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Sample records for mouse breast cancer

  1. Mouse models of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakur Mohibi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy and second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women. Despite advances in genetic and biochemical analyses, the incidence of breast cancer and its associated mortality remain very high. About 60 - 70% of breast cancers are Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER-α positive and are dependent on estrogen for growth. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs have therefore provided an effective targeted therapy to treat ER-α positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, development of resistance to endocrine therapy is frequent and leads to cancer recurrence. Our understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the development of ER-α positive tumors and their resistance to ER antagonists is currently limited due to lack of experimental models of ER-α positive breast cancer. In most mouse models of breast cancer, the tumors that form are typically ER-negative and independent of estrogen for their growth. However, in recent years more attention has been given to develop mouse models that develop different subtypes of breast cancers, including ER-positive tumors. In this review, we discuss the currently available mouse models that develop ER-α positive mammary tumors and their potential use to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of ER-α positive breast cancer development and endocrine resistance.

  2. Breast cancer imaging with mouse monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, P.; Wang Taqui; Unger, M.; Rosenthall, L.

    1989-10-01

    The localization of /sup 111/In-labelled MA5 monoclonal antibody, reactive with a breast tumor associated antigen, was studied in 17 patients. MA5 was selected because (1) it reacts with >95% of primary and metastatic lesions, (2) the recognized antigen is present on the cell surface in vivo and (3) MA5 gives excellent localization in human breast tumor xenografts. Each patient received 2 mg antibody labeled with 5 mCi /sup 111/In and in some cases, 3 mg or 18 mg unlabeled carrier antibody. No serious allergic reactions were noted. There was a large uptake in the liver, less significant uptake in the spleen and bone and minimal accumulation in the bowel. Bone lesions, primary tumors, soft tissue recurrences and lung metastases larger than 3 cm diameter were imaged, while only 1 lesion smaller than 3 cm was detected. Non specific accumulation of tracer was noted at the site of a port-a-cath, in a hematoma, in fibrocystic lesions, and at sites of previous radiation treatment. Extensive fibrosis and poor vascularization characteristic of breast tumors may explain in part the limited sensitivity of the imaging. (orig.).

  3. A preclinical mouse model of invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornebal, Chris W.; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Braumuller, Tanya M.; Klijn, Christiaan N.; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Hollmann, Markus W.; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic disease accounts for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths, but the development of effective antimetastatic agents has been hampered by the paucity of clinically relevant preclinical models of human metastatic disease. Here, we report the development of a mouse model of spontaneous

  4. No Effect of NGAL/lipocalin-2 on Aggressiveness of Cancer in the MMTV-PyMT/FVB/N Mouse Model for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Elisabeth P; Glenthøj, Andreas; Häger, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    tumor volume, or to the number of metastases. Histology and gelatinolytic activity of the mammary tumors did not differ between wild-type and lipocalin-2-deficient mice. We conclude that NGAL/lipocalin-2 does not invariably affect the aggressiveness of breast cancers as assessed in mouse models, thus......NGAL/lipocalin-2 is a siderophore-binding protein that is highly expressed in several cancers. It is suggested to confer a proliferative advantage to cancer cells. Its expression has been correlated with aggressiveness of breast cancer as determined both in patients and in mouse breast cancer...... models. This was recently confirmed in two mouse models of spontaneous breast cancer in wild-type and lipocalin-2-deficient mice. We used a similar strategy using a different mouse strain. Lipocalin-2-deficient mice and mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma middle T antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mice were crossed...

  5. Mouse Models of Breast Cancer: Platforms for Discovering Precision Imaging Diagnostics and Future Cancer Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, H Charles; Buck, Jason R; Cook, Rebecca S

    2016-02-01

    Representing an enormous health care and socioeconomic challenge, breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world and the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Although many of the challenges associated with preventing, treating, and ultimately curing breast cancer are addressable in the laboratory, successful translation of groundbreaking research to clinical populations remains an important barrier. Particularly when compared with research on other types of solid tumors, breast cancer research is hampered by a lack of tractable in vivo model systems that accurately recapitulate the relevant clinical features of the disease. A primary objective of this article was to provide a generalizable overview of the types of in vivo model systems, with an emphasis primarily on murine models, that are widely deployed in preclinical breast cancer research. Major opportunities to advance precision cancer medicine facilitated by molecular imaging of preclinical breast cancer models are discussed. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cells expressing interleukin-18 inhibit breast cancer in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Hu, Jianxia; Li, Yueyun; Cao, Weihong; Wang, Yu; Ma, Zhongliang; Li, Funian

