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Sample records for mouse cerebellar unipolar

  1. Cerebellar stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse

    Su, Xin; Guan, Wuqiang; Yu, Yong-Chun; Fu, Yinghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • No new neurons and astrocytes are generated in adult mouse cerebellum. • Very few mash1 + or nestin + stem cells exist, and most of them are quiescent. • Cell proliferation rate is diversified among cerebellar regions and decreases over time. - Abstract: Although previous studies implied that cerebellar stem cells exist in some adult mammals, little is known about whether these stem cells can produce new neurons and astrocytes. In this study by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, we found that there are abundant BrdU + cells in adult mouse cerebellum, and their quantity and density decreases significantly over time. We also found cell proliferation rate is diversified in different cerebellar regions. Among these BrdU + cells, very few are mash1 + or nestin + stem cells, and the vast majority of cerebellar stem cells are quiescent. Data obtained by in vivo retrovirus injection indicate that stem cells do not produce neurons and astrocytes in adult mouse cerebellum. Instead, some cells labeled by retrovirus are Iba1 + microglia. These results indicate that very few stem cells exist in adult mouse cerebellum, and none of these stem cells contribute to neurogenesis and astrogenesis under physiological condition

  2. Effect of gabazine on sensory stimulation train evoked response in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Jin, Wen-Zhe; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-02-01

    Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) respond to sensory stimulation via climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, and generate motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processed by PC in mouse cerebellar cortex are currently unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A (GABA(A)) antagonist, gabazine, on the stimulation train on the simple spike firing of PCs by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that the output of cerebellar PCs could be significantly affected by all pulses of the low-frequency (0.25 -2 Hz) sensory stimulation train, but only by the 1st and 2nd pulses of the high-frequency (≥ 4 Hz) sensory stimulation train. In the presence of gabazine (20 μM), each pulse of 1 Hz facial stimulation evoked simple spike firing in the PCs, but only the 1st and 2nd pulses of 4 Hz stimulation induced an increase in simple spike firing of the PCs. These results indicated that GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition did not significantly affect the frequency properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in the mouse cerebellar PCs.

  3. Systemic inflammation combined with neonatal cerebellar haemorrhage aggravates long-term structural and functional outcomes in a mouse model.

    Tremblay, Sophie; Pai, Alex; Richter, Lindsay; Vafaei, Rod; Potluri, Praneetha; Ellegood, Jacob; Lerch, Jason P; Goldowitz, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increased recognition of cerebellar injury in survivors of preterm birth, the neurodevelopmental consequences of isolated cerebellar injury have been largely unexplored and our current understanding of the functional deficits requires further attention in order to translate knowledge to best practices. Preterm infants are exposed to multiple stressors during their postnatal development including perinatal cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) and postnatal infection, two major risk factors for neurodevelopmental impairments. We developed a translational mouse model of CBH and/or inflammation to measure the short- and long-term outcomes in cerebellar structure and function. Mice exposed to early combined insults of CBH and early inflammatory state (EIS) have a delay in grasping acquisition, neonatal motor deficits and deficient long-term memory. CBH combined with late inflammatory state (LIS) does not induce neonatal motor problems but leads to poor fine motor function and long-term memory deficits at adulthood. Early combined insults result in poor cerebellar growth from postnatal day 15 until adulthood shown by MRI, which are reflected in diminished volumes of cerebellar structures. There are also decreases in volumes of gray matter and hippocampus. Cerebellar microgliosis appears 24h after the combined insults and persists until postnatal day 15 in the cerebellar molecular layer and cerebellar nuclei in association with a disrupted patterning of myelin deposition, a delay of oligodendrocyte maturation and reduced white matter cerebellar volume. Together, these findings reveal poor outcomes in developing brains exposed to combined cerebellar perinatal insults in association with cerebellar hypoplasia, persistence of microgliosis and alterations of cerebellar white matter maturation and growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic properties of sensory stimulation evoked responses in mouse cerebellar granule cell layer and molecular layer.

    Bing, Yan-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Jian; Sun, Lei; Chu, Chun-Ping; Qiu, De-Lai

    2015-01-12

    Sensory information coming from climbing fiber and mossy fiber-granule cell pathways, generates motor-related outputs according to internal rules of integration and computation in the cerebellar cortex. However, the dynamic properties of sensory information processing in mouse cerebellar cortex are less understood. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) and molecular layer (ML) by electrophysiological recordings method. Our data showed that air-puff stimulation (5-10 ms in duration) of the ipsilateral whisker pad evoked single-peak responses in the GCL and ML; whereas a duration of stimulation ≥30 ms in GCL and ≥60 ms in ML, evoked double-peak responses that corresponded with stimulation-on and -off responses via mossy fiber pathway. The highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking GCL responses was 33 Hz. In contrast, the highest frequency of stimulation train for evoking ML responses was 4 Hz. These results indicate that the cerebellar granule cells transfer the high-fidelity sensory information from mossy fibers, which is cut-off by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs). Our results suggest that the MLIs network acts as a low-pass filter during the processing of high-frequency sensory information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Secretin Modulates the Postnatal Development of Mouse Cerebellar Cortex Via PKA- and ERK-dependent Pathways

    Lei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Postnatal development of the cerebellum is critical for its intact function such as motor coordination and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that deprivation of secretin (SCT from cerebellar Purkinje neurons impaired motor coordination and motor learning function, while leaving the potential role of SCT in cerebellar development to be determined. SCT and its receptor (SCTR were constitutively expressed in the postnatal cerebellum in a temporal and cell-specific manner. Using a SCT knockout mouse model, we provided direct evidence showing altered developmental patterns of Purkinje cells (PCs and granular cells (GCs. SCT deprivation reduced the PC density, impaired the PC dendritic formation, induced accelerated GC migration and potentiated cerebellar apoptosis. Furthermore, our results indicated the involvement of protein kinase A (PKA and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK signaling pathways in SCT-mediated protective effects against neuronal apoptosis. Results of this study illustrated a novel function of SCT in the postnatal development of cerebellum, emphasizing the necessary role of SCT in cerebellar-related functions.

  6. The Knockout of Secretin in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Impairs Mouse Motor Coordination and Motor Learning

    Zhang, Li; Chung, Sookja Kim; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2014-01-01

    Secretin (SCT) was first considered to be a gut hormone regulating gastrointestinal functions when discovered. Recently, however, central actions of SCT have drawn intense research interest and are supported by the broad distribution of SCT in specific neuronal populations and by in vivo physiological studies regarding its role in water homeostasis and food intake. The direct action of SCT on a central neuron was first discovered in cerebellar Purkinje cells in which SCT from cerebellar Purkinje cells was found to potentiate GABAergic inhibitory transmission from presynaptic basket cells. Because Purkinje neurons have a major role in motor coordination and learning functions, we hypothesize a behavioral modulatory function for SCT. In this study, we successfully generated a mouse model in which the SCT gene was deleted specifically in Purkinje cells. This mouse line was tested together with SCT knockout and SCT receptor knockout mice in a full battery of behavioral tasks. We found that the knockout of SCT in Purkinje neurons did not affect general motor ability or the anxiety level in open field tests. However, knockout mice did exhibit impairments in neuromuscular strength, motor coordination, and motor learning abilities, as shown by wire hanging, vertical climbing, and rotarod tests. In addition, SCT knockout in Purkinje cells possibly led to the delayed development of motor neurons, as supported by the later occurrence of key neural reflexes. In summary, our data suggest a role in motor coordination and motor learning for SCT expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:24356714

  7. Cerebellar plasticity and motor learning deficits in a copy-number variation mouse model of autism.

    Piochon, Claire; Kloth, Alexander D; Grasselli, Giorgio; Titley, Heather K; Nakayama, Hisako; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Wan, Vivian; Simmons, Dana H; Eissa, Tahra; Nakatani, Jin; Cherskov, Adriana; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takumi, Toru; Kano, Masanobu; Wang, Samuel S-H; Hansel, Christian

    2014-11-24

    A common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the impairment of motor control and learning, occurring in a majority of children with autism, consistent with perturbation in cerebellar function. Here we report alterations in motor behaviour and cerebellar synaptic plasticity in a mouse model (patDp/+) for the human 15q11-13 duplication, one of the most frequently observed genetic aberrations in autism. These mice show ASD-resembling social behaviour deficits. We find that in patDp/+ mice delay eyeblink conditioning--a form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning--is impaired, and observe deregulation of a putative cellular mechanism for motor learning, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. Moreover, developmental elimination of surplus climbing fibres--a model for activity-dependent synaptic pruning--is impaired. These findings point to deficits in synaptic plasticity and pruning as potential causes for motor problems and abnormal circuit development in autism.

  8. Reorganization of circuits underlying cerebellar modulation of prefrontal cortical dopamine in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder

    Rogers, Tiffany D.; Dickson, Price E.; McKimm, Eric; Heck, Detlef H.; Goldowitz, Dan; Blaha, Charles D.; Mittleman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Imaging, clinical and pre-clinical studies have provided ample evidence for a cerebellar involvement in cognitive brain function including cognitive brain disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. We previously reported that cerebellar activity modulates dopamine release in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) via two distinct pathways: (1) cerebellum to mPFC via dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area [VTA] and (2) cerebellum to mPFC via glutamatergic projections fro...

  9. Cerebellar Expression of the Neurotrophin Receptor p75 in Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse

    Maryam Rahimi Balaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous mutation in the lysosomal acid phosphatase 2 (Acp2 mouse (nax—naked-ataxia mutant mouse correlates with severe cerebellar defects including ataxia, reduced size and abnormal lobulation as well as Purkinje cell (Pc degeneration. Loss of Pcs in the nax cerebellum is compartmentalized and harmonized to the classic pattern of gene expression of the cerebellum in the wild type mouse. Usually, degeneration starts in the anterior and posterior zones and continues to the central and nodular zones of cerebellum. Studies have suggested that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (NTR plays a role in Pc degeneration; thus, in this study, we investigated the p75NTR pattern and protein expression in the cerebellum of the nax mutant mouse. Despite massive Pc degeneration that was observed in the nax mouse cerebellum, p75NTR pattern expression was similar to the HSP25 pattern in nax mice and comparable with wild type sibling cerebellum. In addition, immunoblot analysis of p75NTR protein expression did not show any significant difference between nax and wild type sibling (p > 0.5. In comparison with wild type counterparts, p75NTR pattern expression is aligned with the fundamental cytoarchitecture organization of the cerebellum and is unchanged in the nax mouse cerebellum despite the severe neurodevelopmental disorder accompanied with Pc degeneration.

  10. Reorganization of circuits underlying cerebellar modulation of prefrontal cortical dopamine in mouse models of autism spectrum disorder.

    Rogers, Tiffany D; Dickson, Price E; McKimm, Eric; Heck, Detlef H; Goldowitz, Dan; Blaha, Charles D; Mittleman, Guy

    2013-08-01

    Imaging, clinical, and pre-clinical studies have provided ample evidence for a cerebellar involvement in cognitive brain function including cognitive brain disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. We previously reported that cerebellar activity modulates dopamine release in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) via two distinct pathways: (1) cerebellum to mPFC via dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and (2) cerebellum to mPFC via glutamatergic projections from the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus (ThN md and vl). The present study compared functional adaptations of cerebello-cortical circuitry following developmental cerebellar pathology in a mouse model of developmental loss of Purkinje cells (Lurcher) and a mouse model of fragile X syndrome (Fmr1 KO mice). Fixed potential amperometry was used to measure mPFC dopamine release in response to cerebellar electrical stimulation. Mutant mice of both strains showed an attenuation in cerebellar-evoked mPFC dopamine release compared to respective wildtype mice. This was accompanied by a functional reorganization of the VTA and thalamic pathways mediating cerebellar modulation of mPFC dopamine release. Inactivation of the VTA pathway by intra-VTA lidocaine or kynurenate infusions decreased dopamine release by 50 % in wildtype and 20-30 % in mutant mice of both strains. Intra-ThN vl infusions of either drug decreased dopamine release by 15 % in wildtype and 40 % in mutant mice of both strains, while dopamine release remained relatively unchanged following intra-ThN md drug infusions. These results indicate a shift in strength towards the thalamic vl projection, away from the VTA. Thus, cerebellar neuropathologies associated with autism spectrum disorders may cause a reduction in cerebellar modulation of mPFC dopamine release that is related to a reorganization of the mediating neuronal pathways.

  11. α-Synuclein expression in the mouse cerebellum is restricted to VGluT1 excitatory terminals and is enriched in unipolar brush cells.

    Lee, Sun Kyong; Sillitoe, Roy V; Silva, Coralie; Martina, Marco; Sekerkova, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    α-Synuclein has a crucial role in synaptic vesicle release and synaptic membrane recycling. Although its general expression pattern has been described in the cerebellum, the precise cerebellar structures where α-synuclein is localized are poorly understood. To address this question, we used α-synuclein immunohistochemistry in adult mice cerebellar sections. We found that α-synuclein labels glutamatergic but not glycinergic and GABAergic synaptic terminals in the molecular and granule cell layers. α-Synuclein was preferentially expressed in parallel and mossy fiber synaptic terminals that also express vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGluT1), while it was not detected in VGluT2-positive climbing fibers. α-Synuclein was particularly enriched in lobules IX and X, a region known to contain a high density of unipolar brush cells (UBCs). To elucidate whether the α-synuclein-positive mossy fibers belong to UBCs, we double-labeled cerebellar sections with antibodies to α-synuclein and UBC-type-specific markers (calretinin for type I and metabotropic glutamate receptor 1α (mGluR1α) for type II UBCs) and took advantage of organotypic cerebellar cultures (in which all mossy fibers are UBC axons) and moonwalker mice (in which almost all UBCs are ablated) and found that both type I and type II UBCs express α-synuclein. In moonwalker mutant cerebella, the α-synuclein/VGluT1 immunolabeling showed a dramatic decrease in the vestibulocerebellum that correlated with the absence of UBC. α-Synuclein appears to be an excellent marker for intrinsic mossy fibers of the VGluT1 subset in conjunction with UBCs of both subtypes.

  12. The survival of cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells is not dependent on elevated potassium-ion concentration

    Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hack, N; Balázs, R

    1994-01-01

    The effects of K(+)-induced membrane depolarization were studied on the survival and biochemical parameters in mouse and rat cerebellar granule cells grown in micro-well cultures. Cell numbers were determined by estimating DNA content using the Hoechst 33258 fluorochrome binding assay. DNA from d...

  13. Cerebellar Plasticity and Motor Learning Deficits in a Copy Number Variation Mouse Model of Autism

    Piochon, Claire; Kloth, Alexander D; Grasselli, Giorgio; Titley, Heather K; Nakayama, Hisako; Hashimoto, Kouichi; Wan, Vivian; Simmons, Dana H; Eissa, Tahra; Nakatani, Jin; Cherskov, Adriana; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Watanabe, Masahiko; Takumi, Toru; Kano, Masanobu; Wang, Samuel S-H; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    A common feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the impairment of motor control and learning, occurring in a majority of children with autism, consistent with perturbation in cerebellar function. Here we report alterations in motor behavior and cerebellar synaptic plasticity in a mouse model (patDp/+) for the human 15q11-13 duplication, one of the most frequently observed genetic aberrations in autism. These mice show ASD-resembling social behavior deficits. We find that in patDp/+ mice delay eyeblink conditioning—a form of cerebellum-dependent motor learning—is impaired, and observe deregulation of a putative cellular mechanism for motor learning, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses. Moreover, developmental elimination of surplus climbing fibers—a model for activity-dependent synaptic pruning—is impaired. These findings point to deficits in synaptic plasticity and pruning as potential causes for motor problems and abnormal circuit development in autism. PMID:25418414

  14. Cerebellar defects in a mouse model of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis.

    Weimer, Jill M; Benedict, Jared W; Getty, Amanda L; Pontikis, Charlie C; Lim, Ming J; Cooper, Jonathan D; Pearce, David A

    2009-04-17

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL), or Batten disease, is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from a mutation in CLN3, which presents clinically with visual deterioration, seizures, motor impairments, cognitive decline, hallucinations, loss of circadian rhythm, and premature death in the late-twenties to early-thirties. Using a Cln3 null (Cln3(-/-)) mouse, we report here several deficits in the cerebellum in the absence of Cln3, including cell loss and early onset motor deficits. Surprisingly, early onset glial activation and selective neuronal loss within the mature fastigial pathway of the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN), a region critical for balance and coordination, are seen in many regions of the Cln3(-/-) cerebellum. Additionally, there is a loss of Purkinje cells (PC) in regions of robust Bergmann glia activation in Cln3(-/-) mice and human JNCL post-mortem cerebellum. Moreover, the Cln3(-/-) cerebellum had a mis-regulation in granule cell proliferation and maintenance of PC dendritic arborization and spine density. Overall, this study defines a novel multi-faceted, early-onset cerebellar disruption in the Cln3 null brain, including glial activation, cell loss, and aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation. These early alterations in the maturation of the cerebellum could underlie some of the motor deficits and pathological changes seen in JNCL patients.

  15. Overexpression of mutant ataxin-3 in mouse cerebellum induces ataxia and cerebellar neuropathology.

    Nóbrega, Clévio; Nascimento-Ferreira, Isabel; Onofre, Isabel; Albuquerque, David; Conceição, Mariana; Déglon, Nicole; de Almeida, Luís Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), also known as spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), is a fatal, dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by the polyglutamine-expanded protein ataxin-3. Clinical manifestations include cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs culminating in severe neuronal degeneration. Currently, there is no therapy able to modify disease progression. In the present study, we aimed at investigating one of the most severely affected brain regions in the disorder--the cerebellum--and the behavioral defects associated with the neuropathology in this region. For this purpose, we injected lentiviral vectors encoding full-length human mutant ataxin-3 in the mouse cerebellum of 3-week-old C57/BL6 mice. We show that circumscribed expression of human mutant ataxin-3 in the cerebellum mediates within a short time frame--6 weeks, the development of a behavioral phenotype including reduced motor coordination, wide-based ataxic gait, and hyperactivity. Furthermore, the expression of mutant ataxin-3 resulted in the accumulation of intranuclear inclusions, neuropathological abnormalities, and neuronal death. These data show that lentiviral-based expression of mutant ataxin-3 in the mouse cerebellum induces localized neuropathology, which is sufficient to generate a behavioral ataxic phenotype. Moreover, this approach provides a physiologically relevant, cost-effective and time-effective animal model to gain further insights into the pathogenesis of MJD and for the evaluation of experimental therapeutics of MJD.

  16. Abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and impaired motor learning in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models.

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Yang, Guang; Li, Jindong; Doroodchi, Atbin; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2012-02-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ɛ-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO) mice and reported that they had myoclonus and motor coordination and learning deficits in the beam-walking test. However, the specific brain regions that contribute to these phenotypes have not been identified. Since ɛ-sarcoglycan is highly expressed in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, here we examined the nuclear envelope in these cells using a transmission electron microscope and found that they are abnormal in Sgce KO mice. Our results put DYT11 M-D in a growing family of nuclear envelopathies. To analyze the effect of loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan function in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, we produced paternally inherited cerebellar Purkinje cell-specific Sgce conditional knockout (Sgce pKO) mice. Sgce pKO mice showed motor learning deficits, while they did not show abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells, robust motor deficits, or myoclonus. The results suggest that ɛ-sarcoglycan in the cerebellar Purkinje cells contributes to the motor learning, while loss of ɛ-sarcoglycan in other brain regions may contribute to nuclear envelope abnormality, myoclonus and motor coordination deficits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Weaver mutant mouse cerebellar granule cells respond normally to chronic depolarization

    Bjerregaard, Annette; Mogensen, Helle Smidt; Hack, N

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of chronic K(+)-induced membrane depolarization and treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) on cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) from weaver mutant mice and non-weaver litter-mates. The weaver mutation is a Gly-to-Ser substitution in a conserved region of the Girk2 G prote...

  18. Behavioral Analysis and Rescue of a Novel Cerebellar Mouse Model of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    2012-05-01

    including: Purkinje cell loss, general cerebellar hypoplasia, vermal hypoplasia and hyperplasia, reduced gray matter, GABA dysfunction, and decreased...Lond B Biol Sci. 287, 167-201. Cappon, D., 1953. Clinical manifestations of autism and schizophrenia in childhood. Can Med Assoc J. 69, 44-9. Chan

  19. Roles of molecular layer interneurons in sensory information processing in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II in vivo.

    Chun-Ping Chu

    Full Text Available Cerebellar cortical molecular layer interneurons (MLIs play essential roles in sensory information processing by the cerebellar cortex. However, recent experimental and modeling results are questioning traditional roles for molecular layer inhibition in the cerebellum.Synaptic responses of MLIs and Purkinje cells (PCs, evoked by air-puff stimulation of the ipsilateral whisker pad were recorded from cerebellar cortex Crus II in urethane-anesthetized ICR mice by in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp (I = 0, air-puff stimuli were found to primarily produce inhibition in PCs. In MLIs, this stimulus evoked spike firing regardless of whether they made basket-type synaptic connections or not. However, MLIs not making basket-type synaptic connections had higher rates of background activity and also generated spontaneous spike-lets. Under voltage-clamp conditions, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs were recorded in MLIs, although the predominant response of recorded PCs was an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP. The latencies of EPSCs were similar for all MLIs, but the time course and amplitude of EPSCs varied with depth in the molecular layer. The highest amplitude, shortest duration EPSCs were recorded from MLIs deep in the molecular layer, which also made basket-type synaptic connections. Comparing MLI to PC responses, time to peak of PC IPSP was significantly slower than MLI recorded EPSCs. Blocking GABA(A receptors uncovered larger EPSCs in PCs whose time to peak, half-width and 10-90% rising time were also significantly slower than in MLIs. Biocytin labeling indicated that the MLIs (but not PCs are dye-coupled.These findings indicate that tactile face stimulation evokes rapid excitation in MLIs and inhibition occurring at later latencies in PCs in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II. These results support previous suggestions that the lack of parallel fiber driven PC activity is due to the effect

  20. Temporal Sequence of Autolysis in the Cerebellar Cortex of the Mouse.

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the temporal sequence of post-mortem changes in the cerebellar cortical granular and Purkinje cell layers of mice kept at a constant ambient temperature for up to 4 weeks. Nuclei of granule cell microneurons became pyknotic early after death, increasing progressively until, by 7 days, widespread nuclear lysis resulted in marked cellular depletion of the granular layer. Purkinje cells were relatively unaltered until about 96 h post mortem, at which time there was shrinkage and multivacuolation of the amphophilic cytoplasm, nuclear hyperchromasia and, sometimes, a perinuclear clear space. By 7 days, Purkinje cells had hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and frequent nuclear pyknosis. By 2 weeks after death, Purkinje cells showed homogenization, the cytoplasm being uniformly eosinophilic, progressing to a 'ghost-like' appearance in which the cytoplasm had pale eosinophilic staining with indistinct cell boundaries, and nuclei often absent. The results of this study could assist in differentiating post-mortem autolysis from ante-mortem lesions in the cerebellar cortex and determining the post-mortem interval. Moreover, this information could be useful when interpreting brain lesions in valuable mice found dead unexpectedly during the course of biomedical experiments. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Forced expression of platelet-derived growth factor B in the mouse cerebellar primordium changes cell migration during midline fusion and causes cerebellar ectopia

    Andrae, Johanna; Afink, Gijs; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Wurst, Wolfgang; Nistér, Monica

    2004-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and receptors are expressed in the developing central nervous system and in brain tumors. To investigate the role of PDGF during normal cerebellar development, we created transgenic mice where PDGF-B was introduced into the endogenous Engrailed1 locus (En1).

  2. Gamma-radiation produces abnormal Bergmann fibers and ectopic granule cells in mouse cerebellar cortex

    Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Funahashi, Atsushi; Yamamura, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Morphological changes in Bergmann glial fibers in the developing cerebellar cortex produced by exposure to gamma-rays were investigated in association with ectopic granule cells. Six-day-old mice that had been exposed to 3 Gy of gamma-radiation were killed 6 hours after exposure or at 7 through 30 days of age. Their cerebella were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for glial fibrillary acidic protein in Bergmann fibers. Extensive cell death took place in the external granular layer (EGL) of the cerebellum from 6 through 24 hours after exposure. This led to the thinning of the EGL and a decrease in the number of migrating cells in the molecular layer. The number of Bergmann cells was not decreased, but the fibers in the molecular layer were distorted; whereas, in the control these fibers were straight and perpendicular to the pial surface. The EGL began to recover 2 days after exposure, and abnormally oriented migrating cells were seen. At 17 days of age, some cell clustering was observed in the molecular layer of the irradiated cerebellum. Distortion of the Bergmann fibers was marked in regions where ectopic granule cells appeared at 30 days of age. These findings suggest that the distortion of Bergmann fibers leads to the production of ectopic granule cells after exposure to gamma-radiation. (author)

  3. Early increase and late decrease of purkinje cell dendritic spine density in prion-infected organotypic mouse cerebellar cultures.

    Campeau, Jody L; Wu, Gengshu; Bell, John R; Rasmussen, Jay; Sim, Valerie L

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative diseases associated with the accumulation of protease-resistant prion protein, neuronal loss, spongiform change and astrogliosis. In the mouse model, the loss of dendritic spines is one of the earliest pathological changes observed in vivo, occurring 4-5 weeks after the first detection of protease-resistant prion protein in the brain. While there are cell culture models of prion infection, most do not recapitulate the neuropathology seen in vivo. Only the recently developed prion organotypic slice culture assay has been reported to undergo neuronal loss and the development of some aspects of prion pathology, namely small vacuolar degeneration and tubulovesicular bodies. Given the rapid replication of prions in this system, with protease-resistant prion protein detectable by 21 days, we investigated whether the dendritic spine loss and altered dendritic morphology seen in prion disease might also develop within the lifetime of this culture system. Indeed, six weeks after first detection of protease-resistant prion protein in tga20 mouse cerebellar slice cultures infected with RML prion strain, we found a statistically significant loss of Purkinje cell dendritic spines and altered dendritic morphology in infected cultures, analogous to that seen in vivo. In addition, we found a transient but statistically significant increase in Purkinje cell dendritic spine density during infection, at the time when protease-resistant prion protein was first detectable in culture. Our findings support the use of this slice culture system as one which recapitulates prion disease pathology and one which may facilitate study of the earliest stages of prion disease pathogenesis.

  4. Impaired Eye-Blink Conditioning in waggler, a Mutant Mouse With Cerebellar BDNF Deficiency

    Bao, Shaowen; Chen, Lu; Qiao, Xiaoxi; Knusel, Beat; Thompson, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to their trophic functions, neurotrophins are also implicated in synaptic modulation and learning and memory. Although gene knockout techniques have been used widely in studying the roles of neurotrophins at molecular and cellular levels, behavioral studies using neurotrophin knockouts are limited by the early-onset lethality and various sensory deficits associated with the gene knockout mice. In the present study, we found that in a spontaneous mutant mouse, waggler, the expressi...

  5. Mechanisms and functional roles of glutamatergic synapse diversity in a cerebellar circuit

    Zampini, Valeria; Liu, Jian K; Diana, Marco A; Maldonado, Paloma P; Brunel, Nicolas; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic currents display a large degree of heterogeneity of their temporal characteristics, but the functional role of such heterogeneities remains unknown. We investigated in rat cerebellar slices synaptic currents in Unipolar Brush Cells (UBCs), which generate intrinsic mossy fibers relaying

  6. Altered Expression of Ganglioside Metabolizing Enzymes Results in GM3 Ganglioside Accumulation in Cerebellar Cells of a Mouse Model of Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Aleksandra Somogyi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL is caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. Most JNCL patients exhibit a 1.02 kb genomic deletion removing exons 7 and 8 of this gene, which results in a truncated CLN3 protein carrying an aberrant C-terminus. A genetically accurate mouse model (Cln3Δex7/8 mice for this deletion has been generated. Using cerebellar precursor cell lines generated from wildtype and Cln3Δex7/8 mice, we have here analyzed the consequences of the CLN3 deletion on levels of cellular gangliosides, particularly GM3, GM2, GM1a and GD1a. The levels of GM1a and GD1a were found to be significantly reduced by both biochemical and cytochemical methods. However, quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed a highly significant increase in GM3, suggesting a metabolic blockade in the conversion of GM3 to more complex gangliosides. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant reduction in the transcripts of the interconverting enzymes, especially of β-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (GM2 synthase, which is the enzyme converting GM3 to GM2. Thus, our data suggest that the complex a-series gangliosides are reduced in Cln3Δex7/8 mouse cerebellar precursor cells due to impaired transcription of the genes responsible for their synthesis.

  7. Altered Expression of Ganglioside Metabolizing Enzymes Results in GM3 Ganglioside Accumulation in Cerebellar Cells of a Mouse Model of Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis

    Somogyi, Aleksandra; Petcherski, Anton; Beckert, Benedikt; Huebecker, Mylene; Priestman, David A.; Banning, Antje; Cotman, Susan L.; Platt, Frances M.; Ruonala, Mika O.

    2018-01-01

    Juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) is caused by mutations in the CLN3 gene. Most JNCL patients exhibit a 1.02 kb genomic deletion removing exons 7 and 8 of this gene, which results in a truncated CLN3 protein carrying an aberrant C-terminus. A genetically accurate mouse model (Cln3Δex7/8 mice) for this deletion has been generated. Using cerebellar precursor cell lines generated from wildtype and Cln3Δex7/8 mice, we have here analyzed the consequences of the CLN3 deletion on levels of cellular gangliosides, particularly GM3, GM2, GM1a and GD1a. The levels of GM1a and GD1a were found to be significantly reduced by both biochemical and cytochemical methods. However, quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed a highly significant increase in GM3, suggesting a metabolic blockade in the conversion of GM3 to more complex gangliosides. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed a significant reduction in the transcripts of the interconverting enzymes, especially of β-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (GM2 synthase), which is the enzyme converting GM3 to GM2. Thus, our data suggest that the complex a-series gangliosides are reduced in Cln3Δex7/8 mouse cerebellar precursor cells due to impaired transcription of the genes responsible for their synthesis. PMID:29470438

  8. Synaptic responses evoked by tactile stimuli in Purkinje cells in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II in vivo.

    Chun-Ping Chu

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli evoke responses in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs via the mossy fiber-granule cell pathway. However, the properties of synaptic responses evoked by tactile stimulation in cerebellar PCs are unknown. The present study investigated the synaptic responses of PCs in response to an air-puff stimulation on the ipsilateral whisker pad in urethane-anesthetized mice.Thirty-three PCs were recorded from 48 urethane-anesthetized adult (6-8-week-old HA/ICR mice by somatic or dendritic patch-clamp recording and pharmacological methods. Tactile stimulation to the ipsilateral whisker pad was delivered by an air-puff through a 12-gauge stainless steel tube connected with a pressurized injection system. Under current-clamp conditions (I = 0, the air-puff stimulation evoked strong inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs in the somata of PCs. Application of SR95531, a specific GABA(A receptor antagonist, blocked IPSPs and revealed stimulation-evoked simple spike firing. Under voltage-clamp conditions, tactile stimulation evoked a sequence of transient inward currents followed by strong outward currents in the somata and dendrites in PCs. Application of SR95531 blocked outward currents and revealed excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs in somata and a temporal summation of parallel fiber EPSCs in PC dendrites. We also demonstrated that PCs respond to both the onset and offset of the air-puff stimulation.These findings indicated that tactile stimulation induced asynchronous parallel fiber excitatory inputs onto the dendrites of PCs, and failed to evoke strong EPSCs and spike firing in PCs, but induced the rapid activation of strong GABA(A receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the somata and dendrites of PCs in the cerebellar cortex Crus II in urethane-anesthetized mice.

  9. Cerebellar Degeneration

    ... FARA) National Ataxia Foundation (NAF) National Multiple Sclerosis Society See all related organizations Publications Degeneración cerebelosa Order NINDS Publications Definition Cerebellar degeneration is a process in which neurons ( ...

  10. Abnormal nuclear envelope in the cerebellar Purkinje cells and impaired motor learning in DYT11 myoclonus-dystonia mouse models

    Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T.; Yang, Guang; Li, JinDong; Doroodchi, Atbin; Zhou, Tong; Li, Yuqing

    2011-01-01

    Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) is a movement disorder characterized by myoclonic jerks with dystonia. DYT11 M-D is caused by mutations in SGCE which codes for ε-sarcoglycan. SGCE is maternally imprinted and paternally expressed. Abnormal nuclear envelope has been reported in mouse models of DYT1 generalized torsion dystonia. However, it is not known whether similar alterations occur in DYT11 M-D. We developed a mouse model of DYT11 M-D using paternally-inherited Sgce heterozygous knockout (Sgce KO)...

  11. Erosion properties of unipolar arcs

    Chekalin, Eh.K.

    1982-01-01

    Processes modelling the formation of unipolar arcs on the elements of the first wall in limiters of the vacuum chamber and on active elements of tokamak divertor, are experimentally investigated. Erosion, processes that take place at two types of non-stationary cathode spots are considered. Experimental data prove the possibility of reducing erosion intensity by coating the surface of electrodes by oxide films, reduction of the temperature of electrode and discharge current

  12. Roles of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors during the sensory stimulation-evoked field potential responses in mouse cerebellar cortical molecular layer.

    Xu, Yin-Hua; Zhang, Guang-Jian; Zhao, Jing-Tong; Chu, Chun-Ping; Li, Yu-Zi; Qiu, De-Lai

    2017-11-01

    The functions of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) in cerebellar cortex have been widely studied under in vitro condition, but their roles during the sensory stimulation-evoked responses in the cerebellar cortical molecular layer in living animals are currently unclear. We here investigated the roles of NMDARs during the air-puff stimulation on ipsilateral whisker pad-evoked field potential responses in cerebellar cortical molecular layer in urethane-anesthetized mice by electrophysiological recording and pharmacological methods. Our results showed that cerebellar surface administration of NMDA induced a dose-dependent decrease in amplitude of the facial stimulation-evoked inhibitory responses (P1) in the molecular layer, accompanied with decreases in decay time, half-width and area under curve (AUC) of P1. The IC 50 of NMDA induced inhibition in amplitude of P1 was 46.5μM. In addition, application of NMDA induced significant increases in the decay time, half-width and AUC values of the facial stimulation-evoked excitatory responses (N1) in the molecular layer. Application of an NMDAR blocker, D-APV (250μM) abolished the facial stimulation-evoked P1 in the molecular layer. These results suggested that NMDARs play a critical role during the sensory information processing in cerebellar cortical molecular layer in vivo in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Unipolar Depression in Paroxysmal Schizophrenia

    Alexander S. Bobrov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the current study, the clinical characteristics of unipolar depression in the clinical picture of schizophrenia with the paroxysmal type of disease course are presented. Given the concomitant depression with phobic symptoms, the following clinical variants are marked: depression with generalized social phobia and/or anthropophobia and depression with generalized pathological body sensations and hypochondriacal phobias. In other words, we are talking about a necessity to allocate a special type of schizophrenia with affective structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms. Information on the basic treatment strategy of schizophrenia with depressive structure episodes and comorbid neurosis-like symptoms in everyday psychiatric practice is also provided.

  14. Questioning the cerebellar doctrine

    Galliano, Elisa; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of cerebellar function were originally described by Flourens, Cajal, and Marr/Albus/Ito, and they constitute the pillars of what can be considered to be the classic cerebellar doctrine. In their concepts, the main cerebellar function is to control motor behavior, Purkinje cells

  15. Posterior cerebellar Purkinje cells in an SCA5/SPARCA1 mouse model are especially vulnerable to the synergistic effect of loss of β-III spectrin and GLAST.

    Perkins, Emma M; Suminaite, Daumante; Clarkson, Yvonne L; Lee, Sin Kwan; Lyndon, Alastair R; Rothstein, Jeffrey D; Wyllie, David J A; Tanaka, Kohichi; Jackson, Mandy

    2016-10-15

    Clinical phenotypes of spinocerebellar ataxia type-5 (SCA5) and spectrin-associated autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type-1 (SPARCA1) are mirrored in mice lacking β-III spectrin (β-III-/-). One function of β-III spectrin is the stabilization of the Purkinje cell-specific glutamate transporter EAAT4 at the plasma membrane. In β-III-/- mice EAAT4 levels are reduced from an early age. In contrast levels of the predominant cerebellar glutamate transporter GLAST, expressed in Bergmann glia, only fall progressively from 3 months onwards. Here we elucidated the roles of these two glutamate transporters in cerebellar pathogenesis mediated through loss of β-III spectrin function by studying EAAT4 and GLAST knockout mice as well as crosses of both with β-III-/- mice. Our data demonstrate that EAAT4 loss, but not abnormal AMPA receptor composition, in young β-III-/- mice underlies early Purkinje cell hyper-excitability and that subsequent loss of GLAST, superimposed on the earlier deficiency of EAAT4, is responsible for Purkinje cell loss and progression of motor deficits. Yet the loss of GLAST appears to be independent of EAAT4 loss, highlighting that other aspects of Purkinje cell dysfunction underpin the pathogenic loss of GLAST. Finally, our results demonstrate that Purkinje cells in the posterior cerebellum of β-III-/- mice are most susceptible to the combined loss of EAAT4 and GLAST, with degeneration of proximal dendrites, the site of climbing fibre innervation, most pronounced. This highlights the necessity for efficient glutamate clearance from these regions and identifies dysregulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission particularly within the posterior cerebellum as a key mechanism in SCA5 and SPARCA1 pathogenesis.

  16. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia

    Nielsen, J E; Johnsen, B; Koefoed, P

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria......, unipolar depression, epilepsy, migraine, and cognitive impairment was investigated. Genetic linkage analysis and sequencing of the SPG4 gene was performed and electrophysiologic investigations were carried out in six individuals and positron emission tomography (PET) in one patient. The disease was linked...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...

  17. Functional interaction and cross-tolerance between ethanol and Δ9-THC: possible modulation by mouse cerebellar adenosinergic A1/GABAergic-A receptors.

    Dar, M Saeed

    2014-08-15

    We have previously shown a functional motor interaction between ethanol and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) that involved cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAergic A receptor modulation. We now report the development of cross-tolerance between intracerebellar Δ(9)-THC and intraperitoneal ethanol using ataxia as the test response in male CD-1 mice. The drugs [Δ(9)-THC (20 μg), N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine, CHA (12 ng), muscimol (20 ng)] used in the study were directly microinfused stereotaxically via guide cannulas into the cerebellum except ethanol. Δ(9)-THC, infused once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last infusion by acute ethanol (2g/kg) and Rotorod evaluation, virtually abolished ethanol ataxia indicating development of cross-tolerance. The cross-tolerance was also observed when the order of ethanol and Δ(9)-THC treatment was reversed, i.e., ethanol injected once daily for 5 days followed 16 h after the last ethanol injection by Δ(9)-THC infusion. The cross-tolerance appeared within 24-48 h, lasted over 72 h and was maximal in 5-day ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-treated animals. Finally, tolerance in chronic ethanol/Δ(9)-THC/-treated animals developed not only to ethanol/Δ(9)-THC-induced ataxia, respectively, but also to the ataxia potentiating effect of CHA and muscimol, indicating modulation by cerebellar adenosinergic A1 and GABAA receptors. A practical implication of these results could be that marijuana smokers may experience little or no negative effects such as ataxia following alcohol consumption. Clinically, such antagonism of ethanol-induced ataxia can be observed in marijuana users thereby encouraging more alcohol consumption and thus may represent a risk factor for the development of alcoholism in this segment of population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Questioning the cerebellar doctrine.

    Galliano, Elisa; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2014-01-01

    The basic principles of cerebellar function were originally described by Flourens, Cajal, and Marr/Albus/Ito, and they constitute the pillars of what can be considered to be the classic cerebellar doctrine. In their concepts, the main cerebellar function is to control motor behavior, Purkinje cells are the only cortical neuron receiving and integrating inputs from climbing fiber and mossy-parallel fiber pathways, and plastic modification at the parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells constitutes the substrate of motor learning. Yet, because of recent technical advances and new angles of investigation, all pillars of the cerebellar doctrine now face regular re-examination. In this review, after summarizing the classic concepts and recent disputes, we attempt to synthesize an integrated view and propose a revisited version of the cerebellar doctrine. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Loss of γ-tubulin, GCP-WD/NEDD1 and CDK5RAP2 from the Centrosome of Neurons in Developing Mouse Cerebral and Cerebellar Cortex

    Yonezawa, Satoshi; Shigematsu, Momoko; Hirata, Kazuto; Hayashi, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the centrosome of neurons does not have microtubule nucleating activity. Microtubule nucleation requires γ-tubulin as well as its recruiting proteins, GCP-WD/NEDD1 and CDK5RAP2 that anchor γ-tubulin to the centrosome. Change in the localization of these proteins during in vivo development of brain, however, has not been well examined. In this study we investigate the localization of γ-tubulin, GCP-WD and CDK5RAP2 in developing cerebral and cerebellar cortex with immunofluorescence. We found that γ-tubulin and its recruiting proteins were localized at centrosomes of immature neurons, while they were lost at centrosomes in mature neurons. This indicated that the loss of microtubule nucleating activity at the centrosome of neurons is due to the loss of γ-tubulin-recruiting proteins from the centrosome. RT-PCR analysis revealed that these proteins are still expressed after birth, suggesting that they have a role in microtubule generation in cell body and dendrites of mature neurons. Microtubule regrowth experiments on cultured mature neurons showed that microtubules are nucleated not at the centrosome but within dendrites. These data indicated the translocation of microtubule-organizing activity from the centrosome to dendrites during maturation of neurons, which would explain the mixed polarity of microtubules in dendrites

  20. Cerebellar oxidative DNA damage and altered DNA methylation in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism and similarities with human post mortem cerebellum.

    Svitlana Shpyleva

    Full Text Available The molecular pathogenesis of autism is complex and involves numerous genomic, epigenomic, proteomic, metabolic, and physiological alterations. Elucidating and understanding the molecular processes underlying the pathogenesis of autism is critical for effective clinical management and prevention of this disorder. The goal of this study is to investigate key molecular alterations postulated to play a role in autism and their role in the pathophysiology of autism. In this study we demonstrate that DNA isolated from the cerebellum of BTBR T+tf/J mice, a relevant mouse model of autism, and from human post-mortem cerebellum of individuals with autism, are both characterized by an increased levels of 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG, 5-methylcytosine (5mC, and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC. The increase in 8-oxodG and 5mC content was associated with a markedly reduced expression of the 8-oxoguanine DNA-glycosylase 1 (Ogg1 and increased expression of de novo DNA methyltransferases 3a and 3b (Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b. Interestingly, a rise in the level of 5hmC occurred without changes in the expression of ten-eleven translocation expression 1 (Tet1 and Tet2 genes, but significantly correlated with the presence of 8-oxodG in DNA. This finding and similar elevation in 8-oxodG in cerebellum of individuals with autism and in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model warrant future large-scale studies to specifically address the role of OGG1 alterations in pathogenesis of autism.

  1. Cerebellar anatomy as applied to cerebellar microsurgical resections

    Alejandro Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define the anatomy of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles, demonstrating the surgical application of anatomic landmarks in cerebellar resections. METHODS: Twenty cerebellar hemispheres were studied. RESULTS: The majority of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles had demonstrated constant relationship to other cerebellar structures, which provided landmarks for surgical approaching. The lateral border is separated from the midline by 19.5 mm in both hemispheres. The posterior border of the cortex is separated 23.3 mm from the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus; the lateral one is separated 26 mm from the lateral border of the nucleus; and the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus is separated 25.4 mm from the posterolateral angle formed by the junction of lateral and posterior borders of cerebellar hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical anatomy has provided important landmarks that could be applied to cerebellar surgical resections.

  2. [Differences in Subjective Experience Between Unipolar and Bipolar Depression].

    Fierro, Marco; Bustos, Andrés; Molina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    It is important to make distinction between bipolar and unipolar depression because treatment and prognosis are different. Since the diagnosis of the two conditions is purely clinical, find symptomatic differences is useful. Find differences in subjective experience (first person) between unipolar and bipolar depression. Phenomenological-oriented qualitative exploratory study of 12 patients (7 with bipolar depression and 5 with unipolar depression, 3 men and 9 women). We used a semi-structured interview based on Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). The predominant mood in bipolar depression is emotional dampening, in unipolar is sadness. The bodily experience in bipolar is of a heavy, tired body; an element that inserts between the desires of acting and performing actions and becomes an obstacle to the movement. In unipolar is of a body that feels more comfortable with the stillness than activity, like laziness of everyday life. Cognition and the stream of consciousness: in bipolar depression, compared with unipolar, thinking is slower, as if to overcome obstacles in their course. There are more difficult to understand what is heard or read. Future perspective: in bipolar depression, hopelessness is stronger and broader than in unipolar, as if the very possibility of hope was lost. Qualitative differences in predominant mood, bodily experience, cognition and future perspective were found between bipolar and unipolar depression. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Generation Of Unipolar Field For The Control Of Charges

    Barnabas Oluwaseyi Alabi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is the property of a matter that allow for electric and magnetic forces interaction. These charges can be controlled by unipolar electromagnetic field. In this study such unipolar field that can propagate was generated. This unipolar electromagnetic field was simulated and tested for propagation. To produce a propagating unipolar magnetic field a time-varying unipolar electric current generator was considered. The model considered was simulated in the National Instruments Multisim windows application environment. The generated electric voltage waveform was viewed via the output grapher of the application. Various loads were connected to ensure consistency in the unipolar waveform for different load value on the generator. The result obtained showed that a unipolar field which could propagate can be achievable only when the signal involved was properly rectified. After rectification however the desired waveform and signal was produced. The test for propagation was done using a core of iron and a small solenoid connected to the rectified output and the field produced was magnetic this attracted a metal clip 1.0 cm away and a larger core attracted a hammer from around 10.0 cm away. The study concluded that a propagating magnetic field useful for the control of charges can be generated if the signal involved is made to be unipolar in nature.

  4. Falls and cerebellar ataxia

    I. V. Damulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the main causes of falls. Whatever their cause is, falls may lead to severe maladjustment in everyday life. In nearly 1 out of 10 cases, they are accompanied by severe injuries, including fractures (most commonly those of the proximal femur and humerus, hands, pelvic bones, and vertebrae, subdural hematoma, and severe soft tissue and head injuries. This process is emphasized to be multifactorial. Particular emphasis is laid on the involvement of the cerebellum and its associations, which may be accompanied by falls. This is clinically manifested mainly by gait disorders. Walking is a result of an interaction of three related functions (locomotion, maintenance of balance and adaptive reactions. In addition to synergies related to locomotion and balance maintenance, standing at rest and walking are influenced bythe following factors: postural and environmental information (proprioceptive, vestibular, and visual, the capacity to interpret and integrate this information, the ability of the musculoskeletal system to make movements, and the capability to optimally modulate these movements in view of the specific situation and the ability to choose and adapt synergy in terms of external factors and the capacities and purposes of an individual. The clinical signs of damage to the cerebellum and its associations are considered in detail. These structures are emphasized to be involved not only in movements, but also in cognitive functions. The major symptoms that permit cerebellar dysfunction to be diagnosed are given. Symptoms in cerebellar injuries are generally most pronounced when suddenly changing the direction of movements or attempting to start walking immediately after a dramatic rise. The magnitude of ataxia also increases in a patient who tries to decrease the step size. Falling tendencies or bending to one side (in other symptoms characteristic of cerebellar diseases suggest injury of the corresponding

  5. Characterization of depolarization-coupled release of glutamate from cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells using DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (DL-TBOA) to distinguish between the vesicular and cytoplasmic pools

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2003-01-01

    Release of preloaded [3H]D-aspartate in response to depolarization induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or the endogenous agonist glutamate was characterized using cultured glutamatergic cerebellar granule neurons. Release from the vesicular and the cytoplasmic glutamate pools, respectively, wa...

  6. Is impulsivity a common trait in bipolar and unipolar disorders?

    Henna, Elaine; Hatch, John P; Nicoletti, Mark; Swann, Alan C; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2013-03-01

      Impulsivity is increased in bipolar and unipolar disorders during episodes and is associated with substance abuse disorders and suicide risk. Impulsivity between episodes predisposes to relapses and poor therapeutic compliance. However, there is little information about impulsivity during euthymia in mood disorders. We sought to investigate trait impulsivity in euthymic bipolar and unipolar disorder patients, comparing them to healthy individuals and unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder patients.   Impulsivity was evaluated by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11A) in 54 bipolar disorder patients, 25 unipolar disorder patients, 136 healthy volunteers, and 14 unaffected relatives. The BIS-11A mean scores for all four groups were compared through the Games-Howell test for all possible pairwise combinations. Additionally, we compared impulsivity in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients with and without a history of suicide attempt and substance abuse disorder.   Bipolar and unipolar disorder patients scored significantly higher than the healthy controls and unaffected relatives on all measures of the BIS-11A except for attentional impulsivity. On the attentional impulsivity measures there were no differences among the unaffected relatives and the bipolar and unipolar disorder groups, but all three of these groups scored higher than the healthy participant group. There was no difference in impulsivity between bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with and without suicide attempt. However, impulsivity was higher among bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with past substance use disorder compared to patients without such a history.   Questionnaire-measured impulsivity appears to be relatively independent of mood state in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients; it remains elevated in euthymia and is higher in individuals with past substance abuse. Elevated attentional and lower non-planning impulsivity in unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder

  7. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a miniature schnauzer

    Berry, Michelle L.; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2003-01-01

    A 3.5-month-old miniature schnauzer was presented for signs of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Necropsy revealed cerebellar abiotrophy. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a purebred miniature schnauzer.

  8. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a miniature schnauzer.

    Berry, Michelle L; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2003-08-01

    A 3.5-month-old miniature schnauzer was presented for signs of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Necropsy revealed cerebellar abiotrophy. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a purebred miniature schnauzer.

  9. Screening for cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression

    Ott, Caroline Vintergaard; Bjertrup, Anne Juul; Jensen, Johan Høy

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent cognitive dysfunction in unipolar depression (UD) contributes to socio-occupational impairment, but there are no feasible methods to screen for and monitor cognitive dysfunction in this patient group. The present study investigated the validity of two new instruments...... to screen for cognitive dysfunction in UD, and their associations with socio-occupational capacity. METHOD: Participants (n=53) with UD in partial or full remission and healthy control persons (n=103) were assessed with two new screening instruments, the Danish translations of the Screen for Cognitive...... Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-D) and Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and with established neuropsychological and self-assessment measures. Depression symptoms and socio-occupational function were rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Functional Assessment...

  10. Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of ultrafine particles

    Adachi, Motoaki; Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of monodisperse ultrafine particles of 4 - 100 nm in diameter has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The particles were charged by unipolar and bipolar ions generated by α-ray irradiation and the charge distribution of particles was directly observed in the electric field after the growth of them by condensation of di-butyl phthalate vapor. In both cases of unipolar and bipolar charging, the experimental results have been found in good agreement with the solution of basic equations where Fuchs' formula is used as the combination probability of an ion with a particle. (author)

  11. Toxic agents causing cerebellar ataxias.

    Manto, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The cerebellum is particularly vulnerable to intoxication and poisoning, especially so the cerebellar cortex and Purkinje neurons. In humans, the most common cause of a toxic lesion to the cerebellar circuitry is alcohol related, but the cerebellum is also a main target of drug exposure (such as anticonvulsants, antineoplastics, lithium salts, calcineurin inhibitors), drug abuse and addiction (such as cocaine, heroin, phencyclidine), and environmental toxins (such as mercury, lead, manganese, toluene/benzene derivatives). Although data for the prevalence and incidence of cerebellar lesions related to intoxication and poisoning are still unknown in many cases, clinicians should keep in mind the list of agents that may cause cerebellar deficits, since toxin-induced cerebellar ataxias are not rare in daily practice. Moreover, the patient's status may require immediate therapies when the intoxication is life-threatening. 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unipolar Electric Machines with Liquid-Metal Current Pickup,

    1984-03-08

    A new homopolar motor , e4ournal of the Franklin Institute*. 1954, v. 258, Ne 1. %4 144093, Bjo.1.leTeJb H3o6peTeHxA. 1962,. 14 1. 30. X oao p o a...VIII. Motor Mode of Unipolar Electrical Machine ............... 301 Chapter IX. Bases of Theory and Calculation of Nonpolar Dynamos without...unipolar electric motors . Are examined questions of the classification of acyclic machines, their electromagnetic field, calculation of magnetic circuit

  13. Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    Hasselbalch, Bo Jacob; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Hasselbalch, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present.......Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present....

  14. Dicer Is Required for Normal Cerebellar Development and to Restrain Medulloblastoma Formation.

    Frederique Zindy

    Full Text Available Dicer, a ribonuclease III enzyme, is required for the maturation of microRNAs. To assess its role in cerebellar and medulloblastoma development, we genetically deleted Dicer in Nestin-positive neural progenitors and in mice lacking one copy for the Sonic Hedgehog receptor, Patched 1. We found that conditional loss of Dicer in mouse neural progenitors induced massive Trp53-independent apoptosis in all proliferative zones of the brain and decreased proliferation of cerebellar granule progenitors at embryonic day 15.5 leading to abnormal cerebellar development and perinatal lethality. Loss of one copy of Dicer significantly accelerated the formation of mouse medulloblastoma of the Sonic Hedgehog subgroup in Patched1-heterozygous mice. We conclude that Dicer is required for proper cerebellar development, and to restrain medulloblastoma formation.

  15. GENDER-SPECIFIC CLINICAL MANIFESTATION OF UNIPOLAR DEPRESSION

    Olivera Žikić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the incidence of depression is twice as often in women than in men. However, data about the clinical picture and the course of the disorder in men and in women are inconsistent. The purpose of our research is to find out if there are any differences in terms of symptomatology and course of unipolar depression in men and in women. The study included 84 subjects affected by unipolar depresson, who were divided in two groups according to the gender: a group of males, comprising 20 subjects and a group of female subjects, that comprised 64 affected persons. We used the general semistructured questionnaire with questions about the course of unipolar depression and sociodemographic data, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL- 90-R, Cambridge Depersonalization Scale (CDS and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Regarding symptoms occurring within unipolar depression, there was no statistically significant gender-specific difference finding. Males tended to somewhat higher frequency of anhedonia and hostility, while females tended to more frequent sleep disturbance and decrease in energy. In terms of the course of disorder, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference in the age at the onset of disorder (M:Ž=43.9:34.72 years and frequency of episodes (males had more frequent episodes. Men and women, affected by unipolar depression differ in terms of the course of unipolar depression, but not in the sense of its clinical manifestation.

  16. Radon progeny mitigation using unipolar ion generators

    Sapra, B.K.; Arun Kumar; Khan, Arshad; Kothalkar, P.S.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    Unipolar ion generators are often used for reduction of particulate levels in indoor environments. This paper explores the feasibility of their use in reducing radon progeny concentrations in a confined environment. Experiments have been carried out in a 10 m 3 test vessel in which ionizers are suspended in airspace and 226 Ra planchettes are placed as sources of radon. The radon, progeny and aerosol concentrations were estimated prior to and post-ioniser operation in the vessel using standard instruments and techniques. Results showed that the progeny concentrations decreased by a factor of about 10 with a mean life of about 35 min after ioniser was switched on. A mathematical model involving progeny, particle, ion space charge and electric field interaction processes been developed for estimating the various fractions of the progeny concentrations in the presence of the ionizer. The results of the model compared well with the experimental results. This study has a possible application for reducing progeny concentrations in U mines at local scales and specific working areas. (author)

  17. Modelo experimental de un motor unipolar

    Luz Karine Sandoval

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la caracterización experimental de un prototipo de motor unipolar con el objeto de validar su modelo matemático. Este tipo de motor es bastante controversial a la hora de pretender explicar su modelo y fundamento de operación. Ha existido por cerca de casi dos siglos y aún persiste su misteriosa forma de funcionamiento; parece eludir cualquier explicación convencional a la luz de las ecuaciones de Maxwell. Es un dispositivo que genera una fuerza electromotriz (fem, aunque el flujo magnético que atraviesa el circuito no varía con el tiempo. El prototipo construido mostró la validez del modelo, esto es, una resistencia eléctrica y una fuente de tensión, puesto que al medir la velocidad angular alcanzada durante un intervalo de tiempo, se observó su crecimiento exponencial. La función de transferencia del motor es de primer orden, justo como se esperaba, dado que carece de elementos como bobinas o capacitores; sin embargo, tarda de treinta a cuarenta segundos en alcanzar su estado estable. Esto se debe, según el modelo planteado, a la resistencia eléctrica interna de este dispositivo.

  18. Sleep disorders in cerebellar ataxias

    José L. Pedroso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias comprise a wide range of etiologies leading to central nervous system-related motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, a large body of evidence has demonstrated a high frequency of non-motor manifestations in cerebellar ataxias, specially in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA. Among these non-motor dysfunctions, sleep disorders have been recognized, although still under or even misdiagnosed. In this review, we highlight the main sleep disorders related to cerebellar ataxias focusing on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, restless legs syndrome (RLS, periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, insomnia and sleep apnea.

  19. Ketamine for Treatment-Resistant Unipolar Depression

    Mathew, Sanjay J.; Shah, Asim; Lapidus, Kyle; Clark, Crystal; Jarun, Noor; Ostermeyer, Britta; Murrough, James W.

