ) GPP301/11/P081; GA ČR(CZ) GC301/09/J036; GA ČR GAP502/11/0593; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : PLK1 * meiosis * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  13. Cosmetic ear surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...

  14. Macrophages are required to coordinate mouse digit tip regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Jennifer; Sammarco, Mimi C; Marrero, Luis; Dawson, Lindsay A; Yan, Mingquan; Tucker, Catherine; Cammack, Alex; Muneoka, Ken

    2017-11-01

    In mammals, macrophages are known to play a major role in tissue regeneration. They contribute to inflammation, histolysis, re-epithelialization, revascularization and cell proliferation. Macrophages have been shown to be essential for regeneration in salamanders and fish, but their role has not been elucidated in mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Here, using the regenerating mouse digit tip as a mammalian model, we demonstrate that macrophages are essential for the regeneration process. Using cell-depletion strategies, we show that regeneration is completely inhibited; bone histolysis does not occur, wound re-epithelialization is inhibited and the blastema does not form. Although rescue of epidermal wound closure in the absence of macrophages promotes blastema accumulation, it does not rescue cell differentiation, indicating that macrophages play a key role in the redifferentiation of the blastema. We provide additional evidence that although bone degradation is a component, it is not essential to the overall regenerative process. These findings show that macrophages play an essential role in coordinating the epimorphic regenerative response in mammals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. A Conserved EAR Motif Is Required for Avirulence and Stability of the Ralstonia solanacearum Effector PopP2 In Planta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Segonzac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal agent of the devastating bacterial wilt disease in many high value Solanaceae crops. R. solanacearum secretes around 70 effectors into host cells in order to promote infection. Plants have, however, evolved specialized immune receptors that recognize corresponding effectors and confer qualitative disease resistance. In the model species Arabidopsis thaliana, the paired immune receptors RRS1 (resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1 and RPS4 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4 cooperatively recognize the R. solanacearum effector PopP2 in the nuclei of infected cells. PopP2 is an acetyltransferase that binds to and acetylates the RRS1 WRKY DNA-binding domain resulting in reduced RRS1-DNA association thereby activating plant immunity. Here, we surveyed the naturally occurring variation in PopP2 sequence among the R. solanacearum strains isolated from diseased tomato and pepper fields across the Republic of Korea. Our analysis revealed high conservation of popP2 sequence with only three polymorphic alleles present amongst 17 strains. Only one variation (a premature stop codon caused the loss of RPS4/RRS1-dependent recognition in Arabidopsis. We also found that PopP2 harbors a putative eukaryotic transcriptional repressor motif (ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression or EAR, which is known to be involved in the recruitment of transcriptional co-repressors. Remarkably, mutation of the EAR motif disabled PopP2 avirulence function as measured by the development of hypersensitive response, electrolyte leakage, defense marker gene expression and bacterial growth in Arabidopsis. This lack of recognition was partially but significantly reverted by the C-terminal addition of a synthetic EAR motif. We show that the EAR motif-dependent gain of avirulence correlated with the stability of the PopP2 protein. Furthermore, we demonstrated the requirement of the PopP2 EAR motif for PTI

  16. Listening to the ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shera, Christopher A.

    Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical

  17. Endogenous production of fibronectin is required for self-renewal of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Geoffrey C.; Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent cells are attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as they make cell fate decisions within the stem cell niche. Here we show that the ubiquitous ECM protein fibronectin is required for self-renewal decisions by cultured mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Undifferentiated mES cells produce fibronectin and assemble a fibrillar matrix. Increasing the level of substrate fibronectin increased cell spreading and integrin receptor signaling through focal adhesion kinase, while concomita...

  18. Play it by Ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology.......The first antenna for ear-to-ear communication with a standard Bluetooth chip has the potential to improve hearing aid technology....

  19. Expression of alpha and beta subunit isoforms of Na,K-ATPase in the mouse inner ear and changes with mutations at the Wv or Sld loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, B A; Steel, K P

    1994-07-01

    Mice homozygous for mutations at the viable dominant spotting (Wv) and Steel-dickie (Sld) loci exhibit a similar phenotype which includes deafness. The auditory dysfunction derives from failure of the stria vascularis to develop normally and to generate a high positive endocochlear potential (EP). Because strial function is driven by Na,K-ATPase its expression was investigated in inner ears of Wv/Wv and Sld/Sld mice and their wild-type littermates by immunostaining with antisera against four of the enzyme's subunit isoforms. Wild-type mice from two different genetic backgrounds showed an identical distribution of subunit isoforms among inner ear transport cells. Several epithelial cell types coexpressed the alpha 1 and beta 1 subunits. Vestibular dark cells showed no reactivity for beta 1 but expressed abundant beta 2, whereas, strial marginal cells stained strongly for both beta isoforms. The only qualitative difference between mutant and wild-type mice was the absence of beta 1 subunit in marginal cells of the mutant's stria. However, it is unlikely that this difference accounts for failure of mutants to generate a high EP because the beta 1 subunit is not present in the stria vascularis of either rats or gerbils with normal EP values. Strong immunostaining for Na,K-ATPase in lateral wall fibrocytes of normal mice along with diminished immunoreactivity in the mutants supports the concept that these strategically located transport fibrocytes actively resorb K+ leaked across Reissner's membrane into scala vestibuli or effluxed from hair cells and nerves into scala tympani. It is further speculated that the resorbed K+ normally is siphoned down its concentration gradient into the intrastrial space through gap junctions between fibrocytes and strial basal and intermediate cells where it is recycled back to endolymph via marginal cells. Thus, failure of mutants to generate a positive EP could be explained by the absence of intermediate cells which may form the final

  20. Protective effects of a standard extract of Mangifera indica L. (VIMANG) against mouse ear edemas and its inhibition of eicosanoid production in J774 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, G; González, D; Lemus, Y; Delporte, C; Delgado, R

    2006-06-01

    A standard aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as antioxidant under the brand name VIMANG, was tested in vivo for its anti-inflammatory activity, using commonly accepted assays. The standard extract of M. indica, administered orally (50-200mg/kg body wt.), reduced ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in mice. In the PMA model, M. indica extract also reduced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. In vitro studies were performed using macrophage cell line J774 stimulated with pro-inflammatory stimuli lipopolysaccharide-interferon gamma (LPS-IFNgamma) or calcium ionophore A23187 to determine prostaglandin PGE(2) or leukotriene LTB(4) release, respectively. The extract inhibited the induction of PGE(2) and LTB(4) with IC(50) values of 21.7 and 26.0microg/ml, respectively. Mangiferin (a glucosylxanthone isolated from the extract) also inhibited these AA metabolites (PGE(2), IC(50) value=17.2microg/ml and LTB(4), IC(50) value=2.1microg/ml). These results represent an important contribution to the elucidation of the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects reported for the standard extract of M. indica VIMANG.

  1. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzonka, Laura; Ullas, Sumana; Chinnam, Meenalakshmi; Povinelli, Benjamin J; Fisher, Daniel T; Golding, Michelle; Appenheimer, Michelle M; Nemeth, Michael J; Evans, Sharon; Goodrich, David W

    2014-01-01

    Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  2. The Thoc1 encoded ribonucleoprotein is required for myeloid progenitor cell homeostasis in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pitzonka

    Full Text Available Co-transcriptionally assembled ribonucleoprotein (RNP complexes are critical for RNA processing and nuclear export. RNPs have been hypothesized to contribute to the regulation of coordinated gene expression, and defects in RNP biogenesis contribute to genome instability and disease. Despite the large number of RNPs and the importance of the molecular processes they mediate, the requirements for individual RNP complexes in mammalian development and tissue homeostasis are not well characterized. THO is an evolutionarily conserved, nuclear RNP complex that physically links nascent transcripts with the nuclear export apparatus. THO is essential for early mouse embryonic development, limiting characterization of the requirements for THO in adult tissues. To address this shortcoming, a mouse strain has been generated allowing inducible deletion of the Thoc1 gene which encodes an essential protein subunit of THO. Bone marrow reconstitution was used to generate mice in which Thoc1 deletion could be induced specifically in the hematopoietic system. We find that granulocyte macrophage progenitors have a cell autonomous requirement for Thoc1 to maintain cell growth and viability. Lymphoid lineages are not detectably affected by Thoc1 loss under the homeostatic conditions tested. Myeloid lineages may be more sensitive to Thoc1 loss due to their relatively high rate of proliferation and turnover.

  3. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  4. Swimmer's Ear (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... can lead to an infection. Dry skin or eczema , scratching the ear canal, vigorous ear cleaning with ...

  5. Congenital malformation of inner ear, single cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Pazmino, Julio Cesar; Marrugo Pardo, Gilberto Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Congenital malformations of the inner ear are rare conditions, but their detection requires high diagnostic accuracy. In this report we describe the case of a patient with single or common cavity, discuss the corresponding radiological images, describe the treatment of this patient with a cochlear implant, and review the classification and differential diagnosis of the other anomalies of the inner ear.

  6. Coupled ears in lizards and crocodilians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carr, Catherine E; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Bierman, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    Lizard ears are coupled across the pharynx, and are very directional. In consequence all auditory responses should be directional, without a requirement for computation of sound source location. Crocodilian ears are connected through sinuses, and thus less tightly coupled. Coupling may improve th...... range is reviewed in the light of current theories of sound localization....

  7. The LuxS/AI-2 Quorum-Sensing System of Streptococcus pneumoniae Is Required to Cause Disease, and to Regulate Virulence- and Metabolism-Related Genes in a Rat Model of Middle Ear Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh K. Yadav

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM. During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation.Methods:Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39ΔluxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively. Biofilm structures and colonization and epithelial damage were evaluated at the ultrastructural level by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. Microarrays were used to investigate the global genes that were regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during biofilm formation.Results: The biofilm biomass and density of D39ΔluxS were significantly (p < 0.05 lower than those of D39 wild-type. SEM and confocal microscopy revealed that D39ΔluxS formed thin biofilms in vitro compared with D39 wild-type. The in vivo model of middle ear infection showed that D39ΔluxS resulted in ~60% less (p < 0.05 bacterial colonization than the wild-type. SEM analysis of the rat middle ears revealed dense biofilm-like cell debris deposited on the cilia in wild-type D39-infected rats. However, little cell debris was deposited in the middle ears of the D39ΔluxS-inoculated rats, and the cilia were visible. cDNA-microarray analysis revealed 117 differentially expressed genes in D39ΔluxS compared with D39 wild-type. Among the 66 genes encoding putative proteins and previously characterized proteins, 60 were significantly downregulated, whereas 6 were upregulated. Functional annotation revealed that genes involved in

  8. Differential requirements for Gli2 and Gli3 in the regional specification of the mouse hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta eHaddad-Tóvolli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Secreted protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh ventralizes the neural tube by modulating the crucial balance between activating and repressing functions (GliA, GliR of transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3. This balance—the Shh-Gli code—is species- and context-dependent and has been elucidated for the mouse spinal cord. The hypothalamus, a forebrain region regulating vital functions like homeostasis and hormone secretion, shows dynamic and intricate Shh expression as well as complex regional differentiation. Here we asked if particular combinations of Gli2 and Gli3 and of GliA and GliR functions contribute to the variety of hypothalamic regions, i.e. we wanted to clarify the hypothalamic version of the Shh-Gli code. Based on mouse mutant analysis, we show that: 1 hypothalamic regional heterogeneity is based in part on differentially stringent requirements for Gli2 or Gli3; 2 another source of diversity are differential requirements for Shh of neural vs non-neural origin; 3 Gli2 is indispensable for the specification of a medial progenitor domain generating several essential hypothalamic nuclei plus the pituitary and median eminence; 4 the suppression of Gli3R by neural and non-neural Shh is essential for hypothalamic specification. Finally, we have mapped our results on a recent model which considers the hypothalamus as a transverse region with alar and basal portions. Our data confirm the model and are explained by it.

  9. Taking Care of Your Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiologist Perforated Eardrum What's Hearing Loss? Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? What Is an Ear Infection? Swimmer's Ear Your Ears What's Earwax? View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  10. Reduction of emission level in approach signals of greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis): No evidence for a closed loop control system for intensity compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenz, Tobias; Denzinger, Annette; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Bats lower the emission SPL when approaching a target. The SPL reduction has been explained by intensity compensation which implies that bats adjust the emission SPL to perceive the retuning echoes at the same level. For a better understanding of this control mechanism we recorded the echolocation signals of four Myotis myotis with an onboard microphone when foraging in the passive mode for rustling mealworms offered in two feeding dishes with different target strength, and determined the reduction rate for the emission SPL and the increase rate for the SPL of the returning echoes. When approaching the dish with higher target strength bats started the reduction of the emission SPL at a larger reaction distance (1.05 ± 0.21 m) and approached it with a lower reduction rate of 7.2 dB/halving of distance (hd), thus producing a change of echo rate at the ears of + 4 dB/hd. At the weaker target reaction distance was shorter (0.71 ± 0.24 m) and the reduction rate (9.1 dB/hd) was higher, producing a change of echo rate of-1.2 dB/hd. Independent of dish type, bats lowered the emission SPL by about 26 dB on average. In one bat where the echo SPL from both targets could be measured, the reduction of emission SPL was triggered when the echo SPL surpassed a similar threshold value around 41-42 dB. Echo SPL was not adjusted at a constant value indicating that Myotis myotis and most likely all other bats do not use a closed loop system for intensity compensation when approaching a target of interest. We propose that bats lower the emission SPL to adjust the SPL of the perceived pulse-echo-pairs to the optimal auditory range for the processing of range information and hypothesize that bats use flow field information not only to control the reduction of the approach speed to the target but also to control the reduction of emission SPL.

  11. The orphan adhesion-GPCR GPR126 is required for embryonic development in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Waller-Evans

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion-GPCRs provide essential cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in development, and have been implicated in inherited human diseases like Usher Syndrome and bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria. They are the second largest subfamily of seven-transmembrane spanning proteins in vertebrates, but the function of most of these receptors is still not understood. The orphan Adhesion-GPCR GPR126 has recently been shown to play an essential role in the myelination of peripheral nerves in zebrafish. In parallel, whole-genome association studies have implicated variation at the GPR126 locus as a determinant of body height in the human population. The physiological function of GPR126 in mammals is still unknown. We describe a targeted mutation of GPR126 in the mouse, and show that GPR126 is required for embryonic viability and cardiovascular development.

  12. Nitric oxide is required for the insulin sensitizing effects of contraction in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinmei; Hiam, Danielle; Hong, Yet-Hoi; Zulli, Anthony; Hayes, Alan; Rattigan, Stephen; McConell, Glenn K

    2017-12-15

    People with insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes can substantially increase their skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise and insulin sensitivity after exercise. Skeletal muscle nitric oxide (NO) is important for glucose uptake during exercise, although how prior exercise increases insulin sensitivity is unclear. In the present study, we examined whether NO is necessary for normal increases in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after contraction ex vivo in mouse muscle. The present study uncovers, for the first time, a novel role for NO in the insulin sensitizing effects of ex vivo contraction, which is independent of blood flow. The factors regulating the increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity after exercise are unclear. We examined whether nitric oxide (NO) is required for the increase in insulin sensitivity after ex vivo contractions. Isolated C57BL/6J mouse EDL muscles were contracted for 10 min or remained at rest (basal) with or without the NO synthase (NOS) inhibition (N G -monomethyl-l-arginine; l-NMMA; 100 μm). Then, 3.5 h post contraction/basal, muscles were exposed to saline or insulin (120 μU ml -1 ) with or without l-NMMA during the last 30 min. l-NMMA had no effect on basal skeletal muscle glucose uptake. The increase in muscle glucose uptake with insulin (57%) was significantly (P contraction (140% increase). NOS inhibition during the contractions had no effect on this insulin-sensitizing effect of contraction, whereas NOS inhibition during insulin prevented the increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity post-contraction. Soluble guanylate cyclase inhibition, protein kinase G (PKG) inhibition or cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibition each had no effect on the insulin-sensitizing effect of prior contraction. In conclusion, NO is required for increases in insulin sensitivity several hours after contraction of mouse skeletal muscle via a cGMP/PKG independent pathway. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology

  13. DMRT1 Is Required for Mouse Spermatogonial Stem Cell Maintenance and Replenishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Teng; Oatley, Jon; Bardwell, Vivian J; Zarkower, David

    2016-09-01

    Male mammals produce sperm for most of postnatal life and therefore require a robust germ line stem cell system, with precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Prior work established doublesex- and mab-3-related transcription factor 1 (Dmrt1) as a conserved transcriptional regulator of male sexual differentiation. Here we investigate the role of Dmrt1 in mouse spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) homeostasis. We find that Dmrt1 maintains SSCs during steady state spermatogenesis, where it regulates expression of Plzf, another transcription factor required for SSC maintenance. We also find that Dmrt1 is required for recovery of spermatogenesis after germ cell depletion. Committed progenitor cells expressing Ngn3 normally do not contribute to SSCs marked by the Id4-Gfp transgene, but do so when spermatogonia are chemically depleted using busulfan. Removal of Dmrt1 from Ngn3-positive germ cells blocks the replenishment of Id4-GFP-positive SSCs and recovery of spermatogenesis after busulfan treatment. Our data therefore reveal that Dmrt1 supports SSC maintenance in two ways: allowing SSCs to remain in the stem cell pool under normal conditions; and enabling progenitor cells to help restore the stem cell pool after germ cell depletion.

  14. Proton channel HVCN1 is required for effector functions of mouse eosinophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Proton currents are required for optimal respiratory burst in phagocytes. Recently, HVCN1 was identified as the molecule required for the voltage-gated proton channel activity associated with the respiratory burst in neutrophils. Although there are similarities between eosinophils and neutrophils regarding their mechanism for respiratory burst, the role of proton channels in eosinophil functions has not been fully understood. Results In the present study, we first identified the expression of the proton channel HVCN1 in mouse eosinophils. Furthermore, using HVCN1-deficient eosinophils, we demonstrated important cell-specific effector functions for HVCN1. Similar to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils produced significantly less reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. In contrast to HVCN1-deficient neutrophils, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils did not show impaired calcium mobilization or migration ability compared with wild-type (WT) cells. Uniquely, HVCN1-deficient eosinophils underwent significantly increased cell death induced by PMA stimulation compared with WT eosinophils. The increased cell death was dependent on NADPH oxidase activation, and correlated with the failure of HVCN1-deficient cells to maintain membrane polarization and intracellular pH in the physiological range upon activation. Conclusions Eosinophils require proton channel HVCN1 for optimal ROS generation and prevention of activation-induced cell death. PMID:23705768

  15. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yang; Shriberg, Elizabeth; Stolcke, Andreas; Peskin, Barbara; Ang, Jeremy; Hillard, Dustin; Ostendorf, Mari; Tomalin, Marcus; Woodland, Phil; Harper, Mary

    2005-01-01

    Both human and automatic processing of speech require recognition of more than just words. In this paper we provide a brief overview of research on structural metadata extraction in the DARPA EARS rich transcription program...

  16. Acceleration induced water removal from ear canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hosung; Averett, Katelee; Jung, Sunghwan

    2017-11-01

    Children and adults commonly experience having water trapped in the ear canals after swimming. To remove the water, individuals will shake their head sideways. Since a child's ear canal has a smaller diameter, it requires more acceleration of the head to remove the trapped water. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally investigated the acceleration required to break the surface meniscus of the water in artificial ear canals and hydrophobic-coated glass tubes. In experiments, ear canal models were 3D-printed from a CT-scanned human head. Also, glass tubes were coated with silane to match the hydrophobicity in ear canals. Then, using a linear stage, we measured the acceleration values required to forcefully eject the water from the artificial ear canals and glass tubes. A theoretical model was developed to predict the critical acceleration at a given tube diameter and water volume by using a modified Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Furthermore, this research can shed light on the potential of long-term brain injury and damage by shaking the head to push the water out of the ear canal. This research was supported by National Science Foundation Grant CBET-1604424.

  17. Rybp, a polycomb complex-associated protein, is required for mouse eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber-Agus Nicole

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rybp (Ring1 and YY1 binding protein is a zinc finger protein which interacts with the members of the mammalian polycomb complexes. Previously we have shown that Rybp is critical for early embryogenesis and that haploinsufficiency of Rybp in a subset of embryos causes failure of neural tube closure. Here we investigated the requirement for Rybp in ocular development using four in vivo mouse models which resulted in either the ablation or overexpression of Rybp. Results Our results demonstrate that loss of a single Rybp allele in conventional knockout mice often resulted in retinal coloboma, an incomplete closure of the optic fissure, characterized by perturbed localization of Pax6 but not of Pax2. In addition, about one half of Rybp-/- Rybp+/+ chimeric embryos also developed retinal colobomas and malformed lenses. Tissue-specific transgenic overexpression of Rybp in the lens resulted in abnormal fiber cell differentiation and severe lens opacification with increased levels of AP-2α and Sox2, and reduced levels of βA4-crystallin gene expression. Ubiquitous transgenic overexpression of Rybp in the entire eye caused abnormal retinal folds, corneal neovascularization, and lens opacification. Additional changes included defects in anterior eye development. Conclusion These studies establish Rybp as a novel gene that has been associated with coloboma. Other genes linked to coloboma encode various classes of transcription factors such as BCOR, CBP, Chx10, Pax2, Pax6, Six3, Ski, Vax1 and Vax2. We propose that the multiple functions for Rybp in regulating mouse retinal and lens development are mediated by genetic, epigenetic and physical interactions between these genes and proteins.

  18. Hairy ears; Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daifullah Al Aboud

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair can grow in areas which are not usually hairy in human skin. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM (http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omimhave some entries in this regards. These include ( %139600 – HAIRY ELBOWS, #605130 – HAIRY ELBOWS, SHORT STATURE, FACIAL DYSMORPHISM, AND DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY, 139630 – HAIRY NOSE TIP, 139500 – HAIRY EARS, and 425500 – HAIRY EARS, Y-LINKED. Hairy ears, (Fig. 1, are uncommon trait and it is rare to see a person with very long hair on the ears.

  19. Ornithine Decarboxylase Activity Is Required for Prostatic Budding in the Developing Mouse Prostate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Gamat

    Full Text Available The prostate is a male accessory sex gland that produces secretions in seminal fluid to facilitate fertilization. Prostate secretory function is dependent on androgens, although the mechanism by which androgens exert their effects is still unclear. Polyamines are small cationic molecules that play pivotal roles in DNA transcription, translation and gene regulation. The rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis is ornithine decarboxylase, which is encoded by the gene Odc1. Ornithine decarboxylase mRNA decreases in the prostate upon castration and increases upon administration of androgens. Furthermore, testosterone administered to castrated male mice restores prostate secretory activity, whereas administering testosterone and the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor D,L-α-difluromethylornithine (DFMO to castrated males does not restore prostate secretory activity, suggesting that polyamines are required for androgens to exert their effects. To date, no one has examined polyamines in prostate development, which is also androgen dependent. In this study, we showed that ornithine decarboxylase protein was expressed in the epithelium of the ventral, dorsolateral and anterior lobes of the adult mouse prostate. Ornithine decarboxylase protein was also expressed in the urogenital sinus (UGS epithelium of the male and female embryo prior to prostate development, and expression continued in prostatic epithelial buds as they emerged from the UGS. Inhibiting ornithine decarboxylase using DFMO in UGS organ culture blocked the induction of prostatic buds by androgens, and significantly decreased expression of key prostate transcription factor, Nkx3.1, by androgens. DFMO also significantly decreased the expression of developmental regulatory gene Notch1. Other genes implicated in prostatic development including Sox9, Wif1 and Srd5a2 were unaffected by DFMO. Together these results indicate that Odc1 and polyamines are required for androgens to exert their

  20. 'Outrunning' the running ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    In even the most experienced hands, an adequate physical examination of the ears can be difficult to perform because of common problems such as cerumen blockage of the auditory canal, an unco- operative toddler or an exasperated parent. The most common cause for a running ear in a child is acute purulent otitis.

  1. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections, swimmer’s ear, and healthy swimming. "Swimmer's Ear" (Otitis Externa) What are the symptoms of swimmer's ear? ... Healthy page. Reference CDC. Estimated burden of acute otitis externa —United States, 2003–2007 . MMWR Morb Mortal ...

  2. Thyroid hormone is required for the pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresan, Srividya; Balasubbu, Suganthalakshmi; Mustapha, Mirna

    2015-01-01

    Afferent connections to the sensory inner and outer hair cells in the cochlea refine and functionally mature during the thyroid hormone (TH)- critical period of inner ear development that occurs perinatally in rodents. In this study, we investigated the effects of hypothyroidism on afferent type II innervation to outer hair cells (OHCs) using the Snell dwarf mouse (Pit1dw). Using a transgenic approach to specifically label type II spiral ganglion neurons, we found that a lack of TH causes persistence of excess type II SGN connections to the OHCs, as well as continued expression of the hair cell functional marker, otoferlin, in the OHCs beyond the maturation period. We also observed a concurrent delay in efferent attachment to the OHCs. Supplementing with TH during the early postnatal period from postnatal day (P) 3 to P4 reversed the defect in type II SGN pruning but did not alter otoferlin expression. Our results show that hypothyroidism causes a defect in the large-scale pruning of afferent type II spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea, and a delay in efferent attachment and the maturation of otoferlin expression. Our data suggest that the state of maturation of hair cells, as determined by otoferlin expression, may not regulate the pruning of their afferent innervation. PMID:26592716

  3. The novel mouse mutant, chuzhoi, has disruption of Ptk7 protein and exhibits defects in neural tube, heart and lung development and abnormal planar cell polarity in the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paudyal Anju

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The planar cell polarity (PCP signalling pathway is fundamental to a number of key developmental events, including initiation of neural tube closure. Disruption of the PCP pathway causes the severe neural tube defect of craniorachischisis, in which almost the entire brain and spinal cord fails to close. Identification of mouse mutants with craniorachischisis has proven a powerful way of identifying molecules that are components or regulators of the PCP pathway. In addition, identification of an allelic series of mutants, including hypomorphs and neomorphs in addition to complete nulls, can provide novel genetic tools to help elucidate the function of the PCP proteins. Results We report the identification of a new N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU-induced mutant with craniorachischisis, which we have named chuzhoi (chz. We demonstrate that chuzhoi mutant embryos fail to undergo initiation of neural tube closure, and have characteristics consistent with defective convergent extension. These characteristics include a broadened midline and reduced rate of increase of their length-to-width ratio. In addition, we demonstrate disruption in the orientation of outer hair cells in the inner ear, and defects in heart and lung development in chuzhoi mutants. We demonstrate a genetic interaction between chuzhoi mutants and both Vangl2Lp and Celsr1Crsh mutants, strengthening the hypothesis that chuzhoi is involved in regulating the PCP pathway. We demonstrate that chuzhoi maps to Chromosome 17 and carries a splice site mutation in Ptk7. This mutation results in the insertion of three amino acids into the Ptk7 protein and causes disruption of Ptk7 protein expression in chuzhoi mutants. Conclusions The chuzhoi mutant provides an additional genetic resource to help investigate the developmental basis of several congenital abnormalities including neural tube, heart and lung defects and their relationship to disruption of PCP. The chuzhoi mutation

  4. Ear Problems in Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute diffuse otitis externa (swimmer's ear, otomycosis, exostoses, traumatic eardrum perforation, middle ear infection, and barotraumas of the inner ear are common problems in swimmers and people engaged in aqua activities. The most common ear problem in swimmers is acute diffuse otitis externa, with Pseudomonas aeruginosa being the most common pathogen. The symptoms are itching, otalgia, otorrhea, and conductive hearing loss. The treatment includes frequent cleansing of the ear canal, pain control, oral or topical medications, acidification of the ear canal, and control of predisposing factors. Swimming in polluted waters and ear-canal cleaning with cotton-tip applicators should be avoided. Exostoses are usually seen in people who swim in cold water and present with symptoms of accumulated debris, otorrhea and conductive hearing loss. The treatment for exostoses is transmeatal surgical removal of the tumors. Traumatic eardrum perforations may occur during water skiing or scuba diving and present with symptoms of hearing loss, otalgia, otorrhea, tinnitus and vertigo. Tympanoplasty might be needed if the perforations do not heal spontaneously. Patients with chronic otitis media with active drainage should avoid swimming, while patients who have undergone mastoidectomy and who have no cavity problems may swim. For children with ventilation tubes, surface swimming is safe in a clean, chlorinated swimming pool. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss and some degree of vertigo may occur after diving because of rupture of the round or oval window membrane.

  5. Endogenous production of fibronectin is required for self-renewal of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Geoffrey C; Singh, Purva; Schwarzbauer, Jean E

    2012-09-10

    Pluripotent cells are attached to the extracellular matrix (ECM) as they make cell fate decisions within the stem cell niche. Here we show that the ubiquitous ECM protein fibronectin is required for self-renewal decisions by cultured mouse embryonic stem (mES) cells. Undifferentiated mES cells produce fibronectin and assemble a fibrillar matrix. Increasing the level of substrate fibronectin increased cell spreading and integrin receptor signaling through focal adhesion kinase, while concomitantly inducing the loss of Nanog and Oct4 self-renewal markers. Conversely, reducing fibronectin production by mES cells growing on a feeder-free gelatin substrate caused loss of cell adhesion, decreased integrin signaling, and decreased expression of self-renewal markers. These effects were reversed by providing the cells with exogenous fibronectin, thereby restoring adhesion to the gelatin substrate. Interestingly, mES cells do not adhere directly to the gelatin substrate, but rather adhere indirectly through gelatin-bound fibronectin, which facilitates self-renewal via its effects on cell adhesion. These results provide new insights into the mechanism of regulation of self-renewal by growth on a gelatin-coated surface. The effects of increasing or decreasing fibronectin levels show that self-renewal depends on an intermediate level of cell-fibronectin interactions. By providing cell adhesive signals that can act with other self-renewal factors to maintain mES cell pluripotency, fibronectin is therefore a necessary component of the self-renewal signaling pathway in culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  7. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ear infections may get better without antibiotics. Using antibiotics cautiously and with good reason helps prevent the development of bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics. If your doctor prescribes an antibiotic, it’s important ...

  8. Hes1 is required for appropriate morphogenesis and differentiation during mouse thyroid gland development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Carre

    Full Text Available Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis. To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1(-/- mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05 at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1(-/- mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (-40 to -60% compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5-E16.5. In both Hes1(-/- and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1(-/- mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice. After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1(-/- thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (-78% and calcitonin (-65% normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (-69%. These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells.

  9. Smc1β is required for activation of SAC during mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yilong; Zhou, Changyin; Cui, Zhaokang; Dai, Xiaoxin; Zhang, Mianqun; Lu, Yajuan; Xiong, Bo

    2017-03-19

    Smc1β is a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit that is essential for sister chromatid cohesion and DNA recombination. Previous studies have shown that Smc1β-deficient mice in both sexes are sterile. Ablation of Smc1β during male meiosis leads to the blockage of spermatogenesis in pachytene stage, and ablation of Smc1β during female meiosis generates a highly error-prone oocyte although it could develop to metaphase II stage. However, the underlying mechanisms regarding how Smc1β maintains the correct meiotic progression in mouse oocytes have not been clearly defined. Here, we find that GFP-fused Smc1β is expressed and localized to the chromosomes from GV to MII stages during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Knockdown of Smc1β by microinjection of gene-specific morpholino causes the impaired spindle apparatus and chromosome alignment which are highly correlated with the defective kinetochore-microtubule attachments, consequently resulting in a prominently higher incidence of aneuploid eggs. In addition, the premature extrusion of polar bodies and escape of metaphase I arrest induced by low dose of nocodazole treatment in Smc1β-depleted oocytes indicates that Smc1β is essential for activation of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity. Collectively, we identify a novel function of Smc1β as a SAC participant beyond its role in chromosome cohesion during mouse oocyte meiosis.

  10. LIM kinase activity is required for microtubule organising centre positioning in mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Yubo; Cao, Yan; Wang, Qian; Du, Juan; Tian, Jianhui; Liang, Yuanjing; Ma, Wei

    2017-04-01

    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) activity is essential for cell migration and cell cycle progression. Little is known about LIMK1 expression and function in mammalian oocytes. In the present study we assessed LIMK1 protein expression, subcellular distribution and function during mouse oocyte meiosis. Western blot analysis revealed high and stable expression of LIMK1 from the germinal vesicle (GV) to MII stage. In contrast, activated LIMK1 (i.e. LIMK1 phosphorylated at threonine 508 (pLIMK1 Thr508 )) was only detected after GV breakdown, with levels increasing gradually to peak at MI and MII. Immunofluorescence showed pLIMK1 Thr508 was colocalised with the microtubule organising centre (MTOC) components pericentrin and γ-tubulin at the spindle poles. A direct interaction between γ-tubulin and pLIMK1 Thr508 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. LIMK inhibition with 1μM BMS3 damaged MTOC protein localisation to spindle poles, undermined the formation and positioning of functional MTOC and thus disrupted spindle formation and chromosome alignment. These effects were phenocopied by microinjection of LIMK1 antibody into mouse oocytes. In summary, the data demonstrate that LIMK activity is essential for MTOC organisation and distribution and so bipolar spindle formation and maintenance in mouse oocytes.

  11. Hes1 Is Required for Appropriate Morphogenesis and Differentiation during Mouse Thyroid Gland Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carre, Aurore; Rachdi, Latif; Tron, Elodie; Richard, Bénédicte; Castanet, Mireille; Schlumberger, Martin; Bidart, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Notch signalling plays an important role in endocrine development, through its target gene Hes1. Hes1, a bHLH transcriptional repressor, influences progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Hes1 was shown to be expressed in the thyroid and regulate expression of the sodium iodide symporter (Nis). To investigate the role of Hes1 for thyroid development, we studied thyroid morphology and function in mice lacking Hes1. During normal mouse thyroid development, Hes1 was detected from E9.5 onwards in the median anlage, and at E11.5 in the ultimobranchial bodies. Hes1 −/− mouse embryos had a significantly lower number of Nkx2-1-positive progenitor cells (p<0.05) at E9.5 and at E11.5. Moreover, Hes1 −/− mouse embryos showed a significantly smaller total thyroid surface area (−40 to −60%) compared to wild type mice at all study time points (E9.5−E16.5). In both Hes1 −/− and wild type mouse embryos, most Nkx2-1-positive thyroid cells expressed the cell cycle inhibitor p57 at E9.5 in correlation with low proliferation index. In Hes1 −/− mouse embryos, fusion of the median anlage with the ultimobranchial bodies was delayed by 3 days (E16.5 vs. E13.5 in wild type mice). After fusion of thyroid anlages, hypoplastic Hes1 −/− thyroids revealed a significantly decreased labelling area for T4 (−78%) and calcitonin (−65%) normalized to Nkx2-1 positive cells. Decreased T4-synthesis might be due to reduced Nis labelling area (−69%). These findings suggest a dual role of Hes1 during thyroid development: first, control of the number of both thyrocyte and C-cell progenitors, via a p57-independent mechanism; second, adequate differentiation and endocrine function of thyrocytes and C-cells. PMID:21364918

  12. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  13. The Nanos3-3'UTR is required for germ cell specific NANOS3 expression in mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Suzuki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The regulation of gene expression via a 3' untranslated region (UTR plays essential roles in the discrimination of the germ cell lineage from somatic cells during embryogenesis. This is fundamental to the continuation of a species. Mouse NANOS3 is an essential protein required for the germ cell maintenance and is specifically expressed in these cells. However, the regulatory mechanisms that restrict the expression of this gene in the germ cells is largely unknown at present. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our current study, we show that differences in the stability of Nanos3 mRNA between germ cells and somatic cells is brought about in a 3'UTR-dependent manner in mouse embryos. Although Nanos3 is transcribed in both cell lineages, it is efficiently translated only in the germ lineage. We also find that the translational suppression of NANOS3 in somatic cells is caused by a 3'UTR-mediated mRNA destabilizing mechanism. Surprisingly, even when under the control of the CAG promoter which induces strong ubiquitous transcription in both germ cells and somatic cells, the addition of the Nanos3-3'UTR sequence to the coding region of exogenous gene was effective in restricting protein expression in germ cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our current study thus suggests that Nanos3-3'UTR has an essential role in translational control in the mouse embryo.

  14. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  16. Role of skeletal muscle in ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; Costain, Willard J; Hong, Paul; Tafra, Robert; Mardesic-Brakus, Snjezana; Mrduljas-Djujic, Natasa; Saraga-Babic, Mirna; Kablar, Boris

    2017-10-01

    The current paper is a continuation of our work described in Rot and Kablar, 2010. Here, we show lists of 10 up- and 87 down-regulated genes obtained by a cDNA microarray analysis that compared developing Myf5-/-:Myod-/- (and Mrf4-/-) petrous part of the temporal bone, containing middle and inner ear, to the control, at embryonic day 18.5. Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses entirely lack skeletal myoblasts and muscles. They are unable to move their head, which interferes with the perception of angular acceleration. Previously, we showed that the inner ear areas most affected in Myf5-/-:Myod-/- fetuses were the vestibular cristae ampullaris, sensitive to angular acceleration. Our finding that the type I hair cells were absent in the mutants' cristae was further used here to identify a profile of genes specific to the lacking cell type. Microarrays followed by a detailed consultation of web-accessible mouse databases allowed us to identify 6 candidate genes with a possible role in the development of the inner ear sensory organs: Actc1, Pgam2, Ldb3, Eno3, Hspb7 and Smpx. Additionally, we searched for human homologues of the candidate genes since a number of syndromes in humans have associated inner ear abnormalities. Mutations in one of our candidate genes, Smpx, have been reported as the cause of X-linked deafness in humans. Our current study suggests an epigenetic role that mechanical, and potentially other, stimuli originating from muscle, play in organogenesis, and offers an approach to finding novel genes responsible for altered inner ear phenotypes.

  17. From Ear to Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper Doreen Kimura gives a personal history of the "right-ear effect" in dichotic listening. The focus is on the early ground-breaking papers, describing how she did the first dichotic listening studies relating the effects to brain asymmetry. The paper also gives a description of the visual half-field technique for lateralized stimulus…

  18. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  19. Seeing With the Ears

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    In recent talks, I mentioned how my artist friends often complain that their clients see with their ears. It recently dawned on me that nobody understood what I said, or—worse—got the wrong idea. The audience thinks of bionic devices (Proulx, Stoerig, Ludowig, & Knoll, 2008) or bat echo location

  20. Ear infection - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the back of the throat. Normally, this tube drains fluid that is made in the middle ear. ... allows air to get in so fluids can drain more easily. Usually the tubes fall out by themselves. Those that don't ...

  1. Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-set ears; Microtia; "Lop" ear; Pinna abnormalities; Genetic defect - pinna; Congenital defect - pinna ... conditions: Abnormal folds or location of the pinna Low-set ears No opening to the ear canal ...

  2. Clathrin heavy chain 1 is required for spindle assembly and chromosome congression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Liu, Li; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Guang-Peng; Schatten, Heide; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC) has been considered a “moonlighting protein” which acts in membrane trafficking during interphase and in stabilizing spindle fibers during mitosis. However, its roles in meiosis, especially in mammalian oocyte maturation, remain unclear. This study investigated CLTC expression and function in spindle formation and chromosome congression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Our results showed that the expression level of CLTC increased after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and peaked in the M phase. Immunostaining results showed CLTC distribution throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Appearance and disappearance of CLTC along with β-tubulin (TUBB) could be observed during spindle dynamic changes. To explore the relationship between CLTC and microtubule dynamics, oocytes at metaphase were treated with taxol or nocodazole. CLTC colocalized with TUBB at the enlarged spindle and with cytoplasmic asters after taxol treatment; it disassembled and distributed into the cytoplasm along with TUBB after nocodazole treatment. Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle formation and chromosome congression defects. Taken together, these results show that CLTC plays an important role in spindle assembly and chromosome congression through a microtubule correlation mechanism during mouse oocyte maturation.

  3. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  4. CLRN1 is nonessential in the mouse retina but is required for cochlear hair cell development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott F Geller

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the CLRN1 gene cause Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3, a human disease characterized by progressive blindness and deafness. Clarin 1, the protein product of CLRN1, is a four-transmembrane protein predicted to be associated with ribbon synapses of photoreceptors and cochlear hair cells, and recently demonstrated to be associated with the cytoskeleton. To study Clrn1, we created a Clrn1 knockout (KO mouse and characterized the histological and functional consequences of Clrn1 deletion in the retina and cochlea. Clrn1 KO mice do not develop a retinal degeneration phenotype, but exhibit progressive loss of sensory hair cells in the cochlea and deterioration of the organ of Corti by 4 months. Hair cell stereocilia in KO animals were longer and disorganized by 4 months, and some Clrn1 KO mice exhibited circling behavior by 5-6 months of age. Clrn1 mRNA expression was localized in the retina using in situ hybridization (ISH, laser capture microdissection (LCM, and RT-PCR. Retinal Clrn1 transcripts were found throughout development and adulthood by RT-PCR, although expression peaked at P7 and declined to undetectable levels in adult retina by ISH. LCM localized Clrn1 transcripts to the retinas inner nuclear layer, and WT levels of retinal Clrn1 expression were observed in photoreceptor-less retinas. Examination of Clrn1 KO mice suggests that CLRN1 is unnecessary in the murine retina but essential for normal cochlear development and function. This may reflect a redundancy in the mouse retina not present in human retina. In contrast to mouse KO models of USH1 and USH2, our data indicate that Clrn1 expression in the retina is restricted to the Müller glia. This is a novel finding, as most retinal degeneration associated proteins are expressed in photoreceptors, not in glia. If CLRN1 expression in humans is comparable to the expression pattern observed in mice, this is the first report of an inner retinal protein that, when mutated, causes retinal

  5. MEK kinase 1 activity is required for definitive erythropoiesis in the mouse fetal liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Ørskov, Cathrine; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    for MEKK1 in definitive mouse erythropoiesis. Although Mekk1(DeltaKD) mice are alive and fertile on a 129 x C57/BL6 background, the frequency of Mekk1(DeltaKD) embryos that develop past embryonic day (E) 14.5 is dramatically reduced when backcrossed into the C57/BL6 background. At E13.5, Mekk1(Delta......KD) embryos have normal morphology but are anemic due to failure of definitive erythropoiesis. When Mekk1(DeltaKD) fetal liver cells were transferred to lethally irradiated wild-type hosts, mature red blood cells were generated from the mutant cells, suggesting that MEKK1 functions in a non......-cell-autonomous manner. Based on immunohistochemical and hemoglobin chain transcription analysis, we propose that the failure of definitive erythropoiesis is due to a deficiency in enucleation activity caused by insufficient macrophage-mediated nuclear DNA destruction....

  6. Meis1 Is Required for Adult Mouse Erythropoiesis, Megakaryopoiesis and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Erin Miller

    Full Text Available Meis1 is recognized as an important transcriptional regulator in hematopoietic development and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of leukemia, both as a Hox transcription factor co-factor and independently. Despite the emerging recognition of Meis1's importance in the context of both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis, there is not yet a full understanding of Meis1's functions and the relevant pathways and genes mediating its functions. Recently, several conditional mouse models for Meis1 have been established. These models highlight a critical role for Meis1 in adult mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and implicate reactive oxygen species (ROS as a mediator of Meis1 function in this compartment. There are, however, several reported differences between these studies in terms of downstream progenitor populations impacted and effectors of function. In this study, we describe further characterization of a conditional knockout model based on mice carrying a loxP-flanked exon 8 of Meis1 which we crossed onto the inducible Cre localization/expression strains, B6;129-Gt(ROSA26Sor(tm1(Cre/ERTNat/J or B6.Cg-Tg(Mx1-Cre1Cgn/J. Findings obtained from these two inducible Meis1 knockout models confirm and extend previous reports of the essential role of Meis1 in adult HSC maintenance and expansion and provide new evidence that highlights key roles of Meis1 in both megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis. Gene expression analyses point to a number of candidate genes involved in Meis1's role in hematopoiesis. Our data additionally support recent evidence of a role of Meis1 in ROS regulation.

  7. Krüppel-like factor 2 is required for normal mouse cardiac development.

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    Aditi R Chiplunkar

    Full Text Available Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2 is expressed in endothelial cells in the developing heart, particularly in areas of high shear stress, such as the atrioventricular (AV canal. KLF2 ablation leads to myocardial thinning, high output cardiac failure and death by mouse embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5 in a mixed genetic background. This work identifies an earlier and more fundamental role for KLF2 in mouse cardiac development in FVB/N mice. FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos die earlier, by E11.5. E9.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have multiple, disorganized cell layers lining the AV cushions, the primordia of the AV valves, rather than the normal single layer. By E10.5, traditional and endothelial-specific FVB/N KLF2-/- AV cushions are hypocellular, suggesting that the cells accumulating at the AV canal have a defect in endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EMT. E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- hearts have reduced glycosaminoglycans in the cardiac jelly, correlating with the reduced EMT. However, the number of mesenchymal cells migrating from FVB/N KLF2-/- AV explants into a collagen matrix is reduced considerably compared to wild-type, suggesting that the EMT defect is not due solely to abnormal cardiac jelly. Echocardiography of E10.5 FVB/N KLF2-/- embryos indicates that they have abnormal heart function compared to wild-type. E10.5 C57BL/6 KLF2-/- hearts have largely normal AV cushions. However, E10.5 FVB/N and C57BL/6 KLF2-/- embryos have a delay in the formation of the atrial septum that is not observed in a defined mixed background. KLF2 ablation results in reduced Sox9, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugdh, Gata4 and Tbx5 mRNA in FVB/N AV canals. KLF2 binds to the Gata4, Tbx5 and Ugdh promoters in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, indicating that KLF2 could directly regulate these genes. In conclusion, KLF2-/- heart phenotypes are genetic background-dependent. KLF2 plays a role in EMT through its regulation of important cardiovascular genes.