    2018-05-01

    Development of an improved breast cancer therapy has been an elusive goal of cancer gene therapy for a long period of time. Human mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord (hUMSCs) genetically modified with the interleukin (IL)-18 gene (hUMSCs/IL-18) were previously demonstrated to be able to suppress the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro . In the present study, the effect of hUMSCs/IL-18 on breast cancer in a mouse model was investigated. A total of 128 mice were divided into 2 studies (the early-effect study and the late-effect study), with 4 groups in each, including the PBS-, hUMSC-, hUMSC/vector- and hUMSC/IL-18-treated groups. All treatments were injected along with 200 µl PBS. Following therapy, the tumor size, histological examination, and expression of lymphocytes, Ki-67, cluster of differentiation 31 and cytokines [interleukin (IL)-18, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ and TNF-α] in each group were analyzed. Proliferation of cells (assessed by measuring tumor size and Ki-67 expression) and metastasis, (by determining pulmonary and hepatic metastasis) of breast cancer cells in the hUMSC/IL-18 group were significantly decreased compared with all other groups. hUMSCs/IL-18 suppressed tumor cell proliferation by activating immunocytes and immune cytokines, decreasing the proliferation index of proliferation marker protein Ki-67 of tumor cells and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, hUMSCs/IL-18 were able to induce a more marked and improved therapeutic effect in the tumor sites, particularly in early tumors. The results of the present study indicate that hUMSCs/IL-18 were able to inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vivo , possibly leading to an approach for a novel antitumor therapy in breast cancer.

  7. Transforming growth factor-β and breast cancer: Lessons learned from genetically altered mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakefield, Lalage M; Yang, Yu-an; Dukhanina, Oksana

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-βs are plausible candidate tumor suppressors in the breast. They also have oncogenic activities under certain circumstances, however. Genetically altered mouse models provide powerful tools to analyze the complexities of TGF-βaction in the context of the whole animal. Overexpression of TGF-β can suppress tumorigenesis in the mammary gland, raising the possibility that use of pharmacologic agents to enhance TGF-β function locally might be an effective method for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. Conversely, loss of TGF-β response increases spontaneous and induced tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. This confirms that endogenous TGF-βs have tumor suppressor activity in the mammary gland, and suggests that the loss of TGF-β receptors seen in some human breast hyperplasias may play a causal role in tumor development

  8. Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and mouse mammary tumour virus as multiple viruses in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Wendy K; Heng, Benjamin; Delprado, Warick; Iacopetta, Barry; Whitaker, Noel J; Lawson, James S

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if Epstein Barr virus (EBV), high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), and mouse mammary tumour viruses (MMTV) co-exist in some breast cancers. All the specimens were from women residing in Australia. For investigations based on standard PCR, we used fresh frozen DNA extracts from 50 unselected invasive breast cancers. For normal breast specimens, we used DNA extracts from epithelial cells from milk donated by 40 lactating women. For investigations based on in situ PCR we used 27 unselected archival formalin fixed breast cancer specimens and 18 unselected archival formalin fixed normal breast specimens from women who had breast reduction surgery. Thirteen of these fixed breast cancer specimens were ductal carcinoma in situ (dcis) and 14 were predominantly invasive ductal carcinomas (idc). EBV sequences were identified in 68%, high risk HPV sequences in 50%, and MMTV sequences in 78% of DNA extracted from 50 invasive breast cancer specimens. These same viruses were identified in selected normal and breast cancer specimens by in situ PCR. Sequences from more than one viral type were identified in 72% of the same breast cancer specimens. Normal controls showed these viruses were also present in epithelial cells in human milk - EBV (35%), HPV, 20%) and MMTV (32%) of 40 milk samples from normal lactating women, with multiple viruses being identified in 13% of the same milk samples. We conclude that (i) EBV, HPV and MMTV gene sequences are present and co-exist in many human breast cancers, (ii) the presence of these viruses in breast cancer is associated with young age of diagnosis and possibly an increased grade of breast cancer.

  9. Breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help you know how to prevent breast cancer. Breast implants, using antiperspirants, and wearing underwire bras do not increase the risk for breast cancer. There is also no evidence of a direct ...