    2013-01-01

    Currently available drugs for unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD), which target monoaminergic systems, have a delayed onset of action and significant limitations in efficacy. Antidepressants with primary pharmacological targets outside the monoamine system may offer the potential for more rapid activity with improved therapeutic benefit. The glutamate system has been scrutinized as a target for antidepressant drug discovery. The purpose of this article is to review emerging literature on the potential rapid-onset antidepressant properties of the glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine, an established anaesthetic agent. The pharmacology of ketamine and its enantiomer S-ketamine is reviewed, followed by examples of its clinical application in chronic, refractory pain conditions, which are commonly co-morbid with depression. The first generation of studies in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) reported the safety and acute efficacy of a single subanaesthetic dose (0.5 mg/kg) of intravenous ketamine. A second generation of ketamine studies is focused on testing alternate routes of drug delivery, identifying methods to prevent relapse following resolution of depressive symptoms and understanding the neural basis for the putative antidepressant actions of ketamine. In addition to traditional depression rating endpoints, ongoing research is examining the impact of ketamine on neurocognition. Although the first clinical report in MDD was published in 2000, there is a paucity of adequately controlled double-blind trials, and limited clinical experience outside of research settings. Given the potential risks of ketamine, safety considerations will ultimately determine whether this old drug is successfully repositioned as a new therapy for TRD. PMID:22303887

  20. Complex partial seizures: cerebellar metabolism

    Theodore, W.H.; Fishbein, D.; Deitz, M.; Baldwin, P.

    1987-07-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) with (/sup 18/F)2-deoxyglucose to study cerebellar glucose metabolism (LCMRglu) and the effect of phenytoin (PHT) in 42 patients with complex partial seizures (CPS), and 12 normal controls. Mean +/- SD patient LCMRglu was 6.9 +/- 1.8 mg glucose/100 g/min (left = right), significantly lower than control values of 8.5 +/- 1.8 (left, p less than 0.006), and 8.3 +/- 1.6 (right, p less than 0.02). Only four patients had cerebellar atrophy on CT/MRI; cerebellar LCMRglu in these was 5.5 +/- 1.5 (p = 0.054 vs. total patient sample). Patients with unilateral temporal hypometabolism or EEG foci did not have lateralized cerebellar hypometabolism. Patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) at the time of scan and patients with less than 5 years total PHT exposure had lower LCMRglu, but the differences were not significant. There were weak inverse correlations between PHT level and cerebellar LCMRglu in patients receiving PHT (r = -0.36; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1), as well as between length of illness and LCMRglu (r = -0.22; 0.05 less than p less than 0.1). Patients with complex partial seizures have cerebellar hypometabolism that is bilateral and due only in part to the effect of PHT.

  1. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. METHODS: A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies...... that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. RESULTS: A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry...... with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder to 3.1% in years 1-2, 1.0% in years 2-5 and 0.8% in years 5-10. A total of eight risk factors were evaluated comprising gender, age at onset of unipolar disorder, number of depressive episodes, treatment resistance to antidepressants, family history of bipolar disorder...

  2. Mortality and life expectancy in persons with severe unipolar depression

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Musliner, Katherine L; Benros, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common psychiatric disorder, with a lifetime prevalence of 10-15% in the Danish population. Although depression is associated with excess mortality, it is not yet understood how this affects life expectancy. Our aim was to examine mortality rates and life expectancy...... in patients with unipolar depression compared to the general population, and to assess the impact of comorbid somatic illness and substance abuse. METHODS: We followed a Danish population-based cohort from 1995-2013 (N=5,103,699). The cohort included all residents in Denmark during the study period. Mortality...... rate ratios (MRRs) and life expectancy in persons with unipolar depression were calculated using survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: The overall MRR was 2.07 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.05-2.09) in people with a previous unipolar depression diagnosis compared to the general Danish population...

  3. Computational modeling predicts the ionic mechanism of late-onset responses in Unipolar Brush Cells

    Sathyaa eSubramaniyam

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Unipolar Brush Cells (UBCs have been suggested to have a strong impact on cerebellar granular layer functioning, yet the corresponding cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. UBCs have recently been reported to generate, in addition to early-onset glutamatergic synaptic responses, a late-onset response (LOR composed of a slow depolarizing ramp followed by a spike burst (Locatelli et al., 2013. The LOR activates as a consequence of synaptic activity and involves an intracellular cascade modulating H- and TRP-current gating. In order to assess the LOR mechanisms, we have developed a UBC multi-compartmental model (including soma, dendrite, initial segment and axon incorporating biologically realistic representations of ionic currents and a generic coupling mechanism regulating TRP and H channel gating. The model finely reproduced UBC responses to current injection, including a low-threshold spike sustained by CaLVA currents, a persistent discharge sustained by CaHVA currents, and a rebound burst following hyperpolarization sustained by H- and CaLVA-currents. Moreover, the model predicted that H- and TRP-current regulation was necessary and sufficient to generate the LOR and its dependence on the intensity and duration of mossy fiber activity. Therefore, the model showed that, using a basic set of ionic channels, UBCs generate a rich repertoire of delayed bursts, which could take part to the formation of tunable delay-lines in the local microcircuit.

  4. Computational modeling predicts the ionic mechanism of late-onset responses in unipolar brush cells.

    Subramaniyam, Sathyaa; Solinas, Sergio; Perin, Paola; Locatelli, Francesca; Masetto, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    Unipolar Brush Cells (UBCs) have been suggested to play a critical role in cerebellar functioning, yet the corresponding cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. UBCs have recently been reported to generate, in addition to early-onset glutamate receptor-dependent synaptic responses, a late-onset response (LOR) composed of a slow depolarizing ramp followed by a spike burst (Locatelli et al., 2013). The LOR activates as a consequence of synaptic activity and involves an intracellular cascade modulating H- and TRP-current gating. In order to assess the LOR mechanisms, we have developed a UBC multi-compartmental model (including soma, dendrite, initial segment, and axon) incorporating biologically realistic representations of ionic currents and a cytoplasmic coupling mechanism regulating TRP and H channel gating. The model finely reproduced UBC responses to current injection, including a burst triggered by a low-threshold spike (LTS) sustained by CaLVA currents, a persistent discharge sustained by CaHVA currents, and a rebound burst following hyperpolarization sustained by H- and CaLVA-currents. Moreover, the model predicted that H- and TRP-current regulation was necessary and sufficient to generate the LOR and its dependence on the intensity and duration of mossy fiber activity. Therefore, the model showed that, using a basic set of ionic channels, UBCs generate a rich repertoire of bursts, which could effectively implement tunable delay-lines in the local microcircuit.

  5. [Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome secondary to a cerebellar tumour].

    Domínguez-Carral, J; Carreras-Sáez, I; García-Peñas, J J; Fournier-Del Castillo, C; Villalobos-Reales, J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome is characterized by disturbances of executive function, impaired spatial cognition, linguistic difficulties, and personality change. The case of an 11 year old boy is presented, with behavior problems, learning difficulties and social interaction problems. In the physical examination he had poor visual contact, immature behavior, reduced expressive language and global motor disability with gait dyspraxia, with no defined cerebellar motor signs. In the neuropsychological evaluation he has a full scale overall intellectual quotient of 84, with signs of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. A tumour affecting inferior cerebellar vermis was observed in the magnetic resonance imaging, which had not significantly grown during 5 years of follow up. The cerebellum participates in controlling cognitive and affective functions. Cerebellar pathology must be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with cognitive or learning disorder with associated behavioral and emotional components. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Executive functions in young patients with unipolar depression

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological deficits associated with unipolar depression are seen in a broad range of cognitive domains. Executive deficits may be prominent in depression. Investigation of executive functions in younger adult patients with unipolar depression has been the focus of our study. Twenty-two consecutively depressive inpatients (24-36 years and 21 healthy control subjects, matched on age, gender, education and verbal IQ were included in the study. Neuropsychological tests for executive functions were applied to all subjects. Unipolar young depressives showed significantly reduced number of completed categories and more trials for completion of the first category on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. No difference of tasks assessing the short-term memory, total errors on WCST, perseverative and non-perseverative errors, and of both phonemic and semantic conditions of verbal fluency was found between groups. The results suggested that unipolar depressives had specific cognitive style characterized by "negative cognitive set" (stronger negative reaction to negative feedback and by failure to use negative feedback to improve their performance.

  7. An Integrative Ambient Agent Model for Unipolar Depression Relapse Prevention

    Aziz, A.A.; Klein, M.C.A.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the challenges for persons with a history of unipolar depression is to stay healthy throughout their lifetime. In principle, having more severe prior onset cases escalates the risk to fall into a relapse. In this article, first a domain model of the process of depression, recovery and relapse

  8. Skin tightening with a combined unipolar and bipolar radiofrequency device.

    Mayoral, Flor A

    2007-02-01

    Monopolar radiofrequency (RF) devices are well established treatment modalities for tightening facial skin. A 60-year-old woman presented with a desire to tighten the lax skin and improve the appearance of both upper arms. A combination unipolar and bipolar RF device may provide volume reduction as well as skin tightening in the upper arm.

  9. Hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and cerebellar hemorrhage caused by cryptic angioma

    Yoshida, Shinichi; Sano, Keiji; Kwak, Suyong; Saito, Isamu.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 44 patients with hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage and nine patients with cerebellar hemorrhage caused by small angiomas is described. Hypertensive hemorrhage occurred most frequently in the patients in their seventies, whereas the onset of angioma-caused hemorrhage was often seen below the age of 40. Clinical syndromes of cerebellar hemorrhages can be categorized into three basic types: the vertigo syndrome, cerebellar dysfunction syndrome and brain stem compression syndrome. Patients with small (>= 2 cm in diameter in CT scans) and medium-sized (2 cm = 3 cm) hematomas deteriorated into unresponsive conditions and developed signs of brain stem compression. Surgical mortality was 32% in the hypertensive group, while it was 0% in the angioma group. Mortality as well as morbidity in both groups was strongly influenced by the preoperative status of consciousness. Our results suggest that substantial improvement could be obtained in the overall outcome of this disease by emergency craniectomy and removal of hematomas in all patients with large hematomas regardless of the levels of consciousness and regardless of the causes of bleeding. Furthermore, when clinical information and CT findings are suggestive of a ''cryptic'' angioma as the causative lesion, posterior fossa surgery may be indicated to extirpate the lesion, even if the hematoma is small. (author)

  10. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Acad. Dept. of Radiol.; Blaser, S.; Armstrong, D.; Chuang, S.; Harwood-Nash, D. [Division of Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Humphreys, R.P. [Division of Neurosurgery, The Hospital for Sick Children and University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 23 refs.

  11. Language Impairment in Cerebellar Ataxia

    van Gaalen, Judith; de Swart, Bert J. M.; Oostveen, Judith; Knuijt, Simone; van de Warrenburg, Bart P. C.; Kremer, Berry (H. ) P. H.

    Background: Several studies have suggested that language impairment can be observed in patients with cerebellar pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate language performance in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). Methods: We assessed speech and language in 29 SCA6 patients

  12. Cerebellar arteriovenous malformations in children

    Griffiths, P.D.; Humphreys, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    We review the presentation, imaging findings and outcome in 18 children with cerebellar arteriovenous malformations (AVM). This group is of particular interest because of the reported poor outcome despite modern imaging and neurosurgical techniques. All children had CT and 15 underwent catheter angiography at presentation. Several of the children in the latter part of the study had MRI. Of the 18 children, 17 presented with a ruptured AVM producing intracranial haemorrhage. The remaining child presented with temporal lobe epilepsy and was shown to have temporal, vermian and cerebellar hemisphere AVM. This child had other stigmata of Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome. Three other children had pre-existing abnormalities of possible relevance. One had a vascular malformation of the cheek and mandible, one a documented chromosomal abnormality and another a midline cleft upper lip and palate. Six of the 17 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM died within 7 days of the ictus. Vascular pathology other than an AVM was found in 10 of the 14 children with a ruptured cerebellar AVM who had angiography: 4 intranidal aneurysms, 5 venous aneurysms and 2 cases of venous outflow obstruction (one child having both an aneurysm and obstruction). The severity of clinical presentation was directly related to the size of the acute haematoma, which was a reasonable predictor of outcome. (orig.)

  13. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  14. Difference in resting-state fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation between bipolar depression and unipolar depression patients.

    Yu, H-L; Liu, W-B; Wang, T; Huang, P-Y; Jie, L-Y; Sun, J-Z; Wang, C; Qian, W; Xuan, M; Gu, Q-Q; Liu, H; Zhang, F-L; Zhang, M-M

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the difference in fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of localized brain activities in the resting-state between bipolar depression and unipolar depression patients and to find biological markers that differentiate the two groups of patients. Thirteen patients with bipolar depression, 15 patients with unipolar depression, and 16 healthy control subjects that were matched in age and years of education were subjected to 3.0 T resting-state functional magnetic resonance scans. The values of whole brain fALFF were calculated and statistical analysis was performed. The fALFF-values of the right inferior temporal gyrus, left cerebellar posterior lobe, right middle temporal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus/insula, right inferior frontal gyrus/insula, left lingual gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus of the three groups showed significant differences (p superior temporal gyrus, left insula, left inferior frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus and right medial frontal gyrus but significantly decreased in the right medial occipital gyrus, left frontal lobe, right superior parietal lobule; the fALFF-values of the bipolar depression (BD) patient group significantly decreased in the left cerebellum posterior lobe, right lingual gyrus, left lingual gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left superior frontal gyrus and significantly increased in the right inferior frontal gyrus and left insula compared to those of the HC group; compared with those of the UD group, the fALFF-values of the BD group significantly decreased in the left middle occipital gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left medial frontal gyrus. The brain activities of BD and UD patients in the resting-state exhibit abnormalities, which differ between the two groups of patients.

  15. Bladder perforation owing to a unipolar coagulating device.

    Pakter, J; Budnick, L D

    1981-09-15

    A report on a patient who sustained a burn and perforation of the urinary bladder from visible sparks emanating from a unipolar coagulating device during the couse of laparoscopic sterilization is presented. It is the first report of urinary bladder burns using a unipolar coagulating device. A 24-year-old woman, gravida 10, para 3, abortus 7, underwent a laparoscopic sterilization with a unipolar coagulating device. As the physician was finishing the coagulation, a spark from the device caused a 1-2 cm burn with a central area of perforation into the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment was recommended, and consisted of Foley catheterization and drainage for 5 days. Initial urine culture revealed Klebsiella species, and oral ampicillin was prescribed. Hematuria was noted throughout the patient's hospitalization, and blood clots were present in the urine on Day 2 postoperation. The patient had no abdominal or flank pain, was afebrile, and had a stable hemoglobin level during the hospital stay. Cystography was performed on Day 5 postoperatively and demonstrated no perforation. Foley catheter was removed. Patient was discharged 2 days later and remains in good health 3 months postoperatively.

  16. Prompt ignition of a unipolar arc on helium irradiated tungsten

    Kajita, Shin; Takamura, Shuichi; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2009-01-01

    A fibreform nanostructured layer is formed on a tungsten surface by helium plasma bombardment. The helium fluence was of the order of 10 26 m -2 , and the surface temperature and incident ion energy during helium irradiation were, respectively, 1900 K and 75 eV. By irradiating a laser pulse to the surface in the plasma, a unipolar arc, which many people have tried to verify in well-defined experiments, is promptly initiated and continued for a much longer time than the laser pulse width. The laser pulse width (∼0.6 ms) and power (∼5 MJ m -2 ) are similar to the heat load accompanied by type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) in ITER. The unipolar arc is verified from an increase in the floating potential, a moving arc spot detected by a fast camera and arcing traces on the surface. This result suggests that the nanostructure on the tungsten surface formed by the bombardment of helium, which is a fusion product, could significantly change the ignition property of arcing, and ELMs become a trigger of unipolar arcing, which would be a great impurity source in fusion devices. (letter)

  17. Unipolar Mania: Recent Updates and Review of the Literature

    Shubham Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unipolar mania (UM has received less than the expected attention, when compared to its contemporary mood disorders, unipolar depression (UD and bipolar disorder (BD. Method. The literature search included PUBMED and PSYCINFO databases. Cross-searches of key references were made to identify other articles of importance. Results. There seems to be a bipolar subgroup with a stable, unipolar recurrent manic course. Although UM does not have significant differences from bipolar mania in terms of sociodemographic variables, there are certain significant differences in clinical features. UM is reported to have more grandiosity, psychotic symptoms, and premorbid hyperthymic temperament, but less rapid cycling, suicidality, seasonality, and comorbid anxiety disorders. It seems to have a better course of illness with better social and professional adjustment. However, its response to lithium prophylaxis is found to be poor as compared to classical BD and valproate could be a better choice in this case. Conclusion. The available literature suggests that UM has certain differences from classical BD. The evidence, however, is insufficient to categorize it as separate diagnostic entity. However, considering UM as a course specifier of BD would be a reasonable step.

  18. Visuomotor learning in cerebellar patients.

    Timmann, D; Shimansky, Y; Larson, P S; Wunderlich, D A; Stelmach, G E; Bloedel, J R

    1996-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that patients with pathology affecting substantial regions of the cerebellum can improve their performance in a series of two-dimensional tracing tasks, thus supporting the view that this type of motor behavior can be acquired even when the integrity of this structure is compromised. Eight patients with chronic, isolated cerebellar lesions and eight age- and sex-matched healthy controls were tested. Three patients had mild, five had moderate upper limb ataxia. The experiment was divided into two parts. In the first, subjects traced an irregularly shaped outline over 20 consecutive trials ('Trace 1' task). Next, subjects were asked to redraw the object without any underlying template as a guide ('Memory 1' task). In the second part of the study, subjects were asked to trace a different, irregularly shaped outline over 20 consecutive trials ('Trace 2' task). Next, they were required to redraw it by memory with its axis rotated 90 degrees ('Memory 2' task). In each of the memory tasks the template was placed over the drawn image after each trial and shown to the subjects. The error of performance was determined by calculating three different measurements, each focused on different aspects of the task. Based on these measurements, the cerebellar patients showed improvement in both memory tasks. In the 'Memory 1' task the calculated error decreased significantly for the patients with mild ataxia. In the 'Memory 2' task all cerebellar patients improved their performance substantially enough to reduce significantly the magnitude of all three error measurements. The experiments demonstrate that patients with cerebellar lesions are capable of improving substantially their performance of a complex motor task involving the recall of memorized shapes and the visuomotor control of a tracing movement.

  19. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were administered to the groups. Results: There was significant difference between unipolar and control groups in “Abandonment/instability”. In “mistrust/ abuse” significant difference was between unipolar and bipolar and between unipolar and control groups. ln “entitlement/self-centeredness” difference was between unipolar and control groups. In all other schemas, difference was between unipolar and control and bipolar and control groups. In these schemas, control group had significantly lower scores than others. Unipolar and bipolar groups were similar. Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/ abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment.

  20. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Yamada, Kazuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author)

  1. Cerebellar mutism--report of four cases.

    Ozimek, A; Richter, S; Hein-Kropp, C; Schoch, B; Gorissen, B; Kaiser, O; Gizewski, E; Ziegler, W; Timmann, D

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the manifestations of mutism after surgery in children with cerebellar tumors. Speech impairment following cerebellar mutism in children was investigated based on standardized acoustic speech parameters and perceptual criteria. Mutistic and non-mutistic children after cerebellar surgery as well as orthopedic controls were tested pre-and postoperatively. Speech impairment was compared with the localization of cerebellar lesions (i. e. affected lobules and nuclei). Whereas both control groups showed no abnormalities in speech and behavior, the mutistic group could be divided into children with dysarthria in post mutistic phase and children with mainly behavioral disturbances. In the mutistic children involvement of dentate and fastigial nuclei tended to be more frequent and extended than in the nonmutistic cerebellar children. Cerebellar mutism is a complex phenomenon of at least two types. Dysarthric symptoms during resolution of mutism support the anarthria hypothesis, while mainly behavioral changes suggest an explanation independent from speech motor control.

  2. Hippocampal volume changes in healthy subjects at risk of unipolar depression

    Baaré, William F C; Vinberg, Maj; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2010-01-01

    Unipolar depression is moderately heritable. It is unclear whether structural brain changes associated with unipolar depression are present in healthy persons at risk of the disorder. Here we investigated whether a genetic predisposition to unipolar depression is associated with structural brain...... changes. A priori, hippocampal volume reductions were hypothesized. Using a high-risk study design, magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 59 healthy high-risk subjects having a co-twin with unipolar depression, and 53 healthy low-risk subjects without a first-degree family history...

  3. Massive cerebellar infarction: a neurosurgical approach

    Salazar Luis Rafael Moscote

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar infarction is a challenge for the neurosurgeon. The rapid recognition will crucial to avoid devastating consequences. The massive cerebellar infarction has pseudotumoral behavior, should affect at least one third of the volume of the cerebellum. The irrigation of the cerebellum presents anatomical diversity, favoring the appearance of atypical infarcts. The neurosurgical management is critical for massive cerebellar infarction. We present a review of the literature.

  4. Cognitions in bipolar affective disorder and unipolar depression: imagining suicide.

    Hales, Susie A; Deeprose, Catherine; Goodwin, Guy M; Holmes, Emily A

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar disorder has the highest rate of suicide of all the psychiatric disorders. In unipolar depression, individuals report vivid, affect-laden images of suicide or the aftermath of death (flashforwards to suicide) during suicidal ideation but this phenomenon has not been explored in bipolar disorder. Therefore the authors investigated and compared imagery and verbal thoughts related to past suicidality in individuals with bipolar disorder (n = 20) and unipolar depression (n = 20). The study used a quasi-experimental comparative design. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm diagnoses. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through questionnaire measures (e.g., mood and trait imagery use). Individual interviews assessed suicidal cognitions in the form of (i) mental images and (ii) verbal thoughts. All participants reported imagining flashforwards to suicide. Both groups reported greater preoccupation with these suicide-related images than with verbal thoughts about suicide. However, compared to the unipolar group, the bipolar group were significantly more preoccupied with flashforward imagery, rated this imagery as more compelling, and were more than twice as likely to report that the images made them want to take action to complete suicide. In addition, the bipolar group reported a greater trait propensity to use mental imagery in general. Suicidal ideation needs to be better characterized, and mental imagery of suicide has been a neglected but potentially critical feature of suicidal ideation, particularly in bipolar disorder. Our findings suggest that flashforward imagery warrants further investigation for formal universal clinical assessment procedures. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  5. Unipolar atrial electrogram morphology from an epicardial and endocardial perspective.

    van der Does, Lisette J M E; Knops, Paul; Teuwen, Christophe P; Serban, Corina; Starreveld, Roeliene; Lanters, Eva A H; Mouws, Elisabeth M J P; Kik, Charles; Bogers, Ad J J C; de Groot, Natasja M S

    2018-02-22

    Endo-epicardial asynchrony (EEA) and the interplay between the endocardial and epicardial layers could be important in the pathophysiology of atrial arrhythmias. The morphologic differences between epicardial and endocardial atrial electrograms have not yet been described, and electrogram morphology may hold information about the presence of EEA. The purpose of this study was to directly compare epicardial to endocardial unipolar electrogram morphology during sinus rhythm (SR) and to evaluate whether EEA contributes to electrogram fractionation by correlating fractionation to spatial activation patterns. In 26 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded from the epicardium and endocardium at the inferior, middle, and superior right atrial (RA) free wall during SR. Potentials were analyzed for epi-endocardial differences in local activation time, voltage, RS ratio, and fractionation. The surrounding and opposite electrograms of fractionated deflections were evaluated for corresponding local activation times in order to determine whether fractionation originated from EEA. The superior RA was predisposed to delayed activation, EEA, and fractionation. Both epicardial and endocardial electrograms demonstrated an S-predominance. Fractionation was mostly similar between the 2 sides; however, incidentally deflections up to 4 mV on 1 side could be absent on the other side. Remote activation was responsible for most fractionated deflections (95%) in SR, of which 4% could be attributed to EEA. Local epi-endocardial differences in electrogram fractionation occur occasionally during SR but will likely increase during arrhythmias due to increasing EEA and (functional) conduction disorders. Electrogram fractionation can originate from EEA, and this study demonstrated that unipolar electrogram fractionation can potentially identify EEA. Copyright © 2018 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The occurrence and damage of unipolar arcing on fuzzy tungsten

    Aussems, D.U.B.; Nishijima, D.; Brandt, C.; van der Meiden, H.J.; Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří; De Temmerman, G.; Doerner, R.P.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 303-307 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tungsten * fuzz * unipolar arcing * melting * fusion reactor Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514005996514005996

  7. Cerebellar atrophy in epileptic patients

    Taneva, N.

    1991-01-01

    52 patients with epileptic seizures of different form, frequency and duration who had received long term treatment with anticonvulsive drugs were examined on Siretom 2000, a brain scanner of II generation. 6 standard incisions were made in all patients in the area of cerebellum, side ventricules and high convexity. Additional scanning with an incision width of 5 mm was made when pathological changes were detected. There were found 3 cases of cerebellar atrophy, 3 - cerebral atrophy, 1 - combined atrophy and 4 - with other changes. It was difficult to establish any relation between the rerebellar atrophy and the type of anticonvulsant used because treatment had usually been complex. 1 fig., 1 tab., 4 refs

  8. Defective cerebellar control of cortical plasticity in writer’s cramp

    Hubsch, Cecile; Roze, Emmanuel; Popa, Traian; Russo, Margherita; Balachandran, Ammu; Pradeep, Salini; Mueller, Florian; Brochard, Vanessa; Quartarone, Angelo; Degos, Bertrand; Vidailhet, Marie; Kishore, Asha

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence points to a role of basal ganglia dysfunction in the pathophysiology of dystonia, but recent studies indicate that cerebellar dysfunction may also be involved. The cerebellum influences sensorimotor adaptation by modulating sensorimotor plasticity of the primary motor cortex. Motor cortex sensorimotor plasticity is maladaptive in patients with writer’s cramp. Here we examined whether putative cerebellar dysfunction in dystonia is linked to these patients’ maladaptive plasticity. To that end we compared the performances of patients and healthy control subjects in a reaching task involving a visuomotor conflict generated by imposing a random deviation (−40° to 40°) on the direction of movement of the mouse/cursor. Such a task is known to involve the cerebellum. We also compared, between patients and healthy control subjects, how the cerebellum modulates the extent and duration of an ongoing sensorimotor plasticity in the motor cortex. The cerebellar cortex was excited or inhibited by means of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation before artificial sensorimotor plasticity was induced in the motor cortex by paired associative stimulation. Patients with writer’s cramp were slower than the healthy control subjects to reach the target and, after having repeatedly adapted their trajectories to the deviations, they were less efficient than the healthy control subjects to perform reaching movement without imposed deviation. It was interpreted as impaired washing-out abilities. In healthy subjects, cerebellar cortex excitation prevented the paired associative stimulation to induce a sensorimotor plasticity in the primary motor cortex, whereas cerebellar cortex inhibition led the paired associative stimulation to be more efficient in inducing the plasticity. In patients with writer’s cramp, cerebellar cortex excitation and inhibition were both ineffective in modulating sensorimotor plasticity. In patients with writer’s cramp, but not

  9. Learning of Sensory Sequences in Cerebellar Patients

    Frings, Markus; Boenisch, Raoul; Gerwig, Marcus; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Timmann, Dagmar

    2004-01-01

    A possible role of the cerebellum in detecting and recognizing event sequences has been proposed. The present study sought to determine whether patients with cerebellar lesions are impaired in the acquisition and discrimination of sequences of sensory stimuli of different modalities. A group of 26 cerebellar patients and 26 controls matched for…

  10. Cognitive impairment in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder: A systematic review

    Hasselbalch, Bo Jacob; Knorr, Ulla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether cognitive impairment is prevalent in the remitted state of unipolar disorder. AIM: To evaluate whether cognitive function is impaired in the remitted state in patients with unipolar depression compared with healthy control individuals, and to investigate the asso...

  11. Cellular and Molecular Basis of Cerebellar Development

    Salvador eMartinez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of cerebellar development were investigated through structural descriptions and studying spontaneous mutations in animal models and humans. Advances in experimental embryology, genetic engineering and neuroimaging techniques render today the possibility to approach the analysis of molecular mechanisms underlying histogenesis and morphogenesis of the cerebellum by experimental designs. Several genes and molecules were identified to be involved in the cerebellar plate regionalization, specification and differentiation of cerebellar neurons, as well as the establishment of cellular migratory routes and the subsequent neuronal connectivity. Indeed, pattern formation of the cerebellum requires the adequate orchestration of both key morphogenetic signals, arising from distinct brain regions, and local expression of specific transcription factors. Thus, the present review wants to revisit and discuss these morphogenetic and molecular mechanisms taking place during cerebellar development in order to understand causal processes regulating cerebellar cytoarchitecture, its highly topographically ordered circuitry and its role in brain function.

  12. The bihemispheric posterior inferior cerebellar artery

    Cullen, Sean P.; Ozanne, Augustin; Alvarez, Hortensia; Lasjaunias, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Rarely, a solitary posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) will supply both cerebellar hemispheres. We report four cases of this variant. We present a retrospective review of clinical information and imaging of patients undergoing angiography at our institution to identify patients with a bihemispheric PICA. There were four patients: three males and one female. One patient presented with a ruptured arteriovenous malformation, and one with a ruptured aneurysm. Two patients had normal angiograms. The bihemispheric PICA was an incidental finding in all cases. The bihemispheric vessel arose from the dominant left vertebral artery, and the contralateral posterior inferior cerebellar artery was absent or hypoplastic. In all cases, contralateral cerebellar supply arose from a continuation of the ipsilateral PICA distal to the choroidal point and which crossed the midline dorsal to the vermis. We conclude that the PICA may supply both cerebellar hemispheres. This rare anatomic variant should be considered when evaluating patients with posterior fossa neurovascular disease. (orig.)

  13. The effect of a therapeutic lithium level on a stroke-related cerebellar tremor.

    Orleans, Rachel A; Dubin, Marc J; Kast, Kristopher A

    2018-01-24

    Lithium is a mood stabiliser used in the treatment of acute mania, bipolar disorder and as augmentation for unipolar major depression. Tremor is a common adverse effect associated with lithium at both therapeutic and toxic serum levels. We present a case of dose-dependent changes in the quality and intensity of a stroke-related, chronic cerebellar tremor with lithium treatment at serum levels within the therapeutic range. On admission, the patient in this case had a baseline fine, postural tremor, which increased in frequency and evolved to include myoclonic jerks once lithium therapy was initiated. Although the patient's serum lithium level was never in the toxic range, his tremor returned to baseline on reduction of his serum lithium level. This case highlights that a pre-existing, baseline tremor may lower the threshold for developing myoclonus. It also suggests that caution may be warranted with lithium therapy in the setting of known cerebellar disease. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Experimental study of unipolar arcs in a low pressure mercury discharge

    Johnson, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study of unipolar arcs was conducted in a low pressure mercury discharge inductively heated with RF. The results were found to be consistent with the concept of a sheath mechanism for driving the unipolar arcs. Floating double-probe measurements of the unipolar arc plasma parameters yielded electron temperatures of approx. 2 eV and electron number densities of approx. 1 x 10 11 cm -3 assuming quasi-neutral plasma conditions. The variation of the unipolar arc current with: (1) the RF power input; and (2) the metal surface area exposed to the plasma verified the predicted dependence of the arc current on the plasma parameters and the metal surface area. Finally, alternative mechanisms for sustaining the observed arcs by high frequency rectification were ruled out on the basis of the recorded current waveforms of the unipolar arcs

  15. Correlates Associated with Unipolar Depressive Disorders in a Latino Population

    Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Alegría, Margarita; Albizu-García, Carmen E.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study reports the comparison and associations of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial correlates with three unipolar depressive disorders: dysthymia (DYS), major depression (MD), and double depression (DD), and examines to which extent these variables predict the disorders. Sampling and Method Previously collected data from 563 adults from a community in Puerto Rico were analyzed. One hundred and thirty individuals with DYS, 260 with MD, and 173 with DD were compared by demographic variables, psychiatric and physical comorbidity, familial psychopathology, psychosocial stressors, functional impairment, self-reliance, problem recognition and formal use of mental health services. Multinomial regression was used to assess the association of the predictor variables with each of the three disorders. Results Similarities outweighed the discrepancies between disorders. The main differences observed were between MD and DD, while DYS shared common characteristics with both MD and DD. After other variables were controlled, anxiety, functional impairment, and problem recognition most strongly predicted a DD diagnosis while age predicted a DYS diagnosis. Conclusion MD, DYS, and DD are not completely different disorders but they do differ in key aspects that might be relevant for nosology, research, and practice. A dimensional system that incorporates specific categories of disorders would better reflect the different manifestations of unipolar depressive disorders. PMID:23006435

  16. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar

  17. Etiology, Localization and Prognosis in Cerebellar Infarctions

    Yavuz Yücel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebrovasculer disease are the most frequent disease of the brain. Cerebellar infarct remains % 1.5-4.2 of these diseases. Etiological factors, lesion localization, symptoms and findings and relationship with prognosis of our patients with cerebellar infarct were investigated in our study. For this purpose, 32 patients were evaluated who were admitted to the Dicle University Medical School Department of Neurology in 1995-2001 hospitalized with the diagnosis of clinically and radiological confirmed cerebellar infarction.All of patients in the study group, 21 (%65.6 were male and 11 (%34.3 female. Age of overall patients ranged between 40 and 75 years with a mean of 57.8±10.2 years. Atherothrombotic infarct was the most frequent reason at the etiologic clinical classification. The most frequently found localization was the posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct (%50. The leading two risk factors were hypertension (%78.1 and cigarette smoking (%50. The most common sign and symptoms were vertigo (%93.7, vomiting (%75, headache (%68.7 and cerebellar dysfunction findings (%50. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.3±7.6 days. Overall mortality rate was found to be % 6.2. Finally, the most remarkable risk factors at cerebellar infarct patients are hypertension and atherosclerosis at etiology. We are considering that, controlling of these factors will reduce the appearance frequency of cerebellar infarcts.

  18. Origin, lineage and function of cerebellar glia.

    Buffo, Annalisa; Rossi, Ferdinando

    2013-10-01

    The glial cells of the cerebellum, and particularly astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, are characterized by a remarkable phenotypic variety, in which highly peculiar morphological features are associated with specific functional features, unique among the glial cells of the entire CNS. Here, we provide a critical report about the present knowledge of the development of cerebellar glia, including lineage relationships between cerebellar neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, the origins and the genesis of the repertoire of glial types, and the processes underlying their acquisition of mature morphological and functional traits. In parallel, we describe and discuss some fundamental roles played by specific categories of glial cells during cerebellar development. In particular, we propose that Bergmann glia exerts a crucial scaffolding activity that, together with the organizing function of Purkinje cells, is necessary to achieve the normal pattern of foliation and layering of the cerebellar cortex. Moreover, we discuss some of the functional tasks of cerebellar astrocytes and oligodendrocytes that are distinctive of cerebellar glia throughout the CNS. Notably, we report about the regulation of synaptic signalling in the molecular and granular layer mediated by Bergmann glia and parenchymal astrocytes, and the functional interaction between oligodendrocyte precursor cells and neurons. On the whole, this review provides an extensive overview of the available literature and some novel insights about the origin and differentiation of the variety of cerebellar glial cells and their function in the developing and mature cerebellum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Memory transfer in cerebellar motor learning].

    Nagao, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Most of our motor skills are acquired through learning. Experiments of gain adaptation of ocular reflexes have consistently suggested that the memory of adaptation is initially formed in the cerebellar cortex, and is transferred to the cerebellar (vestibular) nuclei for consolidation to long-term memory after repetitions of training. We have recently developed a new system to evaluate the motor learning in human subjects using prism adaptation of hand reaching movement, by referring to the prism adaptation of dart throwing of Martin et al. (1996). In our system, the subject views the small target presented in the touch-panel screen, and touches it with his/her finger without direct visual feedback. After 15-30 trials of touching wearing prisms, an adaptation occurs in healthy subjects: they became able to touch the target correctly. Meanwhile, such an adaptation was impaired in patients of cerebellar disease. We have proposed a model of human prism adaptation that the memory of adaptation is initially encoded in the cerebellar cortex, and is later transferred to the cerebellar nuclei after repetitions of training. The memory in the cerebellar cortex may be formed and extinguished independently of the memory maintained in the cerebellar nuclei, and these two memories work cooperatively.

  20. Computed tomography in alcoholic cerebellar atrophy

    Haubek, A; Lee, K [Hvidovre Hospital Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology; Municipal Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Neurology)

    1979-01-01

    This is a controlled CT evaluation of the infratentorial region in 41 male alcoholics under age 35. Criteria for the presence of atrophy are outlined. Twelve patients had cerebellar atrophy. Vermian atrophy was present in all. Atrophy of the cerebellar hemispheres was demonstrated in eight patients as well. The results are statistically significant when compared to an age-matched group of 40 non-alcoholic males among whom two cases of vermian atrophy were found. There were clinical signs of alcoholic cerebellar atrophy in one patient only. The disparity between the clinical and the radiological data are discussed with reference to previous pneumoencephalographic findings. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 MKO.

  1. Acute Cerebellar Ataxia Induced by Nivolumab

    Kawamura, Reina; Nagata, Eiichiro; Mukai, Masako; Ohnuki, Yoichi; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Ohiwa, Kana; Nakagawa, Tomoki; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki; Takizawa, Shunya

    2017-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung and lymph node metastasis experienced nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia 2 weeks after initiating nivolumab therapy. An evaluation for several autoimmune-related antibodies and paraneoplastic syndrome yielded negative results. We eventually diagnosed the patient with nivolumab-induced acute cerebellar ataxia, after excluding other potential conditions. Her ataxic gait and nystagmus resolved shortly after intravenous steroid pulse therapy followed by the administration of decreasing doses of oral steroids. Nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, is known to induce various neurological adverse events. However, this is the first report of acute cerebellar ataxia associated with nivolumab treatment. PMID:29249765

  2. Cerebellar injury in preterm infants.

    Tam, Emily W Y

    2018-01-01

    Although preterm birth is best known to result in adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes through injury of the supratentorial structures, including intraventricular hemorrhage and periventricular leukomalacia, the cerebellum has become increasingly recognized as an important target for injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. Undergoing the most dramatic growth during the preterm period, the cerebellum is vulnerable to large and small hemorrhages, as well as hypoplasia resulting from a number of potentially modifiable risk factors. These factors include contact with intraventricular blood, crossed cerebrocerebellar diaschisis, postnatal glucocorticoid exposure, pain and opioid exposure, nutrition and somatic growth, cardiorespiratory factors, and socioeconomic status. Strategies targeting these factors may result in prevention of the motor and cognitive deficits seen after cerebellar hemorrhage or hypoplasia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of pediatric unipolar depression using multiple neuromorphometric measurements: a pattern classification approach.

    Wu, Mon-Ju; Wu, Hanjing Emily; Mwangi, Benson; Sanches, Marsal; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Soares, Jair C

    2015-03-01

    Diagnosis of pediatric neuropsychiatric disorders such as unipolar depression is largely based on clinical judgment - without objective biomarkers to guide diagnostic process and subsequent therapeutic interventions. Neuroimaging studies have previously reported average group-level neuroanatomical differences between patients with pediatric unipolar depression and healthy controls. In the present study, we investigated the utility of multiple neuromorphometric indices in distinguishing pediatric unipolar depression patients from healthy controls at an individual subject level. We acquired structural T1-weighted scans from 25 pediatric unipolar depression patients and 26 demographically matched healthy controls. Multiple neuromorphometric indices such as cortical thickness, volume, and cortical folding patterns were obtained. A support vector machine pattern classification model was 'trained' to distinguish individual subjects with pediatric unipolar depression from healthy controls based on multiple neuromorphometric indices and model predictive validity (sensitivity and specificity) calculated. The model correctly identified 40 out of 51 subjects translating to 78.4% accuracy, 76.0% sensitivity and 80.8% specificity, chi-square p-value = 0.000049. Volumetric and cortical folding abnormalities in the right thalamus and right temporal pole respectively were most central in distinguishing individual patients with pediatric unipolar depression from healthy controls. These findings provide evidence that a support vector machine pattern classification model using multiple neuromorphometric indices may qualify as diagnostic marker for pediatric unipolar depression. In addition, our results identified the most relevant neuromorphometric features in distinguishing PUD patients from healthy controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation as innovative tools for neuroscientists

    Priori, Alberto; Ciocca, Matteo; Parazzini, Marta; Vergari, Maurizio; Ferrucci, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Two neuromodulatory techniques based on applying direct current (DC) non-invasively through the skin, transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcutaneous spinal DCS, can induce prolonged functional changes consistent with a direct influence on the human cerebellum and spinal cord. In this article we review the major experimental works on cerebellar tDCS and on spinal tDCS, and their preliminary clinical applications. Cerebellar tDCS modulates cerebellar motor cortical inhibition, gait adaptation, motor behaviour, and cognition (learning, language, memory, attention). Spinal tDCS influences the ascending and descending spinal pathways, and spinal reflex excitability. In the anaesthetised mouse, DC stimulation applied under the skin along the entire spinal cord may affect GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. Preliminary clinical studies in patients with cerebellar disorders, and in animals and patients with spinal cord injuries, have reported beneficial effects. Overall the available data show that cerebellar tDCS and spinal tDCS are two novel approaches for inducing prolonged functional changes and neuroplasticity in the human cerebellum and spinal cord, and both are new tools for experimental and clinical neuroscientists. PMID:24907311

  5. Chronic tinnitus and unipolar brush cell alterations in the cerebellum and dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    Brozoski, Thomas; Brozoski, Daniel; Wisner, Kurt; Bauer, Carol

    2017-07-01

    Animal model research has shown that the central features of tinnitus, the perception of sound without an acoustic correlate, include elevated spontaneous and stimulus-driven activity, enhanced burst-mode firing, decreased variance of inter-spike intervals, and distortion of tonotopic frequency representation. Less well documented are cell-specific correlates of tinnitus. Unipolar brush cell (UBC) alterations in animals with psychophysical evidence of tinnitus has recently been reported. UBCs are glutamatergic interneurons that appear to function as local-circuit signal amplifiers. UBCs are abundant in the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) and very abundant in the flocculus (FL) and paraflocculus (PFL) of the cerebellum. In the present research, two indicators of UBC structure and function were examined: Doublecortin (DCX) and epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 8 (Eps8). DCX is a protein that binds to microtubules where it can modify their assembly and growth. Eps8 is a cell-surface tyrosine kinase receptor mediating the response to epidermal growth factor; it appears to have a role in actin polymerization as well as cytoskeletal protein interactions. Both functions could contribute to synaptic remodeling. In the present research UBC Eps8 and DCX immunoreactivity (IR) were determined in 4 groups of rats distinguished by their exposure to high-level sound and psychophysical performance: Unexposed, exposed to high-level sound with behavioral evidence of tinnitus, and two exposed groups without behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Compared to unexposed controls, exposed animals with tinnitus had Eps8 IR elevated in their PFL; other structures were not affected, nor was DCX IR affected. This was interpreted as UBC upregulation in animals with tinnitus. Exposure that failed to produce tinnitus did not increase either Eps8 or DCX IR. Rather Eps8 IR was decreased in the FL and DCN of one subgroup (Least-Tinnitus), while DCX IR decreased in the FL of the other subgroup (No

  6. Is There Such a Diagnosis as an Early Onset Unipolar Depression?

    Berta Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available According to Kraepelin, melancholia was part of manic-depressive psychosis. In the 60s however, other authors (Angst, 1966; Perris, 1966; Winokur, 1967 questioned this concept by considering unipolar depression a clinical entity, separated from bipolar disorders. Using strict bipolar disorders criteria, some prospective studies have shown a diagnosis switch from unipolar to bipolar disorders in up to 50% of the cases (Caryell, 1995; Goldberg, 2001; Angst, 2005. The existence of unipolar depression as a clinical entity is discussed, taking in consideration the “minor” bipolar symptoms that occur during the course of affective disorders.

  7. Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature

    Gudrunardottir, Thora; Sehested, Astrid; Juhler, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention....

  8. Degenerative cerebellar diseases and differential diagnoses

    Reith, W.; Roumia, S.; Dietrich, P.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging investigations are also helpful for the differentiation. Axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted sequences can sometimes show a signal increase in the pons as a sign of degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse fibers in the basilar part of the pons. The imaging is particularly necessary to exclude other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions. (orig.) [de

  9. [Degenerative cerebellar diseases and differential diagnoses].

    Reith, W; Roumia, S; Dietrich, P

    2016-11-01

    Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging investigations are also helpful for the differentiation. Axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted sequences can sometimes show a signal increase in the pons as a sign of degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse fibers in the basilar part of the pons. The imaging is particularly necessary to exclude other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions.

  10. Neuroprotective effects of thymoquinone against cerebellar ...

    cerebellum mainly functions to coordinate motor functions and control ... development of the brain and life-long cognitive function [2]. ... and serial equidistant sections of the right cerebellar ... Cells outside of the left vertical and bottom bars ...

  11. Non-neoplastic gliotic cerebellar cysts

    Weisberg, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical and CT findings in 3 patients with non-neoplastic gliotic cerebellar cyst are described. CT does not permit accurate preoperative differentiation of these lesions from neoplastic disorders. (orig.)

  12. Cerebellar leukoencephalopathy: most likely histiocytosis-related

    van der Knaap, M.S.; Arts, W.F.M.; Garbern, J.Y.; Hedlund, G.; Winkler, F.; Barbosa, C.; King, M.D.; Bjornstad, A.; Hussain, N.; Beyer, M.K.; Gomez, C.; Patterson, M.C.; Grattan-Smith, P.; Timmons, M.; van der Valk, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Histiocytosis, both Langerhans and non-Langerhans cell type, can be associated with cerebellar white matter abnormalities, thought to be paraneoplastic. The associated clinical picture consists of ataxia, spasticity, and cognitive decline. Hormonal dysfunction is frequent. MRI shows

  13. Cerebellar medulloblastoma presenting with skeletal metastasis

    Barai Sukanta

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastomas are highly malignant brain tumours, but only rarely produce skeletal metastases. No case of medulloblastoma has been documented to have produced skeletal metastases prior to craniotomy or shunt surgery. A 21-year-old male presented with pain in the hip and lower back with difficulty in walking of 3 months′ duration. Signs of cerebellar dysfunction were present hence a diagnosis of cerebellar neoplasm or skeletal tuberculosis with cerebellar abscess formation was considered. MRI of brain revealed a lesion in the cerebellum suggestive of medulloblastoma. Bone scan revealed multiple sites of skeletal metastases excluding the lumbar vertebrae. MRI of lumbar spine and hip revealed metastases to all lumbar vertebrae and both hips. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was obtained from the L3 vertebra, which revealed metastatic deposits from medulloblastoma. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology showed the presence of medulloblastoma cells. A final diagnosis of cerebellar medulloblastoma with skeletal metastases was made. He underwent craniotomy and histopathology confirmed medulloblastoma.

  14. Ataxias and Cerebellar or Spinocerebellar Degeneration

    ... and conducts a broad range of basic and clinical research on cerebellar and spinocerebellar degeneration, including work aimed at finding the cause(s) of ataxias and ways to ... Publications Definition Ataxia ...

  15. Circadian oscillators in the mouse brain

    Rath, Martin F; Rovsing, Louise; Møller, Morten

    2014-01-01

    with conditional cell-specific clock gene deletions. This prompted us to analyze the molecular clockwork of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum in detail. Here, by use of in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that clock genes are expressed in all six layers of the neocortex and the Purkinje...... and granular cell layers of the cerebellar cortex of the mouse brain. Among these, Per1, Per2, Cry1, Arntl, and Nr1d1 exhibit circadian rhythms suggesting that local running circadian oscillators reside within neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellar cortex. The temporal expression profiles of clock genes...... are similar in the neocortex and cerebellum, but they are delayed by 5 h as compared to the SCN, suggestively reflecting a master-slave relationship between the SCN and extra-hypothalamic oscillators. Furthermore, ARNTL protein products are detectable in neurons of the mouse neocortex and cerebellum...

  16. Cerebellar mutism: review of the literature

    Gudrunardottir, Thora; Sehested, Astrid; Juhler, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention.......Cerebellar mutism is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery in children. This article reviews current status with respect to incidence, anatomical substrate, pathophysiology, risk factors, surgical considerations, treatment options, prognosis and prevention....

  17. Acute Cerebellar Ataxia Induced by Nivolumab

    Kawamura, Reina; Nagata, Eiichiro; Mukai, Masako; Ohnuki, Yoichi; Matsuzaki, Tomohiko; Ohiwa, Kana; Nakagawa, Tomoki; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Masuda, Ryota; Iwazaki, Masayuki; Takizawa, Shunya

    2017-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman with adenocarcinoma of the lung and lymph node metastasis experienced nystagmus and cerebellar ataxia 2 weeks after initiating nivolumab therapy. An evaluation for several autoimmune-related antibodies and paraneoplastic syndrome yielded negative results. We eventually diagnosed the patient with nivolumab-induced acute cerebellar ataxia, after excluding other potential conditions. Her ataxic gait and nystagmus resolved shortly after intravenous steroid pulse therapy follow...

  18. Hereditary spastic paraplegia with cerebellar ataxia: a complex phenotype associated with a new SPG4 gene mutation

    Nielsen, Jørgen Erik; Johnson, B; Koefoed, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    Complex forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) are rare and usually transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. A family of four generations with autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) and a complex phenotype with variably expressed co-existing ataxia, dysarthria......, unipolar depression, epilepsy, migraine, and cognitive impairment was investigated. Genetic linkage analysis and sequencing of the SPG4 gene was performed and electrophysiologic investigations were carried out in six individuals and positron emission tomography (PET) in one patient. The disease was linked...... in those individuals who were clinically affected by a complex phenotype consisting of HSP and cerebellar ataxia. Other features noted in this kindred including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, depression, and migraine did not segregate with the HSP phenotype or mutation, and therefore the significance...

  19. The internalising and externalising dimensions of affective symptoms in depressed (unipolar) and bipolar patients

    Bech, P; Hansen, H V; Kessing, L V

    2006-01-01

    for the measurement of both the internalising dimension of affective symptoms (depression including suicidal ideas, anxiety and asthenia) and the externalising dimension (mania). To supplement the latter dimension, the WHO-5 questionnaire was included. These questionnaires were mailed to a large population...... of patients with depressive (unipolar) or bipolar disorders, representative of patients treated in hospital settings in Denmark, approximately 2 years after discharge from hospital. RESULTS: In total, 244 unipolars and 214 bipolars were included in the study. Mokken analysis showed that depressive (unipolar...... hospitals in Denmark, depressive (unipolar) patients scored significantly higher than bipolar patients on the internalising dimension and suicidal ideas, and significantly lower on the externalising dimension of psychological well-being....

  20. Increased sensitivity to positive social stimuli in monozygotic twins at risk of bipolar vs. unipolar disorder

    Kærsgaard, S; Meluken, I; Kessing, L V

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative...... to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. METHODS: Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included. Variables of interest were recognition of and vigilance...... to emotional faces, emotional reactivity and -regulation in social scenarios and non-affective cognition. RESULTS: Twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder showed increased recognition of low to moderate intensity of happy facial expressions relative to both unipolar disorder high-risk twins and low...

  1. The Mood Spectrum and Temperamental Instability in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder

    Kumar, Manish; Saha, Pradeep Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current categorical split of mood disorders in bipolar (BP) disorders and depressive disorders has recently been questioned. The presence of a significant number of manic/hypomanic symptoms in patients with recurrent unipolar depression seems to challenge the traditional dichotomy of unipolar-BP disorder. Two highly unstable personality features, i.e., the cyclothymic temperament (CT) and borderline personality disorder, have been found to be more common in BP disorder than in...

  2. Changes in the cerebellar and cerebro-cerebellar circuit in type 2 diabetes.

    Fang, Peng; An, Jie; Tan, Xin; Zeng, Ling-Li; Shen, Hui; Qiu, Shijun; Hu, Dewen

    2017-04-01

    Currently, 422 million adults suffer from diabetes worldwide, leading to tremendous disabilities and a great burden to families and society. Functional and structural MRIs have demonstrated that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit abnormalities in brain regions in the cerebral cortex. However, the changes of cerebellar anatomical connections in diabetic patients remains unclear. In the current study, diffusion tensor imaging deterministic tractography and statistical analysis were employed to investigate abnormal cerebellar anatomical connections in diabetic patients. This is the first study to investigate the altered cerebellar anatomical connectivity in T2DM patients. Decreased anatomical connections were found in the cerebellar and cerebro-cerebellar circuits of T2DM patients, providing valuable new insights into the potential neuro-pathophysiology of diabetes-related motor and cognitive deficits. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Bilateral Cerebellar Cortical Dysplasia without Other Malformations: A Case Report

    Oh, Jung Seok; Ahn Kook Jin; Kim, Jee Young; Lee, Sun Jin; Park, Jeong Mi [Catholic University Yeouido St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Recent advances in MRI have revealed congenital brain malformations and subtle developmental abnormalities of the cerebral and cerebellar cortical architecture. Typical cerebellar cortical dysplasia as a newly categorized cerebellar malformation, has been seen in patients with Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy. Cerebellar cortical dysplasia occurs at the embryonic stage and is often observed in healthy newborns. It is also incidentally and initially detected in adults without symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, cerebellar dysplasia without any related disorders is very rare. We describe the MRI findings in one patient with disorganized foliation of both cerebellar hemispheres without a related disorder or syndrome

  4. A prospective randomized study comparing unipolar versus bipolar hysteroscopic myomectomy in infertile women

    Kallol K Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: To compare the operative and reproductive outcome of hysteroscopic myomectomy using unipolar resectoscope versus bipolar resectoscope in patients with infertility and menorrhagia. Design: Randomized, prospective, parallel, comparative, single-blinded study. Design Classification: Canadian Task Force classification I. Setting: Tertiary care institute. Patients: Sixty women with submucous myoma and infertility. Interventions: Hysteroscopic myomectomy performed with unipolar resectoscope or bipolar resectoscope. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the pregnancy-related indicators. Secondary outcome measures were the operative parameters, harmful outcomes related to the procedure, and comparison of improvement levels in the menstrual pattern after surgery between the two groups. Main Results: A total of 60 patients were randomized into two groups of equal size. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Reduction in sodium level from pre- to postsurgery was significantly (P = 0.001 higher in the unipolar group. Nine patients (30% in the unipolar group had hyponatremia in the postoperative period compared to none in the bipolar group (P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference in the other operative parameters between the two groups. In both the groups, a significant improvement in the menstrual symptoms was observed after myomectomy. Pregnancy-related outcomes were similar in both the groups. Conclusion: The use of bipolar resectoscope for hysteroscopic myomectomy is associated with lesser risk of hyponatremia compared to unipolar resectoscope. Bipolar resectoscopic myomectomy is found to be an effective and safer alternative to unipolar resectoscopy with similar reproductive outcome.

  5. Quasi-unipolar pentacene films embedded with fullerene for non-volatile organic transistor memories

    Lee, Juhee; Lee, Sungpyo; Lee, Moo Hyung; Kang, Moon Sung, E-mail: mskang@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-09

    Quasi-unipolar non-volatile organic transistor memory (NOTM) can combine the best characteristics of conventional unipolar and ambipolar NOTMs and, as a result, exhibit improved device performance. Unipolar NOTMs typically exhibit a large signal ratio between the programmed and erased current signals but also require a large voltage to program and erase the memory cells. Meanwhile, an ambipolar NOTM can be programmed and erased at lower voltages, but the resulting signal ratio is small. By embedding a discontinuous n-type fullerene layer within a p-type pentacene film, quasi-unipolar NOTMs are fabricated, of which the signal storage utilizes both electrons and holes while the electrical signal relies on only hole conduction. These devices exhibit superior memory performance relative to both pristine unipolar pentacene devices and ambipolar fullerene/pentacene bilayer devices. The quasi-unipolar NOTM exhibited a larger signal ratio between the programmed and erased states while also reducing the voltage required to program and erase a memory cell. This simple approach should be readily applicable for various combinations of advanced organic semiconductors that have been recently developed and thereby should make a significant impact on organic memory research.

  6. Metabolic anatomy of paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration

    Anderson, N.E.; Posner, J.B.; Sidtis, J.J.; Moeller, J.R.; Strother, S.C.; Dhawan, V.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients with acquired cerebellar degeneration (10 of whom had paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration [PCD]) were evaluated using neuropsychological tests and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography to (1) quantify motor, cognitive, and metabolic abnormalities; (2) determine if characteristic alterations in the regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) are associated with PCD; and (3) correlate behavioral and metabolic measures of disease severity. Eighteen volunteer subjects served as normal controls. Although some PCD neuropsychological test scores were abnormal, these results could not, in general, be dissociated from the effects of dysarthria and ataxia. rCMRGlc was reduced in patients with PCD (versus normal control subjects) in all regions except the brainstem. Analysis of patient and control rCMRGlc data using a mathematical model of regional metabolic interactions revealed two metabolic pattern descriptors, SSF1 and SSF2, which distinguished patients with PCD from normal control subjects; SSF2, which described a metabolic coupling between cerebellum, cuneus, and posterior temporal, lateral frontal, and paracentral cortex, correlated with quantitative indices of cerebellar dysfunction. Our inability to document substantial intellectual impairment in 7 of 10 patients with PCD contrasts with the 50% incidence of dementia in PCD reported by previous investigators. Widespread reductions in PCD rCMRGlc may result from the loss of cerebellar efferents to thalamus and forebrain structures, a reverse cerebellar diaschisis

  7. The occurrence and damage of unipolar arcing on fuzzy tungsten

    Aussems, D.U.B., E-mail: d.aussems@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein, NL-3430 BE (Netherlands); Nishijima, D.; Brandt, C. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Meiden, H.J. van der [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein, NL-3430 BE (Netherlands); Vilémová, M.; Matějíček, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-IPP, 182 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein, NL-3430 BE (Netherlands); Doerner, R.P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Lopes Cardozo, N.J. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    This research investigated whether unipolar arcing in the divertor of fusion reactors is a potential cause for enhanced wear of the divertor. It was found that 1 μm of nano-fuzz growth is sufficient to initiate arcing, mainly depending on the sheath potential drop and electron density. The average mass loss rate induced by the arc was determined from mass loss measurements and found to be consistent with the value estimated from the arc current. The average arc track erosion depth was estimated by using the measured mass loss and damaged surface area and was found to be one tenth of the fuzzy layer thickness. Due to melting of the fuzzy structures the actual depth is larger and some arc tracks occasionally appeared to even reach the bulk beyond the fuzzy layer. The conclusion of this study is therefore that arcing in the divertor of future tokamaks (e.g. ITER) potentially is an important cause for surface damage and plasma pollution.