  8. Spindle formation in the mouse embryo requires Plk4 in the absence of centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paula A; Bury, Leah; Sharif, Bedra; Riparbelli, Maria G; Fu, Jingyan; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2013-12-09

    During the first five rounds of cell division in the mouse embryo, spindles assemble in the absence of centrioles. Spindle formation initiates around chromosomes, but the microtubule nucleating process remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Plk4, a protein kinase known as a master regulator of centriole formation, is also essential for spindle assembly in the absence of centrioles. Depletion of maternal Plk4 prevents nucleation and growth of microtubules and results in monopolar spindle formation. This leads to cytokinesis failure and, consequently, developmental arrest. We show that Plk4 function depends on its kinase activity and its partner protein, Cep152. Moreover, tethering Cep152 to cellular membranes sequesters Plk4 and is sufficient to trigger spindle assembly from ectopic membranous sites. Thus, the Plk4-Cep152 complex has an unexpected role in promoting microtubule nucleation in the vicinity of chromosomes to mediate bipolar spindle formation in the absence of centrioles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prophage induction is enhanced and required for renal disease and lethality in an EHEC mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Tyler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, particularly serotype O157:H7, causes hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and even death. In vitro studies showed that Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2, the primary virulence factor expressed by EDL933 (an O157:H7 strain, is encoded by the 933W prophage. And the bacterial subpopulation in which the 933W prophage is induced is the producer of Stx2. Using the germ-free mouse, we show the essential role 933W induction plays in the virulence of EDL933 infection. An EDL933 derivative with a single mutation in its 933W prophage, resulting specifically in that phage being uninducible, colonizes the intestines, but fails to cause any of the pathological changes seen with the parent strain. Hence, induction of the 933W prophage is the primary event leading to disease from EDL933 infection. We constructed a derivative of EDL933, SIVET, with a biosensor that specifically measures induction of the 933W prophage. Using this biosensor to measure 933W induction in germ-free mice, we found an increase three logs greater than was expected from in vitro results. Since the induced population produces and releases Stx2, this result indicates that an activity in the intestine increases Stx2 production.

  10. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léguillier, Teddy; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Artus, Jérôme; Houlard, Martin; Picard, Christel; Bernex, Florence; Robine, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2012-07-15

    Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically required in intestinal progenitors. In absence of OMCG1, proliferating intestinal epithelial cells underwent abnormal mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death. As a consequence, the crypt proliferative compartment of the small intestine was quickly and totally abrogated leading to the rapid death of the mice. Lack of OMCG1 in embryonic stem cells led to a similar cellular phenotype, with multiple mitotic defects and rapid cell death. We showed that mutant intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells exhibited a reduced cell cycle arrest following irradiation, suggesting that mitotic defects may be consecutive to M phase entry with unrepaired DNA damages. These findings unravel a crucial role for pre-mRNA processing in the homeostasis of the small intestine and point to a major role of OMCG1 in the maintenance of genome integrity.

  11. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teddy Léguillier

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically required in intestinal progenitors. In absence of OMCG1, proliferating intestinal epithelial cells underwent abnormal mitosis followed by apoptotic cell death. As a consequence, the crypt proliferative compartment of the small intestine was quickly and totally abrogated leading to the rapid death of the mice. Lack of OMCG1 in embryonic stem cells led to a similar cellular phenotype, with multiple mitotic defects and rapid cell death. We showed that mutant intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells exhibited a reduced cell cycle arrest following irradiation, suggesting that mitotic defects may be consecutive to M phase entry with unrepaired DNA damages. These findings unravel a crucial role for pre-mRNA processing in the homeostasis of the small intestine and point to a major role of OMCG1 in the maintenance of genome integrity.

  12. CRISPR reveals a distal super-enhancer required for Sox2 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    Full Text Available The pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs is maintained by a small group of master transcription factors including Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. These core factors form a regulatory circuit controlling the transcription of a number of pluripotency factors including themselves. Although previous studies have identified transcriptional regulators of this core network, the cis-regulatory DNA sequences required for the transcription of these key pluripotency factors remain to be defined. We analyzed epigenomic data within the 1.5 Mb gene-desert regions around the Sox2 gene and identified a 13kb-long super-enhancer (SE located 100kb downstream of Sox2 in mouse ESCs. This SE is occupied by Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and the mediator complex, and physically interacts with the Sox2 locus via DNA looping. Using a simple and highly efficient double-CRISPR genome editing strategy we deleted the entire 13-kb SE and characterized transcriptional defects in the resulting monoallelic and biallelic deletion clones with RNA-seq. We showed that the SE is responsible for over 90% of Sox2 expression, and Sox2 is the only target gene along the chromosome. Our results support the functional significance of a SE in maintaining the pluripotency transcription program in mouse ESCs.

  13. Structural domains required for channel function of the mouse transient receptor potential protein homologue TRP1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, Michael; Friedrich, Olaf; Budde, Petra; Schäfer, Christina; Niemann, Ursula; Zitt, Christof; Jüngling, Eberhard; Rocks, Oliver; Lückhoff, Andreas; Frey, Jürgen

    2002-07-17

    Transient receptor potential proteins (TRP) are supposed to participate in the formation of store-operated Ca(2+) influx channels by co-assembly. However, little is known which domains facilitate the interaction of subunits. Contribution of the N-terminal coiled-coil domain and ankyrin-like repeats and the putative pore region of the mouse TRP1beta (mTRP1beta) variant to the formation of functional cation channels were analyzed following overexpression in HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells. MTRP1beta expressing cells exhibited enhanced Ca(2+) influx and enhanced whole-cell membrane currents compared to mTRP1beta deletion mutants. Using a yeast two-hybrid assay only the coiled-coil domain facilitated homodimerization of the N-terminus. These results suggest that the N-terminus of mTRP1beta is required for structural organization thus forming functional channels.

  14. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  15. Requirement of B-Raf, C-Raf, and A-Raf for the growth and survival of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Wenjing; Hao, Baixia; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yingying; Yue, Jianbo, E-mail: jbyue@me.com

    2013-11-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) have been implicated to be dispensable for self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, and simultaneous inhibition of both ERK signaling and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) not only allows mouse ES cells to self-renew independent of extracellular stimuli but also enables more efficient derivation of naïve ES cells from mouse and rat strains. Interestingly, some ERKs stay active in mouse ES cells which are maintained in regular medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Yet, the upstream signaling for ERK activation and their roles in mouse ES cells, other than promoting or priming differentiation, have not been determined. Here we found that mouse ES cells express three forms of Raf kinases, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. Knocking-down each single Raf member failed to affect the sustained ERK activity, neither did A-Raf and B-Raf double knockdown or B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown change it in ES cells. Interestingly, B-Raf and C-Raf double knockdown, not A-Raf and B-Raf knockdown, inhibited the maximal ERK activation induced by LIF, concomitant with the slower growth of ES cells. On the other hand, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf triple knockdown markedly inhibited both the maximal and sustained ERK activity in ES cells. Moreover, Raf triple knockdown, similar to the treatment of U-0126, an MEK inhibitor, significantly inhibited the survival and proliferation of ES cells, thereby compromising the colony propagation of mouse ES cells. In summary, our data demonstrate that all three Raf members are required for ERK activation in mouse ES cells and are involved in growth and survival of mouse ES cells. - Highlights: ●Mouse ES (mES) cells express all three Raf members, A-Raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf. ●Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) temporally activates ERKs in mES cells. ●B-Raf and C-Raf are required for LIF-induced maximal ERKs activity in mES cells. ●All Raf members are

  16. Diverse Secreted Effectors Are Required for Salmonella Persistence in a Mouse Infection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwai, Afshan S.; Mushamiri, Ivy T.; Niemann, George; Brown, Roslyn N.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Heffron, Fred

    2013-08-12

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes typhoid-like disease in mice and is a model of typhoid fever in humans. One of the hallmarks of typhoid is persistence, the ability of the bacteria to survive in the host weeks after infection. Virulence factors called effectors facilitate this process by direct transfer to the cytoplasm of infected cells thereby subverting cellular processes. Secretion of effectors to the cell cytoplasm takes place through multiple routes, including two separate type III secretion (T3SS) apparati as well as outer membrane vesicles. The two T3SS are encoded on separate pathogenicity islands, SPI-1 and -2, with SPI-1 more strongly associated with the intestinal phase of infection, and SPI-2 with the systemic phase. Both T3SS are required for persistence, but the effectors required have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, mutations in 48 described effectors were tested for persistence. We replaced each effector with a specific DNA barcode sequence by allelic exchange and co-infected with a wild-type reference to calculate the ratio of wild-type parent to mutant at different times after infection. The competitive index (CI) was determined by quantitative PCR in which primers that correspond to the barcode were used for amplification. Mutations in all but seven effectors reduced persistence demonstrating that most effectors were required. One exception was CigR, a recently discovered effector that is widely conserved throughout enteric bacteria. Deletion of cigR increased lethality, suggesting that it may be an anti-virulence factor. The fact that almost all Salmonella effectors are required for persistence argues against redundant functions. This is different from effector repertoires in other intracellular pathogens such as Legionella.

  17. Rho-associated kinase activity is required for proper morphogenesis of the inner cell mass in the mouse blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laeno, Arlene May A; Tamashiro, Dana Ann A; Alarcon, Vernadeth B

    2013-11-01

    The blastocyst consists of the outer layer of trophectoderm and pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM), the precursor of the placenta and fetus, respectively. During blastocyst expansion, the ICM adopts a compact, ovoidal shape, whose proper morphology is crucial for normal embryogenesis. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of small GTPase RHO signaling, mediates the diverse cellular processes of morphogenesis, but its role in ICM morphogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ROCK is required for cohesion of ICM cells and formation of segregated tissues called primitive endoderm (PrE) and epiblast (Epi) in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Blastocyst treatment with ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and Fasudil caused widening or spreading of the ICM, and intermingling of PrE and Epi. Widening of ICM was independent of trophectoderm because isolated ICMs as well as colonies of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) also spread upon Y-27632 treatment. PrE, Epi, and trophectoderm cell numbers were similar between control and treated blastocysts, suggesting that ROCK inhibition affected ICM morphology but not lineage differentiation. Rock1 and Rock2 knockdown via RNA interference in mESC also induced spreading, supporting the conclusion that morphological defects caused by the pharmacological inhibitors were due to ROCK inactivation. When blastocysts were transferred into surrogates, implantation efficiencies were unaffected by ROCK inhibition, but treated blastocysts yielded greater fetal loss. These results show that proper ICM morphology is dependent on ROCK activity and is crucial for fetal development. Our studies have wider implication for improving efficiencies of human assisted reproductive technologies that diminish pregnancy loss and promote successful births.

  18. Prox1 Inhibits Proliferation and Is Required for Differentiation of the Oligodendrocyte Cell Lineage in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    Full Text Available Central nervous system injury induces a regenerative response in ensheathing glial cells comprising cell proliferation, spontaneous axonal remyelination, and limited functional recovery, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In Drosophila, this involves the genes prospero and Notch controlling the balance between glial proliferation and differentiation, and manipulating their levels in glia can switch the response to injury from prevention to promotion of repair. In the mouse, Notch1 maintains NG2 oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs in a progenitor state, but what factor may enable oligodendrocyte (OL differentiation and functional remyelination is not understood. Here, we asked whether the mammalian homologue of prospero, Prox1, is involved. Our data show that Prox1 is distributed in NG2+ OPCs and in OLs in primary cultured cells, and in the mouse spinal cord in vivo. siRNA prox1 knockdown in primary OPCs increased cell proliferation, increased NG2+ OPC cell number and decreased CC1+ OL number. Prox1 conditional knockout in the OL cell lineage in mice increased NG2+ OPC cell number, and decreased CC1+ OL number. Lysolecithin-induced demyelination injury caused a reduction in CC1+ OLs in homozygous Prox1-/- conditional knockout mice compared to controls. Remarkably, Prox1-/- conditional knockout mice had smaller lesions than controls. Altogether, these data show that Prox1 is required to inhibit OPC proliferation and for OL differentiation, and could be a relevant component of the regenerative glial response. Therapeutic uses of glia and stem cells to promote regeneration and repair after central nervous system injury would benefit from manipulating Prox1.

  19. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  20. Heterochromatin Reorganization during Early Mouse Development Requires a Single-Stranded Noncoding Transcript

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Casanova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The equalization of pericentric heterochromatin from distinct parental origins following fertilization is essential for genome function and development. The recent implication of noncoding transcripts in this process raises questions regarding the connection between RNA and the nuclear organization of distinct chromatin environments. Our study addresses the interrelationship between replication and transcription of the two parental pericentric heterochromatin (PHC domains and their reorganization during early embryonic development. We demonstrate that the replication of PHC is dispensable for its clustering at the late two-cell stage. In contrast, using parthenogenetic embryos, we show that pericentric transcripts are essential for this reorganization independent of the chromatin marks associated with the PHC domains. Finally, our discovery that only reverse pericentric transcripts are required for both the nuclear reorganization of PHC and development beyond the two-cell stage challenges current views on heterochromatin organization.

  1. Territorial Behavior and Social Stability in the Mouse Require Correct Expression of Imprinted Cdkn1c

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    Gráinne I. McNamara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting, the epigenetic process by which transcription occurs from a single parental allele, is believed to influence social behaviors in mammals. An important social behavior is group living, which is enriched in Eutherian mammals relative to monotremes and marsupials. Group living facilitates resource acquisition, defense of territory and co-care of young, but requires a stable social group with complex inter-individual relationships. Co-occurring with increased group living in Eutherians is an increase in the number of imprinted loci, including that spanning the maternally expressed Cdkn1c. Using a ‘loss-of-imprinting’ model of Cdkn1c (Cdkn1cBACx1, we demonstrated that twofold over expression of Cdkn1c results in abnormal social behaviors. Although, our previous work indicated that male Cdkn1cBACx1 mice were more dominant as measured by tube test encounters with unfamiliar wild-type (WT males. Building upon this work, using more ecologically relevant assessments of social dominance, indicated that within their normal social group, Cdkn1cBACx1 mice did not occupy higher ranking positions. Nevertheless, we find that presence of Cdkn1cBACx1 animals within a group leads to instability of the normal social hierarchy, as indicated by greater variability in social rank within the group over time and an increase in territorial behavior in WT cage-mates. Consequently, these abnormal behaviors led to an increased incidence of fighting and wounding within the group. Taken together these data indicate that normal expression of Cdkn1c is required for maintaining stability of the social group and suggests that the acquisition of monoallelic expression of Cdkn1c may have enhanced social behavior in Eutherian mammals to facilitate group living.

  2. Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads.

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    Danielle M Maatouk

    Full Text Available The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells.

  3. Germ Cells Are Not Required to Establish the Female Pathway in Mouse Fetal Gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Danielle M.; Mork, Lindsey; Hinson, Ashley; Kobayashi, Akio; McMahon, Andrew P.; Capel, Blanche

    2012-01-01

    The fetal gonad is composed of a mixture of somatic cell lineages and germ cells. The fate of the gonad, male or female, is determined by a population of somatic cells that differentiate into Sertoli or granulosa cells and direct testis or ovary development. It is well established that germ cells are not required for the establishment or maintenance of Sertoli cells or testis cords in the male gonad. However, in the agametic ovary, follicles do not form suggesting that germ cells may influence granulosa cell development. Prior investigations of ovaries in which pre-meiotic germ cells were ablated during fetal life reported no histological changes during stages prior to birth. However, whether granulosa cells underwent normal molecular differentiation was not investigated. In cases where germ cell loss occurred secondary to other mutations, transdifferentiation of granulosa cells towards a Sertoli cell fate was observed, raising questions about whether germ cells play an active role in establishing or maintaining the fate of granulosa cells. We developed a group of molecular markers associated with ovarian development, and show here that the loss of pre-meiotic germ cells does not disrupt the somatic ovarian differentiation program during fetal life, or cause transdifferentiation as defined by expression of Sertoli markers. Since we do not find defects in the ovarian somatic program, the subsequent failure to form follicles at perinatal stages is likely attributable to the absence of germ cells rather than to defects in the somatic cells. PMID:23091613

  4. Pressure difference receiving ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    Directional sound receivers are useful for locating sound sources, and they can also partly compensate for the signal degradations caused by noise and reverberations. Ears may become inherently directional if sound can reach both surfaces of the eardrum. Attempts to understand the physics...... of the eardrum. The mere existence of sound transmission to the inner surface does not ensure a useful directional hearing, since a proper amplitude and phase relationship must exist between the sounds acting on the two surfaces of the eardrum. The gain of the sound pathway must match the amplitude and phase...... of the sounds at the outer surfaces of the eardrums, which are determined by diffraction and by the arrival time of the sound, that is by the size and shape of the animal and by the frequency of sound. Many users of hearing aids do not obtain a satisfactory improvement of their ability to localize sound sources...

  5. The familial dysautonomia disease gene IKBKAP is required in the developing and adult mouse central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Chaverra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSANs are a genetically and clinically diverse group of disorders defined by peripheral nervous system (PNS dysfunction. HSAN type III, known as familial dysautonomia (FD, results from a single base mutation in the gene IKBKAP that encodes a scaffolding unit (ELP1 for a multi-subunit complex known as Elongator. Since mutations in other Elongator subunits (ELP2 to ELP4 are associated with central nervous system (CNS disorders, the goal of this study was to investigate a potential requirement for Ikbkap in the CNS of mice. The sensory and autonomic pathophysiology of FD is fatal, with the majority of patients dying by age 40. While signs and pathology of FD have been noted in the CNS, the clinical and research focus has been on the sensory and autonomic dysfunction, and no genetic model studies have investigated the requirement for Ikbkap in the CNS. Here, we report, using a novel mouse line in which Ikbkap is deleted solely in the nervous system, that not only is Ikbkap widely expressed in the embryonic and adult CNS, but its deletion perturbs both the development of cortical neurons and their survival in adulthood. Primary cilia in embryonic cortical apical progenitors and motile cilia in adult ependymal cells are reduced in number and disorganized. Furthermore, we report that, in the adult CNS, both autonomic and non-autonomic neuronal populations require Ikbkap for survival, including spinal motor and cortical neurons. In addition, the mice developed kyphoscoliosis, an FD hallmark, indicating its neuropathic etiology. Ultimately, these perturbations manifest in a developmental and progressive neurodegenerative condition that includes impairments in learning and memory. Collectively, these data reveal an essential function for Ikbkap that extends beyond the peripheral nervous system to CNS development and function. With the identification of discrete CNS cell types and structures that depend on

  6. The Wnt receptor, Lrp5, is expressed by mouse mammary stem cells and is required to maintain the basal lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha M Badders

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic Wnt signaling induces increased stem/progenitor cell activity in the mouse mammary gland, followed by tumor development. The Wnt signaling receptors, Lrp5/6, are uniquely required for canonical Wnt activity. Previous data has shown that the absence of Lrp5 confers resistance to Wnt1-induced tumor development.Here, we show that all basal mammary cells express Lrp5, and co-express Lrp6 in a similar fashion. Though Wnt dependent transcription of key target genes is relatively unchanged in mammary epithelial cell cultures, the absence of Lrp5 specifically depletes adult regenerative stem cell activity (to less than 1%. Stem cell activity can be enriched by >200 fold (over 80% of activity, based on high Lrp5 expression alone. Though Lrp5 null glands have apparent normal function, the basal lineage is relatively reduced (from 42% basal/total epithelial cells to 22% and Lrp5-/- mammary epithelial cells show enhanced expression of senescence-associated markers in vitro, as measured by expression of p16(Ink4a and TA-p63.This is the first single biomarker that has been demonstrated to be functionally involved in stem cell maintenance. Together, these results demonstrate that Wnt signaling through Lrp5 is an important component of normal mammary stem cell function.

  7. Yap1 is dispensable for self-renewal but required for proper differentiation of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, HaeWon; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Uprety, Nadima; Shen, Wenwen; Lee, Jiwoon; Kim, Jonghwan

    2016-04-01

    Yap1 is a transcriptional co-activator of the Hippo pathway. The importance of Yap1 in early cell fate decision during embryogenesis has been well established, though its role in embryonic stem (ES) cells remains elusive. Here, we report that Yap1 plays crucial roles in normal differentiation rather than self-renewal of ES cells. Yap1-depleted ES cells maintain undifferentiated state with a typical colony morphology as well as robust alkaline phosphatase activity. These cells also retain comparable levels of the core pluripotent factors, such as Pou5f1 and Sox2, to the levels in wild-type ES cells without significant alteration of lineage-specific marker genes. Conversely, overexpression of Yap1 in ES cells promotes nuclear translocation of Yap1, resulting in disruption of self-renewal and triggering differentiation by up-regulating lineage-specific genes. Moreover, Yap1-deficient ES cells show impaired induction of lineage markers during differentiation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Yap1 is a required factor for proper differentiation of mouse ES cells, while remaining dispensable for self-renewal. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Human ear recognition by computer

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu, Bir; Chen, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Biometrics deals with recognition of individuals based on their physiological or behavioral characteristics. The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. Unlike the fingerprint and iris, it can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject, although sometimes it may be hidden with hair, scarf and jewellery. Also, unlike a face, the ear is a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. ""Human Ear Recognition by Computer"" is the first book o

  9. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E Michael; Cohen, Herman Avner; Kahan, Ernesto

    2003-05-01

    . As it was widely reported in the medical literature, these herb, these herbal extracts have the potential to meet all of the requirements of appropriate medication that could be routinely used in the pediatric patient, namely in vitro bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal activity against common pathogens, immunostimulation ability, antioxidant activity, and anti-inflammatory effects. They are also well-absorbed with good penetration into the tissue surrounding the tympanic membrane. They have been found to enhance local immunologic activity. Finally, herbal extracts are well-tolerated (owing to their long elimination time), easy to administer, and less expensive than the new antibiotics. There are no documented side effects. On the basis of our findings that the group with the most significant treatment effects (NHED with topical anesthetic) explained only 7.3% of the total pain reduction, we propose that sometimes the general practitioner or pediatrician needs to give the human body a chance to repair itself. Nevertheless, if the physician believes that there is an indication for some treatment, especially if the parents are anxious, then a local treatment such as one used in our study might be adequate. This study suggests that in cases of ear pain caused by AOM in children in which active treatment, besides a simple 2- to 3-day waiting period, is needed, an herbal extract solution may be beneficial. Concomitant antibiotic treatment is apparently not contributory.

  10. Congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Omenzetter, M.; Bartel-Friedrich, S.

    2009-01-01

    With the focus on imaging, this paper gives a summarized view of the present knowledge on fields, which are necessary to know for a profound understanding of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear. Typical and less typical combinations of malformed parts of the ear can be derived from the embryogenesis. Clinical signs and audiometric findings lead to diagnosis in congenital aural atresia. Isolated middle ear malformations can be clinically mixed up especially with otosclerosis and tympanosclerosis. Imaging is needed for exact morphological information. In malformations of the external and middle ear, CT is the imaging modality of choice. Requirements on CT-technique as well as radiological findings including classification and pre-surgical rating are described. Morphological CT-correlates of congenital malformations and their differential diagnoses are enlisted and illustrated. The impact of CT-results on therapy is explained and actual therapeutic concepts are briefly presented

  11. [Reconstruction of the ear in the burns patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Jiménez Murat, Yusef; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando; Bracho-Olvera, Hazel; Carrillo Esper, Raúl

    Face burns are a singular pathology with great functional and psychological impact in the patients suffering them. The ears play a fundamental role in personal interactions and damage to this organ results in physical and emotional distress. The reconstructive treatment of the burned ear is a challenge. Multiple procedures have been described to achieve success in the reconstruction of the burned ear; immediate reconstruction with autologous rib cartilage, secondary reconstruction, alloplastic material reconstruction, tissue expansion, skin grafts and also microvascular flaps are some of the most common procedures used in this patients. All these techniques focus on giving a natural appearance to the patient. Burns to the ears affect 30% of the patients with facial burns, they require an excellent treatment given by a multidisciplinary team. Copyright © 2017 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  12. Omcg1 is critically required for mitosis in rapidly dividing mouse intestinal progenitors and embryonic stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Léguillier, Teddy; Vandormael-Pournin, Sandrine; Artus, Jérôme; Houlard, Martin; Picard, Christel; Bernex, Florence; Robine, Sylvie; Cohen-Tannoudji, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have shown that factors involved in transcription-coupled mRNA processing are important for the maintenance of genome integrity. How these processes are linked and regulated in vivo remains largely unknown. In this study, we addressed in the mouse model the function of Omcg1, which has been shown to participate in co-transcriptional processes, including splicing and transcription-coupled repair. Using inducible mouse models, we found that Omcg1 is most critically req...

  13. Global Ear. Werke 2001 - 2006

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Dresdenis muusikafestivalil "Global Ear" 23.3.03 esitusel Eesti heliloojate muusika: Helena Tulve "lumineux/opaque", Jaan Rääts "Meditation", Mirjam Tally "Aura", Mati Kuulberg "Sonate Nr.4", Mari Vihmand "Seitsmele"

  14. COMMON INFECTIONS OF THE EAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    tion of the skin covering the tympanic membrane and deep exter- nal canal, and the production of ... of combination steroid/antifungal/antibiotic ointment (e.g.. Kenacomb) with a cotton bud ..... protection to the delicate middle ear structures.

  15. Genome-wide screen for salmonella genes required for long-term systemic infection of the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A microarray-based negative selection screen was performed to identify Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (serovar Typhimurium genes that contribute to long-term systemic infection in 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1(r mice. A high-complexity transposon-mutagenized library was used to infect mice intraperitoneally, and the selective disappearance of mutants was monitored after 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postinfection. One hundred and eighteen genes were identified to contribute to serovar Typhimurium infection of the spleens of mice by 28 d postinfection. The negatively selected mutants represent many known aspects of Salmonella physiology and pathogenesis, although the majority of the identified genes are of putative or unknown function. Approximately 30% of the negatively selected genes correspond to horizontally acquired regions such as those within Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI 1-5, prophages (Gifsy-1 and -2 and remnant, and the pSLT virulence plasmid. In addition, mutations in genes responsible for outer membrane structure and remodeling, such as LPS- and PhoP-regulated and fimbrial genes, were also selected against. Competitive index experiments demonstrated that the secreted SPI2 effectors SseK2 and SseJ as well as the SPI4 locus are attenuated relative to wild-type bacteria during systemic infection. Interestingly, several SPI1-encoded type III secretion system effectors/translocases are required by serovar Typhimurium to establish and, unexpectedly, to persist systemically, challenging the present description of Salmonella pathogenesis. Moreover, we observed a progressive selection against serovar Typhimurium mutants based upon the duration of the infection, suggesting that different classes of genes may be required at distinct stages of infection. Overall, these data indicate that Salmonella long-term systemic infection in the mouse requires a diverse repertoire of virulence factors. This diversity of genes presumably reflects the fact that

  16. Macroscopic description of the external and middle ear of paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro L. Martins

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Paca (Cuniculus paca, one of the largest rodents of the Brazilian fauna, has inherent characteristics of its species which can conribute as a new option for animal experimantation. As there is a growing demand for suitable experimental models in audiologic and otologic surgical research, the gross anatomy and ultrastructural ear of this rodent have been analyzed and described in detail. Fifteen adult pacas from the Wild Animals Sector herd of Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp-Jaboticabal, were used in this study. After anesthesia and euthanasia, we evaluated the entire composition of the external ear, registering and ddescribing the details; the temporal region was often dissected for a better view and detailing of the tympanic bulla which was removed and opened to expose the ear structures analyzed mascroscopically and ultrastructurally. The ear pinna has a triangular and concave shape with irregular ridges and sharp apex. The external auditory canal is winding in its path to the tympanic mebrane. The tympanic bulla is is on the back-bottom of the skull. The middle ear is formed by a cavity region filled with bone and membranous structures bounded by the tympanic membrane and the oval and round windows. The tympanic membrane is flat and seals the ear canal. The anatomy of the paca ear is similar to the guinea pig and from the viewpoint of experimental model has major advantages compared with the mouse ear.

  17. In vivo functional requirement of the mouse Ifitm1 gene for germ cell development, interferon mediated immune response and somitogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Klymiuk

    Full Text Available The mammalian Interferon induced transmembrane protein 1 (Ifitm1 gene was originally identified as a member of a gene family highly inducible by type I and type II interferons. Based on expression analyses, it was suggested to be required for normal primordial germ cell migration. The knockdown of Ifitm1 in mouse embryos provided evidence for a role in somitogenesis. We generated the first targeted knockin allele of the Ifitm1 gene to systematically reassess all inferred functions. Sperm motility and the fertility of male and female mutant mice are as in wild type littermates. Embryonic somites and the adult vertebral column appear normal in homozygous Ifitm1 knockout mice, demonstrating that Ifitm1 is not essential for normal segmentation of the paraxial mesoderm. Proportions of leucocyte subsets, including granulocytes, monocytes, B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, and NKT-cells, are unchanged in mutant mice. Based on a normal immune response to Listeria monocytogenes infection, there is no evidence for a dysfunction in downstream IFNγ signaling in Ifitm1 mutant mice. Expression from the Ifitm1 locus from E8.5 to E14.5 is highly dynamic. In contrast, in adult mice, Ifitm1 expression is highly restricted and strong in the bronchial epithelium. Intriguingly, IFITM1 is highly overexpressed in tumor epithelia cells of human squamous cell carcinomas and in adenocarcinomas of NSCLC patients. These analyses underline the general importance of targeted in vivo studies for the functional annotation of the mammalian genome. The first comprehensive description of the Ifitm1 expression pattern provides a rational basis for the further examination of Ifitm1 gene functions. Based on our data, the fact that IFITM1 can function as a negative regulator of cell proliferation, and because the gene maps to chromosome band 11p15.5, previously associated with NSCLC, it is likely that IFITM1 in man has a key role in tumor formation.

  18. Analysis of an ordered, comprehensive STM mutant library in infectious Borrelia burgdorferi: insights into the genes required for mouse infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    Full Text Available The identification of genes important in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease Borrelia has been hampered by exceedingly low transformation rates in low-passage, infectious organisms. Using the infectious, moderately transformable B. burgdorferi derivative 5A18NP1 and signature-tagged versions of the Himar1 transposon vector pGKT, we have constructed a defined transposon library for the efficient genome-wide investigation of genes required for wild-type pathogenesis, in vitro growth, physiology, morphology, and plasmid replication. To facilitate analysis, the insertion sites of 4,479 transposon mutants were determined by sequencing. The transposon insertions were widely distributed across the entire B. burgdorferi genome, with an average of 2.68 unique insertion sites per kb DNA. The 10 linear plasmids and 9 circular plasmids had insertions in 33 to 100 percent of their predicted genes. In contrast, only 35% of genes in the 910 kb linear chromosome had incapacitating insertions; therefore, the remaining 601 chromosomal genes may represent essential gene candidates. In initial signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM analyses, 434 mutants were examined at multiple tissue sites for infectivity in mice using a semi-quantitative, Luminex-based DNA detection method. Examples of genes found to be important in mouse infectivity included those involved in motility, chemotaxis, the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system, and other transporters, as well as putative plasmid maintenance genes. Availability of this ordered STM library and a high-throughput screening method is expected to lead to efficient assessment of the roles of B. burgdorferi genes in the infectious cycle and pathogenesis of Lyme disease.

  19. Pressure equilibration in the penguin middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadé, Jacob; Handrich, Yves; Bernheim, Joelle; Cohen, David

    2008-01-01

    King penguins have a venous structure in the form of a corpus cavernosum (CC) in their middle ear (ME) submucosa. The CC may be viewed as a special organelle that can change ME volume for pressure equilibration during deep-sea diving it is a pressure regulating organelle (PRO). A similar CC and muscles also surround the external ear (EE) and may constrict it, isolating the tympanic membrane from the outside. A CC was previously found also in the ME of marine diving mammals and can be expected to exist in other deep diving animals, such as marine turtles. Marine animals require equalization of middle ear (ME) pressure when diving hundreds or thousands of meters to catch prey. We investigated what mechanism enables king penguins to protect their ME when they dive to great depths. Biopsies and serial sections of the ME and the EE of the deep diving king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) were examined microscopically. It was demonstrated that the penguin ME has an extensive network of small and large submucosal venous sinuses. This venous formation, a corpus cavernosum, can expand and potentially 'flood' the ME almost completely on diving, thus elevating ME pressure and reducing the ME space. The EE has a similar protective mechanism.

  20. Supervivencia adulta y dinámica poblacional del lauchón orejudo Phyllotis darwini en Chile central Adult survival and population dynamics in the leaf-eared mouse Phyllotis darwini in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Crespin

    2006-09-01

    with a short generation time, adult survival should not be of such importance. Nonetheless, Yoccoz et al. (1998, Research Population Ecology 40: 107-121 hypothetized that, in small rodents, adult survival should be the demographic parameter driving the population growth rate if one considered a time scale of one month (instead of one year. As far as we know, this hypothesis has not yet been tested with empirical data. To test this hypothesis, we used five years of capture-mark-recapture data to estimate maturation and survival of a rodent, the leaf-eared mice, Phyllotis darwini, in a population of central Chile. This analysis revealed that the probabilities of survival decreased with the average rainfall by year and that the probabilities of maturation decreased with the abundance of the population. Using the probabilities of survival and maturation, we built up a seasonal matrix model and use perturbation analysis (elasticity to be able to actually measure the relative importance of each demographic parameter to the population growth rate. Environmental seasonality was incorporated in the model by using a rainfall season, of five months long, and a dry season. Adult survival was indeed the demographic parameter with the highest elasticity. Such a result plainly supported thus the hypothesis of Yoccoz et al. (1998

  1. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  3. Ear Disorders in Scuba Divers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Azizi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available History of underwater diving dates back to antiquity. Breath-hold technique in diving was known to the ancient nations. However, deep diving progressed only in the early decades of the 19th century as the result of advancements in efficient underwater technologies which subsequently led to invention of sophisticated sets of scuba diving in the 20th century. Currently, diving is performed for various purposes including commercial, recreational, military, underwater construction, oil industry, underwater archeology and scientific assessment of marine life. By increasing popularity of underwater diving, dive-related medical conditions gradually became more evident and created a new challenge for the health care professionals, so that eventually, a specialty the so-called “diving medicine” was established. Most of the diving-associated disorders appear in the head and neck. The most common of all occupational disorders associated with diving are otologic diseases. External otitis has been reported as the most common otolaryngologic problem in underwater divers. Exostosis of the external ear canal may be formed in divers as the result of prolonged diving in cold waters. Other disorders of the ear and paranasal sinuses in underwater divers are caused by barometric pressure change (i.e., barotraumas, and to a lesser extent by decompression sickness. Barotrauma of the middle ear is the most prevalent barotrauma in divers. The inner ear barotraumas, though important, is less common. The present paper is a brief overview of diving-related ear disorders particularly in scuba divers.

  4. Astrocyte glycogen metabolism is required for neural activity during aglycemia or intense stimulation in mouse white matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Angus M; Sickmann, Helle M; Fosgerau, Keld

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that inhibiting glycogen degradation accelerates compound action potential (CAP) failure in mouse optic nerve (MON) during aglycemia or high-intensity stimulation. Axon function was assessed as the evoked CAP, and glycogen content was measured biochemically. Isofagomine, ...

  5. Bidirectional GPR119 agonism requires peptide YY and glucose for activity in mouse and human colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tough, Iain R; Forbes, Sarah; Herzog, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    motility in wild-type (WT), GPR119-/- and PYY-/- mice.The water-soluble GPR119 agonist, AR440006 (that cannot traverse epithelial tight-junctions) elicited responses when added apically or basolaterally in mouse and human colonic mucosas. In both species, GPR119 responses were PYY, Y1 receptor...

  6. Activation of GSK3β by Sirt2 is required for early lineage commitment of mouse embryonic stem cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxing Si

    Full Text Available Sirt2, a member of the NAD(+-dependent protein deacetylase family, is increasingly recognized as a critical regulator of the cell cycle, cellular necrosis and cytoskeleton organization. However, its role in embryonic stem cells (ESCs remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Sirt2 is up-regulated during RA (retinoic acid-induced and embryoid body (EB differentiation of mouse ESCs. Using lentivirus-mediated shRNA methods, we found that knockdown of Sirt2 compromises the differentiation of mouse ESCs into ectoderm while promoting mesoderm and endoderm differentiation. Knockdown of Sirt2 expression also leads to the activation of GSK3β through decreased phosphorylation of the serine at position 9 (Ser9 but not tyrosine at position 216 (Tyr216. Moreover, the constitutive activation of GSK3β during EB differentiation mimics the effect of Sirt2 knockdown, while down-regulation of GSK3β rescues the effect of Sirt2 knockdown on differentiation. In contrast to the effect on lineage differentiation, Sirt2 knockdown and GSK3β up-regulation do not change the self-renewal state of mouse ESCs. Overall, our report reveals a new function for Sirt2 in regulating the proper lineage commitment of mouse ESCs.

  7. Development of a morphing technique for predicting the position and size of an artificial ear in hemifacial microsomia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Trevor J; Richards, Robin; Scott, Brendan J J

    2014-01-01

    People with hemifacial microsomia may be missing an ear on the affected side of the face. The principal aim of the study was to develop a morphing technique and to determine whether it could be used to appropriately position an artificial ear, as well as to give an indication of prosthesis size in comparison with the natural ear. Comparisons also were made between the artificial ears being worn by the patients with their natural ears. Data from stereophotogrammetry images of the faces of 10 people were converted into stereolithographic format. Anthropometric points on the face and ear of the unaffected side were plotted. By a process of scaling, the distance between facial landmarks on the unaffected side was estimated for the affected side so as to identify where the morphed ear would be positioned once generated. Generally, the morphed ears appeared to be in acceptable positions. There was a statistically significant difference between the position of the morphed and natural ears (P = .011), as well as the artificial and natural ears (P = .001), but this was unlikely to have any clinical implications. There were no significant differences among the sizes of the natural, morphed, and artificial ears (P = .072). Morphing appears to offer a more precise way of planning the positioning and construction of an artificial ear on patients with hemifacial microsomia than traditional methods. Differences in facial shape on either side of the face may impact on the process. This requires further study.

  8. In-the-Ear Hearing-Instrument Antenna for ISM-Band Body-Centric Ear-to-Ear Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yatman, William H.; Larsen, Lauge K; Kvist, Søren Helstrup

    2012-01-01

    A compact 2.45 GHz slot-loop antenna is implemented for the use in the outer shell of an in-the-ear (ITE) hearing instrument (HI). The antenna is optimized for high ear-to-ear path gain (jS21j). The antenna simulation results are presented for two identical antennas, one placed in the center of e...

  9. Digital Active Noise Reduction Ear Plugs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harley, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    .... In contrast to available ANR headsets that implement fixed analog filters, the prototype defines a digital filter that is optimally defined for the user's current acoustical environment. An above-the-ear (ATE) and an in-the-ear (ITE...

  10. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otitis media is an inflammation or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs when there is ... which causes production of fluid or pus. Chronic otitis media occurs when the eustachian tube becomes blocked ...

  11. External ear: An analysis of its uniqueness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruma Purkait

    2016-06-01

    Hence, the individuality of every ear has been confirmed which may find use in personal identification studies. The study is a step towards providing scientific support for admitting ear evidence in the Court of Law.

  12. Proteomics and the Inner Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isolde Thalmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.

  13. Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Loud Music Hurt My Ears? Print en español La música ... up? Oh! You want to know if loud music can hurt your ears . Are you asking because ...

  14. Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejie Chen

    Full Text Available Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß. Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis.

  15. C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are required for Sebocyte differentiation and stratified squamous differentiation in adult mouse skin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S House

    Full Text Available C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are bZIP transcription factors that are highly expressed in the interfollicular epidermis and sebaceous glands of skin and yet germ line deletion of either family member alone has only mild or no effect on keratinocyte biology and their role in sebocyte biology has never been examined. To address possible functional redundancies and reveal functional roles of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal skin, mouse models were developed in which either family member could be acutely ablated alone or together in the epidermis and sebaceous glands of adult mice. Acute removal of either C/EBPalpha or C/EBPbeta alone in adult mouse skin revealed modest to no discernable changes in epidermis or sebaceous glands. In contrast, co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in postnatal epidermis resulted in disruption of stratified squamous differentiation characterized by hyperproliferation of basal and suprabasal keratinocytes and a defective basal to spinous keratinocyte transition involving an expanded basal compartment and a diminished and delayed spinous compartment. Acute co-ablation of C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta in sebaceous glands resulted in severe morphological defects, and sebocyte differentiation was blocked as determined by lack of sebum production and reduced expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD3 and melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5R, two markers of terminal sebocyte differentiation. Specialized sebocytes of Meibomian glands and preputial glands were also affected. Our results indicate that in adult mouse skin, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are critically involved in regulating sebocyte differentiation and epidermal homeostasis involving the basal to spinous keratinocyte transition and basal cell cycle withdrawal.

  16. Statistical shape model with random walks for inner ear segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pujadas, Esmeralda Ruiz; Kjer, Hans Martin; Piella, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    is required. We propose a new framework for segmentation of micro-CT cochlear images using random walks combined with a statistical shape model (SSM). The SSM allows us to constrain the less contrasted areas and ensures valid inner ear shape outputs. Additionally, a topology preservation method is proposed...

  17. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman

    2012-09-01

    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  18. Distinct populations of GABAergic neurons in mouse rhombomere 1 express but do not require the homeodomain transcription factor PITX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mindy R; Skaggs, Kaia; Kaviany, Parisa; Skidmore, Jennifer M; Causeret, Frédéric; Martin, James F; Martin, Donna M

    2012-01-01

    Hindbrain rhombomere 1 (r1) is located caudal to the isthmus, a critical organizer region, and rostral to rhombomere 2 in the developing mouse brain. Dorsal r1 gives rise to the cerebellum, locus coeruleus, and several brainstem nuclei, whereas cells from ventral r1 contribute to the trochlear and trigeminal nuclei as well as serotonergic and GABAergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Recent studies have identified several molecular events controlling dorsal r1 development. In contrast, very little is known about ventral r1 gene expression and the genetic mechanisms regulating its formation. Neurons with distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes have been identified in ventral r1 including GABAergic, serotonergic, and cholinergic neurons. Here we show that PITX2 marks a distinct population of GABAergic neurons in mouse embryonic ventral r1. This population appears to retain its GABAergic identity even in the absence of PITX2. We provide a comprehensive map of markers that places these PITX2-positive GABAergic neurons in a region of r1 that intersects and is potentially in communication with the dorsal raphe. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A miniaturized laser-Doppler-system in the ear canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T.; Gerhardt, U.; Kupper, C.; Manske, E.; Witte, H.

    2013-03-01

    Gathering vibrational data from the human middle ear is quite difficult. To this date the well-known acoustic probe is used to estimate audiometric parameters, e.g. otoacoustic emissions, wideband reflectance and the measurement of the stapedius reflex. An acoustic probe contains at least one microphone and one loudspeaker. The acoustic parameter determination of the ear canal is essential for the comparability of test-retest measurement situations. Compared to acoustic tubes, the ear canal wall cannot be described as a sound hard boundary. Sound energy is partly absorbed by the ear canal wall. In addition the ear canal features a complex geometric shape (Stinson and Lawton1). Those conditions are one reason for the inter individual variability in input impedance measurement data of the tympanic membrane. The method of Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry is well described in literature. Using this method, the surface velocity of vibrating bodies can be determined contact-free. Conventional Laser-Doppler-Systems (LDS) for auditory research are mounted on a surgical microscope. Assuming a free line of view to the ear drum, the handling of those laser-systems is complicated. We introduce the concept of a miniaturized vibrometer which is supposed to be applied directly in the ear canal for contact-free measurement of the tympanic membrane surface vibration. The proposed interferometer is based on a Fabry-Perot etalon with a DFB laser diode as light source. The fiber-based Fabry-Perot-interferometer is characterized by a reduced size, compared to e.g. Michelson-, or Mach-Zehnder-Systems. For the determination of the phase difference in the interferometer, a phase generated carrier was used. To fit the sensor head in the ear canal, the required shape of the probe was generated by means of the geometrical data of 70 ear molds. The suggested prototype is built up by a singlemode optical fiber with a GRIN-lens, acting as a fiber collimator. The probe has a diameter of 1.8 mm and a

  20. Human ear detection in the thermal infrared spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Ayman; Bourlai, Thirimachos

    2012-06-01

    In this paper the problem of human ear detection in the thermal infrared (IR) spectrum is studied in order to illustrate the advantages and limitations of the most important steps of ear-based biometrics that can operate in day and night time environments. The main contributions of this work are two-fold: First, a dual-band database is assembled that consists of visible and thermal profile face images. The thermal data was collected using a high definition middle-wave infrared (3-5 microns) camera that is capable of acquiring thermal imprints of human skin. Second, a fully automated, thermal imaging based ear detection method is developed for real-time segmentation of human ears in either day or night time environments. The proposed method is based on Haar features forming a cascaded AdaBoost classifier (our modified version of the original Viola-Jones approach1 that was designed to be applied mainly in visible band images). The main advantage of the proposed method, applied on our profile face image data set collected in the thermal-band, is that it is designed to reduce the learning time required by the original Viola-Jones method from several weeks to several hours. Unlike other approaches reported in the literature, which have been tested but not designed to operate in the thermal band, our method yields a high detection accuracy that reaches ~ 91.5%. Further analysis on our data set yielded that: (a) photometric normalization techniques do not directly improve ear detection performance. However, when using a certain photometric normalization technique (CLAHE) on falsely detected images, the detection rate improved by ~ 4%; (b) the high detection accuracy of our method did not degrade when we lowered down the original spatial resolution of thermal ear images. For example, even after using one third of the original spatial resolution (i.e. ~ 20% of the original computational time) of the thermal profile face images, the high ear detection accuracy of our method

  1. Imaging of the inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, J.W.; Bensimon, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    New computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) techniques allow more detailed anatomic studies of the inner ear. CT is still the best technique to study patients with fractures, congenital malformations and otodystrophies involving the inner ear. During recent years MR imaging has emerged as an excellent method to detect pathology in the internal auditory canal, membranous labyrinth and bony labyrinth and to characterize petrous apex lesions. MR has even proved its value in patients with fractures and congenital malformations making the diagnosis of, for instance, labyrinthine concussion and absence of the vestibulocochlear nerve possible. The diagnosis of acute/chronic labyrinthitis and intralabyrinthine tumors has also became possible. However, MR and CT are often complementary, as is the case in patients with mixed hearing loss, congenital malformations and petrous apex lesions. (orig.) [de

  2. Enhanced visualization of inner ear structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Kazimierz; Kucharski, Tomasz; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2004-07-01

    Recently surgery requires extensive support from imaging technologies in order to increase effectiveness and safety of operations. One of important tasks is to enhance visualisation of quasi-phase (transparent) 3d structures. Those structures are characterized by very low contrast. It makes differentiation of tissues in field of view very difficult. For that reason the surgeon may be extremly uncertain during operation. This problem is connected with supporting operations of inner ear during which physician has to perform cuts at specific places of quasi-transparent velums. Conventionally during such operations medical doctor views the operating field through stereoscopic microscope. In the paper we propose a 3D visualisation system based on Helmet Mounted Display. Two CCD cameras placed at the output of microscope perform acquisition of stereo pairs of images. The images are processed in real-time with the goal of enhancement of quasi-phased structures. The main task is to create algorithm that is not sensitive to changes in intensity distribution. The disadvantages of existing algorithms is their lack of adaptation to occuring reflexes and shadows in field of view. The processed images from both left and right channels are overlaid on the actual images exported and displayed at LCD's of Helmet Mounted Display. A physician observes by HMD (Helmet Mounted Display) a stereoscopic operating scene with indication of the places of special interest. The authors present the hardware ,procedures applied and initial results of inner ear structure visualisation. Several problems connected with processing of stereo-pair images are discussed.