  10. Effect of xanthohumol on Th1/Th2 balance in a breast cancer mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenchao; Pan, Yanlong; Gou, Panhong; Zhou, Cheng; Ma, Lianqing; Liu, Qiming; Du, Yuping; Yang, Jinbo; Wang, Qin

    2018-01-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylflavonoid found in the hop plant, Humulus lupulus, exhibits a variety of biological activities. Numerous studies have reported that XN inhibits the growth of many types of cancer cells, but the effects of XN on tumor immunity have not yet been studied. We explored the effect of XN on Th1/Th2 balance and the underlying mechanism based on a BALB/c-4T1 breast cancer mouse model. The results showed that XN significantly slowed down tumor growth and inhibited expression of antitumor proliferation protein Ki-67 as well as breast cancer-specific marker cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). Flow cytometric analysis revealed that XN enhanced the secretion of perforin, granzyme B and increased the ratio of CD8+/CD25+. ELISA analysis of cytokine results demonstrated that XN obviously upregulated Th1 cytokines, while downregulated Th2 cytokines. Th1/Th2 ratio analysis by flow cytometry illustrated that XN regulated the balance drift to Th1 polarization. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) results manifested that XN induced expression of T-bet, a Th1-specific transcription factor. Furthermore, we found that XN significantly promoted the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)4. Our results demonstrated that XN promoted Th1/Th2 balance towards Th1 polarization, and STAT4 may play a positive role in the regulation of Th1/Th2 cytokines by XN.

  11. No association between Epstein-Barr Virus and Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus with Breast Cancer in Mexican Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Sánchez, Abigail; Molina-Muñoz, Tzindilú; Martínez-López, Juan L. E.; Hernández-Sancén, Paulina; Mantilla, Alejandra; Leal, Yelda A.; Torres, Javier; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2013-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy affecting women worldwide. It has been suggested that infection by Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus or a similar virus, MMTV-like virus (MMTV-LV), play a role in the etiology of the disease. However, studies looking at the presence of these viruses in breast cancer have produced conflicting results, and this possible association remains controversial. Here, we used polymerase chain reaction assay to screen specific sequences of EBV and MMTV-LV in 86 tumor and 65 adjacent tissues from Mexican women with breast cancer. Neither tumor samples nor adjacent tissue were positive for either virus in a first round PCR and only 4 tumor samples were EBV positive by a more sensitive nested PCR. Considering the study's statistical power, these results do not support the involvement of EBV and MMTV-LV in the etiology of breast cancer.

  12. Combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with EGF and VEGF vaccines from DNA shuffling in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dong; Yu, Xin; Chen, Bing; Li, Zhitao; Ding, Jia; Zhao, Xiuyun; Qi, Gaofu

    2017-06-01

    Development of EGF and VEGF vaccines with high antigenicity for combined immunotherapy of EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer. EGF genes from mouse, human and chicken were randomly assembled to chimeric genes by DNA shuffling, then a chimeric EGF was selected out by PCR, SDS-PAGE and immunization for combined immunotherapy of breast cancer with a previously constructed chimeric VEGF vaccine from shuffling. Combined vaccination with chimeric EGF and VEGF from shuffling could induce high titer of antibodies against EGF and VEGF to inhibit tumor growth and angiogenesis, and improve the survival rate of mice with breast cancer. Combined vaccination with EGF and VEGF from shuffling showed better immunotherapy on EGF-EGFR signaling-dependent epithelial tumors such as breast cancer than the single-agent EGF vaccination.

  13. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetics is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structura...

  14. Pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 kinase activity blocks the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells but has no effect on breast cancer brain metastasis in a mouse xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hyoe Rhoo

    Full Text Available Brain metastasis of breast cancer is an important clinical problem, with few therapeutic options and a poor prognosis. Recent data have implicated mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3 in controlling the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, as well as the metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells from the mammary fat pad to distant lymph nodes in a mouse xenograft model. We therefore set out to test whether MLK3 plays a role in brain metastasis of breast cancer cells. To address this question, we used a novel, brain penetrant, MLK3 inhibitor, URMC099. URMC099 efficiently inhibited the migration of breast cancer cells in an in vitro cell monolayer wounding assay, and an in vitro transwell migration assay, but had no effect on in vitro cell growth. We also tested the effect of URMC099 on tumor formation in a mouse xenograft model of breast cancer brain metastasis. This analysis showed that URMC099 had no effect on the either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases. We conclude that pharmacologic inhibition of MLK3 by URMC099 can reduce the in vitro migratory capacity of breast cancer cells, but that it has no effect on either the frequency or size of breast cancer brain metastases, in a mouse xenograft model.

  15. Breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collaborative article gives an overview of breast cancer in LICs, ... approach to the problem; therefore they are published as two separate ... attached to the diagnosis of breast cancer. ... Their founding statement in its early form is included.

  16. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  17. Characterization of Two Novel Oncogenic Pathways Collaborating With Loss of P53 or Activated Neu in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Jianrong; Leder, Philip

    2005-01-01

    .... The viral integrations result in marked overexpression of a novel, naturally occurring Fbw4 short isoform, which is also spontaneously enriched in several mouse and human breast cancer cell lines...