  8. Automatic detection and classification of human epicardial atrial unipolar electrograms

    Dubé, B; Vinet, A; Xiong, F; Yin, Y; LeBlanc, A-R; Pagé, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an unsupervised signal processing method applied to three-channel unipolar electrograms recorded from human atria. These were obtained by epicardial wires sutured on the right and left atria after coronary artery bypass surgery. Atrial (A) and ventricular (V) activations had to be detected and identified on each channel, and gathered across the channels when belonging to the same global event. The algorithm was developed and optimized on a training set of 19 recordings of 5 min. It was assessed on twenty-seven 2 h recordings taken just before the onset of a prolonged atrial fibrillation for a total of 1593697 activations that were validated and classified as normal atrial or ventricular activations (A, V) and premature atrial or ventricular activations (PAA, PVA). 99.93% of the activations were detected, and amongst these, 99.89% of the A and 99.75% of the V activations were correctly labelled. In the subset of the 39705 PAA, 99.83% were detected and 99.3% were correctly classified as A. The false positive rate was 0.37%. In conclusion, a reliable fully automatic detection and classification algorithm was developed that can detect and discriminate A and V activations from atrial recordings. It can provide the time series needed to develop a monitoring system aiming to identify dynamic predictors of forthcoming cardiac events such as postoperative atrial fibrillation

  9. The occurrence and damage of unipolar arcing on fuzzy tungsten

    Aussems, D.U.B.; Nishijima, D.; Brandt, C.; Meiden, H.J. van der; Vilémová, M.; Matějíček, J.; De Temmerman, G.; Doerner, R.P.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated whether unipolar arcing in the divertor of fusion reactors is a potential cause for enhanced wear of the divertor. It was found that 1 μm of nano-fuzz growth is sufficient to initiate arcing, mainly depending on the sheath potential drop and electron density. The average mass loss rate induced by the arc was determined from mass loss measurements and found to be consistent with the value estimated from the arc current. The average arc track erosion depth was estimated by using the measured mass loss and damaged surface area and was found to be one tenth of the fuzzy layer thickness. Due to melting of the fuzzy structures the actual depth is larger and some arc tracks occasionally appeared to even reach the bulk beyond the fuzzy layer. The conclusion of this study is therefore that arcing in the divertor of future tokamaks (e.g. ITER) potentially is an important cause for surface damage and plasma pollution

  10. Mid-wavelength infrared unipolar nBp superlattice photodetector

    Kazemi, Alireza; Myers, Stephen; Taghipour, Zahra; Mathews, Sen; Schuler-Sandy, Ted; Lee, Seunghyun; Cowan, Vincent M.; Garduno, Eli; Steenbergen, Elizabeth; Morath, Christian; Ariyawansa, Gamini; Scheihing, John; Krishna, Sanjay

    2018-01-01

    We report a Mid-Wavelength Infrared (MWIR) barrier photodetector based on the InAs/GaSb/AlSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) material system. The nBp design consists of a single unipolar barrier (InAs/AlSb SL) placed between a 4 μm thick p-doped absorber (InAs/GaSb SL) and an n-type contact layer (InAs/GaSb SL). At 80 K, the device exhibited a 50% cut-off wavelength of 5 μm, was fully turned-ON at zero bias and the measured QE was 50% (front side illumination with no AR coating) at 4.5 μm with a dark current density of 4.7 × 10-6 A/cm2 at Vb = 50 mV. At 150 K and Vb = 50 mV, the 50% cut-off wavelength increased to 5.3 μm, and the QE was 54% at 4.5 μm with a dark current of 5.0 × 10-4 A/cm2.

  11. Neurodevelopmental malformations of the cerebellar vermis in genetically engineered rats

    The cerebellar vermis is particularly vulnerable to neurodevelopmental malformations in humans and rodents. Sprague-Dawley, and Long-Evans rats exhibit spontaneous cerebellar malformations consisting of heterotopic neurons and glia in the molecular layer of the vermis. Malformati...

  12. [Study of cerebellar infarction with isolated vertigo].

    Utsumi, Ai; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Kimura, Yu; Koizuka, Izumi; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2010-07-01

    Isolated vertigo is generally attributed to labyrinthine disease, but may also signal otherwise asymptomatic cerebellar infarction. Of 309 subjects admitted between April 2004 and March 2009 for the single symptom of acute vertigo initially thought to be labyrinthine, four were found to have cerebellar infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery area (PICA). All were over 60 years old and had risk factors including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, arrhythmia, and/or hyperlipidemia. Two had trunk ataxia, with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing infarction within a few days. The other two could walk without apparent trunk ataxia, however, it took 4 to 7 days to find the infarction, mainly through neurological, neurootological, and MRI findings. Neurologically, astasia, dysbasia or trunk ataxia were important signs. Neurootologically, nystagmus and electronystagmographic testing involving eye tracking, saccade, and optokinetic patttens were useful.

  13. Cerebellar contribution to feedforward control of locomotion.

    Pisotta, Iolanda; Molinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is an important contributor to feedforward control mechanisms of the central nervous system, and sequencing-the process that allows spatial and temporal relationships between events to be recognized-has been implicated as the fundamental cerebellar mode of operation. By adopting such a mode and because cerebellar activity patterns are sensitive to a variety of sensorimotor-related tasks, the cerebellum is believed to support motor and cognitive functions that are encoded in the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. In this model, the cerebellum is hypothesized to make predictions about the consequences of a motor or cognitive command that originates from the cortex to prepare the entire system to cope with ongoing changes. In this framework, cerebellar predictive mechanisms for locomotion are addressed, focusing on sensorial and motoric sequencing. The hypothesis that sequence recognition is the mechanism by which the cerebellum functions in gait control is presented and discussed.

  14. Sub-Lethal Dose of Shiga toxin 2 from Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Affects Balance and Cerebellar Cythoarquitecture.

    Luciana eD’Alessio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli may damage the central nervous system before or concomitantly to manifested hemolytic uremic syndrome symptoms. The cerebellum is frequently damaged during this syndrome, however the deleterious effects of Shiga toxin 2 has never been integrally reported by ultrastructural, physiological and behavioral means. The aim of this study was to determine the cerebellar compromise after intravenous administration of a sub-lethal dose of Shiga toxin 2 by measuring the cerebellar blood brain barrier permeability, behavioral task of cerebellar functionality (inclined plane test, and ultrastructural analysis (transmission electron microscope. Intravenous administration of vehicle (control group, sub-lethal dose of 0.5 ηg and 1 ηg of Stx2 per mouse were tested for behavioral and ultrastructural studies. A set of three independent experiments were performed for each study (n=6. Blood–Brain Barrier resulted damaged and consequently its permeability was significantly increased. Lower scores obtained in the inclined plane task denoted poor cerebellar functionality in comparison to their controls. The most significant lower score was obtained after 5 days of 1ηg of toxin administration. Transmission electron microscope micrographs from the Stx2-treated groups showed neurons with a progressive neurodegenerative condition in a dose dependent manner. As sub-lethal intravenous Shiga toxin 2 altered the blood brain barrier permeability in the cerebellum the toxin penetrated the cerebellar parenchyma and produced cell damaged with significant functional implications in the test balance.

  15. Increased sensitivity to positive social stimuli in monozygotic twins at risk of bipolar vs. unipolar disorder.

    Kærsgaard, S; Meluken, I; Kessing, L V; Vinberg, M; Miskowiak, K W

    2018-05-01

    Abnormalities in affective cognition are putative endophenotypes for bipolar and unipolar disorders but it is unclear whether some abnormalities are disorder-specific. We therefore investigated affective cognition in monozygotic twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder relative to those at risk of unipolar disorder and to low-risk twins. Seventy monozygotic twins with a co-twin history of bipolar disorder (n = 11), of unipolar disorder (n = 38) or without co-twin history of affective disorder (n = 21) were included. Variables of interest were recognition of and vigilance to emotional faces, emotional reactivity and -regulation in social scenarios and non-affective cognition. Twins at familial risk of bipolar disorder showed increased recognition of low to moderate intensity of happy facial expressions relative to both unipolar disorder high-risk twins and low-risk twins. Bipolar disorder high-risk twins also displayed supraliminal attentional avoidance of happy faces compared with unipolar disorder high-risk twins and greater emotional reactivity in positive and neutral social scenarios and less reactivity in negative social scenarios than low-risk twins. In contrast with our hypothesis, there was no negative bias in unipolar disorder high-risk twins. There were no differences between the groups in demographic characteristics or non-affective cognition. The modest sample size limited the statistical power of the study. Increased sensitivity and reactivity to positive social stimuli may be a neurocognitive endophenotype that is specific for bipolar disorder. If replicated in larger samples, this 'positive endophenotype' could potentially aid future diagnostic differentiation between unipolar and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolving Models of Pavlovian Conditioning: Cerebellar Cortical Dynamics in Awake Behaving Mice

    Michiel M. ten Brinke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three decades of electrophysiological research on cerebellar cortical activity underlying Pavlovian conditioning have expanded our understanding of motor learning in the brain. Purkinje cell simple spike suppression is considered to be crucial in the expression of conditional blink responses (CRs. However, trial-by-trial quantification of this link in awake behaving animals is lacking, and current hypotheses regarding the underlying plasticity mechanisms have diverged from the classical parallel fiber one to the Purkinje cell synapse LTD hypothesis. Here, we establish that acquired simple spike suppression, acquired conditioned stimulus (CS-related complex spike responses, and molecular layer interneuron (MLI activity predict the expression of CRs on a trial-by-trial basis using awake behaving mice. Additionally, we show that two independent transgenic mouse mutants with impaired MLI function exhibit motor learning deficits. Our findings suggest multiple cerebellar cortical plasticity mechanisms underlying simple spike suppression, and they implicate the broader involvement of the olivocerebellar module within the interstimulus interval.

  17. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor

    Buijink, A. W. G.; Broersma, M.; van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; van Wingen, G. A.; Groot, P. F. C.; Speelman, J. D.; Maurits, N. M.; van Rootselaar, A. F.

    Introduction: Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of

  18. CT and MR imaging of acute cerebellar ataxia

    Shoji, H.; Hirai, S.; Ishikawa, K.; Aramaki, M.; Sato, Y.; Abe, T.; Kojima, K.

    1991-01-01

    An adult female showed mild cerebellar ataxia and CSF pleocytosis following an acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, and was diagnosed as having acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA). CT and MR appearances in the acute stage revealed moderate swelling of the cerebellum and bilaterally increased signal intensity in the cerebellar cortex. (orig.)

  19. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis in ischemic stroke

    Meneghetti, G; Vorstrup, S; Mickey, B

    1984-01-01

    Seventy measurements of CBF were performed in 12 stroke patients by 133Xe inhalation and a rapidly rotating single photon emission computerized tomograph. CBF was measured every other day during the acute phase and at 2- and 6-month follow-up visits. A persistent contralateral cerebellar blood flow....... It is concluded from this serial study that crossed cerebellar diaschisis is a common finding in completed stroke. It is probably caused by disconnection of the corticopontine pathways, a disconnection that tends to persist. The phenomenon is in fact less variable than the stroke-related CBF changes...

  20. Unipolar n-Type Black Phosphorus Transistors with Low Work Function Contacts.

    Wang, Ching-Hua; Incorvia, Jean Anne C; McClellan, Connor J; Yu, Andrew C; Mleczko, Michal J; Pop, Eric; Wong, H-S Philip

    2018-05-09

    Black phosphorus (BP) is a promising two-dimensional (2D) material for nanoscale transistors, due to its expected higher mobility than other 2D semiconductors. While most studies have reported ambipolar BP with a stronger p-type transport, it is important to fabricate both unipolar p- and n-type transistors for low-power digital circuits. Here, we report unipolar n-type BP transistors with low work function Sc and Er contacts, demonstrating a record high n-type current of 200 μA/μm in 6.5 nm thick BP. Intriguingly, the electrical transport of the as-fabricated, capped devices changes from ambipolar to n-type unipolar behavior after a month at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the contact cross-section reveals an intermixing layer consisting of partly oxidized metal at the interface. This intermixing layer results in a low n-type Schottky barrier between Sc and BP, leading to the unipolar behavior of the BP transistor. This unipolar transport with a suppressed p-type current is favorable for digital logic circuits to ensure a lower off-power consumption.

  1. Radiation-induced cerebellar chondrosarcoma. Case report

    Bernstein, M.; Perrin, R.G.; Platts, M.E.; Simpson, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The authors report a case of chondrosarcoma arising in the cerebellum 16 years after treatment of a cerebellar malignant astrocytoma by subtotal resection and irradiation. It is thought that the chondrosarcoma arising within the intracranial cavity was a probable consequence of previous ionizing radiation

  2. Inverse Stochastic Resonance in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells.

    Anatoly Buchin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purkinje neurons play an important role in cerebellar computation since their axons are the only projection from the cerebellar cortex to deeper cerebellar structures. They have complex internal dynamics, which allow them to fire spontaneously, display bistability, and also to be involved in network phenomena such as high frequency oscillations and travelling waves. Purkinje cells exhibit type II excitability, which can be revealed by a discontinuity in their f-I curves. We show that this excitability mechanism allows Purkinje cells to be efficiently inhibited by noise of a particular variance, a phenomenon known as inverse stochastic resonance (ISR. While ISR has been described in theoretical models of single neurons, here we provide the first experimental evidence for this effect. We find that an adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model fitted to the basic Purkinje cell characteristics using a modified dynamic IV method displays ISR and bistability between the resting state and a repetitive activity limit cycle. ISR allows the Purkinje cell to operate in different functional regimes: the all-or-none toggle or the linear filter mode, depending on the variance of the synaptic input. We propose that synaptic noise allows Purkinje cells to quickly switch between these functional regimes. Using mutual information analysis, we demonstrate that ISR can lead to a locally optimal information transfer between the input and output spike train of the Purkinje cell. These results provide the first experimental evidence for ISR and suggest a functional role for ISR in cerebellar information processing.

  3. Cerebellar Plasticity in Health and Disease

    M.P.H. Coesmans (Michiel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe cerebellum helps fine-tuning movements by evaluating disparities between intention and action, in order to adjust the execution of movements ‘online’, and to keep movements calibrated in the long term. The cerebellar capacity to store information, which provides the ‘memory’ needed

  4. Cerebellar malformations alter regional cerebral development.

    Bolduc, Marie-Eve; Du Plessis, Adre J; Evans, Alan; Guizard, Nicolas; Zhang, Xun; Robertson, Richard L; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and regional cerebral volumes in children with isolated cerebellar malformations (CBMs) with those in typically developing children, and to examine the extent to which cerebellar volumetric reductions are associated with total and regional cerebral volumes. This is a case-control study of children diagnosed with isolated CBMs. Each child was matched on age and sex to two typically developing children. Using advanced three-dimensional volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, the cerebrum was segmented into tissue classes and partitioned into eight regions. Analysis of variance was used to compare cerebral volumes between children with CBMs and control children, and linear regressions to examine the impact of cerebellar volume reduction on cerebral volumes. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at a mean age of 27 months in 20 children (10 males, 10 females) with CBMs and 40 typically developing children. Children with CBMs showed significantly smaller deep grey matter nuclei (p developing children. Greater cerebellar volumetric reduction in children with CBMs was associated with decreased total cerebral volume and deep grey matter nuclei (p = 0.02), subgenual white/grey matter (p = 0.001), midtemporal white (p = 0.02) and grey matter (p = 0.01), and parieto-occipital grey matter (p = 0.004). CBMs are associated with impaired regional cerebral growth, suggesting deactivation of principal cerebello-cerebral pathways. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Improving cerebellar segmentation with statistical fusion

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Yang, Zhen; Prince, Jerry L.; Claassen, Daniel O.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The cerebellum is a somatotopically organized central component of the central nervous system well known to be involved with motor coordination and increasingly recognized roles in cognition and planning. Recent work in multiatlas labeling has created methods that offer the potential for fully automated 3-D parcellation of the cerebellar lobules and vermis (which are organizationally equivalent to cortical gray matter areas). This work explores the trade offs of using different statistical fusion techniques and post hoc optimizations in two datasets with distinct imaging protocols. We offer a novel fusion technique by extending the ideas of the Selective and Iterative Method for Performance Level Estimation (SIMPLE) to a patch-based performance model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm, Non- Local SIMPLE, for segmentation of a mixed population of healthy subjects and patients with severe cerebellar anatomy. Under the first imaging protocol, we show that Non-Local SIMPLE outperforms previous gold-standard segmentation techniques. In the second imaging protocol, we show that Non-Local SIMPLE outperforms previous gold standard techniques but is outperformed by a non-locally weighted vote with the deeper population of atlases available. This work advances the state of the art in open source cerebellar segmentation algorithms and offers the opportunity for routinely including cerebellar segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging studies that acquire whole brain T1-weighted volumes with approximately 1 mm isotropic resolution.

  6. Ultrasonically detectable cerebellar haemorrhage in preterm infants.

    McCarthy, Lisa Kenyon

    2011-07-01

    To determine the frequency and pattern of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on routine cranial ultrasound (cUS) imaging in infants of ≤32 weeks gestation, and to investigate how extremely preterm infants with CBH differ from those with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH).

  7. Cerebellar Hypoplasia and Dysmorphia in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    Toelle, Sandra P; Poretti, Andrea; Weber, Peter; Seute, Tatjana; Bromberg, Jacoline E C; Scheer, Ianina; Boltshauser, Eugen

    2015-12-01

    Unidentified bright objects (UBO) and tumors are well-known cerebellar abnormalities in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Literature reports on malformative cerebellar anomalies in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), however, are scant. We retrospectively studied the clinical and neuroimaging findings of 5 patients with NF1 (4 females, age 6 to 29 years at last follow-up) and cerebellar anomalies. Cerebellar symptoms on neurological examination were mild or even not evident whereas learning disabilities were more or less pronounced in four patients. Two patients had cerebellar hypoplasia (diffusely enlarged cerebellar interfoliar spaces) and three cerebellar dysmorphias involving mainly one cerebellar hemisphere. In NF1, malformative cerebellar anomalies are rare (estimated prevalence of about 1%), but most likely underestimated and easily overlooked, because physicians tend to focus on more prevalent, obvious, and well-known findings such as optic pathway gliomas, other tumors, and UBO. This kind of cerebellar anomaly in NF1 has most likely a malformative origin, but the exact pathogenesis is unknown. The individual clinical significance is difficult to determine. We suggest that cerebellar anomalies should be systematically evaluated in neuroimaging studies of NF1 patients.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellar Schistosomiasis mansoni

    Braga, Bruno Perocco; Costa Junior, Leodante Batista da; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto

    2003-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a history of headache, dizziness, vomiting and double vision that started two weeks before. His parents denied any previous disease. During clinical examination he presented diplopia on lateral gaze to the left and horizontal nystagmus. No major neurological dysfunction was detected. He was well built, mentally responsive and perceptive. Laboratory findings revealed a leukocyte count of 10,000/mL, a normal red blood cell count and no eosinophilia. The magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the brain showed a left cerebellar lesion with mass effect compressing the surrounding tissues. Contrast-enhanced images showed a mass like structure and punctate nodules (Figures A and B: axial and coronal contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images showed the nodular - yellow arrows - enhancement pattern of a left cerebellar intraxial lesion). The lesion extended to the vermis and brachium pons and compressed the medulla. There was no hydrocephalus. He was taken to the operating room with the presumptive diagnosis of a neuroglial tumor, and submitted to a lateral suboccipital craniectomy. A brown, brittle tumoral mass without a clearly defined margin with the cerebellar tissue was removed. Microscopic examination revealed schistosomal granulomas in the productive phase in the cerebellum (Figure C). After surgery, treatment with praziquantel (50 mg/kg/dia, single dose) and prednisone (1 mg/kg/day) was offered and the patient improved quickly. Thirty days later he was seen again at the outpatient clinic: he was asymptomatic and with no neurological impairment. This is the eighth case of cerebellar involvement in schistosomiasis mansoni and the second report of a tumoral form of cerebellar schistosomiasis documented by magnetic resonance images. (author)

  9. Origin of unipolar half-cycle pulses generation in inversion symmetric media

    Song, Xiaohong; Hao, Zhizhen; Yan, Ming; Wu, Miaoli; Yang, Weifeng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the physical mechanism of unipolar half-cycle pulses generation in resonant two-level media with inversion symmetry. The unipolar half-cycle pulse contains substantial nonzero dc or zero-frequency component in its Fourier spectrum of the electric field. Here the origin of zero-frequency component generation in inversion symmetric media driven by symmetric electric field is identified. We show that in the regime of extreme nonlinear optics, i.e. the Rabi frequency is comparable to or even larger than the carrier frequency of the laser pulse, the time evolution of the polarization can display obvious up-down asymmetric structure under certain conditions, which manifests in the zero-frequency component generation, and is responsible for the formation of unipolar half-cycle pulses in the course of pulse propagation. (letter)

  10. Cognitive impairment in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder: A systematic review

    Hasselbalch, Bo Jacob; Knorr, Ulla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether cognitive impairment is prevalent in the remitted state of unipolar disorder. AIM: To evaluate whether cognitive function is impaired in the remitted state in patients with unipolar depression compared with healthy control individuals, and to investigate...... were prevalent including non-stringent definition of remission and non-correction for multiple testing. Only few studies investigated the association between cognition and prior course of illness and the results were divergent. LIMITATIONS: Stringent criteria were used in the assessment of eligibility...... of studies. The studies were first and foremost selected according to the criteria for remission used. CONCLUSION: Cognitive dysfunction seems to be present in individuals suffering from unipolar disorder in the remitted state. We recommend that future studies should focus on disentangling the state...

  11. Device simulation and optimization of laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector

    Lee, E Y

    1999-01-01

    Unipolar gamma-ray detectors offer the possibility of enhanced energy resolution and detection sensitivity over the conventional planar detectors. However, these detectors are difficult to understand and to fabricate, due to their three-dimensional geometry and multiple electrodes. Computer simulation offers a powerful way to design and to optimize these detectors, by giving the internal electric fields, weighting potentials, and spatially resolved detector responses. Simulation and optimization of an unipolar gamma-ray detector called laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector (LUND) are shown. For 662 keV gamma-rays from a sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs source, the simulation and optimization of LUND resulted in improvement in the energy resolution from 1.6% to 1.3% and improvement in the active detector volume from 4% to 38% of the total detector volume.

  12. Reasons for revision of failed hemiarthroplasty: Are there any differences between unipolar and bipolar?

    Iamthanaporn, Khanin; Chareancholvanich, Keerati; Pornrattanamaneewong, Chaturong

    2018-03-16

    Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is an effective procedure for treatment of femoral neck fracture. However, it is debatable whether unipolar or bipolar HA is the most suitable implant. The purpose of this study was to compare the causes of failure and longevity in both types of HA. We retrospectively reviewed 133 cases that underwent revision surgery of HA between 2002 and 2012. The causes of revision surgery were identified and stratified into early (≤ 5 years) failure and late (> 5 years) failure. Survival analyses were performed for each implant type. The common causes for revision were aseptic loosening (49.6%), infection (22.6%) and acetabular erosion (15.0%). Unipolar and bipolar HA were not different in causes for revision, but the unipolar group had a statistically significantly higher number of acetabular erosion events compared with the bipolar group (p = 0.002). In the early period, 24 unipolar HA (52.9%) and 28 bipolar HA (34.1%) failed. There were no statistically significant differences in the numbers of revised HA in each period between the two groups (p = 0.138). The median survival times in the unipolar and bipolar groups were 84.0 ± 24.5 and 120.0 ± 5.5 months, respectively. However, the survival times of both implants were not statistically significantly different. Aseptic loosening was the most common reason for revision surgery after hemiarthroplasty surgery in early and late failures. Unipolar and bipolar hemiarthroplasty were not different in terms of causes of failure and survivorship except bipolar hemiarthroplasty had many fewer acetabular erosion events.

  13. Daylight Savings Time Transitions and the Incidence Rate of Unipolar Depressive Episodes.

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida; Dinesen, Peter T; Østergaard, Søren D

    2017-05-01

    Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Using time series intervention analysis of nationwide data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we compared the observed trend in the incidence rate of hospital contacts for unipolar depressive episodes after the transitions to and from summer time to the predicted trend in the incidence rate. The analyses were based on 185,419 hospital contacts for unipolar depression and showed that the transition from summer time to standard time were associated with an 11% increase (95% CI = 7%, 15%) in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes that dissipated over approximately 10 weeks. The transition from standard time to summer time was not associated with a parallel change in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. This study shows that the transition from summer time to standard time was associated with an increase in the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Distress associated with the sudden advancement of sunset, marking the coming of a long period of short days, may explain this finding. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B179.

  14. Bipolar and unipolar tests of 1.5m model SSC collider dipole magnets at Fermilab

    Lamm, M.J.; Ozelis, J.P.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Fortunato, D.; Johnson, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Tests have been performed at Fermilab on 1.5 m magnetic length model SSC collider dipoles using both bipolar and unipolar ramp cycles. Hysteresis energy loss due to superconductor and iron magnetization and eddy currents is measured and compared as a function of various ramp parameters. Additionally, magnetic field measurements have been performed for both unipolar and bipolar ramp cycles. Measurements such as these will be used to estimate the heat load during collider injection for the SSC High Energy Booster dipoles. 9 refs., 4 figs

  15. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Spike Pauses in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Giorgio Grasselli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The plasticity of intrinsic excitability has been described in several types of neurons, but the significance of non-synaptic mechanisms in brain plasticity and learning remains elusive. Cerebellar Purkinje cells are inhibitory neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials at high frequencies and regulate activity in their target cells in the cerebellar nuclei by generating a characteristic spike burst-pause sequence upon synaptic activation. Using patch-clamp recordings from mouse Purkinje cells, we find that depolarization-triggered intrinsic plasticity enhances spike firing and shortens the duration of spike pauses. Pause plasticity is absent from mice lacking SK2-type potassium channels (SK2−/− mice and in occlusion experiments using the SK channel blocker apamin, while apamin wash-in mimics pause reduction. Our findings demonstrate that spike pauses can be regulated through an activity-dependent, exclusively non-synaptic, SK2 channel-dependent mechanism and suggest that pause plasticity—by altering the Purkinje cell output—may be crucial to cerebellar information storage and learning.

  16. Abnormalities of cerebellar foliation and fissuration: classification, neurogenetics and clinicoradiological correlations

    Demaerel, P. [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2002-08-01

    Several genes have been found to influence the different cells involved in the processes of foliation and fissuration in the mouse and rat cerebellum. In the light of these new concepts and on the basis of the imaging findings in 42 patients, a classification is proposed for abnormalities of foliation and fissuration. On the basis of recent genetic and experimental evidence on mechanisms which control the origin of the cerebellum, it is suggested that abnormalities of foliation and fissuration form a single group, with a spectrum of severity. Some patients have only abnormal fissuration of the anterior lobe (type 1a) and others additional dysplasia of the anterior and part of the posterior lobe (type 1b). Extension of abnormalities into the hemispheres is often seen in the latter group. A second group has vermian and hemisphere abnormalities (type 2). In addition to the malformation of the anterior lobe of the vermis, three different hemispheric lesions can be seen in this group: cortical dysgenesis, hypertrophy of the cerebellar cortex, and malorientation of the folia. The mild abnormalities (type 1a) can be considered an incidental observation without clinical relevance. The moderate and severe cerebellar anomalies (type 1b and 2) are always associated with cerebellar symptoms and/or signs. (orig.)

  17. Abnormalities of cerebellar foliation and fissuration: classification, neurogenetics and clinicoradiological correlations

    Demaerel, P.

    2002-01-01

    Several genes have been found to influence the different cells involved in the processes of foliation and fissuration in the mouse and rat cerebellum. In the light of these new concepts and on the basis of the imaging findings in 42 patients, a classification is proposed for abnormalities of foliation and fissuration. On the basis of recent genetic and experimental evidence on mechanisms which control the origin of the cerebellum, it is suggested that abnormalities of foliation and fissuration form a single group, with a spectrum of severity. Some patients have only abnormal fissuration of the anterior lobe (type 1a) and others additional dysplasia of the anterior and part of the posterior lobe (type 1b). Extension of abnormalities into the hemispheres is often seen in the latter group. A second group has vermian and hemisphere abnormalities (type 2). In addition to the malformation of the anterior lobe of the vermis, three different hemispheric lesions can be seen in this group: cortical dysgenesis, hypertrophy of the cerebellar cortex, and malorientation of the folia. The mild abnormalities (type 1a) can be considered an incidental observation without clinical relevance. The moderate and severe cerebellar anomalies (type 1b and 2) are always associated with cerebellar symptoms and/or signs. (orig.)

  18. A toolbox to visually explore cerebellar shape changes in cerebellar disease and dysfunction

    Abulnaga, S. Mazdak; Yang, Zhen; Carass, Aaron; Kansal, Kalyani; Jedynak, Bruno M.; Onyike, Chiadi U.; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2016-03-01

    The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control and is also involved in cognitive processes. Cerebellar function is specialized by location, although the exact topographic functional relationship is not fully understood. The spinocerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative diseases that cause regional atrophy in the cerebellum, yielding distinct motor and cognitive problems. The ability to study the region-specific atrophy patterns can provide insight into the problem of relating cerebellar function to location. In an effort to study these structural change patterns, we developed a toolbox in MATLAB to provide researchers a unique way to visually explore the correlation between cerebellar lobule shape changes and function loss, with a rich set of visualization and analysis modules. In this paper, we outline the functions and highlight the utility of the toolbox. The toolbox takes as input landmark shape representations of subjects' cerebellar substructures. A principal component analysis is used for dimension reduction. Following this, a linear discriminant analysis and a regression analysis can be performed to find the discriminant direction associated with a specific disease type, or the regression line of a specific functional measure can be generated. The characteristic structural change pattern of a disease type or of a functional score is visualized by sampling points on the discriminant or regression line. The sampled points are used to reconstruct synthetic cerebellar lobule shapes. We showed a few case studies highlighting the utility of the toolbox and we compare the analysis results with the literature.

  19. A toolbox to visually explore cerebellar shape changes in cerebellar disease and dysfunction.

    Abulnaga, S Mazdak; Yang, Zhen; Carass, Aaron; Kansal, Kalyani; Jedynak, Bruno M; Onyike, Chiadi U; Ying, Sarah H; Prince, Jerry L

    2016-02-27

    The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control and is also involved in cognitive processes. Cerebellar function is specialized by location, although the exact topographic functional relationship is not fully understood. The spinocerebellar ataxias are a group of neurodegenerative diseases that cause regional atrophy in the cerebellum, yielding distinct motor and cognitive problems. The ability to study the region-specific atrophy patterns can provide insight into the problem of relating cerebellar function to location. In an effort to study these structural change patterns, we developed a toolbox in MATLAB to provide researchers a unique way to visually explore the correlation between cerebellar lobule shape changes and function loss, with a rich set of visualization and analysis modules. In this paper, we outline the functions and highlight the utility of the toolbox. The toolbox takes as input landmark shape representations of subjects' cerebellar substructures. A principal component analysis is used for dimension reduction. Following this, a linear discriminant analysis and a regression analysis can be performed to find the discriminant direction associated with a specific disease type, or the regression line of a specific functional measure can be generated. The characteristic structural change pattern of a disease type or of a functional score is visualized by sampling points on the discriminant or regression line. The sampled points are used to reconstruct synthetic cerebellar lobule shapes. We showed a few case studies highlighting the utility of the toolbox and we compare the analysis results with the literature.

  20. Isolated rhomboencephalosynapsis – a rare cerebellar anomaly

    Paprocka, Justyna; Jamroz, Ewa; Ścieszka, Ewa; Kluczewska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Rhomboencephalosynapsis (RES, RS) is a unique entity usually recognized in infancy based on neuroimaging. Cerebellar fusion and absence of cerebellar vermis is often associated with supratentorial findings. Since now there are about 50 cases described worldwide, with approximately 36 patients diagnosed by MRI. The authors present the first in Poland case of this uncommon malformation and review the literature. The authors describe a 28-month-old-girl with microcephaly and proper psychomotor development. The family history was unrelevant. Based on MRI the congenital malformation of posterior fossa-rhombencephalosynapsis was confirmed Presented patient is a typical example of MRI usefulness especially in patients with RES. RES symptoms are mild and that is why the diagnosis is usually made only in adulthood

  1. Cerebellar interaction with the acoustic reflex.

    Jastreboff, P J

    1981-01-01

    The involvement of the cerebellar vermis in the acoustic reflex was analyzed in 12 cats, decerebrated or in pentobarbital anesthesia. Anatomical data suggested the existence of a connection of lobules VIII with the ventral cochlear nucleus. Single cell recording and evoked potential techniques demonstrated the existence of the acoustic projection to lobulus VIII. Electrical stimulation of this area changed the tension of the middle ear muscle and caused evoked potential responses in the caudal part of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Electrical stimulation of the motor nucleus of the facial nerve evoked a slow wave in the recording taken from the surrounding of the cochlear round window. A hypothesis is proposed which postulates the involvement of the acoustic reflex in space localization of acoustic stimuli and the action of cerebellar vermis in order to assure the stability and plasticity of the acoustic reflex arc.

  2. Cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in trichothiodystrophy

    Yoon, Hye-Kyung; Sargent, Michael A.; Poskitt, Kenneth J. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Prendiville, Julie S. [British Columbia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatric Dermatology, Department of Paediatrics, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    Trichothiodystrophy is a rare neuroectodermal disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance that is characterized by brittle hair, nail dysplasia, ichthyosis, mental retardation, and gonadal failure. We describe a female patient whose cranial MRI revealed almost total lack of myelination in the supratentorial white matter, which is similar to the previously described cases. In addition, there was progressive cerebellar and cerebral atrophy, which has not been well documented in association with trichothiodystrophy. (orig.)

  3. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

    Nose, T; Maki, Y; Ono, Y; Yoshizawa, T; Tsuboi, K [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1981-11-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the hematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation together with the ventricular drainage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases.

  4. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

    Nose, Tadao; Maki, Yutaka; Ono, Yukio; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Tsuboi, Kohji

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the mematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation togather with the ventricular dranage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases. (author)

  5. Unipolar charging of nanoparticles by the Surface-discharge Microplasma Aerosol Charger (SMAC)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Sakurai, Hiromu; Seto, Takafumi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a novel unipolar charger for nanoparticles, a system that achieves low particle loss and high charging efficiency without the use of sheath air. The efficient unipolar charging of the system is realized mainly by the surface-discharge microplasma unit, a device previously applied with good success to the neutralization or charging of submicron particles [Kwon et al., 2005, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 39, 987-1001; 2006, J. Aerosol Sci., 37, 483-499]. The unipolar charger generates unipolar ions using the surface discharge of a single electrode with a DC pulse supply. This marks an advance from our previous method of generating bipolar ions with the use of dual electrodes in earlier studies. We evaluated the efficiency of the penetration (or loss) and charging of nanoparticles in the size range of 3-15 nm, then compared the charging efficiencies measured with those predicted by diffusion charging theory. More than 90% of inlet nanoparticles penetrated the charger (less than 10% of the particle were lost) without the use of sheath air. Other chargers have only realized this high penetration efficiency by relying on sheath air flow. Moreover, the measured charging efficiencies agreed well with those predicted by diffusion charging theory and were somewhat higher and more size-dependent than the charging efficiencies of other nanoparticle chargers

  6. Personality traits of Japanese patients in remission from an episode of primary unipolar depression.

    von Zerssen, D; Asukai, N; Tsuda, H; Ono, Y; Kizaki, Y; Cho, Y

    1997-07-01

    Personality traits were assessed by means of the Munich Personality Test (MPT) in 75 Japanese subjects, 27 patients in remission from an episode of moderate to severe primary unipolar depression, with melancholic features during one episode or more of the disorder, in 24 patients in remission from other non-organic mental disorders and in 24 healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, unipolar depressives displayed decreased Frustration Tolerance and elevated Rigidity as well as a stronger Orientation towards Social Norms. No significant difference was found between patients in remission from either unipolar depression or other mental disorders. However, the increase in Rigidity in comparison with healthy subjects was significant in the depressives only whereas the other patients, in contrast to the depressives, had significantly lower scores in Extraversion than the healthy subjects. Our results in Japanese patients are similar to findings of previous German studies, including two high risk studies, in which the same assessment instrument was used. This suggests that, beyond cultural differences, Rigidity, possibly in combination with a strong Orientation towards Social Norms and a reduced Frustration Tolerance, is a stable vulnerability marker for at least the more severe forms of primary unipolar depression.

  7. First indication of the coherent unipolar diffraction radiation generated by relativistic electrons

    Naumenko, G.; Shevelev, M.

    2018-05-01

    As is generally known, the integral of the electric field strength over all time for usual (bipolar) radiation is zero. The first demonstration of the possibility of unipolar radiation generation has been considered theoretically by Bessonov in 1981 [E.G. Bessonov, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 80 (1981) 852]. According to this work, the unipolar radiation (or strange electromagnetic waves) is radiation for which the integral of the electric field strength over the entire duration of a pulse differs significantly from zero. Later, several theoretical papers devoted to this phenomenon have appeared in the literature, where authors investigated mainly synchrotron radiation. However, despite the critical interest, the experimental investigations ignored this effect. In this paper we present results of the first experimental investigation of the unipolar radiation generated by a relativistic electron beam. To detect the unipolar radiation the detector that is sensitive to the selected direction of the electric field strength has been elaborated and tested. We used a designed detector to observe the coherent backward diffraction radiation appearing when a bunched electron beam travels in the vicinity of a flat conductive target. The asymmetry of the electric field strength of the coherent backward diffraction radiation has been demonstrated.

  8. Designing Context-Aware Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Unipolar and Bipolar Disorders

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads; Tuxen, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    This position paper presents our preliminary design of context-aware cognitive behavioral therapy for unipolar and bipolar disorders. We report on the background for this study and the methods applied in the ongoing design process. The paper ends by presenting and discussing different design...

  9. Sensory processing patterns, coping strategies, and quality of life among patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sensory processing, coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL in unipolar and bipolar patients; to examine correlations between sensory processing and QoL; and to investigate the relative contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, sensory processing, and coping strategies to the prediction of QoL. Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven participants, aged 16-85 years (53.6±15.7, of whom 157 had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 110 had bipolar disorder type I and type II, completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced, and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. The two groups were compared with multivariate analyses. Results: The unipolar and bipolar groups did not differ concerning sensory processing, coping strategies, or QoL. Sensory processing patterns correlated with QoL independently of mediation by coping strategies. Correlations between low registration, sensory sensitivity, sensation avoidance, and reduced QoL were found more frequently in unipolar patients than bipolar patients. Higher physical QoL was mainly predicted by lower age and lower sensory sensitivity, whereas higher mental QoL was mainly predicted by coping strategies. Conclusion: While age may predict physical QoL, coping strategies predict mental QoL. Future studies should further investigate the impact of sensory processing and coping strategies on patients’ QoL in order to enhance adaptive and functional behaviors related to affective disturbances.

  10. Cat scratches, not bites, are associated with unipolar depression - cross-sectional study

    Flegr, J.; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, Jan (2016), č. článku 8. ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-20958S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Toxoplasmosis * Unipolar depression * Injury * Major depression * Parasite * Bartonelosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  11. The effectiveness of lithium prophylaxis in bipolar and unipolar depressions and schizo-affective disorders

    Bouman, T.K.; Niemantsverdriet - van Kampen, J.G.; Ormel, J.; Slooff, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of lithium prophylaxis in bipolar affective disorders is generally supported in the literature. The effects in this group, as well as in unipolar depressions and schizo-affective disorders were studied, using an individual retrospective control method, and the Life Table method.

  12. Diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder in unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants.

    Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K; Bjerregaard Stage, T; Mørkeberg Nilsson, F; Bjerregaard Stage, K; Valentin, J B; Bech, P; Ernst Nielsen, R

    2017-02-01

    In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50.8 years (SD=11.9) participating in three randomized trials on antidepressants conducted in the period 1985-1994. The independent effects of explanatory variables were examined by applying Cox regression analyses. The overall risk of conversion was 20.7%, with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years per patient. The risk of conversion was associated with an increasing number of previous depressive episodes at baseline, [HR 1.18, 95% CI (1.10-1.26)]. No association with gender, age, age at first depressive episode, duration of baseline episode, subtype of depression or any of the investigated HAM-D subscales included was found. The patients were followed-up through the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, which resulted in inherent limitations such as possible misclassification of outcome. In a sample of middle-aged hospitalized unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, the risk of conversion was associated with the number of previous depressive episodes. Therefore, this study emphasizes that unipolar depressed patients experiencing a relatively high number of recurrences should be followed more closely, or at least be informed about the possible increased risk of conversion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and…

  14. Cerebellar transcranial static magnetic field stimulation transiently reduces cerebellar brain inhibition.

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Okada, Y

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether transcranial static magnetic field stimulation (tSMS) delivered using a compact cylindrical NdFeB magnet over the cerebellum modulates the excitability of the cerebellum and contralateral primary motor cortex, as measured using cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI), motor evoked potentials (MEPs), and resting motor threshold (rMT). These parameters were measured before tSMS or sham stimulation and immediately, 5 minutes and 10 minutes after stimulation. There were no significant changes in CBI, MEPs or rMT over time in the sham stimulation condition, and no changes in MEPs or rMT in the tSMS condition. However, CBI was significantly decreased immediately after tSMS as compared to that before and 5 minutes after tSMS. Our results suggest that tSMS delivered to the cerebellar hemisphere transiently reduces cerebellar inhibitory output but does not affect the excitability of the contralateral motor cortex.

  15. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder

    Anila M. D'Mello

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is one of the most consistent sites of abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD and cerebellar damage is associated with an increased risk of ASD symptoms, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may play a crucial role in the etiology of ASD. The cerebellum forms multiple closed-loop circuits with cerebral cortical regions that underpin movement, language, and social processing. Through these circuits, cerebellar dysfunction could impact the core ASD symptoms of social and communication deficits and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. The emerging topography of sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective subregions in the cerebellum provides a new framework for interpreting the significance of regional cerebellar findings in ASD and their relationship to broader cerebro-cerebellar circuits. Further, recent research supports the idea that the integrity of cerebro-cerebellar loops might be important for early cortical development; disruptions in specific cerebro-cerebellar loops in ASD might impede the specialization of cortical regions involved in motor control, language, and social interaction, leading to impairments in these domains. Consistent with this concept, structural and functional differences in sensorimotor regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor cerebro-cerebellar circuits are associated with deficits in motor control and increased repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in ASD. In contrast, communication and social impairments are associated with atypical activation and structure in cerebro-cerebellar loops underpinning language and social cognition. Finally, there is converging evidence from structural, functional, and connectivity neuroimaging studies that cerebellar right Crus I/II abnormalities are related to more severe ASD impairments in all domains. We propose that cerebellar abnormalities may disrupt optimization of both structure and function in specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits in ASD.

  16. Cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder.

    D'Mello, Anila M; Stoodley, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is one of the most consistent sites of abnormality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and cerebellar damage is associated with an increased risk of ASD symptoms, suggesting that cerebellar dysfunction may play a crucial role in the etiology of ASD. The cerebellum forms multiple closed-loop circuits with cerebral cortical regions that underpin movement, language, and social processing. Through these circuits, cerebellar dysfunction could impact the core ASD symptoms of social and communication deficits and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. The emerging topography of sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective subregions in the cerebellum provides a new framework for interpreting the significance of regional cerebellar findings in ASD and their relationship to broader cerebro-cerebellar circuits. Further, recent research supports the idea that the integrity of cerebro-cerebellar loops might be important for early cortical development; disruptions in specific cerebro-cerebellar loops in ASD might impede the specialization of cortical regions involved in motor control, language, and social interaction, leading to impairments in these domains. Consistent with this concept, structural, and functional differences in sensorimotor regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor cerebro-cerebellar circuits are associated with deficits in motor control and increased repetitive and stereotyped behaviors in ASD. Further, communication and social impairments are associated with atypical activation and structure in cerebro-cerebellar loops underpinning language and social cognition. Finally, there is converging evidence from structural, functional, and connectivity neuroimaging studies that cerebellar right Crus I/II abnormalities are related to more severe ASD impairments in all domains. We propose that cerebellar abnormalities may disrupt optimization of both structure and function in specific cerebro-cerebellar circuits in ASD.

  17. Cerebro-Cerebellar Functional Connectivity is Associated with Cerebellar Excitation-Inhibition Balance in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Hegarty, John P; Weber, Dylan J; Cirstea, Carmen M; Beversdorf, David Q

    2018-05-23

    Atypical functional connectivity (FC) and an imbalance of excitation-to-inhibition (E/I) have been previously reported in cerebro-cerebellar circuits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The current investigation used resting state fMRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) to examine the relationships between E/I (glutamate + glutamine/GABA) and FC of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere from 14 adolescents/adults with ASD and 12 age/sex/IQ-matched controls. In this pilot sample, cerebro-cerebellar FC was positively associated with cerebellar E/I and listening comprehension abilities in individuals with ASD but not controls. Additionally, a subgroup of individuals with ASD and low FC (n = 5) exhibited reduced E/I and impaired listening comprehension. Thus, altered functional coherence of cerebro-cerebellar circuits in ASD may be related with a cerebellar E/I imbalance.

  18. Deleting the Arntl clock gene in the granular layer of the mouse cerebellum

    Bering, Tenna; Carstensen, Mikkel Bloss; Rath, Martin Fredensborg

    2017-01-01

    nucleus. It has been suggested that the cerebellar circadian oscillator is involved in food anticipation, but direct molecular evidence of the role of the circadian oscillator of the cerebellar cortex is currently unavailable. To investigate the hypothesis that the circadian oscillator of the cerebellum...... is involved in circadian physiology and food anticipation, we therefore by use of Cre-LoxP technology generated a conditional knockout mouse with the core clock gene Arntl deleted specifically in granule cells of the cerebellum, since expression of clock genes in the cerebellar cortex is mainly located...

  19. Mathematical models of human cerebellar development in the fetal period.

    Dudek, Krzysztof; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kędzia, Alicja

    2018-04-01

    The evaluation of cerebellar growth in the fetal period forms a part of a widely used examination to identify any features of abnormalities in early stages of human development. It is well known that the development of anatomical structures, including the cerebellum, does not always follow a linear model of growth. The aim of the study was to analyse a variety of mathematical models of human cerebellar development in fetal life to determine their adequacy. The study comprised 101 fetuses (48 males and 53 females) between the 15th and 28th weeks of fetal life. The cerebellum was exposed and measurements of the vermis and hemispheres were performed, together with statistical analyses. The mathematical model parameters of fetal growth were assessed for crown-rump length (CRL) increases, transverse cerebellar diameter and ventrodorsal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis in the transverse plane, and rostrocaudal dimensions of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres in the frontal plane. A variety of mathematical models were applied, including linear and non-linear functions. Taking into consideration the variance between models and measurements, as well as correlation parameters, the exponential and Gompertz models proved to be the most suitable for modelling cerebellar growth in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the linear model gave a satisfactory approximation of cerebellar growth, especially in older fetuses. The proposed models of fetal cerebellar growth constructed on the basis of anatomical examination and objective mathematical calculations could be useful in the estimation of fetal development. © 2018 Anatomical Society.

  20. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  1. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation modulates verbal working memory.

    Boehringer, Andreas; Macher, Katja; Dukart, Juergen; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2013-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies show cerebellar activations in a wide range of cognitive tasks and patients with cerebellar lesions often present cognitive deficits suggesting a cerebellar role in higher-order cognition. We used cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), known to inhibit neuronal excitability, over the cerebellum to investigate if cathodal tDCS impairs verbal working memory, an important higher-order cognitive faculty. We tested verbal working memory as measured by forward and backward digit spans in 40 healthy young participants before and after applying cathodal tDCS (2 mA, stimulation duration 25 min) to the right cerebellum using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind, cross-over design. In addition, we tested the effect of cerebellar tDCS on word reading, finger tapping and a visually cued sensorimotor task. In line with lower digit spans in patients with cerebellar lesions, cerebellar tDCS reduced forward digit spans and blocked the practice dependent increase in backward digit spans. No effects of tDCS on word reading, finger tapping or the visually cued sensorimotor task were found. Our results support the view that the cerebellum contributes to verbal working memory as measured by forward and backward digit spans. Moreover, the induction of reversible "virtual cerebellar lesions" in healthy individuals by means of tDCS may improve our understanding of the mechanistic basis of verbal working memory deficits in patients with cerebellar lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Distinct Critical Cerebellar Subregions for Components of Verbal Working Memory

    Cooper, Freya E.; Grube, Manon; Von Kriegstein, Katharina; Kumar, Sukhbinder; English, Philip; Kelly, Thomas P.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    A role for the cerebellum in cognition has been proposed based on studies suggesting a profile of cognitive deficits due to cerebellar stroke. Such studies are limited in the determination of the detailed organisation of cerebellar subregions that are critical for different aspects of cognition. In this study we examined the correlation between…

  3. Rhythmic finger tapping reveals cerebellar dysfunction in essential tremor.

    Buijink, A W G; Broersma, M; van der Stouwe, A M M; van Wingen, G A; Groot, P F C; Speelman, J D; Maurits, N M; van Rootselaar, A F

    2015-04-01

    Cerebellar circuits are hypothesized to play a central role in the pathogenesis of essential tremor. Rhythmic finger tapping is known to strongly engage the cerebellar motor circuitry. We characterize cerebellar and, more specifically, dentate nucleus function, and neural correlates of cerebellar output in essential tremor during rhythmic finger tapping employing functional MRI. Thirty-one propranolol-sensitive essential tremor patients with upper limb tremor and 29 healthy controls were measured. T2*-weighted EPI sequences were acquired. The task consisted of alternating rest and finger tapping blocks. A whole-brain and region-of-interest analysis was performed, the latter focusing on the cerebellar cortex, dentate nucleus and inferior olive nucleus. Activations were also related to tremor severity. In patients, dentate activation correlated positively with tremor severity as measured by the tremor rating scale part A. Patients had reduced activation in widespread cerebellar cortical regions, and additionally in the inferior olive nucleus, and parietal and frontal cortex, compared to controls. The increase in dentate activation with tremor severity supports involvement of the dentate nucleus in essential tremor. Cortical and cerebellar changes during a motor timing task in essential tremor might point to widespread changes in cerebellar output in essential tremor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Postural responses to multidirectional stance perturbations in cerebellar ataxia

    Bakker, Maaike; Allum, John H J; Visser, Jasper E; Grüneberg, Christian; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Kremer, H P H; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of patients with focal cerebellar damage underscored the importance of the cerebellum for balance control. These studies were restricted to postural control in the pitch plane, and focused mainly on leg muscle responses. Here, we examined the effect of degenerative cerebellar

  5. Time estimation in Parkinson's disease and degenerative cerebellar disease

    Beudel, Martijin; Galama, Sjoukje; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2008-01-01

    With functional MRI, we recently identified fronto-cerebellar activations in predicting time to reach a target and basal ganglia activation in velocity estimation, that is, small interval assessment. We now tested these functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and degenerative cerebellar

  6. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vertebral artery disease

    Cocker, Laurens J.L. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kliniek Sint-Jan Radiologie, Brussels (Belgium); Compter, A.; Kappelle, L.J.; Worp, H.B. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Luijten, P.R.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are a newly recognised entity associated with atherothromboembolic cerebrovascular disease and worse physical functioning. We aimed to investigate the relationship of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia and with vascular risk factors. We evaluated the MR images of 46 patients with a recent vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke and a symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis ≥50 % from the Vertebral Artery Stenting Trial (VAST) for the presence of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities ≤1.5 cm. At inclusion in VAST, data were obtained on age, sex, history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, and vascular risk factors. Adjusted risk ratios were calculated with Poisson regression analyses for the relation between cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vascular risk factors. Sixteen out of 46 (35 %) patients showed cerebellar cortical infarct cavities on the initial MRI, and only one of these 16 patients was known with a previous vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke. In patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia, risk factor profiles of patients with cerebellar cortical infarct cavities were not different from patients without these cavities. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are seen on MRI in as much as one third of patients with recently symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. Since patients usually have no prior history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, cerebellar cortical infarct cavities should be added to the spectrum of common incidental brain infarcts visible on routine MRI. (orig.)

  7. Humor and laughter in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Frank, B; Propson, B; Göricke, S; Jacobi, H; Wild, B; Timmann, D

    2012-06-01

    Humor is a complex behavior which includes cognitive, affective and motor responses. Based on observations of affective changes in patients with cerebellar lesions, the cerebellum may support cerebral and brainstem areas involved in understanding and appreciation of humorous stimuli and expression of laughter. The aim of the present study was to examine if humor appreciation, perception of humorous stimuli, and the succeeding facial reaction differ between patients with cerebellar degeneration and healthy controls. Twenty-three adults with pure cerebellar degeneration were compared with 23 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy control subjects. No significant difference in humor appreciation and perception of humorous stimuli could be found between groups using the 3 Witz-Dimensionen Test, a validated test asking for funniness and aversiveness of jokes and cartoons. Furthermore, while observing jokes, humorous cartoons, and video sketches, facial expressions of subjects were videotaped and afterwards analysed using the Facial Action Coding System. Using depression as a covariate, the number, and to a lesser degree, the duration of facial expressions during laughter were reduced in cerebellar patients compared to healthy controls. In sum, appreciation of humor appears to be largely preserved in patients with chronic cerebellar degeneration. Cerebellar circuits may contribute to the expression of laughter. Findings add to the literature that non-motor disorders in patients with chronic cerebellar disease are generally mild, but do not exclude that more marked disorders may show up in acute cerebellar disease and/or in more specific tests of humor appreciation.

  8. Cerebellar involvement in metabolic disorders: a pattern-recognition approach

    Steinlin, M.; Boltshauser, E.; Blaser, S.

    1998-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism can affect the cerebellum during development, maturation and later during life. We have established criteria for pattern recognition of cerebellar abnormalities in metabolic disorders. The abnormalities can be divided into four major groups: cerebellar hypoplasia (CH), hyperplasia, cerebellar atrophy (CA), cerebellar white matter abnormalities (WMA) or swelling, and involvement of the dentate nuclei (DN) or cerebellar cortex. CH can be an isolated typical finding, as in adenylsuccinase deficiency, but is also occasionally seen in many other disorders. Differentiation from CH and CA is often difficult, as in carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome or 2-l-hydroxyglutaric acidaemia. In cases of atrophy the relationship of cerebellar to cerebral atrophy is important. WMA may be diffuse or patchy, frequently predominantly around the DN. Severe swelling of white matter is present during metabolic crisis in maple syrup urine disease. The DN can be affected by metabolite deposition, necrosis, calcification or demyelination. Involvement of cerebellar cortex is seen in infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy. Changes in DN and cerebellar cortex are rather typical and therefore most helpful; additional features should be sought as they are useful in narrowing down the differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  9. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    Sönmezoğlu, K; Sperling, B; Henriksen, T

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99mTc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduct...

  10. The Cerebellum and Language: Evidence from Patients with Cerebellar Degeneration

    Stoodley, Catherine J.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and imaging studies suggest that the cerebellum is involved in language tasks, but the extent to which slowed language production in cerebellar patients contributes to their poor performance on these tasks is not clear. We explored this relationship in 18 patients with cerebellar degeneration and 16 healthy controls who completed measures…

  11. New evidence for the cerebellar involvement in personality traits

    Eleonora ePicerni

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Following the recognition of its role in sensory-motor coordination and learning, the cerebellum has been involved in cognitive, emotional and even personality domains. This study investigated the relationships between cerebellar macro- and micro-structural variations and temperamental traits measured by Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. High resolution T1-weighted and Diffusion Tensor Images of 100 healthy subjects aged 18-59 years were acquired by 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance scanner. In multiple regression analyses, cerebellar Gray Matter (GM or White Matter (WM volumes, GM Mean Diffusivity (MD, and WM Fractional Anisotropy (FA were used as dependent variables, TCI scores as regressors, gender, age, and education years as covariates. Novelty Seeking scores were associated positively with the cerebellar GM volumes and FA, and negatively with MD. No significant association between Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence or Persistence scores and cerebellar structural measures was found. The present data put toward a cerebellar involvement in the management of novelty.

  12. Brainstem and cerebellar changes after cerebrovascular accidents: magnetic resonance imaging

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S.

    2006-01-01

    We illustrate the various types of secondary degeneration in the brainstem and/or cerebellum detected on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained after cerebrovascular accidents. The changes include: (a) ipsilateral nigral degeneration after striatal infarction; (b) Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem after supratentorial pyramidal tract or motor cortex injury; (c) Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract in the brainstem after frontal lobe infarction; (d) ipsilateral brainstem atrophy and crossed cerebellar atrophy due to an extensive supratentorial lesion; (e) ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy, contralateral rubral degeneration, contralateral inferior olivary degeneration and ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after dentate nucleus hemorrhage; (f) ipsilateral inferior olivary degeneration after pontine tegmentum hemorrhage; (g) bilateral wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tracts after ventromedial pontine infarction or basis pontis hemorrhage; and (h) ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after middle cerebellar peduncle hemorrhage. (orig.)