  3. SPDEF is required for mouse pulmonary goblet cell differentiation and regulates a network of genes associated with mucus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Korfhagen, Thomas R; Xu, Yan; Kitzmiller, Joseph; Wert, Susan E; Maeda, Yutaka; Gregorieff, Alexander; Clevers, Hans; Whitsett, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Various acute and chronic inflammatory stimuli increase the number and activity of pulmonary mucus-producing goblet cells, and goblet cell hyperplasia and excess mucus production are central to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases. However, little is known about the transcriptional programs that regulate goblet cell differentiation. Here, we show that SAM-pointed domain-containing Ets-like factor (SPDEF) controls a transcriptional program critical for pulmonary goblet cell differentiation in mice. Initial cell-lineage-tracing analysis identified nonciliated secretory epithelial cells, known as Clara cells, as the progenitors of goblet cells induced by pulmonary allergen exposure in vivo. Furthermore, in vivo expression of SPDEF in Clara cells caused rapid and reversible goblet cell differentiation in the absence of cell proliferation. This was associated with enhanced expression of genes regulating goblet cell differentiation and protein glycosylation, including forkhead box A3 (Foxa3), anterior gradient 2 (Agr2), and glucosaminyl (N-acetyl) transferase 3, mucin type (Gcnt3). Consistent with these findings, levels of SPDEF and FOXA3 were increased in mouse goblet cells after sensitization with pulmonary allergen, and the proteins were colocalized in goblet cells lining the airways of patients with chronic lung diseases. Deletion of the mouse Spdef gene resulted in the absence of goblet cells in tracheal/laryngeal submucosal glands and in the conducting airway epithelium after pulmonary allergen exposure in vivo. These data show that SPDEF plays a critical role in regulating a transcriptional network mediating the goblet cell differentiation and mucus hyperproduction associated with chronic pulmonary disorders.

  4. The candidate splicing factor Sfswap regulates growth and patterning of inner ear sensory organs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalda Moayedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is thought to regulate multiple stages of inner ear development. Mutations in the Notch signaling pathway cause disruptions in the number and arrangement of hair cells and supporting cells in sensory regions of the ear. In this study we identify an insertional mutation in the mouse Sfswap gene, a putative splicing factor, that results in mice with vestibular and cochlear defects that are consistent with disrupted Notch signaling. Homozygous Sfswap mutants display hyperactivity and circling behavior consistent with vestibular defects, and significantly impaired hearing. The cochlea of newborn Sfswap mutant mice shows a significant reduction in outer hair cells and supporting cells and ectopic inner hair cells. This phenotype most closely resembles that seen in hypomorphic alleles of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (Jag1. We show that Jag1; Sfswap compound mutants have inner ear defects that are more severe than expected from simple additive effects of the single mutants, indicating a genetic interaction between Sfswap and Jag1. In addition, expression of genes involved in Notch signaling in the inner ear are reduced in Sfswap mutants. There is increased interest in how splicing affects inner ear development and function. Our work is one of the first studies to suggest that a putative splicing factor has specific effects on Notch signaling pathway members and inner ear development.

  5. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  6. Recovery time for inflamed middle ear mucosa in chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakır, Onur; Dinç, Aykut Erdem; Damar, Murat; Akyıldız, İlker; Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Erdem, Duygu

    2016-01-01

    The present study shows that 2-3 weeks after medical treatment the status of middle ear mucosa in draining ears is similar to that of dry ears for at least 3 months. To measure the time required for an inflamed middle ear mucosa to return into optimal state after appropriate medical treatment in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). To assess optimal timing for elective surgical treatment of draining ears in uncomplicated CSOM. In this prospective study, the Eustachian tube (ET) mucociliary clearance time (MCT) was used as the method to demonstrate the status of middle ear mucosa. In group 1 (28 patients) ET-MCT was measured in ears that were free of drainage for at least 3 months. In Group 2 (21 patients), ET-MCT was measured in draining ears, who responded to 10-14 days medical treatment, at presentation, after 10 days and 1 month. The ET-MCT was 8.63 ± 1.32 min in group 1 and 28.96 ± 8.19 min in group 2 at presentation; and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). The ET-MCT was 14.76 ± 5.11 min after 10 days and 9.31 ± 2.33 min after 1 month in group 2. The ET-MCT was indifferent between groups 1 and 2 after 1 month (p = 0.235).

  7. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  8. An Effective 3D Ear Acquisition System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahui Liu

    Full Text Available The human ear is a new feature in biometrics that has several merits over the more common face, fingerprint and iris biometrics. It can be easily captured from a distance without a fully cooperative subject. Also, the ear has a relatively stable structure that does not change much with the age and facial expressions. In this paper, we present a novel method of 3D ear acquisition system by using triangulation imaging principle, and the experiment results show that this design is efficient and can be used for ear recognition.

  9. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1(f/f) and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1(f/f) mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1(f/f) mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-catenin(f/f) mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sim1 is required for the migration and axonal projections of V3 interneurons in the developing mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklaws, Jake; Deska-Gauthier, Dylan; Jones, Christopher T; Petracca, Yanina L; Liu, Mingwei; Zhang, Han; Fawcett, James P; Glover, Joel C; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    V3 spinal interneurons (INs) are a group of excitatory INs that play a crucial role in producing balanced and stable gaits in vertebrate animals. In the developing mouse spinal cord, V3 INs arise from the most ventral progenitor domain and form anatomically distinctive subpopulations in adult spinal cords. They are marked by the expression of transcription factor Sim1 postmitotically, but the function of Sim1 in V3 development remains unknown. Here, we used Sim1(Cre) ;tdTomato mice to trace the fate of V3 INs in a Sim1 mutant versus control genetic background during development. In Sim1 mutants, V3 INs are produced normally and maintain a similar position and organization as in wild types before E12.5. Further temporal analysis revealed that the V3 INs in the mutants failed to migrate properly to form V3 subgroups along the dorsoventral axis of the spinal cord. At birth, in the Sim1 mutant the number of V3 INs in the ventral subgroup was normal, but they were significantly reduced in the dorsal subgroup with a concomitant increase in the intermediate subgroup. Retrograde labeling at lumbar level revealed that loss of Sim1 led to a reduction in extension of contralateral axon projections both at E14.5 and P0 without affecting ipsilateral axon projections. These results demonstrate that Sim1 is essential for proper migration and the guidance of commissural axons of the spinal V3 INs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Platelets are required for enhanced activation of the endothelium and fibrinogen in a mouse thrombosis model of APS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulle, Valerie; Furie, Richard A; Merrill-Skoloff, Glenn; Furie, Barbara C; Furie, Bruce

    2014-07-24

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is defined by thrombosis, fetal loss, and the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies, including anti-β2-glycoprotein-1 autoantibodies (anti-β2GP1) that have a direct role in the pathogenesis of thrombosis in vivo. The cellular targets of the anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex in vivo were studied using a laser-induced thrombosis model of APS in a live mouse and human anti-β2GP1 autoantibodies affinity-purified from APS patients. Cell binding of fluorescently labeled β2GP1 and anti-β2GP1 autoantibodies revealed their colocalization on the platelet thrombus but not the endothelium. Anti-β2GP1 autoantibodies enhanced platelet activation, monitored by calcium mobilization, and endothelial activation, monitored by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression. When eptifibatide was infused to block platelet thrombus formation, enhanced fibrin generation and endothelial cell activation were eliminated. Thus, the anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex binds to the thrombus, enhancing platelet activation, and platelet secretion leads to enhanced endothelium activation and fibrin generation. These results lead to a paradigm shift away from the concept that binding of the anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex activates both endothelial cells and platelets toward one in which activation of platelets in response to anti-β2GP1 autoantibody/β2GP1 complex binding leads to subsequent enhanced endothelium activation and fibrin generation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  12. A late requirement for Wnt and FGF signalling during activin-induced formation of foregut endoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Mattias; Petersen, Dorthe Rønn; Peterslund, Janny M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here we examine how BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling modulate activin-induced mesendodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells grown under defined conditions in adherent monoculture. We monitor ES cells containing reporter genes for markers of primitive streak (PS) and its progeny and extend previous...... is found at the lowest activin concentration. The expression of Gsc and other anterior markers induced by activin is prevented by treatment with BMP4, which induces T expression and subsequent mesodermal development. We show that canonical Wnt signaling is required only during late stages of activin....... Notably, activin induction of Gsc-GFP(+) cells appears refractory to inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling but shows a dependence on early as well as late FGF signaling. Additionally, we find a late dependence on FGF signaling during induction of Sox17(+) cells by activin while BMP4-induced T expression...

  13. Reconstruction of partially amputated external ear with costal cartilage graft: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, A; Bottini, D J; Cervelli, V; Cervelli, G; Grimaldi, M

    2004-06-01

    Many causes are responsible for secondary anomalies of the outer ear, such as: car accidents, sport- or work-related accidents, assaults, bites from animals or humans, benign or malignant tumours, burns and the effects of surgical interventions of the ear (plastic surgery on the ear or attempts at correction of primary malformations of the ear). The anatomical complexity of the ear makes its reconstruction particularly complicated with post-operative results that are often disappointing. The Authors describe their experience in the reconstruction of a partially amputated outer ear following a dog bite. The therapeutic protocol required various surgical stages. Initially, a cutaneous expander was applied at the level of the mastoid in order to ensure a sufficient quantity of local skin. The second stage was to remove cartilage from the ribs, followed by construction of a cartilaginous model of the ear and its insertion into the subcutaneous mastoid region after removal of the cutaneous expander and any residual ear cartilage. The last stage was to separate the neo-formed outer ear from the mastoid skin with the insertion of a cartilage graft to the posterior region of the reconstructed ear. This graft was covered by the occipital fascia rotated at 180 degrees and by a skin graft removed from the pubis. The postoperative result was satisfactory with recuperation of a good aesthetic appearance of the ear. Aim of the present report is to describe the surgical technique employed in the reconstruction of secondary anomalies of the ear and to highlight errors committed during this procedure. These considerations have allowed us to stress some fundamental elements in the reconstruction of the ear. In particular, the watershed was the awareness that we had to create a cartilaginous model that respected, as far as possible, the anatomy of the outer ear with all its ridges, trenches and cavities. This as well as ensuring a sufficient quantity of local skin in order to cover

  14. Sox9 is required for precursor cell expansion and extracellular matrix organization during mouse heart valve development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Joy; Kist, Ralf; Scherer, Gerd; Yutzey, Katherine E

    2007-05-01

    Heart valve structures derived from mesenchymal cells of the endocardial cushions (ECs) are composed of highly organized cell lineages and extracellular matrix. Sox9 is a transcription factor required for both early and late stages of cartilage formation that is also expressed in the developing valves of the heart. The requirements for Sox9 function during valvulogenesis and adult valve homeostasis in mice were examined by conditional inactivation of Sox9 using Tie2-cre and Col2a1-cre transgenes. Sox9(flox/flox);Tie2-cre mice die before E14.5 with hypoplastic ECs, reduced cell proliferation and altered extracellular matrix protein (ECM) deposition. Sox9(flox/flox);Col2a1-cre mice die at birth with thickened heart valve leaflets, reduced expression of cartilage-associated proteins and abnormal ECM patterning. Thickened valve leaflets and calcium deposits, characteristic of valve disease, are observed in heterozygous adult Sox9(flox/+);Col2a1-cre mice. Therefore, Sox9 is required early in valve development for expansion of the precursor cell population and later is required for normal expression and distribution of valvular ECM proteins. These data indicate that Sox9 is required for early and late stages of valvulogenesis and identify a potential role for Sox9 in valve disease mechanisms.

  15. Mouse TRIP13/PCH2 Is Required for Recombination and Normal Higher-Order Chromosome Structure during Meiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roig, I.; Dowdle, J.A.; Toth, A.; de Rooij, D.G.; Jasin, M.; Keeney, S.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis requires that homologous chromosomes pair and become physically connected so that they can orient properly on the meiosis I spindle. These connections are formed by homologous recombination closely integrated with the development of meiosis-specific,

  16. Objective Audiometry using Ear-EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Christian Bech; Kidmose, Preben

    Recently, a novel electroencephalographic (EEG) method called ear-EEG [1], that enable recording of auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from a personalized earpiece was introduced. Initial investigations show that well established AEPs, such as ASSR and P1-N1-P2 complex can be observed from ear-EEG...

  17. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  18. The nucleolus in the mouse oocyte is required for the early step of both female and male pronucleus organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OGUSHI, Sugako; SAITOU, Mitinori

    2010-10-01

    During oocyte growth in the ovary, the nucleolus is mainly responsible for ribosome biogenesis. However, in the fully-grown oocyte, all transcription ceases, including ribosomal RNA synthesis, and the nucleolus adopts a specific monotonous fibrillar morphology without chromatin. The function of this inactive nucleolus in oocytes and embryos is still unknown. We previously reported that the embryo lacking an inactive nucleolus failed to develop past the first few cleavages, indicating the requirement of a nucleolus for preimplantation development. Here, we reinjected the nucleolus into oocytes and zygotes without nucleoli at various time points to examine the timing of the nucleolus requirement during meiosis and early embryonic development. When we put the nucleolus back into oocytes lacking a nucleolus at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage and at second metaphase (MII), these oocytes were fertilized, formed pronuclei with nucleoli and developed to full term. When the nucleolus was reinjected at the pronucleus (PN) stage, most of the reconstructed zygotes cleaved and formed nuclei with nucleoli at the 2-cell stage, but the rate of blastocyst formation and the numbers of surviving pups were profoundly reduced. Moreover, the zygotes without nucleoli showed a disorder of higher chromatin organization not only in the female pronucleus but also, interestingly, in the male pronucleus. Thus, the critical time point when the nucleolus is required for progression of early embryonic development appears to be at the point of the early step of pronucleus organization.

  19. Microbiomes of the normal middle ear and ears with chronic otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Shujiro B; Mutai, Hideki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Horii, Arata; Oishi, Naoki; Wasano, Koichiro; Katsura, Motoyasu; Tanaka, Fujinobu; Takiguchi, Tetsuya; Fujii, Masato; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to profile and compare the middle ear microbiomes of human subjects with and without chronic otitis media. Prospective multicenter cohort study. All consecutive patients undergoing tympanoplasty surgery for chronic otitis media or ear surgery for conditions other than otitis media were recruited. Sterile swab samples were collected from the middle ear mucosa during surgery. The variable region 4 of the 16S rRNA gene in each sample were amplified using region-specific primers adapted for the Illumina MiSeq sequencer (Illumina, CA, USA)). The sequences were subjected to local blast and classified using Metagenome@KIN (World Fusion, Tokyo, Japan). In total, 155 participants were recruited from seven medical centers. Of these, 88 and 67 had chronic otitis media and normal middle ears, respectively. The most abundant bacterial phyla on the mucosal surfaces of the normal middle ears were Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The children and adults with normal middle ears differed significantly in terms of middle ear microbiomes. Subjects with chronic otitis media without active inflammation (dry ear) had similar middle ear microbiomes as the normal middle ears group. Subjects with chronic otitis media with active inflammation (wet ear) had a lower prevalence of Proteobacteria and a higher prevalence of Firmicutes than the normal middle ears. The human middle ear is inhabited by more diverse microbial communities than was previously thought. Alteration of the middle ear microbiome may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media with active inflammation. 2b. Laryngoscope, 127:E371-E377, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Amyloid precursor protein is required for normal function of the rod and cone pathways in the mouse retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Ho

    Full Text Available Amyloid precursor protein (APP is a transmembrane glycoprotein frequently studied for its role in Alzheimer's disease. Our recent study in APP knockout (KO mice identified an important role for APP in modulating normal neuronal development in the retina. However the role APP plays in the adult retina and whether it is required for vision is unknown. In this study we evaluated the role of APP in retinal function and morphology comparing adult wildtype (WT and APP-KO mice. APP was expressed on neuronal cells of the inner retina, including horizontal, cone bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cells in WT mice. The function of the retina was assessed using the electroretinogram and although the rod photoreceptor responses were similar in APP-KO and WT mice, the post-photoreceptor, inner retinal responses of both the rod and cone pathways were reduced in APP-KO mice. These changes in inner retinal function did not translate to a substantial change in visual acuity as assessed using the optokinetic response or to changes in the gross cellular structure of the retina. These findings indicate that APP is not required for basic visual function, but that it is involved in modulating inner retinal circuitry.

  1. Indian hedgehog signaling from endothelial cells is required for sclera and retinal pigment epithelium development in the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakubo, Gabriel D; Mazerolle, Chantal; Furimsky, Marosh; Yu, Chuan; St-Jacques, Benoit; McMahon, Andrew P; Wallace, Valerie A

    2008-08-01

    The development of extraocular orbital structures, in particular the choroid and sclera, is regulated by a complex series of interactions between neuroectoderm, neural crest and mesoderm derivatives, although in many instances the signals that mediate these interactions are not known. In this study we have investigated the function of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in the developing mammalian eye. We show that Ihh is expressed in a population of non-pigmented cells located in the developing choroid adjacent to the RPE. The analysis of Hh mutant mice demonstrates that the RPE and developing scleral mesenchyme are direct targets of Ihh signaling and that Ihh is required for the normal pigmentation pattern of the RPE and the condensation of mesenchymal cells to form the sclera. Our findings also indicate that Ihh signals indirectly to promote proliferation and photoreceptor specification in the neural retina. This study identifies Ihh as a novel choroid-derived signal that regulates RPE, sclera and neural retina development.

  2. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor I is required for the anabolic actions of parathyroid hormone on mouse bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Leary, Colin; Elalieh, Hashem; Ginzinger, David; Rosen, Clifford J.; Beamer, Wesley; Majumdar, Sharmila; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2002-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent anabolic agent for bone, but the mechanism(s) by which it works remains imperfectly understood. Previous studies have indicated that PTH stimulates insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I production, but it remains uncertain whether IGF-I mediates some or all of the skeletal actions of PTH. To address this question, we examined the skeletal response to PTH in IGF-I-deficient (knockout [k/o]) mice. These mice and their normal littermates (NLMs) were given daily injections of PTH (80 microg/kg) or vehicle for 2 weeks after which their tibias were examined for fat-free weight (FFW), bone mineral content, bone structure, and bone formation rate (BFR), and their femurs were assessed for mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers. In wild-type mice, PTH increased FFW, periosteal BFR, and cortical thickness (C.Th) of the proximal tibia while reducing trabecular bone volume (BV); these responses were not seen in the k/o mice. The k/o mice had normal mRNA levels of the PTH receptor and increased mRNA levels of the IGF-I receptor but markedly reduced basal mRNA levels of the osteoblast markers. Surprisingly, these mRNAs in the k/o bones increased several-fold more in response to PTH than the mRNAs in the bones from their wild-type littermates. These results indicate that IGF-I is required for the anabolic actions of PTH on bone formation, but the defect lies distal to the initial response of the osteoblast to PTH.

  4. Imaging of the postoperative middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Marc T. [Department of Medical Imaging, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, 25 rue Manin, 75940, Paris (France); Ayache, Denis [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris (France)

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: (a) to present the principles and the indications of surgical treatment of middle ear pathologies; and (b) to review the imaging findings after middle ear surgery, including the normal postoperative aspects and imaging findings in patients presenting with unsatisfactory surgical results or with suspicion of postoperative complications. This review is intentionally restricted to the most common diseases involving the middle ear: chronic otitis media and otosclerosis. In these specific fields of interest, CT and MR imaging play a very important role in the postoperative follow-up and in the work-up of surgical failures and complications. (orig.)

  5. EARS: Electronic Access to Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, F O; Borgendale, M

    1986-10-01

    Electronic Access to Reference Service (EARS) is a front end to the Health Sciences Library's electronic mail system, with links to the online public catalog. EARS, which became operational in September 1984, is accessed by users at remote sites with either a terminal or microcomputer. It is menu-driven, allowing users to request: a computerized literature search, reference information, a photocopy of a journal article, or a book. This paper traces the history of EARS and discusses its use, its impact on library staff and services, and factors that influence the diffusion of new technology.

  6. AMPK alpha1 activation is required for stimulation of glucose uptake by twitch contraction, but not by H2O2, in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Elbenhardt; Schjerling, Peter; Viollet, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    into muscle by certain stimuli. In contrast, no clear function has yet been determined for alpha(1) AMPK in skeletal muscle, possibly due to alpha-AMPK isoform signaling redundancy. By applying low-intensity twitch-contraction and H(2)O(2) stimulation to activate alpha(1) AMPK, but not alpha(2) AMPK......, in wildtype and alpha-AMPK transgenic mouse muscles, this study aimed to define conditions where alpha(1) AMPK is required to increase muscle glucose uptake. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following stimulation with H(2)O(2) (3 mM, 20 min) or twitch-contraction (0.1 ms pulse, 2 Hz, 2 min), signaling and 2......-deoxyglucose uptake were measured in incubated soleus muscles from wildtype and muscle-specific kinase-dead AMPK (KD), alpha(1) AMPK knockout or alpha(2) AMPK knockout mice. H(2)O(2) increased the activity of both alpha(1) and alpha(2) AMPK in addition to Akt phosphorylation, and H(2)O(2)-stimulated glucose...

  7. SMC5/6 is required for the formation of segregation-competent bivalent chromosomes during meiosis I in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Grace; Sun, Fengyun; O'Brien, Marilyn; Eppig, John J; Handel, Mary Ann; Jordan, Philip W

    2017-05-01

    SMC complexes include three major classes: cohesin, condensin and SMC5/6. However, the localization pattern and genetic requirements for the SMC5/6 complex during mammalian oogenesis have not previously been examined. In mouse oocytes, the SMC5/6 complex is enriched at the pericentromeric heterochromatin, and also localizes along chromosome arms during meiosis. The infertility phenotypes of females with a Zp3-Cre -driven conditional knockout (cKO) of Smc5 demonstrated that maternally expressed SMC5 protein is essential for early embryogenesis. Interestingly, protein levels of SMC5/6 complex components in oocytes decline as wild-type females age. When SMC5/6 complexes were completely absent in oocytes during meiotic resumption, homologous chromosomes failed to segregate accurately during meiosis I. Despite what appears to be an inability to resolve concatenation between chromosomes during meiosis, localization of topoisomerase IIα to bivalents was not affected; however, localization of condensin along the chromosome axes was perturbed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMC5/6 complex is essential for the formation of segregation-competent bivalents during meiosis I, and findings suggest that age-dependent depletion of the SMC5/6 complex in oocytes could contribute to increased incidence of oocyte aneuploidy and spontaneous abortion in aging females. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Mozart ear: diagnosis, treatment, and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ken; Yotsuyanagi, Takatoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Isogai, Noritaka; Mori, Hiromasa; Itani, Yoshihito

    2011-11-01

    Mozart ear is a congenital auricular deformity, which is mainly characterized by a bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle, a convexly protruded cavum conchae, and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus. It is said to be uncommon, and because no one has yet fully described neither the disease nor the treatment, the concept of Mozart ear has not been unified. This report describes a case of a 13-year-old girl presented with an unusual congenital deformity which showed the features of Mozart ear. It is an extremely rare deformity that only about 4 clinical cases have been reported in medical literature thereby a treatment method has not been fully discussed. For surgical correction of our cases, we excised deformed conchal cartilage, turned it over, regrafted, and maintained a cosmetically positive result. We also reviewed and described the origin, current concept, and treatment method of Mozart ear.

  9. Environment for Auditory Research Facility (EAR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — EAR is an auditory perception and communication research center enabling state-of-the-art simulation of various indoor and outdoor acoustic environments. The heart...

  10. Inner ear manifestations in CHARGE: Abnormalities, treatments, animal models, and progress toward treatments in auditory and vestibular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Daniel I; Tawfik, Kareem O; Martin, Donna M; Raphael, Yehoash

    2017-12-01

    The inner ear contains the sensory organs for hearing and balance. Both hearing and balance are commonly affected in individuals with CHARGE syndrome (CS), an autosomal dominant condition caused by heterozygous pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene. Semicircular canal dysplasia or aplasia is the single most prevalent feature in individuals with CHARGE leading to deficient gross motor skills and ambulation. Identification of CHD7 as the major gene affected in CHARGE has enabled acceleration of research in this field. Great progress has been made in understanding the role of CHD7 in the development and function of the inner ear, as well as in related organs such as the middle ear and auditory and vestibular neural pathways. The goals of current research on CHD7 and CS are to (a) improve our understanding of the pathology caused by CHD7 pathogenic variants and (b) to provide better tools for prognosis and treatment. Current studies utilize cells and whole animals, from flies to mammals. The mouse is an excellent model for exploring mechanisms of Chd7 function in the ear, given the evolutionary conservation of ear structure, function, Chd7 expression, and similarity of mutant phenotypes between mice and humans. Newly recognized developmental functions for mouse Chd7 are shedding light on how abnormalities in CHD7 might lead to CS symptoms in humans. Here we review known human inner ear phenotypes associated with CHD7 pathogenic variants and CS, summarize progress toward diagnosis and treatment of inner ear-related pathologies, and explore new avenues for treatment based on basic science discoveries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR: Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Manson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California. Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

  12. Verrucous carcinoma of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, G E; Jurco, S; Alford, B R; McGavran, M H

    1981-01-01

    A case of a highly destructive, cytologically nondysplastic squamous epithelial lesion of the middle ear is presented. The cranial nerve involvement and bone destruction are more extensive than has been seen in cholesteatoma. Cultures are negative for Pseudomonas, and the patient does not have the reported diathesis for malignant otitis externa. The gross and microscopic features are those of verrucous carcinoma. To our knowledge, the middle ear has not been previously reported as a site of involvement by verrucous carcinoma.

  13. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2005-01-01

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media

  14. Commissioning of n_TOF EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    The construction of the second beam line and experiment area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility is currently ongoing and scheduled to be completed by July 2014. An extensive series of measurements is planned in order to determine the beam characteristics like the neutron flux, the spatial beam profile and the resolution function, as well as the response of several detectors considered for use in future measurements at EAR2. A rigorous study of backgrounds will be undertaken in various conditions.

  15. Osteoma of the middle ear: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa [College of Medicine, Inje University, Dongrae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    Osteomas of the middle ear are exceedingly rare benign neoplasms. To date, only 21 cases have been reported in the literature. They arise from the promontory, the pyramidal process and the ossicles, and they are usually asymptomatic or cause some conductive hearing loss. We report here the CT and pathologic findings in a 38-year-old woman with a benign osteoma of the middle ear along with chronic otitis media.

  16. The visible ear simulator: a public PC application for GPU-accelerated haptic 3D simulation of ear surgery based on the visible ear data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Sølvsten; Mosegaard, Jesper; Trier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    material.Virtual training often requires the purchase of a program, a customized computer, and expensive peripherals dedicated exclusively to this purpose. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Visible Ear freeware library of digital images from a fresh-frozen human temporal bone was segmented, and real-time volume...... is published for download (approximately 120 MB) as freeware at http://www.alexandra.dk/ves/index.htm.With increasing personal computer performance, future versions may include enhanced resolution (up to 8,000 voxels/mm3) and realistic interaction with deformable soft tissue components such as skin, tympanic...

  17. Serous otitis media (S.O.M.). A bacteriological study of the ear canal and the middle ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabenda, S. I.; Peerbooms, P. G.; van Asselt, G. J.; Feenstra, L.; van der Baan, S.

    1988-01-01

    A bacteriological study of the middle-ear effusions and the ear canals in children with chronic serous otitis media (S.O.M.) was performed. Sixty-eight children (127 ears) were investigated. From this study it appeared that cleansing of the ear canal with 0.5% chlorhexidine in 70% ethanol for 30 s

  18. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Fading in the ISM-band for Tangentially-Polarized Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2011-01-01

    The ear-to-ear on-body channel fading has been studied in the ISM-band. The ear-to-ear path gain was measured on six persons in an indoor environment for a duration of 200 s. The channel fading has been characterized in terms of empirical cumulative distribution functions (CDF), average fade...

  19. Statistical Shape Analysis of the Human Ear Canal with Application to In-the-Ear Hearing Aid Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is about the statistical shape analysis of the human ear canal with application to the mechanical design of in-the-ear hearing aids. Initially, it is described how a statistical shape model of the human ear canal is built based on a training set of laser-scanned ear impressions. A thin...

  20. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mi....... The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies....

  1. Preoperative diagnosis and surgical strategy in congenital auditory ossicular malformation of 26 ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Yuji; Naito, Yasushi; Shinohara, Shogo; Fujiwara, Keizo; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kurihara, Risa; Kishimoto, Ippei

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 26 ears of 21 subjects having auditory ossicular malformation and who had undergone auditory reconstruction between April 2004 and December 2010 at our clinic. We checked preoperative condition, pathological classification, surgical procedure, and hearing improvement. We could predict pathological conditions precisely from preoperative computed tomography (CT), including incudostapedial disconnection (9/12, 75%) and malleus and/or incus fixation (7/12, 58%), which tended to be present in external ear malformation, and stapes footplate fixation (0/12, 0%). We could not, however, predict complex malformation (0/8, 0%). Overall success was 90% (18/20) in the 20 ears observed for at least 1 year. In the 2 ears without improved hearing, the first had congenital cholesteatoma and no stapes superstructure, was treated with type IV tympanoplasty. The second had malleus, incus, and stapes fixation and discontinuity between the incus and stapes, and was treated with type III tympanoplasty and stapes mobilization. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult in mixed congenital auditory ossicular malformation, especially stapes footplate fixation, possibly requiring unexpected procedures, with a poor hearing outcome. Preoperative status must thus be evaluated precisely using hearing, tympanometry, acoustic reflex test, and CT. Temporal bone CT and external ear findings are useful in diagnosing middle-ear malformation. Subjects' informed consent should also be obtained due to the possible need for changing procedure based on findings during surgery. (author)

  2. Developmental evolutionary biology of the vertebrate ear: conserving mechanoelectric transduction and developmental pathways in diverging morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.; Bermingham, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    This brief overview shows that a start has been made to molecularly dissect vertebrate ear development and its evolutionary conservation to the development of the insect hearing organ. However, neither the patterning process of the ear nor the patterning process of insect sensory organs is sufficiently known at the moment to provide more than a first glimpse. Moreover, hardly anything is known about otocyst development of the cephalopod molluscs, another triploblast lineage that evolved complex 'ears'. We hope that the apparent conserved functional and cellular components present in the ciliated sensory neurons/hair cells will also be found in the genes required for vertebrate ear and insect sensory organ morphogenesis (Fig. 3). Likewise, we expect that homologous pre-patterning genes will soon be identified for the non-sensory cell development, which is more than a blocking of neuronal development through the Delta/Notch signaling system. Generation of the apparently unique ear could thus represent a multiplication of non-sensory cells by asymmetric and symmetric divisions as well as modification of existing patterning process by implementing novel developmental modules. In the final analysis, the vertebrate ear may come about by increasing the level of gene interactions in an already existing and highly conserved interactive cascade of bHLH genes. Since this was apparently achieved in all three lineages of triploblasts independently (Fig. 3), we now need to understand how much of the morphogenetic cascades are equally conserved across phyla to generate complex ears. The existing mutations in humans and mice may be able to point the direction of future research to understand the development of specific cell types and morphologies in the formation of complex arthropod, cephalopod, and vertebrate 'ears'.

  3. Structure and function of the mammalian middle ear. I: Large middle ears in small desert mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Matthew J

    2016-02-01

    Many species of small desert mammals are known to have expanded auditory bullae. The ears of gerbils and heteromyids have been well described, but much less is known about the middle ear anatomy of other desert mammals. In this study, the middle ears of three gerbils (Meriones, Desmodillus and Gerbillurus), two jerboas (Jaculus) and two sengis (elephant-shrews: Macroscelides and Elephantulus) were examined and compared, using micro-computed tomography and light microscopy. Middle ear cavity expansion has occurred in members of all three groups, apparently in association with an essentially 'freely mobile' ossicular morphology and the development of bony tubes for the middle ear arteries. Cavity expansion can occur in different ways, resulting in different subcavity patterns even between different species of gerbils. Having enlarged middle ear cavities aids low-frequency audition, and several adaptive advantages of low-frequency hearing to small desert mammals have been proposed. However, while Macroscelides was found here to have middle ear cavities so large that together they exceed brain volume, the bullae of Elephantulus are considerably smaller. Why middle ear cavities are enlarged in some desert species but not others remains unclear, but it may relate to microhabitat. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  4. Prenatal evaluation of the middle ear and diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katorza, Eldad; Nahama-Allouche, Catherine; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Castaigne, Vanina [Hopital Saint-Antoine, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Paris (France); Gonzales, Marie; Marlin, Sandrine [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Genetique et Embryologie medicales, Paris (France); Galliani, Eva [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Chirurgie maxillo-faciale, Paris (France); Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Rosenblatt, Jonathan [Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, Service de Gynecologie-Obstetrique, Centre pluridisciplinaire de diagnostic prenatal, Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Analysis of the middle ear with fetal MRI has not been previously reported. To show the contribution of fetal MRI to middle ear imaging. The tympanic cavity was evaluated in 108 fetal cerebral MRI examinations (facial and/or cerebral malformation excluded) and in two cases, one of Treacher Collins syndrome (case 1) and the other of oculo-auriculo-vertebral (OUV) spectrum (case 2) with middle ear hypoplasia identified by MRI at 27 and 36 weeks' gestation, respectively. In all 108 fetuses (mean gestational age 32.5 weeks), the tympanic cavity and T2 hypointensity related to the ossicles were well visualised on both sides. Case 1 had micro/retrognathia and bilateral external ear deformity and case 2 had retrognathism with a left low-set and deformed ear. MRI made it possible to recognize the marked hypoplasia of the tympanic cavity, which was bilateral in case 1 and unilateral in case 2. Both syndromes are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities including middle ear hypoplasia, which cannot be diagnosed with US. The middle ear cavity can be visualized with fetal MRI. We emphasize the use of this imaging modality in the diagnosis of middle ear hypoplasia. (orig.)

  5. Air-Leak Effects on Ear-Canal Acoustic Absorbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Kopun, Judy G.; Gorga, Michael P.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Accurate ear-canal acoustic measurements, such as wideband acoustic admittance, absorbance, and otoacoustic emissions, require that the measurement probe be tightly sealed in the ear canal. Air leaks can compromise the validity of the measurements, interfere with calibrations, and increase variability. There are no established procedures for determining the presence of air leaks or criteria for what size leak would affect the accuracy of ear-canal acoustic measurements. The purpose of this study was to determine ways to quantify the effects of air leaks and to develop objective criteria to detect their presence. Design: Air leaks were simulated by modifying the foam tips that are used with the measurement probe through insertion of thin plastic tubing. To analyze the effect of air leaks, acoustic measurements were taken with both modified and unmodified foam tips in brass-tube cavities and human ear canals. Measurements were initially made in cavities to determine the range of critical leaks. Subsequently, data were collected in ears of 21 adults with normal hearing and normal middle-ear function. Four acoustic metrics were used for predicting the presence of air leaks and for quantifying these leaks: (1) low-frequency admittance phase (averaged over 0.1–0.2 kHz), (2) low-frequency absorbance, (3) the ratio of compliance volume to physical volume (CV/PV), and (4) the air-leak resonance frequency. The outcome variable in this analysis was the absorbance change (Δabsorbance), which was calculated in eight frequency bands. Results: The trends were similar for both the brass cavities and the ear canals. ΔAbsorbance generally increased with air-leak size and was largest for the lower frequency bands (0.1–0.2 and 0.2–0.5 kHz). Air-leak effects were observed in frequencies up to 10 kHz, but their effects above 1 kHz were unpredictable. These high-frequency air leaks were larger in brass cavities than in ear canals. Each of the four predictor variables

  6. Miniature, minimally invasive, tunable endoscope for investigation of the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Michal E; Shrestha, Sebina; Park, Jesung; Applegate, Brian E; Oghalai, John S; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a miniature, tunable, minimally invasive endoscope for diagnosis of the auditory system. The probe is designed to sharply image anatomical details of the middle ear without the need for physically adjusting the position of the distal end of the endoscope. This is achieved through the addition of an electrowetted, tunable, electronically-controlled lens to the optical train. Morphological imaging is enabled by scanning light emanating from an optical coherence tomography system. System performance was demonstrated by imaging part of the ossicular chain and wall of the middle ear cavity of a normal mouse. During the experiment, we electronically moved the plane of best focus from the incudo-stapedial joint to the stapedial artery. Repositioning the object plane allowed us to image anatomical details of the middle ear beyond the depth of field of a static optical system. We also demonstrated for the first time to our best knowledge, that an optical system with an electrowetted, tunable lens may be successfully employed to measure sound-induced vibrations within the auditory system by measuring the vibratory amplitude of the tympanic membrane in a normal mouse in response to pure tone stimuli.

  7. Sequences within both the 5' UTR and Gag are required for optimal in vivo packaging and propagation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV genomic RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Mustafa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study mapped regions of genomic RNA (gRNA important for packaging and propagation of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV. MMTV is a type B betaretrovirus which preassembles intracellularly, a phenomenon distinct from retroviruses that assemble the progeny virion at cell surface just before budding such as the type C human and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and FIV. Studies of FIV and Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV, a type D betaretrovirus with similar intracellular virion assembly processes as MMTV, have shown that the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR and 5' end of gag constitute important packaging determinants for gRNA. METHODOLOGY: Three series of MMTV transfer vectors containing incremental amounts of gag or 5' UTR sequences, or incremental amounts of 5' UTR in the presence of 400 nucleotides (nt of gag were constructed to delineate the extent of 5' sequences that may be involved in MMTV gRNA packaging. Real time PCR measured the packaging efficiency of these vector RNAs into MMTV particles generated by co-transfection of MMTV Gag/Pol, vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein (VSV-G Env, and individual transfer vectors into human 293T cells. Transfer vector RNA propagation was monitored by measuring transduction of target HeLaT4 cells following infection with viral particles containing a hygromycin resistance gene expression cassette on the packaged RNA. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: MMTV requires the entire 5' UTR and a minimum of ~120 nucleotide (nt at the 5' end of gag for not only efficient gRNA packaging but also propagation of MMTV-based transfer vector RNAs. Vector RNAs without the entire 5' UTR were defective for both efficient packaging and propagation into target cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results reveal that the 5' end of MMTV genome is critical for both gRNA packaging and propagation, unlike the recently delineated FIV and MPMV packaging determinants that have been shown to be of bipartite nature.

  8. Wnt/B-Catenin Signaling is Required to Rescue Midbrain Dopaminergic Progenitors and Promote Neurorepair in Ageing Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Episcopo, Francesca; Tirolo, Cataldo; Testa, Nunzio; Caniglia, Salvatore; Morale, Maria Concetta; Serapide, Maria Francesca; Pluchino, Stefano; Marchetti, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for specification and neurogenesis of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons, the pivotal neuronal population that degenerates in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a vital role in adult neurogenesis but whether it might engage DA neurogenesis/neurorepair in the affected PD brain is yet unresolved. Recently, the adult midbrain aqueduct periventricular regions (Aq-PVRs) were shown to harbor neural stem/progenitor cells (mNPCs) with DA potential in vitro, but restrictive mechanisms in vivo are believed to limit their DA regenerative capacity. Using in vitro mNPC culture systems we herein demonstrate that aging is one most critical factor restricting mNPC neurogenic potential via dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Cococulture paradigms between young/aged (Y/A) mNPCs and Y/A astrocytes identified glial age and a decline of glial-derived factors including Wnts as key determinants of impaired neurogenic potential, whereas Wnt activation regimens efficiently reversed the diminished proliferative, neuronal and DA differentiation potential of A-mNPCs. Next, in vivo studies in wild (Wt) and transgenic β-catenin reporter mice uncovered Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation and remarkable astrocyte remodeling of Aq-PVR in response to MPTP-induced DA neuron death. Spatio-temporal analyses unveiled β-catenin signaling in predopaminergic (Nurr1+/TH−) and imperiled or rescuing DAT+ neurons during MPTP-induced DA neuron injury and self-repair. Aging inhibited Wnt signaling, whereas β-catenin activation in situ with a specific GSK-3β antagonist promoted a significant degree of DA neurorestoration associated with reversal of motor deficit, with implications for neurorestorative approaches in PD. PMID:24648001

  9. Influenza A virus alters pneumococcal nasal colonization and middle ear infection independently of phase variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, John T; Blevins, Lance K; Pang, Bing; King, Lauren B; Perez, Antonia C; Murrah, Kyle A; Reimche, Jennifer L; Alexander-Miller, Martha A; Swords, W Edward

    2014-11-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is both a widespread nasal colonizer and a leading cause of otitis media, one of the most common diseases of childhood. Pneumococcal phase variation influences both colonization and disease and thus has been linked to the bacteria's transition from colonizer to otopathogen. Further contributing to this transition, coinfection with influenza A virus has been strongly associated epidemiologically with the dissemination of pneumococci from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Using a mouse infection model, we demonstrated that coinfection with influenza virus and pneumococci enhanced both colonization and inflammatory responses within the nasopharynx and middle ear chamber. Coinfection studies were also performed using pneumococcal populations enriched for opaque or transparent phase variants. As shown previously, opaque variants were less able to colonize the nasopharynx. In vitro, this phase also demonstrated diminished biofilm viability and epithelial adherence. However, coinfection with influenza virus ameliorated this colonization defect in vivo. Further, viral coinfection ultimately induced a similar magnitude of middle ear infection by both phase variants. These data indicate that despite inherent differences in colonization, the influenza A virus exacerbation of experimental middle ear infection is independent of the pneumococcal phase. These findings provide new insights into the synergistic link between pneumococcus and influenza virus in the context of otitis media. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. A FGF3 mutation associated with differential inner ear malformation, microtia, and microdontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsebner, Reinhard; Ludwig, Martin; Parzefall, Thomas; Lucas, Trevor; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Bodamer, Olaf; Cengiz, Filiz Basak; Schoefer, Christian; Tekin, Mustafa; Frei, Klemens

    2010-02-01

    Analysis of association between genotype and phenotype. Prospective genetic study in a family. Auditory investigations, computer tomography, and genetic sequencing of the fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3) gene were performed on a Somali family presenting with autosomal recessive, hearing impairment, microdontia, and outer ear morphologies ranging from normal auricle development to microtia assessed as type 1 Weerda dysplasia in affected individuals. Computed tomography imaging identified differential inter- and intraindividual malformations of the inner ear including labyrinth aplasia, development of a common cavity to the presence of a cochlear with 1.5 windings (Mondini malformation) in affected individuals, symptoms similar to those described as labyrinth aplasia, microtia, and microdontia (LAMM) syndrome, caused by mutations in FGF3. Genetic sequencing revealed the presence of a novel p.R95W missense mutation in FGF3 segregating with pathology. The p.R95W mutation substitutes a positively charged arginine for a polar tryptophan in the highly conserved RYLAM consensus of the beta 6 sheet of FGF3 that interacts with FGFR2. These findings describe, for the first time, variable inner ear malformations and outer ear dysplasia in the presence of constant microdontia, associated with homozygous inheritance of the p.R95W mutation in FGF3, mirroring phenotypes observed in mouse models ablating FGF3/FGFR2 signaling.

  11. CT of temporal bone - IV. inner ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Yoon; Sung, Kyu Bo; Youn, Eun Kyoung; Park, Youn Kyeung; Lee, Young Uk

    1990-01-01

    Temporal bone CT was done in 697 patients from April 1985 to October 1989. The abnormal findings were seen in 453 patients, which were chronic otitis media in 355 patients, fracture in 49 patients and congenital anomaly in 44 patients, etc. The abnormal findings of inner ear were observed on 46 patients. The results were summarized as follows : 1. The incidence of inner ear involvement by chronic otitis media was 7.3% (26/355 : labyrinthine fistula in 17 patients, labyrinthitis ossificans in 9 patients). Labyrinthine fistula was most commonly located on lateral semicircular canal (15/17, 88.2%). 2. Fusion of vestibule with lateral semicircular canal and formation of common cavity was demonstrated incidentally in 5 patients (0.7% of total number of temporal bone CT), and bilateral in 3 patients. 3. The incidence of inner ear anomaly in congenital ear anomaly was 11.4% (5/44). All cases were bilateral and three patients showed associated middle ear anomaly. 4. The incidence of involvement of bony labyrinth in temporal bone fracture was 10.2% (5/49). Labyrinthine fracture was seen all patients of transverse(3) and mixed fracture(1). In longitudinal fracture, labyrinthine fracture was seen in 2.2% (1/45). 5. Others were traumatic labyrinthitis ossificans(1), intracanalicular acoustic neuroma(3) and facial nerve neuroma(1)

  12. Ear Acupuncture in European Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gori

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture is a diagnostic and treatment system based on normalizing the body's dysfunction through stimulation of definite points on the ear. Rudimentary forms of acupuncture which probably arose during the Stone Age have survived in many parts of the world right down to present day. It was used in the ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece and all the Mediterranean area. It is a microacupuncture technique similar to reflexology, and was first described in France in 1950 by Paul Nogier who is considered the Father of modern ear acupuncture. It was speculated that the technique works because groups of pluripotent cells contain information from the whole organism and create regional organization centers representing different parts of the body. Nevertheless stimulation of a reflex point in the ear seems relieve symptoms of distant pathologies. Modern research is confirming the efficacy of ear acupuncture for analgesia and anxiety related disease, while tobacco dependence and other substance abuse still need confirmation. Actually main methodological problems with auricular acupuncture are that exist too many maps with little agreement regarding point location in the ear, and that the correspondence or reflex systems does not correlated with modern knowledge of anatomy and physiology.