  18. Morphine does not facilitate breast cancer progression in two preclinical mouse models for human invasive lobular and HER2⁺ breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornebal, Chris W; Vrijland, Kim; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Coffelt, Seth B; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E; Hollmann, Markus W

    2015-08-01

    Morphine and other opioid analgesics are potent pain-relieving agents routinely used for pain management in patients with cancer. However, these drugs have recently been associated with a worse relapse-free survival in patients with surgical cancer, thus suggesting that morphine adversely affects cancer progression and relapse. In this study, we evaluated the impact of morphine on breast cancer progression, metastatic dissemination, and outgrowth of minimal residual disease. Using preclinical mouse models for metastatic invasive lobular and HER2 breast cancer, we show that analgesic doses of morphine do not affect mammary tumor growth, angiogenesis, and the composition of tumor-infiltrating immune cells. Our studies further demonstrate that morphine, administered in the presence or absence of surgery-induced tissue damage, neither facilitates de novo metastatic dissemination nor promotes outgrowth of minimal residual disease after surgery. Together, these findings indicate that opioid analgesics can be used safely for perioperative pain management in patients with cancer and emphasize that current standards of "good clinical practice" should be maintained.

  19. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  20. PET/SPECT/CT multimodal imaging in a transgenic mouse model of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisgard, R.; Alberini, J.L.; Jego, B.; Siquier, K.; Theze, B.; Guillermet, S.; Tavitian, B. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, Institut d' Imagerie BioMedicale, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Inserm, U803, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2008-02-15

    Background. - In the therapy monitoring of breast cancer, conventional imaging methods include ultrasound, mammography, CT and MRI, which are essentially based on tumor size modifications. However these modifications represent a late consequence of the biological response and fail to differentiate scar or necrotic tissue from residual viable tumoral tissue. Therefore, a current objective is to develop tools able to predict early response to treatment. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) are imaging modalities able to provide extremely sensitive quantitative molecular data and are widely used in humans and animals. Results. - Mammary epithelial cells of female transgenic mice expressing the polyoma middle T onco-protein (Py M.T.), undergo four distinct stages of tumour progression, from pre malignant to malignant stages. Stages are identifiable in the mammary tissue and can lead to the development of distant metastases Longitudinal studies by dynamic whole body acquisitions by multimodal imaging including PET, SPECT and Computed Tomography (CT) allow following the tumoral evolution in Py M.T. mice in comparison with the histopathological analysis. At four weeks of age, mammary hyperplasia was identified by histopathology, but no abnormalities were found by palpation or detected by PET with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose. Such as in some human mammary cancers, the sodium iodide sym-porter (N.I.S.) in tumoral mammary epithelial cells is expressed in this mouse model. In order to investigate the expression of N.I.S. in the Py M.T. mice mammary tumours, [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} imaging was performed with a dedicated SPECT/CT system camera (B.I.O.S.P.A.C.E. Gamma Imager/CT). Local uptake of [{sup 99m}Tc]TcO{sub 4} was detected as early as four weeks of age. The efficacy of chemotherapy was evaluated in this mouse model using a conventional regimen (Doxorubicine, 100 mg/ kg) administered weekly from nine to

  1. Notch and VEGF Interactions in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawber, Carrie J

    2006-01-01

    The proposal objective is to define Notch and VEGFR-3 in breast cancer. We investigated this relationship in primary endothelial cell cultures, mouse embryos, human breast tumors, and mouse mammary tumor xenografts...

  2. Breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gablerová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    In this work the topic of breast cancer treated more generally and mainly focused on risk factors for the development. The theoretical part describes the general knowledge about breast cancer as a stage or treatment. The practical part is to have clarified the risk factors that have some bearing on the diagnosis of breast cancer. What level are involved in the probability of occurrence? Can we eliminate them? As a comparison of risk factors examined in the Czech Republic, England, Australia a...

  3. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  4. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  5. Stages of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  6. Breast Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Breast ...

  7. Mel-18 controls the enrichment of tumor-initiating cells in SP fraction in mouse breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janakiraman, Harinarayanan; Nobukiyo, Asako; Inoue, Hiroko; Kanno, Masamoto