  13. Brainstem and cerebellar changes after cerebrovascular accidents: magnetic resonance imaging

    Uchino, A.; Takase, Y.; Nomiyama, K.; Egashira, R.; Kudo, S. [Saga Medical School, Department of Radiology, Saga (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    We illustrate the various types of secondary degeneration in the brainstem and/or cerebellum detected on magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained after cerebrovascular accidents. The changes include: (a) ipsilateral nigral degeneration after striatal infarction; (b) Wallerian degeneration of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem after supratentorial pyramidal tract or motor cortex injury; (c) Wallerian degeneration of the corticopontine tract in the brainstem after frontal lobe infarction; (d) ipsilateral brainstem atrophy and crossed cerebellar atrophy due to an extensive supratentorial lesion; (e) ipsilateral superior cerebellar peduncle atrophy, contralateral rubral degeneration, contralateral inferior olivary degeneration and ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after dentate nucleus hemorrhage; (f) ipsilateral inferior olivary degeneration after pontine tegmentum hemorrhage; (g) bilateral wallerian degeneration of the pontocerebellar tracts after ventromedial pontine infarction or basis pontis hemorrhage; and (h) ipsilateral cerebellar atrophy after middle cerebellar peduncle hemorrhage. (orig.)

  14. Contribution of Somatic and Dendritic SK Channels in the Firing Rate of Deep Cerebellar Nuclei: Implication in Cerebellar Ataxia

    Samira Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Discussion: Therefore, inhibition of SK channel in DCN can cause cerebellar ataxia, and SK channel openers can have a therapeutic effect on cerebellar ataxia. In addition, the location of SK channels could be important in therapeutic goals. Dendritic SK channels can be a more effective target compared to somatic SK channels

  15. Disorganized foliation of unilateral cerebellar hemisphere as cerebellar cortical dysplasia in patients with recurrent seizures: A case report

    Baek, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    We present a rare case of abnormal foliation for one cerebellar hemisphere on MR imaging, showing vertically-oriented folia. Foliation of contralateral cerebellar hemisphere and other structures in the posterior fossa were normal, and the patient has no neurologic deficits. This rare and unique abnormality is considered a kind of developmental error of the cerebellum.

  16. Diagnostic conversion to bipolar disorder in unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants

    Holmskov, J; Licht, R W; Andersen, K

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In unipolar depressed patients participating in trials on antidepressants, we investigated if illness characteristics at baseline could predict conversion to bipolar disorder. METHOD: A long-term register-based follow-up study of 290 unipolar depressed patients with a mean age of 50.......8 years (SD=11.9) participating in three randomized trials on antidepressants conducted in the period 1985-1994. The independent effects of explanatory variables were examined by applying Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: The overall risk of conversion was 20.7%, with a mean follow-up time of 15.2 years...... per patient. The risk of conversion was associated with an increasing number of previous depressive episodes at baseline, [HR 1.18, 95% CI (1.10-1.26)]. No association with gender, age, age at first depressive episode, duration of baseline episode, subtype of depression or any of the investigated HAM...

  17. [From symptomatic stability to functional recovery in the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia and unipolar depression].

    Wikinski, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    This work summarizes the efficacy of pharmacotherapy in the chronic course of schizophrenia and unipolar depresion. It is aimed to answer three questions: does it cure these diseases? Does it exert any significant effect on the symptomatic presentation of the disorders? Which is its action on the social dysfunction provoked by schizophrenia or depression? A conceptual analysis of available bibliography was performed. It could be concluded that antypsychotics improve the symptomatic course of schizophrenia, although their efficacy is limited, and that these drugs does not act on the social dysfunction provoked by the disease. With respect to depression, it could be concluded that a significant proportion of patients remain symptomatic despite receiveng adequate treatments. No data about efficacy of pharmacotherapy on the dysfunction resultant from unipolar depression is available.

  18. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Nergis LAPSEKÝLÝ

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that Environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment. [JCBPR 2012; 1(3.000: 145-151

  19. Insights into cerebellar development and medulloblastoma.

    Bihannic, Laure; Ayrault, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar development is an extensive process that begins during early embryonic stages and persists more than one year after birth in human. Therefore, the cerebellum is susceptible to acquire various developmental abnormalities leading to numerous diseases such as medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric malignant brain tumor. One third of the patients with medulloblastoma are incurable and survivors have a poor quality of life due to the aggressiveness of the broad-spectrum treatments. Within the past few years, it has been highlighted that medulloblastoma is a heterogeneous disease that is divided in four molecular subgroups. This recent advance in the field, combined with the development of associated preclinical models for each subgroup, should enable, in the future, the discovery and use of targeted therapy in clinical treatments for each subtype of medulloblastoma. In this review, we first aim to show how deregulation of cerebellar development can lead to medulloblastoma formation and then to present the advances in the molecular subgrouping of medulloblastoma and the associated preclinical models. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

    Cevik, Belma; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  1. Metacognitions and emotional schemas: a new cognitive perspective for the distinction between unipolar and bipolar depression.

    Batmaz, Sedat; Ulusoy Kaymak, Semra; Kocbiyik, Sibel; Turkcapar, Mehmet Hakan

    2014-10-01

    Clinicians need to make the differential diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar depression to guide their treatment choices. Looking at the differences observed in the metacognitions, and the emotional schemas, might help with this differentiation, and might provide information about the distinct psychotherapeutical targets. Three groups of subjects (166 unipolar depressed, 140 bipolar depressed, and 151 healthy controls) were asked to fill out the Metacognitions Questionnaire-30 (MCQ-30), and the Leahy Emotional Schema Scale (LESS). The clinicians diagnosed the volunteers according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR with a structured clinical interview (MINI), and rated the moods of the subjects with the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Statistical analyses were undertaken to identify the group differences on the MCQ-30, and the LESS. The bipolar and unipolar depressed patients' scores on the MCQ-30 were significantly different from the healthy controls, but not from each other. On the LESS dimensions of guilt, duration, blame, validation, and acceptance of feelings, all three groups significantly differed from each other. There were no statistically different results on the LESS dimensions of comprehensibility, consensus, and expression. The mood disordered groups scored significantly different than the healthy controls on the LESS dimensions of simplistic view of emotions, numbness, rationality, rumination, higher values, and control. These results suggest that the metacognitive model of unipolar depression might be extrapolated for patients with bipolar depression. These results are also compatible to a great extent with the emotional schema theory of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Double discharges in unipolar-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps

    Liu Shuhai; Neiger, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    Excitation of dielectric barrier discharge xenon excimer lamps by unipolar short square pulses is studied in this paper. Two discharges with different polarity are excited by each voltage pulse (double discharge phenomenon). The primary discharge occurs at the top or at the rising flank of the applied unipolar square pulse, which is directly energized by the external circuit. The secondary discharge with the reversed polarity occurs at the falling flank or shortly after the falling flank end (zero external voltage) depending on the pulse width, which is energized by the energy stored by memory charges deposited by the primary discharge. Fast-speed ICCD imaging shows the primary discharge has a conic discharge appearance with a channel broadening on the anode side. This channel broadening increases with increasing the pulse top level. Only the anode-side surface discharge is observed in the primary discharge. The surface discharge on the cathode side which is present in bipolar sine voltage excitation is not observed. On the contrary, the secondary discharge has only the cathode-side surface discharge. The surface discharge on the anode side is not observed. The secondary discharge is much more diffuse than the primary discharge. Time-resolved emission measurement of double discharges show the secondary discharge emits more VUV xenon excimer radiation but less infrared (IR) xenon atomic emission than the primary discharge. It was found that the IR xenon atomic emission from the secondary discharge can be reduced by shortening the pulse width. The energy efficiency of unipolar-pulsed xenon excimer lamps (the overall energy efficiency of double discharges) is much higher than that obtained under bipolar sine wave excitation. The output VUV spectrum under unipolar pulse excitation is found to be identical to that under sine wave excitation and independent of injected electric power

  3. Daylight savings time transitions and the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes

    Hansen, Bertel T; Sønderskov, Kim M; Hageman, Ida

    2017-01-01

    Background: Daylight savings time transitions affect approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide. Prior studies have documented associations between daylight savings time transitions and adverse health outcomes, but it remains unknown whether they also cause an increase in the incidence rate...... of depressive episodes. This seems likely because daylight savings time transitions affect circadian rhythms, which are implicated in the etiology of depressive disorder. Therefore, we investigated the effects of daylight savings time transitions on the incidence rate of unipolar depressive episodes. Methods...

  4. A low voltage programmable unipolar inverter with a gold nanoparticle monolayer on plastic.

    Zhou, Ye; Han, Su-Ting; Huang, Long-Biao; Huang, Jing; Yan, Yan; Zhou, Li; Roy, V A L

    2013-05-24

    A programmable low voltage unipolar inverter with saturated-load configuration has been demonstrated on a plastic substrate. A self-assembled monolayer of gold (Au) nanoparticles was inserted into the dielectric layer acting as a charge trapping layer. The inverter operated well with supply voltages of inverter. Furthermore, the programmable behavior was maintained well at various bending states, demonstrating the adequate flexibility of our devices.

  5. A comparision of neurocognitive function among patients with bipolar depression,recurrent unipolar depression and schizophrenia

    朱玥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare neurocognitive function in patients with bipolar depression type I(BD),recurrent unipolar depression(UD)and schizophrenia(SZ).And try to explore the relationship between neuropsychological function and clinical features in bipolar.Methods 29 patients with BD,25 with UD,30 with SZ were consecutively recruited from clinics and wards of Peking University Sixth Hospital between September 2010 and April2011,also including 30 controls

  6. Distinguishing between Unipolar Depression and Bipolar Depression: Current and Future Clinical and Neuroimaging Perspectives

    de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2012-01-01

    Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from recurrent unipolar depression (UD) is a major clinical challenge. Main reasons for this include the higher prevalence of depressive relative to hypo/manic symptoms during the course of BD illness and the high prevalence of subthreshold manic symptoms in both BD and UD depression. Identifying objective markers of BD might help improve accuracy in differentiating between BD and UD depression, to ultimately optimize clinical and functional outcome for a...

  7. Parental history of psychiatric diagnoses and unipolar depression: a Danish National Register-based cohort study.

    Musliner, K L; Trabjerg, B B; Waltoft, B L; Laursen, T M; Mortensen, P B; Zandi, P P; Munk-Olsen, T

    2015-10-01

    Depression is known to run in families, but the effects of parental history of other psychiatric diagnoses on depression rates are less well studied. Few studies have examined the impact of parental psychopathology on depression rates in older age groups. We established a population-based cohort including all individuals born in Denmark after 1954 and alive on their 10th birthday (N = 29 76 264). Exposure variables were maternal and paternal history of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety or 'other' psychiatric diagnoses. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regressions. Parental history of any psychiatric diagnosis increased incidence rates of outpatient (maternal: IRR 1.88, p history. IRRs for parental history of non-affective disorders remained relatively stable across age groups, while IRRs for parental affective disorders (unipolar or bipolar) decreased with age from 2.29-3.96 in the youngest age group to 1.53-1.90 in the oldest group. IRR estimates for all parental diagnoses were similar among individuals aged ⩾41 years (IRR range 1.51-1.90). Parental history of any psychiatric diagnosis is associated with increased incidence rates of unipolar depression. In younger age groups, parental history of affective diagnoses is more strongly associated with rates of unipolar depression than non-affective diagnoses; however, this distinction disappears after age 40, suggesting that parental psychopathology in general, rather than any one disorder, confers risk for depression in middle life.

  8. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    Tokitani, M.; Kajita, S.; Masuzaki, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2011-10-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 × 10 mm2). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 µm and 1 µm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ≈ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas.

  9. Exfoliation of the tungsten fibreform nanostructure by unipolar arcing in the LHD divertor plasma

    Tokitani, M.; Masuzaki, S.; Kajita, S.; Hirahata, Y.; Ohno, N.; Tanabe, T.

    2011-01-01

    The tungsten nanostructure (W-fuzz) created in the linear divertor simulator (NAGDIS) was exposed to the Large Helical Device (LHD) divertor plasma for only 2 s (1 shot) to study exfoliation/erosion and microscopic modifications due to the high heat/particle loading under high magnetic field conditions. Very fine and randomly moved unipolar arc trails were clearly observed on about half of the W-fuzz area (6 x 10 mm 2 ). The fuzzy surface was exfoliated by continuously moving arc spots even for the very short exposure time. This is the first observation of unipolar arcing and exfoliation of some areas of the W-fuzz structure itself in a large plasma confinement device with a high magnetic field. The typical width and depth of each arc trail were about 8 μm and 1 μm, respectively, and the arc spots moved randomly on the micrometre scale. The fractality of the arc trails was analysed using a box-counting method, and the fractal dimension (D) of the arc trails was estimated to be D ∼ 1.922. This value indicated that the arc spots moved in Brownian motion, and were scarcely influenced by the magnetic field. One should note that such a large scale exfoliation due to unipolar arcing may enhance the surface erosion of the tungsten armour and act as a serious impurity source for fusion plasmas. (letter)

  10. Contribution of cerebellar sensorimotor adaptation to hippocampal spatial memory.

    Jean-Baptiste Passot

    Full Text Available Complementing its primary role in motor control, cerebellar learning has also a bottom-up influence on cognitive functions, where high-level representations build up from elementary sensorimotor memories. In this paper we examine the cerebellar contribution to both procedural and declarative components of spatial cognition. To do so, we model a functional interplay between the cerebellum and the hippocampal formation during goal-oriented navigation. We reinterpret and complete existing genetic behavioural observations by means of quantitative accounts that cross-link synaptic plasticity mechanisms, single cell and population coding properties, and behavioural responses. In contrast to earlier hypotheses positing only a purely procedural impact of cerebellar adaptation deficits, our results suggest a cerebellar involvement in high-level aspects of behaviour. In particular, we propose that cerebellar learning mechanisms may influence hippocampal place fields, by contributing to the path integration process. Our simulations predict differences in place-cell discharge properties between normal mice and L7-PKCI mutant mice lacking long-term depression at cerebellar parallel fibre-Purkinje cell synapses. On the behavioural level, these results suggest that, by influencing the accuracy of hippocampal spatial codes, cerebellar deficits may impact the exploration-exploitation balance during spatial navigation.

  11. Heat stroke induced cerebellar dysfunction: A “forgotten syndrome”

    Kosgallana, Athula D; Mallik, Shreyashee; Patel, Vishal; Beran, Roy G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of heat stroke induced acute cerebellar dysfunction, a rare neurological disease characterized by gross cerebellar dysfunction with no acute radiographic changes, in a 61 years old ship captain presenting with slurred speech and gait ataxia. A systematic review of the literature on heat stroke induced cerebellar dysfunction was performed, with a focus on investigations, treatment and outcomes. After review of the literature and detailed patient investigation it was concluded that this patient suffered heat stroke at a temperature less than that quoted in the literature. PMID:24340279

  12. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a family of Border Collie dogs.

    Sandy, J R; Slocombe, R E; Mitten, R W; Jedwab, D

    2002-11-01

    Cerebellar abiotrophies have a nonsex-linked, autosomal, recessively inherited basis in a number of species, and lesions typically reflect profound and progressive loss of Purkinje cells. In this report, an unusual form of abiotrophy is described for two sibling Border Collies. Extensive loss of the cerebellar granular cell layer was present with relative sparing of Purkinje cells of two female pups. The biochemical basis for this form of cerebellar abiotrophy is unknown, but the lack of disease in other siblings supports an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance.

  13. Glucocorticoid treatment of MCMV infected newborn mice attenuates CNS inflammation and limits deficits in cerebellar development.

    Kate Kosmac

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of the developing fetus with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is a major cause of central nervous system disease in infants and children; however, mechanism(s of disease associated with this intrauterine infection remain poorly understood. Utilizing a mouse model of HCMV infection of the developing CNS, we have shown that peripheral inoculation of newborn mice with murine CMV (MCMV results in CNS infection and developmental abnormalities that recapitulate key features of the human infection. In this model, animals exhibit decreased granule neuron precursor cell (GNPC proliferation and altered morphogenesis of the cerebellar cortex. Deficits in cerebellar cortical development are symmetric and global even though infection of the CNS results in a non-necrotizing encephalitis characterized by widely scattered foci of virus-infected cells with mononuclear cell infiltrates. These findings suggested that inflammation induced by MCMV infection could underlie deficits in CNS development. We investigated the contribution of host inflammatory responses to abnormal cerebellar development by modulating inflammatory responses in infected mice with glucocorticoids. Treatment of infected animals with glucocorticoids decreased activation of CNS mononuclear cells and expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-β and IFNγ in the CNS while minimally impacting CNS virus replication. Glucocorticoid treatment also limited morphogenic abnormalities and normalized the expression of developmentally regulated genes within the cerebellum. Importantly, GNPC proliferation deficits were normalized in MCMV infected mice following glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings argue that host inflammatory responses to MCMV infection contribute to deficits in CNS development in MCMV infected mice and suggest that similar mechanisms of disease could be responsible for the abnormal CNS development in human infants infected in-utero with HCMV.

  14. The Cerebellar-Cerebral Microstructure Is Disrupted at Multiple Sites in Very Preterm Infants with Cerebellar Haemorrhage.

    Neubauer, Vera; Djurdjevic, Tanja; Griesmaier, Elke; Biermayr, Marlene; Gizewski, Elke Ruth; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have prompted reconsideration of the anatomical correlates of adverse outcomes in preterm infants. The importance of the contribution made by the cerebellum is now increasingly appreciated. The effect of cerebellar haemorrhage (CBH) on the microstructure of the cerebellar-cerebral circuit is largely unexplored. To investigate the effect of CBH on the microstructure of cerebellar-cerebral connections in preterm infants aged microstructure (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient) were quantified in 5 vulnerable regions (the centrum semiovale, posterior limb of the internal capsule, corpus callosum, and superior and middle cerebellar peduncles). Group differences between infants with CBH and infants without CBH were assessed. There were 267 infants included in the study. Infants with CBH (isolated and combined) had significantly lower FA values in all regions investigated. Infants with isolated CBH showed lower FA in the middle and superior cerebellar peduncles and in the posterior limb of the internal capsule. This study provides evidence that CBH causes alterations in localised and remote WM pathways in the developing brain. The disruption of the cerebellar-cerebral microstructure at multiple sites adds further support for the concept of developmental diaschisis, which is propagated as an explanation for the consequences of early cerebellar injury on cognitive and affective domains. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Axonal propagation of simple and complex spikes in cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    Khaliq, Zayd M; Raman, Indira M

    2005-01-12

    In cerebellar Purkinje neurons, the reliability of propagation of high-frequency simple spikes and spikelets of complex spikes is likely to regulate inhibition of Purkinje target neurons. To test the extent to which a one-to-one correspondence exists between somatic and axonal spikes, we made dual somatic and axonal recordings from Purkinje neurons in mouse cerebellar slices. Somatic action potentials were recorded with a whole-cell pipette, and the corresponding axonal signals were recorded extracellularly with a loose-patch pipette. Propagation of spontaneous and evoked simple spikes was highly reliable. At somatic firing rates of approximately 200 spikes/sec, 375 Hz during somatic hyperpolarizations that silenced spontaneous firing to approximately 150 Hz during spontaneous activity. The probability of propagation of individual spikelets could be described quantitatively as a saturating function of spikelet amplitude, rate of rise, or preceding interspike interval. The results suggest that ion channels of Purkinje axons are adapted to produce extremely short refractory periods and that brief bursts of forward-propagating action potentials generated by complex spikes may contribute transiently to inhibition of postsynaptic neurons.

  16. Cerebellar blood flow in methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease)

    Itoh, K.; Korogi, Y.; Tomiguchi, S.; Takahashi, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan); Okajima, T. [Dept. of Neurology, Johnan Hospital, Maihara, Johnan-mochi (Japan); Sato, H. [Dept. of Neurology, Minamata City General Hospital and Medical Centre (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    We looked at regional cerebellar blood flow in patients with Minamata disease (MD) using technetium-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc-ECD). We carried out single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 15 patients with MD (eight men, seven women, aged 51-78 years, mean 70.5 years) and 11 control subjects (eight men, three women, aged 62-80 years, mean 72.5 years). Regional blood flow was measured in the superior, middle, and inferior portions of the cerebellar hemispheres, and the frontal, temporal and occipital cerebral lobes. The degree of cerebellar atrophy was assessed on MRI. There were significant differences in regional blood flow in all parts of the cerebellum between patients and control, but no significant decrease was observed in the cerebrum. Blood flow was lower in the inferior cerebellum than in the other parts. Even in patients without cerebellar atrophy, flow was significantly decreased regional blood flow in the inferior part. (orig.)

  17. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    Marja Broersma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII.

  18. Anomalous cerebellar anatomy in Chinese children with dyslexia

    Ying-Hui eYang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellar deficit hypothesis for developmental dyslexia (DD claims that cerebellar dysfunction causes the failures in the acquisition of visuomotor skills and automatic reading and writing skills. In people with dyslexia in the alphabetic languages, the abnormal activation and structure of the right or bilateral cerebellar lobes have been identified. Using a typical implicit motor learning task, however, one neuroimaging study demonstrated the left cerebellar dysfunction in Chinese children with dyslexia. In the present study, using voxel-based morphometry, we found decreased gray matter volume in the left cerebellum in Chinese children with dyslexia relative to age-matched controls. The positive correlation between reading performance and regional gray matter volume suggests that the abnormal structure in the left cerebellum is responsible for reading disability in Chinese children with dyslexia.

  19. Cerebellar giant cell glioblastoma multiforme in an adult

    Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is a rare tumor that accounts for only 1% of all cases of GBM and its giant cell variant is even much rarely encountered in adults. A case of cerebellar giant cell GBM managed at our institution reporting its clinical presentation, radiological and histological findings, and treatment instituted is described. In conjunction, a literature review, including particular issues, clinical data, advances in imaging studies, pathological characteristics, treatment options, and the behavior of such malignant tumor is presented. It is very important for the neurosurgeon to make the differential diagnosis between the cerebellar GBM, and other diseases such as metastasis, anaplastic astrocytomas, and cerebellar infarct because their treatment modalities, prognosis, and outcome are different.

  20. Cerebellar infarct patterns: The SMART-Medea study

    Laurens J.L. De Cocker, MD

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Small cerebellar infarcts proved to be much more common than larger infarcts, and preferentially involved the cortex. Small cortical infarcts predominantly involved the posterior lobes, showed sparing of subcortical white matter and occurred in characteristic topographic patterns.

  1. Late Onset of Cerebellar Abiotrophy in a Boxer Dog

    Sanjeev Gumber

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar abiotrophy is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and has been reported in humans and animals. This case report documents clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings of cerebellar abiotrophy in an adult Boxer dog. A 3.5-year-old, female, tan Boxer dog presented with a six-week history of left-sided head tilt. Neurological examination and additional diagnostics during her three subsequent visits over 4.5 months revealed worsening of neurological signs including marked head pressing, severe proprioceptive deficits in all the four limbs, loss of menace response and palpebral reflex in the left eye, and a gradual seizure lasting one hour at her last visit. Based on the immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and histopathological examination of cerebellum, cerebellar cortical abiotrophy was diagnosed. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a Boxer dog to our knowledge.

  2. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    Broersma, Marja; van der Stouwe, Anna M. M.; Buijink, Arthur W. G.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Groot, Paul F. C.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders. Previous research into the pathophysiology of ET suggested underlying cerebellar abnormalities. In this study, we added electromyography as an index of tremor intensity to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

  3. Cerebellar blood flow in methylmercury poisoning (Minamata disease)

    Itoh, K.; Korogi, Y.; Tomiguchi, S.; Takahashi, M.; Okajima, T.; Sato, H.

    2001-01-01

    We looked at regional cerebellar blood flow in patients with Minamata disease (MD) using technetium-99 m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99m-Tc-ECD). We carried out single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) on 15 patients with MD (eight men, seven women, aged 51-78 years, mean 70.5 years) and 11 control subjects (eight men, three women, aged 62-80 years, mean 72.5 years). Regional blood flow was measured in the superior, middle, and inferior portions of the cerebellar hemispheres, and the frontal, temporal and occipital cerebral lobes. The degree of cerebellar atrophy was assessed on MRI. There were significant differences in regional blood flow in all parts of the cerebellum between patients and control, but no significant decrease was observed in the cerebrum. Blood flow was lower in the inferior cerebellum than in the other parts. Even in patients without cerebellar atrophy, flow was significantly decreased regional blood flow in the inferior part. (orig.)

  4. Network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation improves attentional control

    Esterman, Michael; Thai, Michelle; Okabe, Hidefusa; DeGutis, Joseph; Saad, Elyana; Laganiere, Simon E.; Halko, Mark A.

    2018-01-01

    Developing non-invasive brain stimulation interventions to improve attentional control is extremely relevant to a variety of neurologic and psychiatric populations, yet few studies have identified reliable biomarkers that can be readily modified to improve attentional control. One potential biomarker of attention is functional connectivity in the core cortical network supporting attention - the dorsal attention network (DAN). We used a network-targeted cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) procedure, intended to enhance cortical functional connectivity in the DAN. Specifically, in healthy young adults we administered intermittent theta burst TMS (iTBS) to the midline cerebellar node of the DAN and, as a control, the right cerebellar node of the default mode network (DMN). These cerebellar targets were localized using individual resting-state fMRI scans. Participants completed assessments of both sustained (gradual onset continuous performance task, gradCPT) and transient attentional control (attentional blink) immediately before and after stimulation, in two sessions (cerebellar DAN and DMN). Following cerebellar DAN stimulation, participants had significantly fewer attentional lapses (lower commission error rates) on the gradCPT. In contrast, stimulation to the cerebellar DMN did not affect gradCPT performance. Further, in the DAN condition, individuals with worse baseline gradCPT performance showed the greatest enhancement in gradCPT performance. These results suggest that temporarily increasing functional connectivity in the DAN via network-targeted cerebellar stimulation can enhance sustained attention, particularly in those with poor baseline performance. With regard to transient attention, TMS stimulation improved attentional blink performance across both stimulation sites, suggesting increasing functional connectivity in both networks can enhance this aspect of attention. These findings have important implications for intervention applications

  5. Transient cerebellopontine demyelinisation revealed by MRI in acute cerebellar ataxia

    Aufricht, C.A.; Tenner, W.; Rosenmayr, F.; Stiglbauer, R.

    1990-01-01

    An eight year old boy was admitted to our ward with a history of abrupt onset of rapidly progressive gait disorder, nausea, vertigo and vomiting. The clinical as well as the laboratory findings suggested the diagnosis of acute cerebellar ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, showed marked demyelinisation in the cerebellar region and visual evoked potentials were pathologic. After immunosuppression the patient promptly improved clinically and the lesions depicted by MRI disappeared almost completely. (orig.)

  6. Co-localization of glycine and gaba immunoreactivity in interneurons in Macaca monkey cerebellar cortex.

    Crook, J; Hendrickson, A; Robinson, F R

    2006-09-15

    Previous work demonstrates that the cerebellum uses glycine as a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter [Ottersen OP, Davanger S, Storm-Mathisen J (1987) Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of rat and Senegalese baboon, Papio papio: a comparison with the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity and with [3H]glycine and [3H]GABA uptake. Exp Brain Res 66(1):211-221; Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J, Somogyi P (1988) Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding light and electron microscopic study. Brain Res 450(1-2):342-353; Dieudonne S (1995) Glycinergic synaptic currents in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1441-1445; Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057; Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498; Zeilhofer HU, Studler B, Arabadzisz D, Schweizer C, Ahmadi S, Layh B, Bosl MR, Fritschy JM (2005) Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol 482(2):123-141]. In the rat cerebellum glycine is not released by itself but is released together with GABA by Lugaro cells onto Golgi cells [Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057] and by Golgi cells onto unipolar brush and granule cells [Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498]. Here we report, from immunolabeling evidence in Macaca cerebellum, that interneurons in the granular cell layer are glycine+ at a density

  7. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    Shinn, Ann K; Roh, Youkyung S; Ravichandran, Caitlin T; Baker, Justin T; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M

    2017-07-01

    The cerebellum, which modulates affect and cognition in addition to motor functions, may contribute substantially to the pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, such as bipolar disorder. A growing literature points to cerebellar abnormalities in bipolar disorder. However, no studies have investigated the topographic representations of resting state cerebellar networks in bipolar disorder, specifically their functional connectivity to cerebral cortical networks. Using a well-defined cerebral cortical parcellation scheme as functional connectivity seeds, we compared ten cerebellar resting state networks in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and a lifetime history of psychotic features and 55 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and image signal-to-noise ratio. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed reduced cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in somatomotor A, ventral attention, salience, and frontoparietal control A and B networks relative to healthy control participants. These findings were not significantly correlated with current symptoms. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed evidence of cerebro-cerebellar dysconnectivity in selective networks. These disease-related changes were substantial and not explained by medication exposure or substance use. Therefore, they may be mechanistically relevant to the underlying susceptibility to mood dysregulation and psychosis. Cerebellar mechanisms deserve further exploration in psychiatric conditions, and this study's findings may have value in guiding future studies on pathophysiology and treatment of mood and psychotic disorders, in particular.

  8. Reduced contralateral hemispheric flow measured by SPECT in cerebellar lesions

    Soenmezoglu, K.; Sperling, B.; Lassen, N.A.; Henriksen, T.; Tfelt-Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Four patients with clinical signs of cerebellar stroke were studied twice by SPECT using 99m Tc-HMPAO as a tracer for cerebral blood flow (CBF). When first scanned 6 to 22 days after onset, all had a region of very low CBF in the symptomatic cerebellar hemisphere, and a mild to moderate CBF reduction (average 10%) in contralateral hemispheric cortex. In all four cases clinical signs of unilateral cerebellar dysfunction were still present when rescanned 1 to 4 months later and the relative CBF decrease in the contralateral cortex of the forebrain also remained. The basal ganglia contralateral to the cerebellar lesion CBF showed variable alterations. A relative CBF decrease was seen in upper part of basal ganglia in all four cases, but it was not a constant phenomenon. A relative CBF increase in both early and late SPECT scans was seen at low levels of neostriatum in two cases. The remote CBF changes in cerebellar stroke seen in the forebrain are probably caused by reduced or abolished cerebellar output. The term ''Crossed Cerebral Diaschisis'' may be used to describe these CBF changes that would appear to reflect both decreased and increased neuronal activity. (au)

  9. Verbal Memory Impairments in Children after Cerebellar Tumor Resection

    Matthew P. Kirschen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate cerebellar lobular contributions to specific cognitive deficits observed after cerebellar tumor resection. Verbal working memory (VWM tasks were administered to children following surgical resection of cerebellar pilocytic astrocytomas and age-matched controls. Anatomical MRI scans were used to quantify the extent of cerebellar lobular damage from each patient's resection. Patients exhibited significantly reduced digit span for auditory but not visual stimuli, relative to controls, and damage to left hemispheral lobule VIII was significantly correlated with this deficit. Patients also showed reduced effects of articulatory suppression and this was correlated with damage to the vermis and hemispheral lobule IV/V bilaterally. Phonological similarity and recency effects did not differ overall between patients and controls, but outlier patients with abnormal phonological similarity effects to either auditory or visual stimuli were found to have damage to hemispheral lobule VIII/VIIB on the left and right, respectively. We postulate that damage to left hemispheral lobule VIII may interfere with encoding of auditory stimuli into the phonological store. These data corroborate neuroimaging studies showing focal cerebellar activation during VWM paradigms, and thereby allow us to predict with greater accuracy which specific neurocognitive processes will be affected by a cerebellar tumor resection.

  10. Factors associated with the misdiagnosis of cerebellar infarction.

    Masuda, Yoko; Tei, Hideaki; Shimizu, Satoru; Uchiyama, Shinichiro

    2013-10-01

    Cerebellar infarction is easily misdiagnosed or underdiagnosed. In this study, we investigated factors leading to misdiagnosis of cerebellar infarction in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Data on neurological and radiological findings from 114 consecutive patients with acute cerebellar infarction were analyzed. We investigated factors associated with misdiagnosis from the data on clinical findings. Thirty-two (28%) patients were misdiagnosed on admission. Misdiagnosis was significantly more frequent in patients below 60 years of age and in patients with vertebral artery dissection, and significantly less frequent in patients with dysarthria. It tended to be more frequent in patients with the medial branch of posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory infarction, and infrequent in patients with the medial branch of the superior cerebellar artery territory infarction. Thirty out of 32 (94%) misdiagnosed patients were seen by physicians that were not neurologists at the first visit. Twenty-four of 32 (75%) misdiagnosed patients were screened only by brain CT. However, patients were not checked by brain MRI or follow-up CT until their conditions worsened. Patients below 60 years of age and patients with vertebral artery dissection are more likely to have a cerebellar infarction misdiagnosed by physicians other than neurologists. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Superior anti-suicidal effects of electroconvulsive therapy in unipolar disorder and bipolar depression.

    Liang, Chih-Sung; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Ho, Pei-Shen; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2017-12-11

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has long been believed to reduce suicidal tendencies in patients with affective disorders; however, ECT recipients, who constitute the most severely ill and suicidal patients, are not eligible to participate in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. Large-scale studies are required to investigate the anti-suicidal effects of ECT vs psychopharmacotherapy. A nationwide retrospective cohort study design was used. Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Inpatients with unipolar disorder or bipolar disorder who received ECT (n = 487) were observed from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2013 for suicide events. The non-ECT control cohort consisted of inpatients with psychopharmacotherapy randomly matched (ratio, 1:4) by age, sex, and diagnosis. After potential confounds had been accounted for, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.803, indicating that ECT recipients showed a 19.7% lower risk of suicide than control individuals. The stratum-specific adjusted HR was 0.79 in patients with unipolar disorder (P = .041) and 0.923 in patients with bipolar disorder (P = .254). Upon further stratification of the patients with bipolar disorder by their affective states, the adjusted HR was 0.805 (P = .046) for bipolar depression, 1.048 for bipolar mania (P = .538), and 0.976 for mixed bipolar state (P = .126). Compared with psychopharmacotherapy, ECT exerted superior anti-suicidal effects in patients with unipolar disorder and bipolar depression; however, there was a lack of superior anti-suicidal effects of ECT in the treatment of patients with bipolar mania and mixed state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The unipolar ASR : Viable option in unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient

    Marya SKS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The management of unsalvageable femoral head conditions in the young patient has remained an unresolved dilemma. Articular surface replacement of the hip has recently made some headway in terms of providing near-normal hip joint mechanics and function. However, this surgery has been limited to early stages of arthritis only with reasonable maintenance of head-neck congruity and morphology. Femoral neck fractures, osteonecrosis with large segment collapse, advanced arthritis with femoral incongruity, etc are traditional contraindications to the resurfacing technique. Methods: We present here a report on our series of 20 cases of unsalvageable femoral heads in young patients (age range, 27 to 52yrs, over a twelve month period (Aug 2004 to Jul 2005, treated with the unipolar ASR prosthesis. Fifteen patients (two had bilateral hip pathology had primary or secondary arthritis (degenerative, post-traumatic, ankylosing spondylitis and post-avascular necrosis while three had old operated femoral neck fractures. All patients underwent hip replacement surgery using the Unipolar ASR prosthesis. Results: Clinical and radiological results at 6-month follow up have been very encouraging and warrant further study. At an average of 4 months post-operatively, patients were able to squat, sit on the ground and perform light sporting activities. Conclusions: The Unipolar ASR prosthesis is an extension of the articular resurfacing technique employing similar principles (large size bearings, metal-on-metal interfaces, and has incorporated the advantages of the uncemented technique. We propose that this technique be more frequently used so as to brighten the prognosis of the young active patient with unsalvageable hip conditions, especially in the Asian scenario.

  13. The Mood Spectrum and Temperamental Instability in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder.

    Kumar, Manish; Saha, Pradeep Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha

    2017-01-01

    The current categorical split of mood disorders in bipolar (BP) disorders and depressive disorders has recently been questioned. The presence of a significant number of manic/hypomanic symptoms in patients with recurrent unipolar depression seems to challenge the traditional dichotomy of unipolar-BP disorder. Two highly unstable personality features, i.e., the cyclothymic temperament (CT) and borderline personality disorder, have been found to be more common in BP disorder than in major depressive disorder. The aim was to assess the distributions of the number of mood spectrum, CT, and borderline personality items between two groups. Finding no bimodal distribution (a "zone of rarity") of these items would support a continuity between the two disorders. Forty euthymic BP disorder patients and forty unipolar depression patients were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the Mood Spectrum, which assesses lifetime symptoms, traits, and lifestyles that characterize threshold and subthreshold mood episodes. CT was assessed using Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-A relative to CT and borderline personality trait (BPT) was assessed using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders II personality questionnaire relative to BPT. The distribution of the number of CT and BPT items was studied by Kernel density estimate. Patient with recurrent depression endorsed manic/hypomanic items though less than BP group. However, the Kernel density estimates distributions of the number of hypomanic/manic items, CT and BPT items in the entire sample had a normal-like shape (i.e. no bimodality). Normal-like curves in the distributions of mood symptoms, number of CT and BPT items in the entire sample, suggest significant amount of overlap of these characteristic in both the groups. Using the bimodality approach, continuity between BP and major depressive disorder (MDD) seems to be supported, questioning the current categorical splitting of BP and

  14. Failure of communication and capture: The perils of temporary unipolar pacing system.

    Sahinoglu, Efe; Wool, Thomas J; Wool, Kenneth J

    2015-06-01

    We present a case of a patient with pacemaker dependence secondary to complete heart block who developed loss of capture of her temporary pacemaker. Patient developed torsades de pointes then ventricular fibrillation, requiring CPR and external cardioversion. After patient was stabilized, it was noticed that loss of capture of pacemaker corresponded with nursing care, when the pulse generator was lifted off patient׳s chest wall, and that patient׳s temporary pacing system had been programmed to unipolar mode without knowledge of attending cardiologist. This case highlights the importance of communication ensuring all caregivers are aware of mode of the temporary pacing system.

  15. Failure of communication and capture: The perils of temporary unipolar pacing system

    Efe Sahinoglu, BChE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a patient with pacemaker dependence secondary to complete heart block who developed loss of capture of her temporary pacemaker. Patient developed torsades de pointes then ventricular fibrillation, requiring CPR and external cardioversion. After patient was stabilized, it was noticed that loss of capture of pacemaker corresponded with nursing care, when the pulse generator was lifted off patient׳s chest wall, and that patient׳s temporary pacing system had been programmed to unipolar mode without knowledge of attending cardiologist. This case highlights the importance of communication ensuring all caregivers are aware of mode of the temporary pacing system.

  16. Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?

    Sejbaek, Camilla S; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2015-01-01

    of unipolar depression compared with women with a live birth after ART treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The Danish National ART-Couple (DANAC) Cohort is a national register-based cohort study that consists of women who received ART treatment from 1 January 1994 to 30 September 2009, in Denmark (n = 41 050......INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown conflicting results whether unsuccessful medically assisted reproduction is a risk factor for depression among women. This study therefore investigated if women with no live birth after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment had a higher risk......). Information on unipolar depression was obtained from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. The analyses were conducted in Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: During the 308 494 person-years of follow up, 552 women were diagnosed with unipolar depression. A Cox proportional hazards model showed...

  17. High performance unipolar inverters by utilizing organic field-effect transistors with ultraviolet/ozone treated polystyrene dielectric

    Huang, Wei; Yu, Xinge; Fan, Huidong; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    High performance unipolar inverters based on a significant variation of threshold voltage (V th ) of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), which was realized by introducing UV/ozone (UVO) treatment to polystyrene (PS) dielectric, were fabricated. A controllable V th shift of more than 10 V was obtained in the OFETs by adjusting the UVO treating time, and the unipolar inverters exhibited inverting voltage near 1/2 driving voltage and a noise margin of more than 70% of ideal value. From the analysis of scanning electron microscopy, atom force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the dramatic controllable V th of OFETs, which played a key role in high performance unipolar inverters, was attributed to the newly generated oxygen functional groups in the PS dielectric induced by UVO treatment.

  18. Electrophysiological mapping of novel prefrontal - cerebellar pathways

    Thomas C Watson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Whilst the cerebellum is predominantly considered a sensorimotor control structure, accumulating evidence suggests that it may also subserve non motor functions during cognition. However, this possibility is not universally accepted, not least because the nature and pattern of links between higher cortical structures and the cerebellum are poorly characterized. We have therefore used in vivo electrophysiological methods in anaesthetized rats to directly investigate connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic subdivision, PrL and the cerebellum. Stimulation of deep layers of PrL evoked distinct field potentials in the cerebellar cortex with a mean latency to peak of approximately 35ms. These responses showed a well-defined topography, and were maximal in lobule VII of the contralateral vermis (a known oculomotor centre; they were not attenuated by local anesthesia of the overlying M2 motor cortex, though M2 stimulation did evoke field potentials in lobule VII with a shorter latency. Single-unit recordings showed that prelimbic cortical stimulation elicits complex spikes in lobule VII Purkinje cells, indicating transmission via a previously undescribed cerebro-olivocerebellar pathway. Our results therefore establish a physiological basis for communication between PrL and the cerebellum. The role(s of this pathway remain to be resolved, but presumably relate to control of eye movements and/or distributed networks associated with integrated prefrontal cortical functions.

  19. A cerebellar neuroprosthetic system: computational architecture and in vivo experiments

    Ivan eHerreros Alonso

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Emulating the input-output functions performed by a brain structure opens the possibility for developing neuro-prosthetic systems that replace damaged neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by replacing the cerebellar circuit responsible for the acquisition and extinction of motor memories. Specifically, we show that a rat can undergo acquisition, retention and extinction of the eye-blink reflex even though the biological circuit responsible for this task has been chemically inactivated via anesthesia. This is achieved by first developing a computational model of the cerebellar microcircuit involved in the acquisition of conditioned reflexes and training it with synthetic data generated based on physiological recordings. Secondly, the cerebellar model is interfaced with the brain of an anesthetized rat, connecting the model's inputs and outputs to afferent and efferent cerebellar structures. As a result, we show that the anesthetized rat, equipped with our neuro-prosthetic system, can be classically conditioned to the acquisition of an eye-blink response. However, non-stationarities in the recorded biological signals limit the performance of the cerebellar model. Thus, we introduce an updated cerebellar model and validate it with physiological recordings showing that learning becomes stable and reliable. The resulting system represents an important step towards replacing lost functions of the central nervous system via neuro-prosthetics, obtained by integrating a synthetic circuit with the afferent and efferent pathways of a damaged brain region. These results also embody an early example of science-based medicine, where on the one hand the neuro-prosthetic system directly validates a theory of cerebellar learning that informed the design of the system, and on the other one it takes a step towards the development of neuro-prostheses that could recover lost learning functions in animals and, in the longer term

  20. Microvascular anatomy of the cerebellar parafloccular perforating space.

    Sosa, Pablo; Dujovny, Manuel; Onyekachi, Ibe; Sockwell, Noressia; Cremaschi, Fabián; Savastano, Luis E

    2016-02-01

    The cerebellopontine angle is a common site for tumor growth and vascular pathologies requiring surgical manipulations that jeopardize cranial nerve integrity and cerebellar and brainstem perfusion. To date, a detailed study of vessels perforating the cisternal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle-namely, the paraflocculus or parafloccular perforating space-has yet to be published. In this report, the perforating vessels of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in the parafloccular space, or on the cisternal surface of the middle cerebellar peduncle, are described to elucidate their relevance pertaining to microsurgery and the different pathologies that occur at the cerebellopontine angle. Fourteen cadaveric cerebellopontine cisterns (CPCs) were studied. Anatomical dissections and analysis of the perforating arteries of the AICA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery at the parafloccular space were recorded using direct visualization by surgical microscope, optical histology, and scanning electron microscope. A comprehensive review of the English-language and Spanish-language literature was also performed, and findings related to anatomy, histology, physiology, neurology, neuroradiology, microsurgery, and endovascular surgery pertaining to the cerebellar flocculus or parafloccular spaces are summarized. A total of 298 perforating arteries were found in the dissected specimens, with a minimum of 15 to a maximum of 26 vessels per parafloccular perforating space. The average outer diameter of the cisternal portion of the perforating arteries was 0.11 ± 0.042 mm (mean ± SD) and the average length was 2.84 ± 1.2 mm. Detailed schematics and the surgical anatomy of the perforating vessels at the CPC and their clinical relevance are reported. The parafloccular space is a key entry point for many perforating vessels toward the middle cerebellar peduncle and lateral brainstem, and it must be respected and protected during surgical approaches to the

  1. A Cerebellar Neuroprosthetic System: Computational Architecture and in vivo Test

    Herreros, Ivan; Giovannucci, Andrea; Taub, Aryeh H.; Hogri, Roni; Magal, Ari; Bamford, Sim; Prueckl, Robert; Verschure, Paul F. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Emulating the input–output functions performed by a brain structure opens the possibility for developing neuroprosthetic systems that replace damaged neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by replacing the cerebellar circuit responsible for the acquisition and extinction of motor memories. Specifically, we show that a rat can undergo acquisition, retention, and extinction of the eye-blink reflex even though the biological circuit responsible for this task has been chemically inactivated via anesthesia. This is achieved by first developing a computational model of the cerebellar microcircuit involved in the acquisition of conditioned reflexes and training it with synthetic data generated based on physiological recordings. Secondly, the cerebellar model is interfaced with the brain of an anesthetized rat, connecting the model’s inputs and outputs to afferent and efferent cerebellar structures. As a result, we show that the anesthetized rat, equipped with our neuroprosthetic system, can be classically conditioned to the acquisition of an eye-blink response. However, non-stationarities in the recorded biological signals limit the performance of the cerebellar model. Thus, we introduce an updated cerebellar model and validate it with physiological recordings showing that learning becomes stable and reliable. The resulting system represents an important step toward replacing lost functions of the central nervous system via neuroprosthetics, obtained by integrating a synthetic circuit with the afferent and efferent pathways of a damaged brain region. These results also embody an early example of science-based medicine, where on the one hand the neuroprosthetic system directly validates a theory of cerebellar learning that informed the design of the system, and on the other one it takes a step toward the development of neuro-prostheses that could recover lost learning functions in animals and, in the longer term, humans.

  2. A Cerebellar Neuroprosthetic System: Computational Architecture and in vivo Test

    Herreros, Ivan; Giovannucci, Andrea [Synthetic Perceptive, Emotive and Cognitive Systems group (SPECS), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Taub, Aryeh H.; Hogri, Roni; Magal, Ari [Psychobiology Research Unit, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Bamford, Sim [Physics Laboratory, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome (Italy); Prueckl, Robert [Guger Technologies OG, Graz (Austria); Verschure, Paul F. M. J., E-mail: paul.verschure@upf.edu [Synthetic Perceptive, Emotive and Cognitive Systems group (SPECS), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-05-21

    Emulating the input–output functions performed by a brain structure opens the possibility for developing neuroprosthetic systems that replace damaged neuronal circuits. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by replacing the cerebellar circuit responsible for the acquisition and extinction of motor memories. Specifically, we show that a rat can undergo acquisition, retention, and extinction of the eye-blink reflex even though the biological circuit responsible for this task has been chemically inactivated via anesthesia. This is achieved by first developing a computational model of the cerebellar microcircuit involved in the acquisition of conditioned reflexes and training it with synthetic data generated based on physiological recordings. Secondly, the cerebellar model is interfaced with the brain of an anesthetized rat, connecting the model’s inputs and outputs to afferent and efferent cerebellar structures. As a result, we show that the anesthetized rat, equipped with our neuroprosthetic system, can be classically conditioned to the acquisition of an eye-blink response. However, non-stationarities in the recorded biological signals limit the performance of the cerebellar model. Thus, we introduce an updated cerebellar model and validate it with physiological recordings showing that learning becomes stable and reliable. The resulting system represents an important step toward replacing lost functions of the central nervous system via neuroprosthetics, obtained by integrating a synthetic circuit with the afferent and efferent pathways of a damaged brain region. These results also embody an early example of science-based medicine, where on the one hand the neuroprosthetic system directly validates a theory of cerebellar learning that informed the design of the system, and on the other one it takes a step toward the development of neuro-prostheses that could recover lost learning functions in animals and, in the longer term, humans.

  3. Alterations in peripheral fatty acid composition in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Scola, Gustavo; Versace, Amelia; Metherel, Adam H; Monsalve-Castro, Luz A; Phillips, Mary L; Bazinet, Richard P; Andreazza, Ana C

    2018-06-01

    Lipid metabolism has been shown to play an important role in unipolar and bipolar depression. In this study, we aimed to evaluate levels of fatty acids in patients with unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDD) in comparison to patients with bipolar disorder in euthymia (BDE) and non-psychiatric controls. Levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were assessed in serum of (87) patients with BD (31 euthymic, 22 depressive) or MDD (34) and (31) non-psychiatric controls through GC-FID. No significant difference in total levels of PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids), SFAs (saturated fatty acids), MUFAs (monounsaturated fatty acids) and total fatty acids were found between groups. Our results demonstrated higher levels AA: EPA and AA: EPA+DHA in patients with BDD. Additionally, we observed that overall omega-6 present a positive correlation with illness duration in patients with BDD and AA: EPA ratio positively associated with illness duration in MDD group. Depression severity was positively associated with AA: EPA+DHA ratio in all participants. Together, our results support the relevance for the balance of omega-3 and omega-6 in BDD. Also, our results suggest a potential subset of stage-related lipid biomarkers that further studies are needed to help clarify the dynamics of lipid alteration in BD and MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pituitary gland volume in adolescent and young adult bipolar and unipolar depression.

    MacMaster, Frank P; Leslie, Ronald; Rosenberg, David R; Kusumakar, Vivek

    2008-02-01

    Few studies have examined pituitary gland size in mood disorders, particularly in adolescents. We hypothesized increase in the pituitary gland size in early-onset mood disorders. Thirty subjects between the ages of 13 and 20 years participated in the study. Three groups (control, bipolar I depression and unipolar depression) of 10 subjects each (4 male, 6 female) underwent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. Analysis of covariance (covarying for age, sex and intracranial volume) revealed a significant difference in pituitary gland volume amongst the groups [F(2,24) = 7.092, p = 0.014]. Post hoc analysis revealed that controls had a significantly smaller pituitary gland volume than both bipolar patients (p = 0.019) and depressed patients (p = 0.049). Bipolar and depressed subjects did not differ significantly from each other with regard to pituitary gland volume (p = 0.653). Control females had larger pituitary glands than control males [F(1,8) = 10.523, p = 0.012], but no sex differences were noted in the mood disorder groups. Pituitary glands are enlarged in adolescents with mood disorders compared to controls. Healthy young females have larger pituitary glands than males, but such a difference is not evident in individuals with unipolar depression or bipolar disorder. These findings provide new evidence of abnormalities of the pituitary in early onset mood disorders, and are consistent with neuroendocrine dysfunction in early stages of such illnesses.

  5. Unipolar time-differential charge sensing in non-dispersive amorphous solids

    Goldan, A. H.; Rowlands, J. A.; Tousignant, O.; Karim, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of high resistivity amorphous solids as photodetectors, especially amorphous selenium, is currently of great interest because they are readily produced over large area at substantially lower cost compared to grown crystalline solids. However, amorphous solids have been ruled out as viable radiation detection media for high frame-rate applications, such as single-photon-counting imaging, because of low carrier mobilities, transit-time-limited photoresponse, and consequently, poor time resolution. To circumvent the problem of poor charge transport in amorphous solids, we propose unipolar time-differential charge sensing by establishing a strong near-field effect using an electrostatic shield within the material. For the first time, we have fabricated a true Frisch grid inside a solid-state detector by evaporating amorphous selenium over photolithographically prepared multi-well substrates. The fabricated devices are characterized with optical, x-ray, and gamma-ray impulse-like excitations. Results prove the proposed unipolar time-differential property and show that time resolution in non-dispersive amorphous solids can be improved substantially to reach the theoretical limit set by spatial spreading of the collected Gaussian carrier cloud.

  6. Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity in Unipolar Silicon Oxide RRAM Devices.

    Zarudnyi, Konstantin; Mehonic, Adnan; Montesi, Luca; Buckwell, Mark; Hudziak, Stephen; Kenyon, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Resistance switching, or Resistive RAM (RRAM) devices show considerable potential for application in hardware spiking neural networks (neuro-inspired computing) by mimicking some of the behavior of biological synapses, and hence enabling non-von Neumann computer architectures. Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) is one such behavior, and one example of several classes of plasticity that are being examined with the aim of finding suitable algorithms for application in many computing tasks such as coincidence detection, classification and image recognition. In previous work we have demonstrated that the neuromorphic capabilities of silicon-rich silicon oxide (SiO x ) resistance switching devices extend beyond plasticity to include thresholding, spiking, and integration. We previously demonstrated such behaviors in devices operated in the unipolar mode, opening up the question of whether we could add plasticity to the list of features exhibited by our devices. Here we demonstrate clear STDP in unipolar devices. Significantly, we show that the response of our devices is broadly similar to that of biological synapses. This work further reinforces the potential of simple two-terminal RRAM devices to mimic neuronal functionality in hardware spiking neural networks.

  7. Association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene locus (DRD3) and unipolar affective disorder.

    Dikeos, D G; Papadimitriou, G N; Avramopoulos, D; Karadima, G; Daskalopoulou, E G; Souery, D; Mendlewicz, J; Vassilopoulos, D; Stefanis, C N

    1999-12-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and, more recently, affective disorders. Among the dopamine receptors, D3 can be considered as particularly related to affective disorders due to its neuroanatomical localization in the limbic region of the brain and its relation to the serotoninergic activity of the CNS. The possible involvement of dopamine receptor D3 in unipolar (UP) major depression was investigated by a genetic association study of the D3 receptor gene locus (DRD3) on 36 UP patients and 38 ethnically matched controls. An allelic association of DRD3 (Bal I polymorphism) and UP illness was observed, with the Gly-9 allele (allele '2', 206/98 base-pairs long) being more frequent in patients than in controls (49% vs 29%, P < 0.02). The genotypes containing this allele (1-2 and 2-2) were found in 75% of patients vs 50% of controls (P < 0.03, odds ratio = 3.00, 95% CI = 1.12-8.05). The effect of the genotype remained significant (P < 0.02) after sex and family history were controlled by a multiple linear regression analysis. These results further support the hypothesis that dopaminergic mechanisms may be implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorder. More specifically, the '2' allele of the dopamine receptor D3 gene seems to be associated with unipolar depression and can be considered as a 'phenotypic modifier' for major psychiatric disorders.

  8. On Recording the Unipolar ECG Limb Leads via the Wilson's vs the Goldberger's Terminals: aVR, aVL, and aVF Revisited

    John E. Madias

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The augmented unipolar limb leads aVR, aVL, and aVF, introduced by Goldberger in 1942, are an integral part of the 12-lead ECG.1,2 Leads I, II, and III have 2 dedicated electrodes, but the other 9 leads have a single dedicated electrode, and another one constructed from the averaged inputs of multiple electrodes. This Viewpoint discusses whether an indifferent pole for the recording of unipolar limb leads is best provided by the Wilson's central terminal (WCT, or by inputs from 2 limb electrodes (Goldberger's central terminal (GCT, as done currently, and whether the latter have any advantages over the former. The term "unipolar", popularized by Wilson, is a misnomer, since no leads can be truly "unipolar", all requiring positive and negative poles. Thus the term unipolar is used herein in the quasi-unipolar sense, as when first introduced by Wilson and Goldberger, who also realized that such leads were not truly unipolar. The popularity of the unipolar leads reflected the quest of recording the ECG from various vantage points of the body, considering the limitations of the 3 bipolar leads, introduced by Einthoven,3 which register the difference of 2 ECG curves recorded at the 2 poles of these leads, and no variation in potential at each of these poles.4 In contrast the unipolar leads were thought to register such variation of absolute potential, something not really true. Initially the WCT was used to record the unipolar limb leads,5 but the amplitude was low, and the inscribed ECGs, then, and for many decades later,6 were thick-lined (≥2 mm (Figure 1.

  9. Distributed Cerebellar Motor Learning; a Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity Model

    Niceto Rafael Luque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep cerebellar nuclei neurons receive both inhibitory (GABAergic synaptic currents from Purkinje cells (within the cerebellar cortex and excitatory (glutamatergic synaptic currents from mossy fibres. Those two deep cerebellar nucleus inputs are thought to be also adaptive, embedding interesting properties in the framework of accurate movements. We show that distributed spike-timing-dependent plasticity mechanisms (STDP located at different cerebellar sites (parallel fibres to Purkinje cells, mossy fibres to deep cerebellar nucleus cells, and Purkinje cells to deep cerebellar nucleus cells in close-loop simulations provide an explanation for the complex learning properties of the cerebellum in motor learning. Concretely, we propose a new mechanistic cerebellar spiking model. In this new model, deep cerebellar nuclei embed a dual functionality: deep cerebellar nuclei acting as a gain adaptation mechanism and as a facilitator for the slow memory consolidation at mossy fibres to deep cerebellar nucleus synapses. Equipping the cerebellum with excitatory (e-STDP and inhibitory (i-STDP mechanisms at deep cerebellar nuclei afferents allows the accommodation of synaptic memories that were formed at parallel fibres to Purkinje cells synapses and then transferred to mossy fibres to deep cerebellar nucleus synapses. These adaptive mechanisms also contribute to modulate the deep-cerebellar-nucleus-output firing rate (output gain modulation towards optimising its working range.