  13. Loss of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP3K4) Reveals a Requirement for MAPK Signalling in Mouse Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogani, Debora; Siggers, Pam; Brixey, Rachel; Warr, Nick; Beddow, Sarah; Edwards, Jessica; Williams, Debbie; Wilhelm, Dagmar; Koopman, Peter; Flavell, Richard A.; Chi, Hongbo; Ostrer, Harry; Wells, Sara; Cheeseman, Michael; Greenfield, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY) gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY) protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg) mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas). These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and create a novel

  14. Loss of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP3K4 reveals a requirement for MAPK signalling in mouse sex determination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Bogani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination in mammals is controlled by the presence or absence of the Y-linked gene SRY. In the developing male (XY gonad, sex-determining region of the Y (SRY protein acts to up-regulate expression of the related gene, SOX9, a transcriptional regulator that in turn initiates a downstream pathway of testis development, whilst also suppressing ovary development. Despite the requirement for a number of transcription factors and secreted signalling molecules in sex determination, intracellular signalling components functioning in this process have not been defined. Here we report a role for the phylogenetically ancient mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signalling pathway in mouse sex determination. Using a forward genetic screen, we identified the recessive boygirl (byg mutation. On the C57BL/6J background, embryos homozygous for byg exhibit consistent XY gonadal sex reversal. The byg mutation is an A to T transversion causing a premature stop codon in the gene encoding MAP3K4 (also known as MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Analysis of XY byg/byg gonads at 11.5 d post coitum reveals a growth deficit and a failure to support mesonephric cell migration, both early cellular processes normally associated with testis development. Expression analysis of mutant XY gonads at the same stage also reveals a dramatic reduction in Sox9 and, crucially, Sry at the transcript and protein levels. Moreover, we describe experiments showing the presence of activated MKK4, a direct target of MAP3K4, and activated p38 in the coelomic region of the XY gonad at 11.5 d post coitum, establishing a link between MAPK signalling in proliferating gonadal somatic cells and regulation of Sry expression. Finally, we provide evidence that haploinsufficiency for Map3k4 accounts for T-associated sex reversal (Tas. These data demonstrate that MAP3K4-dependent signalling events are required for normal expression of Sry during testis development, and

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the ear for patient-specific reconstructive surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Nimeskern

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Like a fingerprint, ear shape is a unique personal feature that should be reconstructed with a high fidelity during reconstructive surgery. Ear cartilage tissue engineering (TE advantageously offers the possibility to use novel 3D manufacturing techniques to reconstruct the ear, thus allowing for a detailed auricular shape. However it also requires detailed patient-specific images of the 3D cartilage structures of the patient's intact contralateral ear (if available. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an imaging strategy for acquiring patient-specific ear cartilage shape, with sufficient precision and accuracy for use in a clinical setting. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was performed on 14 volunteer and six cadaveric auricles and manually segmented. Reproducibility of cartilage volume (Cg.V, surface (Cg.S and thickness (Cg.Th was assessed, to determine whether raters could repeatedly define the same volume of interest. Additionally, six cadaveric auricles were harvested, scanned and segmented using the same procedure, then dissected and scanned using high resolution micro-CT. Correlation between MR and micro-CT measurements was assessed to determine accuracy. RESULTS: Good inter- and intra-rater reproducibility was observed (precision errors 0.82, but low for Cg.Th (0.95 demonstrated high accuracy. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that precision and accuracy of the proposed method was high enough to detect patient-specific variation in ear cartilage geometry. The present study provides a clinical strategy to access the necessary information required for the production of 3D ear scaffolds for TE purposes, including detailed patient-specific shape. Furthermore, the protocol is applicable in daily clinical practice with existing infrastructure.

  16. Are two ears not better than one?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, Rachel A; Killion, Mead; Mennite, Monica A; Chisolm, Theresa H

    2012-03-01

    The decision to fit one or two hearing aids in individuals with binaural hearing loss has been debated for years. Although some 78% of U.S. hearing aid fittings are binaural (Kochkin , 2010), Walden and Walden (2005) presented data showing that 82% (23 of 28 patients) of their sample obtained significantly better speech recognition in noise scores when wearing one hearing aid as opposed to two. To conduct two new experiments to fuel the monaural/binaural debate. The first experiment was a replication of Walden and Walden (2005), whereas the second experiment examined the use of binaural cues to improve speech recognition in noise. A repeated measures experimental design. Twenty veterans (aged 59-85 yr), with mild to moderately severe binaurally symmetrical hearing loss who wore binaural hearing aids were recruited from the Audiology Department at the Bay Pines VA Healthcare System. Experiment 1 followed the procedures of the Walden and Walden study, where signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss was measured using the Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) test on participants who were aided with their current hearing aids. Signal and noise were presented in the sound booth at 0° azimuth under five test conditions: (1) right ear aided, (2) left ear aided, (3) both ears aided, (4) right ear aided, left ear plugged, and (5) unaided. The opposite ear in (1) and (2) was left open. In Experiment 2, binaural Knowles Electronics Manikin for Acoustic Research (KEMAR) manikin recordings made in Lou Malnati's pizza restaurant during a busy period provided a typical real-world noise, while prerecorded target sentences were presented through a small loudspeaker located in front of the KEMAR manikin. Subjects listened to the resulting binaural recordings through insert earphones under the following four conditions: (1) binaural, (2) diotic, (3) monaural left, and (4) monaural right. Results of repeated measures ANOVAs demonstrated that the best speech recognition in noise performance was

  17. MRI measurement for inner ear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuling; Liu Huaijun; Chi Chen; Qin Ruiping; Shi Zhaoxia

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reconstruct the image of inner ear by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI, and to establish MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures. Methods: One hundred and six inner ears of 53 healthy volunteers underwent MRI heavily T2-weighted axial scanning by using 3D fast advanced spin echo sequence. All the original images were transferred to an online workstation. Analyze AVW software was used for image post-processing. All the structures of inner ear were reconstructed, rotated from various angles and measured by using maximum intensity projection (MIP). Results: (1) All the structures of inner ear and internal auditory channel (IAC) could be visualized clearly by using 3D-FASE heavily T 2 WI. (2) Using analysis of variance, there was no age, side or race-related difference in inner ear volume, but it was bigger in male than in female [(0.242 ± 0.0236) mm 3 (male) versus (0.226 ± 0.021) mm 3 (female)]. There was no age, side-related differences in three semicircular canal height and vestibule vertical diameter, but, again, they were bigger in male than in female. The height of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (5.511 ± 0.626) mm (male) versus (5.167 ± 0.357) mm (female); (3.763 ± 0.495) mm (male) versus (3.446 ± 0.405) mm (female); (5.227 ± 0.547) mm (male) versus (4.786 ± 0.500) mm (female). There was no age, sex or side-related differences in three semicircular canal diameter and cochlea. The diameter of upper, lateral and posterior semicircular canal were (1.06 ± 0.119) mm, (1.14 ± 0.181) mm, and (1.22 ± 0.196)mm; the external diameter of cochlea basal turn was (6.520 ± 0.475) mm, the diameter of cochlea basal turn was (1.413 ± 0.144) mm, and cochlea height was (4.100 ± 0.405) mm. Conclusion: (1) For the first time, the MRI measurement criterion of inner ear structures is established. (2) Vestibule and three semicircular canal of inner ear are bigger in male than in female

  18. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  19. Multislice spiral computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Tian, Zhi-liang; Lei, Zi-qiao; Kong, Wei-jia; Feng, Gan-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of multislice spiral computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of congenital inner ear malformations. Forty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss were examined on a Somatom Sensation 16 (Siemens) CT scanner. The 3-dimensional reconstructions and multiplanar reformation (MPR) were performed using the volume-rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation. Of the 44 patients examined for this study, 25 patients were found to be normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were diagnosed with congenital inner ear malformations. Of the malformations, the axial, MPR, and VRT images can all display the site and degree in 33 of the ears. Volume-rendering technique images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The common malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears), enlarged vestibular aqueduct (16 ears, 6 of which had other malformations), and internal auditory canal malformation (8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). Multislice spiral CT allows a comprehensively assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high-quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. Volume-rendering technique images can display the site and degree of the malformation 3-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. This is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  20. Gene therapy restores auditory and vestibular function in a mouse model of Usher syndrome type 1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bifeng; Askew, Charles; Galvin, Alice; Heman-Ackah, Selena; Asai, Yukako; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Jodelka, Francine M; Hastings, Michelle L; Lentz, Jennifer J; Vandenberghe, Luk H; Holt, Jeffrey R; Géléoc, Gwenaëlle S

    2017-03-01

    Because there are currently no biological treatments for hearing loss, we sought to advance gene therapy approaches to treat genetic deafness. We focused on Usher syndrome, a devastating genetic disorder that causes blindness, balance disorders and profound deafness, and studied a knock-in mouse model, Ush1c c.216G>A, for Usher syndrome type IC (USH1C). As restoration of complex auditory and balance function is likely to require gene delivery systems that target auditory and vestibular sensory cells with high efficiency, we delivered wild-type Ush1c into the inner ear of Ush1c c.216G>A mice using a synthetic adeno-associated viral vector, Anc80L65, shown to transduce 80-90% of sensory hair cells. We demonstrate recovery of gene and protein expression, restoration of sensory cell function, rescue of complex auditory function and recovery of hearing and balance behavior to near wild-type levels. The data represent unprecedented recovery of inner ear function and suggest that biological therapies to treat deafness may be suitable for translation to humans with genetic inner ear disorders.

  1. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of pathologic conditions of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroldi, R.; Farina, D.; Palvarini, L.; Marconi, A.; Gadola, E.; Menni, K.; Battaglia, G.

    2001-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is an excellent technique for demonstrating even small abnormalities of the thin and complex bony structures of the middle ear. For this reason, it is the modality of choice in the study of conductive hearing loss (CHL). However, not every patient complaining of CHL requires a CT study. In fact, established indications encompass complex conditions, such as the complications of acute and chronic otomastoiditis, the postoperative ear in chronic otomastoiditis or in the localization of prosthetic devices, and the assessment of congenital or vascular anomalies. Particularly, the precise extent of bone erosion associated with cholesteatoma is correctly demonstrated by high resolution CT. Conversely, although fistulization through the tegmen tympani or the posterior wall of temporal bone is usually detectable by CT, the actual involvement of meninges and veins are better assessed by magnetic resonance (MR). MR is also indicated when complicated inflammatory lesions are suspected to extend into the inner ear or towards the sigmoid sinus or jugular vein. Neoplasms arising from or extending into the middle ear require the use of both techniques as their combined data provide essential information. Most important data for surgical planning concern the destruction of thin bony structures and the relationships of the lesion with the dura and surrounding vessels. DSA and interventional vascular techniques maintain an essential role in the presurgical work-up and embolization of paragangliomas extended into the middle ear

  2. Effects of strain and age on ear wound healing and regeneration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Round holes in the ears of MRL mice tend to close with characteristics of regeneration believed to be absent in other mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6. We evaluated the kinetics and the histopathology of ear wound closure in young (8 weeks old C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice. We also used middle-aged (40 weeks old C57BL/6 mice to evaluate the influence of aging on this process. A circular through-and-through hole was made in the ear, photographs were taken at different times after injury and wound area was measured with digital analysis software. The percentages of closed area measured on day 100 were: 23.57 ± 8.66% for young BALB/c mice, 56.47 ± 7.39% for young C57BL/6 mice, and 75.31 ± 23.65% for middle-aged C57BL/6 mice. Mice were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 25, 44, and 100 for histological evaluation with hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori’s trichrome, periodic acid-Schiff, or picrosirius red staining. In young mice of both strains, healing included re-epithelialization, chondrogenesis, myogenesis, and collagen deposition. Young C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice differed in the organization of collagen fibers visualized using picrosirius-polarization. Sebaceous glands and hair follicles regenerated and chondrogenesis was greater in young C57BL/6 mice. In middle-aged C57BL/6 mice all aspects of regeneration were depressed. The characteristics of regeneration were present during ear wound healing in both young BALB/c and young C57BL/6 mice although they differed in intensity and pattern. Greater ear wound closure in middle-aged C57BL/6 mice was not correlated with regeneration.

  3. Ear tube surgery - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about ear tube surgery; Tympanostomy - what to ask your doctor; Myringotomy - what ... other treatments? What are the risks of the surgery? Is it safe to wait before getting ear ...

  4. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric Obesity ... self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, and ...

  5. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the middle ...

  6. Sub-clinical middle ear malfunctions in elderly patients; prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... absent acoustic reflex. Keywords: Middle ear malfunctions, elderly patients. ... hearing loss, had audiometric changes suggestive of such. We regarded such .... predictors of silent middle ear malfunction (control for Age and Sex). Variable.

  7. Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Obesity and Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders Pediatric ... of self-esteem, and isolation from their peers. Pediatric obesity and otolaryngic problems Otolaryngologists, or ear, nose, ...

  8. Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Middle Ear Infection (Chronic Otitis Media) and Hearing Loss Middle Ear Infection (Chronic ... relations staff at newsroom@entnet.org . What is otitis media? Otitis media refers to inflammation of the ...

  9. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Headaches from ear, nose and throat diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reck, R.

    1984-01-01

    Headaches are a frequent symptom in ENT-patients. The complex sensory innervation of the ear, nose and paranasal sinuses is demonstrated. Heterotopic or referred pain must be differentiated from homotopic pain that is experienced at the point of injury. The nervous pathways of heterotopic otalgia are shown. The quality of pain of the most common rhinological and otological diseases is reported. (orig.) [de

  11. DNA isolation from rat tail or ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes a rapid procedure for isolating DNA from rat tail or ear punches. The simplest version of the protocol can be scaled for use in 96-well (deep-well) plates. The quality of the DNA is sufficient for any polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping approach.

  12. The first neutron beam hits EAR2

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    On 25 July 2014, about a year after construction work began, the Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) of CERN’s neutron facility n_TOF recorded its first beam. Unique in many aspects, EAR2 will start its rich programme of experimental physics this autumn.   The last part of the EAR2 beamline: the neutrons come from the underground target and reach the top of the beamline, where they hit the samples. Built about 20 metres above the neutron production target, EAR2 is in fact a bunker connected to the n_TOF underground facilities via a duct 80 cm in diameter, where the beamline is installed. The feet of the bunker support pillars are located on the concrete structure of the n_TOF tunnel and part of the structure lies above the old ISR building. A beam dump located on the roof of the building completes the structure. Neutrons are used by physicists to study neutron-induced reactions with applications in a number of fields, including nuclear waste transmutation, nuclear technology, nuclear astrop...

  13. "Hot Tub Rash" and "Swimmer's Ear" (Pseudomonas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facts About “Hot Tub Rash” and “Swimmer’s Ear” (Pseudomonas) What is Pseudomonas and how can it affect me? Pseudomonas (sue-doh- ... a major cause of infections commonly known as “hot tub rash” and “swimmer’s ear.” This germ is ...

  14. Clinical review of inner ear malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokai, Hiromi; Oohashi, Masami; Ishikawa, Kazuo; Harada, Kouji; Hiratsuka, Hitoshi; Ogasawara, Makoto; Miyashita, Souji; Terayama, Yoshihiko

    2003-01-01

    We had 126 patients with inner ear malformation diagnosed with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans at Azabu Triology Hospital between 1996 and 2002. We classified cases of inner ear malformation according to Jackler et al. The incidence of inner ear malformation in our series was as follows; labyrinthine anomalies 61% (isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia 56%, compound semicircular canal dysplasia 4%, semicircular canal aplasia 1%), cochlear anomalies 24%, enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct 12%, narrow internal auditory canal 2%, complete labyrinthine aplasia 1%, enlargement of the cochlear aqueduct 0%. The most frequent anomaly was isolated lateral semicircular canal dysplasia. We did not detect any significant clinical features in this anomaly. There were 2 patients with cochlear anomalies who had past histories of meningitis. Some patients with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct had frequent attacks of fluctuating hearing. Clinically it is important to detect patients with inner ear malformation such as cochlear anomalies and enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct usually accompanied by congenital sensorineural hearing loss. For patients with congenital sensorineural hearing loss, we recommend temporal bone CT scan. (author)

  15. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owen, Hanne H; Rosborg, Jørn; Gaihede, Michael

    2006-01-01

    (n = 2), and otorrhea (n = 1). Similar symptoms were found in secondary EECC, but less pronounced. In total the temporomandibular joint was exposed in 11 cases, while the mastoid and middle ear was invaded in six and three cases, respectively. In one primary case the facial nerve was exposed...

  16. The inner ear produces a natriuretic hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1996-01-01

    Cytoplasmic granules have been demonstrated in epithelial cells from the endolymphatic sac, an extraosseus part of the inner ear located in the posterior cranial fossa. Intravenously infused extracts from endolymphatic sacs in anesthetized rats elicited a potent natriuresis and diuresis without e...

  17. Bacteriology of chronic discharging ears in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Ear swabs of discharging ears aseptically collected from 102 patients of various age groups attending Ear, Nose, and Throat out-patient clinic at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were cultured for bacterial agents using blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar. Culture plates were incubated ...

  18. Inner ear malformations in siblings presenting with vestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the association between inner ear abnormalities and progressive sensorineural hearing loss is well known, vestibular signs or loss of vestibular function in these ... We provide a brief overview of the latest classification of these inner ear defects as well as a review of the literature pertaining to children with inner ear ...

  19. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  20. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic C Y Phua

    Full Text Available The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  1. Increased susceptibility to otitis media in a Splunc1-deficient mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer A.; Meyerholz, David K.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L.; Naumann, Paul W.; Salzman, Nita H.; McCray, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Otitis media (inflammation of the middle ear) is one of the most common diseases of early childhood. Susceptibility to otitis is influenced by a number of factors, including the actions of innate immune molecules secreted by the epithelia lining the nasopharynx, middle ear and Eustachian tube. The SPLUNC1 (short palate, lung, nasal epithelial clone 1) protein is a highly abundant secretory product of the mammalian nasal, oral and respiratory mucosa that is thought to play a multifunctional role in host defense. In this study we investigated Splunc1 expression in the ear of the mouse, and examined whether this protein contributes to overall host defense in the middle ear and/or Eustachian tube. We found that Splunc1 is highly expressed in both the surface epithelium and in submucosal glands in these regions in wild-type mice. In mice lacking Splunc1, we noted histologically an increased frequency of otitis media, characterized by the accumulation of leukocytes (neutrophils with scattered macrophages), proteinaceous fluid and mucus in the middle ear lumens. Furthermore, many of these mice had extensive remodeling of the middle ear wall, suggesting a chronic course of disease. From these observations, we conclude that loss of Splunc1 predisposes mice to the development of otitis media. The Splunc1−/− mouse model should help investigators to better understand both the biological role of Splunc1 as well as host defense mechanisms in the middle ear. PMID:25765466

  2. Anthropometric growth study of the ear in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shichun; Li, Dianguo; Liu, Zhenzhong; Wang, Yibiao; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Duyin; Pan, Bo

    2018-04-01

    A large number of anthropometric studies of the auricle have been reported in different nations, but little data were available in the Chinese population. The aim of this study was to analyze growth changes in the ear by measuring the width and length of ears in a Chinese population. A total of 480 participants were enrolled and classified into 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 9-, 12-, 14-, and 18-year groups (half were boys and half were girls in each group). Ear length, ear width, body weight, and body length were measured and recorded; ear index was calculated according to ear length and ear width. The growth of auricle and differences between genders were analyzed. Growth of ear in relation to body height and weight and the degree of emphasis on the length and width of the auricle were also analyzed. Ear length and width increased with age. Ear length achieved its mature size in both 14-year-old males and females. Ear width reached its mature size in males at 7 years and in females at 5 years. Different trends of ear index were shown between males and females. People in this population paid more attention to the length than the width of the auricle. The data indicated that ear development followed increase in age. There were gender and ethnic difference in the development of ear. These results may have potential implications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations, syndromes, and planning of ear reconstruction surgery. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inner ear pressure changes following square wave intracranial or ear canal pressure manipulation in the same guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thalen, E; Wit, H; Segenhout, H; Albers, F

    Inner ear pressure was measured in scala tympani with a micropipette during square wave pressure manipulation of the intracranial compartment and, subsequently, of the external ear canal (EEC) in the same guinea pig. As expected, the combination of the cochlear aqueduct and the inner ear behaves as

  4. Identification and characterization of an inner ear-expressed human melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA)-like gene (MIAL) with a frequent polymorphism that abolishes translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Frödin, M; Attié-Bitach, T

    2001-01-01

    hybridization or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA of the mouse homologue was also cloned and mapped about 80 cM from the top of mouse chromosome 2. In mouse, Mial was also expressed in the cochlea and the vestibule of the inner ear, as well as in brain, eye, limb, and ovary. Expression...... in mammalian cell cultures showed that MIAL is translated as an approximately 15-kDa polypeptide that is assembled into a covalently linked homodimer, modified by sulfation, and secreted from the cells via the Golgi apparatus. In the human MIAL gene, a frequent polymorphism was discovered in the translation...

  5. Effects of user training with electronically-modulated sound transmission hearing protectors and the open ear on horizontal localization ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, John G; Robinette, Martin B

    2015-02-01

    To determine if training with electronically-modulated hearing protection (EMHP) and the open ear results in auditory learning on a horizontal localization task. Baseline localization testing was conducted in three listening conditions (open-ear, in-the-ear (ITE) EMHP, and over-the-ear (OTE) EMHP). Participants then wore either an ITE or OTE EMHP for 12, almost daily, one-hour training sessions. After training was complete, participants again underwent localization testing in all three listening conditions. A computer with a custom software and hardware interface presented localization sounds and collected participant responses. Twelve participants were recruited from the student population at Virginia Tech. Audiometric requirements were 35 dBHL at 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz bilaterally, and 55 dBHL at 4000 Hz in at least one ear. Pre-training localization performance with an ITE or OTE EMHP was worse than open-ear performance. After training with any given listening condition, including open-ear, performance in that listening condition improved, in part from a practice effect. However, post-training localization performance showed near equal performance between the open-ear and training EMHP. Auditory learning occurred for the training EMHP, but not for the non-training EMHP; that is, there was no significant training crossover effect between the ITE and the OTE devices. It is evident from this study that auditory learning (improved horizontal localization performance) occurred with the EMHP for which training was performed. However, performance improvements found with the training EMHP were not realized in the non-training EMHP. Furthermore, localization performance in the open-ear condition also benefitted from training on the task.

  6. Ear care: an update for nurses (part 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Millward, K.

    2017-01-01

    A healthy ear is vital not just for hearing, but for balance and for full engagement with the community. In the first of two articles, Kat Millward reviews the anatomy of the ear, outlines methods of dealing with cerumen, and discusses methods of assessment and diagnosis\\ud \\ud Our ears are essential for both hearing and balance. Up to 4% of the population will have difficulties with their ears relating to impacted cerumen and many of them will present in primary care with ear discomfort or h...

  7. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A Rare Case of Petrified Ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E. Buikema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcification or ossification of the auricle, also referred to as petrified ear, is a rare diagnosis in dermatology. In medical literature, it has most often been attributed to trauma, hypothermia and frostbite, or hypercalcemia secondary to a metabolic or endocrine disorder, such as Addison's disease. Here, we report the clinical and radiologic findings of a 79-year-old African American male whose unilateral petrified auricle was an incidental finding. He had a preceding history of hyperparathyroidism and subsequent hypercalcemia treated with a subtotal parathyroidectomy three years prior to presentation. In addition to laboratory analysis, a history and physical examination was performed which revealed no other signs of hypercalcemia. Radiologic studies demonstrated partial ossification of the external auricular cartilage on the left side. The patient was diagnosed with the rare occurrence of a petrified ear. In light of this case, we provide a discussion concerning the possible etiologies of this diagnosis including appropriate patient evaluation and possible treatment recommendations.

  9. Middle-Ear Microsurgery Simulation to Improve New Robotic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Kazmitcheff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Otological microsurgery is delicate and requires high dexterity in bad ergonomic conditions. To assist surgeons in these indications, a teleoperated system, called RobOtol, is developed. This robot enhances gesture accuracy and handiness and allows exploration of new procedures for middle ear surgery. To plan new procedures that exploit the capacities given by the robot, a surgical simulator is developed. The simulation reproduces with high fidelity the behavior of the anatomical structures and can also be used as a training tool for an easier control of the robot for surgeons. In the paper, we introduce the middle ear surgical simulation and then we perform virtually two challenging procedures with the robot. We show how interactive simulation can assist in analyzing the benefits of robotics in the case of complex manipulations or ergonomics studies and allow the development of innovative surgical procedures. New robot-based microsurgical procedures are investigated. The improvement offered by RobOtol is also evaluated and discussed.

  10. Cooperation of two ADAMTS metalloproteases in closure of the mouse palate identifies a requirement for versican proteolysis in regulating palatal mesenchyme proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Nelson, Courtney M.; Somerville, Robert P. T.; Mielke, Katrina; Dixon, Laura J.; Powell, Kimerly; Apte, Suneel S.

    2010-01-01

    We have identified a role for two evolutionarily related, secreted metalloproteases of the ADAMTS family, ADAMTS20 and ADAMTS9, in palatogenesis. Adamts20 mutations cause the mouse white-spotting mutant belted (bt), whereas Adamts9 is essential for survival beyond 7.5 days gestation (E7.5). Functional overlap of Adamts9 with Adamts20 was identified using Adamts9+/–;bt/bt mice, which have a fully penetrant cleft palate. Palate closure was delayed, although eventually completed, in both Adamts9...

  11. Ear embryonic rabdomiosarcoma. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueto, L.; Canabal, A.; Blanco, A.; Sabate, J.

    2002-01-01

    A case of embryonic rabdomiosarcoma in the ear of a 5-year-old girl who initially shows clinical symptoms of otitis media. The CT reveals a dense lesion of soft tissue which shows up slightly in the right external auditory channel. Also of interest were osteolytic areas in the petrous, clivus and zygomatic arch. A hypointensive lesion with marked enhancement after Gd-DPTA injection is observed. Discussed are the imaging methods used in the diagnosis of this tumor. (Author) 10 refs

  12. ElectroAcoustic Resource Site (EARS)

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Simon; Landy, Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Central to the MTIRC’s electroacoustic music studies focus, EARS is supported by the AHRC’s resource enhancement scheme (ca. £170k) and Unesco (£3k). Beyond its initial goal to create the glossary (~500 entries) and related index (providing a coherent hyperlink structure for the bibliography – ~3000 entries) there are further methodological research imperatives – to offer a web-based resource that: a) Realises an accessible research resource (glossary, keyword index and bibliography) to co...

  13. Structural Metadata Research in the Ears Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    detecting structural information in the word stream (the so-called “structural MDE” portion of the EARS program); other MDE efforts on speaker ... diarization are overviewed in [13]. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. We describe the structural MDE tasks, performance measurement, and corpora...tems have only recently been introduced, with NIST reporting re- sults with the Wilcoxon signed rank test for speaker -level average score differences

  14. CT analysis of 333 cases of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xin; Li Qiang; Wang Zhenchang; Xian Junfang; Lan Baosen

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the different CT findings of congenital malformations of the external and middle ear, 333 cases including 404 ears with external and middle ear malformations diagnosed by high resolution CT (HRCT) were analysed according to the location and type of the malformation. In 404 ears, there were 364 ears with atresia of external auditory meatus, 40 ears with stenosis of external auditory meatus, 377 ears with malformation of the ossicles, 382 ears with stenosis of tympanum and 333 ears with anterior position of the mastoid segment of the facial canal. HRCT can show the location and type of external and middle ear malformation and provide valuable information for surgery

  15. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    Full Text Available Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  16. Ear recognition from one sample per person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.

  17. Pathology of ear hematomas in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Richard; Hélie, Pierre; D'Allaire, Sylvie

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of our study were to describe the pathology of ear hematomas in swine and to add to the comprehension of the pathogenesis of this condition. The pathogenesis of aural hematomas has been studied mainly in dogs; however, disagreements exist about the precise anatomic location of the hemorrhage. Sixteen pigs with ear hematoma at various stages of development were included in this study. The pigs were submitted for routine autopsy for various and unrelated reasons over a period of several years. Based on gross examination, the 16 cases of aural hematomas were subjectively classified as acute (n = 6), subacute (n = 3), and chronic (n = 7). The age of the animals at the time of autopsy ranged from 2 weeks to adulthood, with all acute cases being hematoma developed predominantly in a subperichondral location on both sides of the cartilaginous plate simultaneously. Within these same cases, there were also some areas in which blood-filled clefts had formed within the cartilage itself. Besides fibroplasia, neoformation of cartilage was found to represent a significant part of the repair process. All chronic cases were characterized on cross-section of the ear by the presence of at least 2 distinct, wavy, focally folded, and roughly parallel plates of cartilage separated from each other by fibrous tissue. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Early postnatal virus inoculation into the scala media achieved extensive expression of exogenous green fluorescent protein in the inner ear and preserved auditory brainstem response thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Sun, Yu; Chang, Qing; Ahmad, Shoeb; Zhou, Binfei; Kim, Yeunjung; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Gene transfer into the inner ear is a promising approach for treating sensorineural hearing loss. The special electrochemical environment of the scala media raises a formidable challenge for effective gene delivery at the same time as keeping normal cochlear function intact. The present study aimed to define a suitable strategy for preserving hearing after viral inoculation directly into the scala media performed at various postnatal developmental stages. We assessed transgene expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by various types of adeno-associated virus (AAV) and lentivirus (LV) in the mouse cochlea. Auditory brainstem responses were measured 30 days after inoculation to assess effects on hearing. Patterns of GFP expression confirmed extensive exogenous gene expression in various types of cells lining the endolymphatic space. The use of different viral vectors and promoters resulted in specific cellular GFP expression patterns. AAV2/1 with cytomegalovirus promoter apparently gave the best results for GFP expression in the supporting cells. Histological examination showed normal cochlear morphology and no hair cell loss after either AAV or LV injections. We found that hearing thresholds were not significantly changed when the injections were performed in mice younger than postnatal day 5, regardless of the type of virus tested. Viral inoculation and expression in the inner ear for the restoration of hearing must not damage cochlear function. Using normal hearing mice as a model, we have achieved this necessary step, which is required for the treatment of many types of congenital deafness that require early intervention. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Alterations in the Contra lateral Ear in Chronic Otitis Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Damghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic otitis media (COM, a persistent and durable inflammation and infection of the middle ear, is a common disorder. Alterations in the contralateral ear in sufferers have been observed in recent years. Because only a few studies have been reported in this area, we performed this study in order to assess alterations in the contralateral ear of patients with COM.   Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive methods were used in 100 patients with COM who were selected for surgical treatment and admitted to hospital. An information form was completed for all patients including demographic data, medical history of otoscopy and paraclinical examinations such as pure tone audiometry (PTA, tympanometry, Schuller radiography, and high resolution computed tomography (HRCT. All data were processed using SPSS (version 18 software and descriptive statistical tests.   Results: According to otoscopy, PTA, tympanometry and graphical analysis, 60% of patients experienced disorders of the contralateral ear. Otoscopy analysis showed 54% of patients had a disorder of the contralateral ear, with the most common disorder being perforation of the ear drum. PTA showed a 48% incidence of contralateral ear problems (85% conductive hearing impairment; 12.5% sensorineural hearing impairment; 1.2% mixed. A total of 73.2% of patients with conductive hearing loss had a problem across all frequencies, while half of the patients with sensorineural hearing impairment had problems at frequencies greater than 1000 Hz. According to tympanometry, 38% of patients had problem in the contralateral ear. HRCT and Schuller graphical analyses indicated 31.5% and 36% occurrence of contralateral ear disorders, respectively.   Conclusion:  More than 50% of patients with COM in one ear have a chance of also presenting with the disease in the other ear. Outcomes of this study and previous studies have shown that COM should not be perceived as a disease limited

  20. Mass distribution and rotational inertia of "microtype" and "freely mobile" middle ear ossicles in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Danielle; Taraskin, Sergei N; Mason, Matthew J

    2011-12-01

    The middle ears of seven species of rodents, including four hamster species, were examined under light microscopy and through micro-CT imaging. Hamsters were found to possess a spectrum of ossicular morphologies ranging from something approaching "freely mobile" (Mesocricetus) to something nearer the "microtype" (Cricetulus), although no hamster has an orbicular apophysis of the malleus. Rats, mice and Calomyscus were found to have typically microtype ossicles. To explore the functional effects of these morphological differences, CT scan data were used to calculate the magnitudes of the moments of inertia and positions of the centres of mass and principal rotational axes for the malleus-incus complexes. Microtype species were found to have much greater ossicular inertias, relative to size, about the "anatomical axis" extending between anterior process of the malleus and short process of the incus; ossicular centres of mass were displaced further from this axis. Calculated inertial values were then put into an existing model of middle ear function (Hemilä et al., 1995), in order to see whether the more accurate data would improve predictions of upper hearing limits. For the rat and mouse they did, but this was not so for the hamster Mesocricetus. This might indicate that the inner rather than the middle ear limits hearing in this species, or might simply reflect other shortcomings of the model. Functional differences appear to exist even among rodent ears of the same general type, but the adaptive significance of these differences remains enigmatic. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Sheep as a large animal ear model: Middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péus, Dominik; Dobrev, Ivo; Prochazka, Lukas; Thoele, Konrad; Dalbert, Adrian; Boss, Andreas; Newcomb, Nicolas; Probst, Rudolf; Röösli, Christof; Sim, Jae Hoon; Huber, Alexander; Pfiffner, Flurin

    2017-08-01

    Animals are frequently used for the development and testing of new hearing devices. Dimensions of the middle ear and cochlea differ significantly between humans and commonly used animals, such as rodents or cats. The sheep cochlea is anatomically more like the human cochlea in size and number of turns. This study investigated the middle-ear ossicular velocities and intracochlear sound pressure (ICSP) in sheep temporal bones, with the aim of characterizing the sheep as an experimental model for implantable hearing devices. Measurements were made on fresh sheep temporal bones. Velocity responses of the middle ear ossicles at the umbo, long process of the incus and stapes footplate were measured in the frequency range of 0.25-8 kHz using a laser Doppler vibrometer system. Results were normalized by the corresponding sound pressure level in the external ear canal (P EC ). Sequentially, ICSPs at the scala vestibuli and tympani were then recorded with custom MEMS-based hydrophones, while presenting identical acoustic stimuli. The sheep middle ear transmitted most effectively around 4.8 kHz, with a maximum stapes velocity of 0.2 mm/s/Pa. At the same frequency, the ICSP measurements in the scala vestibuli and tympani showed the maximum gain relative to the P EC (24 dB and 5 dB, respectively). The greatest pressure difference across the cochlear partition occurred between 4 and 6 kHz. A comparison between the results of this study and human reference data showed middle-ear resonance and best cochlear sensitivity at higher frequencies in sheep. In summary, sheep can be an appropriate large animal model for research and development of implantable hearing devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. cPLA2a-evoked formation of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids is required for exocytosis in mouse pancreatic ß-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Kirstine; Høy, Marianne; Olsen, Hervør L.

    2003-01-01

    Using capacitance measurements, we investigated the effects of intracellularly applied recombinant human cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2 ) and its lipolytic products arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in single mouse pancreatic -cells. cPLA2 dose dependently......–80 to 280–300. cPLA2 -stimulated exocytosis was antagonized by the specific cPLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3. Ca2+-evoked exocytosis was reduced by 40% in cells treated with AACOCF3 or an antisense oligonucleotide against cPLA2 . The action of cPLA2 was mimicked by a combination of arachidonic acid...... and lysophosphatidylcholine (470% stimulation) in which each compound alone doubled the exocytotic response. Priming of insulin-containing secretory granules has been reported to involve Cl- uptake through ClC-3 Cl- channels. Accordingly, the stimulatory action of cPLA2 was inhibited by the Cl- channel inhibitor DIDS...

  3. cPLA2alpha-evoked formation of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids is required for exocytosis in mouse pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Kirstine; Høy, Marianne; Olsen, Hervør L

    2003-01-01

    Using capacitance measurements, we investigated the effects of intracellularly applied recombinant human cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) and its lipolytic products arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in single mouse pancreatic beta-cells. cPLA2alpha...... from 70-80 to 280-300. cPLA2alpha-stimulated exocytosis was antagonized by the specific cPLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3. Ca2+-evoked exocytosis was reduced by 40% in cells treated with AACOCF3 or an antisense oligonucleotide against cPLA2alpha. The action of cPLA2alpha was mimicked by a combination...... of arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine (470% stimulation) in which each compound alone doubled the exocytotic response. Priming of insulin-containing secretory granules has been reported to involve Cl- uptake through ClC-3 Cl- channels. Accordingly, the stimulatory action of cPLA2alpha was inhibited...

  4. Dynamic expression of Lgr6 in the developing and mature mouse cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Chen, Yan; Ni, Wenli; Guo, Luo; Lu, Xiaoling; Liu, Liman; Li, Wen; Sun, Shan; Wang, Lei; Li, Huawei

    2015-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in mammalian inner ear development. Lgr5, one of the downstream target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has been reported to be a marker for inner ear hair cell progenitors. Lgr6 shares approximately 50% sequence homology with Lgr5 and has been identified as a stem cell marker in several organs. However, the detailed expression profiles of Lgr6 have not yet been investigated in the mouse inner ear. Here, we first used Lgr6-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2 mice to examine the spatiotemporal expression of Lgr6 protein in the cochlear duct during embryonic and postnatal development. Lgr6-EGFP was first observed in one row of prosensory cells in the middle and basal turn at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5). From E18.5 to postnatal day 3 (P3), the expression of Lgr6-EGFP was restricted to the inner pillar cells (IPCs). From P7 to P15, the Lgr6-EGFP expression level gradually decreased in the IPCs and gradually increased in the inner border cells (IBCs). At P20, Lgr6-EGFP was only expressed in the IBCs, and by P30 Lgr6-EGFP expression had completely disappeared. Next, we demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required to maintain the Lgr6-EGFP expression in vitro. Finally, we demonstrated that the Lgr6-EGFP-positive cells isolated by flow cytometry could differentiate into myosin 7a-positive hair cells after 10 days in-culture, and this suggests that the Lgr6-positive cells might serve as the hair cell progenitor cells in the cochlea. PMID:26029045

  5. Dynamic Expression of Lgr6 in the Developing and Mature Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping eZhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays important roles in mammalian inner ear development. Lgr5, one of the downstream target genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, has been reported to be a marker for inner ear hair cell progenitors. Lgr6 shares approximately 50% sequence homology with Lgr5 and has been identified as a stem cell marker in several organs. However, the detailed expression profiles of Lgr6 have not yet been investigated in the mouse inner ear. Here, we first used Lgr6-EGFP-Ires-CreERT2 mice to examine the spatiotemporal expression of Lgr6 protein in the cochlear duct during embryonic and postnatal development. Lgr6-EGFP was first observed in one row of prosensory cells in the middle and basal turn at embryonic day 15.5 (E15.5. From E18.5 to postnatal day 3 (P3, the expression of Lgr6-EGFP was restricted to the inner pillar cells (IPCs. From P7 to P15, the Lgr6-EGFP expression level gradually decreased in the IPCs and gradually increased in the inner border cells (IBCs. At P20, Lgr6-EGFP was only expressed in the IBCs, and by P30 Lgr6-EGFP expression had completely disappeared. Next, we demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required to maintain the Lgr6-EGFP expression in vitro. Finally, we demonstrated that the Lgr6-EGFP-positive cells isolated by flow cytometry could differentiate into myosin 7a-positive hair cells after 10 days in-culture, and this suggests that the Lgr6-positive cells might serve as the hair cell progenitor cells in the cochlea.

  6. [Diagnostic value of high-resolution computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaowei; Ding, Yuanping; Zhang, Jianji; Chen, Ying; Xu, Anting; Dou, Fenfen; Zhang, Zihe

    2007-02-01

    To observe the inner ear structure with volume rendering (VR) reconstruction and to evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. HRCT scanning was performed in 10 patients (20 ears) without ear disease (control group) and 7 patients (11 ears) with inner ear malformations (IEM group) and the original data was processed with VR reconstruction. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure in the images generated by these techniques was observed respectively in the normal ears and malformation ears. The inner ear osseous labyrinth structure and the relationship was displayed clearly in VR imaging in the control group,meanwhile, characters and degree of malformed structure were also displayed clearly in the IEA group. Of seven patients (11 ears) with congenital inner ear malformations, the axial, MPR and VR images can display the site and degree in 9 ears. VR images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 2 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations included Mondini deformity (7 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (3 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate (7 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations) , the internal auditory canal malformation (2 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). HRCT can display the normal structure of bone inner ear through high quality VR reconstructions. VR images can also display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitively. HRCT is valuable in diagnosing the inner ear malformation.

  7. Gene therapy for the inner ear: challenges and promises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allen F; Dazert, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Since the recognition of genes as the discrete units of heritability, and of DNA as their molecular substrate, the utilization of genes for therapeutic purposes has been recognized as a potential means of correcting genetic disorders. The tools of molecular biology, which allow the manipulation of DNA sequence, provided the means to put this concept into practice. However, progress in the implementation of these ideas has been slow. Here we review the history of the idea of gene therapy and the complexity of genetic disorders. We also discuss the requirements for sequence-based therapy to be accomplished for different types of inherited diseases, as well as the methods available for gene manipulation. The challenges that have limited the applications of gene therapy are reviewed, as are ethical concerns. Finally, we discuss the promise of gene therapy to address inherited and acquired disorders of the inner ear. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dose rate to the inner ear during Moessbauer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Khanna, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    The most widely used technique for studying vibrations of the inner ear utilises the Moessbauer effect; this requires placement of a radioactive source on the basilar membrane. This source, although small in size and less than 37 MBq(1 mCi) in strength, is placed in close proximity to sensitive receptor cells. Using a series solution for the radiation field of a rectangular source the absorbed dose rate delivered to receptor cells at various depths and at points off-axis from the centre of the source is calculated. It is concluded that the dose delivered during the course of a Moessbauer experiment may well be sufficient to damage receptor cells and cause a loss of response. (author)

  9. Spallanzani's mouse: a model of restoration and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber-Katz, E; Leferovich, J M; Bedelbaeva, K; Gourevitch, D

    2004-01-01

    The ability to regenerate is thought to be a lost phenotype in mammals, though there are certainly sporadic examples of mammalian regeneration. Our laboratory has identified a strain of mouse, the MRL mouse, which has a unique capacity to heal complex tissue in an epimorphic fashion, i.e., to restore a damaged limb or organ to its normal structure and function. Initial studies using through-and-through ear punches showed rapid full closure of the ear holes with cartilage growth, new hair follicles, and normal tissue architecture reminiscent of regeneration seen in amphibians as opposed to the scarring usually seen in mammals. Since the ear hole closure phenotype is a quantitative trait, this has been used to show-through extensive breeding and backcrossing--that the trait is heritable. Such analysis reveals that there is a complex genetic basis for this trait with multiple loci. One of the major phenotypes of the MRL mouse is a potent remodeling response with the absence or a reduced level of scarring. MRL healing is associated with the upregulation of the metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the downregulation of their inhibitors TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, both present in inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. This model has more recently been extended to the heart. In this case, a cryoinjury to the right ventricle leads to near complete scarless healing in the MRL mouse whereas scarring is seen in the control mouse. In the MRL heart, bromodeoxyuridine uptake by cardiomyocytes filling the wound site can be seen 60 days after injury. This does not occur in the control mouse. Function in the MRL heart, as measured by echocardiography, returns to normal.

  10. Btk Inhibitor RN983 Delivered by Dry Powder Nose-only Aerosol Inhalation Inhibits Bronchoconstriction and Pulmonary Inflammation in the Ovalbumin Allergic Mouse Model of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Renteria, Lorena; Burns, Lisa; Harris, Paul; Peng, Ruoqi; Bauer, Carla M T; Laine, Dramane; Stevenson, Christopher S

    2016-06-01

    In allergen-induced asthma, activated mast cells start the lung inflammatory process with degranulation, cytokine synthesis, and mediator release. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) activity is required for the mast cell activation during IgE-mediated secretion. This study characterized a novel inhaled Btk inhibitor RN983 in vitro and in ovalbumin allergic mouse models of the early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic response. RN983 potently, selectively, and reversibly inhibited the Btk enzyme. RN983 displayed functional activities in human cell-based assays in multiple cell types, inhibiting IgG production in B-cells with an IC50 of 2.5 ± 0.7 nM and PGD2 production from mast cells with an IC50 of 8.3 ± 1.1 nM. RN983 displayed similar functional activities in the allergic mouse model of asthma when delivered as a dry powder aerosol by nose-only inhalation. RN983 was less potent at inhibiting bronchoconstriction (IC50(RN983) = 59 μg/kg) than the β-agonist salbutamol (IC50(salbutamol) = 15 μg/kg) in the mouse model of the EAR. RN983 was more potent at inhibiting the antigen induced increase in pulmonary inflammation (IC50(RN983) = <3 μg/kg) than the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide (IC50(budesonide) = 27 μg/kg) in the mouse model of the LAR. Inhalation of aerosolized RN983 may be effective as a stand-alone asthma therapy or used in combination with inhaled steroids and β-agonists in severe asthmatics due to its potent inhibition of mast cell activation.

  11. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Luis Roque; Escada, Pedro

    Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal) language. To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a "third ear", and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Eleven individuals (22 ears) with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70±11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests) adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%). We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (ppresbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear". Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Analytical model of internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vossen, Christine; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob; Leo van Hemmen, J

    2010-01-01

    Lizards and many birds possess a specialized hearing mechanism: internally coupled ears where the tympanic membranes connect through a large mouth cavity so that the vibrations of the tympanic membranes influence each other. This coupling enhances the phase differences and creates amplitude...... additionally provides the opportunity to incorporate the effect of the asymmetrically attached columella, which leads to the activation of higher membrane vibration modes. Incorporating this effect, the analytical model can explain measurements taken from the tympanic membrane of a living lizard, for example...

  13. Vitamin D receptor deficiency impairs inner ear development in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hye-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The biological actions of vitamin D are largely mediated through binding to the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family, which regulates gene expression in a wide variety of tissues and cells. Mutations in VDR gene have been implicated in ear disorders (hearing loss and balance disorder) but the mechanisms are not well established. In this study, to investigate the role of VDR in inner ear development, morpholino-mediated gene knockdown approaches were used in zebrafish model system. Two paralogs for VDR, vdra and vdrb, have been identified in zebrafish. Knockdown of vdra had no effect on ear development, whereas knockdown of vdrb displayed morphological ear defects including smaller otic vesicles with malformed semicircular canals and abnormal otoliths. Loss-of-vdrb resulted in down-regulation of pre-otic markers, pax8 and pax2a, indicating impairment of otic induction. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos lacking vdrb produced fewer sensory hair cells in the ears and showed disruption of balance and motor coordination. These data reveal that VDR signaling plays an important role in ear development. - Highlights: • VDR signaling is involved in ear development. • Knockdown of vdrb causes inner ear malformations during embryogenesis. • Knockdown of vdrb affects otic placode induction. • Knockdown of vdrb reduces the number of sensory hair cells in the inner ear. • Knockdown of vdrb disrupts balance and motor coordination.