    2011-06-01

    Side population (SP) cell analysis has been used to identify and isolate a minor population of cells with stem cell properties in normal tissues and in many cancers including breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that operate in tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in SP fraction remain unclear. The Polycomb group genes, including Bmi1 and Mel-18, have been implicated in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and suggested to be oncogenic and tumor suppressive, respectively, in breast cancer. In this study, we determined the critical role of Mel-18 in the enrichment mechanisms of TICs with the SP phenotype in a mouse breast cancer cell line, MMK3, that was established from a breast cancer developed spontaneously in Mel-18+/- mice. The Mel-18 protein expression level significantly correlates to the percentage of SP fraction in the mouse breast cancer cell line MMK3 series. The comparison between MMK3V3 (V3) cells containing one copy of the Mel-18 gene and MMK3S2 (S2) cells having twice the amount of Mel-18 expression clearly demonstrates the above relationship. Similar results obtained with the percentage of ALDH+ cells in V3 and S2 further confirmed the correlation between protein expression level of Mel-18 and the TICs. More importantly, transplantation of SP and non-SP cells of V3 and S2 cells into the NOD/SCID mice clearly showed that the heterozygous level of Mel-18 leads to the disappearance of enrichment of TICs into SP fraction in vivo. Stem cell pathway focused gene expression profiling of V3 and S2 cells revealed that the genes Abcg2, Aldh1a1 and Dhh were highly down-regulated in V3 compared to S2. These results indicate that the precise Mel-18 expression level controls TIC enrichment mechanisms through the regulation of channel molecule of Abcg2 and functional TIC marker of Aldhlal. In conclusion, our findings revealed the significance of fine-tuning mechanisms for Mel-18 protein expression level in the maintenance of TIC into SP

  8. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1992-01-01

    More than 20-year follow-up of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has a crucial role in determining the relationship of radiation to the occurrence of breast cancer. In 1967, Wanebo et al have first reported 27 cases of breast cancer during the period 1950-1966 among the Adult Health Study population of A-bomb survivors. Since then, follow-up surveys for breast cancer have been made using the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, and the incidence of breast cancer has increased year by year; that is breast cancer was identified in 231 cases by the first LSS series (1950-1969), 360 cases by the second LSS series (1950-1974), 564 cases by the third LSS series (1950-1980), and 816 cases in the fourth LSS series (1950-1085). The third LSS series have revealed a high risk for radiation-induced breast cancer in women aged 10 or less at the time of exposure (ATE). Both relative and absolute risks are found to be decreased with increasing ages ATE. Based on the above-mentioned findings and other studies on persons exposed medical radiation, radiation-induced breast cancer is characterized by the following: (1) the incidence of breast cancer is linearly increased with increasing radiation doses; (2) both relative and absolute risks for breast cancer are high in younger persons ATE; (3) age distribution of breast cancer in proximally exposed A-bomb survivors is the same as that in both distally A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons, and there is no difference in histology between the former and latter groups. Thus, immature mammary gland cells before the age of puberty are found to be most radiosensitive. (N.K.)

  9. A novel mouse monoclonal antibody targeting ErbB2 suppresses breast cancer growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawa, Seiji [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Matsushita, Hirohisa; Ohbayashi, Hirokazu [Department of Research and Development, Nichirei Biosciences Inc., Tokyo 104-8402 (Japan); Semba, Kentaro [Department of Life Science and Medical Bio-Science, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadashi, E-mail: tyamamot@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Oncology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Shirokanedai 4-6-1, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan)

    2009-07-03

    Overexpression of ErbB2 in breast cancer is associated with increased recurrence and worse prognosis. Accumulating evidences suggest that molecular targeted therapy is a promising anticancer strategy. In this study, we produced a novel anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, 6G10, that recognized an epitope distinct from the trastuzumab binding site. 6G10 induced aggregation of BT474 breast cancer cells and inhibited proliferation of various breast cancer cell lines including BT474. A growth inhibition assay showed that 6G10 had EC{sub 50} values comparable to trastuzumab, indicating that the drugs have a similar level of potency. Furthermore, intraperitoneal administration of 6G10 completely inhibited the growth of xenografted tumors derived from BT474 and SK-BR-3 cells. These data suggested that 6G10 has great therapeutic potential and could be administered to patients alternatively, or synergistically, with trastuzumab.

  10. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  11. Proteus mirabilis inhibits cancer growth and pulmonary metastasis in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Diao, Hongxiu; Jia, Lixin; Yuan, Yujing; Thamm, Douglas H; Wang, Huanan; Jin, Yipeng; Pei, Shimin; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Fang; Zhao, Linna; Cheng, Nan; Du, Hongchao; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Di; Lin, Degui

    2017-01-01

    A variety of bacteria have been used as agents and vectors for antineoplastic therapy. A series of mechanisms, including native bacterial toxicity, sensitization of the immune system and competition for nutrients, may contribute to antitumor effects. However, the antitumor effects of Proteus species have been minimally studied, and it is not clear if bacteria can alter tumor hypoxia as a component of their antineoplastic effect. In the present study, Proteus mirabilis bacteria were evaluated for the ability to proliferate and accumulate in murine tumors after intravenous injection. To further investigate the efficacy and safety of bacterial injection, mice bearing 4T1 tumors were treated with an intravenous dose of 5×107 CFU Proteus mirabilis bacteria via the tail vein weekly for three treatments. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western analysis were then performed on excised tumors. The results suggested Proteus mirabilis localized preferentially to tumor tissues and remarkably suppressed the growth of primary breast cancer and pulmonary metastasis in murine 4T1 models. Results showed that the expression of NKp46 and CD11c was significantly increased after bacteria treatment. Furthermore, tumor expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) and hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a), surrogates for hypoxia, was significantly lower in the treated group than the control group mice as assessed by IHC and western analysis. These findings demonstrated that Proteus mirabilis may a promising bacterial strain for used against primary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, and the immune system and reduction of tumor hypoxia may contribute to the antineoplastic and antimetastatic effects observed.