  10. Thalamic, brainstem, and cerebellar glucose metabolism in the hemiplegic monkey

    Shimoyama, I.; Dauth, G.W.; Gilman, S.; Frey, K.A.; Penney, J.B. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    Unilateral ablation of cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 of Brodmann in the macaque monkey results in a contralateral hemiplegia that resolves partially with time. During the phase of dense hemiplegia, local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (1CMRG1c) is decreased significantly in most of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation, and there are slight contralateral decreases. The lCMRGlc is reduced bilaterally in most of the brainstem nuclei and bilaterally in the deep cerebellar nuclei, but only in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. During the phase of partial motor recovery, lCMRGlc is incompletely restored in many of the thalamic nuclei ipsilateral to the ablation and completely restored in the contralateral nuclei. In the brainstem and deep cerebellar nuclei, poor to moderate recovery occurs bilaterally. Moderate recovery occurs in the contralateral cerebellar cortex. The findings demonstrate that a unilateral cerebral cortical lesion strongly affects lCMRGlc in the thalamus ipsilaterally and in the cerebellar cortex contralaterally, but in the brainstem bilaterally. Partial recovery of lCMRGlc accompanies the progressive motor recovery. The structures affected include those with direct, and also those with indirect, connections to the areas ablated.

  11. Does cerebellar neuronal integrity relate to cognitive ability?

    Rae, C.; Lee, M.; Dixon, R.M.; Blamire, A.; Thompson, C.; Styles, P.; Radda, G.K.; University of Sydney, NSW; Karmiloff-Smith, A.; Grant, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows the non-invasive measurement of metabolite levels in the brain. One of these is N-acetylaspartate (NA), a molecule found solely in neurones, synthesised there by mitochondria. This compound can be considered as a marker of 1) neuronal density and 2) neuronal mitochondria function. We recently completed a joint MRS and neuropsychological investigation of Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS), a rare (1/20,000) autosomal dominant disorder caused by a deletion which includes the elastin locus and LIM-kinase. The syndrome has an associated behavioural and cognitive profile which includes hyperactivity, hyperacusis and excessive sociability. Spatial skills are severely affected, while verbal skills are left relatively intact Our investigation showed loss of NA from the cerebellum in WBS compared with normal controls, with the subject population as a whole displaying a continuum of cerebellar NA concentration. Ability at cognitive tests, including the Weschler IQ scale and various verbal and spatial tests, was shown to correlate significantly and positively with the concentration of NA in the cerebellum. This finding can be interpreted in one of two ways: 1. Our sampling of cerebellar metabolite levels represents a 'global' sampling of total brain neuronal density and, as such, is independent of cerebellar integrity. 2. Cerebellar neuronal integrity is associated with performance at cognitive tests. If the latter interpretation is shown to be the case, it will have important implications for our current understanding of cerebellar function. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  12. Mice deficient in carbonic anhydrase type 8 exhibit motor dysfunctions and abnormal calcium dynamics in the somatic region of cerebellar granule cells.

    Lamont, Matthew G; Weber, John T

    2015-06-01

    The waddles (wdl) mouse is characterized by a namesake "side-to-side" waddling gait due to a homozygous mutation of the Car8 gene. This mutation results in non-functional copies of the protein carbonic anhydrase type 8. Rota-rod testing was conducted to characterize the wdl mutations' effect on motor output. Results indicated that younger homozygotes outperformed their older cohorts, an effect not seen in previous studies. Heterozygotes, which were thought to be free of motor impairment, displayed motor learning deficiencies when compared with wild type performance. Acute cerebellar slices were then utilized for fluorescent calcium imaging experiments, which revealed significant alterations in cerebellar granule cell somatic calcium signaling when exposed to glutamate. The contribution of GABAergic signaling to these alterations was also verified using bath application of bicuculline. Changes in somatic calcium signals were found to be applicable to an in vivo scenario by comparing group responses to electrical stimulation of afferent mossy fiber projections. Finally, intracellular calcium store function was also found to be altered by the wdl mutation when slices were treated with thapsigargin. These findings, taken together with previous work on the wdl mouse, indicate a widespread disruption in cerebellar circuitry hampering proper neuronal communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression : a randomized, double-blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine, and venlafaxine plus quetiapine

    Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; van den Broek, W. W.; Birkenhager, T. K.; Janzing, J. G. E.; Boks, M. P. M.; Bruijn, J. A.; van der Loos, M. L. M.; Breteler, L. M. T.; Ramaekers, G. M. G. I.; Verkes, R. J.; Nolen, W. A.

    Objective: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. Method: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 >= 18 were randomized to

  14. Treatment of unipolar psychotic depression: a randomized, double-blind study comparing imipramine, venlafaxine, and venlafaxine plus quetiapine.

    Wijkstra, J.; Burger, H.; Broek, W.W. van den; Birkenhäger, T.K.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Boks, M.P.; Bruijn, J.A.; Loos, M.L. van der; Breteler, L.M.; Ramaekers, G.M.; Verkes, R.J.; Nolen, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether unipolar psychotic depression should be treated with an antidepressant and an antipsychotic or with an antidepressant alone. METHOD: In a multi-center RCT, 122 patients (18-65 years) with DSM-IV-TR psychotic major depression and HAM-D-17 > or = 18 were

  15. Rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar to bipolar disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Willer, Inge; Andersen, Per Kragh; Bukh, Jens Drachman

    2017-08-01

    For the first time to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of the conversion rate and predictors of conversion from unipolar disorder to bipolar disorder. A systematic literature search up to October 2016 was performed. For the meta-analysis, we only included studies that used survival analysis to estimate the conversion rate. A total of 31 studies were identified, among which 11 used survival analyses, including two register-based studies. The yearly rate of conversion to bipolar disorder decreased with time from 3.9% in the first year after study entry with a diagnosis of unipolar disorder to 3.1% in years 1-2, 1.0% in years 2-5 and 0.8% in years 5-10. A total of eight risk factors were evaluated comprising gender, age at onset of unipolar disorder, number of depressive episodes, treatment resistance to antidepressants, family history of bipolar disorder, the prevalence of psychotic depression, the prevalence of chronic depression, and severity of depression. It was not possible to identify risk factors that were consistently or mainly confirmed to predict conversion across studies. The conversion rate from unipolar to bipolar disorder decreases with time. It was not possible to identify predictors of conversion that were consistently or mainly confirmed across studies, which may be due to variations in methodology across studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The cumulative load of depressive illness is associated with cognitive function in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, U; Hasselbalch, S G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the cumulative number, duration and subtypes (severity and presence of psychotic features) of previous episodes of depression in patients with unipolar depressive disorder in a remitted state are associated with decreased global cognitive function. METHODS: Via t...

  17. Role of Parenting and Maltreatment Histories in Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders: Mediation by Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Smith, Jeannette M.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Neeren, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we review empirical research on the role of individuals' parenting and maltreatment histories as developmental antecedents for symptoms and diagnosable episodes of unipolar and bipolar spectrum disorders. Our review is focused on the following three overarching questions: (1) Do negative parenting and a history of maltreatment…

  18. Genetic association between the phospholipase A2 gene and unipolar affective disorder: a multicentre case-control study.

    Papadimitriou, George N; Dikeos, Dimitris G; Souery, Daniel; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Massat, Isabelle; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Blairy, Sylvie; Cichon, Sven; Ivezic, Sladjana; Kaneva, Radka; Karadima, Georgia; Lilli, Roberta; Milanova, Vihra; Nöthen, Markus; Oruc, Lilijana; Rietschel, Marcella; Serretti, Alessandro; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; Stefanis, Costas N; Mendlewicz, Julien

    2003-12-01

    The co-segregation in one pedigree of bipolar affective disorder with Darier's disease whose gene is on chromosome 12q23-q24.1, and findings from linkage and association studies with the neighbouring gene of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) indicate that PLA2 may be considered as a candidate gene for affective disorders. All relevant genetic association studies, however, were conducted on bipolar patients. In the present study, the possible association between the PLA2 gene and unipolar affective disorder was examined on 321 unipolar patients and 604 controls (all personally interviewed), recruited from six countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Greece, and Italy) participating in the European Collaborative Project on Affective Disorders. After controlling for population group and gender, one of the eight alleles of the investigated marker (allele 7) was found to be more frequent among unipolar patients with more than three major depressive episodes than among controls (P<0.01); genotypic association was also observed, under the dominant model of genetic transmission (P<0.02). In addition, presence of allele 7 was correlated with a higher frequency of depressive episodes (P<0.02). These findings suggest that structural variations at the PLA2 gene or the chromosomal region around it may confer susceptibility for unipolar affective disorder.

  19. Olivary degeneration after cerebellar or brain stem haemorrhage: MRI

    Uchino, A. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan) Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Hasuo, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Uchida, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Matsumoto, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan)); Tsukamoto, Y. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Ohno, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Masuda, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Kyushu Univ. Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of seven patients with olivary degeneration caused by cerebellar or brain stem haemorrhages were reviewed. In four patients with cerebellar haemorrhage, old haematomas were identified as being located in the dentate nucleus; the contralateral inferior olivary nuclei were hyperintense on proton-density- and T2-weighted images. In two patients with pontine haemorrhages, the old haematomas were in the tegmentum and the ipsilateral inferior olivary nuclei, which were hyperintense. In one case of midbrain haemorrhage, the inferior olivary nuclei were hyperintense bilaterally. The briefest interval from the ictus to MRI was 2 months. Hypertrophic olivary nuclei were observed only at least 4 months after the ictus. Olivary degeneration after cerebellar or brain stem haemorrhage should not be confused with ischaemic, neoplastic, or other primary pathological conditions of the medulla. (orig.)

  20. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  1. Distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome after acoustic neuroma surgery.

    Hegarty, Joseph L; Jackler, Robert K; Rigby, Peter L; Pitts, Lawrence H; Cheung, Steven W

    2002-07-01

    To define a clinicopathologic syndrome associated with persistent cerebellar dysfunction after acoustic neuroma (AN) excision. Case series derived from radiographic and clinical chart review. Tertiary referral center. In 12 patients with AN, persistent cerebellar dysfunction developed after AN removal. Each case demonstrated abnormality in the ipsilateral cerebellar peduncle on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebellar function and ambulatory status over the first postoperative year. On magnetic resonance imaging scans, the extent of cerebellar peduncle infarcts was variable. It ranged from focal brain injury (2 cm) spanning the full thickness of the peduncle. Peduncular infarcts were associated with large tumor size (average 3.8 cm, range 2.0-5.5 cm diameter). The long-term functional outcomes (>1 yr) varied. Dysmetria was unchanged or improved in over half of the patients (6 of 11 patients). Gait recovered to normal or to preoperative levels in 5 patients. In the 6 patients with persistent impaired mobility, 2 had mild gait disturbance, 3 required regular use of a cane, and 1 has been dependent on a walker. One patient had sustained mild motor weakness. Three of 11 patients remained dependent on others for activities of daily living. Peduncle injury most likely stems from interruption of distal branches of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). These small vessels are intimately related to the capsule of the tumor and may supply both the neoplasm and the brain parenchyma. It has long been recognized that interruption of the proximal segment of the AICA results in severe injury to the pons, with devastating neurologic sequelae. A limited AICA syndrome caused by loss of its distal ramifications seems a more plausible explanation for peduncular infarction than either venous insufficiency or direct surgical trauma.

  2. Coexistence of unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors in NiFe2O4 thin film devices by doping Ag nanoparticles

    Hao, Aize; Ismail, Muhammad; He, Shuai; Huang, Wenhua; Qin, Ni; Bao, Dinghua

    2018-02-01

    The coexistence of unipolar and bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviors of Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) doped NiFe2O4 (NFO) based memory devices was investigated. The switching voltages of required operations in the unipolar mode were smaller than those in the bipolar mode, while ON/OFF resistance levels of both modes were identical. Ag-NPs doped NFO based devices could switch between the unipolar and bipolar modes just by preferring the polarity of RESET voltage. Besides, the necessity of identical compliance current during the SET process of unipolar and bipolar modes provided an additional advantage of simplicity in device operation. Performance characteristics and cycle-to-cycle uniformity (>103 cycles) in unipolar operation were considerably better than those in bipolar mode (>102 cycles) at 25 °C. Moreover, good endurance (>600 cycles) at 200 °C was observed in unipolar mode and excellent nondestructive retention characteristics were obtained on memory cells at 125 °C and 200 °C. On the basis of temperature dependence of resistance at low resistance state, it was believed that physical origin of the RS mechanism involved the formation/rupture of the conducting paths consisting of oxygen vacancies and Ag atoms, considering Joule heating and electrochemical redox reaction effects for the unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors. Our results demonstrate that 0.5% Ag-NPs doped nickel ferrites are promising resistive switching materials for resistive access memory applications.

  3. Recent Advances in Cerebellar Ischemic Stroke Syndromes Causing Vertigo and Hearing Loss.

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2016-12-01

    Cerebellar ischemic stroke is one of the common causes of vascular vertigo. It usually accompanies other neurological symptoms or signs, but a small infarct in the cerebellum can present with vertigo without other localizing symptoms. Approximately 11 % of the patients with isolated cerebellar infarction simulated acute peripheral vestibulopathy, and most patients had an infarct in the territory of the medial branch of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). A head impulse test can differentiate acute isolated vertigo associated with PICA territory cerebellar infarction from more benign disorders involving the inner ear. Acute hearing loss (AHL) of a vascular cause is mostly associated with cerebellar infarction in the territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), but PICA territory cerebellar infarction rarely causes AHL. To date, at least eight subgroups of AICA territory infarction have been identified according to the pattern of neurotological presentations, among which the most common pattern of audiovestibular dysfunction is the combined loss of auditory and vestibular functions. Sometimes acute isolated audiovestibular loss can be the initial symptom of impending posterior circulation ischemic stroke (particularly within the territory of the AICA). Audiovestibular loss from cerebellar infarction has a good long-term outcome than previously thought. Approximately half of patients with superior cerebellar artery territory (SCA) cerebellar infarction experienced true vertigo, suggesting that the vertigo and nystagmus in the SCA territory cerebellar infarctions are more common than previously thought. In this article, recent findings on clinical features of vertigo and hearing loss from cerebellar ischemic stroke syndrome are summarized.

  4. A composite neurobehavioral test to evaluate acute functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage in rats.

    McBride, Devin W; Nowrangi, Derek; Kaur, Harpreet; Wu, Guangyong; Huang, Lei; Lekic, Tim; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2018-03-01

    Cerebellar haemorrhage accounts for 5-10% of all intracerebral haemorrhages and leads to severe, long-lasting functional deficits. Currently, there is limited research on this stroke subtype, which may be due to the lack of a suitable composite neuroscoring system specific for cerebellar injury in rodents. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive composite neuroscore test for cerebellar injury using a rat model of cerebellar haemorrhage. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either sham surgery or cerebellar haemorrhage. Twenty-four hours post-injury, neurological behaviour was evaluated using 17 cost-effective and easy-to-perform tests, and a composite neuroscore was developed. The composite neuroscore was then used to assess functional recovery over seven days after cerebellar haemorrhage. Differences in the composite neuroscore deficits for the mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage models were observed for up to five days post-ictus. Until now, a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was not available for rodent studies. Herein, using mild and moderate cerebellar haemorrhage rat models a composite neuroscore for cerebellar injury was developed and used to assess functional deficits after cerebellar haemorrhage. This composite neuroscore may also be useful for other cerebellar injury models.

  5. File list: DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  7. File list: Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 RNA polymerase Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  14. File list: Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  17. File list: Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Unclassified Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Histone Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685882,SRX685880 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 TFs and others Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685885,SRX685878,SRX685882,SRX685877,SRX685880,SRX685883 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  4. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 All antigens Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 DNase-seq Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... SRX685882,SRX685880,SRX685883,SRX685885,SRX685877,SRX685878 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  6. Surgical approach to posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    La Pira, Biagia; Sturiale, Carmelo Lucio; Della Pepa, Giuseppe Maria; Albanese, Alessio

    2018-02-01

    The far-lateral is a standardised approach to clip aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Different variants can be adopted to manage aneurysms that differ in morphology, topography, ruptured status, cerebellar swelling and surgeon preference. We distinguished five paradigmatic approaches aimed to manage aneurysms that are: proximal unruptured; proximal ruptured requiring posterior fossa decompression (PFD); proximal ruptured not requiring PFD; distal unruptured; distal ruptured. Preoperative planning in the setting of PICA aneurysm surgery is of paramount importance to perform an effective and safe procedure, to ensure an adequate PFD and optimal proximal control before aneurysm manipulation.

  7. Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome with crossed cerebellar atrophy

    Sanjay M. Khaladkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dyke–Davidoff–Masson syndrome is a rare condition with classical, clinical and radiological changes – mental retardation, hemiparesis, facial asymmetry, seizures and cerebral hemiatrophy with calvarial changes. Contralateral cerebellar atrophy is rare and occurs if insult occurs after 1 month of age. We report a case of a 6-year-old female child presenting with right-sided hemiparesis, convulsions and left cerebral hemiatrophy with an old infarct in left middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, ipsilateral calvarial thickening and right (crossed cerebellar atrophy.

  8. Biliary atresia and cerebellar hypoplasia in polysplenia syndrome

    Vanderdood, Kurt; Op de Beeck, Bart; Desprechins, Brigitte; Osteaux, Michel [Department of Radiology, Free University Brussels, AZ-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2003-09-01

    We report a 3.5-month-old boy with polysplenia syndrome who demonstrated hemiazygos continuation of the inferior vena cava, extrahepatic biliary atresia, multiple splenunculi, bowel malrotation, and the rare finding of brainstem and cerebellar hypoplasia. A possible pathogenesis for cerebellar hypoplasia in this syndrome is suggested after review of the literature. The importance of seeking associated anomalies in biliary atresia, which may be possible indicators of polysplenia syndrome, is stressed since these patients need appropriate management when surgery is considered. (orig.)

  9. Utility of unipolar recordings for complex Wolff–Parkinson–White ablation

    Ponnusamy Shunmuga Sundaram

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency ablation has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment strategy for the management of symptomatic patients with Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome. It is supported by a success rate of 95% and a recurrence rate of less than 5%. However, ablation of accessory pathways can be challenging at times. The causes for failure can be grouped into three categories – unusual location of the pathway, technical difficulties in delivering the ablation and localization error [1]. In this case report we are reporting a case of a young male who presented to us with symptomatic Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome with two failed prior ablations at another institution. This case illustrates the importance of knowing accurate localization and course of the accessory pathway by utilizing the unipolar and bipolar electrograms simultaneously during radiofrequency ablation.

  10. Lower Side Switching Modification of SHEPWM for Single H-Bridge Unipolar Inverter

    Aihsan, M. Z.

    2018-03-01

    Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM) is a famous fundamental frequency method for both single stage H-bridge inverter and cascaded multilevel inverters. The main function of SHEPWM is to eliminate the selective lower order of odd harmonic such 3rd, 5th 7th and 9th of the output voltage of the inverter but maintain the fundamental component. In this paper, the 5kHz of the unipolar SHEPWM switching scheme of the inverter is developed and later will be compared to the modified SHEPWM switching scheme. The performance of this inverter is measured through the final total harmonic distortion (THD), the efficiency of the whole system and the natural shape of the output after LC filter.

  11. Unipolar resistive switching in planar Pt/BiFeO3/Pt structure

    Rajesh K. Katiyar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report unipolar resistive switching suitable for nonvolatile memory applications in polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films in planar electrode configuration with non-overlapping Set and Reset voltages, On/Off resistance ratio of ∼104 and good data retention (verified for up to 3,000 s. We have also observed photovoltaic response in both high and low resistance states, where the photocurrent density was about three orders of magnitude higher in the low resistance state as compared to the high resistance state at an illumination power density of ∼100 mW/cm2. Resistive switching mechanisms in both resistance states of the planar device can be explained by using the conduction filament (thermo-chemical model.

  12. Large time behavior of entropy solutions to one-dimensional unipolar hydrodynamic model for semiconductor devices

    Huang, Feimin; Li, Tianhong; Yu, Huimin; Yuan, Difan

    2018-06-01

    We are concerned with the global existence and large time behavior of entropy solutions to the one-dimensional unipolar hydrodynamic model for semiconductors in the form of Euler-Poisson equations in a bounded interval. In this paper, we first prove the global existence of entropy solution by vanishing viscosity and compensated compactness framework. In particular, the solutions are uniformly bounded with respect to space and time variables by introducing modified Riemann invariants and the theory of invariant region. Based on the uniform estimates of density, we further show that the entropy solution converges to the corresponding unique stationary solution exponentially in time. No any smallness condition is assumed on the initial data and doping profile. Moreover, the novelty in this paper is about the unform bound with respect to time for the weak solutions of the isentropic Euler-Poisson system.

  13. Simulative Investigation on Spectral Efficiency of Unipolar Codes based OCDMA System using Importance Sampling Technique

    Farhat, A.; Menif, M.; Rezig, H.

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the spectral efficiency of Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system using Importance Sampling (IS) technique. We consider three configurations of OCDMA system namely Direct Sequence (DS), Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) and Fast Frequency Hopping (FFH) that exploits the Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBG) based encoder/decoder. We evaluate the spectral efficiency of the considered system by taking into consideration the effect of different families of unipolar codes for both coherent and incoherent sources. The results show that the spectral efficiency of OCDMA system with coherent source is higher than the incoherent case. We demonstrate also that DS-OCDMA outperforms both others in terms of spectral efficiency in all conditions.

  14. EVALUATION OF VARIOUS UNIPOLAR MULTICARRIER PWM STRATEGIES FOR FIVE LEVEL FLYING CAPACITOR INVERTER

    B. SHANTHI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of unipolar multicarrier Pulse Width Modulation (PWM techniques for the Flying Capacitor Multi Level Inverter (FCMLI. Due to switch combination redundancies, there are certain degrees of freedom to generate the five level AC output voltage. This paper presents the use of Control Freedom Degree (CFD combination. The effectiveness of the PWM strategies developed using CFD are demonstrated by simulation and experimentation. The results indicate that the multilevel inverter triggered by the developed USHPWM strategy exhibits reduced harmonics. PWM strategies developed are implemented in real time using dSPACE/Real Time Interface (RTI. The simulation and experimental output closely match with each other validating the strategies presented.

  15. Circuit description of unipolar DC-to-DC converters for APS storage ring quadrupoles and sextupoles

    McGhee, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the control, interlock, and power circuits for 680 unipolar switch mode DC-to-DC converters used to regulate the Advanced Photon Sources (APS's) storage ring quadrupole and sextupole magnet currents. Quadrupole current stability is ± 6x10 -5 and the sextupole current stability is ±3x10 -4 . The stability is obtained with pulse width modulation, operating at a switching frequency of 20kHz with full current switching. The converters are housed in 200 cabinets located on top of the storage ring tunnel. Raw DC power is distributed from 80 AC-to-DC power supplies, four at each of 20 locations around the storage ring. Voltages, currents, and temperatures are computer monitored and logged for the converters and magnets. All converters and magnets are water cooled with the flow and pressure monitored at the inlet and outlet of groups. Water is interlocked with the raw power supplies and not the individual converters

  16. Dyslexic Children Show Atypical Cerebellar Activation and Cerebro-Cerebellar Functional Connectivity in Orthographic and Phonological Processing.

    Feng, Xiaoxia; Li, Le; Zhang, Manli; Yang, Xiujie; Tian, Mengyu; Xie, Weiyi; Lu, Yao; Liu, Li; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Meng, Xiangzhi; Ding, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have found atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia in either motor-related tasks or language tasks. However, studies investigating atypical cerebellar activation in individuals with dyslexia have mostly used tasks tapping phonological processing. A question that is yet unanswered is whether the cerebellum in individuals with dyslexia functions properly during orthographic processing of words, as growing evidence shows that the cerebellum is also involved in visual and spatial processing. Here, we investigated cerebellar activation and cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity during word processing in dyslexic readers and typically developing readers using tasks that tap orthographic and phonological codes. In children with dyslexia, we observed an abnormally higher engagement of the bilateral cerebellum for the orthographic task, which was negatively correlated with literacy measures. The greater the reading impairment was for young dyslexic readers, the stronger the cerebellar activation was. This suggests a compensatory role of the cerebellum in reading for children with dyslexia. In addition, a tendency for higher cerebellar activation in dyslexic readers was found in the phonological task. Moreover, the functional connectivity was stronger for dyslexic readers relative to typically developing readers between the lobule VI of the right cerebellum and the left fusiform gyrus during the orthographic task and between the lobule VI of the left cerebellum and the left supramarginal gyrus during the phonological task. This pattern of results suggests that the cerebellum compensates for reading impairment through the connections with specific brain regions responsible for the ongoing reading task. These findings enhance our understanding of the cerebellum's involvement in reading and reading impairment.

  17. Topologically convergent and divergent functional connectivity patterns in unmedicated unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Jia, Y; Zhong, S; Zhong, M; Sun, Y; Niu, M; Zhao, L; Zhao, L; Pan, J; Huang, L; Huang, R

    2017-07-04

    Bipolar disorder (BD), particularly BD II, is frequently misdiagnosed as unipolar depression (UD), leading to inappropriate treatment and poor clinical outcomes. Although depressive symptoms may be expressed similarly in UD and BD, the similarities and differences in the architecture of brain functional networks between the two disorders are still unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that UD and BD II patients would show convergent and divergent patterns of disrupted topological organization of the functional connectome, especially in the default mode network (DMN) and the limbic network. Brain resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired from 32 UD-unmedicated patients, 31 unmedicated BD II patients (current episode depressed) and 43 healthy subjects. Using graph theory, we systematically studied the topological organization of their whole-brain functional networks at the following three levels: whole brain, modularity and node. First, both the UD and BD II patients showed increased characteristic path length and decreased global efficiency compared with the controls. Second, both the UD and BD II patients showed disrupted intramodular connectivity within the DMN and limbic system network. Third, decreased nodal characteristics (nodal strength and nodal efficiency) were found predominantly in brain regions in the DMN, limbic network and cerebellum of both the UD and BD II patients, whereas differences between the UD and BD II patients in the nodal characteristics were also observed in the precuneus and temporal pole. Convergent deficits in the topological organization of the whole brain, DMN and limbic networks may reflect overlapping pathophysiological processes in unipolar and bipolar depression. Our discovery of divergent regional connectivity that supports emotion processing could help to identify biomarkers that will aid in differentiating these disorders.

  18. Distinct cerebellar engrams in short-term and long-term motor learning.

    Wang, Wen; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Masugi-Tokita, Miwako; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Aziz, Wajeeha; Tarusawa, Etsuko; Lorincz, Andrea; Molnár, Elek; Kesaf, Sebnem; Li, Yun-Qing; Fukazawa, Yugo; Nagao, Soichi; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-07

    Cerebellar motor learning is suggested to be caused by long-term plasticity of excitatory parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses associated with changes in the number of synaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, whether the AMPARs decrease or increase in individual PF-PC synapses occurs in physiological motor learning and accounts for memory that lasts over days remains elusive. We combined quantitative SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling for AMPAR and physical dissector electron microscopy with a simple model of cerebellar motor learning, adaptation of horizontal optokinetic response (HOKR) in mouse. After 1-h training of HOKR, short-term adaptation (STA) was accompanied with transient decrease in AMPARs by 28% in target PF-PC synapses. STA was well correlated with AMPAR decrease in individual animals and both STA and AMPAR decrease recovered to basal levels within 24 h. Surprisingly, long-term adaptation (LTA) after five consecutive daily trainings of 1-h HOKR did not alter the number of AMPARs in PF-PC synapses but caused gradual and persistent synapse elimination by 45%, with corresponding PC spine loss by the fifth training day. Furthermore, recovery of LTA after 2 wk was well correlated with increase of PF-PC synapses to the control level. Our findings indicate that the AMPARs decrease in PF-PC synapses and the elimination of these synapses are in vivo engrams in short- and long-term motor learning, respectively, showing a unique type of synaptic plasticity that may contribute to memory consolidation.

  19. An amplified promoter system for targeted expression of calcium indicator proteins in the cerebellar cortex

    Bernd eKuhn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Recording of identified neuronal network activity using genetically encoded calcium indicators (GECIs requires labeling that is cell type-specific and bright enough for the detection of functional signals. However, specificity and strong expression are often not achievable using the same promoter. Here we present a combinatorial approach for targeted expression and single-cell-level quantification in which a weak promoter is used to drive trans-amplification under a strong general promoter. We demonstrated this approach using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs to deliver the sequence of the GECI D3cpv in the mouse cerebellar cortex. Direct expression under the human synapsin promoter (hSYN led to high levels of expression (50-100 µM in five interneuron types of the cerebellar cortex but not in Purkinje cells (PCs (≤10 μM, yielding sufficient contrast to allow functional signals to be recorded from somata and processes in awake animals using two-photon microscopy. When the hSYN promoter was used to drive expression of the tetracycline transactivator (tTA, a second rAAV containing the bidirectional TET promoter (Ptetbi could drive strong D3cpv expression in PCs (10-300 µM, enough to allow reliable complex spike detection in the dendritic arbor. An amplified approach should be of use in monitoring neural processing in selected cell types and boosting expression of optogenetic probes. Additionally, we overcome cell toxicity associated with rAAV injection and/or local GECI overexpression by combining the virus injection with systemic pre-injection of hyperosmotic D-mannitol, and by this double the time window for functional imaging.

  20. Age-dependent pattern of cerebellar susceptibility to bilirubin neurotoxicity in vivo in mice

    Bortolussi, Giulia; Baj, Gabriele; Vodret, Simone; Viviani, Giulia; Bittolo, Tamara; Muro, Andrés F.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice is caused by high levels of unconjugated bilirubin. It is usually a temporary condition caused by delayed induction of UGT1A1, which conjugates bilirubin in the liver. To reduce bilirubin levels, affected babies are exposed to phototherapy (PT), which converts toxic bilirubin into water-soluble photoisomers that are readily excreted out. However, in some cases uncontrolled hyperbilirubinemia leads to neurotoxicity. To study the mechanisms of bilirubin-induced neurological damage (BIND) in vivo, we generated a mouse model lacking the Ugt1a1 protein and, consequently, mutant mice developed jaundice as early as 36 hours after birth. The mutation was transferred into two genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6 and FVB/NJ). We exposed mutant mice to PT for different periods and analyzed the resulting phenotypes from the molecular, histological and behavioral points of view. Severity of BIND was associated with genetic background, with 50% survival of C57BL/6‑Ugt1−/− mutant mice at postnatal day 5 (P5), and of FVB/NJ-Ugt1−/− mice at P11. Life-long exposure to PT prevented cerebellar architecture alterations and rescued neuronal damage in FVB/NJ-Ugt1−/− but not in C57BL/6-Ugt1−/− mice. Survival of FVB/NJ-Ugt1−/− mice was directly related to the extent of PT treatment. PT treatment of FVB/NJ-Ugt1−/− mice from P0 to P8 did not prevent bilirubin-induced reduction in dendritic arborization and spine density of Purkinje cells. Moreover, PT treatment from P8 to P20 did not rescue BIND accumulated up to P8. However, PT treatment administered in the time-window P0–P15 was sufficient to obtain full rescue of cerebellar damage and motor impairment in FVB/NJ-Ugt1−/− mice. The possibility to modulate the severity of the phenotype by PT makes FVB/NJ-Ugt1−/− mice an excellent and versatile model to study bilirubin neurotoxicity, the role of modifier genes, alternative therapies and cerebellar development during high bilirubin conditions. PMID

  1. Mouse adhalin

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  2. Prenatal MR imaging features of isolated cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions

    Martino, Francesca; Malova, Mariya; Ramenghi, Luca A.; Cesaretti, Claudia; Parazzini, Cecilia; Doneda, Chiara; Righini, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal features of isolated cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions have not been sufficiently characterised. We aimed to better define their MR imaging characteristics, documenting the location, extension, evolution stage and anatomic sequelae, and to better understand cerebellar haemorrhage pathophysiology. We screened our foetal MR imaging database (3200 cases) for reports of haemorrhagic lesions affecting only the cerebellum (without any supratentorial bleeding or other clastic lesions), defined as one of the following: T2-weighted hypointense or mixed hypo-/hyperintense signal; rim of T2-weighted hypointense signal covering the surface of volume-reduced parenchyma; T1-weighted hyperintense signal; increased DWI signal. Seventeen cases corresponded to the selection criteria. All lesions occurred before the 26th week of gestation, with prevalent origin from the peripheral-caudal portion of the hemispheres and equal frequency of unilateral/bilateral involvement. The caudal vermis appeared affected in 2/3 of cases, not in all cases confirmed postnatally. Lesions evolved towards malformed cerebellar foliation. The aetiology and pathophysiology were unknown, although in a subset of cases intra- and extracranial venous engorgement seemed to play a key role. Onset from the peripheral and caudal portion of the hemispheres seems characteristic of prenatal cerebellar haemorrhagic lesions. Elective involvement of the peripheral germinal matrix is hypothesised. (orig.)

  3. Role of Calcium in Cerebellar Learning and Function

    Z. Gao (Zhenyu)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe cerebellum, which means little brain in Latin, occupies most of the posterior cranial fossa and connects with the dorsal brainstem (Kandel et al., 2000). The cerebellar cortex is one of the most foliated brain structures, which accounts for 10% of the total volume and over half of

  4. Cerebellar Codings for Control of Compensatory Eye Movements

    M. Schonewille (Martijn)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the control of the cerebellum on motor behaviour, and more specifically on the role of the cerebellar Purkinje cells in exerting this control. As the cerebellum is an online control system, we look at both motor performance and learning, trying to identify

  5. Neurophysiological evidence for cerebellar dysfunction in primary focal dystonia.

    Teo, J.T.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Schneider, S.A.; Rothwell, J.C.; Bhatia, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that there may be functional and structural changes in the cerebellum of patients with adult onset primary focal dystonia. The aim of this study was to establish whether there is any neurophysiological indicator of abnormal cerebellar function, using the classic

  6. Stereotactic biopsy of cerebellar lesions: straight versus oblique frame positioning.

    Quick-Weller, Johanna; Brawanski, Nina; Dinc, Nazife; Behmanesh, Bedjahn; Kammerer, Sara; Dubinski, Daniel; Seifert, Volker; Marquardt, Gerhard; Weise, Lutz

    2017-10-26

    Biospies of brain lesions with unknown entity are an everyday procedure among many neurosurgical departments. Biopsies can be performed frame-guided or frameless. However, cerebellar lesions are a special entity with a more complex approach. All biopsies in this study were performed stereotactically frame guided. Therefore, only biopsies of cerebellar lesions were included in this study. We compared whether the frame was attached straight versus oblique and we focused on diagnostic yield and complication rate. We evaluated 20 patients who underwent the procedure between 2009 and 2017. Median age was 56.5 years. 12 (60%) Patients showed a left sided lesion, 6 (30%) showed a lesion in the right cerebellum and 2 (10%) patients showed a midline lesion. The stereotactic frame was mounted oblique in 12 (60%) patients and straight in 8 (40%) patients. Postoperative CT scan showed small, clinically silent blood collection in two (10%) of the patients, one (5%) patient showed haemorrhage, which caused a hydrocephalus. He received an external ventricular drain. In both patients with small haemorrhage the frame was positioned straight, while in the patient who showed a larger haemorrhage the frame was mounted oblique. In all patients a final histopathological diagnosis was established. Cerebellar lesions of unknown entity can be accessed transcerebellar either with the stereotactic frame mounted straight or oblique. Also for cerebellar lesions the procedure shows a high diagnostic yield with a low rate of severe complications, which need further treatment.

  7. Cerebellar Damage Produces Selective Deficits in Verbal Working Memory

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Mccormick, Cristin A.; Schlerf, John E.; Justus, Timothy; Ivry, Richard B.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The cerebellum is often active in imaging studies of verbal working memory, consistent with a putative role in articulatory rehearsal. While patients with cerebellar damage occasionally exhibit a mild impairment on standard neuropsychological tests of working memory, these tests are not diagnostic for exploring these processes in detail. The…

  8. Cerebro-cerebellar interactions underlying temporal information processing.

    Aso, Kenji; Hanakawa, Takashi; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2010-12-01

    The neural basis of temporal information processing remains unclear, but it is proposed that the cerebellum plays an important role through its internal clock or feed-forward computation functions. In this study, fMRI was used to investigate the brain networks engaged in perceptual and motor aspects of subsecond temporal processing without accompanying coprocessing of spatial information. Direct comparison between perceptual and motor aspects of time processing was made with a categorical-design analysis. The right lateral cerebellum (lobule VI) was active during a time discrimination task, whereas the left cerebellar lobule VI was activated during a timed movement generation task. These findings were consistent with the idea that the cerebellum contributed to subsecond time processing in both perceptual and motor aspects. The feed-forward computational theory of the cerebellum predicted increased cerebro-cerebellar interactions during time information processing. In fact, a psychophysiological interaction analysis identified the supplementary motor and dorsal premotor areas, which had a significant functional connectivity with the right cerebellar region during a time discrimination task and with the left lateral cerebellum during a timed movement generation task. The involvement of cerebro-cerebellar interactions may provide supportive evidence that temporal information processing relies on the simulation of timing information through feed-forward computation in the cerebellum.

  9. [Cerebellar Infarction After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy].

    Wick, Matthias; Schneiker, André; Bele, Sylvia; Pawlik, Michael; Meyringer, Helmut; Graf, Bernhard; Wendl, Christina; Kieninger, Martin

    2017-06-01

    We report on a patient who developed a space-occupying cerebellar infarction with occlusive hydrocephalus after a poisoning with carbon monoxide with the intention to commit suicide. A neurosurgical and intensive care therapy were needed. The patient's survival without severe neurological deficits could be secured due to the early detection of the intracerebral lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Mutations in PTF1A cause pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis

    Sellick, GS; Barker, KT; Stolte-Dijkstra, [No Value; Fleischmann, C; Coleman, RJ; Garrett, C; Gloyn, AL; Edghill, EL; Hattersley, AT; Wellauer, PK; Goodwin, G; Houlston, RS

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus usually present within the first three months of life and require insulin treatment(1,2). We recently identified a locus on chromosome 10p13-p12.1 involved in permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus associated with pancreatic and cerebellar agenesis

  11. Cerebellar and pontine tegmental hypermetabolism in miller-fisher syndrome

    Kim, Yu Kyrong; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2007-01-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) has been considered as a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a type of acute immune neuropathies involving peripheral nerve system. Unlike GBS, presence of cerebellar type ataxia and supranuclear ophthalmioplesia in MFS suggests additional involvement of the central nervous system. To determine involvement of the central nervous system in MFS, we investigated the cerebral metabolic abnormalities in patients with MFS using FDG PET. Nine patients who were diagnosed as MFS based on acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia without other identifiable causes participated in this study. In six patients, serum antibodies possibly related with symptom of MFS (anti- GQ1b or anti-GM1) were detected at the time of the study. With the interval of 25 26 days (range: 3-83 days) from the symptom on set, brain FDG PET were underwent in patients and compared with those from healthy controls. In group analysis comparing with healthy controls, FDG PET of patients revealed increased metabolism in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, and the thalamus. In contrast, the occipital cortex showed decreased metabolism. Individual analyses disclosed hypermetabolism in the cerebellar vermis or hemispheres in 5, and in the pontine tegmentum in 2 of the 9 patients. We also found that the cerebellar vermian hypermetabolism was inversely correlated with the interval between from the symptom on set to PET study. Moreover, follow-up PET of a patient demonstrated that cerebellar hypermetabolism decreased markedly with an improvement of the ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. These findings indicate an involvement of the central nervous system in MFS and suggest an antibody-associated acute inflammatory process as a mechanism of this disorder

  12. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network.

    Claudia Casellato

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning, a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.

  13. Adaptive robotic control driven by a versatile spiking cerebellar network.

    Casellato, Claudia; Antonietti, Alberto; Garrido, Jesus A; Carrillo, Richard R; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN) with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning), a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.

  14. Adaptive filters and internal models: multilevel description of cerebellar function.

    Porrill, John; Dean, Paul; Anderson, Sean R

    2013-11-01

    Cerebellar function is increasingly discussed in terms of engineering schemes for motor control and signal processing that involve internal models. To address the relation between the cerebellum and internal models, we adopt the chip metaphor that has been used to represent the combination of a homogeneous cerebellar cortical microcircuit with individual microzones having unique external connections. This metaphor indicates that identifying the function of a particular cerebellar chip requires knowledge of both the general microcircuit algorithm and the chip's individual connections. Here we use a popular candidate algorithm as embodied in the adaptive filter, which learns to decorrelate its inputs from a reference ('teaching', 'error') signal. This algorithm is computationally powerful enough to be used in a very wide variety of engineering applications. However, the crucial issue is whether the external connectivity required by such applications can be implemented biologically. We argue that some applications appear to be in principle biologically implausible: these include the Smith predictor and Kalman filter (for state estimation), and the feedback-error-learning scheme for adaptive inverse control. However, even for plausible schemes, such as forward models for noise cancellation and novelty-detection, and the recurrent architecture for adaptive inverse control, there is unlikely to be a simple mapping between microzone function and internal model structure. This initial analysis suggests that cerebellar involvement in particular behaviours is therefore unlikely to have a neat classification into categories such as 'forward model'. It is more likely that cerebellar microzones learn a task-specific adaptive-filter operation which combines a number of signal-processing roles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebellar and pontine tegmental hypermetabolism in miller-fisher syndrome

    Kim, Yu Kyrong; Kim, Ji Soo; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) has been considered as a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a type of acute immune neuropathies involving peripheral nerve system. Unlike GBS, presence of cerebellar type ataxia and supranuclear ophthalmioplesia in MFS suggests additional involvement of the central nervous system. To determine involvement of the central nervous system in MFS, we investigated the cerebral metabolic abnormalities in patients with MFS using FDG PET. Nine patients who were diagnosed as MFS based on acute ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia without other identifiable causes participated in this study. In six patients, serum antibodies possibly related with symptom of MFS (anti- GQ1b or anti-GM1) were detected at the time of the study. With the interval of 25 26 days (range: 3-83 days) from the symptom on set, brain FDG PET were underwent in patients and compared with those from healthy controls. In group analysis comparing with healthy controls, FDG PET of patients revealed increased metabolism in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres and vermis, and the thalamus. In contrast, the occipital cortex showed decreased metabolism. Individual analyses disclosed hypermetabolism in the cerebellar vermis or hemispheres in 5, and in the pontine tegmentum in 2 of the 9 patients. We also found that the cerebellar vermian hypermetabolism was inversely correlated with the interval between from the symptom on set to PET study. Moreover, follow-up PET of a patient demonstrated that cerebellar hypermetabolism decreased markedly with an improvement of the ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. These findings indicate an involvement of the central nervous system in MFS and suggest an antibody-associated acute inflammatory process as a mechanism of this disorder.

  16. Cerebellar motor learning: when is cortical plasticity not enough?

    John Porrill

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical Marr-Albus theories of cerebellar learning employ only cortical sites of plasticity. However, tests of these theories using adaptive calibration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR have indicated plasticity in both cerebellar cortex and the brainstem. To resolve this long-standing conflict, we attempted to identify the computational role of the brainstem site, by using an adaptive filter version of the cerebellar microcircuit to model VOR calibration for changes in the oculomotor plant. With only cortical plasticity, introducing a realistic delay in the retinal-slip error signal of 100 ms prevented learning at frequencies higher than 2.5 Hz, although the VOR itself is accurate up to at least 25 Hz. However, the introduction of an additional brainstem site of plasticity, driven by the correlation between cerebellar and vestibular inputs, overcame the 2.5 Hz limitation and allowed learning of accurate high-frequency gains. This "cortex-first" learning mechanism is consistent with a wide variety of evidence concerning the role of the flocculus in VOR calibration, and complements rather than replaces the previously proposed "brainstem-first" mechanism that operates when ocular tracking mechanisms are effective. These results (i describe a process whereby information originally learnt in one area of the brain (cerebellar cortex can be transferred and expressed in another (brainstem, and (ii indicate for the first time why a brainstem site of plasticity is actually required by Marr-Albus type models when high-frequency gains must be learned in the presence of error delay.

  17. Electron transport in unipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures grown by NH3 molecular beam epitaxy

    Browne, David A.; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Speck, James S.

    2015-01-01

    on electron transport through quantum well active regions. These unipolar structures served as a test vehicle to test our 2D model of the effect of compositional fluctuations on polarization-induced barriers. Variables that were systematically studied included

  18. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Human Cerebellar Pathways and their Interplay with Cerebral Macrostructure

    Zafer eKeser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar white matter connections to the central nervous system are classified functionally into the spinocerebellar, vestibulocerebellar, and cerebrocerebellar subdivisions. The Spinocerebellar (SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum, whereas the vestibulocerebellar (VC pathways project from vestibular organs of the inner ear. Cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed forward and feedback connections between cerebrum and cerebellum including the cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC pathways being of cortical origin and the dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC pathway being of cerebellar origin. In this study we systematically quantified the whole cerebellar system connections using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI. Ten right-handed healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females, age range 20-51 years were studied. DT-MRI data were acquired with a voxel size = 2mm x 2mm x 2 mm at a 3.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. The DT-MRI data were prepared and analyzed using anatomically-guided deterministic tractography methods to reconstruct the SC, DRTC, fronto-ponto-cerebellar (FPC, parieto-ponto-cerebellar (PPC, temporo-ponto-cerebellar (TPC and occipito-ponto-cerebellar (OPC. The DTI-attributes or the cerebellar tracts along with their cortical representation (Brodmann areas were presented in standard Montréal Neurological Institute space. All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM, cerebral white matter (WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM. On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~ 3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11. The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~ 25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.52 ± 0.43 of the total intracranial volume.

  19. Defects in the CAPN1 Gene Result in Alterations in Cerebellar Development and Cerebellar Ataxia in Mice and Humans

    Yubin Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A CAPN1 missense mutation in Parson Russell Terrier dogs is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia. We now report that homozygous or heterozygous CAPN1-null mutations in humans result in cerebellar ataxia and limb spasticity in four independent pedigrees. Calpain-1 knockout (KO mice also exhibit a mild form of ataxia due to abnormal cerebellar development, including enhanced neuronal apoptosis, decreased number of cerebellar granule cells, and altered synaptic transmission. Enhanced apoptosis is due to absence of calpain-1-mediated cleavage of PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1, which results in inhibition of the Akt pro-survival pathway in developing granule cells. Injection of neonatal mice with the indirect Akt activator, bisperoxovanadium, or crossing calpain-1 KO mice with PHLPP1 KO mice prevented increased postnatal cerebellar granule cell apoptosis and restored granule cell density and motor coordination in adult mice. Thus, mutations in CAPN1 are an additional cause of ataxia in mammals, including humans.

  20. Timing tasks synchronize cerebellar and frontal ramping activity and theta oscillations: Implications for cerebellar stimulation in diseases of impaired cognition

    Krystal Lynn Parker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing is a fundamental and highly conserved mammalian capability yet the underlying neural mechanisms are widely debated. Ramping activity of single neurons that gradually increase or decrease activity to encode the passage of time, has been speculated to predict a behaviorally relevant temporal event. Cue-evoked low-frequency activity has also been implicated in temporal processing. Ramping activity and low-frequency oscillations occur throughout the brain and could indicate a network-based approach to timing. Temporal processing requires cognitive mechanisms of working memory, attention, and reasoning which are dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disease. Therefore, timing tasks could be used to probe cognition in animals with disease phenotypes. The medial frontal cortex and cerebellum are involved in cognition. Cerebellar stimulation has been shown to influence medial frontal activity and improve cognition in schizophrenia. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of cerebellar stimulation is unknown. Here we discuss how timing tasks can be used to probe cerebellar interactions with the frontal cortex and the therapeutic potential of cerebellar stimulation. The goal of this theory and hypothesis manuscript is threefold. First, we will summarize evidence indicating that in addition to motor learning, timing tasks involve cognitive processes that are present within both the cerebellum and medial frontal cortex. Second, we propose methodologies to investigate the connections between these areas in patients with Parkinson’s disease, autism, and schizophrenia. We hypothesis that cerebellar transcranial stimulation may rescue medial frontal ramping activity, theta oscillations, and timing abnormalities, thereby restoring executive function in diseases of impaired cognition. These hypotheses could inspire the use of timing tasks as biomarkers for neuronal and cognitive abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disease and promote the therapeutic

  1. Radiofrequency catheter ablation of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias originating from intramural foci in the left ventricular outflow tract: efficacy of sequential versus simultaneous unipolar catheter ablation.

    Yamada, Takumi; Maddox, William R; McElderry, H Thomas; Doppalapudi, Harish; Plumb, Vance J; Kay, G Neal

    2015-04-01

    Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) originating from the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) sometimes require catheter ablation from the endocardial and epicardial sides for their elimination, suggesting the presence of intramural VA foci. This study investigated the efficacy of sequential and simultaneous unipolar radiofrequency catheter ablation from the endocardial and epicardial sides in treating intramural LVOT VAs. Fourteen consecutive LVOT VAs, which required sequential or simultaneous irrigated unipolar radiofrequency ablation from the endocardial and epicardial sides for their elimination, were studied. The first ablation was performed at the site with the earliest local ventricular activation and best pace map on the endocardial or epicardial side. When the first ablation was unsuccessful, the second ablation was delivered on the other surface. If this sequential unipolar ablation failed, simultaneous unipolar ablation from both sides was performed. The first ablation was performed on the epicardial side in 9 VAs and endocardial side in 5 VAs. The intramural LVOT VAs were successfully eliminated by the sequential (n=9) or simultaneous (n=5) unipolar catheter ablation. Simultaneous ablation was most likely to be required for the elimination of the VAs when the distance between the endocardial and epicardial ablation sites was >8 mm and the earliest local ventricular activation time relative to the QRS onset during the VAs of sequential unipolar radiofrequency ablation and sometimes required simultaneous ablation from both the endocardial and epicardial sides. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Unipolar resistive switching in metal oxide/organic semiconductor non-volatile memories as a critical phenomenon

    Bory, Benjamin F.; Meskers, Stefan C. J.; Rocha, Paulo R. F.; Gomes, Henrique L.; Leeuw, Dago M. de

    2015-01-01

    Diodes incorporating a bilayer of an organic semiconductor and a wide bandgap metal oxide can show unipolar, non-volatile memory behavior after electroforming. The prolonged bias voltage stress induces defects in the metal oxide with an areal density exceeding 10 17  m −2 . We explain the electrical bistability by the coexistence of two thermodynamically stable phases at the interface between an organic semiconductor and metal oxide. One phase contains mainly ionized defects and has a low work function, while the other phase has mainly neutral defects and a high work function. In the diodes, domains of the phase with a low work function constitute current filaments. The phase composition and critical temperature are derived from a 2D Ising model as a function of chemical potential. The model predicts filamentary conduction exhibiting a negative differential resistance and nonvolatile memory behavior. The model is expected to be generally applicable to any bilayer system that shows unipolar resistive switching

  3. Clinical efficacy and safety evaluation of a novel fractional unipolar radiofrequency device on facial tightening: A preliminary report.

    Suh, Dong Hye; Byun, Eun Jung; Lee, Sang Jun; Song, Kye Yong; Kim, Hei Sung

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that radiofrequency (RF) energy is safe and effective for improving skin laxity. Unlike monopolar and bipolar devices, little has been studied with the unipolar hand piece. We sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a novel fractional unipolar RF device on facial tightening. This was a retrospective, single-center study of 14 subjects with age-related facial laxity who underwent five sessions of fractional unipolar RF at an interval of 2 weeks, and then followed-up for 3 months. Standardized photos were taken at baseline and at 3-months follow-up, and were assessed by two independent dermatologists using a 4-point scale (0=no improvement, 1=mild improvement, 2=moderate improvement, 3=significant improvement). Punch biopsies (2 mm) were performed and a questionnaire was used to evaluate the patient's satisfaction and the incidence of adverse reactions. Fourteen subjects with mild to moderate age-related facial laxity were included in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 49.7 years (range 32-80). 35.7% of the subjects showed significant improvement, 50% moderate improvement, and 14.3% slight improvement of facial laxity in their follow-up photos. About 85.7% of the patients replied that they were either greatly satisfied or satisfied with the results at 3-months follow-up. Skin biopsies revealed an increase in collagen in the dermis. None of the subjects experienced any serious adverse events during or after the procedure. Our findings suggest that fractional Unipolar RF can be safely performed on the face and is effective in skin tightening. It has a great advantage over other forms of RF by being entirely painless. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The histone demethylase Kdm6b regulates a mature gene expression program in differentiating cerebellar granule neurons.

    Wijayatunge, Ranjula; Liu, Fang; Shpargel, Karl B; Wayne, Nicole J; Chan, Urann; Boua, Jane-Valeriane; Magnuson, Terry; West, Anne E

    2018-03-01

    The histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase Kdm6b (Jmjd3) can promote cellular differentiation, however its physiological functions in neurons remain to be fully determined. We studied the expression and function of Kdm6b in differentiating granule neurons of the developing postnatal mouse cerebellum. At postnatal day 7, Kdm6b is expressed throughout the layers of the developing cerebellar cortex, but its expression is upregulated in newborn cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Atoh1-Cre mediated conditional knockout of Kdm6b in CGN precursors either alone or in combination with Kdm6a did not disturb the gross morphological development of the cerebellum. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Kdm6b in cultured CGN precursors did not alter the induced expression of early neuronal marker genes upon cell cycle exit. By contrast, knockdown of Kdm6b significantly impaired the induction of a mature neuronal gene expression program, which includes gene products required for functional synapse maturation. Loss of Kdm6b also impaired the ability of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) to induce expression of Grin2c and Tiam1 in maturing CGNs. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unknown role for Kdm6b in the postmitotic stages of CGN maturation and suggest that Kdm6b may work, at least in part, by a transcriptional mechanism that promotes gene sensitivity to regulation by BDNF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Casein Kinase 1δ Is an APC/CCdh1 Substrate that Regulates Cerebellar Granule Cell Neurogenesis

    Clara Penas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although casein kinase 1δ (CK1δ is at the center of multiple signaling pathways, its role in the expansion of CNS progenitor cells is unknown. Using mouse cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCPs as a model for brain neurogenesis, we demonstrate that the loss of CK1δ or treatment of GCPs with a highly selective small molecule inhibits GCP expansion. In contrast, CK1δ overexpression increases GCP proliferation. Thus, CK1δ appears to regulate GCP neurogenesis. CK1δ is targeted for proteolysis via the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/CCdh1 ubiquitin ligase, and conditional deletion of the APC/CCdh1 activator Cdh1 in cerebellar GCPs results in higher levels of CK1δ. APC/CCdh1 also downregulates CK1δ during cell-cycle exit. Therefore, we conclude that APC/CCdh1 controls CK1δ levels to balance proliferation and cell-cycle exit in the developing CNS. Similar studies in medulloblastoma cells showed that CK1δ holds promise as a therapeutic target.

  6. Bmi1 overexpression in the cerebellar granule cell lineage of mice affects cell proliferation and survival without initiating medulloblastoma formation

    Hourinaz Behesti

    2013-01-01

    BMI1 is a potent inducer of neural stem cell self-renewal and neural progenitor cell proliferation during development and in adult tissue homeostasis. It is overexpressed in numerous human cancers – including medulloblastomas, in which its functional role is unclear. We generated transgenic mouse lines with targeted overexpression of Bmi1 in the cerebellar granule cell lineage, a cell type that has been shown to act as a cell of origin for medulloblastomas. Overexpression of Bmi1 in granule cell progenitors (GCPs led to a decrease in cerebellar size due to decreased GCP proliferation and repression of the expression of cyclin genes, whereas Bmi1 overexpression in postmitotic granule cells improved cell survival in response to stress by altering the expression of genes in the mitochondrial cell death pathway and of Myc and Lef-1. Although no medulloblastomas developed in ageing cohorts of transgenic mice, crosses with Trp53−/− mice resulted in a low incidence of medulloblastoma formation. Furthermore, analysis of a large collection of primary human medulloblastomas revealed that tumours with a BMI1high TP53low molecular profile are significantly enriched in Group 4 human medulloblastomas. Our data suggest that different levels and timing of Bmi1 overexpression yield distinct cellular outcomes within the same cellular lineage. Importantly, Bmi1 overexpression at the GCP stage does not induce tumour formation, suggesting that BMI1 overexpression in GCP-derived human medulloblastomas probably occurs during later stages of oncogenesis and might serve to enhance tumour cell survival.