  14. Ear replanatation: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Božikov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Total ear amputation is a rare accident. The most common causes are traffic accidents (33 %, followed by fights (28 %. In 1980, Pennington et al. reported the first successful microsurgical ear replantation in a 29-year old man.Methods: An English literature review of trauma cases of total ear amputation showed only 13 successful replantations with arterial and venous microanastomoses. We present a case report of successful total ear replantation with arterial and vein microanastomoses in a 17-year old boy.Results: Our ear replantation with both arterial and venous anastomoses performed was successful and we achieved an excellent aesthetic outcome.Conclusion: The reason for such a low number of successful ear replantations is technical challenge due to small vessel diameter, difficult vessel identification, vessel approach and concomitant avulsion injury. The best aesthetic result in ear reconstruction is achieved by microsurgical replantation. The surgical technique depends on the intraoperative findings. Since ear replantation is a very challenging procedure, a microsurgeon needs to discuss with the patient the risk of partial/total necrosis of the replanted ear and the possibilities of other reconstructive options.

  15. Incorporating anthropometry into design of ear-related products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bor-Shong

    2008-01-01

    To achieve mass customization and collaborative product design, human factors and ergonomics should play a key development role. The purpose of this study was to provide product designers with the anthropometic dimensions of outer ears for different demographic data, including gender and age. The second purpose was to compare the dimensions of various ear-related products (i.e., earphone, bluetooth earphone and ear-cup earphone) with the anthropometic database and recommend appropriate solutions for design. Two hundred subjects aged 20-59 was selected for this study and divided into four age stratifications. Further, three different dimensions of the outer ear (i.e., the earhole length, the ear connection length and the length of the pinna) were measured by superimposed grid photographic technique. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate the effects of gender, and age on ear dimensions. The results showed that all ear dimensions had significant gender effects. A comparison between the anthropometric dimensions and those of current products revealed that most current ear-related products need to be redesigned using anthropometric data. The shapes of earhole and pinna are not circular. Consequently, ear products need to be elongated so that users may feel more comfortably and not have the product slip off easily.

  16. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce TEIXIDO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  17. Ear-to-Ear On-Body Channel Model for Hearing Aid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    that the head is mod- eled more accurately, and the radiation pattern is sampled in more points. The model is able to take the on-body radiation pattern of the antenna, as well as arbitrary he ad contours into account. The model is validated by the use of measurements and Ansys HFSS simulations on the specific......The deterministic ear-to-ear on-body channel is modeled by the use of a number of elliptically shaped paths. The semi-major axes of the elliptica lly shaped paths are adjusted such that they trace the outline of the head. The path gain converges when the number of paths is increased, su ch...... anthropomorphic mannequin (SAM) head. The model is used with a g enetic algorithm in order to synthesize a radiation pattern that is optimal for use with the ear-to-ear on-body channel. The radiation pattern is synthesized in terms of the spherical wave expansion coefficients of the hypothetical small antenna...

  18. The scarless heart and the MRL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber-Katz, Ellen; Leferovich, John; Bedelbaeva, Khamilia; Gourevitch, Dmitri; Clark, Lise

    2004-05-29

    The ability to regenerate tissues and limbs in its most robust form is seen in many non-mammalian species. The serendipitous discovery that the MRL mouse has a profound capacity for regeneration in some ways rivalling the classic newt and axolotl species raises the possibility that humans, too, may have an innate regenerative ability. The adult MRL mouse regrows cartilage, skin, hair follicles and myocardium with near perfect fidelity and without scarring. This is seen in the ability to close through-and-through ear holes, which are generally used for lifelong identification of mice, and the anatomic and functional recovery of myocardium after a severe cryo-injury. We present histological, biochemical and genetic data indicating that the enhanced breakdown of scar-like tissue may be an underlying factor in the MRL regenerative response. Studies as to the source of the cells in the regenerating MRL tissue are discussed. Such studies appear to support multiple mechanisms for cell replacement.

  19. Pseudomonas aeruginosa necrotizing chondritis complicating high helical ear piercing case report: clinical and public health perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Amonpreet; Gross, Melissa; Wylie, John; Van Caeseele, Paul; Plourde, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Auricular or high helical ear piercing is an increasingly widespread fashion trend that is associated with an increased risk of potentially serious post-piercing complications such as auricular perichondritis. An 11-year-old girl developed severe auricular perichondritis following piercing of the upper helical cartilage of her ear at a hairdressing salon. Four days post piercing, she returned to the same salon for a haircut during which the pierced site was manipulated. She presented to her family physician and was treated unsuccessfully with oral cephalexin. She was then referred to an infectious diseases consultant and received antipseudomonal intravenous antibiotics with subsequent resolution. She also required debridement and removal of necrotic cartilage. Public health investigation evaluated potential sources of infection including the piercing gun, disinfectant solutions, and hair cutting spray water bottles. Final culture results of the ear helical aspirate grew Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was also cultured from one of the water bottles used to wet her hair during the haircut. Although the pseudomonal strains from the water bottle were different than the infecting one, this contamination presents a potential source of wound infection. Damage to the helical cartilage caused by the piercing gun may also have contributed to this infection. Initial empiric antibiotic therapy for these kinds of infection must include anti-pseudomonal coverage. Auricular or high helical ear piercing using a piercing gun is not recommended.

  20. Middle cranial fossa approach for the repair of spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leaks to the middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altuna, Xabier; Navarro, Juan José; García, Leire; Ugarte, Ane; Thomas, Izaskun

    Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks to the middle ear due to tegmen tympani defects can result in hearing loss or hypoacusis and predispose to meningitis as well as other neurological complications. Surgical repair of the defect can be performed through a middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach or a transmastoid approach. We conducted a retrospective study of the patients in our Department due to a spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear treated using a MCF approach during a 6-year period (2009-2014). Thirteen patients with spontaneous CSF leak to the middle ear were treated with this approach. The primary and first symptom in all of them was conductive hearing loss. In all cases, the defect or defects were closed in a multilayer manner using muscle, temporalis fascia and cortical bone. Minimum follow-up in this series was 14 months, with successful closure in all but one patient (who required reintervention). We found no intra- or postoperative complications due to the craniotomy, and the audiometry improved and normalised in all cases except for the failed case. The MCF approach with a multilayer closure of the defect is an effective technique for repairing spontaneous CSF leaks to the middle ear and for restoring hearing in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  1. Interleukin 1 induces early protein phosphorylation and requires only a short exposure for late induced secretion of β-endorphin in a mouse pituitary cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagarasan, M.O.; Axelrod, J.; Bishop, J.F.; Rinaudo, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Previous work has shown that prolonged pretreatment of a mouse anterior pituitary cell line, AtT-20 cells, with the cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) stimulates β-endorphin release and potentiates the secretion induced by many secretagogues. Desensitization of protein kinase C (PKC) by pretreatment with phorbol ester [phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate (TPA)] for 8 hr abolished the secretion induced by TPA as well as the enhancement of TPA-induced β-endorphin release produced by IL-1. Desensitization of PKC only partly abolished the potentiating effects of IL-1 on corticotropin-releasing factor-induced β-endorphin secretion. In contrast, IL-1-induced β-endorphin release was independent of PKC. The authors observed that treatment of AtT-20 cells with IL-1 markedly phosphorylated 19-, 20-, and 60-kDa proteins within minutes, presumably by early activation of protein kinases. Prolonged treatment with TPA, which was shown to desensitize an 87-kDa protein (a substrate for PKC), had no effect on IL-1-induced phosphorylation of 20-, 60-, and 87-kDa proteins, indicating that the phosphorylation of these proteins does not involve PKC. IL-1 does not generate cAMP in AtT-20 cells, suggesting that a cAMP-dependent protein kinase is also not involved. These observations indicate that once IL-1 generates an early signal, its presence is no longer necessary for the subsequent secretion of β-endorphin

  2. Interaction of the Mouse Polyomavirus Capsid Proteins with Importins Is Required for Efficient Import of Viral DNA into the Cell Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatova, Irina; Prilepskaja, Terezie; Abrahamyan, Levon; Forstová, Jitka; Huérfano, Sandra

    2018-03-31

    The mechanism used by mouse polyomavirus (MPyV) overcomes the crowded cytosol to reach the nucleus has not been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the involvement of importin α/β1 mediated transport in the delivery of MPyV genomes into the nucleus. Interactions of the virus with importin β1 were studied by co-immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assay. For infectivity and nucleus delivery assays, the virus and its capsid proteins mutated in the nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were prepared and produced. We found that at early times post infection, virions bound importin β1 in a time dependent manner with a peak of interactions at 6 h post infection. Mutation analysis revealed that only when the NLSs of both VP1 and VP2/3 were disrupted, virus did not bind efficiently to importin β1 and its infectivity remarkably decreased (by 80%). Nuclear targeting of capsid proteins was improved when VP1 and VP2 were co-expressed. VP1 and VP2 were effectively delivered into the nucleus, even when one of the NLS, either VP1 or VP2, was disrupted. Altogether, our results showed that MPyV virions can use VP1 and/or VP2/VP3 NLSs in concert or individually to bind importins to deliver their genomes into the cell nucleus.

  3. Middle ear function in sinonasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Ardakani, Hossein Payedar; Ghazizadeh, Amir Hossain; Movahed, Rahman; Jarahi, Lida; Rajati, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Nasal airway patency has long been considered a major factor in ear health. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sinonasal polyposis on middle ear and eustachian tube (ET) functionality. Forty-four individuals with polyposis, 23 with non-polyposis nasal obstruction, and 23 healthy controls were enrolled. Demographic, clinical and imaging data of all participants were collected and ET function tests and audiologic tests were performed. Hearing loss (p = 0.02), flat tympanogram (p = 0.02), disturbed Toynbee and Valsalva tests (p = 0.01), and the prevalence of allergy (p = 0.04) and purulent nasal discharge (p polyposis group than the other groups. Regression analysis revealed that infection and allergy have more important roles in ET function than the nasal obstruction. Polyposis could impede ET function; however, it is probably not because of its obstructive nature, but because of the associated increased risk of infection.

  4. Wearable ear EEG for brain interfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Eric D.; Walker, Nicholas; Danko, Amanda S.

    2017-02-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) measuring electrical activity via electroencephalogram (EEG) have evolved beyond clinical applications to become wireless consumer products. Typically marketed for meditation and neu- rotherapy, these devices are limited in scope and currently too obtrusive to be a ubiquitous wearable. Stemming from recent advancements made in hearing aid technology, wearables have been shrinking to the point that the necessary sensors, circuitry, and batteries can be fit into a small in-ear wearable device. In this work, an ear-EEG device is created with a novel system for artifact removal and signal interpretation. The small, compact, cost-effective, and discreet device is demonstrated against existing consumer electronics in this space for its signal quality, comfort, and usability. A custom mobile application is developed to process raw EEG from each device and display interpreted data to the user. Artifact removal and signal classification is accomplished via a combination of support matrix machines (SMMs) and soft thresholding of relevant statistical properties.

  5. Inflammatory diseases of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, Gustavo Santos; Andrade, Carlos Ramon de; Boasquevisque, Edson Mendes

    2008-01-01

    Objective: to determine the aspects and frequency of middle ear alterations at computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with clinical suspicion for middle ear inflammatory disease. Material and method: imaging examination results of 95 patients (95 computed tomography and 1 magnetic resonance imaging) were compared with the results of otology, imaging and surgical findings. Results: fifty-two patients had normal imaging results. Forty-three patients had radiologic alterations compared to the physical, otology and histopathologic exams: acute otomastoiditis in 2 patients (4.6%), unilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 9 (21.0%), bilateral chronic otomastoiditis in 2 (4.6%), unilateral cholesteatoma in 26 (60.5%), and bilateral cholesteatoma in 4 (9.3%). Conclusion: computed tomography was able to demonstrate the characteristics of the lesions and found complications in majority of the cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was used only in one patient to rule out scar and cholesteatoma. The knowledge of the clinical and otologic data enables the radiologist to elaborate a more appropriate interpretation of the imaging findings. (author)

  6. Using Four-Layer Sculpted Rib Cartilage Framework to Increase Transverse Height of the Reconstructive Ear in One Operative Stage for Microtia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rui; Pang, Xingyuan; Ren, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This case study improves an operative method of ear reconstruction for microtia patients by using a four-layer rib cartilage framework to increase transverse height of the reconstructive ear to a natural level in one operative stage. The procedures of ear reconstruction were conducted from February 2014 to May 2016. The ear framework used in the procedures was fabricated from autologous rib cartilage into a four-layer spliced sculpture. Totally 23 patients with unilateral microtia were willing to be enrolled in this study. After the operation, 23 patients achieved 2.3-2.8 cm transverse height of reconstructed ears, which was basically the same as the normal side. Both patients and their families felt satisfied with the results. Follow-up was performed at 6-16 months after the procedures. Only one case showed significantly lowered transverse height of the reconstructed ear, compared to the normal one. It was due to the sleeping position of the patient (10-year-old boy), which put the reconstructed ear under pressure and reduced the transverse height of the ear. The method of four-layer sculpted autologous rib cartilage ear reconstruction has good clinical effect. It can provide a reconstructed ear that reaches normal transverse height and avoids a third operation to increase the transverse height by rib cartilage transplantation. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  7. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. MEMS capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Darrin J; Zurcher, Mark A; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff A; Ko, Wen H

    2012-12-01

    The design, implementation, and characterization of a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive accelerometer-based middle ear microphone are presented in this paper. The microphone is intended for middle ear hearing aids as well as future fully implantable cochlear prosthesis. Human temporal bones acoustic response characterization results are used to derive the accelerometer design requirements. The prototype accelerometer is fabricated in a commercial silicon-on-insulator (SOI) MEMS process. The sensor occupies a sensing area of 1 mm × 1 mm with a chip area of 2 mm × 2.4 mm and is interfaced with a custom-designed low-noise electronic IC chip over a flexible substrate. The packaged sensor unit occupies an area of 2.5 mm × 6.2 mm with a weight of 25 mg. The sensor unit attached to umbo can detect a sound pressure level (SPL) of 60 dB at 500 Hz, 35 dB at 2 kHz, and 57 dB at 8 kHz. An improved sound detection limit of 34-dB SPL at 150 Hz and 24-dB SPL at 500 Hz can be expected by employing start-of-the-art MEMS fabrication technology, which results in an articulation index of approximately 0.76. Further micro/nanofabrication technology advancement is needed to enhance the microphone sensitivity for improved understanding of normal conversational speech.

  9. Identifying position, visibility, dimensions, and angulation of the ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kasim; Christian, Jayanth; Jeyapalan, Karthigeyan; Natarajan, Shanmuganathan; Banu, Fathima; Veeravalli, Padmanabhan T

    2014-01-01

    We selected 254 subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 yr to assess the ear position, angulations of the ear in relation to the nose, visibility from the frontal view, and dimensions of the ear by using various anthropometric points of the face. Subjects were divided into four groups based on facial form. A reference plane indicator, facial topographical measurements, metal ruler, and digital photography were used. While considering the position of the ear, in all facial forms except square tapering, the most samples showed a tendency for the subaurale being in line with subnasale. Regression analysis showed a tendency to gnathion distance is the most dependent variable with length of the ear kept as a constant predictor, while both interalar distance and exocanthion to endocanthion distance correlate highly significantly to the width of the ear. In all subjects, the visibility of the ear when viewed from the front was an average of 1.5 mm. Regardless of facial form, ear angulation was generally less than nose angulation.

  10. Ad Hoc Constitution of Topical Antibiotics Solution for Ear Dressing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/ Purpose: In the management of chronic suppurative otitis media and otitis externa there are few cases where although an organism is cultured and isolated from the ear, there are either no antibiotic sensitive to the microbiological flora or the sensitive antibiotic is not available in the form of an ear drop, limiting ...

  11. Why do elephants flap their ears? | Wright | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blood flow in the ear of the African elephant Loxodonta africana was measured In anaesthetized animals using the dye dilution technique at the same time as the arterio-venous temperature difference. The calculated heat loss from the ear is shown to be a substantial proportion of the total metabolic heat-loss ...

  12. Economic Evaluation pf Antibacterial Usage in Ear, Nose and Throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out economic evaluation of antibacterial usage for Ear, Nose and Throat infections in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria. Methods: Antibacterial utilisation evaluation was carried out retrospectively over one year period by reviewing 122 case notes containing 182 prescriptions of patient with Ear Nose ...

  13. A break-even analysis of major ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Phillips, J S

    2015-10-01

    To determine variables which affect cost and profit for major ear surgery and perform a break-even analysis. Retrospective financial analysis. UK teaching hospital. Patients who underwent major ear surgery under general anaesthesia performed by the senior author in main theatre over a 2-year period between dates of 07 September 2010 and 07 September 2012. Income, cost and profit for each major ear patient spell. Variables that affect major ear surgery profitability. Seventy-six patients met inclusion criteria. Wide variation in earnings, with a median net loss of £-1345.50 was observed. Income was relatively uniform across all patient spells; however, theatre time of major ear surgery at a cost of £953.24 per hour varied between patients and was the main determinant of cost and profit for the patient spell. Bivariate linear regression of earnings on theatre time identified 94% of variation in earnings was due to variation in theatre time (r = -0.969; P break-even time for major ear surgery of 110.6 min. Theatre time was dependent on complexity of procedure and number of OPCS4 procedures performed, with a significant increase in theatre time when three or more procedures were performed during major ear surgery (P = 0.015). For major ear surgery to either break-even or return a profit, total theatre time should not exceed 110 min and 36 s. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Congenital inner ear malformations without sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Kumiko; Horiguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2008-03-01

    It has been reported that normal hearing is rare in patients with severe inner ear vestibular malformations [Kokai H, Oohashi M, Ishikawa K, Harada K, Hiratsuka H, Ogasawara M et al. Clinical review of inner ear malformation. J Otolaryngol Jpn 2003;106(10):1038-44; Schuknecht HF. Mondini dysplasia. A clinical pathological study. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 1980;89(Suppl. 65):1-23; Jackler RK, Luxford WM, House WF. Congenital malformations of the inner ear: a classification based on embryogenesis. Laryngoscope 1987;97:2-14; Phelps PD. Congenital lesions of the inner ear, demonstrated by tomography. Arch Otolaryngol 1974;100:11-8]. A 37-year-old woman had combined dysplasia of the posterior and lateral semicircular canals (PSCC, LSCC) with normal cochlear development and normal hearing in both ears. She had complained of dizziness for 8 months. High resolution computed tomography (CT) showed hypogenesis of the bony labyrinth in both ears. Bilateral PSCC and LSCC dysplasia and dilatation of the vestibule were detected. Magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) revealed that the deformity of the PSCC was more severe than the LSCC. Although the caloric test of the left ear elicited no nystagmus and there was reduced response in the right ear, the horizontal vestibulo-occular reflex (VOR) was present. Her dizzy sensation disappeared within 3 months without special treatment. The dizziness attack might have been caused by a temporary breakdown of her peripheral vestibular system.

  15. Temporal bone CT analysis of congenital ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jung Won; Moon, Min Joo; Sung, Kyu Bo

    1988-01-01

    Authors analysed the CT findings of the congenital ear anomalies of twenty-nine patients for 2 years and 3 months. The results were as follows: 1. Most of the patients were under the age of 20 (82.7%) and prevalent in male (72.4%). 2. Clinically, congenital ear anomalies were detected in 20 patients (68.9%), conductive hearing loss in 4, sensorineural hearing loss in 1, and the remained 4 patients were detected incidentally without clinical symptom. 3. In the cases of unilateral involvement of 20 patients, right ear was more common (12/20). Eight of 9 bilateral involvement showed similar degree. 4. The middle ear malformations were found in 22 patients (75.9%) and bilateral in 4 patients. 26 cases of middle ear malformations had been classified by Frey into 4 groups; Group I in 5, Group II in 9, Graoup III in 9 and Group IV in 3. 5. Incidentally found ear anomaly was lateral semicircular canal formed a single cavity with the vestibule in all patients (5 pts.). 6. Inner ear malformations accompanying sensorineural hearing loss were found in 3 patients with bilateral involvement and middle ear malformations were accompanied in 2 patients. The degree of involvement of labyrinth was variable.

  16. The acoustical significance of age-dependent ear elongation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    , corresponding to what is reported in the literature. For female ears, virtually no acoustical effect was found. For male ears directional dependent effects in the range up to 5 dB on average was found for certain directions and frequencies. Implications on age dependent hearing loss (presbycusis...

  17. Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of screening for hearing impairment in the elderly patients was also stressed. KEYWORDS: Cerumen, Ear disease, Elderly, Otitis, Presbycusis. Erratum Note: Olusola AS on the article “Profile of Ear Diseases among Elderly Patients in Sagamu, South-Western Nigeria” on Page Nig. J. Med 2013. 143-147.

  18. 14 CFR 67.205 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.205..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a second-class airman..., vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  19. 14 CFR 67.105 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.105..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a first-class airman... may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  20. 14 CFR 67.305 - Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium. 67.305..., nose, throat, and equilibrium. Ear, nose, throat, and equilibrium standards for a third-class airman... by, or that may reasonably be expected to be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium. ...

  1. Directional characteristics for different in-ear recording points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Kalsgaard; Christensen, Flemming; Hoffmann, Pablo Faundez

    2015-01-01

    -back the sound. In this paper, measurements with different in-ear recording positions are conducted on nine subjects. The measurements are used for finding the optimal microphone position. The results show that spatial information equivalent to ears without insert earphones can be preserved up to around 4-5 kHz....

  2. Concha headphones and their coupling to the ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanchard, Lola Justine Kydia Olivia; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to obtain a better understanding of concha headphone. Concha headphones are the small types of earpiece that are placed in the concha. They are not sealed to the ear and therefore, there is a leak between the earpiece and the ear. This leak is the reason why...

  3. 15 CFR 734.2 - Important EAR terms and principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Important EAR terms and principles. 734.2 Section 734.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... OF THE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.2 Important EAR terms and principles. (a) Subject to...

  4. Preventing Cauliflower Ear with a Modified Tie-Through Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Robert J.; Hough, David O.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a quick, simple tie-through suture technique (in which a collodion packing is secured to the auricle with two buttons) for preventing cauliflower ear following external ear trauma in wrestlers and boxers. The technique ensures constant compression; multiple treatments for fluid reaccumulation are rarely necessary. (SM)

  5. Comparison of Microbiological Flora in the External Auditory Canal of Normal Ear and an Ear with Acute Otitis Externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanpur, Asheesh Dora; Nayak, Dipak Ranjan; Chawla, Kiran; Shashidhar, V; Singh, Rohit

    2017-09-01

    Acute Otitis Externa (AOE) is also known as swimmer's ear. Investigations initiated during World War II firmly established the role of bacteria in the aetiology of Acute Otitis Externa. To culture the microbiological flora of the normal ear and compare it with the flora causing AOE and to know the role of normal ear canal flora and anaerobes in the aetiology. A prospective observational study was conducted on 64 patients clinically diagnosed with unilateral AOE. Ear swabs were taken from both the ears. Microbiological flora was studied considering diseased ear as test ear and the normal ear as the control. Aerobic and anaerobic cultures were done. Severity of the disease was assessed by subjective and objective scores. Effect of topical treatment with ichthammol glycerine pack was assessed after 48 hours and scores were calculated again. Patients with scores < 4 after pack removal were started on systemic antibiotics and were assessed after seven days of antibiotics course. Data was analysed using Paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed ranks test and Chi-square test. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33%) was the most common bacteria cultured from the ear followed by Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (18%). Patients with anaerobic organism in the test ear had severe symptoms and needed systemic antibiotic therapy. Most of the cases may respond to empirical antibiotic therapy. In cases with severe symptoms and the ones refractory to empirical treatment, a culture from the ear canal will not be a tax on the patient. This helps in giving a better understanding about the disease, causative organisms and helps in avoiding the use of inappropriate antibiotics that usually result in developing resistant strains of bacteria.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging in inflammatory lesions of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tono, Tetsuya; Saku, Kazuaki; Miyanaga, Satoshi; Kano, Kiyo; Morimitsu, Tamotsu; Suzuki, Yukiko.

    1988-01-01

    Eighteen patients with chronic otitis media, middle ear cholesteatoma, and postoperative inflammatory diseases of the middle ear underwent high resolution computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before surgical exploration of the middle ear. Results showed that CT provides higher detail resolution in middle ear structures, but provides limited density resolution in displaying inflammatory soft tissue lesions. By contrast, MRI differentiates among soft tissue lesions such as fluid-filled spaces, granulation tissues, and cholesteatomatous debris. Cholesterin granulomas show a particularly characteristic signal pattern with a very high intensity area in both T1 and T2 weighted images. It is concluded that MRI is useful in differentiating soft tissue density masses when used in conjunction with CT in middle ear inflammatory diseases. (author)

  7. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  8. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  9. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  10. Direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic versus open ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, N; Mohammadi, A; Jufas, N

    2018-02-01

    Totally endoscopic ear surgery is a relatively new method for managing chronic ear disease. This study aimed to test the null hypothesis that open and endoscopic approaches have similar direct costs for the management of attic cholesteatoma, from an Australian private hospital setting. A retrospective direct cost comparison of totally endoscopic ear surgery and traditional canal wall up mastoidectomy for the management of attic cholesteatoma in a private tertiary setting was undertaken. Indirect and future costs were excluded. A direct cost comparison of anaesthetic setup and resources, operative setup and resources, and surgical time was performed between the two techniques. Totally endoscopic ear surgery has a mean direct cost reduction of AUD$2978.89 per operation from the hospital perspective, when compared to canal wall up mastoidectomy. Totally endoscopic ear surgery is more cost-effective, from an Australian private hospital perspective, than canal wall up mastoidectomy for attic cholesteatoma.

  11. Prevention and management of vascular complications in middle ear and cochlear implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lella, Filippo; Falcioni, Maurizio; Piccinini, Silvia; Iaccarino, Ilaria; Bacciu, Andrea; Pasanisi, Enrico; Cerasti, Davide; Vincenti, Vincenzo

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study is to illustrate prevention strategies and management of vascular complications from the jugular bulb (JB) and internal carotid artery (ICA) during middle ear surgery or cochlear implantation. The study design is retrospective case series. The setting is tertiary referral university hospital. Patients were included if presented pre- or intraoperative evidence of high-risk anatomical anomalies of ICA or JB during middle ear or cochlear implant surgery, intraoperative vascular injury, or revision surgery after the previous iatrogenic vascular lesions. The main outcome measures are surgical outcomes and complications rate. Ten subjects were identified: three underwent cochlear implant surgery and seven underwent middle ear surgery. Among the cochlear implant patients, two presented with anomalies of the JB impeding access to the cochlear lumen and one underwent revision surgery for incorrect positioning of the array in the carotid canal. Subtotal petrosectomy was performed in all cases. Anomalies of the JB were preoperatively identified in two patients with attic and external auditory canal cholesteatoma, respectively. In a patient, a high and dehiscent JB was found during myringoplasty, while another underwent revision surgery after iatrogenic injury of the JB. A dehiscent ICA complicated middle ear effusion in one case, while in another case, a carotid aneurysm determined a cholesterol granuloma. Rupture of a pseudoaneurysm of the ICA occurred in a child during second-stage surgery and required permanent balloon occlusion without neurological complications. Knowledge of normal anatomy and its variants and preoperative imaging are the basis for prevention of vascular complications during middle ear or cochlear implant surgery.

  12. Physiological artifacts in scalp EEG and ear-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Simon L; Looney, David; Mandic, Danilo P; Kidmose, Preben

    2017-08-11

    A problem inherent to recording EEG is the interference arising from noise and artifacts. While in a laboratory environment, artifacts and interference can, to a large extent, be avoided or controlled, in real-life scenarios this is a challenge. Ear-EEG is a concept where EEG is acquired from electrodes in the ear. We present a characterization of physiological artifacts generated in a controlled environment for nine subjects. The influence of the artifacts was quantified in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) deterioration of the auditory steady-state response. Alpha band modulation was also studied in an open/closed eyes paradigm. Artifacts related to jaw muscle contractions were present all over the scalp and in the ear, with the highest SNR deteriorations in the gamma band. The SNR deterioration for jaw artifacts were in general higher in the ear compared to the scalp. Whereas eye-blinking did not influence the SNR in the ear, it was significant for all groups of scalps electrodes in the delta and theta bands. Eye movements resulted in statistical significant SNR deterioration in both frontal, temporal and ear electrodes. Recordings of alpha band modulation showed increased power and coherence of the EEG for ear and scalp electrodes in the closed-eyes periods. Ear-EEG is a method developed for unobtrusive and discreet recording over long periods of time and in real-life environments. This study investigated the influence of the most important types of physiological artifacts, and demonstrated that spontaneous activity, in terms of alpha band oscillations, could be recorded from the ear-EEG platform. In its present form ear-EEG was more prone to jaw related artifacts and less prone to eye-blinking artifacts compared to state-of-the-art scalp based systems.

  13. A systems level approach reveals new gene regulatory modules in the developing ear

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingchen; Tambalo, Monica; Barembaum, Meyer; Ranganathan, Ramya; Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.; Streit, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The inner ear is a complex vertebrate sense organ, yet it arises from a simple epithelium, the otic placode. Specification towards otic fate requires diverse signals and transcriptional inputs that act sequentially and/or in parallel. Using the chick embryo, we uncover novel genes in the gene regulatory network underlying otic commitment and reveal dynamic changes in gene expression. Functional analysis of selected transcription factors reveals the genetic hierarchy underlying the transition ...

  14. Mozart Ear Deformity: a Rare Diagnosis in the Ear Reconstruction Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telich-Tarriba, Jose E; Victor-Baldin, Andre; Apellaniz-Campo, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Mozart ear is a rare auricular deformity; clinically the auricle is characterized by the bulging appearance of the anterosuperior portion of the auricle due to fusion of the crura of the antihelix, an inversion in the normal form of the cavum conchae resulting in its convexity and a slit-like narrowing of the orifice of the external auditory meatus.A retrospective review of clinical and photographic records of patients attended at the ear reconstruction clinic of our hospital between June of 2010 and May 2016 was performed; out of 576 consecutive patients only 3 fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a prevalence of 0.5%. The authors present these patients.Surgical interventions mainly focus on the correction of the convex concha; however, the procedure should be tailored to the severity of the deformity and the wishes of the patient.

  15. [Risk factors for inner ear diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszewska, G; Kaźmierczak, H; Doroszewski, W

    2000-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of obesity and arterial hypertension in patients suffering from vertigo, and/or tinnitus and/or hearing loss of unknown origin. 48 patients (25 women and 23 men) were included into this study. All patients had a negative previous medical history of any metabolic, cardiovascular or neurological disorders. Our results were compared to the control group of 31 healthy persons (16 women and 15 men). All subjects had a complete neurootologic examination, appropriate audiometric and vestibular studies. In most cases inner ear pathology was recognised. BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured in all cases. Patients were overweight significantly more often comparing to the control group. Systolic and diastolic hypertension was found significantly more often in men from the patients than control group.

  16. Advances tomographic in evaluation of middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, Mayara Alves Pinheiro dos; Ledo, Mirelle D'arc Frota; Ribeiro, Marcio Duarte

    2011-01-01

    Computed tomography has a key role in the study of hearing, since through it can be evaluated structures not seen by otoscope. In many clinical situations the diagnosis through this test proves limited, being fundamental examination of the associated image reconstructions: multiplanar reconstruction, maximum intensity projection, and volume-rendering technique. The ossicular chain is a complex formed by the ossicles malleus, incus and stapes, situated in the middle ear; it is difficult to view them in orthogonals planes. This review article intends to demonstrate the importance of post-processing the image of the ossicular chain for a better representation of the anatomy and possible diseases. Reformatting of images helps, significantly, to a better visualization of these structures as related congenital malformations, vascular abnormalities, inflammatory conditions, neoplasia and traumas. (author)

  17. The effect of different sowing depths on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Atar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted with aim to investigate effect on fresh ear yield and some ear characteristics of sweet corn of sowing at different depths during 2015 and 2016 years in Isparta. The experiments were set up according to randomized complete block design with three replicates using BATEM TATLI sweet corn cultivar. Furrows were opened at depths of 10 and 20 cm after the soil preparation, and seeds were sown in the 4-5 cm depth in to these furrows. According to means of years, while furrow sowing increased ear diameter, ear weigh, number of kernels per ear and fresh ear yield compared to control, it was not effect on ear length. In the research, between 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing wasn’t significant statistically. Fresh ear yield in control, 10 cm and 20 cm furrow sowing were measured as 1110.9 kg ha-1 , 1228.4 kg ha-1 and 1289.4 kg ha-1 , respectively. According to results of research, 5 cm deep sowing in 10 cm furrows should be advised in sweet corn cultivation.

  18. Presbycusis: do we have a third ear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Roque Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Age-related hearing changes are the most frequent cause of sensorineural hearing loss in adults. In the literature no studies exist concerning the importance of speechreading in individuals with presbycusis. Equally, no such studies have been carried out with speakers of the Portuguese (Portugal language. Objectives: To evaluate whether the intelligibility of words in presbycusis is improved by speechreading, in such a way that looking at the interlocutor's face while he is talking functions like a “third ear”, and to determine the statistical relevance of the intelligibility improvement by speechreading. Methods: Eleven individuals (22 ears with bilateral and symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss compatible with presbycusis were evaluated. The subjects were aged between 57 and 82 years, with an average of 70 ± 11.51 years and median of 69.5 years. A complete medical and audiological profile of each patient was created and all patients were submitted to a vocal audiogram, without and with observation of the audiologist's face. A descriptive and analytical statistical analysis was performed (Shapiro-Wilk and t pairs tests adopting the significance level of 0.05 (5%. Results: We noticed better performance in intelligibility with speechreading. The p-value was zero (p < 0.05, so we rejected the null hypothesis, showing that there was statistically significant difference with speechreading; the same conclusion was obtained by analysis of the confidence intervals. Conclusions: Individuals with presbycusis in this study, performed better on spoken word intelligibility when the hearing of those words was associated with speechreading. This phenomenon helps in such a way that observation of the interlocutor's face works like a "third ear".

  19. Passage of albumin from the middle ear to the inner ear in otitis media in the chinchilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.; Goycoolea, M.V.; Schleivert, P.M.; Shea, D.; Schachern, P.; Paparella, M.M.; Carpenter, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the permeability of the middle ear-inner ear interface for macromolecules was carried out in chinchillas with open and obstructed eustachian tubes utilizing tritiated human serum albumin and immunoelectrophoresis. Tritiated albumin was placed in the round window niche area or normal animals and animals in which the eustachian tubes had been obstructed for 24 hours or 14 days. The tritiated albumin was allowed to remain in the middle ear cavity for 24 hours, Samples of middle ear effusion, perilymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were collected and measured for radioactivity. Radioactivity was demonstrated in the perilymph. Samples of middle ear effusions and perilymph were also studied by immunoelectrophoresis with goat antihuman albumin. Albumin placed in the round window niche of an experimental animal could be recovered unchanged in the perilymph. The results suggest a pathophysiologic explanation for the association of otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss or endolymphatic hydrops

  20. Implementation of immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedeković Tomislav

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea is a contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants and one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus belongs to the genus Pestivirus, within the family Flaviviridae. The identification and elimination of the persistently infected animals from herds is the initial step in the control and eradication programs. It is therefore necessary to have reliable methods for diagnosis of bovine viral diarrhea virus. One of those methods is immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue is a routine technique in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle from ear notch tissue samples. However, such technique is inappropriate due to complicated tissue fixation process and it requires more days for preparation. On the contrary, immunohistochemistry on frozen tissue was usually applied on organs from dead animals. In this paper, for the first time, the imunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples was described. Findings Seventeen ear notch tissue samples were obtained during the period 2008-2009 from persistently infected cattle. Samples were fixed in liquid nitrogen and stored on -20°C until testing. Ear notch tissue samples from all persistently infected cattle showed positive results with good section quality and possibility to determinate type of infected cells. Conclusions Although the number of samples was limited, this study indicated that immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue can be successfully replaced with immunohistochemistry on frozen ear notch tissue samples in diagnosis of persistently infected cattle.

  1. A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS IN CHRONICALLY DISCHARGING EARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM is a disease of multiple aetiology and well known for its persis tence and recurrence inspite of treatment and are the bearbug of otologist, paediatrician and general practitioner. One of the reason s for the refractoriness to treatment and chronicity is coexist ing fungal infection of the ear. OBJECTIVES: Are to find out the prevalence of fungal infections in chronic discharging ears and to identify and isolate the type of fungus prevalent in these ears . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: Tertiary care hospital level descrip tive study was conducted in 50 cases of CSOM with actively discharging ears for a period of one year starting from February 2013. For all the cases aural swabs were collected from the diseased ear and were used for direct microscopic examination in potassi um hydroxide wet mount. Ear swab was cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar plate for fungal cultures. The patient characteristics were prospectively recorded and results were analysed. CONCLUSION : There is high prevalence of coexisting fungal infection in actively discharging ears of CSOM patients

  2. THE IDENTIFICATION OF EAR PRINTS USING COMPLEX GABOR FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A S Gunawan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a method used to recognize humans based on one or a few characteristicsphysical or behavioral traits that are unique such as DNA, face, fingerprints, gait, iris, palm, retina,signature and sound. Although the facts that ear prints are found in 15% of crime scenes, ear printsresearch has been very limited since the success of fingerprints modality. The advantage of the useof ear prints, as forensic evidence, are it relatively unchanged due to increased age and have fewervariations than faces with expression variation and orientation. In this research, complex Gaborfilters is used to extract the ear prints feature based on texture segmentation. Principal componentanalysis (PCA is then used for dimensionality-reduction where variation in the dataset ispreserved. The classification is done in a lower dimension space defined by principal componentsbased on Euclidean distance. In experiments, it is used left and right ear prints of ten respondentsand in average, the successful recognition rate is 78%. Based on the experiment results, it isconcluded that ear prints is suitable as forensic evidence mainly when combined with otherbiometric modalities.Keywords: Biometrics; Ear prints; Complex Gabor filters; Principal component analysis;Euclidean distance

  3. Trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Toye Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reported health and socioeconomic consequences of ear piercing, especially in modern day society, underscore the need to further research into this subject. In this study, we determine the trends and complications of ear piercing among selected Nigerian population. Aim and Objectives: The aim and objective of this study was to draw attention to the trends and complications of ear piercing with a view to prevent its associated complications. Methodology: It is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out between February and May 2015 among selected Nigerian population from two of its six geo-political zones. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire which had been pretested was used to collect data from 458 respondents who consented using multistage sampling technique. Results: Of 480 respondents enumerated, 458 completed the questionnaires and gave their biodata. The male:female ratio was 1:6.2. Their ages ranged from 18 to 75 years with a mean of 35.56 ± 10.16. About 35.4% of the respondents were within the age group of 31–40 years. Majority of the respondents, i.e.,79.3% practiced ear piercing on their children. Most of them (86.8% preferred single piercing. Ear piercing was performed within the 1st week of birth in 37.2% of the respondents. Large percentage (93.2% of the respondents will not encourage ear piercing in male children. Nearly 20.5% of the respondents observed complications. Conclusion: Ear piercing remained a common practice in Nigeria, with respondents preferring it on females. Majority of the piercings are done in childhood and by untrained personnel. Keloid formation was the notable complication observed by the respondents. There is a need to increase awareness about the hazards of ear piercings and to enact laws that regulate ear piercings particularly in children which is hereby stretched.

  4. 3D ear identification based on sparse representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    Full Text Available Biometrics based personal authentication is an effective way for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. Recently, 3D ear shape has attracted tremendous interests in research field due to its richness of feature and ease of acquisition. However, the existing ICP (Iterative Closet Point-based 3D ear matching methods prevalent in the literature are not quite efficient to cope with the one-to-many identification case. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by proposing a novel effective fully automatic 3D ear identification system. We at first propose an accurate and efficient template-based ear detection method. By utilizing such a method, the extracted ear regions are represented in a common canonical coordinate system determined by the ear contour template, which facilitates much the following stages of feature extraction and classification. For each extracted 3D ear, a feature vector is generated as its representation by making use of a PCA-based local feature descriptor. At the stage of classification, we resort to the sparse representation based classification approach, which actually solves an l1-minimization problem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work introducing the sparse representation framework into the field of 3D ear identification. Extensive experiments conducted on a benchmark dataset corroborate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed approach. The associated Matlab source code and the evaluation results have been made publicly online available at http://sse.tongji.edu.cn/linzhang/ear/srcear/srcear.htm.

  5. The cone-dominant retina and the inner ear of zebrafish express the ortholog of CLRN1, the causative gene of human Usher syndrome type 3A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer B; Västinsalo, Hanna; Wegner, Jeremy; Clément, Aurélie; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Westerfield, Monte

    2013-12-01

    Clarin-1 (CLRN1) is the causative gene in Usher syndrome type 3A, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive vision and hearing loss. CLRN1 encodes Clarin-1, a glycoprotein with homology to the tetraspanin family of proteins. Previous cell culture studies suggest that Clarin-1 localizes to the plasma membrane and interacts with the cytoskeleton. Mouse models demonstrate a role for the protein in mechanosensory hair bundle integrity, but the function of Clarin-1 in hearing remains unclear. Even less is known of its role in vision, because the Clrn1 knockout mouse does not exhibit a retinal phenotype and expression studies in murine retinas have provided conflicting results. Here, we describe cloning and expression analysis of the zebrafish clrn1 gene, and report protein localization of Clarin-1 in auditory and visual cells from embryonic through adult stages. We detect clrn1 transcripts as early as 24h post-fertilization, and expression is maintained through adulthood. In situ hybridization experiments show clrn1 transcripts enriched in mechanosensory hair cells and supporting cells of the inner ear and lateral line organ, photoreceptors, and cells of the inner retina. In mechanosensory hair cells, Clarin-1 is polarized to the apical cell body and the synapses. In the retina, Clarin-1 localizes to lateral cell contacts between photoreceptors and is associated with the outer limiting membrane and subapical processes emanating from Müller glial cells. We also find Clarin-1 protein in the outer plexiform, inner nuclear and ganglion cell layers of the retina. Given the importance of Clarin-1 function in the human retina, it is imperative to find an animal model with a comparable requirement. Our data provide a foundation for exploring the role of Clarin-1 in retinal cell function and survival in a diurnal, cone-dominant species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The middle ear immune defense changes with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Friis, Morten; Martin-Bertelsen, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    of this study was to analyze the relationship between age and the mucosal immune system in the middle ear. It is hypothesized that genes involved in the middle ear immune system will change with age. A comprehensive assessment of these genetic differences using the techniques of complementary DNA has not been...... performed. Complementary DNA microarray technology was used to identify immune-related genes differentially expressed between the normal middle ear mucosa of young (10 days old) and adult rats (80 days old). Data were analyzed using tools of bioinformatics. A total of 260 age-related genes were identified...

  7. Neonatal Hairy Ear Pinnae and Gestational Diabetes: Just a Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Enrico; Riello, Laura; Chirico, Michela; Semenzato, Rossella; Cutrone, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A newborn girl of 36 weeks gestation was noted to have several anomalies, including bilateral low ear attachment with ear pinnae hypertrichosis, left preauricular pit, micrognathia, short lingual frenulum, and short neck. Pregnancy history revealed poorly controlled maternal gestational diabetes (GD). Localized hypertrichosis of the ear pinnae may represent a potential marker of GD and thereby alert physicians to suspect other potentially GD-associated conditions such as macrosomia, asphyxia, respiratory distress, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperbilirubinemia, polycythemia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and congenital anomalies, particularly those involving the central nervous system. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. PRC2 Is Required to Maintain Expression of the Maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg Locus by Preventing De Novo DNA Methylation in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Pratim Das

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2 function and DNA methylation (DNAme are typically correlated with gene repression. Here, we show that PRC2 is required to maintain expression of maternal microRNAs (miRNAs and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs from the Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus, which is essential for full pluripotency of iPSCs. In the absence of PRC2, the entire locus becomes transcriptionally repressed due to gain of DNAme at the intergenic differentially methylated regions (IG-DMRs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the IG-DMR serves as an enhancer of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus. Further analysis reveals that PRC2 interacts physically with Dnmt3 methyltransferases and reduces recruitment to and subsequent DNAme at the IG-DMR, thereby allowing for proper expression of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus. Our observations are consistent with a mechanism through which PRC2 counteracts the action of Dnmt3 methyltransferases at an imprinted locus required for full pluripotency.