  12. Proteus mirabilis inhibits cancer growth and pulmonary metastasis in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    Full Text Available A variety of bacteria have been used as agents and vectors for antineoplastic therapy. A series of mechanisms, including native bacterial toxicity, sensitization of the immune system and competition for nutrients, may contribute to antitumor effects. However, the antitumor effects of Proteus species have been minimally studied, and it is not clear if bacteria can alter tumor hypoxia as a component of their antineoplastic effect. In the present study, Proteus mirabilis bacteria were evaluated for the ability to proliferate and accumulate in murine tumors after intravenous injection. To further investigate the efficacy and safety of bacterial injection, mice bearing 4T1 tumors were treated with an intravenous dose of 5×107 CFU Proteus mirabilis bacteria via the tail vein weekly for three treatments. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC and western analysis were then performed on excised tumors. The results suggested Proteus mirabilis localized preferentially to tumor tissues and remarkably suppressed the growth of primary breast cancer and pulmonary metastasis in murine 4T1 models. Results showed that the expression of NKp46 and CD11c was significantly increased after bacteria treatment. Furthermore, tumor expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX and hypoxia inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a, surrogates for hypoxia, was significantly lower in the treated group than the control group mice as assessed by IHC and western analysis. These findings demonstrated that Proteus mirabilis may a promising bacterial strain for used against primary tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, and the immune system and reduction of tumor hypoxia may contribute to the antineoplastic and antimetastatic effects observed.

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... slow her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  14. Breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, L.; Krygier, G.; Castillo, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of breast cancer. Positive diagnosis is based on clinical mammary exam, mammography, mammary ultrasonography, and histological study. Before the chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment are evaluated the risks

  15. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... modulators and aromatase inhibitors, reduce the risk of breast cancer in women with a high risk of the disease. These medications carry a risk of side effects, so doctors reserve these medications for women who ...

  16. Therapeutic Touch Has Significant Effects on Mouse Breast Cancer Metastasis and Immune Responses but Not Primary Tumor Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronowicz, Gloria; Secor, Eric R; Flynn, John R; Jellison, Evan R; Kuhn, Liisa T

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based integrative medicine therapies have been introduced to promote wellness and offset side-effects from cancer treatment. Energy medicine is an integrative medicine technique using the human biofield to promote well-being. The biofield therapy chosen for study was Therapeutic Touch (TT). Breast cancer tumors were initiated in mice by injection of metastatic 66cl4 mammary carcinoma cells. The control group received only vehicle. TT or mock treatments were performed twice a week for 10 minutes. Two experienced TT practitioners alternated treatments. At 26 days, metastasis to popliteal lymph nodes was determined by clonogenic assay. Changes in immune function were measured by analysis of serum cytokines and by fluorescent activated cells sorting (FACS) of immune cells from the spleen and lymph nodes. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or tumor size. Metastasis was significantly reduced in the TT-treated mice compared to mock-treated mice. Cancer significantly elevated eleven cytokines. TT significantly reduced IL-1-a, MIG, IL-1b, and MIP-2 to control/vehicle levels. FACS demonstrated that TT significantly reduced specific splenic lymphocyte subsets and macrophages were significantly elevated with cancer. Human biofield therapy had no significant effect on primary tumor but produced significant effects on metastasis and immune responses in a mouse breast cancer model.

  17. [The therapeutic effect of HSV1-hGM-CSF combined with doxorubicin on the mouse breast cancer model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, X F; Zhang, S R; Liu, B L; Wu, J L; Li, X Q; Gu, H G; Shu, Y