  7. Abnormality in cerebellar blood flow in solo vertigo patients

    Nagahori, Takeshi [Shakaihoken Takaoka Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Nishijima, Michiharu; Endo, Shunro; Takaku, Akira

    1997-03-01

    Little is known about the blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system as a cause of vertigo and dizziness. We used Xe-CT to study cerebellar blood flow in 53 patients who ranged in age from 35 to 85 years. The patients were divided into two groups. One of them was the vertigo group that comprised 28 patients with rotatory sensation, and the other, the non-vertigo group of 25 patients with a sensation other than rotation. At the stage of severe symptoms, there was decreased cerebellar blood flow in all patients of both, the vertigo and the non-vertigo groups, and a decrease in the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere was observed in five patients and in a unilateral hemisphere in three patients of the vertigo group. By comparison, in the non-vertigo group, unilateral decrease of cerebellar blood flow was observed in only one patient, and a bilateral decrease in five. At the stage of severe symptoms, the mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 40.5{+-}8.0 ml/100 g/min (n=16 sides) in the vertigo group and 45.3{+-}9.5 ml/100 g/min (n=12 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the stage of moderate symptoms, blood flow image was normal in four of 14 vertigo patients and in seven of 12 non-vertigo patients. The mean regional blood flow was 47.8{+-}8.6 ml/100 g/min (n=28 sides) in the vertigo group and 47.1{+-}5.1 ml/100 g/min (n=24 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the asymptomatic stage, a high proportion of normal blood flow images (nine of 16 vertigo patients and 10 of 10 non-vertigo patients) was observed. The mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 51.6{+-}10.7 ml/100 g/min (n=32 sides) in the vertigo group and 52.8{+-}8.5 ml/100 g/min (n=20 sides) in the non-vertigo group. This study demonstrates that a unilateral or bilateral decrease in blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system may cause vertigo and dizziness. It also shows that Xe-CT of the cerebellum may be a valuable examination modality for the diagnosis and treatment of vertigo and dizziness. (author)

  8. Abnormality in cerebellar blood flow in solo vertigo patients

    Nagahori, Takeshi; Nishijima, Michiharu; Endo, Shunro; Takaku, Akira

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system as a cause of vertigo and dizziness. We used Xe-CT to study cerebellar blood flow in 53 patients who ranged in age from 35 to 85 years. The patients were divided into two groups. One of them was the vertigo group that comprised 28 patients with rotatory sensation, and the other, the non-vertigo group of 25 patients with a sensation other than rotation. At the stage of severe symptoms, there was decreased cerebellar blood flow in all patients of both, the vertigo and the non-vertigo groups, and a decrease in the bilateral cerebellar hemisphere was observed in five patients and in a unilateral hemisphere in three patients of the vertigo group. By comparison, in the non-vertigo group, unilateral decrease of cerebellar blood flow was observed in only one patient, and a bilateral decrease in five. At the stage of severe symptoms, the mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 40.5±8.0 ml/100 g/min (n=16 sides) in the vertigo group and 45.3±9.5 ml/100 g/min (n=12 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the stage of moderate symptoms, blood flow image was normal in four of 14 vertigo patients and in seven of 12 non-vertigo patients. The mean regional blood flow was 47.8±8.6 ml/100 g/min (n=28 sides) in the vertigo group and 47.1±5.1 ml/100 g/min (n=24 sides) in the non-vertigo group. At the asymptomatic stage, a high proportion of normal blood flow images (nine of 16 vertigo patients and 10 of 10 non-vertigo patients) was observed. The mean regional cerebellar blood flow was 51.6±10.7 ml/100 g/min (n=32 sides) in the vertigo group and 52.8±8.5 ml/100 g/min (n=20 sides) in the non-vertigo group. This study demonstrates that a unilateral or bilateral decrease in blood flow of the vertebrobasilar system may cause vertigo and dizziness. It also shows that Xe-CT of the cerebellum may be a valuable examination modality for the diagnosis and treatment of vertigo and dizziness. (author)

  9. Altered Brain Activity in Unipolar Depression Revisited: Meta-analyses of Neuroimaging Studies.

    Müller, Veronika I; Cieslik, Edna C; Serbanescu, Ilinca; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2017-01-01

    During the past 20 years, numerous neuroimaging experiments have investigated aberrant brain activation during cognitive and emotional processing in patients with unipolar depression (UD). The results of those investigations, however, vary considerably; moreover, previous meta-analyses also yielded inconsistent findings. To readdress aberrant brain activation in UD as evidenced by neuroimaging experiments on cognitive and/or emotional processing. Neuroimaging experiments published from January 1, 1997, to October 1, 2015, were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using different combinations of the terms fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), PET (positron emission tomography), neural, major depression, depression, major depressive disorder, unipolar depression, dysthymia, emotion, emotional, affective, cognitive, task, memory, working memory, inhibition, control, n-back, and Stroop. Neuroimaging experiments (using fMRI or PET) reporting whole-brain results of group comparisons between adults with UD and healthy control individuals as coordinates in a standard anatomic reference space and using an emotional or/and cognitive challenging task were selected. Coordinates reported to show significant activation differences between UD and healthy controls during emotional or cognitive processing were extracted. By using the revised activation likelihood estimation algorithm, different meta-analyses were calculated. Meta-analyses tested for brain regions consistently found to show aberrant brain activation in UD compared with controls. Analyses were calculated across all emotional processing experiments, all cognitive processing experiments, positive emotion processing, negative emotion processing, experiments using emotional face stimuli, experiments with a sex discrimination task, and memory processing. All meta-analyses were calculated across experiments independent of reporting an increase or decrease of activity in

  10. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Li, Feng; Tie, Chang-Le; Dong, Jie; Wang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder patients experiencing a depressive episode (BD-dep) without an observed history of mania are often misdiagnosed and are consequently treated as having unipolar depression (UD), leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. An essential solution to this problem is to identify objective biological markers that distinguish BD-dep and UD patients at an early stage. However, studies directly comparing the brain dysfunctions associated with BD-dep and UD are rare. More importantly, the specificity of the differences in brain activity between these mental disorders has not been examined. With whole-brain regional homogeneity analysis and region-of-interest (ROI) based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we aimed to compare the resting-state brain activity of BD-dep and UD patients. Furthermore, we examined the specific differences and whether these differences were attributed to the brain abnormality caused by BD-dep, UD, or both. Twenty-one bipolar and 21 unipolar depressed patients, as well as 26 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and educational levels, participated in the study. We compared the differences in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the BD-dep and UD groups and further identified their pathophysiological abnormality. In the brain regions showing a difference between the BD-dep and UD groups, we further conducted receptive operation characteristic (ROC) analyses to confirm the effectiveness of the identified difference in classifying the patients. We observed ReHo differences between the BD-dep and UD groups in the right ventrolateral middle frontal gyrus, right dorsal anterior insular, right ventral anterior insular, right cerebellum posterior gyrus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum anterior gyrus. Further ROI comparisons and ROC analysis on these ROIs showed that the right parahippocampal gyrus reflected abnormality specific to the BD-dep group, while the right

  11. Resistive switching: An investigation of the bipolar–unipolar transition in Co-doped ZnO thin films

    Santos, Daniel A.A.; Zeng, Hao; Macêdo, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A purely bipolar behavior on a Co-doped ZnO thin film has been demonstrated. • We have shown what can happen if a unipolar test is performed in a purely bipolar device. • An explanation for how a sample can show a purely bipolar switching behavior was suggested. • An important open issue about resistive switching effect was put in debate. - Abstract: In order to investigate the resistive switching effect we built devices in a planar structure in which two Al contacts were deposited on the top of the film and separated by a small gap using a shadow mask. Therefore, two samples of 10% Co-doped ZnO thin films were sputtered on glass substrate. High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) revealed a highly c-axis oriented crystalline structure, without secondary phase. The high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) showed a flat surface with good coverage and thickness about 300 nm. A Keithley 2425 semiconductor characterization system was used to perform the resistive switching tests in the bipolar and unipolar modes. Considering only the effect of compliance current (CC), the devices showed a purely bipolar behavior since an increase in CC did not induce a transition to unipolar behavior

  12. Sociodemographic Correlates of Unipolar and Bipolar Depression in North-East India: A Cross-sectional Study

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan; Hazarika, Jyoti; Sharma, Mohan; Saikia, Shilpi; Patangia, Priyanka; Hazarika, Pranabjyoti; Sarmah, Anil Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Early diagnosis and management of depression is important for better therapeutic outcome. Strategies for distinguishing between unipolar and bipolar depression are yet to be defined, resulting improper management. This study aims at comparing the socio-demographic and other variables between patients with unipolar and bipolar depression, along with assessment of severity of depression. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care psychiatry hospital in North-East India. The study included total of 330 subjects selected through purposive sampling technique from outpatient department after obtaining due informed consent. Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) version 6.0 and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were applied. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 was applied for analysis. Results: Bipolar group had onset of illness at significantly younger age with more chronicity (32.85 ± 11.084). Mean BDI score was significantly higher in the unipolar depressive group. Conclusion: Careful approach in eliciting symptom severity and associated socio demographic profiles in depressed patients may be helpful in early diagnosis of bipolar depression. PMID:28250558

  13. Performance Simulation of Unipolar InAs/InAs1-x Sb x Type-II Superlattice Photodetector

    Singh, Anand; Pal, Ravinder

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports performance simulation of a unipolar tunable band gap InAs-InAsSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) infrared photodetector. The generation-recombination and surface leakage currents limit the performance of T2SL photodiodes. Unipolar nBn device design incorporating a suitable barrier layer in the diode structure is taken to suppress the Auger recombination and tunneling currents. At low reverse bias, the generation-recombination current is negligible in the absence of a depletion region, but the dark current is dominated by the diffusion current at higher operation temperatures. The composition, band alignment, barrier width, doping level and thickness of the absorber region are optimized here to achieve low dark current and high quantum efficiency at elevated operating temperatures. Thin unipolar T2SL absorbers are placed in a resonant cavity to enhance photon-material interaction, thus allowing complete absorption in a thinner detector element. It leads to the reduction in the detector volume for lower dark current without affecting the quantum efficiency. It shows an improvement in the quantum efficiency and reduction in the dark current. Dark current density ˜ 10-5 A/cm2 is achievable with low absorber thickness of 2 μm and effective lifetime of 250 ns in the InAs/InAs0.6Sb0.4/B-AlAs1-x Sb x long wave length T2SL detector at 110 K.

  14. Sample heterogeneity in unipolar depression as assessed by functional connectivity analyses is dominated by general disease effects.

    Feder, Stephan; Sundermann, Benedikt; Wersching, Heike; Teuber, Anja; Kugel, Harald; Teismann, Henning; Heindel, Walter; Berger, Klaus; Pfleiderer, Bettina

    2017-11-01

    Combinations of resting-state fMRI and machine-learning techniques are increasingly employed to develop diagnostic models for mental disorders. However, little is known about the neurobiological heterogeneity of depression and diagnostic machine learning has mainly been tested in homogeneous samples. Our main objective was to explore the inherent structure of a diverse unipolar depression sample. The secondary objective was to assess, if such information can improve diagnostic classification. We analyzed data from 360 patients with unipolar depression and 360 non-depressed population controls, who were subdivided into two independent subsets. Cluster analyses (unsupervised learning) of functional connectivity were used to generate hypotheses about potential patient subgroups from the first subset. The relationship of clusters with demographical and clinical measures was assessed. Subsequently, diagnostic classifiers (supervised learning), which incorporated information about these putative depression subgroups, were trained. Exploratory cluster analyses revealed two weakly separable subgroups of depressed patients. These subgroups differed in the average duration of depression and in the proportion of patients with concurrently severe depression and anxiety symptoms. The diagnostic classification models performed at chance level. It remains unresolved, if subgroups represent distinct biological subtypes, variability of continuous clinical variables or in part an overfitting of sparsely structured data. Functional connectivity in unipolar depression is associated with general disease effects. Cluster analyses provide hypotheses about potential depression subtypes. Diagnostic models did not benefit from this additional information regarding heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Computerized method for arm movement assessment in Parkinson's disease and cerebellar syndrome patients

    Đorđević Olivera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical setting, the symptoms of the impaired motor behavior in patients with different neurological diseases are identified by classical tests incorporated in clinical neurological examination. New computerized methods for objective motor assessment have been recently suggested in the literature. We developed computerized method for assessment and evaluation of arm movement in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD in early phase and in patients with cerebellar syndrome. Method is based on automatic acquisition of hand coordinates during drawing of line and circle, and offline analysis of kinematic parameters (time duration, path length, mean and maximal velocity, velocity profile, and precision. Clinical application is in recognition and follow-up of the impaired kinematic parameters, specific for these two groups of patients. AIM We propose computerized method that consists of two motor tasks: Task 1- drawing a line defined with end points; and Task 2 - drawing a circle defined by referential model. The first task was rather simple with defined direction, and the second included continuous change of the direction that required permanent adjustment. The aim was to detect which kinematic parameters were particularly different in PD and in patients with cerebellar syndrome in relation to healthy controls, and then to apply this method as an additional instrument in clinical evaluation. METHODS Hand trajectories were assessed during simple self-paced 1 point-to-point movement-Task 1; and 2 circle-Task 2, by cordless magnetic mouse in a hand on digitizing board (Drawing board III, 305x457 mm, GTCO Cal Comp Inc. The subjects were seated in a relaxed manner on the chair adjusted to the table height, and instructed not to correct drawn line during performance of a task. The first session was for practicing the tests only, and in the next session, the subjects repeated 5 times each task. All sessions were videotaped with CCD camera. Testing

  16. Valine but not leucine or isoleucine supports neurotransmitter glutamate synthesis during synaptic activity in cultured cerebellar neurons

    Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Johansen, Maja L.; Schousboe, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of neuronal glutamate from a-ketoglutarate for neurotransmission necessitates an amino group nitrogen donor; however, it is not clear which amino acid(s) serves this role. Thus, the ability of the three branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), leucine, isoleucine, and valine, to act as amino...... group nitrogen donors for synthesis of vesicular neurotransmitter glutamate was investigated in cultured mouse cerebellar (primarily glutamatergic) neurons. The cultures were superfused in the presence of (15) N-labeled BCAAs, and synaptic activity was induced by pulses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (300 µ......]valine was able to maintain the amount of vesicular glutamate during synaptic activity. This indicates that, among the BCAAs, only valine supports the increased need for synthesis of vesicular glutamate. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  17. Proneurotrophin-3 promotes cell cycle withdrawal of developing cerebellar granule cell progenitors via the p75 neurotrophin receptor.

    Zanin, Juan Pablo; Abercrombie, Elizabeth; Friedman, Wilma J

    2016-07-19

    Cerebellar granule cell progenitors (GCP) proliferate extensively in the external granule layer (EGL) of the developing cerebellum prior to differentiating and migrating. Mechanisms that regulate the appropriate timing of cell cycle withdrawal of these neuronal progenitors during brain development are not well defined. The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) is highly expressed in the proliferating GCPs, but is downregulated once the cells leave the cell cycle. This receptor has primarily been characterized as a death receptor for its ability to induce neuronal apoptosis following injury. Here we demonstrate a novel function for p75(NTR) in regulating proper cell cycle exit of neuronal progenitors in the developing rat and mouse EGL, which is stimulated by proNT3. In the absence of p75(NTR), GCPs continue to proliferate beyond their normal period, resulting in a larger cerebellum that persists into adulthood, with consequent motor deficits.

  18. Effects of slotting and unipolar flux on magnetic pull in a two-pole induction motor with an extra four-pole stator winding

    Sinervo, A.

    2013-06-01

    This thesis is about the radial magnetic forces between the rotor and stator in twopole induction machines. The magnetic forces arise from rotor eccentricity. The asymmetric air-gap makes the flux density on one side of the rotor stronger than on the opposite side. This produces magnetic pull. The magnetic flux density distribution in the air-gap can be expressed with spatial harmonics, i.e. flux densities with different pole-pair numbers. In two-pole machines, the main part of the magnetic force is produced by the interaction of two- and fourpole flux unless the four-pole flux is damped by parallel paths in the stator winding or an extra four-pole stator winding. The rest of the force comes from the interaction of two-pole and unipolar flux and from the higher harmonics of the air-gap flux of which the slot harmonics are a major part. The force caused by the higher harmonics and the unipolar flux is studied in the case where a four-pole stator winding is used to reduce the four-pole flux. The higher harmonics are found to produce, in addition to the traditional unbalanced magnetic pull, a force similar to the effect of the unipolar flux and the two can be distinguished only by measuring the unipolar flux. In measurements at various operation points, the higher harmonics are found to produce much more force than the unipolar flux and two-pole flux but the unipolar flux is still significant. The four-pole winding also is used to actively control the four-pole flux and the magnetic forces. Designing the controller requires a low order model of the system. Such a model is derived and the effect of the slot harmonics and the unipolar flux are included in the model. Different measurements techniques and methods are presented to identify and validate the control model. The operation point dependence of the system dynamics is studied via measurements. All results are obtained from a 30 kW test motor. The rotor of the test machine has a long flexible shaft on external

  19. Endovascular treatment of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

    Bradac, G.B.; Bergui, M. [Neuroradiology, Univ. di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    2004-12-01

    Aneurysms may arise at various locations along the course of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. Brainstem and cranial nerves manipulation make the surgical approach to proximal aneurysms difficult, while the occlusion of the parent vessel is sometimes unavoidable in peripheral aneurysms. Endovascular treatment can be a good alternative, but also with this approach the location of the aneurysm is critical. If occlusion of the parent vessel is planned, anatomical variations and vascular territories of the brainstem should be considered. We report our experience with 18 consecutive aneurysms (12 proximal, 6 peripheral) treated by coils. Complete occlusion was achieved in 14 patients and subtotal in 4. In three patients the parent vessel had to be sacrificed. During treatment two perforations occurred; aneurysms were completely occluded without clinical consequences. Two small asymptomatic cerebellar infarctions were seen on postoperative computed tomography. Clinical outcome was good in 16 patients. (orig.)

  20. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis demonstrated by SPECT in hemiplegic children

    Hamano, Shin-ichiro; Nara, Takahiro; Nozaki, Hidetsugu; Fukushima, Kiyomi; Imai, Masayuki; Kumagai, Koumei; Maekawa, Kihei.

    1991-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in twenty five children with hemiplegia were studied using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-I-123-iodoamphetamine. Seven of twenty-five patients had cerebral palsy, and the others were impaired by acquired brain injury between ten months and fourteen years of age. CCD was demonstrated in five patients (20%), who were impaired by acquired brain injury after seven years of age. CCD could never be detected in patients with cerebral palsy. Ipsilateral cerebellar diaschisis was also demonstrated in two patients with cerebral palsy and three with early acquired brain injury before three years of age. It is suggested that diaschisis presents itself as a different form in a contralateral and ipsilateral cerebellum before three years of age from a form which presents after seven years of age. (author)

  1. High-Frequency Network Oscillations in Cerebellar Cortex

    Middleton, Steven J.; Racca, Claudia; Cunningham, Mark O.; Traub, Roger D.; Monyer, Hannah; Knöpfel, Thomas; Schofield, Ian S.; Jenkins, Alistair; Whittington, Miles A.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Both cerebellum and neocortex receive input from the somatosensory system. Interaction between these regions has been proposed to underpin the correct selection and execution of motor commands, but it is not clear how such interactions occur. In neocortex, inputs give rise to population rhythms, providing a spatiotemporal coding strategy for inputs and consequent outputs. Here, we show that similar patterns of rhythm generation occur in cerebellum during nicotinic receptor subtype activation. Both gamma oscillations (30–80 Hz) and very fast oscillations (VFOs, 80–160 Hz) were generated by intrinsic cerebellar cortical circuitry in the absence of functional glutamatergic connections. As in neocortex, gamma rhythms were dependent on GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition, whereas VFOs required only nonsynaptically connected intercellular networks. The ability of cerebellar cortex to generate population rhythms within the same frequency bands as neocortex suggests that they act as a common spatiotemporal code within which corticocerebellar dialog may occur. PMID:18549787

  2. Palatoglossal fusion with cleft palate and hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis

    Shailesh Solanki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new-born male presented within 12 h of birth with respiratory distress. On examination and workup, he had palatoglossal fusion, cleft palate and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis. A 2.5 Fr endotracheal tube was inserted into the pharynx through nostril as a nasopharyngeal stent, following which his respiratory distress improved. Once child was optimised, then feeding was started by nasogastric tube and feeds were tolerated well. Elective tracheostomy and gastrostomy were done, followed by release of adhesions between the tongue and palate at a later stage. Review of literature suggests that palatoglossal fusion is uncommon and presents as an emergency. Mostly, these oral synechiae are associated with digital and/or cardiac anomaly. Other disorders associated with intra-oral synechiae include congenital alveolar synechiae, van der Woude syndrome, popliteal pterygium syndrome and oromandibular limb hypogenesis syndrome. The authors report a hitherto undescribed association of palatoglossal fusion with cleft palate and hypoplasia of the cerebellar vermis.

  3. [Atypical cerebellar neurocytoma resembling a hemangioblastoma. A case report].

    Lista Martínez, Olalla; Rivas López, Luis Alfredo; Pombo Otero, Jorge Francisco; Amaro Cendón, Santiago; Bravo García, Christian; Villa Fernández, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Through August 2013, 105 cases of intracranial extraventricular neurocytoma (EVN) had been described; 6% were located in cerebellum and 22% were atypical EVN. A rare morphologic form of neurocytoma, atypical EVN has had only 24 cases reported to date. Its prognosis is poorer than the typical central neurocytoma. This case report describes an atypical cerebellar EVN, a form that has not been reported yet, hence the interest of this article. We emphasise its cystic nature and mural nodule, in an infrequent presentation. EVN are low-incidence tumours that we need to take into consideration when making the differential diagnosis of cystic cerebellar lesions with mural nodule. Given that the prognosis of atypical EVNs depends on the atypical nature and on the grade of resection, medical follow up has to be more constant, due to the greater degree of recurrence. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome Presented as Severe Borderline Personality Disorder

    Danilo Pesic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of findings confirm the significance of cerebellum in affecting regulation and early learning. Most consistent findings refer to association of congenital vermis anomalies with deficits in nonmotor functions of cerebellum. In this paper we presented a young woman who was treated since sixteen years of age for polysubstance abuse, affective instability, and self-harming who was later diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Since the neurological and neuropsychological reports pointed to signs of cerebellar dysfunction and dysexecutive syndrome, we performed magnetic resonance imaging of brain which demonstrated partially developed vermis and rhombencephalosynapsis. These findings match the description of cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome and show an overlap with clinical manifestations of borderline personality disorder.

  5. Lens effect of unipolar electrostatic steerers on low-energy ion beams and its effective reduction

    Asozu, Takuhiro; Matsuda, Makoto; Kutsukake, Kenichi

    2010-08-01

    The JAEA-Tokai tandem accelerator has two ion injectors, one is the negative ion injector placed on the ground and the other is the positive ion injector in the high voltage terminal. The electrostatic steerers in the high voltage terminal are used for ion beams from the both injectors. Because the beams from the negative ion injector gain high energy at the 20MV terminal, the electrodes of the electrostatic steerers are designed to be supplied several ten kV. The high voltages are supplied by two unipolar DC power supplies and they are controlled as the sum of the voltages keeps constant. The high electric potential between the electrodes affects the beam trajectory as an electrostatic lens. The potential must be too high for the low energy ion beams from the positive ion injector on the 100kV deck. We simulated the beam trajectory by calculation and evaluated the strength of the lens effects. The results showed that the focal distances were too short to control the beam form positive ion injector using optical devices in the downstream. If we reduce the voltages to one tenth in simulation, then the focusing effects were much less significant. We installed a multiplying factor circuit to make the voltages variable and much lower. The results of beam-handling tests using the circuit actually showed significant increase of the ion beam current. (author)

  6. Long-term odor recognition memory in unipolar major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease.

    Naudin, Marine; Mondon, Karl; El-Hage, Wissam; Desmidt, Thomas; Jaafari, Nematollah; Belzung, Catherine; Gaillard, Philippe; Hommet, Caroline; Atanasova, Boriana

    2014-12-30

    Major depression and Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) are often observed in the elderly. The identification of specific markers for these diseases could improve their screening. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term odor recognition memory in depressed and AD patients, with a view to identifying olfactory markers of these diseases. We included 20 patients with unipolar major depressive episodes (MDE), 20 patients with mild to moderate AD and 24 healthy subjects. We investigated the cognitive profile and olfactory memory capacities (ability to recognize familiar and unfamiliar odors) of these subjects. Olfactory memory test results showed that AD and depressed patients were characterized by significantly less correct responses and more wrong responses than healthy controls. Detection index did not differ significantly between patients with major depression and those with AD when the results were analyzed for all odors. However, MDE patients displayed an impairment of olfactory memory for both familiar and unfamiliar odors, whereas AD subjects were impaired only in the recognition of unfamiliar odors, with respect to healthy subjects. If preservation of olfactory memory for familiar stimuli in patients with mild to moderate AD is confirmed, this test could be used in clinical practice as a complementary tool for diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Severe Intellectual Disability: Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Nature of Presentation of Unipolar Depression.

    Walton, Catherine; Kerr, Mike

    2016-09-01

    The diagnosis of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability is challenging. Without adequate skills in verbal self-expression, standardized diagnostic criteria cannot be used with confidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the assessment and diagnosis of unipolar depression in severe and profound intellectual disability. The review aimed to examine the methods used to assess for depression. The secondary aim was to explore the frequency and symptoms of depression. The PRISMA (2009) Checklist for systematic review was followed, and a search of electronic databases was undertaken. Nine studies were included in the qualitative synthesis from over 2000 records identified. The quality of the studies was assessed and scored, with a wide range of results. Individual studies scored between 2 and 7 of a maximum possible score of 8. The diagnostic tools utilized by each of the studies were assessed and compared. In terms of the methods used to assess for depression, results were varied. This was due to the heterogeneous nature of the individual study designs. The Aberrant Behaviour Checklist consistently showed promise, in particular when combined with other instruments or clinical examination. Qualitative analysis of the selected studies has shown a wide variation in the quality of primary research in this field, with more required to make firm conclusions regarding the diagnosis, frequency and presentation of depression in severe and profound intellectual disability. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Critical Magnetic Field Strengths for Unipolar Solar Coronal Plumes In Quiet Regions and Coronal Holes?

    Avallone, Ellis; Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Moore, Ronald L.; Winebarger, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Coronal plumes are bright magnetic funnels that are found in quiet regions and coronal holes that extend high into the solar corona whose lifetimes can last from hours to days. The heating processes that make plumes bright involve the magnetic field at the base of the plume, but their intricacies remain mysterious. Raouafi et al. (2014) infer from observation that plume heating is a consequence of magnetic reconnection at the base, whereas Wang et al. (2016) infer that plume heating is a result of convergence of the magnetic flux at the plume's base, or base flux. Both papers suggest that the base flux in their plumes is of mixed polarity, but do not quantitatively measure the base flux or consider whether a critical magnetic field strength is required for plume production. To investigate the magnetic origins of plume heating, we track plume luminosity in the 171 Å wavelength as well as the abundance and strength of the base flux over the lifetimes of six unipolar coronal plumes. Of these, three are in coronal holes and three are in quiet regions. For this sample, we find that plume heating is triggered when convergence of the base flux surpasses a field strength of approximately 300 - 500 Gauss, and that the luminosity of both quiet region and coronal hole plumes respond similarly to the strength of the magnetic field in the base.

  9. Season of birth, clinical manifestations and Dexamethasone Suppression Test in unipolar major depression

    Kaprinis George S

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reports in the literature suggest that the season of birth might constitute a risk factor for the development of a major psychiatric disorder, possibly because of the effect environmental factors have during the second trimester of gestation. The aim of the current paper was to study the possible relationship of the season of birth and current clinical symptoms in unipolar major depression. Methods The study sample included 45 DSM-IV major depressive patients and 90 matched controls. The SCAN v. 2.0, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAS were used to assess symptomatology, and the 1 mg Dexamethasone Suppression Test (DST was used to subcategorize patients. Results Depressed patients as a whole did not show differences in birth season from controls. However, those patients born during the spring manifested higher HDRS while those born during the summer manifested the lowest HAS scores. DST non-suppressors were almost exclusively (90% likely to be born during autumn and winter. No effect from the season of birth was found concerning the current severity of suicidal ideation or attempts. Discussion The current study is the first in this area of research using modern and rigid diagnostic methodology and a biological marker (DST to categorize patients. Its disadvantages are the lack of data concerning DST in controls and a relatively small size of patient sample. The results confirm the effect of seasonality of birth on patients suffering from specific types of depression.

  10. A Comparative Study of Different EEG Reference Choices for Diagnosing Unipolar Depression.

    Mumtaz, Wajid; Malik, Aamir Saeed

    2018-06-02

    The choice of an electroencephalogram (EEG) reference has fundamental importance and could be critical during clinical decision-making because an impure EEG reference could falsify the clinical measurements and subsequent inferences. In this research, the suitability of three EEG references was compared while classifying depressed and healthy brains using a machine-learning (ML)-based validation method. In this research, the EEG data of 30 unipolar depressed subjects and 30 age-matched healthy controls were recorded. The EEG data were analyzed in three different EEG references, the link-ear reference (LE), average reference (AR), and reference electrode standardization technique (REST). The EEG-based functional connectivity (FC) was computed. Also, the graph-based measures, such as the distances between nodes, minimum spanning tree, and maximum flow between the nodes for each channel pair, were calculated. An ML scheme provided a mechanism to compare the performances of the extracted features that involved a general framework such as the feature extraction (graph-based theoretic measures), feature selection, classification, and validation. For comparison purposes, the performance metrics such as the classification accuracies, sensitivities, specificities, and F scores were computed. When comparing the three references, the diagnostic accuracy showed better performances during the REST, while the LE and AR showed less discrimination between the two groups. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the choice of appropriate reference is critical during the clinical scenario. The REST reference is recommended for future applications of EEG-based diagnosis of mental illnesses.

  11. Bipolar and Unipolar Silylene-Diphenylene σ-π Conjugated Polymer Route for Highly Efficient Electrophosphorescence

    Chang, Yao-Tang; Sharma, Sunil; Hung, Miao-Ken; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Show-An

    2016-12-01

    σ-π conjugated polymer strategy is proposed for designing electroluminescent host polymers with silylene-diphenylene as the backbone repeat unit giving a high triplet energy (ET = 2.67 eV). By incorporation of high ET (3.0 eV) electron (oxadiazole, OXD) and hole (triphenyl amine, TPA) transport moieties, or TPA alone (in this case, the main chain acts as electron transport channel) as side arms on the silylene, the high ET bipolar and unipolar polymers are formed, allowing a use of iridium green phosphor (Ir(ppy)2(acac), Ir-G) (ET = 2.40 eV) as the dopant. The matching of energy levels of the dopant with the hosts, leading to charge trapping into it; and singlets and triplets of the exciplex and excimer can be harvested via energy transfer to the dopant. Using these host-guest systems as the emitting layer, chlorinated indium-tin-oxide (Cl-ITO) as the anode, and benzimidazole derivative (TPBI) as the electron transport layer, this two-layer device gives the high luminance efficiency 80.1 cd/A and external quantum efficiency 21.2%, which is the best among the report values for polymer light emitting diode (PLED) in the literatures. This example manifests that σ-π conjugated polymer strategy is a promising route for designing polymer host for efficient electrophosphorescence.

  12. Abnormal early gamma responses to emotional faces differentiate unipolar from bipolar disorder patients.

    Liu, T Y; Chen, Y S; Su, T P; Hsieh, J C; Chen, L F

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the cortical abnormalities of early emotion perception in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) using gamma oscillations. Twenty-three MDD patients, twenty-five BD patients, and twenty-four normal controls were enrolled and their event-related magnetoencephalographic responses were recorded during implicit emotional tasks. Our results demonstrated abnormal gamma activity within 100 ms in the emotion-related regions (amygdala, orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex, anterior insula (AI), and superior temporal pole) in the MDD patients, suggesting that these patients may have dysfunctions or negativity biases in perceptual binding of emotional features at very early stage. Decreased left superior medial frontal cortex (smFC) responses to happy faces in the MDD patients were correlated with their serious level of depression symptoms, indicating that decreased smFC activity perhaps underlies irregular positive emotion processing in depressed patients. In the BD patients, we showed abnormal activation in visual regions (inferior/middle occipital and middle temporal cortices) which responded to emotional faces within 100 ms, supporting that the BD patients may hyperactively respond to emotional features in perceptual binding. The discriminant function of gamma activation in the left smFC, right medial OFC, right AI/inferior OFC, and the right precentral cortex accurately classified 89.6% of patients as unipolar/bipolar disorders.

  13. Intrapersonal conflict in goals and values of patients with unipolar depression.

    Stangier, Ulrich; Ukrow, Uwe; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Grabe, Martin; Lauterbach, Wolf

    2007-01-01

    Although increased conflicts between attitudes and beliefs about certain goals or values are often discussed as important factors in depression, there are only few empirical studies investigating these relations among patients with depressive disorders. In the present study, we used the Intrapersonal Conflict Test to assess cognitive inconsistencies in goals or values. A total of 53 inpatients with unipolar depression and 24 nondepressed controls (inpatients of an internal and a surgery ward) participated in the study. In addition to the Intrapersonal Conflict Test, patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems as well as the Problem Solving Inventory. Compared with controls, patients with depressive disorders showed significantly higher scores for global inconsistencies, inconsistencies within different goals/values, as well as between goals/values and their perceived realization. Significant correlations were found between conflict measures and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, as well as the Problem Solving Inventory. Path analyses show that group differences in intrapersonal conflicts were partially mediated by interpersonal problems but not by depressive symptoms or cognitive vulnerability factors. Given the cross-sectional design of the study, the findings of this exploratory study do not allow for conclusions regarding the role of intrapersonal conflicts in the development and course of depression. Nevertheless, the high levels of intrapersonal conflicts observed in the study suggest that inconsistencies in goals or values should be considered in the psychological treatment of depression. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Degenerative cerebellar diseases and differential diagnoses; Degenerative Kleinhirnerkrankungen und Differenzialdiagnosen

    Reith, W.; Roumia, S.; Dietrich, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Cerebellar syndromes result in distinct clinical symptoms, such as ataxia, dysarthria, dysmetria, intention tremor and eye movement disorders. In addition to the medical history and clinical examination, imaging is particularly important to differentiate other diseases, such as hydrocephalus and multi-infarct dementia from degenerative cerebellar diseases. Degenerative diseases with cerebellar involvement include Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy as well as other diseases including spinocerebellar ataxia. In addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging investigations are also helpful for the differentiation. Axial fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2-weighted sequences can sometimes show a signal increase in the pons as a sign of degeneration of pontine neurons and transverse fibers in the basilar part of the pons. The imaging is particularly necessary to exclude other diseases, such as normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), multi-infarct dementia and cerebellar lesions. (orig.) [German] Klinisch imponieren Kleinhirnsyndrome durch Ataxie, Dysarthrie, Dysmetrie, Intentionstremor und Augenbewegungsstoerungen. Neben der Anamnese und klinischen Untersuchung ist die Bildgebung v. a. wichtig um andere Erkrankungen wie Hydrozephalus und Multiinfarktdemenz von degenerativen Kleinhirnerkrankungen zu differenzieren. Zu den degenerativen Erkrankungen mit Kleinhirnbeteiligung gehoeren der Morbus Parkinson, die Multisystematrophie sowie weitere Erkrankungen einschliesslich der spinozerebellaeren Ataxien. Neben der MRT sind auch nuklearmedizinische Untersuchungen zur Differenzierung hilfreich. Axiale Fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery(FLAIR)- und T2-gewichtete Sequenzen koennen mitunter eine Signalsteigerung im Pons als Ausdruck einer Degeneration der pontinen Neuronen und transversalen Bahnen im Brueckenfuss zeigen. Die Bildgebung ist aber v. a. notwendig, um andere Erkrankungen wie Normaldruckhydrozephalus

  15. Cerebellar Herniation after Lumbar Puncture in Galactosemic Newborn

    Salih Kalay

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral edema resulting in elevated intracranial pressure is a well-known complication of galactosemia. Lumbar puncture was performed for the diagnosis of clinically suspected bacterial meningitis. Herniation of cerebral tissue through the foramen magnum is not a common problem in neonatal intensive care units because of the open fontanelle in infants. We present the case of a 3-week-old infant with galactosemia who presented with signs of cerebellar herniation after lumbar puncture.

  16. Spontaneous calcium waves in granule cells in cerebellar slice cultures

    Apuschkin, Mia; Ougaard, Maria; Rekling, Jens C

    2013-01-01

    Multiple regions in the CNS display propagating correlated activity during embryonic and postnatal development. This activity can be recorded as waves of increased calcium concentrations in spiking neurons or glia cells, and have been suggested to be involved in patterning, axonal guidance and es......, that the propagating wave activity is carried through the tissue by axonal collaterals formed by neighboring granule cells, and further suggest that the correlated activity may be related to processes that ensure correct postnatal wiring of the cerebellar circuits....

  17. Imaging Spectrum of Cerebellar Pathologies: A Pictorial Essay

    Arora, Richa

    2015-01-01

    The cerebellum is a crucial structure of hindbrain which helps in maintaining motor tone, posture, gait and also coordinates skilled voluntary movements including eye movements. Cerebellar abnormalities have different spectrum, presenting symptoms and prognosis as compared to supratentorial structures and brainstem. This article intends to review the various pathological processes involving the cerebellum along with their imaging features on MR, which are must to know for all radiologists, neurologists and neurosurgeons for their prompt diagnosis and management

  18. CT evaluation of cerebellar atrophy with aging in healthy persons

    Nishimiya, Jin

    1988-01-01

    In a retrospective analysis of CT scans available from 2,102 neurologically normal persons, dilatations of the cerebellar vermis fissures (CVF), cerebellar hemispheric fissures (CHF), subarachnoid space (SAS) around the cerebellum and the fourth ventricle (FV) were examined according the age groups of persons younger than one year, one to four, five to nine, 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, 40 to 49, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years and older. An dilatation of both the CVF and CHF was associated with aging, with statistically significant differences among age groups of persons older than 20 years. This was especially noted in age groups of 60 years or older. There was a significant enlargement in the SAS around the cerebellum in age groups 60 years or more compared with age groups less than 60 years. For age groups of persons 20 years or older, both the FV transverse width and the radio of the FV transverse width to the inside diameter of the posterior fossa (PF) increased with aging. This was significant in age groups 60 years or older. For age groups younger than 10 years, however, there was inverse correlation between the ratio of the FV transverse width to the PF inside diameter and aging. Plotted curve of the ratio of the FV to the PF was U-shaped with smallest value in persons in their twenties. Since changes in the FV might reflect the volume of the cerebellar medullary substance, the cerebellar medullary substance should increase up to the age of 20. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Patterns of regional cerebellar atrophy in genetic frontotemporal dementia

    Martina Bocchetta

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: There appears to be a differential pattern of cerebellar atrophy in the major genetic forms of FTD, being relatively spared in GRN, localized to the lobule VIIa-Crus I in the superior-posterior region of the cerebellum in C9orf72, the area connected via the thalamus to the prefrontal cortex and involved in cognitive function, and localized to the vermis in MAPT, the ‘limbic cerebellum’ involved in emotional processing.

  20. Cerebellar ataxia of early onset. Clinical symptoms and MRI findings

    Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyake, Shota; Yamada, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko (Kanagawa Children' s Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)); Yamada, Kazuhiko

    1989-07-01

    Eight cases of childhood cerebellar ataxia were reported. All these cases showed chronic cerebellar ataxia with early onset, and the other diseases of cerebellum such as infections, neoplasms and storage diseases were excluded by clinical symptoms and laboratory findings including blood counts, blood chemistry, lactate, pyruvate, ceruloplasmine, urinalysis, serum immunoglobulins, amino acid analysis in blood and urine, CSF analysis, leukocyte lysosomal enzymes, MCV, EMG, EEG and brain X-CT. Two pairs of siblings were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis were cerebellar type (5), spinocerebellar type (1), one Marinesco-Sjoegren syndrome and undetermined type (1). The age of onset was 1 to 5 years. The chief complaint was motor developmental delay in 6 cases; among them 5 patients could walk alone at the ages of 2 to 3 years'. Mental retardation was observed in 7 cases and epilepsy in 2. TRH was effective in 5 cases. The MRI study revealed that the area of medial sagittal slice of the cerebellum was reduced significantly in all cases and also that of pons was reduced in 5 cases. Different from typical adult onset spinocerebellar degenerations, most of the present cases have achieved slow developmental milestones and the clinical course was not progressive. Genetic factors are suspected in the pathogenesis of this disease in some cases. (author).

  1. β-Catenin is critical for cerebellar foliation and lamination.

    Jing Wen

    Full Text Available The cerebellum has a conserved foliation pattern and a well-organized layered structure. The process of foliation and lamination begins around birth. β-catenin is a downstream molecule of Wnt signaling pathway, which plays a critical role in tissue organization. Lack of β-catenin at early embryonic stages leads to either prenatal or neonatal death, therefore it has been difficult to resolve its role in cerebellar foliation and lamination. Here we used GFAP-Cre to ablate β-catenin in neuronal cells of the cerebellum after embryonic day 12.5, and found an unexpected role of β-catenin in determination of the foliation pattern. In the mutant mice, the positions of fissure formation were changed, and the meninges were improperly incorporated into fissures. At later stages, some lobules were formed by Purkinje cells remaining in deep regions of the cerebellum and the laminar structure was dramatically altered. Our results suggest that β-catenin is critical for cerebellar foliation and lamination. We also found a non cell-autonomous role of β-catenin in some developmental properties of major cerebellar cell types during specific stages.

  2. Ataxia-telangiectasia: the pattern of cerebellar atrophy on MRI

    Tavani, F.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gatti, R.; Bingham, P.; Berry, G.T.; Sullivan, K.

    2003-01-01

    We describe MRI of the brain in 19 patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) and correlate the appearances with the degree of neurologic deficit. We examined 10 male and nine female patients; 17 were aged between 2 and 12 years (mean 8 years) but a woman and her brother were 35 and 38 years old, and had a variant of AT. Ataxia was the first recognized sign of the disease in every patient. We detected the following patterns of cerebellar atrophy: in the youngest patient, aged 2 years, the study was normal; in the five next youngest patients 3-7 years of age, the lateral cerebellum and superior vermis showed the earliest changes of atrophy; and all but one of the other patients had moderate to marked diffuse atrophy of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. There were 12 patients aged 9 years and above; one, who was normal, was 9 years old. The five patients who at the time of examination were unable to walk all had diffuse atrophy involving both vermis and cerebellar hemispheres. (orig.)

  3. Increased protein kinase C gamma activity induces Purkinje cell pathology in a mouse model of spinocerebellar ataxia 14.

    Ji, Jingmin; Hassler, Melanie L; Shimobayashi, Etsuko; Paka, Nagendher; Streit, Raphael; Kapfhammer, Josef P

    2014-10-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are hereditary diseases leading to Purkinje cell degeneration and cerebellar dysfunction. Most forms of SCA are caused by expansion of CAG repeats similar to other polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease. In contrast, in the autosomal dominant SCA-14 the disease is caused by mutations in the protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) gene which is a well characterized signaling molecule in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The study of SCA-14, therefore, offers the unique opportunity to reveal the molecular and pathological mechanism eventually leading to Purkinje cell dysfunction and degeneration. We have created a mouse model of SCA-14 in which PKCγ protein with a mutation found in SCA-14 is specifically expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. We find that in mice expressing the mutated PKCγ protein the morphology of Purkinje cells in cerebellar slice cultures is drastically altered and mimics closely the morphology seen after pharmacological PKC activation. Similar morphological abnormalities were seen in localized areas of the cerebellum of juvenile transgenic mice in vivo. In adult transgenic mice there is evidence for some localized loss of Purkinje cells but there is no overall cerebellar atrophy. Transgenic mice show a mild cerebellar ataxia revealed by testing on the rotarod and on the walking beam. Our findings provide evidence for both an increased PKCγ activity in Purkinje cells in vivo and for pathological changes typical for cerebellar disease thus linking the increased and dysregulated activity of PKCγ tightly to the development of cerebellar disease in SCA-14 and possibly also in other forms of SCA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Cerebellar Tremor in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Hee-Jin Kim

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS caused by JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Movement disorders associated with PML are very rare. Here, we report a case of PML in an AIDS patient who presented with a cerebellar tremor, caused by lesions in the cerebellar outflow tract. A cerebellar tremor can be a rare clinical manifestation in patients with PML.

  5. A Cerebellar Tremor in a Patient with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Associated with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    Kim, Hee-Jin; Lee, Jae-Jung; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2009-01-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by JC virus infection in oligodendrocytes, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Movement disorders associated with PML are very rare. Here, we report a case of PML in an AIDS patient who presented with a cerebellar tremor, caused by lesions in the cerebellar outflow tract. A cerebellar tremor can be a rare clinical manifestation in patients with PML. PMID:24868366

  6. Metronome Cueing of Walking Reduces Gait Variability after a Cerebellar Stroke

    Wright, Rachel L.; Bevins, Joseph W.; Pratt, David; Sackley, Catherine M.; Wing, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar stroke typically results in increased variability during walking. Previous research has suggested that auditory cueing reduces excessive variability in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and post-stroke hemiparesis. The aim of this case report was to investigate whether the use of a metronome cue during walking could reduce excessive variability in gait parameters after a cerebellar stroke. An elderly female with a history of cerebellar stroke and recurrent falling undertook th...

  7. Cerebellar Ataxia from Multiple Potential Causes: Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Thalamic Stimulation, and Essential Tremor

    Shneyder, Natalya; Lyons, Mark K.; Driver-dunckley, Erika; Evidente, Virgilio Gerald H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Both hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) can rarely be associated with cerebellar ataxia. Severe essential tremor (ET) as well as bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) may lead to subtle cerebellar signs. Case Report: We report a 74-year-old male with hypothyroidism and a 20-year history of ET who developed cerebellar ataxia after bilateral thalamic DBS. Extensive workup revealed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroperoxidase antibody titers c...

  8. Adams Oliver syndrome: Description of a new phenotype with cerebellar abnormalities in a family

    D’Amico, Alessandra; Melis, Daniela; D’Arco, Felice; Di Paolo, Nilde; Carotenuto, Barbara; D’Anna, Gennaro; Russo, Carmela; Boemio, Pasquale; Brunetti, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    To describe cerebellar abnormalities in a family composed by a father and two affected sibs with Adams Oliver syndrome (AOS) (OMIM 100300). Brain MRI and MR angiography were performed at 1.5T. The siblings presented cerebellar cortex dysplasia characterized by the presence of cysts. Abnormalities of CNS are an unusual manifestation of AOS. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cerebellar cortical dysplasia in a family with AOS

  9. Blood harmane is correlated with cerebellar metabolism in essential tremor: a pilot study.

    Louis, Elan D; Zheng, Wei; Mao, Xiangling; Shungu, Dikoma C

    2007-08-07

    On proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1)H MRSI), there is a decrease in cerebellar N-acetylaspartate/total creatine (NAA/tCr) in essential tremor (ET), signifying cerebellar neuronal dysfunction or degeneration. Harmane, which is present in the human diet, is a potent tremor-producing neurotoxin. Blood harmane concentrations seem to be elevated in ET. To assess in patients with ET whether blood harmane concentration is correlated with cerebellar NAA/tCR, a neuroimaging measure of neuronal dysfunction or degeneration. Twelve patients with ET underwent (1)H MRSI. The major neuroanatomic structure of interest was the cerebellar cortex. Secondary regions were the central cerebellar white matter, cerebellar vermis, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Blood concentrations of harmane and another neurotoxin, lead, were also assessed. Mean +/- SD cerebellar NAA/tCR was 1.52 +/- 0.41. In a linear regression model that adjusted for age and gender, log blood harmane concentration was a predictor of cerebellar NAA/tCR (beta = -0.41, p = 0.009); every 1 g(-10)/mL unit increase in log blood harmane concentration was associated with a 0.41 unit decrease in cerebellar NAA/tCR. The association between blood harmane concentration and brain NAA/tCR only occurred in the cerebellar cortex; it was not observed in secondary brain regions of interest. Furthermore, the association was specific to harmane and not another neurotoxin, lead. This study provides additional support for the emerging link between harmane, a neurotoxin, and ET. Further studies are warranted to address whether cerebellar harmane concentrations are associated with cerebellar pathology in postmortem studies of the ET brain.

  10. Cerebellar language mapping and cerebral language dominance in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients

    Jennifer N. Gelinas, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Cerebellar language activation occurs in homologous regions of Crus I/II contralateral to cerebral language activation in patients with both right and left cerebral language dominance. Cerebellar language laterality could contribute to comprehensive pre-operative evaluation of language lateralization in pediatric epilepsy surgery patients. Our data suggest that patients with atypical cerebellar language activation are at risk for having atypical cerebral language organization.

  11. Sonic hedgehog-induced histone deacetylase activation is required for cerebellar granule precursor hyperplasia in medulloblastoma.

    Seung Joon Lee

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma, the most common pediatric brain tumor, is thought to arise from deregulated proliferation of cerebellar granule precursor (CGP cells. Sonic hedgehog (Shh is the primary mitogen that regulates proliferation of CGP cells during the early stages of postnatal cerebellum development. Aberrant activation of Shh signaling during this time has been associated with hyperplasia of CGP cells and eventually may lead to the development of medulloblastoma. The molecular targets of Shh signaling involved in medulloblastoma formation are still not well-understood. Here, we show that Shh regulates sustained activation of histone deacetylases (HDACs and that this activity is required for continued proliferation of CGP cells. Suppression of HDAC activity not only blocked the Shh-induced CGP proliferation in primary cell cultures, but also ameliorated aberrant CGP proliferation at the external germinal layer (EGL in a medulloblastoma mouse model. Increased levels of mRNA and protein of several HDAC family members were found in medulloblastoma compared to wild type cerebellum suggesting that HDAC activity is required for the survival/progression of tumor cells. The identification of a role of HDACs in the early steps of medulloblastoma formation suggests there may be a therapeutic potential for HDAC inhibitors in this disease.

  12. Morphological Constraints on Cerebellar Granule Cell Combinatorial Diversity.

    Gilmer, Jesse I; Person, Abigail L

    2017-12-13

    Combinatorial expansion by the cerebellar granule cell layer (GCL) is fundamental to theories of cerebellar contributions to motor control and learning. Granule cells (GrCs) sample approximately four mossy fiber inputs and are thought to form a combinatorial code useful for pattern separation and learning. We constructed a spatially realistic model of the cerebellar GCL and examined how GCL architecture contributes to GrC combinatorial diversity. We found that GrC combinatorial diversity saturates quickly as mossy fiber input diversity increases, and that this saturation is in part a consequence of short dendrites, which limit access to diverse inputs and favor dense sampling of local inputs. This local sampling also produced GrCs that were combinatorially redundant, even when input diversity was extremely high. In addition, we found that mossy fiber clustering, which is a common anatomical pattern, also led to increased redundancy of GrC input combinations. We related this redundancy to hypothesized roles of temporal expansion of GrC information encoding in service of learned timing, and we show that GCL architecture produces GrC populations that support both temporal and combinatorial expansion. Finally, we used novel anatomical measurements from mice of either sex to inform modeling of sparse and filopodia-bearing mossy fibers, finding that these circuit features uniquely contribute to enhancing GrC diversification and redundancy. Our results complement information theoretic studies of granule layer structure and provide insight into the contributions of granule layer anatomical features to afferent mixing. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cerebellar granule cells are among the simplest neurons, with tiny somata and, on average, just four dendrites. These characteristics, along with their dense organization, inspired influential theoretical work on the granule cell layer as a combinatorial expander, where each granule cell represents a unique combination of inputs

  13. Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Drives Mitochondrial Fragmentation by Suppressing Mitofusins in Cerebellar Granule Neuron Precursors and Medulloblastoma.

    Malhotra, Anshu; Dey, Abhinav; Prasad, Niyathi; Kenney, Anna Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is closely coupled with bioenergetics of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. Shh-associated medulloblastoma arises from cerebellar granule neuron precursors (CGNP), a neural progenitor whose developmental expansion requires signaling by Shh, a ligand secreted by the neighboring Purkinje neurons. Previous observations show that Shh signaling inhibits fatty acid oxidation although driving increased fatty acid synthesis. Proliferating CGNPs and mouse Shh medulloblastomas feature high levels of glycolytic enzymes in vivo and in vitro. Because both of these metabolic processes are closely linked to mitochondrial bioenergetics, the role of Shh signaling in mitochondrial biogenesis was investigated. This report uncovers a surprising decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and overall ATP production in CGNPs exposed to Shh, consistent with increased glycolysis resulting in high intracellular acidity, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation. Ultrastructural examination of mitochondria revealed a spherical shape in Shh-treated cells, in contrast to the elongated appearance in vehicle-treated postmitotic cells. Expression of mitofusin 1 and 2 was reduced in these cells, although their ectopic expression restored the MMP to the nonproliferating state and the morphology to a fused, interconnected state. Mouse Shh medulloblastoma cells featured drastically impaired mitochondrial morphology, restoration of which by ectopic mitofusin expression was also associated with a decrease in the expression of Cyclin D2 protein, a marker for proliferation. This report exposes a novel role for Shh in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and rescue of the metabolic profile of tumor cells to that of nontransformed, nonproliferating cells and represents a potential avenue for development of medulloblastoma therapeutics. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The clinical impact of cerebellar grey matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Alfredo Damasceno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cerebellum is an important site for cortical demyelination in multiple sclerosis, but the functional significance of this finding is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and cognitive impact of cerebellar grey-matter pathology in multiple sclerosis patients. METHODS: Forty-two relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 30 controls underwent clinical assessment including the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS and cerebellar functional system (FS score, and cognitive evaluation, including the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT and the Symbol-Digit Modalities Test (SDMT. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed with a 3T scanner and variables of interest were: brain white-matter and cortical lesion load, cerebellar intracortical and leukocortical lesion volumes, and brain cortical and cerebellar white-matter and grey-matter volumes. RESULTS: After multivariate analysis high burden of cerebellar intracortical lesions was the only predictor for the EDSS (p<0.001, cerebellar FS (p = 0.002, arm function (p = 0.049, and for leg function (p<0.001. Patients with high burden of cerebellar leukocortical lesions had lower PASAT scores (p = 0.013, while patients with greater volumes of cerebellar intracortical lesions had worse SDMT scores (p = 0.015. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebellar grey-matter pathology is widely present and contributes to clinical dysfunction in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients, independently of brain grey-matter damage.

  15. Cerebellar modulation of frontal cortex dopamine efflux in mice: relevance to autism and schizophrenia.

    Mittleman, Guy; Goldowitz, Daniel; Heck, Detlef H; Blaha, Charles D

    2008-07-01

    Cerebellar and frontal cortical pathologies have been commonly reported in schizophrenia, autism, and other developmental disorders. Whether there is a relationship between prefrontal and cerebellar pathologies is unknown. Using fixed potential amperometry, dopamine (DA) efflux evoked by cerebellar or, dentate nucleus electrical stimulation (50 Hz, 200 muA) was recorded in prefrontal cortex of urethane anesthetized lurcher (Lc/+) mice with 100% loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and wildtype (+/+) control mice. Cerebellar stimulation with 25 and 100 pulses evoked prefrontal cortex DA efflux in +/+ mice that persisted for 12 and 25 s poststimulation, respectively. In contrast, 25 pulse cerebellar stimulation failed to evoke prefrontal cortex DA efflux in Lc/+ mice indicating a dependency on cerebellar Purkinje cell outputs. Dentate nucleus stimulation (25 pulses) evoked a comparable but briefer (baseline recovery within 7 s) increase in prefrontal cortex DA efflux compared to similar cerebellar stimulation in +/+ mice. However, in Lc/+ mice 25 pulse dentate nucleus evoked prefrontal cortex DA efflux was attenuated by 60% with baseline recovery within 4 s suggesting that dentate nucleus outputs to prefrontal cortex remain partially functional. DA reuptake blockade enhanced 100 pulse stimulation evoked prefrontal cortex responses, while serotonin or norepinephrine reuptake blockade were without effect indicating the specificity of the amperometric recordings to DA. Results provide neurochemical evidence that the cerebellum can modulate DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings may explain why cerebellar and frontal cortical pathologies co-occur, and may provide a mechanism that accounts for the diversity of symptoms common to multiple developmental disorders.

  16. Increased cerebellar PET glucose metabolism corresponds to ataxia in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Fellgiebel, Andreas; Siessmeier, Thomas; Winterer, Georg; Lüddens, Hartmut; Mann, Klaus; Schmidt, Lutz G; Bartenstein, Peter

    2004-01-01

    To investigate a possible relationship between cerebellar glucose metabolism and recovery from ataxia in the first months of acute Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Two cases of alcoholic Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were followed up with the clinical status and cerebral glucose metabolism over a 4- and 9-month period. Initially both patients showed severe ataxia and elevated cerebellar glucose metabolism that decreased corresponding to the restitution of stance and gait. Increased cerebellar glucose metabolism at the onset of the illness may reflect the reorganization process of disturbed motor skills and may indicate cerebellar plasticity.

  17. Congenital Cerebellar Mixed Germ Cell Tumor Presenting with Hemorrhage in a Newborn

    Kim, Sung Mok; Kim, Ji Hye; Yoo, So Young; Park, Won Soon; Jang, Yun Sil; Shin, Hyung Jin; Suh, Yeon Lim

    2008-01-01

    We report here on a neonate with congenital cerebellar mixed germ cell tumor, and this initially presented as cerebellar hemorrhage. Postnatal cranial ultrasonography revealed an echogenic cerebellar mass that exhibited the signal characteristics of hemorrhage rather than tumor on MR images. The short-term follow-up images also suggested a resolving cerebellar hemorrhage. One month later, the neonate developed vomiting. A second set of MR images demonstrated an enlarged mass that exhibited changed signal intensity at the same site, which suggested a neoplasm. Histological examination after the surgical resection revealed a mixed germ cell tumor

  18. Contralateral cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathways reconstruction in humans in vivo: implications for reciprocal cerebro-cerebellar structural connectivity in motor and non-motor areas.