  9. PRC2 is required to maintain expression of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus by preventing de novo DNA methylation in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Partha Pratim; Hendrix, David A.; Apostolou, Effie; Buchner, Alice H.; Canver, Matthew C.; Beyaz, Semir; Ljuboja, Damir; Kuintzle, Rachael; Kim, Woojin; Karnik, Rahul; Shao, Zhen; Xie, Huafeng; Xu, Jian; De Los Angeles, Alejandro; Zhang, Yingying; Choe, Junho; Jun, Don Leong Jia; Shen, Xiaohua; Gregory, Richard I.; Daley, George Q.; Meissner, Alexander; Kellis, Manolis; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Kim, Jonghwan; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) function and DNA methylation (DNAme) are typically correlated with the gene repression. Here, we show that PRC2 is required to maintain expression of maternal microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) from the Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus, which is essential for full pluripotency of iPSCs. In the absence of PRC2 the entire locus becomes transcriptionally repressed due to gain of DNA methylation at the intergenic differentially methylated regions (IG-DMR). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the IG-DMR serves as an enhancer of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus. Mechanistic study reveals that PRC2 interacts physically with Dnmt3 methyltransferases and prevents their recruitment and subsequent DNAme at the IG-DMR, thereby allowing for proper expression of the maternal Gtl2-Rian-Mirg locus. Our observations provide a novel mechanism by which PRC2 counteracts the action of Dnmt3 methyltransferases at an imprinted locus required for full pluripotency. PMID:26299972

  10. c-Myb and its target Bmi1 are required for p190BCR/ABL leukemogenesis in mouse and human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, T; De Dominici, M; Soliera, A R; Audia, A; Iacobucci, I; Lonetti, A; Martinelli, G; Zhang, Y; Martinez, R; Hyslop, T; Bender, T P; Calabretta, B

    2012-04-01

    Expression of c-Myb is required for normal hematopoiesis and for proliferation of myeloid leukemia blasts and a subset of T-cell leukemia, but its role in B-cell leukemogenesis is unknown. We tested the role of c-Myb in p190(BCR/ABL)-dependent B-cell leukemia in mice transplanted with p190(BCR/ABL)-transduced marrow cells with a c-Myb allele (Myb(f/d)) and in double transgenic p190(BCR/ABL)/Myb(w/d) mice. In both models, loss of a c-Myb allele caused a less aggressive B-cell leukemia. In p190(BCR/ABL)-expressing human B-cell leukemia lines, knockdown of c-Myb expression suppressed proliferation and colony formation. Compared with c-Myb(w/f) cells, expression of Bmi1, a regulator of stem cell proliferation and maintenance, was decreased in pre-B cells from Myb(w/d) p190(BCR/ABL) transgenic mice. Ectopic expression of a mutant c-Myb or Bmi1 enhanced the proliferation and colony formation of Myb(w/d) p190(BCR/ABL) B-cells; by contrast, Bmi1 downregulation inhibited colony formation of p190(BCR/ABL)-expressing murine B cells and human B-cell leukemia lines. Moreover, c-Myb interacted with a segment of the human Bmi1 promoter and enhanced its activity. In blasts from 19 Ph(1) adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, levels of c-Myb and Bmi1 showed a positive correlation. Together, these findings support the existence of a c-Myb-Bmi1 transcription-regulatory pathway required for p190(BCR/ABL) leukemogenesis.

  11. A surgical approach appropriate for targeted cochlear gene therapy in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jero, J; Tseng, C J; Mhatre, A N; Lalwani, A K

    2001-01-01

    Therapeutic manipulations of the mammalian cochlea, including cochlear gene transfer, have been predominantly studied using the guinea pig as the experimental model. With the significant developments in mouse genomics and the availability of mutant strains of mice with well-characterized hearing loss, the mouse justifiably will be the preferred animal model for therapeutic manipulations. However, the potential advantages of the mouse model have not been fully realized due to the surgical difficulty of accessing its small cochlea. This study describes a ventral approach, instead of the routinely used postauricular approach in other rodents, for accessing the mouse middle and inner ear, and its application in cochlear gene transfer. This ventral approach enabled rapid and direct delivery of liposome-transgene complex to the mouse inner ear while avoiding blood loss, facial nerve morbidity, and mortality. Transgene expression at 3 days was detected in Reissner's membrane, spiral limbus, spiral ligament, and spiral ganglion cells, in a pattern similar to that previously described in the guinea pig. The successful access and delivery of material to the mouse cochlea and the replication of gene expression seen in the guinea pig demonstrated in this study should promote the use of the mouse in future studies investigating targeted cochlear therapy.

  12. Dissection of the Auditory Bulla in Postnatal Mice: Isolation of the Middle Ear Bones and Histological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Ayako; Kuroda, Yukiko; Kanzaki, Sho; Matsuo, Koichi

    2017-01-04

    In most mammals, auditory ossicles in the middle ear, including the malleus, incus and stapes, are the smallest bones. In mice, a bony structure called the auditory bulla houses the ossicles, whereas the auditory capsule encloses the inner ear, namely the cochlea and semicircular canals. Murine ossicles are essential for hearing and thus of great interest to researchers in the field of otolaryngology, but their metabolism, development, and evolution are highly relevant to other fields. Altered bone metabolism can affect hearing function in adult mice, and various gene-deficient mice show changes in morphogenesis of auditory ossicles in utero. Although murine auditory ossicles are tiny, their manipulation is feasible if one understands their anatomical orientation and 3D structure. Here, we describe how to dissect the auditory bulla and capsule of postnatal mice and then isolate individual ossicles by removing part of the bulla. We also discuss how to embed the bulla and capsule in different orientations to generate paraffin or frozen sections suitable for preparation of longitudinal, horizontal, or frontal sections of the malleus. Finally, we enumerate anatomical differences between mouse and human auditory ossicles. These methods would be useful in analyzing pathological, developmental and evolutionary aspects of auditory ossicles and the middle ear in mice.

  13. Laser vibrometer measurements and middle ear prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Stephen T.; Dornhoffer, John; Ferguson, Scott

    1997-05-01

    One of us has developed an improved partial ossicular replacement prosthesis that is easier to implant and, based on pilot clinical measurements, results in better high-frequency hearing as compared to patients receiving one of the alternative prostheses. It is hypothesized that the primary reason for this is because of the relatively light weight (about 25 mg) and low compliance of the prosthesis, which could conceivably result in better high frequency vibrational characteristics. The purpose of our initial work was to develop an instrument suitable for objectively testing the vibrational characteristics of prostheses. We have developed a laser based device suitable for measuring the vibrational characteristics of the oval window or other structures of the middle ear. We have tested this device using a piezoelectric transducer excited at audio frequencies, as well as on the oval window in human temporal bones harvested from cadavers. The results illustrate that it is possible to non-invasively monitor the vibrational characteristics of anatomic structures with a very inexpensive photonic device.

  14. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics in the chicken inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Eric C; Park, Debra L; Durham, Dianne; Girod, Douglas A

    2004-06-01

    Avians have the unique ability to regenerate cochlear hair cells that are lost due to ototoxins or excessive noise. Many methodological techniques are available to damage the hair cells for subsequent scientific study. A recent method utilizes topical application of an ototoxic drug to the round window membrane. The current study examines the pharmacokinetics of gentamicin in the inner ear of chickens following topical application to the round window membrane or a single systemic high dose given intraperitoneally. Chickens were given gentamicin topically or systemically and survived for 1, 4, 12, 24, or 120 h (controls at 4 and 120 h). Serum and perilymph samples were obtained prior to sacrifice and measured for gentamicin levels. Results revealed higher levels of gentamicin in the perilymph of topically treated chickens than systemically treated chickens, with significant amounts of gentamicin still present in both at the latest survival time of 5 days. As expected, systemically treated chickens had much higher levels of gentamicin in the serum than topically treated chickens. Advantages and disadvantages to each method of drug administration are discussed.

  15. The acoustic reflex threshold in aging ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, C A; Silman, S; Miller, M H

    1983-01-01

    This study investigates the controversy regarding the influence of age on the acoustic reflex threshold for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators between Jerger et al. [Mono. Contemp. Audiol. 1 (1978)] and Jerger [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] on the one hand and Silman [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 (1979)] and others on the other. The acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise, 500-, 1000-, 2000-, and 4000-Hz activators were evaluated under two measurement conditions. Seventy-two normal-hearing ears were drawn from 72 subjects ranging in age from 20-69 years. The results revealed that age was correlated with the acoustic reflex threshold for BBN activator but not for any of the tonal activators; the correlation was stronger under the 1-dB than under the 5-dB measurement condition. Also, the mean acoustic reflex thresholds for broadband noise activator were essentially similar to those reported by Jerger et al. (1978) but differed from those obtained in this study under the 1-dB measurement condition.

  16. How minute sooglossid frogs hear without a middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Peyrin, Françoise; Scotti, Thierry; Herzog, Philippe; Gerlach, Justin; Pollet, Nicolas; Aubry, Jean-François

    2013-09-17

    Acoustic communication is widespread in animals. According to the sensory drive hypothesis [Endler JA (1993) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 340(1292):215-225], communication signals and perceptual systems have coevolved. A clear illustration of this is the evolution of the tetrapod middle ear, adapted to life on land. Here we report the discovery of a bone conduction-mediated stimulation of the ear by wave propagation in Sechellophryne gardineri, one of the world's smallest terrestrial tetrapods, which lacks a middle ear yet produces acoustic signals. Based on X-ray synchrotron holotomography, we measured the biomechanical properties of the otic tissues and modeled the acoustic propagation. Our models show how bone conduction enhanced by the resonating role of the mouth allows these seemingly deaf frogs to communicate effectively without a middle ear.

  17. Computed tomography of middle ear cholesteatomas without tympanic membrane perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettorre, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of a middle ear cholesteatoma behind a normal tympanic membrane is a rate though possible event. In such cases, CT may provide useful information for diagnosis. The results are presented of a CT study carried out on 14 patients affected with unilateral conductive hearing loss and with normal tympanic membrane. CT allowed the diagnosis of meddle ear cholesteatoma to be made in all cases. All patients were treated with surgery: 8 of them underwent tympanoplasty and 6 explorative tympanotomy. While the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was confirmed in 13 patients, in 1 case tympanosclerosis was diagnosed. CT diagnosis of middle ear cholesteatoma is based on the demonstration of a low-density soft-tissue mass, in association with bone erosion or ossicular dislocation. The author emphasizes the difficulty of a CT diagnosis of cholesteatoma in the patients with middle ear soft-tissue masses in the absence of bone alterations

  18. The ferret as a model for inner ear research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarey, K E

    1985-06-01

    Viral infections have long been suspected to be causative agents in a number of inner ear dysfunctions. With few exceptions, the virus has not been demonstrated as the direct agent leading to hearing loss and/or vertigo. Selective inner ear changes have been observed recently in sensory and nonsensory epithelial cells in the ferret model for Reye's syndrome after intranasal inoculation with influenza B combined with aspirin administration and the creation of an arginine deficiency. Such findings suggest that these agents act synergistically on the inner ear, particularly on cells that are metabolically active, and that the ferret may now be a useful model to examine the role of certain upper respiratory tract viruses implicated in inner ear disorders, singly and in combination with other agents that may cause metabolic alterations.

  19. In-the-Ear Spiral Monopole Antenna for Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel in-the-ear (ITE) antenna solution for hearing instruments that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a quarter wave monopole and a ground plane that are placed in the ear. The simulated path gain | S 21 |is − 86 dB and the measured path gain is − 80 dB. Simulations an...... and measurements show that the antenna covers the entire 2.40 – 2.48 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. It is the first ever ITE-antenna solution that demonstrates the possibility of establishing an ear-to-ear link by using a standard Bluetooth chip...

  20. IL-22 is required for Th17 cell-mediated pathology in a mouse model of psoriasis-like skin inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hak-Ling; Liang, Spencer; Li, Jing; Napierata, Lee; Brown, Tom; Benoit, Stephen; Senices, Mayra; Gill, Davinder; Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyriaki; Collins, Mary; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Fouser, Lynette A; Young, Deborah A

    2008-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from the dysregulated interplay between keratinocytes and infiltrating immune cells. We report on a psoriasis-like disease model, which is induced by the transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi)CD25(-) cells to pathogen-free scid/scid mice. Psoriasis-like lesions had elevated levels of antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA. Also, similar to psoriasis, disease progression in this model was dependent on the p40 common to IL-12 and IL-23. To investigate the role of IL-22, a Th17 cytokine, in disease progression, mice were treated with IL-22-neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization of IL-22 prevented the development of disease, reducing acanthosis (thickening of the skin), inflammatory infiltrates, and expression of Th17 cytokines. Direct administration of IL-22 into the skin of normal mice induced both antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Our data suggest that IL-22, which acts on keratinocytes and other nonhematopoietic cells, is required for development of the autoreactive Th17 cell-dependent disease in this model of skin inflammation. We propose that IL-22 antagonism might be a promising therapy for the treatment of human psoriasis.

  1. IL-22 is required for Th17 cell–mediated pathology in a mouse model of psoriasis-like skin inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hak-Ling; Liang, Spencer; Li, Jing; Napierata, Lee; Brown, Tom; Benoit, Stephen; Senices, Mayra; Gill, Davinder; Dunussi-Joannopoulos, Kyriaki; Collins, Mary; Nickerson-Nutter, Cheryl; Fouser, Lynette A.; Young, Deborah A.

    2008-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease resulting from the dysregulated interplay between keratinocytes and infiltrating immune cells. We report on a psoriasis-like disease model, which is induced by the transfer of CD4+CD45RBhiCD25– cells to pathogen-free scid/scid mice. Psoriasis-like lesions had elevated levels of antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine mRNA. Also, similar to psoriasis, disease progression in this model was dependent on the p40 common to IL-12 and IL-23. To investigate the role of IL-22, a Th17 cytokine, in disease progression, mice were treated with IL-22–neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization of IL-22 prevented the development of disease, reducing acanthosis (thickening of the skin), inflammatory infiltrates, and expression of Th17 cytokines. Direct administration of IL-22 into the skin of normal mice induced both antimicrobial peptide and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression. Our data suggest that IL-22, which acts on keratinocytes and other nonhematopoietic cells, is required for development of the autoreactive Th17 cell–dependent disease in this model of skin inflammation. We propose that IL-22 antagonism might be a promising therapy for the treatment of human psoriasis. PMID:18202747

  2. Sonographic Measurement of Fetal Ear Length in Turkish Women with a Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucize Eriç Özdemir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal fetal ear length is a feature of chromosomal disorders. Fetal ear length measurement is a simple measurement that can be obtained during ultrasonographic examinations. Aims: To develop a nomogram for fetal ear length measurements in our population and investigate the correlation between fetal ear length, gestational age, and other standard fetal biometric measurements. Study Design: Cohort study. Methods: Ear lengths of the fetuses were measured in normal singleton pregnancies. The relationship between gestational age and fetal ear length in millimetres was analysed by simple linear regression. In addition, the correlation of fetal ear length measurements with biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, and femur length were evaluated.Ear length measurements were obtained from fetuses in 389 normal singleton pregnancies ranging between 16 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results: A nomogram was developed by linear regression analysis of the parameters ear length and gestational age. Fetal ear length (mm = y = (1.348 X gestational age-12.265, where gestational ages is in weeks. A high correlation was found between fetal ear length and gestational age, and a significant correlation was also found between fetal ear length and the biparietal diameter (r=0.962; p<0.001. Similar correlations were found between fetal ear length and head circumference, and fetal ear length and femur length. Conclusion: The results of this study provide a nomogram for fetal ear length. The study also demonstrates the relationship between ear length and other biometric measurements.

  3. Study on corrosion products from ear piercing studs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Costa, Isolda; Saiki, Mitiko

    2000-01-01

    In this work instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to analyse elemental composition of commercial gold coated ear piercing substrate and metals present in their corrosion products. The cytotoxic effect was also verified in these corrosion product extracts, probably, due to the lixiviation of Ni present in high quantity in their substrates. The analysis of gold coated ear piercing surfaces by scanning electron microscopy before and after the corrosion test showed coating defects and the occurrence of corrosion process. (author)

  4. The ear region of Latimeria chalumnae: functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The anatomy of Latimeria chalumnae has figured prominently in discussions about tetrapod origins. While the gross anatomy of Latimeria is well documented, relatively little is known about its otic anatomy and ontogeny. To examine the inner ear and the otoccipital part of the cranium, a serial-sectioned juvenile coelacanth was studied in detail and a three-dimensional reconstruction was made. The ear of Latimeria shows a derived condition compared to other basal sarcopterygians in having a connection between left and right labyrinths. This canalis communicans is perilymphatic in nature and originates at the transition point of the saccule and the lagena deep in the inner ear, where a peculiar sense end organ can be found. In most gnathostomes the inner ears are clearly separated from each other. A connection occurs in some fishes, e.g. within the Ostariophysi. In the sarcopterygian lineage no connections between the inner ears are known except in the Actinistia. Some fossil actinistians show a posteriorly directed duct lying between the foramen magnum and the notochordal canal, similar to the condition in the ear of Latimeria, so this derived character complex probably developed early in actinistian history. Because some features of the inner ear of Latimeria have been described as having tetrapod affinities, the problem of hearing and the anatomy of the otical complex in the living coelacanth has been closely connected to the question of early tetrapod evolution. It was assumed in the past that the structure found in Latimeria could exemplify a transitional stage in otic evolution between the fishlike sarcopterygians and the first tetrapods in a functional or even phylogenetic way. Here the possibility is considered that the canalis communicans does not possess any auditory function but rather is involved in sensing pressure changes during movements involving the intracranial joint. Earlier hypotheses of a putative tympanic ear are refuted.

  5. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  6. Cisplatin Ototoxicity Blocks Sensory Regeneration in the Avian Inner Ear

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Eric L.; Warchol, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely-used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy, and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was al...

  7. Cochlear implantation in the Mondini inner ear malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, R T; Robbins, A J; Myres, W A; Pope, M L

    1986-07-01

    We report the case of a profoundly deaf 4-year-old boy with congenital deafness as a result of Mondini's dysplasia. The Mondini inner ear malformation is the result of arrested labyrinthine development during embryogenesis and is characterized by both bony and membranous anomalies of the inner ear. The dysplastic cochlear anatomy does not preclude successful cochlear implantation, and electrical threshold measurements are similar to those recorded in pediatric subjects deafened as a result of other causes.

  8. Melanoacanthoma of external ear: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma is a rare lesion. Melanoacanthoma of external ear is still rarer . We present two cases of melanoacanthoma of external ear in adults which presented as pigmented growths and clinically were suspected as malignant lesions. Histopathology was diagnostic as it demonstrated the characteristic elevated lesion with abundant melanin pigment. No recurrence of the lesion was reported after four years of initial diagnosis. These cases have been presented because of their uncommon location, highlighting the differential diagnoses.

  9. Poor Oral Hygiene and Middle Ear Infections: Any Relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    Esra, Eryaman; Banu, Oter Ilhan; Erdinc, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between poor oral hygiene and middle ear infections. 59 children between 3–12 age intervals were included in this study. The ears were examined by microscope. The findings were marked according to Kempthorne clinical scale and tympanograms were performed. For data analysis of dental caries, dft and DMFT indexes were used in accordance with WHO (World Health Organization) criteria for oral health surveys. The oral hygiene status was det...

  10. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction

    OpenAIRE

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. Subjects and methods: 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was perfor...

  11. Caspase-1 but Not Caspase-11 Is Required for NLRC4-Mediated Pyroptosis and Restriction of Infection by Flagellated Legionella Species in Mouse Macrophages and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Daiane M; Pereira, Marcelo S F; Silva, Alexandre L N; Cunha, Larissa D; Zamboni, Dario S

    2015-09-01

    Gram-negative bacteria from the Legionella genus are intracellular pathogens that cause a severe form of pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. The bacteria replicate intracellularly in macrophages, and the restriction of bacterial replication by these cells is critical for host resistance. The activation of the NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasome, which is readily triggered in response to bacterial flagellin, is essential for the restriction of bacterial replication in murine macrophages. Once activated, this inflammasome induces pore formation and pyroptosis and facilitates the restriction of bacterial replication in macrophages. Because investigations related to the NLRC4-mediated restriction of Legionella replication were performed using mice double deficient for caspase-1 and caspase-11, we assessed the participation of caspase-1 and caspase-11 in the functions of the NLRC4 inflammasome and the restriction of Legionella replication in macrophages and in vivo. By using several species of Legionella and mice singly deficient for caspase-1 or caspase-11, we demonstrated that caspase-1 but not caspase-11 was required for pore formation, pyroptosis, and restriction of Legionella replication in macrophages and in vivo. By generating F1 mice in a mixed 129 × C57BL/6 background deficient (129 × Casp-11(-/-) ) or sufficient (129 × C57BL/6) for caspase-11 expression, we found that caspase-11 was dispensable for the restriction of Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages and in vivo. Thus, although caspase-11 participates in flagellin-independent noncanonical activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, it is dispensable for the activities of the NLRC4 inflammasome. In contrast, functional caspase-1 is necessary and sufficient to trigger flagellin/NLRC4-mediated restriction of Legionella spp. infection in macrophages and in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D'Andrea, Alan; Niedernhofer, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  13. Mouse models of Fanconi anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parmar, Kalindi; D' Andrea, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Niedernhofer, Laura J., E-mail: niedernhoferl@upmc.edu [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, Research Pavilion 2.6, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-1863 (United States)

    2009-07-31

    Fanconi anemia is a rare inherited disease characterized by congenital anomalies, growth retardation, aplastic anemia and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia and squamous cell carcinomas. The disease is caused by mutation in genes encoding proteins required for the Fanconi anemia pathway, a response mechanism to replicative stress, including that caused by genotoxins that cause DNA interstrand crosslinks. Defects in the Fanconi anemia pathway lead to genomic instability and apoptosis of proliferating cells. To date, 13 complementation groups of Fanconi anemia were identified. Five of these genes have been deleted or mutated in the mouse, as well as a sixth key regulatory gene, to create mouse models of Fanconi anemia. This review summarizes the phenotype of each of the Fanconi anemia mouse models and highlights how genetic and interventional studies using the strains have yielded novel insight into therapeutic strategies for Fanconi anemia and into how the Fanconi anemia pathway protects against genomic instability.

  14. Sound pressure gain produced by the human middle ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, H; Goode, R L

    1995-10-01

    The acoustic function of the middle ear is to match sound passing from the low impedance of air to the high impedance of cochlear fluid. Little information is available on the actual middle ear pressure gain in human beings. This article describes experiments on middle ear pressure gain in six fresh human temporal bones. Stapes footplate displacement and phase were measured with a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after removal of the tympanic membrane, malleus, and incus. Acoustic insulation of the round window with clay was performed. Umbo displacement was also measured before tympanic membrane removal to assess baseline tympanic membrane function. The middle ear has its major gain in the lower frequencies, with a peak near 0.9 kHz. The mean gain was 23.0 dB below 1.0 kHz, the resonant frequency of the middle ear; the mean peak gain was 26.6 dB. Above 1.0 kHz, the second pressure gain decreased at a rate of -8.6 dB/octave, with a mean gain of 6.5 dB at 4.0 kHz. Only a small amount of gain was present above 7.0 kHz. Significant individual differences in pressure gain were found between ears that appeared related to variations in tympanic membrane function and not to variations in cochlear impedance.

  15. The role of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koesling, S.; Juettemann, S.; Amaya, B.; Rasinski, C.; Bloching, M.; Koenig, E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This is a prospective analysis of the value of MRI in suspected inner ear malformations. Materials and Methods: In 50 patients (43 children and young adults, 7 adults) with suspected inner ear malformation MRI (1.5 T) was performed. In addition, 42 of these patients underwent CT. For the analysis of the inner ear structures, the constructive interference in steady state (CISS) sequence with 0.7 mm slice thickness was used. Functional tests revealed a sensorineural hearing loss or deafness in 82 temporal bones (TB) and a combined hearing loss in 4 TB. The hearing loss was unilateral in 14 patients. MRI and CT findings were compared. Results: Imaging findings were normal in 58 TB. The pathological findings included inner ear malformations (35 TB), inflammatory changes (4 TB), partial obliteration of labyrinth (2 TB) and congenital aural atresia (1 TB). An isolated absence of the cochlear nerve (1 TB) could only be found by MRI. In the remaining cases, an inner ear malformation was diagnosed by MRI and CT with the same confidence but MRI was superior in displaying the fine details. Conclusions: MRI will become the method of choice in the diagnosis of inner ear malformations. (orig.) [de

  16. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  17. Lumped parametric model of the human ear for sound transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Gan, Rong Z

    2004-09-01

    A lumped parametric model of the human auditoria peripherals consisting of six masses suspended with six springs and ten dashpots was proposed. This model will provide the quantitative basis for the construction of a physical model of the human middle ear. The lumped model parameters were first identified using published anatomical data, and then determined through a parameter optimization process. The transfer function of the middle ear obtained from human temporal bone experiments with laser Doppler interferometers was used for creating the target function during the optimization process. It was found that, among 14 spring and dashpot parameters, there were five parameters which had pronounced effects on the dynamic behaviors of the model. The detailed discussion on the sensitivity of those parameters was provided with appropriate applications for sound transmission in the ear. We expect that the methods for characterizing the lumped model of the human ear and the model parameters will be useful for theoretical modeling of the ear function and construction of the ear physical model.

  18. The ear in fetal MRI: what can we really see?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Nuno Canto [Neuroradiology Section C., Campos Costa, Fragosela, Viseu (Portugal); Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Teixeira, Joao [Department of Neuroradiology, Porto (Portugal); Raininko, Raili; Wikstrom, Johan [Uppsala University, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to depict the components of the ear on brain-oriented fetal MRI studies. Retrospective evaluation of the ear in MRI studies was performed post-mortem in 16 fetuses ranging from 15 to 22 gestation weeks (GW), and in 122 examinations in vivo of fetuses ranging from 20 to 38 GW. The cochlea, vestibular apparatus, middle ear, and external auditory canal were separately graded according to the components that were delineated. The components of the inner and middle ear were fully delineated in 100% of the post-mortem examinations, but the external auditory canals were only seen in only 25%. In the in vivo group, the imaging detail was much lower. Cochlear turns could be identified in 75% of the fetuses, the vestibule and the lateral semicircular canals in 72% andossicles in 70%. Before 25 GW, the ability to identify these individual parts was 50%, 30%, and 33%, respectively, and above it was 89%, 93%, and 90%. In most cases, the external auditory canals could only be seen after 29 GW. In fetal MRI studies in vivo, it is possible to depict the components of the ear in the majority of the fetuses, in such a manner as to exclude major malformations. However, MRI might not provide enough detail to rule out pathology of the ear before 25 GW, this being a critical age for pregnancy management in many countries. (orig.)

  19. [HRCT imaging characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear in 45 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinling; Meng, Meijuan; Huan, Yi; Zhang, Jinsong

    2003-10-01

    To explore the high resolution CT (HRCT) image characterized of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear(CAIE), and its value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE. The clinic data and axial HRCT scans of CAIE in 45 cases were analyzed. In 45 CAIE patients, most of them were frequently associated with slowly progressive sensorineural hearing loss in childhood, 15 ears were fluctuating hearing loss. Seventeen ears were unilateral semicircular canal paralysis. HRCT showed that Michel type 3 cases(4 ears), Mondini type 25 cases(39 ears). Large vestibular aqueduct malformation not associated with anomalies of inner ears 13 cases(23 ears), anomalies of internal auditory canal 4 cases (5 ears). Thirteen ears were associated with outer and middle ear malformation. HRCT image has the important value in the diagnosis and treatment of CAIE, especially for the excerpt of indication of cochlear implantation.

  20. The eyes, ears and collective voice for nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2000-01-01

    Transport is a vital part of the nuclear industry and the safety record of radioactive materials transport across the world is excellent. This record is due primarily to well-founded regulations developed by such intergovernmental organisations as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Maritime Organisation. It is due, also, to the professionalism of those in the industry. Attitudes to nuclear transport are important. They have the potential, if not heeded, and not responded to sensitively and convincingly to make life very much more difficult for those committed to the safe, reliable and efficient transport of nuclear materials. What is required is a balanced situation, which takes account both of the public's attitudes and industry's need for an efficient operation. The voices of the nuclear transport industry and those who value the industry need to be heard. The World Nuclear Transport Institute was established to provide the nuclear transport industry with the collective eyes, ears and voice in the key intergovernmental organisations which are so important to it. The nuclear transport industry has a safety record which could be regarded as a model for the transport of dangerous goods of all kinds. The industry is situated within a comprehensive and strict regime of national and international standards and regulations. That is the message to be disseminated, and that is the commitment of the World Nuclear Transport Institute as it works to protect and to promote the safe, efficient and reliable transport of radioactive materials. (author)

  1. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  2. Isolation and characterization of the progenitor cells from the blastema tissue formed at experimentally-created rabbit ear hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-02-01

    Objective(s) : Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  3. Real ear unaided gain and its relation with the equivalent volume of the external and middle ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastos, Bárbara Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Old age is associated with changes in the characteristics of the middle ear transmission system and in external ear resonance, and these carry implications for the hearing aid (HA verification process for which targets and measures of the real ear insertion gain (REIG are used. Aim: To compare the real ear unaided gain (REUG and the equivalent volumes of the external ear (VeqEE and the middle ear (VeqME between elderly and adult patients. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which the medical records of 28 elderly patients (aged between 61 and 102 years, average hearing thresholds between 38.75 and 85 dB HL and 23 adult patients (aged 20-59, mean hearing thresholds between 31.25 and 116.25 dB HL with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and no history of middle ear abnormalities were analyzed. Immittance measurements (VeqEE, VeqME, and pressure of the peak of maximum compliance and the REUG (frequency and amplitude of the primary peak were recovered for a total of 40 ears. These data were compared between elderly and adults as well as between men and women, using Student's t test. Correlations (Pearson between immittance and REUG data were also verified. Results: No statistically significant differences (p < 0.01 were found for immittance and REUG data between elderly and adults, or between men and women. A negative and weak but significant correlation was observed between the REUG primary peak and VeqEE. Conclusion: Hearing aid verification can be performed with target and measures of the REIG in the elderly population.

  4. Deep Arm/Ear-ECG Image Learning for Highly Wearable Biometric Human Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingxue; Zhou, Dian

    2018-01-01

    In this study, to advance smart health applications which have increasing security/privacy requirements, we propose a novel highly wearable ECG-based user identification system, empowered by both non-standard convenient ECG lead configurations and deep learning techniques. Specifically, to achieve a super wearability, we suggest situating all the ECG electrodes on the left upper-arm, or behind the ears, and successfully obtain weak but distinguishable ECG waveforms. Afterwards, to identify individuals from weak ECG, we further present a two-stage framework, including ECG imaging and deep feature learning/identification. In the former stage, the ECG heartbeats are projected to a 2D state space, to reveal heartbeats' trajectory behaviors and produce 2D images by a split-then-hit method. In the second stage, a convolutional neural network is introduced to automatically learn the intricate patterns directly from the ECG image representations without heavy feature engineering, and then perform user identification. Experimental results on two acquired datasets using our wearable prototype, show a promising identification rate of 98.4% (single-arm-ECG) and 91.1% (ear-ECG), respectively. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first study on the feasibility of using single-arm-ECG/ear-ECG for user identification purpose, which is expected to contribute to pervasive ECG-based user identification in smart health applications.

  5. Proposal of a Budget-Friendly Camera Holder for Endoscopic Ear Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturan, Orhan; Yenigun, Alper; Aksoy, Fadlullah; Ertas, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) is increasingly a preferred technique in otologic society. It offers excellent visualization of the anatomical structures directly and behind the corners with variable angled telescopes. It also provides reduced operative morbidity due to being able to perform surgical interventions with less invasive approaches. Operative preparation and setup time and cost of endoscopy system are less expensive compared with surgical microscopes. On the other hand, the main disadvantage of EES is that the surgery has to be performed with 1 single hand. It is certainly restrictive for an ear surgeon who has been operating with 2 hands under otologic microscopic views for years and certainly requires a learning period and perseverance. Holding the endoscope by a second surgeon is not executable because of insufficient surgical space.Endoscope/camera holders have been developed for those who need the comfort and convenience afforded by double-handed microscopic ear surgery. An ideal endoscope holder should be easy-to-set up, easily controlled, providing a variety of angled views, allowing the surgeon to operate with 2 hands and, budget-friendly. In this article, a commercially available 11-inch magic arm camera holder is proposed by the authors to be used in EES due to its versatile, convenient, and budget-friendly features. It allows 2-handed EES through existing technology and is affordable for surgeons looking for a low-cost and practical solution.

  6. Gait asymmetry detection in older adults using a light ear-worn sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atallah, L; Lo, B; Yang, G-Z; Wiik, A; Cobb, J P; Amis, A A

    2014-01-01

    Measuring gait asymmetry is an important feature when characterizing functional imbalance between limbs. This could be due to pathologies, such as osteoarthritis, stroke, or associated with the effects of surgeries such as hip arthroplasty. Generally, the study of asymmetry or imbalance has required the use of a gait lab or force plates, which could be expensive and difficult to use in home settings. This work validates the use of a light weight ear sensor (7.4 g) with an instrumented treadmill for 64 subjects (age (60.04 (15.36)) including healthy subjects (14) as well as subjects who had been treated for hip (17), knee-replacement surgery (21) and knee osteoarthritis (12). Subjects performed treadmill walking at several speeds on flat surfaces, inclines and declines. Accelerometer data from the ear sensor were segmented into consecutive steps and temporal features were extracted. The measures of gait cycle time and step-period asymmetry obtained from the ear sensor matched well those of the treadmill for flat surfaces, inclines and declines. The key implication of the study is that the proposed method could replace expensive equipment for monitoring temporal gait features in clinics as well as free-living environments, which is important for monitoring rehabilitation after surgery and the progress of diseases affecting limb imbalance. (note)

  7. A novel Atoh1 "self-terminating" mouse model reveals the necessity of proper Atoh1 level and duration for hair cell differentiation and viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Pan

    Full Text Available Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1 is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre, in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to "self-terminate" its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy.

  8. FT-IR Microspectroscopy of Rat Ear Cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto de Campos Vidal

    Full Text Available Rat ear cartilage was studied using Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR microspectroscopy to expand the current knowledge which has been established for relatively more complex cartilage types. Comparison of the FT-IR spectra of the ear cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM with published data on articular cartilage, collagen II and 4-chondroitin-sulfate standards, as well as of collagen type I-containing dermal collagen bundles (CBs with collagen type II, was performed. Ear cartilage ECM glycosaminoglycans (GAGs were revealed histochemically and as a reduction in ECM FT-IR spectral band heights (1140-820 cm-1 after testicular hyaluronidase digestion. Although ear cartilage is less complex than articular cartilage, it contains ECM components with a macromolecular orientation as revealed using polarization microscopy. Collagen type II and GAGs, which play a structural role in the stereo-arrangement of the ear cartilage, contribute to its FT-IR spectrum. Similar to articular cartilage, ear cartilage showed that proteoglycans add a contribution to the collagen amide I spectral region, a finding that does not recommend this region for collagen type II quantification purposes. In contrast to articular cartilage, the symmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups at 1064 cm-1 appeared under-represented in the FT-IR spectral profile of ear cartilage. Because the band corresponding to the asymmetric stretching vibration of -SO3- groups (1236-1225 cm-1 overlapped with that of amide III bands, it is not recommended for evaluation of the -SO3- contribution to the FT-IR spectrum of the ear cartilage ECM. Instead, a peak (or shoulder at 1027-1016 cm-1 could be better considered for this intent. Amide I/amide II ratios as calculated here and data from the literature suggest that protein complexes of the ear cartilage ECM are arranged with a lower helical conformation compared to pure collagen II. The present results could motivate further studies on this tissue

  9. Stimulus-dependent effects on right ear advantage in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smucny J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jason Smucny,1,3 Korey Wylie,3 Jason Tregellas1–31Neuroscience Program, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Research Science, Denver VA Medical, Center, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USABackground: When presented with different sounds in each ear (dichotic listening, healthy subjects typically show a preference for stimuli heard in the right ear, an effect termed "right ear advantage". Previous studies examining right ear advantage in schizophrenia have been inconsistent, showing either decreased or increased advantage relative to comparison subjects. Given evidence for enhanced semantic processing in schizophrenia, some of this inconsistency may be due to the type of stimuli presented (words or syllables. The present study examined right ear advantage in patients and controls using both words and syllables as stimuli.Methods: Right ear advantage was compared between 20 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy controls. Two versions of the task were used, ie, a consonant-vowel pairing task and a fused rhymed words task.Results: A significant group × task interaction was observed. Relative to healthy controls, patients showed a greater difference on the syllable-based task compared with the word-based task. The number of distractors marked during the syllable-based task was inversely correlated with score on the Global Assessment of Function Scale.Conclusion: The findings are consistent with a left hemisphere dysfunction in schizophrenia, but also suggest that differences may be stimulus-specific, with a relative sparing of the deficit in the context of word stimuli. Performance may be related to measures of social, occupational, and psychological function.Keywords: schizophrenia, right ear advantage, dichotic, distraction

  10. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn E Mills

    Full Text Available Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1 assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2 determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3 owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810 were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task', found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392 provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410 is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  11. Tail Docking and Ear Cropping Dogs: Public Awareness and Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Katelyn E; Robbins, Jesse; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-01-01

    Tail docking and ear cropping are two surgical procedures commonly performed on many dog breeds. These procedures are classified as medically unnecessary surgeries whose purpose is primarily cosmetic. Available attitude research surrounding these controversial practices has been limited to surveys of veterinarians and dog breeders familiar with both practices. The aim of this project was to: 1) assess public awareness of tail docking and ear cropping, 2) determine whether physical alteration of a dog affects how the dog, and 3) owner are perceived. In Experiment 1 awareness was measured using a combination of both explicit and implicit measures. We found that 42% of participants (n = 810) were unable to correctly explain the reason why tail docked and ear cropped dogs had short ears and tails. Similarly, an implicit measure of awareness ('nature vs nurture task'), found that the majority of participants believed short tails and erect ears were a consequence of genetics rather than something the owner or breeder had done. The results obtained in Experiment 2 (n = 392) provide evidence that ear cropped and tail docked dogs are perceived differently than an identical dog in its 'natural' state. Modified dogs were perceived as being more aggressive, more dominant, less playful and less attractive than natural dogs. Experiment 3 (n = 410) is the first evidence that owners of modified dogs are perceived as being more aggressive, more narcissistic, less playful, less talkative and less warm compared to owners of natural dogs. Taken together, these results suggest that although a significant proportion of subjects appear unaware of the practices of tail docking and ear cropping in dogs, these procedures have significant impacts on how modified dogs and their owners are perceived by others.

  12. Selection of buildings as maternity roosts by greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berková, Hana; Pokorný, M.; Zukal, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 5 (2014), s. 1011-1017 ISSN 0022-2372 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/1064 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chiroptera * habitat * linear landscape elements * maternity roosts * Moravian Karst * Myotis myotis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.840, year: 2014

  13. Effect of laryngoscopy on middle ear pressure during anaesthesia induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degerli, Semih; Acar, Baran; Sahap, Mehmet; Horasanlı, Eyup

    2013-01-01

    The procedure of laryngoscopic orotracheal intubation (LOTI) has many impacts on several parts of the body. But its effect on middle ear pressure (MEP) is not known well. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the MEP changes subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube with laryngoscope. 44 patients were included in this study with a normal physical examination of ear, nose and throat. A standard general anaesthesia induction without any inhaler agent was performed to the all patients. The MEP measurements for both ears were applied under 1 minute; before induction (BI) and after intubation (AI) with a middle ear analyzer. Also hemodynamic parameters were recorded before induction and after intubation. Of the 44 patients were 25 women and 19 men with a 43.5±15.1 mean age. A statistically significant rise in MEP was seen in all patients subsequent to insertion of endotracheal tube (Ptube, size and type of the blades, drugs and face masking time. But on the other hand in our opinion cardiovascular and haemodynamic response to LOTI has the most impact over the middle ear mucosa with mucosal venous congestion.

  14. Treatment of middle ear ventilation disorders: sheep as animal model for stenting the human Eustachian tube--a cadaver study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Miller

    Full Text Available Eustachian tube disorders can lead to chronic otitis media with consecutive conductive hearing loss. To improve treatment and to develop new types of implants such as stents, an adequate experimental animal model is required. As the middle ear of sheep is known to be comparable to the human middle ear, the dimensions of the Eustachian tube in two strains of sheep were investigated. The Eustachian tube and middle ear of half heads of heathland and blackface sheep were filled with silicone rubber, blended with barium sulfate to induce X-ray visibility. Images were taken by digital volume tomography. The tubes were segmented, and a three-dimensional model of every Eustachian tube was generated. The lengths, diameters and shapes were determined. Additionally, the feasibility of endoscopic stent implantation and fixation was tested in cadaver experiments. The length of the tube between ostium pharyngeum and the isthmus and the diameters were comparable to published values for the human tube. The tube was easily accessible through the nose, and then stents could be implanted and fixed at the isthmus. The sheep appears to be a promising model for testing new stent treatments for middle ear ventilation disorders.

  15. Silicone Foley′s catheter: A useful splint in ear surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanth Siddharth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of ear projection and post auricular sulcus in staged ear reconstruction in microtia is a trying problem. So also is the maintenance of the patency of the external auditory meatus following recanalization and meatoplasty. Numerous splints and dressing techniques have been described for the above situations. Some of the problems encountered include the availability of the materials, cost, expertise in fabrication and compliance. Aims: To devise a simple, reliable, inexpensive and readily available splint for the maintenance of post auricular sulcus and external auditory meatus opening. Settings and Design: A silicone catheter is made out of a soft and inert material that doesn′t cause tissue necrosis or any loss of skin graft. The basic design is that of a simple, self-retaining type of splint that doesn′t dislodge and can be prepared within minutes on the operating table. Materials and Methods: This splint has been used in four cases of microtia reconstruction and one case of congenital external auditory meatus stenosis between June 2006 and August 2007. A 14 or 16 Fr silicone Foley′s catheter was used. The proximal end of a catheter of required length was retained and the distal part was cut off. The catheter was looped into a circle around the base of the reconstructed ear and secured in position with a suture. A similar construct was used in cases of external auditory meatus reconstruction or recanalization. The funnel-shaped distal drainage end was sutured to the circular frame near the region of the tragus. This funnel was inserted into the external auditory canal. Results: The catheter was found to sit snugly in the newly created sulcus, thereby maintaining the sulcus and ear projection. It aided in maintaining the meatal opening of a satisfactory diameter in the case of external auditory canal recanalization. It was never found to slip or get dislodged in any of the cases. There was no skin graft loss or tissue necrosis

  16. High resolution computed tomography of the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sakurai, Tokio; Saijo, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    1983-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography was performed in 57 cases with various middle ear diseases (chronic otitis media, otitis media with effusion, acute otitis media and atelectasis). Although further improvement in detectability is necessary in order to discriminate each type of the soft tissue lesions, CT is the most useful method currently available in detecting the small structures and soft tissue lesions of the middle ear. In particular, the lesions at the tympanic isthmus and tympanic fold could very clearly be detected only by CT. In acute otitis media, lesions usually started in the attic and spread to the mastoid air cells. In otitis media with effusion, the soft tissue shadow was ovserved in the attic and mastoid air cell. CT is valuable in diagnosis, evaluation of the treatment and prognosis, and analysis of pathophysiology in the middle ear diseases. (author)

  17. Insights into inner ear-specific gene regulation: epigenetics and non-coding RNAs in inner ear development and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraham, Karen B.

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate inner ear houses highly specialized sensory organs, tuned to detect and encode sound, head motion and gravity. Gene expression programs under the control of transcription factors orchestrate the formation and specialization of the non-sensory inner ear labyrinth and its sensory constituents. More recently, epigenetic factors and non-coding RNAs emerged as an additional layer of gene regulation, both in inner ear development and disease. In this review, we provide an overview on how epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs, in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), influence gene expression and summarize recent discoveries that highlight their critical role in the proper formation of the inner ear labyrinth and its sensory organs. In contrast to non-mammalian vertebrates, adult mammals lack the ability to regenerate inner ear mechano-sensory hair cells. Finally, we discuss recent insights into how epigenetic factors and miRNAs may facilitate, or in the case of mammals, restrict sensory hair cell regeneration. PMID:27836639

  18. External ear anomalies and hearing impairment in Noonan Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Trier, Dorothée C; van Nierop, Josephine; Draaisma, Jos M Th; van der Burgt, Ineke; Kunst, Henricus; Croonen, Ellen A; Admiraal, Ronald J C

    2015-06-01

    This is the first cohort in which hearing impairment and external ear anomalies in Noonan Syndrome are described extensively. Retrospective analysis of the otorhinolaryngological and clinical genetic data from 97 Noonan Syndrome (NS) patients. Forty-four NS patients were seen by an otorhinolaryngologist for the analysis of hearing impairment. In our cohort 80 of the 97 patients were genetically tested. In 71 of these mutations were found: in 48 patients a mutation in PTPN11, in 10 patients in SOS1, in 5 patients in SHOC2, in 5 patients in RAF1, in 1 patient in MAP2K2, in 1 patient in KRAS and in 1 patient in A2ML1. External ear anomalies were reported in 75 NS patients (77%). In 69 patients the ears were low-set, 28 patients had posteriorly rotated ears, 14 patients showed protruding ears and 18 had thickened helices. Hearing impairment was detected in 34 NS patients. Nine patients had sensorineural hearing impairment, two a permanent conductive hearing impairment, two other patients had mixed hearing impairment and 20 patients had conductive hearing impairment in the past, caused by otitis media with effusion. Their temporary conductive hearing impairment resolved between the ages of 2 and 18 years. Sensorineural hearing impairment varied between mild high-frequency hearing impairment and profound (uni- and bilateral) hearing impairment and was progressive in three patients. Four NS patients received cochlear implants for their severe sensorineural hearing impairment. The cohort is small for genotype-phenotype correlations, but sensorineural hearing impairment, especially the bilateral severe hearing impairment, was only seen in patients with a PTPN11 mutation. NS is characterized by dysmorphic external ear anomalies and both sensorineural and conductive hearing impairment. Audiological examinations are recommended in all patients with Noonan Syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Invasion through Ear Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Boisen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the ear represents a high-risk tumor location with an increased risk of metastasis and local tissue invasion. However, it is uncommon for these cancers to invade through nearby cartilage. Cartilage invasion is facilitated by matrix metalloproteases, specifically collagenase 3. We present the unusual case of a 76-year-old man with an auricular squamous cell carcinoma that exhibited full-thickness perforation of the scapha cartilage. Permanent sections through the eroded cartilage confirmed tumor invasion extending to the posterior ear skin.

  20. An assessment of individualized technical ear training for audio production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungyoung

    2015-07-01

    An individualized technical ear training method is compared to a non-individualized method. The efficacy of the individualized method is assessed using a standardized test conducted before and after the training period. Participants who received individualized training improved better than the control group on the test. Results indicate the importance of individualized training for acquisition of spectrum-identification and spectrum-matching skills. Individualized training, therefore, should be implemented by default into technical ear training programs used in audio production industry and education.

  1. [Clinical analysis of 102 patients with congenital inner ear malformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X; Lian, N; Cai, Z

    1995-01-01

    Hearing loss and CT findings of 200 ears from 102 cases with congenital malformation of inner ear were included in our study. Hearing loss was typically bilateral severe, or total deafness. 75 percent of them were found deaf within one-year-old. In addition, 47 patients' (46%) mothers were noted to have caught a cold in first trimester of pregnancy. Temporal bone abnormalties were described as five types: 1. Michel malformation, 2. Mondini malformation, 3. enlargement of the vestibular aqueducts, 4. developmental deformity of cochlear aqueduct, 5. developmental deformity of internal acoustic meatus. Most cases showed malformations of vestibule or vestibular aqueducts.