    2018-03-23

    Objective: To evaluate the oncolytic effect of herpes simplex virus type 1 which carried recombined human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (HSV1-hGM-CSF) on the mouse breast cancer cell line 4T1 and compare the anticancer effects of HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin alone or combination on the breast cancer in mice. Methods: We investigated the cytotoxic effect on 4T1 cells in vitro, the cell growth, cell apoptosis and cell cycle of 4T1 cells treated with oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF at different MOIs (0, 0.5, 1 and 2) and doxorubicin at different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 8 μg/ml). The effects of oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF and doxorubicin on the tumor growth, survival time and their side effects on the mouse breast cancer model were observed. Results: Both oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF and doxorubicin significantly inhibited the proliferation of 4T1 cells in vitro . Doxorubicin induced the G(2)/M phase arrest of 4T1 cells, while the cytotoxicity of oncolytic HSV1-hGM-CSF was no cell cycle-dependent.At day 16 after treatment with doxorubicin and HSV1-hGM-CSF, the tumor volume of 4T1 tumor bearing mice were (144.40±27.68)mm(3,) (216.80±57.18)mm(3,) (246.10±21.90)mm(3,) (327.50±44.24)mm(3,) (213.30±32.31)mm(3) and (495.80±75.87)mm(3) in the groups of doxorubicin combined with high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin combined with low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF, doxorubicin alone, high dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone, low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone and control, respectively.Compared with the control group, both doxorubicin and HSV1-hGM-CSF treatment exhibited significant reduction of primary tumor volume in vivo ( P CSF alone and low dose HSV1-hGM-CSF alone were significantly longer than that of control ( P CSF is observed in 4T1 mouse breast cancer.

  18. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Natasha K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. Methods We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA, a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB therapies chronically. Results Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment.

  19. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. Methods We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA), a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB) therapies chronically. Results Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21663677

  20. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, Ian F; Martin, Natasha K

    2011-01-01

    The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA), a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB) therapies chronically. Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment

  1. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... white women. Inflammatory breast tumors are frequently hormone receptor negative, which means they cannot be treated with ...

  2. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  3. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  4. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  5. NKTR-102 Efficacy versus irinotecan in a mouse model of brain metastases of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, Chris E.; Nounou, Mohamed I.; Hye, Tanvirul; Mohammad, Afroz S.; Terrell-Hall, Tori; Mohan, Neel K.; Eldon, Michael A.; Hoch, Ute; Lockman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Brain metastases are an increasing problem in women with invasive breast cancer. Strategies designed to treat brain metastases of breast cancer, particularly chemotherapeutics such as irinotecan, demonstrate limited efficacy. Conventional irinotecan distributes poorly to brain metastases; therefore, NKTR-102, a PEGylated irinotecan conjugate should enhance irinotecan and its active metabolite SN38 exposure in brain metastases leading to brain tumor cytotoxicity. Female nude mice were intracranially or intracardially implanted with human brain seeking breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231Br) and dosed with irinotecan or NKTR-102 to determine plasma and tumor pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and SN38. Tumor burden and survival were evaluated in mice treated with vehicle, irinotecan (50 mg/kg), or NKTR-102 low and high doses (10 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg respectively). NKTR-102 penetrates the blood-tumor barrier and distributes to brain metastases. NKTR-102 increased and prolonged SN38 exposure (>20 ng/g for 168 h) versus conventional irinotecan (>1 ng/g for 4 h). Treatment with NKTR-102 extended survival time (from 35 days to 74 days) and increased overall survival for NKTR-102 low dose (30 % mice) and NKTR-102 high dose (50 % mice). Tumor burden decreased (37 % with 10 mg/kg NKTR-102 and 96 % with 50 mg/kg) and lesion sizes decreased (33 % with 10 mg/kg NKTR-102 and 83 % with 50 mg/kg NKTR-102) compared to conventional irinotecan treated animals. Elevated and prolonged tumor SN38 exposure after NKTR-102 administration appears responsible for increased survival in this model of breast cancer brain metastasis. Further, SN38 concentrations observed in this study are clinically achieved with 145 mg/m 2 NKTR-102, such as those used in the BEACON trial, underlining translational relevance of these results. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1672-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  6. Mucin 1-specific immunotherapy in a mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Madsen, Cathy S; Ginardi, Amelia R; Tinder, Teresa L; Jacobs, Fred; Parker, Joanne; Agrawal, Babita; Longenecker, B Michael; Gendler, Sandra J