    Palesi, Fulvia; De Rinaldis, Andrea; Castellazzi, Gloria; Calamante, Fernando; Muhlert, Nils; Chard, Declan; Tournier, J Donald; Magenes, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-10-09

    Cerebellar involvement in cognition, as well as in sensorimotor control, is increasingly recognized and is thought to depend on connections with the cerebral cortex. Anatomical investigations in animals and post-mortem humans have established that cerebro-cerebellar connections are contralateral to each other and include the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) and cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC) pathways. CTC and CPC characterization in humans in vivo is still challenging. Here advanced tractography was combined with quantitative indices to compare CPC to CTC pathways in healthy subjects. Differently to previous studies, our findings reveal that cerebellar cognitive areas are reached by the largest proportion of the reconstructed CPC, supporting the hypothesis that a CTC-CPC loop provides a substrate for cerebro-cerebellar communication during cognitive processing. Amongst the cerebral areas identified using in vivo tractography, in addition to the cerebral motor cortex, major portions of CPC streamlines leave the prefrontal and temporal cortices. These findings are useful since provide MRI-based indications of possible subtending connectivity and, if confirmed, they are going to be a milestone for instructing computational models of brain function. These results, together with further multi-modal investigations, are warranted to provide important cues on how the cerebro-cerebellar loops operate and on how pathologies involving cerebro-cerebellar connectivity are generated.

  19. The distinct temperament profiles of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar patients.

    Akiskal, Hagop S; Kilzieh, Nael; Maser, Jack D; Clayton, Paula J; Schettler, Pamela J; Traci Shea, M; Endicott, Jean; Scheftner, William; Hirschfeld, Robert M A; Keller, Martin B

    2006-05-01

    Despite a plethora of studies, controversies abound on whether the long-term traits of unipolar and bipolar patients could be differentiated by temperament and whether these traits, in turn, could be distinguished from subthreshold affective symptomatology. 98 bipolar I (BP-I), 64 bipolar II (BP-II), and 251 unipolar major depressive disorder (UP-MDD) patients all when recovered from discrete affective episodes) and 617 relatives, spouses or acquaintances without lifetime RDC diagnoses (the comparison group, CG) were administered a battery of 17 self-rated personality scales chosen for theoretical relevance to mood disorders. Subsamples of each of the four groups also received the General Behavior Inventory (GBI). Of the 436 personality items, 103 that significantly distinguished the three patient groups were subjected to principal components analysis, yielding four factors which reflect the temperamental dimensions of "Mood Lability", "Energy-Assertiveness," "Sensitivity-Brooding," and "Social Anxiety." Most BP-I described themselves as near normal in emotional stability and extroversion; BP-II emerged as labile in mood, energetic and assertive, yet sensitive and brooding; MDD were socially timid, sensitive and brooding. Gender and age did not have marked influence on these overall profiles. Within the MDD group, those with baseline dysthymia were the most pathological (i.e., high in neuroticism, insecurity and introversion). Selected GBI items measuring hypomania and biphasic mood changes were endorsed significantly more often by BP-II. Finally, it is relevant to highlight a methodologic finding about the precision these derived temperament factors brought to the UP-BP differentiation. Unlike BP-I who were low on neuroticism, both BP-II and UP scored high on this measure: yet, in the case of BP-II high neuroticism was largely due to mood lability, in UP it reflected subdepressive traits. We used self-rated personality measures, a possible limitation generic to

  20. Piezoelectric properties and unipolar fatigue behavior of KNN-based Pb-free piezoceramics.

    Patterson, Eric A; Cann, David P

    2011-09-01

    Single-phase perovskite ceramics were synthesized using a Pb-free (K(0.44)Na(0.52)Li(0.04))(Nb(0.86)Ta(0.10)Sb(0.04))O(3) (LF4) piezoelectric material both with and without CuO as a dopant additive. Bipolar hysteresis measurements showed a relatively high remanent polarization (20 μC/cm(2), 16 μC/cm(2)) and maximum polarization (25 μC/cm(2), 21 μC/cm(2)) values were found for undoped LF4 and 0.2 wt% CuO-doped LF4, respectively. Unipolar fatigue behavior for this system was found to decrease strongly with increased applied testing fields and increased test durations. For undoped LF4, the maximum polarization values were stable after 10 cycles after testing for 100,000 cycles duration. For the CuO-doped samples, increasing the testing field to 3E(C) resulted in twice the decrease in P(MAX) (¿32%) compared with the 2E(C) tests at 10(6) cycles (-17%). At 2E(C) testing for CuO doping, polarization decreases continually through 10(7) cycles, with the decreases in P(MAX) and d(33) both reaching a maximum (-22% and -30%, respectively) after 10(7) cycles. In the CuO-doped samples, the fatigue is exacerbated because of the influence of space charge on the increased number of defects present.

  1. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning

    Marek ePreiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in Executive Control. We used computerized cognitive training in anattempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 minutes each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed Executive Control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found improvements in Executive Control. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvements did not predict the improvements in everyday coping, and mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six Executive Control tests and on the Global Executive Control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

  2. Dissociative symptoms reflect levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in patients with unipolar depression

    Bizik G

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Gustav Bizik,1 Petr Bob,1 Jiri Raboch,1 Josef Pavlat,1 Jana Uhrova,2 Hana Benakova,2 Tomas Zima2 1Center for Neuropsychiatric Research of Traumatic Stress, Department of Psychiatry and UHSL, 2Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Diagnostics, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the nature of interactions between the nervous system and immune system is important in the pathogenesis of depression. Specifically, alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines have been related to the development of several psychological and neurobiological manifestations of depressive disorder, as well as to stress exposure. A number of findings point to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α as one of the central factors in these processes. Accordingly, in the present study, we test the hypothesis that specific influences of chronic stressors related to traumatic stress and dissociation are related to alterations in TNF-α levels. We performed psychometric measurement of depression (Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]-II, traumatic stress symptoms (Trauma Symptom Checklist [TSC]-40, and psychological and somatoform dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES] and Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire [SDQ]-20, respectively, and immunochemical measure of serum TNF-α in 66 inpatients with unipolar depression (mean age 43.1 ± 7.3 years. The results show that TNF-α is significantly related to DES (Spearman R=−0.42, P<0.01, SDQ-20 (Spearman R=−0.38, P<0.01, and TSC-40 (Spearman R=−0.41, P<0.01, but not to BDI-II. Results of the present study suggest that TNF-α levels are related to dissociative symptoms and stress exposure in depressed patients. Keywords: depression, dissociation, TNF-alpha, traumatic stress

  3. Assessment of non-invasive time and frequency atrial fibrillation organization markers with unipolar atrial electrograms

    Alcaraz, Raúl; Hornero, Fernando; Rieta, José J

    2011-01-01

    The standard electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most common non-invasive way to study atrial fibrillation (AF). In this respect, previous works have shown that the surface lead V 1 reflects mainly the dominant atrial frequency (DAF) of the right atrium (RA), which has been widely used to study AF. In a similar way, AF organization and fibrillatory (f) wave amplitude are two recently proposed non-invasive AF markers. These markers need to be validated with invasive recordings in order to assess their capability to reliably reflect the internal fibrillatory activity dynamics. In this work, these two non-invasive metrics have been compared with similar measures recorded from two unipolar atrial electrograms (AEGs). For both ECG and AEG signals, AF organization has been computed by applying a nonlinear regularity index, such as sample entropy (SampEn), to the atrial activity (AA) and to its fundamental waveform, defined as the main atrial wave (MAW). The surface and epicardial f wave amplitude has been estimated through their mean power. Results obtained for 38 patients showed statistically significant correlations between the values measured from surface and invasive recordings, thus corroborating the usefulness of the aforesaid markers in the non-invasive study of AF. Precisely, for AF organization computed from the MAW, the correlation coefficients between surface and both AEGs were R = 0.926 (p < 0.001) and R = 0.932 (p < 0.001). For f wave amplitude, slightly lower significant relationships were noticed, the correlation coefficients being R = 0.765 (p < 0.001) and R = 0.842 (p < 0.001). These outcomes together with interesting linear relationships found among the parameters suggest that AF regularity estimated via SampEn and f wave amplitude can non-invasively characterize the epicardial activity related to AF

  4. Effects of quetiapine on sleep architecture in patients with unipolar or bipolar depression

    Laura Gedge

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Laura Gedge1, Lauren Lazowski1, David Murray2, Ruzica Jokic2,3, Roumen Milev2,31Centre for Neuroscience Studies, 2Department of Psychiatry, Queen’s University, Kingston, 3Providence Care-Mental Health Services, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaObjective: To determine the effect of adjunctive quetiapine therapy on the sleep architecture of patients with bipolar or unipolar depression.Methods: This is a prospective, single-blind, repeated measures polysomnographic study. Sleep architecture was analyzed by overnight polysomnography, and subjective sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale were employed to quantify changes in illness severity with adjunctive quetiapine treatment. Polysomnographs and clinical measures were administered at baseline, after 2–4 days of treatment, and after 21–28 days of quetiapine treatment. The average dose of quetiapine was 155 mg, ranging from 100–200 mg.Results: Adjunctive quetiapine therapy did not significantly alter sleep efficiency, sleep continuity, or Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores. Respiratory Disturbance Index and percentage of total time in rapid eye movement (REM sleep significantly decreased and the percentage of total time in non-REM sleep, and duration of Stage 2 and non-REM sleep significantly increased after 2–4 days of quetiapine treatment. Illness severity significantly decreased over time.Conclusions: Adjunctive quetiapine treatment alters sleep architecture in patients with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder, which may partially explain its early antidepressant properties. Changes in sleep architecture are more robust and significant within two to four days of starting treatment.Keywords: quetiapine, sleep architecture, depression, bipolar disorder

  5. Personalized cognitive training in unipolar and bipolar disorder: a study of cognitive functioning.

    Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermáková, Radka; Cimermanová, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

  6. Risk factors for conversion from unipolar psychotic depression to bipolar disorder.

    Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Straszek, Sune; Petrides, Georgios; Skadhede, Søren; Jensen, Signe Olrik Wallenstein; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl; Nielsen, Jimmi

    2014-03-01

    Patients with unipolar psychotic depression (PD) are at high risk of developing bipolar disorder (BD). This conversion has important implications for the choice of treatment. This study, therefore, aimed to identify risk factors associated with diagnostic conversion from PD to BD. We conducted a population-based, historical prospective cohort study by merging data from Danish registers. Patients assigned an ICD-10 diagnosis of PD between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2007 were identified in the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register and were followed until the development of BD, death, loss to follow-up, or 31 December 2007. Potential risk factors for conversion to BD, also defined through various Danish registers, were tested in multiple logistic regression analyses with risk expressed as adjusted odds ratios (AOR). We identified 8,588 patients with PD, of whom 609 (7.1%) developed BD during follow-up. The following characteristics were significantly associated with diagnostic conversion from PD to BD: early onset of PD [AOR = 0.99 (per year of increasing age), p = 0.044], recurrent depression [AOR = 1.02 (per episode), p = 0.036], living alone (AOR = 1.29, p = 0.007), receiving a disability pension (AOR = 1.55, p conversion to BD was prevalent among patients with PD. The following characteristics were significantly associated with this conversion: early onset of PD, recurrent depression, living alone, receiving a disability pension, and the highest educational level being a technical education, short-cycle higher education, or medium-cycle higher education. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Patterns and predictors of conversion to bipolar disorder in 91 587 individuals diagnosed with unipolar depression.

    Musliner, K L; Østergaard, S D

    2018-05-01

    Conversion from unipolar depression (UD) to bipolar disorder (BD) is a clinically important event that should lead to treatment modifications. Unfortunately, recognition of this transition is often delayed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify predictors of diagnostic conversion from UD to BD. Historical prospective cohort study based on 91 587 individuals diagnosed with UD in Danish hospital psychiatry between 1995 and 2016. The association between a series of potential predictors and the conversion from UD to BD during follow-up (702 710 person-years) was estimated by means of Cox regression with death as competing risk. During follow-up, 3910 individuals with UD developed BD. The cumulative incidence of conversion was slightly higher in females (8.7%, 95% CI: 8.2-9.3) compared to males (7.7%, 95% CI: 7.0-8.4). The strongest predictor of conversion from UD to BD was parental history of BD (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 2.60, 95% CI: 2.20-3.07)). Other predictors included psychotic depression at the index UD episode (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.02), a prior/concomitant non-affective psychosis (aHR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.51-1.99), and in-patient treatment at the index episode (aHR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.63-1.91). Diagnostic conversion from UD to BD is predicted by severe depression requiring in-patient treatment, psychotic symptomatology, and parental history of BD. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Differentiating between bipolar and unipolar depression in functional and structural MRI studies.

    Han, Kyu-Man; De Berardis, Domenico; Fornaro, Michele; Kim, Yong-Ku

    2018-03-28

    Distinguishing depression in bipolar disorder (BD) from unipolar depression (UD) solely based on clinical clues is difficult, which has led to the exploration of promising neural markers in neuroimaging measures for discriminating between BD depression and UD. In this article, we review structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that directly compare UD and BD depression based on neuroimaging modalities including functional MRI studies on regional brain activation or functional connectivity, structural MRI on gray or white matter morphology, and pattern classification analyses using a machine learning approach. Numerous studies have reported distinct functional and structural alterations in emotion- or reward-processing neural circuits between BD depression and UD. Different activation patterns in neural networks including the amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and striatum during emotion-, reward-, or cognition-related tasks have been reported between BD and UD. A stronger functional connectivity pattern in BD was pronounced in default mode and in frontoparietal networks and brain regions including the PFC, ACC, parietal and temporal regions, and thalamus compared to UD. Gray matter volume differences in the ACC, hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) have been reported between BD and UD, along with a thinner DLPFC in BD compared to UD. BD showed reduced integrity in the anterior part of the corpus callosum and posterior cingulum compared to UD. Several studies performed pattern classification analysis using structural and functional MRI data to distinguish between UD and BD depression using a supervised machine learning approach, which yielded a moderate level of accuracy in classification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinguishing between unipolar depression and bipolar depression: current and future clinical and neuroimaging perspectives.

    Cardoso de Almeida, Jorge Renner; Phillips, Mary Louise

    2013-01-15

    Differentiating bipolar disorder (BD) from recurrent unipolar depression (UD) is a major clinical challenge. Main reasons for this include the higher prevalence of depressive relative to hypo/manic symptoms during the course of BD illness and the high prevalence of subthreshold manic symptoms in both BD and UD depression. Identifying objective markers of BD might help improve accuracy in differentiating between BD and UD depression, to ultimately optimize clinical and functional outcome for all depressed individuals. Yet, only eight neuroimaging studies to date have directly compared UD and BD depressed individuals. Findings from these studies suggest more widespread abnormalities in white matter connectivity and white matter hyperintensities in BD than UD depression, habenula volume reductions in BD but not UD depression, and differential patterns of functional abnormalities in emotion regulation and attentional control neural circuitry in the two depression types. These findings suggest different pathophysiologic processes, especially in emotion regulation, reward, and attentional control neural circuitry in BD versus UD depression. This review thereby serves as a call to action to highlight the pressing need for more neuroimaging studies, using larger samples sizes, comparing BD and UD depressed individuals. These future studies should also include dimensional approaches, studies of at-risk individuals, and more novel neuroimaging approaches, such as connectivity analysis and machine learning. Ultimately, these approaches might provide biomarkers to identify individuals at future risk for BD versus UD and biological targets for more personalized treatment and new treatment developments for BD and UD depression. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. beta(2)-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS PROTECT AXONS DURING ENERGETIC STRESS BUT DO NOT INFLUENCE BASAL GLIO-AXONAL LACTATE SHUTTLING IN MOUSE WHITE MATTER

    Laureys, G.; Valentino, M.; Demol, F.; Zammit, C.; Muscat, R.; Cambron, M.; Kooijman, R.; De Keyser, J.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that beta 2-adrenergic receptor activation stimulates glycogen degradation in astrocytes, generating lactate as a potential energy source for neurons. Using in vivo microdialysis in mouse cerebellar white matter we demonstrate continuous axonal lactate uptake and

  11. Attention and memory biases as stable abnormalities among currently depressed and currently remitted individuals with Unipolar Depression

    Rashmi eGupta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn the present study, we explored the possibility of the stability of attention bias and memory bias in currently remitted individuals with unipolar depression compared to currently depressed individuals with unipolar depression and never-depressed individuals. MethodsThe Emotional Stroop and autobiographical memory task were administered on 10 participants, who were currently depressed, currently remitted with unipolar depression, or never-depressed. In the emotional Stroop task (EST, the respondent’s task was to indicate the color of the ink of the positive, negative, and neutral words by selecting one of a series of colored blocks. In the autobiographical memory task (AMT, participants were presented with positive, negative, and neutral cue words. For each word, they were asked to report specific events from their life. ResultsBoth the attention bias and memory bias exist in both the clinical groups. In EST, both currently depressed and currently remitted groups were slower to respond to negative words compared to neutral words. Unlike EST, in AMT both currently depressed and currently remitted groups were slower to respond to positive words compared to neutral words. Interestingly, the capacity to generate specific events for negative events was higher in both currently depressed and currently remitted groups. They were over-general in their memories of positive events. Importantly, the never-depressed group was specific in their memories of both positive and negative events of their life. ConclusionsOur findings provide evidence for the stable existence of attention and memory bias in currently remitted individuals. This study has implications for the cognitive behavior therapy for depression to include modules to resolve the attention and memory bias toward negative thought and content, and to build strategies to overcome such biases.

  12. Properties of bilateral spinocerebellar activation of cerebellar cortical neurons

    Pontus eGeborek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to explore the cerebellar cortical inputs from two spinocerebellar pathways, the spinal border cell-component of the ventral spinocerebellar tract (SBC-VSCT and the dorsal spinocerebellar tract (DSCT, respectively, in the sublobule C1 of the cerebellar posterior lobe. The two pathways were activated by electrical stimulation of the contralateral lateral funiculus (coLF and the ipsilateral LF (iLF at lower thoracic levels. Most granule cells in sublobule C1 did not respond at all but part of the granule cell population displayed high-intensity responses to either coLF or iLF stimulation. As a rule, Golgi cells and Purkinje cell simple spikes responded to input from both LFs, although Golgi cells could be more selective. In addition, a small population of granule cells responded to input from both the coLF and the iLF. However, in these cases, similarities in the temporal topography and magnitude of the responses suggested that the same axons were stimulated from the two LFs, i.e. that the axons of individual spinocerebellar neurons could be present in both funiculi. This was also confirmed for a population of spinal neurons located within known locations of SBC-VSCT neurons and dorsal horn DSCT neurons. We conclude that bilateral spinocerebellar responses can occur in cerebellar granule cells, but the VSCT and DSCT systems that provide the input can also be organized bilaterally. The implications for the traditional functional separation of VSCT and DSCT systems and the issue whether granule cells primarily integrate functionally similar information or not are discussed.

  13. Spontaneous Cerebellar Hematoma: Decision Making in Conscious Adults.

    Alkosha, Hazem M; Ali, Nabil Mansour

    2017-06-01

    To detect predictors of the clinical course and outcome of cerebellar hematoma in conscious patients that may help in decision making. This study entails retrospective and prospective review and collection of the demographic, clinical, and radiologic data of 92 patients with cerebellar hematoma presented conscious and initially treated conservatively. Primary outcome was deterioration lower than a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 14 and secondary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scale score at discharge and 3 months later. Relevant data to primary outcome were used to create a prediction model and derive a risk score. The model was validated using a bootstrap technique and performance measures of the score were presented. Surgical interventions and secondary outcomes were correlated to the score to explore its use in future decision making. Demographic and clinical data showed no relevance to outcome. The relevant initial computed tomography criteria were used to build up the prediction model. A score was derived after the model proved to be valid using internal validation with bootstrapping technique. The score (0-6) had a cutoff value of ≥2, with sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 88.0%. It was found to have a significant negative association with the onset of neurologic deterioration, end point Glasgow Coma Scale scores and the Glasgow Outcome Scale scores at discharge. The score was positively correlated to the aggressiveness of surgical interventions and the length of hospital stay. Early definitive management is critical in conscious patients with cerebellar hematomas and can improve outcome. Our proposed score is a simple tool with high discrimination power that may help in timely decision making in those patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in motor and association networks in schizophrenia

    Ann K. Shinn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a devastating illness characterized by disturbances in multiple domains. The cerebellum is involved in both motor and non-motor functions, and the cognitive dysmetria and dysmetria of thought models propose that abnormalities of the cerebellum may contribute to schizophrenia signs and symptoms. The cerebellum and cerebral cortex are reciprocally connected via a modular, closed-loop network architecture, but few schizophrenia neuroimaging studies have taken into account the topographical and functional heterogeneity of the cerebellum. In this study, using a previously defined 17-network cerebral cortical parcellation system as the basis for our functional connectivity seeds, we systematically investigated connectivity abnormalities within the cerebellum of 44 schizophrenia patients and 28 healthy control participants. We found selective alterations in cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity. Specifically, schizophrenia patients showed decreased cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in higher level association networks (ventral attention, salience, control, and default mode networks relative to healthy control participants. Schizophrenia patients also showed increased cerebro-cerebellar connectivity in somatomotor and default mode networks, with the latter showing no overlap with the regions found to be hypoconnected within the same default mode network. Finally, we found evidence to suggest that somatomotor and default mode networks may be inappropriately linked in schizophrenia. The relationship of these dysconnectivities to schizophrenia symptoms, such as neurological soft signs and altered sense of agency, is discussed. We conclude that the cerebellum ought to be considered for analysis in all future studies of network abnormalities in SZ, and further suggest the cerebellum as a potential target for further elucidation, and possibly treatment, of the underlying mechanisms and network abnormalities producing symptoms of

  15. Characteristics and heterogeneity of schizoaffective disorder compared with unipolar depression and schizophrenia - a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.

    Rink, Lena; Pagel, Tobias; Franklin, Jeremy; Baethge, Christopher

    2016-02-01

    Comparisons of illness characteristics between patients with schizoaffective disorder (SAD) patients and unipolar depression (UD) are rare, even though UD is one of the most important differential diagnoses of SAD. Also, the variability of illness characteristics (heterogeneity) has not been compared. We compared illness characteristics and their heterogeneity among SAD, UD, and - as another important differential diagnosis - schizophrenia (S). In order to reduce sampling bias we systematically searched for studies simultaneously comparing samples of patients with SAD, UD, and S. Using random effects and Mantel-Haenszel models we estimated and compared demographic, illness course and psychopathology parameters, using pooled standard deviations as a measurement of heterogeneity. Out of 155 articles found by an earlier meta-analysis, 765 screened in Medline, 2738 screened in EMBASE, and 855 screened in PsycINFO we selected 24 studies, covering 3714 patients diagnosed according to RDC, DSM-III, DSM-IIIR, DSM-IV, or ICD-10. In almost all key characteristics, samples with schizoaffective disorders fell between unipolar depression and schizophrenia, with a tendency towards schizophrenia. On average, UD patients were significantly older at illness onset (33.0 years, SAD: 25.2, S: 23.4), more often women (59% vs. 57% vs. 39%) and more often married (53% vs. 39% vs. 27%). Their psychopathology was also less severe, as measured by BPRS, GAS, and HAMD. In demographic and clinical variables heterogeneity was roughly 5% larger in UD than in SAD, and samples of patients with schizophrenia had the lowest pooled heterogeneity. A similar picture emerged in a sensitivity analysis with coefficient of variation as the measurement of heterogeneity. Relative to bipolar disorder there are fewer studies including unipolar patients. No studies based on DSM-5 could be included. Regarding unipolar affective disorder this study confirms what we have shown for bipolar disorders in earlier

  16. Cerebellar clear cell ependymoma in a 10 year old girl

    Thinzar Aye Nyein; Moon, Ah Rim; Hwang, Sun Chul; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, A Leum; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kim, Hee Kyung; Chin, Su Sie [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Sang [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Clear cell ependymoma (CCE) is a histological rare variant (1–5%) of ependymoma, which is distinguished from other histological subtypes by the presence of fusiform cells arrayed radially around small blood vessels. These alleged perivascular pseudorosettes are significant characteristic features of ependymomas. About 95% of infratentorial ependymomas are found in the fourth ventricle and the remainder occurs as cerebellopontine angle lesions. In previous reports, the cerebellum is found to be a rare location for ependymoma. In this study we report one case of CCE originating from the cerebellar hemisphere, showing unusual morphology on 3T MRI.

  17. Crossed cerebellar atrophy in cases with cerebrovascular disease

    Yagishita, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Shigeyuki; Hirayama, Keizo; Iwabuchi, Sadamu.

    1989-01-01

    Crossed cerebellar atrophy (CCA) was investigated by X-ray CT to establish the incidence, mechanism, and the relation to cerebral lesions in 130 cases of unilateral supratentorial cerebrovascular diseases. The 130 cases consisted of 83 males and 47 females with cerebral infarction (65 cases) and cerebral hemorrhage (65 cases). The patients' average age was 57.6 years. Crossed cerebellar atrophy was demonstrated in 8 cases (6.2%), 6 of whom had massive cerebral infarction in the middle cerebral artery area (9.2% of the 65 cases of cerebral infarction. The six cases of CCA caused by cerebral infarction had lesions in the frontal and temporal lobes. Two had a cerebral hemorrhage in the putamen and in the thalamus, respectively, accounting for 3.1% of the 65 cases of cerebral hemorrhage. Of the 2 cases, one had putaminal hemorrhage, and the other had thalamic hemorrhage. Cerebrovascular stroke had occured in these patients with CCA more than 2 months previously. In 5 of the 8 cases of CCA, atrophy was present in the basis pedunculi and the basis pontis on the side of the cerebral lesion. However, neither dilation nor deformity of the fourth ventricle was present in any of the patients, suggesting that none of the CCA patients had atrophy of the dentate nucleus. The CCA patients had massive cerebral lesion in the frontal and temporal lobes or atrophy of the basis pedunculi and basis pontis, suggesting the presence of the transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway. In the case of the thalamic hemorrhage, who had not hemorrhagic lesion in the frontal and temporal lobes, atrophy of the basis peduncli and basis pontis was not observed. Though dilation or deformity of the fourth ventricle is not observed in this case, presence of the degeneration of the dentate-rubro-thalamic pathway cannot be denied. CCA seems to be caused by both the transsynaptic degeneration of the cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathway and the dentate-rubro-thalamic pathway. (J.P.N.)

  18. Cerebellar atrophy related to chronic exposure to toluene: case report

    Benito Pereira Damasceno

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old woman presented slowly progressing ataxia and neurasthenic symptoms after 14-year occupational exposure to low concentration toluene vapour. Examination disclosed only cerebellar signs. Cognitive functions were normal except moderate visuo-spatial and constructive deficit CT imaging showed severe pancerebellar atrophy without pathological signs in other brain structures. Two years after she was removed from workplace, CT imaging and ataxia showed no worsening, while visuo-constructive function improved. The authors warn against possible neurotoxic risk associated with this kind of exposure.

  19. A comprehensive gaze stabilization controller based on cerebellar internal models

    Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    . The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows to move the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina. In this work we implement on a humanoid robot a model of gaze stabilization...... based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot...

  20. Reducing the rate and duration of Re- ADMISsions among patients with unipolar disorder and bipolar disorder using smartphone-based monitoring and treatment - the RADMIS trials

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Frost, Mads; Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: Unipolar and bipolar disorder combined account for nearly half of all morbidity and mortality due to mental and substance use disorders, and burden society with the highest health care costs of all psychiatric and neurological disorders. Among these, costs due to psychiatric...... trials aim to investigate whether using a smartphone-based monitoring and treatment system, including an integrated clinical feedback loop, reduces the rate and duration of re-admissions more than standard treatment in unipolar disorder and bipolar disorder. Methods: The RADMIS trials use a randomized...... controlled, single-blind, parallel-group design. Patients with unipolar disorder and patients with bipolar disorder are invited to participate in each trial when discharged from psychiatric hospitals in The Capital Region of Denmark following an affective episode and randomized to either (1...

  1. Surgical Treatment of A Dissecting Aneurysm of the Superior Cerebellar Artery: Case Report

    Stefanescu Florin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissecting aneurysm located in the peripheral region of the superior cerebellar artery is very rare. There is little experience regarding their surgical or endovascular treatment. We present the case of a peripheral dissecting superior cerebellar artery aneurysm treated by surgical clipping.

  2. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  3. The Cerebellar Deficit Hypothesis and Dyslexic Tendencies in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Brookes, Rebecca L.; Stirling, John

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the relationship between cerebellar deficits and dyslexic tendencies in a non-clinical sample, 27 primary school children aged 8-9 completed a cerebellar soft signs battery and were additionally assessed for reading age, sequential memory, picture arrangement and knowledge of common sequences. An average measure of the soft…

  4. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Eui Jong; Kim, Dae Ho

    1997-01-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation

  5. Clinical and Radiographic Outcomes of Unipolar and Bipolar Radial Head Prosthesis in Patients with Radial Head Fracture: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Ziyang; Shang, Yongjun

    2018-06-01

    To compare clinical outcomes of unipolar and bipolar radial head prosthesis in the treatment of patients with radial head fracture. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar databases were searched until April 18, 2016 using the following search terms: radial head fracture, elbow fracture, radial head arthroplasty, implants, prosthesis, unipolar, bipolar, cemented, and press-fit. Randomized controlled trials, retrospective, and cohort studies were included. The Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS), disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, radiologic assessment, ROM, and grip strength following elbow replacement were similar between prosthetic devices. The pooled mean excellent/good ranking of MEPS was 0.78 for unipolar and 0.73 for bipolar radial head arthroplasty, and the pooled mean MEPS was 86.9 and 79.9, respectively. DASH scores for unipolar and bipolar prosthesis were 19.0 and 16.3, respectively. Range of motion outcomes were similar between groups, with both groups have comparable risk of flexion arc, flexion, extension deficit, rotation arc, pronation, and supination (p values bipolar prosthesis). However, bipolar radial head prosthesis was associated with an increased chance of heterotopic ossification and lucency (p values ≤0.049) while unipolar prosthesis was not (p values ≥0.088). Both groups had risk for development of capitellar osteopenia or erosion/wear (p values ≤0.039). Unipolar and bipolar radial head prostheses were similar with respect to clinical outcomes. Additional comparative studies are necessary to further compare different radial head prostheses used to treat radial head fracture.

  6. Cerebellar Ataxia from Multiple Potential Causes: Hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Thalamic Stimulation, and Essential Tremor

    Natalya V. Shneyder

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both hypothyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT can rarely be associated with cerebellar ataxia. Severe essential tremor (ET as well as bilateral thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS may lead to subtle cerebellar signs. Case Report: We report a 74-year-old male with hypothyroidism and a 20-year history of ET who developed cerebellar ataxia after bilateral thalamic DBS. Extensive workup revealed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone and thyroperoxidase antibody titers confirming the diagnosis of HT. Discussion: Our case demonstrates multiple possible causes of cerebellar ataxia in a patient, including hypothyroidism, HT, chronic ET, and bilateral thalamic DBS. Counseling of patients may be appropriate when multiple risk factors for cerebellar ataxia coexist in one individual.

  7. File list: InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  8. File list: InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.50.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  9. File list: NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 No description Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 No description Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.20.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  12. File list: NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 No description Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Neu.05.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  13. File list: InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons mm9 Input control Neural Cerebellar granule neurons... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Neu.10.AllAg.Cerebellar_granule_neurons.bed ...

  14. COMPARISON OF UNIPOLAR (MOORE’S PROSTHESIS AND BIPOLAR HEMIARTHROPLASTY IN FRACTURE NECK OF FEMUR IN THE ELDERLY- A SHORT-TERM PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Mahendra Bendale

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Femoral neck fractures are common in postmenopausal elderly females as a result of osteoporosis due to trivial trauma or in the young due to high energy trauma. The goal of the surgeon is to return the patient to his/her prefracture functional status. Femoral neck fracture could be impacted and undisplaced or displaced. Femoral neck fractures are also considered “fractures of necessity”, best treated surgically irrespective of displacement. Surgery permits early patient mobilisation and minimises the complications of prolonged recumbence. The bipolar prosthesis has advantage over the unipolar in having two bearings for the movements to occur. This study intends to compare the functional outcome of unipolar Moore’s hemi-replacement and fixed bipolar replacement in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur. In this scenario, the null hypothesis would be that there is no significant difference in the results between the patients treated with Moore’s prosthesis and those treated with bipolar prosthesis. The aim of the study is to compare the results of unipolar and bipolar hemi-arthroplasty for fracture neck of femur in the elderly patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 elderly postmenopausal women with fracture neck femur were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups and were operated upon by using unipolar and bipolar implants respectively after thorough investigation. The functional outcome was assessed using the Harris Hip Score (HHS. RESULTS Femoral neck fractures belonged to 53.3% with type III fracture and 46.7 had type IV fractures. Fifteen patients had replacement with Austin Moore prosthesis and fifteen patients with bipolar prosthesis. The average HHS at 6 weeks for unipolar and bipolar groups was 65.2 and 66.0, respectively. The average HHS at 12 months for unipolar and bipolar group was 81.0 and 83.6, respectively. 19 (65.5% patients had good HHS at the end of one year. Corrected chi-square value is 2

  15. Increased mortality among patients admitted with major psychiatric disorders: a register-based study comparing mortality in unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia

    Laursen, Thomas Munk; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-01-01

    disorder has never been examined in a population-based study. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine and compare mortality rates after admission with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, unipolar depressive disorder, or bipolar affective disorder and to examine the impact of family history......: Unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, and schizoaffective disorder were associated with the same pattern of excess mortality. Schizophrenia had a lower mortality from unnatural causes of death and a higher mortality from natural causes compared to the 3 other disorders. Family history...

  16. Spinal level of myelomeningocele lesion as a contributing factor in posterior fossa volume, intracranial cerebellar volume, and cerebellar ectopia.

    Sweeney, Kieron J

    2013-02-01

    McLone and Knepper\\'s unified theory of Chiari malformation Type II (CM-II) describes how the loss of CSF via the open posterior neuropore fails to create adequate distending pressure for the developing rhomboencephalic vesicle. The authors of the present article describe the relationship between the posterior fossa volume and intracranial cerebellar volume as being related to the distance from the obex of the fourth ventricle to the myelomeningocele lesion using a common mathematical model, the Hagen-Poiseuille law.

  17. Unrecognized bipolar disorder in patients with a diagnosis of unipolar depression%诊断为单相抑郁症者中未识别的双相障碍

    David L.DUNNER

    2011-01-01

    @@ The diagnosis of bipolar rather than unipolar depression is currently a clinicaI diagnosis which cannot be validated by specific biological measures,such as laboratory tests.Certainly the characteristics of bipolar depression frequently differ from unipolar major depression in that patients with bipolar depression generally have an earlier age of onset and more frequent episodes than individuals with unipolar major depression[1]Some,but not all,studies support an increase in suicidal behaviors among bipolar as compared with unipolar major depression[2],and"atypical features"such as hypersomnia and hyperphagia also may be found more frequently among individuals with bipolar depression.Furthermore family histories of subjects with bipolar disorders more frequently reveal relatives with bipolar disorder.In contrast,relatives of patients with unipolar depression's family history generally reflects major depression but not bipolar disorder[3].

  18. Differential distribution patterns in cerebellar irrigation. A study with autopsy material

    Hernando Yesid Estupiñan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this investigation was characterize morphologically the cerebellar artery and its branches in a specimen of autopsy material. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated the anatomical characteristics of the cerebellar arteries and their branches in 93 brain stem and cerebellum blocks obtained from fresh cadavers. The specimens were perfused bilaterally channeling the proximal segments of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries with a semi-synthetic resin (Palatal GP40L 85%; styrene 15% impregnated with mineral red dye. We evaluated the distribution patterns of the cerebellar artery and its branches. Results: The calibers of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA, anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA were 1.46 ± 0.2 mm, 1.02 ± 0.35 mm and 1.45 ± 0.37 mm, respectively. Agenesis of the SCA was observed in six specimens (3.2%, AICA in 30 (16.1%, and PICA in 14 (7.5% specimens. Usual irrigation was observed in 44 (47.3% cerebellar blocks, whereas 49 (52.7% specimens showed irrigation variants, 23 (46.9% of which appeared bilaterally. The dominant distribution of the cerebellar arteries corresponded to SCA in 9 (12.5% cases, AICA in 46 (63.9% and PICA in 7 (9.7% specimens; shared dominance was found in 10 (13.9% specimens. Conclusion: The high variability of the cerebellar arteries observed in the present study is consistent with previous reports. The diverse anatomic expressions of the cerebellar arteries were typified in relation to their dominance and territories irrigated, useful for the diagnosis and clinical-surgical management of the cerebellum blood supply.

  19. Location of lesion determines motor vs. cognitive consequences in patients with cerebellar stroke

    Catherine J. Stoodley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar lesions can cause motor deficits and/or the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome. We used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to test the hypothesis that the cerebellar motor syndrome results from anterior lobe damage whereas lesions in the posterolateral cerebellum produce the CCAS. Eighteen patients with isolated cerebellar stroke (13 males, 5 females; 20–66 years old were evaluated using measures of ataxia and neurocognitive ability. Patients showed a wide range of motor and cognitive performance, from normal to severely impaired; individual deficits varied according to lesion location within the cerebellum. Patients with damage to cerebellar lobules III–VI had worse ataxia scores: as predicted, the cerebellar motor syndrome resulted from lesions involving the anterior cerebellum. Poorer performance on fine motor tasks was associated primarily with strokes affecting the anterior lobe extending into lobule VI, with right-handed finger tapping and peg-placement associated with damage to the right cerebellum, and left-handed finger tapping associated with left cerebellar damage. Patients with the CCAS in the absence of cerebellar motor syndrome had damage to posterior lobe regions, with lesions leading to significantly poorer scores on language (e.g. right Crus I and II extending through IX, spatial (bilateral Crus I, Crus II, and right lobule VIII, and executive function measures (lobules VII–VIII. These data reveal clinically significant functional regions underpinning movement and cognition in the cerebellum, with a broad anterior-posterior distinction. Motor and cognitive outcomes following cerebellar damage appear to reflect the disruption of different cerebro-cerebellar motor and cognitive loops.

  20. Challenging the unipolar-bipolar division: does mixed depression bridge the gap?

    Benazzi, Franco

    2007-01-30

    Mixed states, i.e., opposite polarity symptoms in the same mood episode, question the categorical splitting of mood disorders in bipolar disorders and unipolar depressive disorders, and may support a continuum between these disorders. Study aim was to find if there were a continuum between hypomania (defining BP-II) and depression (defining MDD), by testing mixed depression as a 'bridge' linking these two disorders. A correlation between intradepressive hypomanic symptoms and depressive symptoms could support such a continuum, but other explanations of a correlation are possible. Consecutive 389 BP-II and 261 MDD major depressive episode (MDE) outpatients were interviewed, cross-sectionally, with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hypomania Interview Guide (to assess intradepressive hypomanic symptoms) and the Family History Screen, by a mood disorders specialist psychiatrist in a private practice. Patients presented voluntarily for treatment of depression when interviewed drug-free and had many subsequent follow-ups after treatment start. Mixed depression (depressive mixed state) was defined as the combination of MDE (depression) and three or more DSM-IV intradepressive hypomanic symptoms (elevated mood and increased self-esteem were always absent by definition), a definition validated by Akiskal and Benazzi. BP-II, versus MDD, had significantly lower age at onset, more recurrences, atypical and mixed depressions, bipolar family history, MDE symptoms and intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. Mixed depression was present in 64.5% of BP-II and in 32.1% of MDD (p=0.000). There was a significant correlation between number of MDE symptoms and number of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms. A dose-response relationship between frequency of mixed depression and number of MDE symptoms was also found. Differences on classic diagnostic validators could support a division between BP-II and MDD. Presence of intradepressive hypomanic symptoms by itself, and

  1. Rapid infusion of esketamine for unipolar and bipolar depression: a retrospective chart review

    Correia-Melo FS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda S Correia-Melo,1 Felipe C Argolo,1 Lucas Araújo-de-Freitas,1,2 Gustavo Carneiro Leal,1 Flávio Kapczinski,3 Acioly Luiz Lacerda,4 Lucas C Quarantini1,2 1Psychiatry Service, University Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Medicine and Health, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil; 3Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 4Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: This study evaluated efficacy and safety of intravenous subanesthetic doses of esketamine using an administration time of 10 minutes in patients with treatment-resistant depression and bipolar depression.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify patients who met the inclusion criteria for treatment-resistant depression and bipolar depression according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and these patients received rapid infusion of esketamine between June 2012 and December 2015. The Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS was administered to measure and score depressive symptom severity before infusion and at 24 hours, 72 hours, and 7 days after infusion. In addition, Clinical Global Impression scale was administered before and 7 days after esketamine infusion.Results: Esketamine was administered to 30 patients. A total of 27 patients met the inclusion criteria and had MADRS evaluation data, which showed that 23 had unipolar and 4 had bipolar depression. Thirteen patients (48.1% showed therapeutic response (MADRS reduction ≥50% within 1 week (7 days of intervention. Remission (MADRS <7 was observed in 10 patients (37.0% in the same period. Therapeutic response and remission frequencies were seen in 16 (59.3% and 11 (40.7% patients, respectively, within 24 hours following drug infusion. The most relevant side effect observed during

  2. Autoimmune neurological syndromes associated limbic encephalitis and paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

    Ayas, Zeynep Özözen; Kotan, Dilcan; Aras, Yeşim Güzey

    2016-10-06

    Autoimmune neurological syndrome is a group of disorders caused by cancer affecting nervous system by different immunological mechanisms. In this study, we aim to study the clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, autoantibody tests, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs and treatment outcome of patients with autoimmune syndromes. In this study, 7 patients (4 male, 3 female) diagnosed with autoimmune neurological syndrome were retrospectively examined. Five of patients were diagnosed with limbic encephalitis, two of them were paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration. Confusion and seizure were the most seen symptoms. Two patients had psychiatric disturbances (28,5%) followed by seizure. Headache was seen in 2 patients (% 28,5), disartria in 1 patient (% 14,2), and gait disorder in 2 patients (28,5%). The duration of symptoms was 46 (3-150) days on average. CSF abnormalities were detected in 2 patients. CT and MRI of the brain was available in all patients. Five patients had involvement of mesiotemporal region, two patients had diffuse cerebellar atrophy. One of patients had anti-GABAR B1 positivity. Tumors were detected in 2 patients while investigation for paraneoplasia screening. Remission is only possible with the detection and treatment of the malignancy. Early diagnosis and treatment are of paramount importance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilateral Cerebellar Medulloblastoma in Adults: Report of Two Cases

    Cerquera Cabrera, Fredy Martin; Patino Mendez, Ricardo; Mantilla Mantilla, Maria Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is considered to be part of the group of primitive neuroectodermal tumors. It is well known that medulloblastoma is the most common malignancy of the central nervous system in the pediatric population, and the most common primary tumor of the posterior fossa in children. In contrast, it has a very low prevalence in adults. Imaging signs of medulloblastoma have been described in children, consisting of mid-line masses, usually well defined and typically hyperdense on non-contrast CT images, but that show intense homogeneous enhancement with contrast medium. in adults, these characteristics vary, usually with poorly defined cerebellar hemispheric masses showing cystic degeneration or necrosis, and minor enhancement with contrast medium, when compared to the pediatric population. Both children and adults share a variable appearance on MRI, as well as secondary leptomeningeal involvement and distant metastases. This paper describes two confirmed cases of bilateral hemispheric cerebellar medulloblastomas in adult patients with an unusual and interesting imaging presentation not yet reported in the literature.

  4. Coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons

    Suzana Herculano-Houzel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While larger brains possess concertedly larger cerebral cortices and cerebella, the relative size of the cerebral cortex increases with brain size, but relative cerebellar size does not. In the absence of data on numbers of neurons in these structures, this discrepancy has been used to dispute the hypothesis that the cerebral cortex and cerebellum function and have evolved in concert and to support a trend towards neocorticalization in evolution. However, the rationale for interpreting changes in absolute and relative size of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum relies on the assumption that they reflect absolute and relative numbers of neurons in these structures across all species – an assumption that our recent studies have shown to be flawed. Here I show for the first time that the numbers of neurons in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum are directly correlated across 19 mammalian species of 4 different orders, including humans, and increase concertedly in a similar fashion both within and across the orders Eulipotyphla (Insectivora, Rodentia, Scandentia and Primata, such that on average a ratio of 3.6 neurons in the cerebellum to every neuron in the cerebral cortex is maintained across species. This coordinated scaling of cortical and cerebellar numbers of neurons provides direct evidence in favor of concerted function, scaling and evolution of these brain structures, and suggests that the common notion that equates cognitive advancement with neocortical expansion should be revisited to consider in its stead the coordinated scaling of neocortex and cerebellum as a functional ensemble.

  5. Adaptive emotion regulation mediates the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression.

    Diedrich, Alice; Burger, Julian; Kirchner, Mareike; Berking, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    To identify the mechanisms involved in the association between self-compassion and depression, we examined whether adaptive emotion regulation would mediate the relationship between self-compassion and depression in individuals with unipolar depression. Furthermore, we explored which specific emotion regulation skills would be most important in this relationship. Sixty-nine individuals with unipolar depression were assessed with the Self-Compassion Scale and the Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire at baseline and with the Beck Depression Inventory-II 1 week later. The results showed that successful application of emotion regulation skills mediates the association between self-compassion and depression. Among eight specific emotion regulation skills, only the ability to tolerate negative emotions was identified as a significant mediator in the self-compassion-depression relationship. These findings provide preliminary evidence that systematically fostering self-compassion might help depressed individuals cope with their symptoms by enhancing their abilities to tolerate undesired emotions. Systematically fostering self-compassion through specific compassion-focused interventions might facilitate a reduction in depressive symptoms by improving the person's emotion regulation abilities, especially by improving his or her ability to tolerate negative emotions. Hence, compassion-focused interventions might be particularly promising in depressed patients with a tendency to avoid negative emotions and deficits in tolerating them. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Sociodemographic Correlates of Unipolar Major Depression among the Chinese Elderly in Klang Valley, Malaysia: An Epidemiological Study

    Verma, Rohit Kumar; Chakravarthy, Srikumar; Barua, Ankur

    2014-01-01

    Background. Depression, as one of the most disabling diseases around the world, had caught the global concern with its rising prevalence rate. There is a growing need of detecting depression, particularly in the old age population which is often left being overlooked. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study which included 150 Chinese elderly aged 60 and above within Klang Valley area. We obtained the sociodemographic profiles and assessed the status of well-being, depression, and cognitive function of the participants with the help of instruments: WHO Five-Item Well-Being Index, Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory, and 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test. Results. We found that the prevalence of depression among the Chinese elderly within Klang Valley region was 10.7%. With multiple logistic regression, decision to consult doctor on depressed mood or memory problem and presence of cognitive impairment were shown to be significantly associated with unipolar major depression, whereas wellbeing status was also found to be statistically correlated with depression in univariate analysis. Conclusion. The prevalence of unipolar depression among Chinese elderly within Klang Valley, Malaysia presented that there was an increased trend compared to the previous studies. PMID:25544962

  7. Effect of electron transport properties on unipolar CdZnTe radiation detectors: LUND, SpectrumPlus, and Coplanar Grid

    James, Ralph B.

    2000-01-01

    Device simulations of (1) the laterally-contacted-unipolar-nuclear detector (LUND), (2) the SpectrumPlus, (3) and the coplanar grid made of Cd 0.9 Zn 0.1 Te (CZT) were performed for 137 Cs irradiation by 662.15 keV gamma-rays. Realistic and controlled simulations of the gamma-ray interactions with the CZT material were done using the MCNP4B2 Monte Carlo program, and the detector responses were simulated using the Sandia three-dimensional multielectrode simulation program (SandTMSP). The simulations were done for the best and the worst expected carrier nobilities and lifetimes of currently commercially available CZT materials for radiation detector applications. For the simulated unipolar devices, the active device volumes were relatively large and the energy resolutions were fairly good, but these performance characteristics were found to be very sensitive to the materials properties. The internal electric fields, the weighting potentials, and the charge induced efficiency maps were calculated to give insights into the operation of these devices

  8. The Influence of Planning and Response Inhibition on Cognitive Functioning of Non-Psychotic Unipolar Depressed Suicide Attempters

    Marco Moniz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Depression is one of the main risk factors for suicide. However, little is known about the intricate relationships among depressive symptomatology in unipolar depression, suicide risk, and the characteristics of executive dysfunction in depressed patients. We compared 20 non-psychotic unipolar depressed suicide attempters to 20 matching depressed non-attempters and to 20 healthy controls to further investigate the possible differences in neuropsychological performance. Depressed subjects were controlled for current suicidal ideation, and their neuropsychological profile was assessed using a range of measures of executive functioning, attention, verbal memory, processing speed, and psychomotor speed. Depressed groups were outperformed by healthy controls. Depressed attempters presented more cognitive impairment than depressed non-attempters on a simple Go/No-go response inhibition task and performed better than non-attempters on the Tower of London planning task. Depressed attempters were clearly distinguished by a deficit in response inhibition (Go/No-go commission errors. The normative planning performance (Tower of London extra moves of the suicide attempters was unexpected, and this unanticipated finding calls for further research. Normative planning may indicate an increased risk of suicidal behavior.

  9. Sociodemographic correlates of unipolar major depression among the Chinese elderly in Klang Valley, Malaysia: an epidemiological study.

    Verma, Rohit Kumar; Min, Tan Hui; Chakravarthy, Srikumar; Barua, Ankur; Kar, Nilamadhab

    2014-01-01

    Depression, as one of the most disabling diseases around the world, had caught the global concern with its rising prevalence rate. There is a growing need of detecting depression, particularly in the old age population which is often left being overlooked. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study which included 150 Chinese elderly aged 60 and above within Klang Valley area. We obtained the sociodemographic profiles and assessed the status of well-being, depression, and cognitive function of the participants with the help of instruments: WHO Five-Item Well-Being Index, Major (ICD-10) Depression Inventory, and 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test. We found that the prevalence of depression among the Chinese elderly within Klang Valley region was 10.7%. With multiple logistic regression, decision to consult doctor on depressed mood or memory problem and presence of cognitive impairment were shown to be significantly associated with unipolar major depression, whereas wellbeing status was also found to be statistically correlated with depression in univariate analysis. The prevalence of unipolar depression among Chinese elderly within Klang Valley, Malaysia presented that there was an increased trend compared to the previous studies.

  10. Sociodemographic Correlates of Unipolar Major Depression among the Chinese Elderly in Klang Valley, Malaysia: An Epidemiological Study

    Rohit Kumar Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Depression, as one of the most disabling diseases around the world, had caught the global concern with its rising prevalence rate. There is a growing need of detecting depression, particularly in the old age population which is often left being overlooked. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study which included 150 Chinese elderly aged 60 and above within Klang Valley area. We obtained the sociodemographic profiles and assessed the status of well-being, depression, and cognitive function of the participants with the help of instruments: WHO Five-Item Well-Being Index, Major (ICD-10 Depression Inventory, and 6-Item Cognitive Impairment Test. Results. We found that the prevalence of depression among the Chinese elderly within Klang Valley region was 10.7%. With multiple logistic regression, decision to consult doctor on depressed mood or memory problem and presence of cognitive impairment were shown to be significantly associated with unipolar major depression, whereas wellbeing status was also found to be statistically correlated with depression in univariate analysis. Conclusion. The prevalence of unipolar depression among Chinese elderly within Klang Valley, Malaysia presented that there was an increased trend compared to the previous studies.

  11. Purkinje Cell Compartmentation in the Cerebellum of the Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase 2 Mutant Mouse (Nax - Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse)

    Bailey, Karen; Rahimi Balaei, Maryam; Mannan, Ashraf; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Marzban, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18–19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22–23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation. PMID:24722417

  12. Modality specificity in the cerebro-cerebellar neurocircuitry during working memory.

    Ng, H B Tommy; Kao, K-L Cathy; Chan, Y C; Chew, Effie; Chuang, K H; Chen, S H Annabel

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies have suggested cerebro-cerebellar circuitry in working memory. The present fMRI study aims to distinguish differential cerebro-cerebellar activation patterns in verbal and visual working memory, and employs a quantitative analysis to deterimine lateralization of the activation patterns observed. Consistent with Chen and Desmond (2005a,b) predictions, verbal working memory activated a cerebro-cerebellar circuitry that comprised left-lateralized language-related brain regions including the inferior frontal and posterior parietal areas, and subcortically, right-lateralized superior (lobule VI) and inferior cerebellar (lobule VIIIA/VIIB) areas. In contrast, a distributed network of bilateral inferior frontal and inferior temporal areas, and bilateral superior (lobule VI) and inferior (lobule VIIB) cerebellar areas, was recruited during visual working memory. Results of the study verified that a distinct cross cerebro-cerebellar circuitry underlies verbal working memory. However, a neural circuitry involving specialized brain areas in bilateral neocortical and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres subserving visual working memory is observed. Findings are discussed in the light of current models of working memory and data from related neuroimaging studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control

    Juan eJiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN, and the implications of this pre-cerebellar ‘detour’ for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spino-cerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of de

  14. Cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability including cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    Katrin Weier

    Full Text Available The cerebellum is known to be involved not only in motor but also cognitive and affective processes. Structural changes in the cerebellum in relation to cognitive dysfunction are an emerging topic in the field of neuro-psychiatric disorders. In Multiple Sclerosis (MS cerebellar motor and cognitive dysfunction occur in parallel, early in the onset of the disease, and the cerebellum is one of the predilection sites of atrophy. This study is aimed at determining the relationship between cerebellar volumes, clinical cerebellar signs, cognitive functioning and fatigue in MS. Cerebellar volumetry was conducted using T1-weighted MPRAGE magnetic resonance imaging of 172 MS patients. All patients underwent a clinical and brief neuropsychological assessment (information processing speed, working memory, including fatigue testing. Patients with and without cerebellar signs differed significantly regarding normalized cerebellar total volume (nTCV, normalized brain volume (nBV and whole brain T2 lesion volume (LV. Patients with cerebellar dysfunction likewise performed worse in cognitive tests. A regression analysis indicated that age and nTCV explained 26.3% of the variance in SDMT (symbol digit modalities test performance. However, only age, T2 LV and nBV remained predictors in the full model (r(2 = 0.36. The full model for the prediction of PASAT (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test scores (r(2 = 0.23 included age, cerebellar and T2 LV. In the case of fatigue, only age and nBV (r(2 = 0.17 emerged as significant predictors. These data support the view that cerebellar abnormalities contribute to disability, including cognitive impairment in MS. However, this contribution does not seem to be independent of, and may even be dominated by wider spread MS pathology as reflected by nBV and T2 LV.

  15. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  16. Association between alcohol and substance use disorders and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar depression

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Østergaard, Marie Louise Drivsholm; Benros, Michael Eriksen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness have both increased mortality and are more likely to have a substance use disorder. We assessed the association between mortality and lifetime substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or unipolar depression. METHODS: In...

  17. Bilateral, Mirror-imaged, Postero-inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysms: Report of a Rare Case

    G R Sharma

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old right-handed lady presented with the features of subarachnoid haemorrhage. The CT angiogram showed a pair of very rare bilateral, mirror-imaged distal postero-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Both aneurysms were clipped via the midline posterior fossa craniectomy under general anaesthesia. The literatures is reviewed on the incidence, presentation, management and outcome of bilateral distal posterior-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Keywords: bilateral mirror image, distal postero-inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms, posterior fossa craniectomy, microsurgical clipping

  18. Ajuste social em pacientes com transtorno afetivo bipolar, unipolar, distimia e depressão dupla Social disability in patients with bipolar and unipolar affective disorders, dysthymia and double depression

    Adriana M Tucci

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Dados internacionais mostram que os transtornos afetivos têm uma prevalência de, aproximadamente, 11,3% da população. Além disso, são uma das doenças que mais geram perdas sociais e nos relacionamentos familiares. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o ajuste social e familiar de pacientes com transtornos afetivos (bipolar, unipolar, distimia e com depressão dupla, comparando o resultado entre as categorias diagnósticas, além de verificar quais variáveis estão associadas e conduzem ao pior ajuste. MÉTODOS: Foram feitos a caracterização socioeconômica e demográfica e um levantamento dos dados de evolução e de história da doença por meio de um questionário elaborado para essa finalidade. Para a avaliação de ajuste social, utilizou-se a Escala de Avaliação da Incapacitação Psiquiátrica (DAS/OMS, 1998. O relacionamento familiar foi avaliado pelo Global Assessment of Relational Functioning Scale (GARF/APA, 1994. Foram estudados 100 pacientes em tratamento, por pelo menos seis meses, no Ambulatório de Psiquiatria da Faculdade de Medicina Unesp, Botucatu, SP. RESULTADOS/CONCLUSÕES: Com predomínio de mulheres, a maioria dos pacientes tinha no mínimo dois anos de seguimento, idade acima de 50 anos, baixa escolaridade e nível socioeconômico baixo. Não houve diferença estatística significativa quanto aos dados socioeconômicos e demográficos. Na análise de regressão logística, o diagnóstico e o relacionamento familiar tiveram papel significativo no resultado de ajustamento social. Os pacientes unipolares e os distímicos tiveram melhores resultados no ajustamento social e no relacionamento familiar do que os bipolares e aqueles com depressão dupla.OBJECTIVES: International data show that affective disorders have a prevalence of 11.3% in the general population. Besides that, they are responsible for social dysfunctioning and family relationship distress. The aim of this study was to assess social and

  19. Anatomy and radiology of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery

    Heimans, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study describes the variations of the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA) and identifies its types of appearance in normal angiograms as well as in angiograms of patients suffering from posterior fossa tumours or from ischemic lesions in the vertebro-basilar territory. For this purpose a study of 20 normal specimens was undertaken. Four main types of the AICA are distinguished. One hundred normal vertebral angiograms, made between 1976 and 1982 in the Valeriuskliniek and the Academisch Ziekenhuis der Vrije Univesiteit are reviewed. The AICA's are classified in the same way as in the anatomical study. The same classification was used in the analysis of 41 vertebral angiograms of patients with posterior fossa tumours and nine angiograms of patients with ischemic disturbances in the posterior cranial fossa. (Auth.)