  2. Radiation-induced external ear canal cholesteatoma-like disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Akiko; Okuno, Hideji; Noguchi, Keisuke; Komatsuzaki, Atsushi [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Three cases of cholesteatoma-like disease in the ear canals after radiation therapy for head and neck tumor were reported. Effect of irradiation on bone and soft tissue including skin brings about pathological reaction to the external ear canal as well. Two types of disease resembling cholesteatomas have been recognized: keratosis obturans (KO) and external auditory canal cholesteatoma (EACC). KO appears to be derived from disease of canal skin involved with keratinization, creating a widning of the canal. EACC, on the other hand, seems to develop in the disease of bony canal where a localized absorption of its bone with invasion of squamous epithelium takes place. (author)

  3. Sound source localization and segregation with internally coupled ears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bee, Mark A; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    to their correct sources (sound source segregation). Here, we review anatomical, biophysical, neurophysiological, and behavioral studies aimed at identifying how the internally coupled ears of frogs contribute to sound source localization and segregation. Our review focuses on treefrogs in the genus Hyla......, as they are the most thoroughly studied frogs in terms of sound source localization and segregation. They also represent promising model systems for future work aimed at understanding better how internally coupled ears contribute to sound source localization and segregation. We conclude our review by enumerating...

  4. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  5. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  6. Lipid profiling of in vitro cell models of adipogenic differentiation: relationships with mouse adipose tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Liaw, Lucy; Prudovsky, Igor; Koza, Robert A.; Anunciado-Koza, Rea V.; Siviski, Matthew E.; Lindner, Volkhard; Friesel, Robert E.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Baker, Paul R.S.; Simons, Brigitte; Vary, Calvin P.H.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize lipid profiles in cell models of adipocyte differentiation in comparison to mouse adipose tissues in vivo. A novel lipid extraction strategy was combined with global lipid profiling using direct infusion and sequential precursor ion fragmentation, termed MS/MSALL. Perirenal and inguinal white adipose tissue and interscapular brown adipose tissues from adult C57BL/6J mice were analyzed. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, ear mesenchymal progenitor cells, and brown adipose-...

  7. Water Penetration into Middle Ear Through Ventilation Tubes in Children While Swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Che Wang

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Water penetration into the middle ear through ventilation tubes and middle ear infection are not likely when surface swimming. Children with ventilation tubes can enjoy swimming without protection in clean chlorinated swimming pools.

  8. Expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the inner ear and middle ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Zhao, Pengfei; Maeda, Yukihide; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2016-10-01

    Significant expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its receptor (CD74) was observed in both the middle ear and inner ear in experimental otitis media in mice. Modulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and its signaling pathway might be useful in the management of inner ear inflammation due to otitis media. Inner ear dysfunction secondary to otitis media has been reported. However, the specific mechanisms involved are not clearly understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in the middle ear and inner ear in lipopolysaccharide-induced otitis media. BALB/c mice received a transtympanic injection of either lipopolysaccharide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The mice were sacrificed 24 h after injection, and temporal bones were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, histologic examination, and immunohistochemistry. PCR examination revealed that the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice showed a significant up-regulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in both the middle ear and inner ear as compared with the PBS-injected control mice. The immunohistochemical study showed positive reactions for macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 in infiltrating inflammatory cells, middle ear mucosa, and inner ear in the lipopolysaccharide-injected mice.

  9. Dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Shirol

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case to be reported of a dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear and only the fourth case of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  10. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... alcohol 95 percent in an anhydrous glycerin 5 percent base. [65 FR 48905, Aug. 10, 2000] ...

  11. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  12. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the pigeon inner ear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, R.; Segenhout, J. M.; Wit, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional reconstructions of the inner ear of the pigeon (Columba livia domestica), from two-dimensional images, obtained with (conventional) light microscopy or orthogonal-plane fluorescence optical sectioning (OPFOS), are presented. The results are compared with available information on

  13. Performance of a digital PCO2/SPO2 ear sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Serge; Rohling, Roman; Tschupp, Andres

    2004-04-01

    For determining the adequacy of ventilation, conventional pulse oximetry should be amended by PaCO2 (= arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure). This study investigates the precision of carbon dioxide measurements of the first digital ear-clip sensor providing continuous non-invasive monitoring of PaCO2, SpO2 (= functional arterial oxygen saturation as estimated with a pulse oximeter) and pulse rate and compares it to two conventional analog oximeters. 30 hypoxemia episodes in 6 adult volunteers were investigated in a standardized protocol. Masimo analog finger sensor, Nellcor analog ear sensor, SenTec digital ear sensor. The difference between PCO2 data (= PaCO2 estimated from the measured PcCO2 based on an algorithm by Severinghaus) (PcCO2 = cutaneous carbon dioxide pressure) and the PaCO2 is clinically unimportant. Therefore, we suggest, the two methods of estimating patient's carbon dioxide status can be used interchangeably. Combined digital SpO2/ PcCO2 ear sensors are very promising to allow for a fast and reliable monitoring of patient's oxygenation, hyper-/hypocapnia and ventilation with one single non-invasive probe. Optimal primary signal processing--amplification and digitalisation within the probe--allow for fast and reliable downstream signal processing algorithms. The resulting short SpO2 response times give the medical staff more time to take appropriate actions.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of moringa on ear, nose and throat associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial activity of Moringa on ear, nose and throat associated fungi and vancomycin resistant cocci. The plant material was extracted with methanol and petroleum ethe and screened for phytochemical contents. The microbial isolates were obtained from females and males ...

  15. Ear Infection Treatment Shouldn't Be Shortened

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments might also reduce other side effects. A new NIH-funded study provides some answers—at least for children under age 2. The study enrolled 520 children, ages 6 to 23 months, who had middle-ear infections diagnosed using stringent criteria. Kids were ...

  16. The "pixie" ear deformity following face lift surgery revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowlavi, Arian; Meldrum, D Garth; Wilhelmi, Bradon J; Russell, Robert C; Zook, Elvin G

    2005-04-01

    The "pixie" ear deformity can be recognized by its "stuck on" or "pulled" appearance, which is caused by the extrinsic pull of the medial cheek and jawline skin flaps at the earlobe attachment point, the otobasion inferius. The tension results in migration of the otobasion inferius from a posterior cephalad position to an anterior caudal position. Although this deformity has been described clinically, it has yet to be objectively defined. Recently, the two components of the earlobe, the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance), were shown to be essential in evaluating for earlobe ptosis and pseudoptosis. These two components can be used to designate an objective criterion for the pixie ear deformity. The deformity, as defined by the authors' parameters, was assessed in 44 patients who had undergone rhytidectomy. A simple and accurate surgical treatment is demonstrated by a cadaver dissection and a clinical case. The deformity can be defined as an increase in the attached cephalic segment (intertragal to otobasion inferius distance) and a decrease in the free caudal segment (otobasion inferius to subaurale distance) to 0 mm following rhytidectomy. The incidence of pixie ear deformity was 5.7 percent in the authors' series of patients. A medially based triangular excision over the attached cephalic segment is presented as a simple and accurate surgical treatment of pixie ear deformity. A more accurate and objective designation may allow for improved detection, avoidance, and treatment of this deformity.

  17. Rehabilitation with ear prosthesis linked to osseointegrated implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo C; dos Santos, Daniela M; Haddad, Marcela F; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The absence of an ear, which can be the result of a congenital malformation, surgical tumour resection or traumatic injury, is a significant aesthetic problem. Attachment of ear prostheses with adhesives can cause local irritation for the wearer and affect the colour of the prostheses. Use of implants in craniofacial reconstruction can improve the retention and stability of prostheses giving to patient greater comfort and security relative to adhesive attachment. The aim of this report was to present a clinical case of a mutilated patient who was rehabilitated by means of installing an ear prosthesis fixed through osseointegrated implants. The patient had two implants installed in the mastoid region that were linked by a bar, and a clip-type system was used. The ear prosthesis was constructed from medical-use silicone, pigmented to match the patient's skin colour and linked to the retention system. The patient's rehabilitation was satisfactory from both a functional and an aesthetic point of view, making it possible for the patient to return to a normal social life and regain lost self-esteem. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  18. [Cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dong-yi; Wu, Wen-ming; Xi, Xin; Huang, De-liang; Yang, Wei-yan

    2004-02-01

    To study surgical difficulty and key of the cochlear implant in patients with congenital malformation of inner ear. The cochlear implantations were performed in our department from Jan. 2001 to Apr. 2003 for 18 patients with the malformation of inner ear. In this series, there were 11 cases of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS), 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome, 3 cases of Mondini malformation, and 1 case of Usher syndrome. All 18 patients accepted the Nucleus 24-channel cochlear implantations, including Nucleus straight electrode in 13 cases but Contour implantation in 5 cases of LVAS. During operations, leakage of perilymph but not cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the open of scala tympani occurred in 11 cases of LVAS, however, the electrode was inserted successfully. The abnormalities of round window occurred in one of 3 cases of Waardenberg syndrome and 3 cases of Mondini malformation, respectively. The cochlear implant could be conducted successfully for the LVAS, and the postoperative effect was same as the ones for the deafness persons with normal development of inner ear. However, for the patients with Mondini syndrome and common cavity, it is important to accurately assess the extent of abnormalities in the inner ear and accompanied malformation before operation, and to evaluate the full extent of difficulties of the operation in order to minimize the risk of CSF leakage and meningitis.

  19. Prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldhafeeri, Ahmad M; Alsanosi, Abdulrahman A

    2016-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of inner ear anomalies and the frequency of different anomaly types among cochlear implant recipients. This study included a retrospective chart review of all patients who received cochlear implants between January 2009 and January 2013 in King Abdulaziz University Hospital cochlear implant program in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All subjects underwent thin-cut CT of the temporal bone and MRI. The collected data included age, gender, and CT and MRI findings regarding temporal bone anomalies. Patients with any identified congenital inner ear anomalies were included in the study.  In total, 316 patients' cases were reviewed. Inner ear malformations were identified in 24 patients, which represented a prevalence of 7.5%. Among these 24 patients, 8 (33.3%) presented with a large vestibular aqueduct (LVA), 8 (33.3%) semicircular canal (SCC) dysplasia, 7 (29.1%) classical Mondini deformity, and one (4.1%) cochlear hypoplasia. The prevalence of inner ear anomalies among cochlear implant recipients was 7.5%. This result is consistent with findings worldwide. The most common anomalies were LVA and SCC hypoplasia; by contrast, in other regions, the most common anomaly is either the Mondini deformity, or LVA.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of ear disease among children in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Audiologists and ENT registrars examined 2 036 children aged 10 years or younger by means of pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry and otoscopic examinations. Twenty per cent of these children had ear pathology and 7,5% had impaired hearing. Forty-three pus swabs taken from patients with suppurative otitis media ...

  1. Study of the EAR.620 aerosol monitor survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisset, A.; Sciorella, G.; Chivu, D.; Meriaux, P.; Pagel, M.

    1976-01-01

    The disappearance of different electronic components on the European professional market was likely to create a very serious problem for the maintenance of health physics instrumentation existing at CEA. The present report is a study of the conditions of assurance of the survival of the air contamination monitor EAR.620 up to 1980 [fr

  2. Microbiological Assessment of Bacterial Isolates from Ear, Nose And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples from patients who reported to in-patient ENT unit of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were isolated for further microbiological assessment. One hundred (100) from both male and female patients comprising 55 ear swabs, 30 and 15 throat and nose swabs respectively were screened between February and ...

  3. Middle ear effusion from metastatic carcinoma of the breast | Okpala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcinoma of the breast can metastasise to many organs. Metastasis to the temporal bone is rare and even when it does, it would usually spread to other parts of the body. This is a report of isolated metastasis to the temporal bone with middle ear effusion.

  4. MicroRNAs in sensorineural diseases of the ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy eUshakov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding microRNAs have a fundamental role in gene regulation and expression in almost every multicellular organism. Only discovered in the last decade, microRNAs are already known to play a leading role in many aspects of disease. In the vertebrate inner ear, microRNAs are essential for controlling development and survival of hair cells. Moreover, dysregulation of microRNAs has been implicated in sensorineural hearing impairment, as well as in other ear diseases such as cholesteatomas, vestibular schwannomas and otitis media. Due to the inaccessibility of the ear in humans, animal models have provided the optimal tools to study microRNA expression and function, in particular mice and zebrafish. A major focus of current research has been to discover the targets of the microRNAs expressed in the inner ear, in order to determine the regulatory pathways of the auditory and vestibular systems. The potential for microRNA manipulation in development of therapeutic tools for hearing impairment is as yet unexplored, paving the way for future work in the field.

  5. Imaging evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma: iconographic essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Ana Flavia Assis de; Aburjeli, Bruna de Oliveira Melim; Moreira, Wanderval; Motta, Emilia Guerra Pinto Coelho; Ribeiro, Marcelo Almeida; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: fauassis@hotmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Middle ear cholesteatoma is a relevant and relatively common disease that may have severe consequences. In the present pictorial essay, the authors have selected illustrative examples of multislice computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging depicting the main presentations of cholesteatomas, and describing their characteristics, locations, and major complications. (author)

  6. Towards making HCS ear detection robust against rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pflug, Anika; Back, Philip Michael; Busch, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    In identity retrieval from crime scene images, the outer ear (auricle) has ever since been regarded as a valuable characteristic. Because of its unique and permanent shape, the auricle also attracted the attention of researches in the field of biometrics over the last years. Since then, numerous...

  7. Clinical evidence in the management of swimmer's ear

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Swimmer's ear” or acute otitis externa is a term that is used commonly by medical practitioners and patients. It refers to an inflammatory condition of the external auditory canal, with anatomical regions which may stretch distally to the pinna and proximally to the tympanic membrane of the ear.1 The prevalence in swimmers ...

  8. SIFT-based Ear Recognition by Fusion of Detected Keypoints from Color Similarity Slice Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Mehrotra, Hunny; Gupta, Phalguni; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Ear biometric is considered as one of the most reliable and invariant biometrics characteristics in line with iris and fingerprint characteristics. In many cases, ear biometrics can be compared with face biometrics regarding many physiological and texture characteristics. In this paper, a robust and efficient ear recognition system is presented, which uses Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) as feature descriptor for structural representation of ear images. In order to make it more robus...

  9. Concise Review: Inner Ear Stem Cells—An Oxymoron, But Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaghi, Mohammad; Nasr, Marjan; Heller, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Hearing loss, caused by irreversible loss of cochlear sensory hair cells, affects millions of patients worldwide. In this concise review, we examine the conundrum of inner ear stem cells, which obviously are present in the inner ear sensory epithelia of nonmammalian vertebrates, giving these ears the ability to functionally recover even from repetitive ototoxic insults. Despite the inability of the mammalian inner ear to regenerate lost hair cells, there is evidence for cells with regenerativ...

  10. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell’s palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. Case presentation We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery...

  11. Blue Ear Cyst: A Rare Eccrine Hidrocystoma of the Ear Canal and Successful Endoscopic Excision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha A. Mur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. Hidrocystomas are benign cystic growths of the apocrine and eccrine sweat glands. These cystic lesions have been well documented on the face, head, and neck, but rarely in the external auditory canal. Presentation of Case. A 67-year-old woman presented with a bluish cystic mass partially occluding the external auditory canal and interfering with hearing aid use. Lesion was excised completely via a transcanal endoscopic approach with excellent cosmetic results, no canal stenosis, and no recurrence at 1-year follow-up. Discussion. We present a rare eccrine hidrocystoma of the external auditory canal and successful excision of this benign lesion. We describe the surgical management using a transcanal endoscopic approach and follow-up results. An eccrine gland cyst that presents as a mass occluding the external auditory canal is quite rare. There are only a few such cases reported in the literature. These masses can be mistaken for basal cell carcinomas or cholesterol granulomas but can be easily differentiated using histopathology. Conclusion. Eccrine hidrocystoma is a cystic lesion of sweat glands, rarely found in the external auditory canal. A characteristic bluish hue aids in diagnosis and surgical excision using ear endoscopy provides excellent control.

  12. The Sound of Silence: Mouse Models for Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumantra Chatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorineural hearing loss is one of the most common disabilities in humans. It is estimated that about 278 million people worldwide have slight to extreme hearing loss in both ears, which results in an economic loss for the country and personal loss for the individual. It is thus critical to have a deeper understanding of the causes for hearing loss to better manage and treat the affected individuals. The mouse serves as an excellent model to study and recapitulate some of these phenotypes, identify new genes which cause deafness, and to study their roles in vivo and in detail. Mutant mice have been instrumental in elucidating the function and mechanisms of the inner ear. The development and morphogenesis of the inner ear from an ectodermal layer into distinct auditory and vestibular components depends on well-coordinated gene expression and well-orchestrated signaling cascades within the otic vesicle and interactions with surrounding layers of tissues. Any disruption in these pathways can lead to hearing impairment. This review takes a look at some of the genes and their corresponding mice mutants that have shed light on the mechanism governing hearing impairment (HI in humans.

  13. aetiological agents of ear discharge: a two year re- view in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... SUMMARY. Background: The discharging ear is a common presentation in medical practice affecting all age groups but primarily children. This study shows the current aetiological causes of ear discharge and their antibiograms, data which would guide empirical treat- ment of ear infections, and also form ...

  14. Biocompatibility of Liposome Nanocarriers in the Rat Inner Ear After Intratympanic Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Jing; Feng, Hao; Sood, Rohit; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.; Pyykko, Ilmari

    2017-01-01

    Liposome nanocarriers (LPNs) are potentially the future of inner ear therapy due to their high drug loading capacity and efficient uptake in the inner ear after a minimally invasive intratympanic administration. However, information on the biocompatibility of LPNs in the inner ear is lacking. The

  15. Building and Testing a Statistical Shape Model of the Human Ear Canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus; Laugesen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Today the design of custom in-the-ear hearing aids is based on personal experience and skills and not on a systematic description of the variation of the shape of the ear canal. In this paper it is described how a dense surface point distribution model of the human ear canal is built based on a t...

  16. Morphological Variations and Biometrics of Ear: An Aid to Personal Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pradhuman; Sandhu, Harpreet Kaur; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Goyal, Sharry; Sudan, Madhu; Ladgotra, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The morphological characteristics and dimensions of external ear vary in different human ethnic races which can be utilized in forensics for personal identification of living or deceased. To determine uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among North East (NE) and North West (NW) subpopulation of India. The study was conducted on randomly selected 80 students, 40 from each subgroup. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital Vernier's caliper by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted. Pearson's coefficient correlation test was performed on cross-tabulations to evaluate significant relationship between different variables. Of the total 35% free and 65% attached ear lobes were noted in both population groups. Oval ear shape was most commonly noted followed by triangular, rectangular and round in both populations. On comparing anthropometric measurements of ears in two populations it was found that except the tragus length and lobule index all other values were noted more in NW population. No statistical difference was found in ear and lobular indices of males and females although the left ear index and lobule index were found to be higher than right in both populations except in NW females where right lobule index was recorded more than left. The results obtained can be used in anthropological and forensic sciences for the inclusion and exclusion of persons for identification on the basis of ear variations.

  17. A systematic review of discomfort due to toe or ear clipping in laboratory rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, K.E.; Geessink, F.J.; Brouwer, M.A.E.; Tillema, A.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2017-01-01

    Toe clipping and ear clipping (also ear notching or ear punching) are frequently used methods for individual identification of laboratory rodents. These procedures potentially cause severe discomfort, which can reduce animal welfare and distort experimental results. However, no systematic summary of

  18. An audit of Ear, Nose and Throat diseases in a tertiary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study showed that otitis media, obstructive adenoid, foreign bodies in the ear and throat infections were the common ear, nose, throat disorders seen in patients aged ≤15years whereas, hearing loss, rhinosinusitis and tumors were the common disorders of ear, nose and throat seen in patients aged 16 ...

  19. A unique anomaly of the ear: Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum or an isolated disruption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A. R.; Hoogslag, Isabella C. M.; van Spronsen, Erik; Oostra, Roelof J.; Ebbens, Fenna A.

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of a neonate with an isolated congenital condition of his right ear involving the outer ear, middle ear, eustachian tube, and the facial nerve, with an external opening into the skull that connects to the oropharynx. Taking this bizarre aspect of the exterior lesion and the

  20. Ear surgery techniques results on hearing threshold improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Mokhtarinejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone conduction (BC threshold depression is not always by means of sensory neural hearing loss and sometimes it is an artifact caused by middle ear pathologies and ossicular chain problems. In this research, the influences of ear surgeries on bone conduction were evaluated. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a clinical trial study. The ear surgery performed on 83 patients classified in four categories: Stapedectomy, tympanomastoid surgery and ossicular reconstruction partially or totally; Partial Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (PORP and Total Ossicular Replacement Prosthesis (TORP. Bone conduction thresholds assessed in frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz pre and post the surgery. Results: In stapedectomy group, the average of BC threshold in all frequencies improved approximately 6 dB in frequency of 2000 Hz. In tympanomastoid group, BC threshold in the frequency of 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz changed 4 dB (P-value < 0.05. Moreover, In the PORP group, 5 dB enhancement was seen in 1000 and 2000 Hz. In TORP group, the results confirmed that BC threshold improved in all frequencies especially at 4000 Hz about 6.5 dB. Conclusion: In according to results of this study, BC threshold shift was seen after several ear surgeries such as stapedectomy, tympanoplasty, PORP and TORP. The average of BC improvement was approximately 5 dB. It must be considered that BC depression might happen because of ossicular chain problems. Therefore; by resolving middle ear pathologies, the better BC threshold was obtained, the less hearing problems would be faced.

  1. "COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH INNER EAR MALFORMATIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Borghei S. Abdi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Performing cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformation has always been a matter of dispute. This study was designed to analyze the operative findings,complications, and postoperative performance of patients with inner ear anomalies who underwent cochlear implantation. Six patients with inner ear malformations underwent implantation in our academic tertiary referral center from 1997 to 2002. The average follow-up period was 27 months. Malformations included one incomplete partition, one common cavity, one narrow internal acoustic canal (IAC in a patient with Riley-Day syndrome and 3 cases of large vestibular aqueduct. All received multi-channel implants either Nucleus 22 or Clarion device. Facial nerve was anomalous in 2 cases. CSF gusher occurred in 4 patients, which was controlled with packing the cochleostomy site. In all cases, the full length of electrode array was inserted, except one with Mondini's dysplasia where insertion failed in the first operation and was referred to another center for a successful surgery on the opposite ear. No other surgical complications were encountered. In 4 cases, all the 22 electrodes could be activated. All patients showed improved hearing performance after implantation. Four showed open-set speech recognition. The one with narrow IAC showed improved awareness to environmental sounds. In the other case (common cavity, the perception tests could not be performed because of very young age. Cochlear implantation in patients with inner ear malformations is a successful way of rehabilitation, although complications should be expected and auditory responses may be highly variable and relatively moderate.

  2. Selective attention reduces physiological noise in the external ear canals of humans. I: Auditory attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle P.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a nonlinear version of the stimulus-frequency OAE (SFOAE), called the nSFOAE, was used to measure cochlear responses from human subjects while they simultaneously performed behavioral tasks requiring, or not requiring, selective auditory attention. Appended to each stimulus presentation, and included in the calculation of each nSFOAE response, was a 30-ms silent period that was used to estimate the level of the inherent physiological noise in the ear canals of our subjects during each behavioral condition. Physiological-noise magnitudes were higher (noisier) for all subjects in the inattention task, and lower (quieter) in the selective auditory-attention tasks. These noise measures initially were made at the frequency of our nSFOAE probe tone (4.0 kHz), but the same attention effects also were observed across a wide range of frequencies. We attribute the observed differences in physiological-noise magnitudes between the inattention and attention conditions to different levels of efferent activation associated with the differing attentional demands of the behavioral tasks. One hypothesis is that when the attentional demand is relatively great, efferent activation is relatively high, and a decrease in the gain of the cochlear amplifier leads to lower-amplitude cochlear activity, and thus a smaller measure of noise from the ear. PMID:24732069

  3. Modeling of the incudo-malleolar joint within a biomechanical model of the human ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihrle, Sebastian; Eiber, Albrecht; Eberhard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Under large quasi-static loads, the incudo-malleolar joint (IM joint), connecting the malleus and the incus, is highly mobile. It can be classified as a mechanical filter decoupling large quasi-static motions while transferring small dynamic excitations. To investigate the influence of the behavior of the IM joint, a detailed simulation model of the IM-complex is created. Mathematical modeling of the IM joint behavior under quasi-static excitation requires adequate modeling of the mechanics of the diarthrodial joint. Therefore, the geometry of the articular surfaces, the ligaments, as well as their viscoelastic properties have to be included in the model. The contact of the articular surfaces is implemented using a penalty based contact formulation utilizing the geometric information obtained from micro computer tomography (micro-CT) scans. The ligaments of the joint capsule are modeled by distributing force elements along the joint capsule, with the position and orientation derived from the micro-CT scans. It is shown that the effects which were observed in measurements on human temporal bones are described adequately by the model, if the contact of the articular surfaces and the preload of the viscoelastic fibers are taken into account in the simulation model. In the following, the detailed model is implemented in an elastic multibody system of the entire ear. The model allows the study of different quasi-static load cases of the ossicles, such as it occurs in the reconstruction of the middle ear and form the basis for future simulative studies of sound transmission in natural or reconstructed ears.

  4. Modeling of the incudo-malleolar joint within a biomechanical model of the human ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihrle, Sebastian; Eiber, Albrecht; Eberhard, Peter, E-mail: peter.eberhard@itm.uni-stuttgart.de [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Engineering and Computational Mechanics (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Under large quasi-static loads, the incudo-malleolar joint (IM joint), connecting the malleus and the incus, is highly mobile. It can be classified as a mechanical filter decoupling large quasi-static motions while transferring small dynamic excitations. To investigate the influence of the behavior of the IM joint, a detailed simulation model of the IM-complex is created. Mathematical modeling of the IM joint behavior under quasi-static excitation requires adequate modeling of the mechanics of the diarthrodial joint. Therefore, the geometry of the articular surfaces, the ligaments, as well as their viscoelastic properties have to be included in the model. The contact of the articular surfaces is implemented using a penalty based contact formulation utilizing the geometric information obtained from micro computer tomography (micro-CT) scans. The ligaments of the joint capsule are modeled by distributing force elements along the joint capsule, with the position and orientation derived from the micro-CT scans. It is shown that the effects which were observed in measurements on human temporal bones are described adequately by the model, if the contact of the articular surfaces and the preload of the viscoelastic fibers are taken into account in the simulation model. In the following, the detailed model is implemented in an elastic multibody system of the entire ear. The model allows the study of different quasi-static load cases of the ossicles, such as it occurs in the reconstruction of the middle ear and form the basis for future simulative studies of sound transmission in natural or reconstructed ears.

  5. a Middle-Ear Reverse Transfer Function Computed from Vibration Measurements of Otoacoustic Emissions on the Ear Drum of the Guinea PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Ernst; Turcanu, Diana; Gummer, Anthony W.

    2009-02-01

    Using distortion products measured as vibration of the umbo and as sound pressure in the ear canal of guinea pigs, we calculated the corresponding reverse transfer function. We compare the measurements with a middle-ear model taken from the literature and adapted to the guinea pig. A reasonable fit could be achieved. We conclude that the reverse transfer function will be useful to aid fitting a middle-ear model to measured transfer functions of human subjects.

  6. [Diagnostic significance of multi-slice computed tomography imaging in congenital inner ear malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Han, Ping; Liang, Bo; Liu, Fang; Tian, Zhi-Liang; Lei, Zi-Qiao; Li, You-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and usability of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in congenital inner ear malformations. Fourty-four patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) were examined by a Somatom Sensation 16 (siemens, Germany) CT scanner with following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm collimation, 1 mm reconstruction increment, a pitch factor of 1 and a field of view of 100 mm. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment, and a field of view of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique (VRT) on the workstation (3D Virtuoso and Wizard,siemens). Twenty-five patients were normal and 19 patients (36 ears) were congenital inner ear malformations among 44 patients scanned with MSCT. Of the malformations, all the axial, MPR and VRT images can display the site and degree in 33 ears. VRT images were superior to the axial images in displaying the malformations in 3 ears with the small lateral semicircular canal malformations. The malformations were Michel deformity (1 ear), common cavity deformity (3 ears), incomplete partition I (3 ears), incomplete partition II (Mondini deformity, 5 ears), vestibular and semicircular canal malformations( 14 ears), vestibular aqueduct dilate( 16 ears, of which 6 ears accompanied by other malformations), the internal auditory canal malformation(8 ears, all accompanied by other malformations). MSCT allows a comprehensively assessing various congenital ear malformations through high quality MPR and VRT reconstructions. VRT images can display the site and degree of the malformations three-dimensionally and intuitionisticly. It is very useful to the cochlear implantation.

  7. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  8. Abnormal Development of the Earliest Cortical Circuits in a Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagode, Daniel A; Meng, Xiangying; Winkowski, Daniel E; Smith, Ed; Khan-Tareen, Hamza; Kareddy, Vishnupriya; Kao, Joseph P Y; Kanold, Patrick O

    2017-01-31

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves deficits in speech and sound processing. Cortical circuit changes during early development likely contribute to such deficits. Subplate neurons (SPNs) form the earliest cortical microcircuits and are required for normal development of thalamocortical and intracortical circuits. Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) increases ASD risk, especially when present during a critical time window coinciding with SPN genesis. Using optical circuit mapping in mouse auditory cortex, we find that VPA exposure on E12 altered the functional excitatory and inhibitory connectivity of SPNs. Circuit changes manifested as "patches" of mostly increased connection probability or strength in the first postnatal week and as general hyper-connectivity after P10, shortly after ear opening. These results suggest that prenatal VPA exposure severely affects the developmental trajectory of cortical circuits and that sensory-driven activity may exacerbate earlier, subtle connectivity deficits. Our findings identify the subplate as a possible common pathophysiological substrate of deficits in ASD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Handheld tympanometer measurements in conscious dogs for the evaluation of the middle ear and auditory tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; Fernandes, Asia J

    2015-06-01

    Otitis externa is frequently accompanied by otitis media, yet it can be difficult to evaluate the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube without the use of advanced radiographic imaging. The objective was to develop techniques for tympanometry testing in conscious dogs and to present normative data for clinical use of this equipment to enable assessment of the tympanum, middle ear and auditory tube. Sixteen hounds (14 female) from a school teaching colony. Dogs were gently restrained in a standing position. After cleaning of the ear canal, a tympanometer probe tip extension was placed in the vertical canal and automated testing performed using a handheld device. Both ears were tested in all dogs. Acceptable recordings were obtained from both ears of 13 dogs, from one ear in each of two dogs and from neither ear of one dog, resulting in data from 28 of 32 (88%) ears. Otoscopic examination confirmed the absence of inflammation or any other obvious explanation for the noncompliant dogs. No significant differences were seen between ears for any measure. Normative data are reported for peak compliance, peak compliance pressure, gradient and ear canal volume. Tympanograms can be recorded in conscious dogs to assist in the evaluation of the middle ear structures. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  10. Modeling Analysis of Biomechanical Changes of Middle Ear and Cochlea in Otitis Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Rong Z.; Zhang, Xiangming; Guan, Xiying

    2011-11-01

    A comprehensive finite element (FE) model of the human ear including the ear canal, middle ear, and spiral cochlea was developed using histological sections of human temporal bone. The cochlea was modeled with three chambers separated by the basilar membrane and Reissner's membrane and filled with perilymphatic fluid. The viscoelastic material behavior was applied to middle ear soft tissues based on dynamic measurements of tissues in our lab. The model was validated using the experimental data obtained in human temporal bones and then used to simulate various stages of otitis media (OM) including the changes of morphology, mechanical properties, pressure, and fluid level in the middle ear. Function alterations of the middle ear and cochlea in OM were derived from the model and compared with the measurements from temporal bones. This study indicates that OM can be simulated in the FE model to predict the hearing loss induced by biomechanical changes of the middle ear and cochlea.

  11. Inner ear barriers to nanomedicine-augmented drug delivery and imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are several challenges to inner ear drug delivery and imaging due to the existence of tight biological barriers to the target structure and the dense bone surrounding it. Advances in imaging and nanomedicine may provide knowledge for overcoming the existing limitations to both the diagnosis and treatment of inner ear diseases. Novel techniques have improved the efficacy of drug delivery and targeting to the inner ear, as well as the quality and accuracy of imaging this structure. In this review, we will describe the pathways and biological barriers of the inner ear regarding drug delivery, the beneficial applications and limitations of the imaging techniques available for inner ear research, the behavior of engineered nanomaterials in inner ear applications, and future perspectives for nanomedicine-based inner ear imaging.

  12. Short communication: QTL mapping for ear tip-barrenness in maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, J.; Ma, J.; Chen, J.; Ai, T.; Li, Z.; Tian, Z.; Wu, S.; Chen, W.; Wu, J.

    2016-11-01

    Barren tip on corn ear is an important agronomic trait in maize, which is highly associated with grain yield. Understanding the genetic basis of tip-barrenness may help to reduce the ear tip-barrenness in breeding programs. In this study, ear tip-barrenness was evaluated in two environments in a F2:3 population, and it showed significant genotypic variation for ear tip-barrenness in both environments. Using mixed-model composite interval mapping method, three additive effects quantitative trait loci (QTL) for ear tip-barrenness were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6, respectively. They explained 16.6% of the phenotypic variation, and no significant QTL × Environment interactions and digenic interactions were detected. The results indicated that additive effect was the main genetic basis for ear tip-barrenness in maize. This is the first report of QTL mapped for ear tip-barrenness in maize. (Author)

  13. Do helmets worn for hurling fail to protect the ear? Identification of an emerging injury pattern.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin-Smith, James D

    2012-12-01

    Hurling is an Irish national game of stick and ball known for its ferocity, played by 190 000 players. Facial injuries were common but have been significantly reduced by legislation enforcing compulsory helmet wearing. Current standard helmets worn by hurlers do not offer protection to the external ear. Here we describe an emerging pattern of ear injuries and demonstrate the risk of external ear injuries in hurlers complying with current helmet safety standards. A 6-month retrospective analysis was carried out of patients attending Cork University Hospital (CUH) with ear lacerations sustained while hurling. Patient notes were reviewed and helmet manufacturers were interviewed. Seven patients were identified, all of whom sustained complex through ear lacerations while wearing helmets complying with current safety standards. Current helmet design fails to protect the external ear placing it at an increased risk of injury, a potential solution is to include ear protection in the helmet design.

  14. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumkum Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  15. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  16. Hearing loss in a mouse model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Fuchs

    Full Text Available 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear, including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM.

  17. Anatomical influences on internally coupled ears in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bruce A

    2016-10-01

    Many reptiles, and other vertebrates, have internally coupled ears in which a patent anatomical connection allows pressure waves generated by the displacement of one tympanic membrane to propagate (internally) through the head and, ultimately, influence the displacement of the contralateral tympanic membrane. The pattern of tympanic displacement caused by this internal coupling can give rise to novel sensory cues. The auditory mechanics of reptiles exhibit more anatomical variation than in any other vertebrate group. This variation includes structural features such as diverticula and septa, as well as coverings of the tympanic membrane. Many of these anatomical features would likely influence the functional significance of the internal coupling between the tympanic membranes. Several of the anatomical components of the reptilian internally coupled ear are under active motor control, suggesting that in some reptiles the auditory system may be more dynamic than previously recognized.

  18. Congenital ossicular malformation. A study of 27 ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Shigefumi; Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Taki, Masakatsu; Hyogo, Misako; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Despite otological surgerical progress improving clinical congenital ossicular malformation management, some cases remain inadequately treated. We report 27 cases of congenital ossicular malformation, focusing on reasons for remaining or delayed postoperative hearing loss evaluated in 27 congenital ossicular malformation cases in Kyoto Prefecture from 2002 to 2008. Overall success was 93% (25/27) 6 months postoperatively. Two ears had no hearing improvement and three delayed hearing loss 8 to 48 months postoperatively. The first two ears underwent small fenestration stapedotomy with malleus attachment piston, and the other three tympanoplasty type III using an autologous ossicle or total ossicular replacement prosthesis (TORP) as a columella. We discuss problems and solutions using a malleus attachment piston or prosthesis, preoperative audio- and radiological findings, and operative findings including facial nerve anomaly and congenital cholesteatoma. (author)

  19. New onset of idiopathic bilateral ear tics in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Shrestha, Rabin

    2009-04-01

    Tic disorders are commonly considered to be childhood syndromes. Newly presenting tic disorders during adulthood are uncommon and mostly described in relation to an acquired brain lesion or as incidental tics, particularly in context with other neurological or psychiatric diseases. Tic disorder involving the ears is extremely uncommon with only few studies in English literature. In the present case, we describe an adult patient with new-onset idiopathic tics disorder involving both ears, causing social embarrassment. In addition, our patient had recent onset of the tics without any childhood or family history of tic disorders. The single most important component of management is an accurate diagnosis. At the same time, tics should be differentiated from other movement disorders such as chorea, stereotypy, and dystonias.

  20. Tick in the outer ear canal: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalkan Özkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serious systemic diseases such as Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Lyme Disease, tularemia, typhus and Q fever can be transmitted by ticks. An 8-year-old boy and a 34-year-old woman were brought to our clinic with ear pains. No symptoms such as fever, headache or lethargy to suggest CCHF were present. The patients both lived in rural areas and were engaged in farming. Full blood count, liver and kidney function tests and serum electrolytes were within normal limits at laboratory tests. Prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time and INR were normal. The tick was grasped with alligator forceps and removed from the outer ear in one piece with the help of 0-degree rigid otoendoscopy.

  1. Intra-operative hearing monitoring methods in middle ear surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a condition affecting millions of people worldwide. Conductive hearing loss (CHL is mainly caused by middle ear diseases. The low frequency area is the pivotal part of speech frequencies and most frequently impaired in patients with CHL. Among various treatments of CHL, middle ear surgery is efficient to improve hearing. However, variable success rates and possible needs for prolonged revision surgery still frustrate both surgeons and patients. Nowadays, increasing numbers of researchers explore various methods to monitor the efficacy of ossicular reconstruction intraoperatively, including electrocochleography (ECochG, auditory brainstem response (ABR, auditory steady state response (ASSR, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE, subjective whisper test, and optical coherence tomography (OCT. Here, we illustrate several methods used clinically by reviewing the literature.

  2. TL dating of vases with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Junding; Wang Weida; Leung, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating using an activation method in pre-dose technique was described. Three vases in underglaze blue with elephant ears and one vase in underglaze red with elephant ears in Yuan Dynasty were dated by this method. The results show that the TL ages are all less than 100 a B.P., and in which sbc 648 and sbc 649 were imitated in recent years. This method is quick, convenient and reliable for porcelain dating with the age of less than 1000 a B.P.. As a comparison, a porcelain sample with underglaze blue in Yuan Dynasty was dated too, and its TL age is 620 ± 140 B.P.. In addition, some complex factors associated with dating have been discussed and a resolution has been raised, which will help improve the accuracy of TL dating. (authors)

  3. The cormorant ear – an adaptation to underwater hearing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    Depending on species, diving birds may spend 2-20 minutes under water during a single foraging dive when they may reach depths ranging from one to several hundred meters. Surprisingly little is known about avian underwater hearing despite the fact that several hundred species dive for food. We do...... was similar to that reported for birds of the same size in air. The bandwidth and slopes of the audiograms were similar in air and water. However, in air the highest sensitivity was found at 1-2 kHz, whereas it was displaced towards lower frequencies under water. These results suggest that cormorants have...... rather poor in-air hearing compared to similar-sized birds. Their underwater hearing sensitivity, however, is higher than what would have been expected for purely air-adapted ears. A possible reason for the poor in-air sensitivity is the special ear anatomy with the central eardrum shaped as a rigid...

  4. Visualization of normal and abnormal inner ear with volume rendering technique using multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Hui; Han Ping; Liang Bo; Lei Ziqiao; Liu Fang; Tian Zhiliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of the volume rendering technique to display the normal and abnormal inner ear structures. Methods: Forty normal earand 61 abnormal inner ears (40 congenital inner ear malformations, 7 labyrinthitis ossificans, and 14 inner ear erosion caused by cholesteatomas) were examined with a MSCT scanner. Axial imaging were performed using the following parameters: 120 kV, 100 mAs, 0.75 mm slice thickness, a pitch factor of 1. The axial images of interested ears were reconstructed with 0.1 mm reconstruction increment and a FOV of 50 mm. The 3D reconstructions were done with volume rendering technique on the workstation. Results: In the subjects without ear disorders a high quality 3D visualization of the inner ear could be achieved. In the patients with inner ear' disorders all inner ear malformations could be clearly displayed on 3D images as follows: (1) Michel deformity (one ear): There was complete absence of all cochlear and vestibular structures. (2) common cavity deformity (3 ears): The cochlea and vestibule were represented by a cystic cavity and couldn't be differentiated from each other. (3)incomplete partition type I (3 ears): The cochlea lacked the entire modiolus and cribriform area, resulting in a cystic appearance. (4) incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity) (5 ears): The cochlea consisted of 1.5 turns, in which the middle and apical turns coalesced to form a cystic apex. (5) vestibular and semicircular canal malformations (14 ears): Cochlea was normal, vestibule dilated, semicircular canals were absent, hypoplastic or enlarged. (6) dilated vestibular aqueduct (14 ears): The vestibular aqueduct was bell-mouthed. In 7 patients with labyrinthifis ossificans, 3D images failed to clearly show the completeinner ears in 4 ears because of too high ossifications in the membranous labyrinth. In the other 3 ears volume rendering could display the thin cochlea basal turn and the intermittent semicircular canals. In the patients

  5. [Equivalent Lever Principle of Ossicular Chain and Amplitude Reduction Effect of Internal Ear Lymph].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoyan; Qin, Renjia

    2015-04-01

    This paper makes persuasive demonstrations on some problems about the human ear sound transmission principle in existing physiological textbooks and reference books, and puts forward the authors' view to make up for its literature. Exerting the knowledge of lever in physics and the acoustics theory, we come up with an equivalent simplified model of manubrium mallei which is to meet the requirements as the long arm of the lever. We also set up an equivalent simplified model of ossicular chain--a combination of levers of ossicular chain. We disassemble the model into two simple levers, and make full analysis and demonstration on them. Through the calculation and comparison of displacement amplitudes in both external auditory canal air and internal ear lymph, we may draw a conclusion that the key reason, which the sound displacement amplitude is to be decreased to adapt to the endurance limit of the basement membrane, is that the density and sound speed in lymph is much higher than those in the air.

  6. Ear Acupuncture for Acute Sore Throat: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ear acupuncture for acute sore throat. A randomized controlled trial...Auncular Acupuncture is a low risk option for acute pain control •Battlefield acupuncture (BFA) IS a specific auncular acupuncture technique •BFA IS...Strengths: Prospect1ve RCT •Weaknesses Small sample stze. no sham acupuncture performed, patients not blinded to treatment •Th1s study represents an

  7. Lobule separator prosthesis to prevent adhesion of reconstructed ear lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokendra Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adhesion is a band of scar tissue that binds two parts of the tissue together, which develops when the body's repair mechanisms respond to any tissue disturbance, such as surgery, infection, trauma, or radiation. Prevention of unwanted scar bands is of utmost importance to develop esthetic and healthy tissue. This article describes a technique to prevent the adhesion of the surgically reconstructed ear lobule with facial skin, using novel lobule separator prosthesis.

  8. Auditory Localization Performance with Asymmetric Integrated Eye and Ear Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Scharine, Morgan Domanico, Ashley N Foots, Kim Fluitt, and Timothy J Mermagen Human Research and Engineering Directorate, ARL Morgan Domanico Oak...prototypes. The AIEEP is a tactical communications and protection system (TCAPS) that also provides eye protection. Participants used a laser pointer...Decibels “A-weighted” is the sound pressure level adjusted for the sensitivity of the average human ear. The reference level is the

  9. Cisplatin ototoxicity blocks sensory regeneration in the avian inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Eric L; Warchol, Mark E

    2010-03-03

    Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in the treatment of solid tumors. Ototoxicity is a common side effect of cisplatin therapy and often leads to permanent hearing loss. The sensory organs of the avian ear are able to regenerate hair cells after aminoglycoside ototoxicity. This regenerative response is mediated by supporting cells, which serve as precursors to replacement hair cells. Given the antimitotic properties of cisplatin, we examined whether the avian ear was also capable of regeneration after cisplatin ototoxicity. Using cell and organ cultures of the chick cochlea and utricle, we found that cisplatin treatment caused apoptosis of both auditory and vestibular hair cells. Hair cell death in the cochlea occurred in a unique pattern, progressing from the low-frequency (distal) region toward the high-frequency (proximal) region. We also found that cisplatin caused a dose-dependent reduction in the proliferation of cultured supporting cells as well as increased apoptosis in those cells. As a result, we observed no recovery of hair cells after ototoxic injury caused by cisplatin. Finally, we explored the potential for nonmitotic hair cell recovery via activation of Notch pathway signaling. Treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester failed to promote the direct transdifferentiation of supporting cells into hair cells in cisplatin-treated utricles. Taken together, our data show that cisplatin treatment causes maintained changes to inner ear supporting cells and severely impairs the ability of the avian ear to regenerate either via proliferation or by direct transdifferentiation.

  10. Study of inner ear and lateral line hair cell regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Piqué Borràs, Maria Riera

    2013-01-01

    Death of sensory hair cells in the inner ear results in two global health problems that millions of people around the world suffer: hearing loss and balance disorders. Hair cells convert sound vibrations and head movements into electrical signals that are conveyed to the brain, and as a result of aging, exposure to noise, modern drugs or genetic predisposition, hair cells die. In mammals, the great majority of hair cells are produced during embryogenesis, and hair cells that ar...

  11. Ear-related problems among children attending the paediatric and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-31

    Aug 31, 2006 ... Results: Three thousand and twenty-one children were seen during the study period. Out of these, 248 children (8.2%) pre- sented with ear-related problems. Chronic otitis media (30.5%), acute otitis media (29.9%), cerumen auris (11.3%), otitis ex- terna(10.1%), hearing impairment (7.3%) and foreign body ...