  20. Cerebellar and basal ganglion involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Saatci, I.; Baskan, O.; Haliloglu, M.; Aydingoz, U. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University Hospital, Sihhiye 06100, Ankara (Turkey)

    1999-06-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a disease of unknown cause characterised by proliferation of histiocytic granulomas in tissues; the primary cerebral manifestation is diabetes insipidus caused by hypothalamic infiltration. We present a patient in whom, except for the absence of high signal on T 1 weighting in the posterior pituitary, consistent with central diabetes insipidus, MRI showed no evidence of hypothalamic involvement by histiocytosis, despite the long duration of the disease. However, there was bilateral, symmetrical involvement of the cerebellum and globus pallidus in addition to a calvarial lesion. High signal in the cerebellar white matter on T 2-weighted images may represent demyelination, gliosis and cell loss, as previously reported on pathologic examination. (orig.) With 5 figs., 22 refs.

  1. Age-related changes of monoaminooxidases in rat cerebellar cortex

    FM Tranquilli Leali

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related changes of the monoaminoxidases, evaluated by enzymatic staining, quantitative analysis of images, biochemical assay and statistical analysis of data were studied in cerebellar cortex of young (3-month-old and aged (26- month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The enzymatic staining shows the presence of monoamino-oxidases within the molecular and granular layers as well as within the Purkinje neurons of the cerebellum of young and aged animals. In molecular layer, and in Purkinje neurons the levels of monoaminooxidases were strongly increased in old rats. The granular layer showed, on the contrary, an age-dependent loss of enzymatic staining. These morphological findings were confirmed by biochemical results. The possibility that age-related changes in monoaminooxidase levels may be due to impaired energy production mechanisms and/or represent the consequence of reduced energetic needs is discussed.

  2. Lance-Adams syndrome associated with cerebellar pathology.

    Waddell, Adam; Dirweesh, Ahmed; Ordonez, Fausto; Kososky, Charles; Reddy Peddareddygari, Leema; Grewal, Raji P

    2017-07-01

    Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is an uncommon neurological disorder characterized by the development of chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus. There are relatively few cases described following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report a patient who developed LAS 3 months after successful resuscitation. Cerebral imaging studies indicate that brain pathology in LAS patients is not uniform, suggesting that the pathophysiology of myoclonus may vary from patient to patient. Our patient adds to this etiological heterogeneity by demonstrating the unusual feature of cerebellar pathology by both cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. There is also heterogeneity of these patients in their response to therapy. Unlike some patients described in the literature, our patient has not responded to drug treatment. Studies of these rare patients with LAS are important as they provide insight into the pathophysiology of this condition which, it is hopefully, will facilitate the development of more effective therapy.

  3. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Bertoldi, Guilherme A. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Radiologia Diagnostica]. E-mail: arnolfo.carvalho@avalon.sul.com.br; Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Secao de Radiologia Diagnostica; Ono, Sergio E. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Gomes, Andre F. [Diagnostico Avancado Por Imagem (DAPI), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2003-06-01

    Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuro epithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%), hyperdense on CT scans (83%), and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100%) and hyperintense on T2 (80%) weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group. (author)

  4. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    Carvalho Neto Arnolfo de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuroepithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%, hyperdense on CT scans (83%, and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100% and hyperintense on T2 (80% weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group.

  5. Adult cerebellar medulloblastoma: CT and MRI findings in eight cases

    Carvalho Neto, Arnolfo de; Bertoldi, Guilherme A.

    2003-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is a brain tumor of neuro epithelial origin, which represents 15 to 30% of all pediatric brain tumors, and less than 1% of CNS adult neoplasms. We report the imaging findings of 8 adult patients with medulloblastoma. The mean age was 35 years, ranging from 20 to 65 years, and the male:female rate was 3:5. The tumors were predominantly lateral (63%), hyperdense on CT scans (83%), and on the MRI, hypointense on T1 (100%) and hyperintense on T2 (80%) weighted images. It was seen intratumoral necrosis and cysts in six cases and calcifications in three. Hydrocephalus was observed in 5 cases and brain stem invasion in four. The imaging findings of medulloblastomas in adults are different of those in child, and also nonspecific. Although these tumors are uncommon in adults, they must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebellar masses in the posterior fossa of this age group. (author)

  6. CT-guided stereotaxic evacuation of cerebellar hematoma

    Niizuma, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ohyama, Hideki; Suzuki, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    Stereotaxic lateral approach for cerebellar hematoma is presented using Leksell's CT-stereotaxic system. All of the procedures are performed in the CT room. Patient's head is turned to contralateral side of the hematoma 30 to 40 0 with slight flexion of the neck. Stereotaxic apparatus is secured to the head under local anesthesia. Hematoma is confirmed by computerized tomograms. Three dimensional coordinates of the target point (center of the hematoma) are measured from the vertical and diagonal rods of Leksell's system. Linear skin incision 4 cm in length is made on retromastoid area. Burr-hole is put on just lateral position of the target point, usually 5 to 6 cm posterior and 1 cm above from the external auditory meatus. Transverse or sigmoid sinus does not appeared through the burr-hole by this approach. Specially made Dandy's cannula (3.0 mm in diameter, 220 mm in length) is inserted into the target point, and manual evacuation of the hematoma is performed carefully using a syringe. Then Dandy's cannula is replaced by silastic drainage tube (3.5 mm in diameter), and 6,000 Units of Urokinase solved in 2 ml of saline is administered to the hematoma cavity. Dissolved hematoma is aspirated every 24 hours until the most of the hematoma is evacuated. We operated three cases of cerebellar hematoma by this method with favorable results. Advantages of this method are as follows: Operative invasion is minimal; The surgeon can cbeck the residual hematoma and position of the tip of cannula even at operation, if necessary. (author)

  7. Functional Connectivity Between Anterior Insula and Key Nodes of Frontoparietal Executive Control and Salience Networks Distinguish Bipolar Depression From Unipolar Depression and Healthy Control Subjects.

    Ellard, Kristen K; Zimmerman, Jared P; Kaur, Navneet; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Roffman, Joshua L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Dougherty, Darin D; Deckersbach, Thilo; Camprodon, Joan A

    2018-05-01

    Patients with bipolar depression are characterized by dysregulation across the full spectrum of mood, differentiating them from patients with unipolar depression. The ability to switch neural resources among the default mode network, salience network, and executive control network (ECN) has been proposed as a key mechanism for adaptive mood regulation. The anterior insula is implicated in the modulation of functional network switching. Differential connectivity between anterior insula and functional networks may provide insights into pathophysiological differences between bipolar and unipolar mood disorders, with implications for diagnosis and treatment. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 98 subjects (35 unipolar, 24 bipolar, and 39 healthy control subjects). Pearson correlations were computed between bilateral insula seed regions and a priori defined target regions from the default mode network, salience network, and ECN. After r-to-z transformation, a one-way multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to identify significant differences in connectivity between groups. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted and Bonferroni corrections were applied. Receiver-operating characteristics were computed to assess diagnostic sensitivity. Patients with bipolar depression evidenced significantly altered right anterior insula functional connectivity with the inferior parietal lobule of the ECN relative to patients with unipolar depression and control subjects. Right anterior insula-inferior parietal lobule connectivity significantly discriminated patients with bipolar depression. Impaired functional connectivity between the anterior insula and the inferior parietal lobule of the ECN distinguishes patients with bipolar depression from those with unipolar depression and healthy control subjects. This finding highlights a pathophysiological mechanism with potential as a therapeutic target and a clinical biomarker for bipolar

  8. Creating high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses

    Xin, PeiPei; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, ShanShan; Wang, HanMu; Xu, ZiShan; Liu, HongPing

    2018-04-01

    We propose a method of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms by a pair of unipolar laser pulses. The first positive-polarity optical half-cycle pulse is used to prepare an excited-state wave packet while the second one is less intense, but with opposite polarity and time delayed, and is employed to drag back the escaping free electron and clip the shape of the bound Rydberg wave packet, selectively increasing or decreasing a fraction of the angular-momentum components. An intelligent choice of laser parameters such as phase and amplitude helps us to control the orbital-angular-momentum composition of an electron wave packet with more facility; thus, a specified angular-momentum state with high purity can be achieved. This scheme of producing high-purity angular-momentum-state Rydberg atoms has significant application in quantum-information processing.

  9. The cumulative load of depressive illness is associated with cognitive function in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    Hasselbalch, BJ; Knorr, U; Hasselbalch, S G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the cumulative number, duration and subtypes (severity and presence of psychotic features) of previous episodes of depression in patients with unipolar depressive disorder in a remitted state are associated with decreased global cognitive function. METHODS: Via...... with the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG), which provides a composite measure of global cognitive function. RESULTS: A total of 88 patients and 50 controls accepted our invitation to participate, fulfilled the selection criteria and were included in the study. The cumulative duration of depressive episodes...... episodes with psychotic features, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cognitive dysfunction is associated with the cumulative duration of depressive episodes, and that, in particular, depressive episodes with psychotic features in the course of illness may be a significant predictor...

  10. Recent advances in numerical solution of ionized fields associated with unipolar HVDC transmission lines in the presence of wind

    Li, X.; Raghuveer, M.R.; Ciric, I.R.

    1997-01-01

    Three finite element numerical algorithms were developed for solving the ionized field of unipolar HVDC transmission lines in the presence of wind. The solution of the ionized field was derived by transforming the boundary value problem to an optimization problem. The Gaussian iterative method was used for all three algorithms. The main features of each algorithm were presented and compared. The advantage of the first algorithm is that there is no need to assume the space charge density to be uniform on the conductor surface and therefore it is flexible in dealing with a complicated geometry like that of a bundled conductor. The main features of the other two algorithms were their ability to perform better with increase in wind velocity. Algorithm No. 2 was better than algorithm No. 1 in terms of storage and computational time. Algorithm No. 3 also had the advantage of using a triangular fine volume method which allowed computations to proceed faster. 11 refs., 10 figs

  11. Randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of a specialist team for managing refractory unipolar depressive disorder.

    Morriss, Richard; Marttunnen, Sarah; Garland, Anne; Nixon, Neil; McDonald, Ruth; Sweeney, Tim; Flambert, Heather; Fox, Richard; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; James, Marilyn; Yang, Min

    2010-11-29

    Around 40 per cent of patients with unipolar depressive disorder who are treated in secondary care mental health services do not respond to first or second line treatments for depression. Such patients have 20 times the suicide rate of the general population and treatment response becomes harder to achieve and sustain the longer they remain depressed. Despite this there are no randomised controlled trials of community based service delivery interventions delivering both algorithm based pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for patients with chronic depressive disorder in secondary care mental health services who remain moderately or severely depressed after six months treatment. Without such trials evidence based guidelines on services for such patients cannot be derived. Single blind individually randomised controlled trial of a specialist depression disorder team (psychiatrist and psychotherapist jointly assessing and providing algorithm based drug and psychological treatment) versus usual secondary care treatment. We will recruit 174 patients with unipolar depressive disorder in secondary mental health services with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score ≥ 16 and global assessment of function (GAF) ≤ 60 after ≥ 6 months treatment. The primary outcome measures will be the HDRS and GAF supplemented by economic analysis including the EQ5 D and analysis of barriers to care, implementation and the process of care. Audits to benchmark both treatment arms against national standards of care will aid the interpretation of the results of the study. This trial will be the first to assess the effectiveness and implementation of a community based specialist depression disorder team. The study has been specially designed as part of the CLAHRC Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire joint collaboration between university, health and social care organisations to provide information of direct relevance to decisions on commissioning, service provision and

  12. Randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost effectiveness of a specialist team for managing refractory unipolar depressive disorder

    Fox Richard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 40 per cent of patients with unipolar depressive disorder who are treated in secondary care mental health services do not respond to first or second line treatments for depression. Such patients have 20 times the suicide rate of the general population and treatment response becomes harder to achieve and sustain the longer they remain depressed. Despite this there are no randomised controlled trials of community based service delivery interventions delivering both algorithm based pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy for patients with chronic depressive disorder in secondary care mental health services who remain moderately or severely depressed after six months treatment. Without such trials evidence based guidelines on services for such patients cannot be derived. Methods/design Single blind individually randomised controlled trial of a specialist depression disorder team (psychiatrist and psychotherapist jointly assessing and providing algorithm based drug and psychological treatment versus usual secondary care treatment. We will recruit 174 patients with unipolar depressive disorder in secondary mental health services with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS score ≥ 16 and global assessment of function (GAF ≤ 60 after ≥ 6 months treatment. The primary outcome measures will be the HDRS and GAF supplemented by economic analysis incuding the EQ5 D and analysis of barriers to care, implementation and the process of care. Audits to benchmark both treatment arms against national standards of care will aid the interpretation of the results of the study. Discussion This trial will be the first to assess the effectiveness and implementation of a community based specialist depression disorder team. The study has been specially designed as part of the CLAHRC Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire and Lincolnshire joint collaboration between university, health and social care organisations to provide information of direct relevance

  13. Predictors for switch from unipolar major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder type I or II: a 5-year prospective study.

    Holma, K Mikael; Melartin, Tarja K; Holma, Irina A K; Isometsä, Erkki T

    2008-08-01

    In this naturalistic study, we investigated the rate, time course, and predictors of a diagnostic switch from unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) to bipolar disorder type I or II during a 5-year follow-up. The Vantaa Depression Study included at baseline 269 psychiatric outpatients (82.9%) and inpatients (17.1%) with DSM-IV MDD, diagnosed using structured and semi-structured interviews and followed up at 6 months, 18 months, and 5 years between February 1, 1997 and April 30, 2004. Information on 248 MDD patients (92.2%) was available for analyses of the risk of diagnostic switch. Cox proportional hazards models were used. Twenty-two subjects (8.9%) with previous unipolar MDD switched to bipolar disorder type II and 7 (2.8%) to type I. Median time for switch to bipolar type I was significantly shorter than to type II. In Cox proportional hazards analyses, severity of MDD (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.15, p = .036), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (HR = 5.00, 95% CI = 2.04 to 12.5, p social phobia (HR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.00 to 5.26, p = .050), and large number of cluster B personality disorder symptoms (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.20, p = .022) predicted switch. Among outpatients with MDD in secondary level psychiatric settings, diagnostic switch to bipolar disorder usually refers to type II rather than type I. The few switching to bipolar type I do so relatively early. Predictors for diagnostic switch include not only features of mood disorder, such as severity, but may also include some features of psychiatric comorbidity, such as concurrent social phobia, OCD, and symptoms of cluster B personality disorders.

  14. Napsin A and Thyroid Transcription Factor-1-Positive Cerebellar Tumor with Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation

    Taiji Kuwata

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare case of cerebellar metastasis of unknown origin, in which a primary lung adenocarcinoma was diagnosed by pathological examination of a cerebellar metastatic tumor, using immunohistochemical markers and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation of primary lung cancer. A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a hemorrhagic cerebellar tumor and multiple small brain tumors. She underwent cerebellar tumor resection. On pathological examination, the tumor was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma. However, the primary tumor site was unidentifiable even with several imaging inspections. On immunohistochemical analysis, the resected tumor was positive for napsin A and thyroid transcription factor-1. In addition, an EGFR mutation was detected in the tumor. Therefore, primary lung cancer was diagnosed and the patient was started on gefitinib (250 mg/day therapy.

  15. Post-traumatic cerebellar infarction due to vertebral artery foramina fracture: case report

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic cerebral infarction is an uncommon cause of morbidity and mortality and many studies have highlighted that trauma needs to considered as causative factor for cerebellar infarction. We present a case of cerebellar infarction in a 35 year old young patient secondary to vertebral fracture involving the vertebral foramen and vertebral artery injury. CT scan cervical spine showed C2-3 fracture on left side with fracture extending into the left vertebral foramen. A CT scan angiogram could not be performed because of poor neurological status. Possibly the infarction was due to left vertebral artery injury. Without surgical intervention prognosis of these patients remain poor. Prognosis of patients with traumatic cerebellar infarction depends on the neurological status of the patient, intrinsic parenchymal damage and more importantly extrinsic compression of the brainstem by the edematous cerebellar hemispheres.

  16. Progressive cerebellar atrophy and polyneuropathy: expanding the spectrum of PNKP mutations

    Poulton, C.; Oegema, R.; Heijsman, D.; Hoogeboom, J.; Schot, R.; Stroink, H.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Verheijen, F.W.; Spek, P. van der; Kremer, A.; Mancini, G.M.S.

    2013-01-01

    We present a neurodegenerative disorder starting in early childhood of two brothers consisting of severe progressive polyneuropathy, severe progressive cerebellar atrophy, microcephaly, mild epilepsy, and intellectual disability. The cause of this rare syndrome was found to be a homozygous mutation

  17. Age-related changes of structures in cerebellar cortex of cat

    Madhu

    ness of the cerebellar cortex as well as loss of neurons, and hypertrophy and ... Purkinje cells. (PCs) in old cats showed much fewer NF-IR dendrites than those in young adults. ... diminution in motor control and motor learning) underlying.

  18. Cerebellar patients demonstrate preserved implicit knowledge of association strengths in musical sequences.

    Tillmann, Barbara; Justus, Timothy; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2008-03-01

    Recent findings suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in perceptual and cognitive tasks. Our study investigated whether cerebellar patients show musical priming based on implicit knowledge of tonal-harmonic music. Participants performed speeded phoneme identification on sung target chords, which were either related or less-related to prime contexts in terms of the tonal-harmonic system. As groups, both cerebellar patients and age-matched controls showed facilitated processing for related targets, as previously observed for healthy young adults. The outcome suggests that an intact cerebellum is not mandatory for accessing implicit knowledge stored in long-term memory and for its influence on perception. One patient showed facilitated processing for less-related targets (suggesting sensory priming). The findings suggest directions for future research on auditory perception in cerebellar patients to further our understanding of cerebellar functions.

  19. Changes in cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition after performance improvement.

    Hirose, Satoshi; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that motor learning is supported by the cerebellum and the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Response inhibition involves motor responses and the higher-order inhibition that controls the motor responses. In this functional MRI study, we measured the cerebro-cerebellar interaction during response inhibition in two separate days of task performance, and detected the changes in the interaction following performance improvement. Behaviorally, performance improved in the second day, compared to the first day. The psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis revealed the interaction decrease from the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) to the cerebellum (lobule VII or VI). It was also revealed that the interaction increased from the same cerebellar region to the primary motor area. These results suggest the involvement of the cerebellum in response inhibition, and raise the possibility that the performance improvement was supported by the changes in the cerebro-cerebellar interaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A PET study of cerebellar metabolism in normal and abnormal states

    Kushner, M.; Alavi, A.; Chawluk, J.; Silver, F.; Dann, R.; Rosen, M.; Reivich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied cerebellar metabolism under varying conditions of sensory stimulation. Cerebellar glucose consumption was measured by positron emission scanning and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in 64 subjects. Cerebellar metabolism relative to the whole brain (CM), and the asymmetry of metabolism between the cerebellar hemispheres (CA) was determined. The lowest CM occurred with maximal sensory deprivation, eyes and ears closed, (CM=96%, n=6). CM increased nonsignificantly with visual stimulation (CM=99%,n=17) and was highest for auditory stimulation (CM=104%,n=10,p<.05). CA was unaffected by sensory input. Under ambient conditions the CM values were 101%, 113% and 135% respectively for young controls (n=9, age=22), old controls (n=8, age=61) and Alzheimer patients (SDAT, n=14, age=69). This difference was significant for SDAT vs young and old controls and was nearly significant for young vs old controls

  1. Prenatal cerebellar growth trajectories and the impact of periconceptional maternal and fetal factors

    Koning, I V; Dudink, J; Groenenberg, I A L; Willemsen, S P; Reiss, I K M; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: CAN WE assess human prenatal cerebellar growth from the first until the third trimester of pregnancy and create growth trajectories to investigate associations with periconceptional maternal and fetal characteristics? SUMMARY ANSWER: Prenatal growth trajectories of the human

  2. Cerebellar contribution to motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: An MRI sub-regional volumetric analysis.

    D'Ambrosio, Alessandro; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the role of cerebellar sub-regions on motor and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Whole and sub-regional cerebellar volumes, brain volumes, T2 hyperintense lesion volumes (LV), and motor performance scores were obtained from 95 relapse-onset MS patients and 32 healthy controls (HC). MS patients also underwent an evaluation of working memory and processing speed functions. Cerebellar anterior and posterior lobes were segmented using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox (SUIT) from Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM12). Multivariate linear regression models assessed the relationship between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures and motor/cognitive scores. Compared to HC, only secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients had lower cerebellar volumes (total and posterior cerebellum). In MS patients, lower anterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted worse motor performance, whereas lower posterior cerebellar volume and brain T2 LV predicted poor cognitive performance. Global measures of brain volume and infratentorial T2 LV were not selected by the final multivariate models. Cerebellar volumetric abnormalities are likely to play an important contribution to explain motor and cognitive performance in MS patients. Consistently with functional mapping studies, cerebellar posterior-inferior volume accounted for variance in cognitive measures, whereas anterior cerebellar volume accounted for variance in motor performance, supporting the assessment of cerebellar damage at sub-regional level.

  3. Synaptic glutamate spillover increases NMDA receptor reliability at the cerebellar glomerulus

    Mitchell, Cassie S.; Lee, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Glutamate spillover in the mossy fiber to granule cell cerebellar glomeruli has been hypothesized to increase neurotransmission reliability. In this study, we evaluate this hypothesis using an experimentally-based quantitative model of glutamate spillover on the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) at the cerebellar glomerulus. The transient and steady-state responses of NMDA-Rs were examined over a physiological range of firing rates. Examined cases included direct glutamate release acti...

  4. POSITION OF CEREBELLAR TONSILS IN REFERENCE TO FORAMEN MAGNUM: AN MRI STUDY

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Normal position of the cerebellar tonsils is described to be at or above the foramen magnum. Western studies have shown the cerebellar tonsils to be below the foramen magnum. Position of tonsils is of great importance in assessing the hind brain deformity–Chiari malformation. There are no Indian studies to corroborate the findings. Hence, we proposed a basic study to find out the existence of tonsillar ectopia (Position of tonsils below the foramen magnum) in normal population. Ou...

  5. Thalamic physiology of intentional essential tremor is more like cerebellar tremor than postural essential tremor

    Zakaria, R; Lenz, FA; Hua, S; Avin, BH; Liu, CC; Mari, Z

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal physiological correlates of clinical heterogeneity in human essential tremor are unknown. We now test the hypothesis that thalamic neuronal and EMG activities during intention essential tremor are similar to those of the intention tremor which is characteristic of cerebellar lesions. Thalamic neuronal firing was studied in a cerebellar relay nucleus (ventral intermediate, Vim) and in a pallidal relay nucleus (ventral oral posterior, Vop) during stereotactic surgery for the treatm...

  6. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  7. Cerebellar Lesions of Uremic Encephalopathy on MRI in Hemodialyzed Diabetic Patient: A Case Report

    Kil, Min Chul; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Chungbuk National Universty Hospital, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is a well-known complication of uremia, but its pathophysiology remains unknown. It is widely reported that in UE, the bilateral basal ganglia (BG) shows hyperintensities on T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but cerebellar lesions are extremely rare, with to the best of our knowledge, only one case reported to date. We describe the findings from computed tomography and MRI for typical BG and cerebellar vermis lesions.

  8. Cerebellar Lesions of Uremic Encephalopathy on MRI in Hemodialyzed Diabetic Patient: A Case Report

    Kil, Min Chul; Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Cho, Bum Sang; Kang, Min Ho

    2012-01-01

    Uremic encephalopathy (UE) is a well-known complication of uremia, but its pathophysiology remains unknown. It is widely reported that in UE, the bilateral basal ganglia (BG) shows hyperintensities on T2/fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but cerebellar lesions are extremely rare, with to the best of our knowledge, only one case reported to date. We describe the findings from computed tomography and MRI for typical BG and cerebellar vermis lesions.

  9. MR diagnosis of cerebellar infarction due to vertebral artery dissection in children

    Cheon, J.E.; Kim, I.O.; Kim, W.S.; Yeon, K.M.; Hwang, Y.S.; Wang, K.C.

    2001-01-01

    Posterior circulation infarction is uncommon in children. We describe the clinical presentation and radiological findings in two children with cerebellar infarction resulting from dissection of the vertebral artery. We emphasize that vertebral artery injury should be considered in a child with acute symptoms and signs of ischaemia in the posterior circulation. MRI and MRA may be helpful in the diagnosis of cerebellar infarction and vertebral artery abnormality. (orig.)

  10. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager.

    Langille, Megan M; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  11. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    Langille, Megan M.; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum ...

  12. Integrated plasticity at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the cerebellar circuit

    Lisa eMapelli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The way long-term potentiation (LTP and depression (LTD are integrated within the different synapses of brain neuronal circuits is poorly understood. In order to progress beyond the identification of specific molecular mechanisms, a system in which multiple forms of plasticity can be correlated with large-scale neural processing is required. In this paper we take as an example the cerebellar network , in which extensive investigations have revealed LTP and LTD at several excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Cerebellar LTP and LTD occur in all three main cerebellar subcircuits (granular layer, molecular layer, deep cerebellar nuclei and correspondingly regulate the function of their three main neurons: granule cells (GrCs, Purkinje cells (PCs and deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN cells. All these neurons, in addition to be excited, are reached by feed-forward and feed-back inhibitory connections, in which LTP and LTD may either operate synergistically or homeostatically in order to control information flow through the circuit. Although the investigation of individual synaptic plasticities in vitro is essential to prove their existence and mechanisms, it is insufficient to generate a coherent view of their impact on network functioning in vivo. Recent computational models and cell-specific genetic mutations in mice are shedding light on how plasticity at multiple excitatory and inhibitory synapses might regulate neuronal activities in the cerebellar circuit and contribute to learning and memory and behavioral control.

  13. Cerebellar Shaping of Motor Cortical Firing Is Correlated with Timing of Motor Actions

    Abdulraheem Nashef

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: In higher mammals, motor timing is considered to be dictated by cerebellar control of motor cortical activity, relayed through the cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC system. Nonetheless, the way cerebellar information is integrated with motor cortical commands and affects their temporal properties remains unclear. To address this issue, we activated the CTC system in primates and found that it efficiently recruits motor cortical cells; however, the cortical response was dominated by prolonged inhibition that imposed a directional activation across the motor cortex. During task performance, cortical cells that integrated CTC information fired synchronous bursts at movement onset. These cells expressed a stronger correlation with reaction time than non-CTC cells. Thus, the excitation-inhibition interplay triggered by the CTC system facilitates transient recruitment of a cortical subnetwork at movement onset. The CTC system may shape neural firing to produce the required profile to initiate movements and thus plays a pivotal role in timing motor actions. : Nashef et al. identified a motor cortical subnetwork recruited by cerebellar volley that was transiently synchronized at movement onset. Cerebellar control of cortical firing was dominated by inhibition that shaped task-related firing of neurons and may dictate motor timing. Keywords: motor control, primates, cerebellar-thalamo-cortical, synchrony, noise correlation, reaction time

  14. Integrated plasticity at inhibitory and excitatory synapses in the cerebellar circuit.

    Mapelli, Lisa; Pagani, Martina; Garrido, Jesus A; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    The way long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) are integrated within the different synapses of brain neuronal circuits is poorly understood. In order to progress beyond the identification of specific molecular mechanisms, a system in which multiple forms of plasticity can be correlated with large-scale neural processing is required. In this paper we take as an example the cerebellar network, in which extensive investigations have revealed LTP and LTD at several excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Cerebellar LTP and LTD occur in all three main cerebellar subcircuits (granular layer, molecular layer, deep cerebellar nuclei) and correspondingly regulate the function of their three main neurons: granule cells (GrCs), Purkinje cells (PCs) and deep cerebellar nuclear (DCN) cells. All these neurons, in addition to be excited, are reached by feed-forward and feed-back inhibitory connections, in which LTP and LTD may either operate synergistically or homeostatically in order to control information flow through the circuit. Although the investigation of individual synaptic plasticities in vitro is essential to prove their existence and mechanisms, it is insufficient to generate a coherent view of their impact on network functioning in vivo. Recent computational models and cell-specific genetic mutations in mice are shedding light on how plasticity at multiple excitatory and inhibitory synapses might regulate neuronal activities in the cerebellar circuit and contribute to learning and memory and behavioral control.

  15. Computed tomographic (CT) study of watershed area supplied by the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)

    Nozaki, Junichi; Hirose, Satoshi; Hosotani, Kazuo; Kubota, Tetsuya; Kubota, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen patients with clinical and computed tomographic (CT) evidence of cerebellar infarction were examined during 1987-1989. Six patients had onset of cerebellar infarction at ages ranging from 45 to 69, and seven patients had onset at ages over 70. In thirteen cases, we observed infarction in the inferior region of the cerebellum, and we studied these cases. CT demonstrated decreased density in 4 distinct anatomic areas. These areas are listed below, with estimation of the distribution of the hemispheric arteries of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA): Group 1 - posterior medial area, probably territory of the inferior vermian branch, tonsillar branch and/or medial artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA; Group 2 - posterior intermediate area, probably territory of the intermediate artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA; Group 3 - area including both areas of group 1 and group 3; Group 4 - lateral area, just posterior to pyramis, probably territory of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and/or lateral artery of the hemispheric artery of PICA. The medial and intermedial cerebellar hemispheric segments were most commonly affected but the lateral segment was not. The PICA least frequently supplied the lateral segments. While the anterior inferior cerebellar artery usually anastomoses with the lateral artery of the hemispheric artery of the PICA. These vascular territories may provide good collateral circulation to this segment. And we also estimate the distribution of the PICA by the CT findings. (author)

  16. Cerebellar Volume in Children With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Wyciszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Pawlak, Mikolaj A; Krawiec, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with altered cerebellar volume and cerebellum is associated with cognitive performance. However there are mixed results regarding the cerebellar volume in young patients with ADHD. To clarify the size and direction of this effect, we conducted the analysis on the large public database of brain images. The aim of this study was to confirm that cerebellar volume in ADHD is smaller than in control subjects in currently the largest publicly available cohort of ADHD subjects.We applied cross-sectional case control study design by comparing 286 ADHD patients (61 female) with age and gender matched control subjects. Volumetric measurements of cerebellum were obtained using automated segmentation with FreeSurfer 5.1. Statistical analysis was performed in R-CRAN statistical environment. Patients with ADHD had significantly smaller total cerebellar volumes (134.5±17.11cm 3 vs.138.90±15.32 cm 3 ). The effect was present in both females and males (males 136.9±14.37 cm 3 vs. 141.20±14.75 cm 3 ; females 125.7±12.34 cm 3 vs. 131.20±15.03 cm 3 ). Age was positively and significantly associated with the cerebellar volumes. These results indicate either delayed or disrupted cerebellar development possibly contributing to ADHD pathophysiology.

  17. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  18. ATM localization and gene expression in the adult mouse eye.

    Leemput, Julia; Masson, Christel; Bigot, Karine; Errachid, Abdelmounaim; Dansault, Anouk; Provost, Alexandra; Gadin, Stéphanie; Aoufouchi, Said; Menasche, Maurice; Abitbol, Marc

    2009-01-01

    High levels of metabolism and oxygen consumption in most adult murine ocular compartments, combined with exposure to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, are major sources of oxidative stress, causing DNA damage in ocular cells. Of all mammalian body cells, photoreceptor cells consume the largest amount of oxygen and generate the highest levels of oxidative damage. The accumulation of such damage throughout life is a major factor of aging tissues. Several multiprotein complexes have recently been identified as the major sensors and mediators involved in the maintenance of DNA integrity. The activity of these complexes initially seemed to be restricted to dividing cells, given their ultimate role in major cell cycle checkpoints. However, it was later established that they are also active in post-mitotic cells. Recent findings demonstrate that the DNA damage response (DDR) is essential for the development, maintenance, and normal functioning of the adult central nervous system. One major molecular factor in the DDR is the protein, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). It is required for the rapid induction of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. These cytotoxic DNA lesions may be caused by oxidative damage. To understand how ATM prevents oxidative stress and participates in the maintenance of genomic integrity and cell viability of the adult retina, we determined the ATM expression patterns and studied its localization in the adult mouse eye. Atm gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR experiments and its localization by in situ hybridization on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. ATM protein expression was determined by western blot analysis of proteins homogenates extracted from several mouse tissues and its localization by immunohistochemistry experiments performed on adult mouse ocular and cerebellar tissue sections. In addition, subcellular localization was realized by confocal microscopy imaging of ocular tissue sections, with a special

  19. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings in a patient with cerebellar mutism after operation in posterior fossa

    Gonca Kara Gedik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar mutism is a transient period of speechlessness that evolves after posterior fossa surgery in children. Although direct cerebellar and brain stem injury and supratentorial dysfunction have been implicated in the mediation of mutism, the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the evolution of this kind of mutism remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed dentatothalamocortical tract injuries and single photon emission computed tomography showed cerebellar and cerebral hypoperfusion in patients with cerebellar mutism. However, findings with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT in this group of patients have not been documented previously. In this clinical case, we report a patient who experienced cerebellar mutism after undergoing a posterior fossa surgery. Right cerebellar and left frontal lobe hypometabolism was shown using FDG PET/CT. The FDG metabolism of both the cerebellum and the frontal lobe returned to normal levels after the resolution of the mutism symptoms.

  20. Higher transport and metabolism of glucose in astrocytes compared with neurons: a multiphoton study of hippocampal and cerebellar tissue slices.

    Jakoby, Patrick; Schmidt, Elke; Ruminot, Iván; Gutiérrez, Robin; Barros, L Felipe; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is the most important energy substrate for the brain, and its cellular distribution is a subject of great current interest. We have employed fluorescent glucose probes, the 2-deoxy-D-glucose derivates 6- and 2-([N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose) (2-NBDG), to measure transport and metabolism of glucose in acute slices of mouse hippocampus and cerebellum. In the hippocampus, 6-NBDG, which is not metabolized and hence indicates glucose transport, was taken up faster in astrocyte-rich layers (Stratum radiatum [S.r.], Stratum oriens [S.o.]) than in pyramidal cells. Metabolizable 2-NBDG showed larger signals in S.r. and S.o. than in Stratum pyramidale, suggesting faster glucose utilization rate in the astrocyte versus the neuronal compartment. Similarly, we found higher uptake and temperature-sensitive metabolism of 2-NBDG in Bergmann glia when compared with adjacent Purkinje neurons of cerebellar slices. A comparison between 6-NBDG transport and glucose transport in cultured cells using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer nanosensor showed that relative to glucose, 6-NBDG is transported better by neurons than by astrocytes. These results indicate that the preferential transport and metabolism of glucose by glial cells versus neurons proposed for the hippocampus and cerebellum by ourselves (in vitro) and for the barrel cortex by Chuquet et al. (in vivo) is more pronounced than anticipated.

  1. Increased cerebellar gray matter volume in head chefs.

    Antonio Cerasa

    Full Text Available Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated.Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations.Voxel-based analysis performed with SUIT, as well as, automated volumetric measurement assessed with Freesurfer, revealed increased gray matter volume in the cerebellum in chefs compared to non-experts. The most significant changes were detected in the anterior vermis and the posterior cerebellar lobule. The magnitude of the brigade staff and the higher performance in the Tower of London test correlated with these specific gray matter increases, respectively.We found that chefs are characterized by an anatomical variability involving the cerebellum. This confirms the role of this region in the development of similar expert brains characterized by learning dexterous skills, such as pianists, rock climbers and basketball players. However, the nature of the cellular events underlying the detected morphological differences remains an open question.

  2. Cognitive Impairments in Multiple System Atrophy of the Cerebellar Type

    Hyun J. Hong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose We investigated the cognitive profiles in a large sample of patients with multiple system atrophy-cerebellar ataxia (MSA-C and compared directly them in patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C without dementia and control subjects with intact cognition. Methods We prospectively enrolled 26 patients with clinical diagnosis of probable MSA-C. All patients underwent a standardized neuropsychological test of the Seoul Neuropsychological Screening Battery. Results The score of Korean version of the Mini- Mental State Examination was significantly lower in patients with MSA-C (27.2 ± 2.5 than in control subjects (28.9 ± 1.0, p = 0.003. Patients with MSA-C showed a significantly worse performance in visuospatial function, 3 words recall, verbal immediate, delayed and recognition memory, visual delayed memory, phonemic and sementic Controlled Oral Word Association Test, and ideomotor praxis (p < 0.05. Conclusions Patients with MSA-C show more severe and more widespread cognitive dysfunctions than controls. Our results also indicate that cognitive dysfunction in patients with MCA-C is suggestive of disruption of the cerebellocortical circuits.

  3. Swallowing difficulties for cerebellar stroke may recover beyond three years.

    Périé, S; Wajeman, S; Vivant, R; St Guily, J L

    1999-01-01

    Swallowing disorders after stroke or skull base surgery can be life threatening. Although late recovery can occur, it remains poorly documented. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with dysphagia resulting from a cerebellar stroke with hemorrhage that was evacuated through craniotomy. Swallowing difficulties were assessed by a videoendoscopic swallowing study. She presented with disruption of swallow initiation and impairment of the pharyngeal stage, resulting in hypopharyngeal stasis and penetration with aspiration. Supportive swallowing therapy was conducted with careful reeducation to assist initiation of the pharyngeal stage as well as development of compensatory postural technique. Initial improvement was very slow but became rapidly progressive from the 31st month after the stroke. By the 34th month, oral feeding was possible without aspiration. This case demonstrates that improvement in swallowing function can be expected even 3 years after stroke or skull base surgery. Determination of predictive factors for late functional recovery is of great importance and should be the focus of further investigation.

  4. Cerebellar neurodegeneration in the absence of microRNAs

    Schaefer, Anne; O'Carroll, Dónal; Tan, Chan Lek; Hillman, Dean; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Llinas, Rodolfo; Greengard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) are potent regulators of gene expression. The significance of miRNAs in various biological processes has been suggested by studies showing an important role of these small RNAs in regulation of cell differentiation. However, the role of miRNAs in regulation of differentiated cell physiology is not well established. Mature neurons express a large number of distinct miRNAs, but the role of miRNAs in postmitotic neurons has not been examined. Here, we provide evidence for an essential role of miRNAs in survival of differentiated neurons. We show that conditional Purkinje cell–specific ablation of the key miRNA-generating enzyme Dicer leads to Purkinje cell death. Deficiency in Dicer is associated with progressive loss of miRNAs, followed by cerebellar degeneration and development of ataxia. The progressive neurodegeneration in the absence of Dicer raises the possibility of an involvement of miRNAs in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:17606634

  5. Cerebro-cerebellar connectivity is increased in primary lateral sclerosis.

    Meoded, Avner; Morrissette, Arthur E; Katipally, Rohan; Schanz, Olivia; Gotts, Stephen J; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    Increased functional connectivity in resting state networks was found in several studies of patients with motor neuron disorders, although diffusion tensor imaging studies consistently show loss of white matter integrity. To understand the relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity, we examined the structural connections between regions with altered functional connectivity in patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), a long-lived motor neuron disease. Connectivity matrices were constructed from resting state fMRI in 16 PLS patients to identify areas of differing connectivity between patients and healthy controls. Probabilistic fiber tracking was used to examine structural connections between regions of differing connectivity. PLS patients had 12 regions with increased functional connectivity compared to controls, with a predominance of cerebro-cerebellar connections. Increased functional connectivity was strongest between the cerebellum and cortical motor areas and between the cerebellum and frontal and temporal cortex. Fiber tracking detected no difference in connections between regions with increased functional connectivity. We conclude that functional connectivity changes are not strongly based in structural connectivity. Increased functional connectivity may be caused by common inputs, or by reduced selectivity of cortical activation, which could result from loss of intracortical inhibition when cortical afferents are intact.

  6. Time course of cerebellar catalase levels after neonatal ionizing radiations

    Di Meglio, A.; Caceres, L.; Zieher, L.M.; Guelman, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Reactive oxygen species are physiologically generated as a consequence of aerobic respiration, but this generation is increased in response to external stimuli, including ionizing radiation. The central nervous system (CNS) is vulnerable to oxidative stress due to its high oxygen consumption rate, its high level of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low levels of antioxidant defences. An important compound of this defence system is the antioxidant enzyme catalase, an heme protein that removes hydrogen peroxide from the cell by catalyzing its conversion to water. The aim of the present work was to study if catalase is susceptible to oxidative stress generated by ionizing radiation on the cerebellum. Neonatal rats were irradiated with 5 Gy of X rays and the levels of catalase were measured at 15, 30 and 60 days of age. Results show that there is a decrease in the activity of catalase in irradiated cerebellum at 15 (% respect the control, 65.6 ± 14.8), 30 (51.35± 5.8%), and 60 days (9.3 ± 0.34%). Catalase activity at 15 and 30 days has shown to be positively correlated with the radiation-induced decrease in tissue's weight, while at 60 days there is an extra decrease. It would be suggested that, at long term, radiation exposure might induce, in addition to cerebellar atrophy, the oxidation of the radiosensitive heme group of the enzyme, leading to its inactivation. In conclusion, the antioxidant enzyme catalase has shown to be especially sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. False-positive head-impulse test in cerebellar ataxia

    Olympia eKremmyda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head impulse test (HIT, passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA. In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, VOR gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean±SD: 0.73±0.15. In those with pathological calorics, gains 80ms and 100 ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111±62 ms after onset of the HIT than in those with normal calorics. (191±17 ms, p=0.0064 We indentified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA.

  8. Caspase-mediated apoptosis induction in zebrafish cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    Weber, Thomas; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Winter, Barbara; Müller-Brown, Karina; Kühn, Ralf; Wurst, Wolfgang; Köster, Reinhard W

    2016-11-15

    The zebrafish is a well-established model organism in which to study in vivo mechanisms of cell communication, differentiation and function. Existing cell ablation methods are either invasive or they rely on the cellular expression of prokaryotic enzymes and the use of antibiotic drugs as cell death-inducing compounds. We have recently established a novel inducible genetic cell ablation system based on tamoxifen-inducible Caspase 8 activity, thereby exploiting mechanisms of cell death intrinsic to most cell types. Here, we prove its suitability in vivo by monitoring the ablation of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) in transgenic zebrafish that co-express the inducible caspase and a fluorescent reporter. Incubation of larvae in tamoxifen for 8 h activated endogenous Caspase 3 and cell death, whereas incubation for 16 h led to the near-complete loss of PCs by apoptosis. We observed synchronous cell death autonomous to the PC population and phagocytosing microglia in the cerebellum, reminiscent of developmental apoptosis in the forebrain. Thus, induction of apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase by tamoxifen (ATTAC TM ) further expands the repertoire of genetic tools for conditional interrogation of cellular functions. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Components of action potential repolarization in cerebellar parallel fibres.

    Pekala, Dobromila; Baginskas, Armantas; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Raastad, Morten

    2014-11-15

    Repolarization of the presynaptic action potential is essential for transmitter release, excitability and energy expenditure. Little is known about repolarization in thin, unmyelinated axons forming en passant synapses, which represent the most common type of axons in the mammalian brain's grey matter.We used rat cerebellar parallel fibres, an example of typical grey matter axons, to investigate the effects of K(+) channel blockers on repolarization. We show that repolarization is composed of a fast tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive component, determining the width and amplitude of the spike, and a slow margatoxin (MgTX)-sensitive depolarized after-potential (DAP). These two components could be recorded at the granule cell soma as antidromic action potentials and from the axons with a newly developed miniaturized grease-gap method. A considerable proportion of fast repolarization remained in the presence of TEA, MgTX, or both. This residual was abolished by the addition of quinine. The importance of proper control of fast repolarization was demonstrated by somatic recordings of antidromic action potentials. In these experiments, the relatively broad K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine reduced the fast repolarization, resulting in bursts of action potentials forming on top of the DAP. We conclude that repolarization of the action potential in parallel fibres is supported by at least three groups of K(+) channels. Differences in their temporal profiles allow relatively independent control of the spike and the DAP, whereas overlap of their temporal profiles provides robust control of axonal bursting properties.

  10. The organization of plasticity in the cerebellar cortex: from synapses to control.

    D'Angelo, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is thought to play a critical role in procedural learning, but the relationship between this function and the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms remains largely speculative. At present, at least nine forms of long-term synaptic and nonsynaptic plasticity (some of which are bidirectional) have been reported in the cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. These include long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression at the mossy fiber-granule cell synapse, at the synapses formed by parallel fibers, climbing fibers, and molecular layer interneurons on Purkinje cells, and at the synapses formed by mossy fibers and Purkinje cells on deep cerebellar nuclear cells, as well as LTP of intrinsic excitability in granule cells, Purkinje cells, and deep cerebellar nuclear cells. It is suggested that the complex properties of cerebellar learning would emerge from the distribution of plasticity in the network and from its dynamic remodeling during the different phases of learning. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors may hold the key to explain how the different forms of plasticity cooperate to select specific transmission channels and to regulate the signal-to-noise ratio through the cerebellar cortex. These factors include regulation of neuronal excitation by local inhibitory networks, engagement of specific molecular mechanisms by spike bursts and theta-frequency oscillations, and gating by external neuromodulators. Therefore, a new and more complex view of cerebellar plasticity is emerging with respect to that predicted by the original "Motor Learning Theory," opening issues that will require experimental and computational testing. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between ultrasound estimated fetal gestational age and cerebellar appearance in healthy pregnant Nigerian women.

    Adeyekun, Ademola A; Orji, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    Fetal biometry by ultrasound provides reliable and important information about fetal growth and wellbeing. Evaluation of the fetal posterior fossa is useful in the assessment of neural tube-defects. Studies on normal ultrasound fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter across gestational age (GA) are scanty in the Nigerian medical literature. This study was carried out to study normal fetal cerebellar appearance and diameter at various GAs among healthy pregnant Nigerian Africans. This was a prospective study of 450 healthy singleton pregnant women between 13 and 42 weeks gestation. A curvilinear probe with a 3.5 MHz transducer of a SonoAce X6 (Medison Inc., Korea 2010) scanner was used to assess fetal transcerebellar diameter (TCD) and appearance. GA was also determined using fetal biometric parameters such as the biparietal diameter, femur length, and abdominal circumference. Fetal cerebellar appearance was correlated against GA. The cerebellar appearance was graded into: Grade I: 164 fetuses (36.4%), Grade II; 102 fetuses (22.7%) and Grade III: 184 fetuses (40.9%). Mean GA and TCD was 21 weeks and 21.2 mm for Grade I; 28 weeks and 32.6 mm for Grade II; and 35 weeks and 47.1 mm for Grade III. There was significance difference among the cerebellar grades at the GA groups and transverse cerebellar diameter (P < 0.000). There is a gradual and steady change in ultrasonographic appearance of the fetal cerebellar and diameter appearance with advancing gestation. The changes ranged from anechoic, "pair of eye glass" appearance at second trimester to relatively echogenic, "dumb-bell" appearance at early third trimester, and solid, "fan-shape" in late third trimester.

  12. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cerebellum: Considerations for Assessing Cerebellar Ataxias.

    Deistung, Andreas; Stefanescu, Maria R; Ernst, Thomas M; Schlamann, Marc; Ladd, Mark E; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Timmann, Dagmar

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is of high interest for diagnosing and understanding degenerative ataxias. Here, we present state-of-the-art MRI methods to characterize structural alterations of the cerebellum and introduce initial experiments to show abnormalities in the cerebellar nuclei. Clinically, T1-weighted MR images are used to assess atrophy of the cerebellar cortex, the brainstem, and the spinal cord, whereas T2-weighted and PD-weighted images are typically employed to depict potential white matter lesions that may be associated with certain types of ataxias. More recently, attention has also focused on the characterization of the cerebellar nuclei, which are discernible on spatially highly resolved iron-sensitive MR images due to their relatively high iron content, including T2 (*)-weighted images, susceptibility-weighted images (SWI), effective transverse relaxation rate (R2 (*)) maps, and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM). Among these iron-sensitive techniques, QSM reveals the best contrast between cerebellar nuclei and their surroundings. In particular, the gyrification of the dentate nuclei is prominently depicted, even at the clinically widely available field strength of 3 T. The linear relationship between magnetic susceptibility and local iron content allows for determination of iron deposition in cerebellar nuclei non-invasively. The increased signal-to-noise ratio of ultrahigh-field MRI (B0 ≥ 7 T) and advances in spatial normalization methods enable functional MRI (fMRI) at the level of the cerebellar cortex and cerebellar nuclei. Data from initial fMRI studies are presented in three common forms of hereditary ataxias (Friedreich's ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, and spinocerebellar ataxia type 6). Characteristic changes in the fMRI signal are discussed in the light of histopathological data and current knowledge of the underlying physiology of the fMRI signal in the cerebellum.

  14. Cerebellar stroke presenting with isolated dizziness: Brain MRI in 136 patients.

    Perloff, Michael D; Patel, Nimesh S; Kase, Carlos S; Oza, Anuja U; Voetsch, Barbara; Romero, Jose R

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate occurrence of cerebellar stroke in Emergency Department (ED) presentations of isolated dizziness (dizziness with a normal exam and negative neurological review of systems). A 5-year retrospective study of ED patients presenting with a chief complaint of "dizziness or vertigo", without other symptoms or signs in narrative history or on exam to suggest a central nervous system lesion, and work-up included a brain MRI within 48h. Patients with symptoms commonly peripheral in etiology (nystagmus, tinnitus, gait instability, etc.) were included in the study. Patient demographics, stroke risk factors, and gait assessments were recorded. One hundred and thirty-six patients, who had a brain MRI for isolated dizziness, were included. There was a low correlation of gait assessment between ED physician and Neurologist (49 patients, Spearman's correlation r 2 =0.17). Based on MRI DWI sequence, 3.7% (5/136 patients) had acute cerebellar strokes, limited to or including, the medial posterior inferior cerebellar artery vascular territory. In the 5 cerebellar stroke patients, mean age, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c, gender distribution, and prevalence of hypertension were similar to the non-cerebellar stroke patient group. Mean LDL/HDL ratio was 3.63±0.80 and smoking prevalence was 80% in the cerebellar stroke group compared to 2.43±0.79 and 22% (respectively, p valuesstroke group. Though there was preselection bias for stroke risk factors, our study suggests an important proportion of cerebellar stroke among ED patients with isolated dizziness, considering how common this complaint is. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative neuronal morphology of the cerebellar cortex in afrotherians, carnivores, cetartiodactyls, and primates

    Bob eJacobs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the basic morphological characteristics of neurons in the cerebellar cortex have been documented in several species, virtually nothing is known about the quantitative morphological characteristics of these neurons across different taxa. To that end, the present study investigated cerebellar neuronal morphology among eight different, large-brained mammalian species comprising a broad phylogenetic range: afrotherians (African elephant, Florida manatee, carnivores (Siberian tiger, clouded leopard, cetartiodactyls (humpback whale, giraffe and primates (human, common chimpanzee. Specifically, several neuron types (e.g., stellate, basket, Lugaro, Golgi, and granule neurons; N = 317 of the cerebellar cortex were stained with a modified rapid Golgi technique and quantified on a computer-assisted microscopy system. There was a 64-fold variation in brain mass across species in our sample (from clouded leopard to the elephant and a 103-fold variation in cerebellar volume. Most dendritic measures tended to increase with cerebellar volume. The cerebellar cortex in these species exhibited the trilaminate pattern common to all mammals. Morphologically, neuron types in the cerebellar cortex were generally consistent with those described in primates (Fox et al., 1967 and rodents (Palay and Chan-Palay, 1974, although there was substantial quantitative variation across species. In particular, Lugaro neurons in the elephant appeared to be disproportionately larger than those in other species. To explore potential quantitative differences in dendritic measures across species, MARSplines analyses were used to evaluate whether species could be differentiated from each other based on dendritic characteristics alone. Results of these analyses indicated that there were significant differences among all species in dendritic measures.

  16. A transgenic mouse line for molecular genetic analysis of excitatory glutamatergic neurons

    Borgius, Lotta; Restrepo, C. Ernesto; Leao, Richardson N.

    2010-01-01

    Excitatory glutamatergic neurons are part of most of the neuronal circuits in the mammalian nervous system. We have used BAC-technology to generate a BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line where Cre expression is driven by the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) promotor. This BAC-Vglut2::Cre mouse line...... showed specific expression of Cre in Vglut2 positive cells in the spinal cord with no ectopic expression in GABAergic or glycinergic neurons. This mouse line also showed specific Cre expression in Vglut2 positive structures in the brain such as thalamus, hypothalamus, superior colliculi, inferior...... colliculi and deep cerebellar nuclei together with nuclei in the midbrain and hindbrain. Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to Cre expressing cells in the spinal cord and brain and occurred as early as E 12.5. Known Vglut2 positive neurons showed normal electrophysiological properties in the BAC...

  17. ECT, rTMS, and deepTMS in pharmacoresistant drug-free patients with unipolar depression: a comparative review

    Salviati M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Amedeo Minichino¹, Francesco Saverio Bersani¹, Enrico Capra¹, Rossella Pannese¹, Celeste Bonanno², Massimo Salviati¹, Roberto Delle Chiaie¹, Massimo Biondi¹¹Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ²Aldo Moro University of Bari, Bari, ItalyBackground: Biological treatments are considered as additional options for the treatment of resistant unipolar depression. Controversial data exist about the efficacy and tolerability of three of the most used somatic treatments: electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS, and deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (deepTMS. The aim of this review is to investigate and compare the efficacy and tolerability of these three techniques in drug-free patients with pharmacoresistant unipolar depression.Methods: Three independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of methodological reporting of selected studies. The first outcome was the clinical response to the three different techniques defined as a percentage improvement of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS. The second outcome was the evaluation of their neuropsychological effects. The third outcome was the evaluation of the number of remitted patients; remission was defined as an absolute HDRS-24 score of ≤11 or as an absolute HDRS-17 score of ≤8. Tolerability was the fourth outcome; it was evaluated by examining the number of dropped-out patients.Results: The comparative evaluation of HDRS percentage variations shows ECT as the most effective method after 4 weeks of therapy; on the other hand, a better efficacy is obtainable by deepTMS after 2 weeks of therapy. DeepTMS is the technique that gives the best improvement of cognitive performances. The percentage of remitted patients obtained with ECT treatment is the same obtained in the deepTMS group. Both techniques have a remitted patients percentage two times larger than the rTMS. DeepTMS shows a tolerability

  18. Using a hybrid model to investigate the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders.

    Gros, Daniel F; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

    2013-11-30

    New hybrid models of psychopathology have been proposed that combine the current categorical approach with symptom dimensions that are common across various disorders. The present study investigated the new hybrid model of social anxiety in a large sample of participants with anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders to improve understanding of the comorbidity and symptom overlap between social phobia (SOC) and the other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders. Six hundred and eighty two participants from a specialized outpatient clinic for anxiety treatment completed a semi-structured diagnostic interview and the Multidimensional Assessment of Social Anxiety (MASA). A hybrid model symptom profile was identified for SOC and compared with each of the other principal diagnoses. Significant group differences were identified on each of the MASA scales. Differences also were identified when common sets of comorbidities were compared within participants diagnosed with SOC. The findings demonstrated the influence of both the principal diagnosis of SOC and other anxiety disorders and unipolar mood disorders as well as the influence of comorbid diagnoses with SOC on the six symptom dimensions. These findings highlight the need to shift to transdiagnostic assessment and treatment practices that go beyond the disorder-specific focus of the current categorical diagnostic systems. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Authors' reply to comment on "Are repeated assisted reproductive technology treatments and an unsuccessful outcome risk factors for unipolar depression in infertile women?"

    Sejbaek, Camilla S.; Pinborg, Anja; Hageman, Ida

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not. He...... compared to women having conceived spontaneously. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......The aim of our national register-based study (1) was to investigate the risk of a new episode of unipolar depression among women treated with assisted reproductive technology (ART) in regards to whether they had achieved a live birth (as a result of treatment or spontaneous conception) or not....... Hence, we did not aim to compare unipolar depression in women who received ART treatment with women who did not. However, a systematic review and meta-analysis (2) was published recently which shows no increased risk of post-partum depressive symptoms in women after medically assisted reproduction...

  20. Augmentation of light therapy in difficult-to-treat depressed patients: an open-label trial in both unipolar and bipolar patients

    Camardese, Giovanni; Leone, Beniamino; Serrani, Riccardo; Walstra, Coco; Di Nicola, Marco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the clinical benefits of bright light therapy (BLT) as an adjunct treatment to ongoing psychopharmacotherapy, both in unipolar and bipolar difficult-to-treat depressed (DTD) outpatients. Methods In an open-label study, 31 depressed outpatients (16 unipolar and 15 bipolar) were included to undergo 3 weeks of BLT. Twenty-five completed the treatment and 5-week follow-up. Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale and the Depression Retardation Rating Scale were used to assess changes in anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, respectively. Results The adjunctive BLT seemed to influence the course of the depressive episode, and a statistically significant reduction in HDRS scores was reported since the first week of therapy. The treatment was well-tolerated, and no patients presented clinical signs of (hypo)manic switch during the overall treatment period. At the end of the study (after 5 weeks from BLT discontinuation), nine patients (36%, eight unipolar and one bipolar) still showed a treatment response. BLT augmentation also led to a significant improvement of psychomotor retardation. Conclusion BLT combined with the ongoing pharmacological treatment offers a simple approach, and it might be effective in rapidly ameliorating depressive core symptoms of vulnerable DTD outpatients. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial on larger samples. PMID:26396517