  12. Development of optoelectronic monitoring system for ear arterial pressure waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Satoshi; Imachi, Yu; Yagi, Tamotsu; Imachi, Kou; Ono, Toshirou; Man-i, Masando

    1994-02-01

    Invasive intra-arterial blood pressure measurement is the most accurate method but not practical if the subject is in motion. The apparatus developed by Wesseling et al., based on a volume-clamp method of Penaz (Finapres), is able to monitor continuous finger arterial pressure waveforms noninvasively. The limitation of Finapres is the difficulty in measuring the pressure of a subject during work that involves finger or arm action. Because the Finapres detector is attached to subject's finger, the measurements are affected by inertia of blood and hydrostatic effect cause by arm or finger motion. To overcome this problem, the authors made a detector that is attached to subject's ear and developed and optoelectronic monitoring systems for ear arterial pressure waveform (Earpres). An IR LEDs, photodiode, and air cuff comprised the detector. The detector was attached to a subject's ear, and the space adjusted between the air cuff and the rubber plate on which the LED and photodiode were positioned. To evaluate the accuracy of Earpres, the following tests were conducted with participation of 10 healthy male volunteers. The subjects rested for about five minutes, then performed standing and squatting exercises to provide wide ranges of systolic and diastolic arterial pressure. Intra- and inter-individual standard errors were calculated according to the method of van Egmond et al. As a result, average, the averages of intra-individual standard errors for earpres appeared small (3.7 and 2.7 mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressure respectively). The inter-individual standard errors for Earpres were about the same was Finapres for both systolic and diastolic pressure. The results showed the ear monitor was reliable in measuring arterial blood pressure waveforms and might be applicable to various fields such as sports medicine and ergonomics.

  13. Cochlear aqueduct flow resistance is not constant during evoked inner ear pressure change in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, HP; Feijen, RA; Albers, FWJ

    Inner ear fluid pressure was measured during 6.25 mHz square wave middle ear pressure manipulation, with a perforated tympanic membrane. After a negative-going middle ear pressure change the calculated flow resistance of the inner ear pressure release routes (mainly the cochlear aqueduct) was

  14. Inner ear decompression sickness in compressed-air diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmann, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) has become more frequently reported in recreational diving. We examined 34 divers after IEDCS and analyzed their dive profiles, pattern of symptoms, time of symptom onset and the association with a right-to left shunt (r/l shunt). Four divers used mixed gas and were excluded from the analysis. Of the remaining 30 divers, 25 presented with isolated IEDCS alone, while five divers had additional skin and neurological symptoms. All divers presented with vertigo (100%), and 12 divers reported additional hearing loss (40%). All symptoms occurred within 120 minutes (median 30 minutes) of ascent. Twenty-two of 30 divers (73.3%) showed a r/l shunt. A possible explanation for the frequent association of a r/l shunt and the dominance of vestibular rather than cochlear symptoms could be attributed to the different blood supply of the inner ear structures and the different size of the labyrinthine compartments. The cochlea has a blood supply up to four times higher than the vestibular part of the inner ear, whereas the vestibular fluid space is 30% larger. The higher prevalence of symptoms referrable to the less well-perfused vestibular organ provides further evidence that persistent local inert gas supersaturation may cause growth of incoming arterial bubbles and may therefore be an important pathophysiological factor in IEDCS.

  15. Immune-Mediated Inner Ear Disease: Diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penêda, José Ferreira; Lima, Nuno Barros; Monteiro, Francisco; Silva, Joana Vilela; Gama, Rita; Condé, Artur

    2018-03-07

    Immune Mediated Inner Ear Disease (IMIED) is a rare form of sensorineural bilateral hearing loss, usually progressing in weeks to months and responsive to immunosuppressive treatment. Despite recent advances, there is no consensus on diagnosis and optimal treatment. A review of articles on IMIED from the last 10 years was conducted using PubMed ® database. IMIED is a rare disease, mostly affecting middle aged women. It may be a primary ear disease or secondary to autoimmune systemic disease. A dual immune response (both cellular and humoral) seems to be involved. Cochlin may be the inner ear protein targeted in this disease. Distinction from other (core common) forms of neurosensory hearing loss is a challenge. Physical examination is mandatory for exclusion of other causes of hearing loss; audiometry identifies characteristic hearing curves. Laboratory and imaging studies are controversial since no diagnostic marker is available. Despite recent research, IMIED diagnosis remains exclusive. Steroids are the mainstay treatment; other therapies need further investigation. For refractory cases, cochlear implantation is an option and with good relative outcome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcinoma of the middle ear and external auditory canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.S.; Kim, J.A.; Goodchild, N.; Constable, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with malignant tumors of the middle ear and external auditory canal (EAC) were observed at the University of Virginia Hospital from 1956 through 1980. Of 27 patients with carcinoma, 21 had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 had basal cell carcinoma and 2 had adenoid cystic carcinoma. The 27 patients with carcinoma are reviewed with regard to clinical presentation, treatment modality, results and complications. The majority (67%) of patients had a history of chronic ear drainage, 22% had a previous mastoidectomy or polypectomy and 7% had an associated cholesteatoma. Eighty percent of patients with carcinoma limited to EAC were alive and well at 5 years, compared to 43% of patients with involvement of the middle ear. Fifty-six percent of patients without invasion of the petrous bone were alive at 5 years compared to only 20% of patients with petrous bone involvement. The data strongly suggest that survival depends on the extent of disease. The corrected disease free 5 year survival rates were 14% for patients who had surgery alone and 50% for those who had surgery and radiotherapy. Of the three patients with advanced disease who received radiotherapy alone, none survived five years

  17. Effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Mingsan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the effects of motherwort alkaloids on rat ear acne. The rats that were administered high, medium, and low doses of motherwort alkaloids, tanshinone capsules, a model and a control group. Each group of rats was subjected to gavage once daily for 14 consecutive days. On the first day of testing, the control and model groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of sterilized saline solution and the remaining groups were administered an intradermal auricle injection of Staphylococcus epidermidis in addition to the gavage. The thicknesses of the rats’ auricles were measured for five consecutive days following the injections. Anticoagulated blood was used for erythrocyte rheology index measurement. In addition, the entire ear of each rat was removed for morphological examination. Compared to the model group, the group administered motherwort alkaloids exhibited significantly reduced swelling, improved localized auricle proliferation, and reduced blood viscosity. This result suggests motherwort alkaloids are effective in rat ear acne.

  18. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  19. Anatomic Considerations on the Middle Ear in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Berghes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to explain some aspects of middle ear anatomy in dog. The study was conducted on five dog skulls (different ages from common, large size dogs. The skulls were processed by maceration and submitted to a treatment of mechanical cleaning with perhydrol. The temporal bone was collected first; the external wall was opened carefully to study the tympanic cavity. The ossicles were collected separately and subsequently described. From research carried promontory appears as an elongated projection that separates the oval window and round window. Vestibular window is oval or slightly ovoid shape of a hole, located dorso-medially to the promontory, which communicates with the middle ear vestibule. Cochlearia window appears as a round or circular hole located caudo-lateral to the promontory . it is blocked by a membrane called the tympanum secondary, cavity separating the ramp of the snail. In the ventro-oral cavity openings ductus faringo tympanicum. The osicules sound represented by hammer, anvil and stirrup are articulated with each other and form a chain as a link between the eardrum and vestibular window. Bones are driven by two muscles: the tensor muscle and muscle stirrup eardrum is very thin. osicules ear are relatively large and resemble those of humans. Lenticular bone is the lenticular process of the long arm of anvile.

  20. Shaping magnetic fields to direct therapy to ears and eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, B; Kulkarni, S; Nacev, A; Sarwar, A; Preciado, D; Depireux, D A

    2014-07-11

    Magnetic fields have the potential to noninvasively direct and focus therapy to disease targets. External magnets can apply forces on drug-coated magnetic nanoparticles, or on living cells that contain particles, and can be used to manipulate them in vivo. Significant progress has been made in developing and testing safe and therapeutic magnetic constructs that can be manipulated by magnetic fields. However, we do not yet have the magnet systems that can then direct those constructs to the right places, in vivo, over human patient distances. We do not yet know where to put the external magnets, how to shape them, or when to turn them on and off to direct particles or magnetized cells-in blood, through tissue, and across barriers-to disease locations. In this article, we consider ear and eye disease targets. Ear and eye targets are too deep and complex to be targeted by a single external magnet, but they are shallow enough that a combination of magnets may be able to direct therapy to them. We focus on how magnetic fields should be shaped (in space and time) to direct magnetic constructs to ear and eye targets.

  1. Classification and Current Management of Inner Ear Malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Sennaroğlu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphologically congenital sensorineural hearing loss can be investigated under two categories. Majority of the congenital hearing loss (80% are membranous malformations. Here the pathology involves inner ear hair cells. There is no gross bony abnormality and therefore, in these cases, high resolution computerized tomography and MRI of the temporal bone reveal normal findings. Remaining 20% have various malformations involving the bony labyrinth and therefore, can be radiologically demonstrated by CT and MRI. The latter group involves surgical challenges as well as problems in decision making. Some cases may be managed by hearing aid, some need cochlear implantation while some cases are candidates for an auditory brainstem implantation. During cochlear implantation, there may be facial nerve abnormalities, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, electrode misplacement or difficulty in finding the cochlea itself. During the surgery for inner ear malformations, surgeon must be ready to modify the surgical approach or choose special electrodes for surgery. In the present review article inner ear malformations are classified according to the differences observed in the cochlea. Hearing and language outcome after various implantation methods is closely related to the status of cochlear nerve and a practical classification of the cochlear nerve deficiency is also provided

  2. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V

    2016-04-01

    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  3. Radiation effect on the middle ear of the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo

    1984-01-01

    It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. We conducted, two experiments as follows: 1) The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. 2) The animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author)

  4. Design of a dynamic sensor inspired by bat ears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Rolf; Pannala, Mittu; Praveen K Reddy, O; Meymand, Sajjad Z

    2012-01-01

    In bats, the outer ear shapes act as beamforming baffles that create a spatial sensitivity pattern for the reception of the biosonar signals. Whereas technical receivers for wave-based signals usually have rigid geometries, the outer ears of some bat species, such as horseshoe bats, can undergo non-rigid deformations as a result of muscular actuation. It is hypothesized that these deformations provide the animals with a mechanism to adapt their spatial hearing sensitivity on short, sub-second time scales. This biological approach could be of interest to engineering as an inspiration for the design of beamforming devices that combine flexibility with parsimonious implementation. To explore this possibility, a biomimetic dynamic baffle was designed based on a simple shape overall geometry based on an average bat ear. This shape was augmented with three different biomimetic local shape features, a ridge on its exposed surface as well as a flap and an incision along its rim. Dynamic non-rigid deformations of the shape were accomplished through a simple actuation mechanism based on linear actuation inserted at a single point. Despite its simplicity, the prototype device was able to reproduce the dynamic functional characteristics that have been predicted for its biological paragon in a qualitative fashion. (paper)

  5. Speech understanding and directional hearing for hearing-impaired subjects with in-the-ear and behind-the-ear hearing aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, A. R.; Dreschler, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    With respect to acoustical properties, in-the-ear (ITE) aids should give better understanding and directional hearing than behind-the-ear (BTE) aids. Also hearing-impaired subjects often prefer ITEs. A study was performed to assess objectively the improvement in speech understanding and directional

  6. Reflectance Measures from Infant Ears With Normal Hearing and Transient Conductive Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Susan E; Herrmann, Barbara S; Horton, Nicholas J; Amadei, Elizabeth A; Kujawa, Sharon G

    2016-01-01

    The objective is to develop methods to utilize newborn reflectance measures for the identification of middle-ear transient conditions (e.g., middle-ear fluid) during the newborn period and ultimately during the first few months of life. Transient middle-ear conditions are a suspected source of failure to pass a newborn hearing screening. The ability to identify a conductive loss during the screening procedure could enable the referred ear to be either (1) cleared of a middle-ear condition and recommended for more extensive hearing assessment as soon as possible, or (2) suspected of a transient middle-ear condition, and if desired, be rescreened before more extensive hearing assessment. Reflectance measurements are reported from full-term, healthy, newborn babies in which one ear referred and one ear passed an initial auditory brainstem response newborn hearing screening and a subsequent distortion product otoacoustic emission screening on the same day. These same subjects returned for a detailed follow-up evaluation at age 1 month (range 14 to 35 days). In total, measurements were made on 30 subjects who had a unilateral refer near birth (during their first 2 days of life) and bilateral normal hearing at follow-up (about 1 month old). Three specific comparisons were made: (1) Association of ear's state with power reflectance near birth (referred versus passed ear), (2) Changes in power reflectance of normal ears between newborn and 1 month old (maturation effects), and (3) Association of ear's newborn state (referred versus passed) with ear's power reflectance at 1 month. In addition to these measurements, a set of preliminary data selection criteria were developed to ensure that analyzed data were not corrupted by acoustic leaks and other measurement problems. Within 2 days of birth, the power reflectance measured in newborn ears with transient middle-ear conditions (referred newborn hearing screening and passed hearing assessment at age 1 month) was significantly

  7. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MGI is the international database resource for the laboratory mouse, providing integrated genetic, genomic, and biological data to facilitate the study of human...

  8. Mouse Phenome Database (MPD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mouse Phenome Database (MPD) has characterizations of hundreds of strains of laboratory mice to facilitate translational discoveries and to assist in selection...

  9. Inner ear anatomy in Waardenburg syndrome: radiological assessment and comparison with normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontorinis, Georgios; Goetz, Friedrich; Lanfermann, Heinrich; Luytenski, Stefan; Giesemann, Anja M

    2014-08-01

    As patients with Waardenburg syndrome (WS) represent potential candidates for cochlear implantation, their inner ear anatomy is of high significance. There is an ongoing debate whether WS is related to any inner ear dysplasias. Our objective was to evaluate radiologically the inner ear anatomy in patients with WS and identify any temporal bone malformations. A retrospective case review was carried out in a tertiary, referral center. The high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the temporal bone from 20 patients (40 ears) with WS who were managed for deafness in a tertiary referral center from 1995 to 2012 were retrospectively examined. Measurements of 15 different inner ear dimensions, involving the cochlea, the vestibule, the semicircular canals and the internal auditory meatus, as well as measurements of the vestibular aqueduct, were performed independently by two neuroradiologists. Finally, we compared the results from the WS group with a control group consisting of 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) and with previously reported normative values. Inner ear malformations were not found in any of the patients with WS. All measured inner ear dimensions were within the normative values compiled by our study group as well as by others. Inner ear malformations are not characteristic for all types of WS; however, certain rare subtypes might be related to inner ear deformities. Normative cochleovestibular dimensions that can help in assessing the temporal bone anatomy are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ear Detection under Uncontrolled Conditions with Multiple Scale Faster Region-Based Convolutional Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ear detection is an important step in ear recognition approaches. Most existing ear detection techniques are based on manually designing features or shallow learning algorithms. However, researchers found that the pose variation, occlusion, and imaging conditions provide a great challenge to the traditional ear detection methods under uncontrolled conditions. This paper proposes an efficient technique involving Multiple Scale Faster Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN to detect ears from 2D profile images in natural images automatically. Firstly, three regions of different scales are detected to infer the information about the ear location context within the image. Then an ear region filtering approach is proposed to extract the correct ear region and eliminate the false positives automatically. In an experiment with a test set of 200 web images (with variable photographic conditions, 98% of ears were accurately detected. Experiments were likewise conducted on the Collection J2 of University of Notre Dame Biometrics Database (UND-J2 and University of Beira Interior Ear dataset (UBEAR, which contain large occlusion, scale, and pose variations. Detection rates of 100% and 98.22%, respectively, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  11. Evaluation of the canine tympanic membrane by positive contrast ear canalography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trower, N.D.; Gregory, S.P.; Renfrew, H.; Lamb, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Positive contrast ear canalography was described briefly in 1973 as a method for detecting rupture of the tympanic membrane in dogs with otitis media. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and usefulness of the technique. The ears of 10 normal canine cadavers and 31 dogs with clinical signs of ear disease were examined using otoscopy, radiography and contrast radiography after infusing 2 to 5 ml of positive contrast medium into the ear canals. These examinations were repeated in the cadavers after the tympanic membrane had been punctured with a Spreull needle. In the cadavers 14 of 19 (74 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically; contrast medium did not enter the tympanic bulla of any of the ears before the tympanic membrane was ruptured, but was visible in the bulla in every ear after rupture. In the clinical study, 40 of 61 (66 per cent) of the tympanic membranes were visible otoscopically, and 12 appeared to be ruptured. Radiographic signs of otitis media (increased opacity and/or thickening of the tympanic bulla) were identified in seven ears. Canalography was positive for rupture of the tympanic membrane in 13 ears, including four in which it appeared to be intact otoscopically. In normal canine ears, canalography was a more accurate method for detecting iatrogenic tympanic membrane rupture than otoscopy. In dogs with ear disease, canalography may be more sensitive for otitis media than either otoscopy or survey radiography

  12. Manufacturing and in vivo inner ear visualization of MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles encapsulating gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnunen Paavo KJ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of inner ear diseases remains a problem because of limited passage through the blood-inner ear barriers and lack of control with the delivery of treatment agents by intravenous or oral administration. As a minimally-invasive approach, intratympanic delivery of multifunctional nanoparticles (MFNPs carrying genes or drugs to the inner ear is a future therapy for treating inner ear diseases, including sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL and Meniere's disease. In an attempt to track the dynamics and distribution of nanoparticles in vivo, here we describe manufacturing MRI traceable liposome nanoparticles by encapsulating gadolinium-tetra-azacyclo-dodecane-tetra-acetic acid (Gd-DOTA (abbreviated as LPS+Gd-DOTA and their distribution in the inner ear after either intratympanic or intracochlear administration. Results Measurements of relaxivities (r1 and r2 showed that LPS+Gd-DOTA had efficient visible signal characteristics for MRI. In vivo studies demonstrated that LPS+Gd-DOTA with 130 nm size were efficiently taken up by the inner ear at 3 h after transtympanic injection and disappeared after 24 h. With intracochlear injection, LPS+Gd-DOTA were visualized to distribute throughout the inner ear, including the cochlea and vestibule with fast dynamics depending on the status of the perilymph circulation. Conclusion Novel LPS+Gd-DOTA were visible by MRI in the inner ear in vivo demonstrating transport from the middle ear to the inner ear and with dynamics that correlated to the status of the perilymph circulation.

  13. Cilia-driven fluid flow as an epigenetic cue for otolith biomineralization on sensory hair cells of the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xianwen; Lau, Doreen; Ng, Chee Peng; Roy, Sudipto

    2011-02-01

    Ciliary motility is necessary for many developmental and physiological processes in animals. In zebrafish, motile cilia are thought to be required for the deposition of otoliths, which comprise crystals of protein and calcium carbonate, on hair cells of the inner ear. The identity of the motile cilia and their role in otolith biogenesis, however, remain controversial. Here, we show that the ear vesicle differentiates numerous motile cilia, the spatial distribution of which changes as a function of the expression pattern of the ciliogenic gene foxj1b. By contrast, the hair cells develop immotile kinocilia that serve as static tethers for otolith crystallization. In ears devoid of all cilia, otoliths can form but they are of irregular shapes and sizes and appear to attach instead to the hair cell apical membranes. Moreover, overproduction of motile cilia also disrupts otolith deposition through sustained agitation of the precursor particles. Therefore, the correct spatial and temporal distribution of the motile cilia is crucial for proper otolith formation. Our findings support the view that the hair cells express a binding factor for the otolith precursors, while the motile cilia ensure that the precursors do not sediment prematurely and are efficiently directed towards the hair cells. We also provide evidence that the kinocilia are modified motile cilia that depend on Foxj1b for their differentiation. We propose that in hair cells, a Foxj1b-dependent motile ciliogenic program is altered by the proneural Atoh proteins to promote the differentiation of immotile kinocilia.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of 3-O-[(6'-O-Palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl Sitosterol] from Agave angustifolia on Ear Edema in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hernández-Valle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico Agave angustifolia has traditionally been used to treat inflammation. The aim of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract of A. angustifolia, the isolation and identification of active compounds. From the acetone extract two active fractions were obtained, (AsF13 and AaF16. For the characterization of pharmacological activity, the acute inflammatory model of mouse ear edema induced with TPA was used. The tissue exposed to TPA and treatments were subjected to two analysis, cytokine quantification (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α and histopathological evaluation. The active fraction (AaF16 consisted principally of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranpsyl] sitosterol. In AaF13 fraction was identified β-sitosteryl glucoside (2 and stigmasterol (3. The three treatments tested showed a concentration-dependent anti-inflammatory effect (AaAc Emax = 33.10%, EC50 = 0.126 mg/ear; AaF13 Emax = 54.22%, EC50 = 0.0524 mg/ear; AaF16 Emax = 61.01%, EC50 = 0.050 mg/ear. The application of TPA caused a significant increase on level of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα compared with basal condition, which was countered by any of the experimental treatments. Moreover, the experimental treatments induced a significant increase in the levels of IL-4 and IL-10, compared to the level observed when stimulated with TPA. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effect of Agave angustifolia, is associated with the presence of 3-O-[(6'-O-palmitoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] sitosterol.

  15. New blackbody standard for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic ear thermometers at the NPL, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Helen C.; Simpson, Robert; Machin, Graham

    2004-04-01

    The use of infrared tympanic thermometers for monitoring patient health is widespread. However, studies into the performance of these thermometers have questioned their accuracy and repeatability. To give users confidence in these devices, and to provide credibility in the measurements, it is necessary for them to be tested using an accredited, standard blackbody source, with a calibration traceable to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90). To address this need the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, has recently set up a primary ear thermometer calibration (PET-C) source for the evaluation and calibration of tympanic (ear) thermometers over the range from 15 °C to 45 °C. The overall uncertainty of the PET-C source is estimated to be +/- 0.04 °C at k = 2. The PET-C source meets the requirements of the European Standard EN 12470-5: 2003 Clinical thermometers. It consists of a high emissivity blackbody cavity immersed in a bath of stirred liquid. The temperature of the blackbody is determined using an ITS-90 calibrated platinum resistance thermometer inserted close to the rear of the cavity. The temperature stability and uniformity of the PET-C source was evaluated and its performance validated. This paper provides a description of the PET-C along with the results of the validation measurements. To further confirm the performance of the PET-C source it was compared to the standard ear thermometer calibration sources of the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Japan and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. The results of this comparison will also be briefly discussed. The PET-C source extends the capability for testing ear thermometers offered by the NPL body temperature fixed-point source, described previously. An update on the progress with the commercialisation of the fixed-point source will be given.

  16. Middle ear osteoma causing progressive facial nerve weakness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kate; Bance, Manohar; Carter, Michael; Hong, Paul

    2014-09-18

    Facial nerve weakness is most commonly due to Bell's palsy or cerebrovascular accidents. Rarely, middle ear tumor presents with facial nerve dysfunction. We report a very unusual case of middle ear osteoma in a 49-year-old Caucasian woman causing progressive facial nerve deficit. A subtle middle ear lesion was observed on otoscopy and computed tomographic images demonstrated an osseous middle ear tumor. Complete surgical excision resulted in the partial recovery of facial nerve function. Facial nerve dysfunction is rarely caused by middle ear tumors. The weakness is typically due to a compressive effect on the middle ear portion of the facial nerve. Early recognition is crucial since removal of these lesions may lead to the recuperation of facial nerve function.

  17. Muc5b is required for airway defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Michelle G.; Livraghi-Butrico, Alessandra; Fletcher, Ashley A.; McElwee, Melissa M.; Evans, Scott E.; Boerner, Ryan M.; Alexander, Samantha N.; Bellinghausen, Lindsey K.; Song, Alfred S.; Petrova, Youlia M.; Tuvim, Michael J.; Adachi, Roberto; Romo, Irlanda; Bordt, Andrea S.; Bowden, M. Gabriela; Sisson, Joseph H.; Woodruff, Prescott G.; Thornton, David J.; Rousseau, Karine; de La Garza, Maria M.; Moghaddam, Seyed J.; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Blackburn, Michael R.; Drouin, Scott M.; Davis, C. William; Terrell, Kristy A.; Grubb, Barbara R.; O'Neal, Wanda K.; Flores, Sonia C.; Cota-Gomez, Adela; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Donnelly, Jody M.; Watson, Alan M.; Hennessy, Corinne E.; Keith, Rebecca C.; Yang, Ivana V.; Barthel, Lea; Henson, Peter M.; Janssen, William J.; Schwartz, David A.; Boucher, Richard C.; Dickey, Burton F.; Evans, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory surfaces are exposed to billions of particulates and pathogens daily. A protective mucus barrier traps and eliminates them through mucociliary clearance (MCC). However, excessive mucus contributes to transient respiratory infections and to the pathogenesis of numerous respiratory diseases. MUC5AC and MUC5B are evolutionarily conserved genes that encode structurally related mucin glycoproteins, the principal macromolecules in airway mucus. Genetic variants are linked to diverse lung diseases, but specific roles for MUC5AC and MUC5B in MCC, and the lasting effects of their inhibition, are unknown. Here we show that mouse Muc5b (but not Muc5ac) is required for MCC, for controlling infections in the airways and middle ear, and for maintaining immune homeostasis in mouse lungs, whereas Muc5ac is dispensable. Muc5b deficiency caused materials to accumulate in upper and lower airways. This defect led to chronic infection by multiple bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, and to inflammation that failed to resolve normally. Apoptotic macrophages accumulated, phagocytosis was impaired, and interleukin-23 (IL-23) production was reduced in Muc5b-/- mice. By contrast, in mice that transgenically overexpress Muc5b, macrophage functions improved. Existing dogma defines mucous phenotypes in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as driven by increased MUC5AC, with MUC5B levels either unaffected or increased in expectorated sputum. However, in many patients, MUC5B production at airway surfaces decreases by as much as 90%. By distinguishing a specific role for Muc5b in MCC, and by determining its impact on bacterial infections and inflammation in mice, our results provide a refined framework for designing targeted therapies to control mucin secretion and restore MCC.

  18. Severe capillary leak syndrome after inner ear decompression sickness in a recreational scuba diver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gempp, Emmanuel; Lacroix, Guillaume; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Louge, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    Post-decompression shock with plasma volume deficit is a very rare event that has been observed under extreme conditions of hypobaric and hyperbaric exposure in aviators and professional divers. We report a case of severe hypovolemic shock due to extravasation of plasma in a recreational scuba diver presenting with inner ear decompression sickness. Impaired endothelial function can lead to capillary leak with hemoconcentration and hypotension in severe cases. This report suggests that decompression-induced circulating bubbles may have triggered the endothelial damage, activating the classic inflammatory pathway of increased vascular permeability. This observation highlights the need for an accurate diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition at the initial presentation in the Emergency Department after a diving-related injury. An elevated hematocrit in a diver should raise the suspicion for the potential development of capillary leak syndrome requiring specific treatment using albumin infusion as primary fluid replacement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dose rate to cellular systems of the inner ear during Moessbauer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliauga, P.; Khanna, S.

    1982-01-01

    In the Moessbauer technique for vibration measurements a small radioactive source is placed on the basilar membrane. This source produces gamma rays of precise frequencies. When sound is applied to the ear the source vibrates with the basilar membrane. These vibrations produce a Doppler shift in the frequency of the emitted γ rays. Although the method provides a sensitive means of measuring small vibrations it requires placement of a radioactive material in close proximity to sensitive receptor cells. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether radiation from the Moessbauer source itself can produce sufficient radiation damage to the tissue to alter its physiological response. The absorbed dose delivered to the organ of Corti under typical experimental conditions is calculated. Possible implications for the Moessbauer experiments are discussed

  20. Bone Signaling in Middle Ear Development: A Genome‐Wide Differential Expression Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michelle Christine; Bertelsen, Tomas Martin; Friis, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Common middle ear diseases may affect bone behavior in the middle ear air cell system. To understand this pathologic pneumatization, the normal development of bone in the middle ear should be investigated. The objective of this study was to analyze gene expression of bone‐related signaling factor...... of the bulla wall. Anat Rec, 297:2349–2355, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. Diagnosis of hearing impairment by high resolution CT scanning of inner ear anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Kiyotaka; Isono, Michio; Ohta, Fumihiko

    1988-01-01

    High resolution CT scanning of the temporal bone in our clinic has provided a more detailed radiological classification of inner ear anomalies than before. The statistical analysis of inner ear malformations based on the theory of quantification II has produced discriminant equations for the measurable diagnosis of hearing impairment and development of the inner ear. This analysis may make it possible to diagnose total and partial deafness on ipsi- and contralateral sides. (author)

  2. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  3. Efficacy of naturopathic extracts in the management of ear pain associated with acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrell, E M; Mandelberg, A; Cohen, H A

    2001-07-01

    To determine the efficacy and tolerance of Otikon Otic Solution (Healthy-On Ltd, Petach-Tikva, Israel), a naturopathic herbal extract (containing Allium sativum, Verbascum thapsus, Calendula flores, and Hypericum perforatum in olive oil), compared with Anaesthetic (Vitamed Pharmaceutical Ltd, Benyamina, Israel) ear drops (containing ametocaine and phenazone in glycerin) in the management of ear pain associated with acute otitis media (AOM). Children between the ages of 6 and 18 years who experienced ear pain (otalgia) and who were diagnosed with eardrum problems associated with AOM were randomly assigned to be treated with Otikon or Anaesthetic ear drops, which were instilled into the external canal(s) of the affected ear(s). Ear pain was assessed using 2 visual analog scales: a linear scale and a color scale. Pain assessment took place throughout the course of 3 days. The mean score of pain reduction was used to measure outcome. Primary pediatric community ambulatory centers. One hundred three children aged 6 to 18 years who were diagnosed with otalgia associated with AOM. Each of the 2 treatment groups were comparable on the basis of age, sex, laterality of AOM, and the effectiveness of ameliorating symptoms of otalgia. The 2 groups were also comparable to each other in the initial ear pain score and in the scores at each application of Otikon or Anaesthetic drops. There was a statistically significant improvement in ear pain score throughout the course of the study period (P =.007). Otikon, an ear drop formulation of naturopathic origin, is as effective as Anaesthetic ear drops and was proven appropriate for the management of AOM-associated ear pain.

  4. Ear-body lift and a novel thrust generating mechanism revealed by the complex wake of brown long-eared bats (Plecotus auritus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L. Christoffer; Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Large ears enhance perception of echolocation and prey generated sounds in bats. However, external ears likely impair aerodynamic performance of bats compared to birds. But large ears may generate lift on their own, mitigating the negative effects. We studied flying brown long-eared bats, using high resolution, time resolved particle image velocimetry, to determine the aerodynamics of flying with large ears. We show that the ears and body generate lift at medium to cruising speeds (3-5 m/s), but at the cost of an interaction with the wing root vortices, likely reducing inner wing performance. We also propose that the bats use a novel wing pitch mechanism at the end of the upstroke generating thrust at low speeds, which should provide effective pitch and yaw control. In addition, the wing tip vortices show a distinct spiraling pattern. The tip vortex of the previous wingbeat remains into the next wingbeat and rotates together with a newly formed tip vortex. Several smaller vortices, related to changes in circulation around the wing also spiral the tip vortex. Our results thus show a new level of complexity in bat wakes and suggest large eared bats are less aerodynamically limited than previous wake studies have suggested.

  5. Statistical Surface Recovery: A Study on Ear Canals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for surface recovery in partial surface scans based on a statistical model. The framework is based on multivariate point prediction, where the distribution of the points are learned from an annotated data set. The training set consist of surfaces with dense correspondence...... that are Procrustes aligned. The average shape and point covariances can be estimated from this set. It is shown how missing data in a new given shape can be predicted using the learned statistics. The method is evaluated on a data set of 29 scans of ear canal impressions. By using a leave-one-out approach we...

  6. Ear, nose, and throat disorders in a nigerian rural community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Atilade Adegbiji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective community-based study of ear, nose, and throat diseases. The study was carried out over a period of 3 months (January to March 2017. Verbal consent was obtained from the village head and participants. A total of 738 individuals were enrolled into the study. Interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to obtain bio data and otorhinolaryngological history from all participants, followed by examination and investigation. Data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 738 consented participants had various forms of ear, nose, and throat disorders. They constituted 435 (58.9% males and 303 (41.1% females, with a male: female ratio of 1:1. Majority of enrollee were dependent age groups. These age groups were 27.4% (1–10, 25.5% (11–20, and 14.1% (51–60. The occupational status revealed that 28.9% were employed; 9.3% were retired; 45.5% were children/students/apprenticeship; and 16.3% were artisans, homemakers, and farmers. Nasal diseases (34.4% were the most common otorhinolaryngological, head and neck disorders while ear, nose, and throat with head and neck diseases were responsible for 43.4%, 14.6%, and 7.6%, respectively. The common diseases were wax impaction (11.7%, sinusitis (14.4%, and allergic rhinitis (22.6%. Less prevalent otorhinolaryngological, head and neck diseases were vertigo/balance disorder (0.9%, cervical spondylosis (1.6%, and pharyngitis/tonsillitis (2.0%. Common procedures performed included impacted earwax removal (22.8%, aural toilet/dressing (14.4%, pure tone audiometry (32.5%, tympanometry (18.4%, endoscopy (9.8%, and antral irrigation (5.7%. Referred cases of 7.2% were recorded. The barriers experienced by these villagers in seeking otorhinolaryngological

  7. Ossicular erosions in the dry ear: CT diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, J.D.; Nunnelly, D.E.; Zwillenberg, S.; Berger, A.S.; Popky, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Erosions of the ossicular chain can occur as a complication of noncholesteatomatous chronic otitis media. These defects may appear on CT of the healed ''dry'' ear. Ischemic necrosis is the most likely etiology; however, acid phosphatase-containing lysosomes are also implicated. The incus (particularly the long and lenticular processes) is by far the most vulnerable ossicle. Coronal CT is especially valuable in diagnosing these erosions. Fibrous replacement of the incudostapedial articulation may be diagnosed on CT when an unusually wide ''joint'' is seen on axial CT scans

  8. Regeneration and replacement in the vertebrate inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Jonathan I; Parker, Mark A; Ryals, Brenda M; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2005-10-01

    Deafness affects more than 40 million people in the UK and the USA, and many more world-wide. The primary cause of hearing loss is damage to or death of the sensory receptor cells in the inner ear, the hair cells. Birds can readily regenerate their cochlear hair cells but the mammalian cochlea has shown no ability to regenerate after damage. Current research efforts are focusing on gene manipulation, gene therapy and stem cell transplantation for repairing or replacing damaged mammalian cochlear hair cells, which could lead to therapies for treating deafness in humans.

  9. The XVth Century Ear Dagger. Its Hispano-Moresque origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Lorente, J. J.

    1964-12-01

    Full Text Available THE so-called ear dagger is one of the short European arms more sought after by collectors, due to the comparatively small number of specimens which are known to exist at the present time. These daggers are usually described as those where the pommel is formed by a pair of discs bent outwards, sometimes covered on the outside with plaques of ivory or horn, and the grip of steel always forms part of the blade. Most of the authors of the last century, specially the French, have considered these arms as being made in Venice, as well as in some other parts of Europe.

    No disponible.

  10. Image analysis of the inner ear with CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakawa, Kohzoh; Takeda, Hidehiko; Mutoh, Naoko; Miyakawa, Kohichi; Yukawa, Kumiko; Funasaka, Sohtaro.

    1992-01-01

    Recent progress in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it possible to obtain detailed images of the inner ear by delineating the lymphatic fluid within the labyrinth. We analyzed CT scans and MR imaging in 70 ears manifesting profound deafness owing to inner ear lesions and compared their detective ability for inner ear lesions. The following results were obtained. CT scan examination showed slight to extensive ossification of the labyrinth in six ears (9%), whereas MRI examination revealed low to absent signal intensity of the inner ear in nine ears (13%). Therefore, it was concluded that MRI is more sensitive in detecting abnormalities of the inner ear than CT scan. MRI provided useful information as to whether the cochlear turn is filled with lymphatic fluid or obstructed. This point was one of the greatest advantages of MRI over CT scan. Abnormal findings in either or both the CT scan and the MRI were detected in suppurative labyrinthitis occurring secondary to chronic otitis media, bacterial meningitis and in inner ear trauma. However, such abnormal findings were not detected in patients with idiopathic progressive sensorineural hearing loss, ototoxity or sudden deafness. These findings should be taken into consideration in pre-operative assessment of cochlear implant candidates. (author)

  11. Radiographic appearance of the middle ear after ventral bulla osteotomy in five dogs with otitis media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, D.E.; Walker, L.

    1997-01-01

    Radiographs of the middle ear were made in five dogs 60 to 78 months after ventral bulla osteotomy was performed to treat otitis media. The clinical results of surgery were considered satisfactory in four dogs and unsatisfactory in one. In 4 dogs with satisfactory results, radiographs demonstrated complete reformation of the bulla in 3 operated middle ears (3 dogs), with partial bulla reformation in the three middle ears (3 dogs). Radiographs in one dog with unsatisfactory results showed complete bulla reformation with no increase in lumen opacity. The proliferative bony response obliterating the middle ear previously reported in normal dogs after ventral bulla osteotomy was not seen in any of these patients

  12. Safe storage of premature maize ears through gamma radiation and irradiation effect on chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, H.O.; Singh, N.N.; Roy, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    Marked differences were observed between unirradiated and irradiated premature ears (early dough stage) of maize during storage. Some molds were developed on the grains and deterioration set in at the peduncle and stone of maize in the unirradiated ears, whereas no such symptoms were observed in the 3 kGy irradiated ears even after 45 days of storage. Changes in chemical constituents viz. starch, protein, total sugars were observed in the ears without adversely affecting the quality traits through radiation although 100 grains weight reduced slightly. (author)

  13. Assessment of genetic diversity in Chinese eared pheasant using fluorescent-AFLP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiujuan; Zhu, Yaohong; Liu, Panqi

    2010-01-01

    on the list of the world’s threatened species. In this paper, 74 individuals from the four eared pheasant species were assessed for population genetic diversity by means of fluorescent-AFLP markers. A total of 429 AFLP peaks were amplified by 11 pairs of fluorescent EcoRI/TaqI primer combinations. Out of all...... using Jaccard’s similarity coefficients (SC) and the corresponding dendrogram. It was found that there was a moderate genetic distance between the four species (SC = 0.674–0.832). Brown eared pheasant was genetically closely related to blue eared pheasant (SC = 0.832), while white eared pheasant...

  14. Characteristics and application of inner ear CT in 20 cases of sensorineural hearing loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Liang; Wang, Hua

    2012-12-01

    This study shows that a number of children with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) have inner ear malformations demonstrated by multi-slice spiral computed tomography (MSCT). MSCT allows a comprehensive assessment of various congenital inner ear malformations through high quality multiplanar reformation (MPR) and can display the site and degree of the malformation three-dimensionally and intuitively. This is very useful for cochlear implantation. To evaluate the feasibility and usability of MSCT in pediatric SNHL with inner ear malformations. Sixty-five patients were diagnosed with SNHL by brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). Inner ear MSCT scan and coronal MPR reconstruction were performed in all cases. This study demonstrated 20 cases (33 ears) with inner ear malformations, which included 10 ears with cochlear malformations, 7 with vestibular malformations, 5 with semicircular canal malformations, 8 with internal auditory canal (IAC) malformations, and 15 with vestibular malformations. Cochlear malformations included one ear with Michel deformity, two ears with common cavity deformity, one with cochlear aplasia, one with hypoplastic cochlea, two with incomplete partition type I, and three with incomplete partition type II (Mondini deformity).

  15. The transition of mouse pluripotent stem cells from the naïve to the primed state requires Fas signaling through 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate structures recognized by the HS4C3 antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Kazumi [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Van Kuppevelt, Toin H. [Department of Biochemistry, Nijmegen Center for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 280 P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Nishihara, Shoko, E-mail: shoko@soka.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Department of Bioinformatics, Faculty of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► Fas transcript increases during the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► 3OST-5 transcript, the HS4C3 epitope synthesis gene, increases during the transition. ► Fas signaling regulates the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► HS4C3-binding epitope regulates the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► Fas signaling is regulated by the HS4C3 epitope during the transition. -- Abstract: The characteristics of pluripotent embryonic stem cells of human and mouse are different. The properties of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are similar to those of mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs), which are in a later developmental pluripotency state, the so-called “primed state” compared to mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) which are in a naïve state. As a result of the properties of the primed state, hESCs proliferate slowly, cannot survive as single cells, and can only be transfected with genes at low efficiency. Generating hESCs in the naïve state is necessary to overcome these problems and allow their application in regenerative medicine. Therefore, clarifying the mechanism of the transition between the naïve and primed states in pluripotent stem cells is important for the establishment of stable methods of generating naïve state hESCs. However, the signaling pathways which contribute to the transition between the naïve and primed states are still unclear. In this study, we carried out induction from mESCs to mEpiSC-like cells (mEpiSCLCs), and observed an increase in the activation of Fas signaling during the induction. The expression of Fgf5, an epiblast marker, was diminished by inhibition of Fas signaling using the caspase-8 and -3 blocking peptides, IETD and DEVD, respectively. Furthermore, during the induction, we observed increased expression of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) structures synthesized by HS 3-O-sulfotransferase (3OST), which are recognized by the HS4C3 antibody (HS4C3-binding epitope

  16. The transition of mouse pluripotent stem cells from the naïve to the primed state requires Fas signaling through 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate structures recognized by the HS4C3 antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kazumi; Van Kuppevelt, Toin H.; Nishihara, Shoko

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fas transcript increases during the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► 3OST-5 transcript, the HS4C3 epitope synthesis gene, increases during the transition. ► Fas signaling regulates the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► HS4C3-binding epitope regulates the transition from the naïve to the primed state. ► Fas signaling is regulated by the HS4C3 epitope during the transition. -- Abstract: The characteristics of pluripotent embryonic stem cells of human and mouse are different. The properties of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are similar to those of mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs), which are in a later developmental pluripotency state, the so-called “primed state” compared to mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) which are in a naïve state. As a result of the properties of the primed state, hESCs proliferate slowly, cannot survive as single cells, and can only be transfected with genes at low efficiency. Generating hESCs in the naïve state is necessary to overcome these problems and allow their application in regenerative medicine. Therefore, clarifying the mechanism of the transition between the naïve and primed states in pluripotent stem cells is important for the establishment of stable methods of generating naïve state hESCs. However, the signaling pathways which contribute to the transition between the naïve and primed states are still unclear. In this study, we carried out induction from mESCs to mEpiSC-like cells (mEpiSCLCs), and observed an increase in the activation of Fas signaling during the induction. The expression of Fgf5, an epiblast marker, was diminished by inhibition of Fas signaling using the caspase-8 and -3 blocking peptides, IETD and DEVD, respectively. Furthermore, during the induction, we observed increased expression of 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) structures synthesized by HS 3-O-sulfotransferase (3OST), which are recognized by the HS4C3 antibody (HS4C3-binding epitope

  17. Effect of target-masker similarity on across-ear interference in a dichotic cocktail-party listening task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brungart, Douglas S; Simpson, Brian D

    2007-09-01

    Similarity between the target and masking voices is known to have a strong influence on performance in monaural and binaural selective attention tasks, but little is known about the role it might play in dichotic listening tasks with a target signal and one masking voice in the one ear and a second independent masking voice in the opposite ear. This experiment examined performance in a dichotic listening task with a target talker in one ear and same-talker, same-sex, or different-sex maskers in both the target and the unattended ears. The results indicate that listeners were most susceptible to across-ear interference with a different-sex within-ear masker and least susceptible with a same-talker within-ear masker, suggesting that the amount of across-ear interference cannot be predicted from the difficulty of selectively attending to the within-ear masking voice. The results also show that the amount of across-ear interference consistently increases when the across-ear masking voice is more similar to the target speech than the within-ear masking voice is, but that no corresponding decline in across-ear interference occurs when the across-ear voice is less similar to the target than the within-ear voice. These results are consistent with an "integrated strategy" model of speech perception where the listener chooses a segregation strategy based on the characteristics of the masker present in the target ear and the amount of across-ear interference is determined by the extent to which this strategy can also effectively be used to suppress the masker in the unattended ear.

  18. Immunostimulatory mouse granuloma protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, E; Fauve, R M; Hevin, B; Jusforgues, H

    1983-10-01

    Earlier studies have shown that from subcutaneous talc-induced granuloma in mice, a fraction could be extracted that fully protected mice against Listeria monocytogenes. Using standard biochemical procedures--i.e., ammonium sulfate fractionation, preparative electrophoresis, gel filtration chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and preparative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis--we have now purified an active factor to homogeneity. A single band was obtained in NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel with an apparent Mr of 55,000. It migrated with alpha 1-globulins and the isoelectric point was 5 +/- 0.1. The biological activity was destroyed with Pronase but not with trypsin and a monospecific polyclonal rabbit antiserum was obtained. The intravenous injection of 5 micrograms of this "mouse granuloma protein" fully protects mice against a lethal inoculum of L. monocytogenes. Moreover, after their incubation with 10 nM mouse granuloma protein, mouse peritoneal cells became cytostatic against Lewis carcinoma cells.

  19. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  20. SU-F-T-668: Irradiating Mouse Brain with a Clinical Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Torres, C [N Rancilio Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To design and construct a “mouse jig” device that would allow for irradiation of the mouse brain with a clinical Varian 6 MeV Linear Accelerator. This device must serve as a head immobilizer, gaseous anesthesia delivery, and radiation bolus concurrently. Methods: The mouse jig was machined out of nylon given that it is inexpensive, easy to machine, and has similar electron density to water. A cylindrical opening with diameter of 16 mm and 40 mm depth was drilled into a nylon block sized 56×56×50 mm (width, length, depth). Additional slots were included in the block for ear bars and a tooth bar to serve as a three-point immobilization device as well as for anesthesia delivery and scavenging. For ease of access when loading the mouse into the holder, there is a removable piece at the top of the block that is 15 mm in depth. This serves a dual purpose, as with the proper extra shielding, the mouse jig could be used with lower linear energy transfer photons with this piece removed. A baseplate was then constructed with five square slots where the mouse jig can securely be inserted plus additional slots that would allow the baseplate to be mounted on a standard lock bar in the treatment couch. This maximizes the reproducibility of placement between imaging and treatment and between treatment sessions. Results: CT imaging and radiation treatment planning was performed that showed acceptable coverage and uniformity of radiation dose in the mouse brain while sparing the throat and eyes. Conclusion: We have designed and manufactured a device that fulfills our criteria allowing us to selectively irradiate the mouse brain with a clinical linear accelerator. This setup will be used for generating mouse models of radiation-induced brain injury.