    2003-01-01

    Human mucin 1 (MUC1) is an epithelial mucin glycoprotein that is overexpressed in 90% of all adenocarcinomas including breast, lung, pancreas, prostate, stomach, colon, and ovary. MUC1 is a target for immune intervention, because, in patients with solid adenocarcinomas, low-level cellular and humoral immune responses to MUC1 have been observed, which are not sufficiently strong to eradicate the growing tumor. The hypothesis for this study is that enhancing MUC1-specific immunity will result in antitumor immunity. To test this, the authors have developed a clinically relevant breast cancer model that demonstrates peripheral and central tolerance to MUC1 and develops spontaneous tumors of the mammary gland. In these mice, the authors tested a vaccine formulation comprised of liposomal-MUC1 lipopeptide and human recombinant interleukin-2. Results indicate that when compared with untreated mice, immunized mice develop T cells that express intracellular IFN-gamma, are reactive with MHC class I H-2Db/MUC1 tetramer, and are cytotoxic against MUC1-expressing tumor cells in vitro. The presence of MUC1-specific CTL did not translate into a clinical response as measured by time of tumor onset, tumor burden, and survival. The authors demonstrate that some of the immune-evasion mechanisms used by the tumor cells include downregulation of MHC-class I molecule, expression of TGF-beta2, and decrease in IFN-gamma -expressing effector T cells as tumors progress. Finally, utilizing an injectable breast cancer model, the authors show that targeting a single tumor antigen may not be an effective antitumor treatment, but that immunization with dendritic cells fed with whole tumor lysate is effective in breaking tolerance and protecting mice from subsequent tumor challenge. A physiologically relevant spontaneous breast cancer model has been developed to test improved immunotherapeutic approaches.

  7. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV), Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S; Salmons, Brian; Glenn, Wendy K

    2018-01-01

    Although the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV), bovine leukemia virus (BLV), human papilloma viruses (HPVs), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4). Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence. MMTV and human breast cancer-the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer-the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer-the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer-the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal. The influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  8. Immodin and its immune system supportive role in paclitaxel therapy of 4T1 mouse breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demečková, Vlasta; Solár, Peter; Hrčková, Gabriela; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Bojková, Bianka; Kassayová, Monika; Gancarčiková, Soňa

    2017-05-01

    It is evident that standard chemotherapy agents may have an impact on both tumor and host immune system. Paclitaxel (PTX), a very potent anticancer drug from a taxane family, has achieved prominence in clinical oncology for its efficacy against a wide range of tumors including breast cancer. However, significant toxicity, such as myelosuppression, limit the effectiveness of Paclitaxel-based treatment regimens. Immodin (IM) is low molecular dialysate fraction of homogenate made from human leukocytes. It contains a mixture of substances from which so far have been described e.g. Imreg 1 and Imreg 2 formed by the dipeptide tyrosine-glycine and the tripeptide tyrosine-glycine-glycine, respectively. The aim of this study was to explore immunopharmacological activities of IM, using the strongly immunogenic 4T1 mouse breast cancer model, and evaluate its effect on the reactivity and the efficiency of PTX cancer therapy. The results highlight a potentially beneficial role for IM in alleviating PTX-induced toxicity, especially on the nonspecific immunity, during breast cancer therapy. Co-treatment exhibited an antitumor effect including reduced tumor growth, prolonged survival of tumor bearing mice, increased number of monocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In spleens, IM+PTX therapy elevated proportion of whole lymphocytes in the account of myelo-monocytic cells characteristic with low expression of CD11c+ and bearing Fc receptor (CD16/32) as well as T-lymphocytes, NK cells and dendritic cells. Accumulation of tumor-associated granulocytes in stroma of PTX-treated group and intensive 4T1-necrosis/apoptosis in tumors after co-treatment were also recorded. These findings suggest the possibility of using IM alongside PTX treatment for maintaining the immune system functions and increasing patient survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  10. Breast Cancer -- Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  11. Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. He or she will do a physical exam. They will ask you about your health history and your family’s history of breast cancer. ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and ... Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food ...

  12. Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS Induces Tumor Ablation and Immunity in Orthotopic 4T1 Mouse Breast Cancer: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Beebe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanopulse Stimulation (NPS eliminates mouse and rat tumor types in several different animal models. NPS induces protective, vaccine-like effects after ablation of orthotopic rat N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we review some general concepts of NPS in the context of studies with mouse metastatic 4T1 mammary cancer showing that the postablation, vaccine-like effect is initiated by dynamic, multilayered immune mechanisms. NPS eliminates primary 4T1 tumors by inducing immunogenic, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD. With lower electric fields, like those peripheral to the primary treatment zone, NPS can activate dendritic cells (DCs. The activation of DCs by dead/dying cells leads to increases in memory effector and central memory T-lymphocytes in the blood and spleen. NPS also eliminates immunosuppressive cells in the tumor microenvironment and blood. Finally, NPS treatment of 4T1 breast cancer exhibits an abscopal effect and largely prevents spontaneous metastases to distant organs. NPS with fast rise–fall times and pulse durations near the plasma membrane charging time constant, which exhibits transient, high-frequency components (1/time = Hz, induce responses from mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Such effects may be responsible for release of danger-associated molecular patterns, including ATP, calreticulin, and high mobility group box 1 (HMBG1 from 4T1-Luc cells to induce immunogenic cell death (ICD. This likely leads to immunity and the vaccine-like response. In this way, NPS acts as a unique onco-immunotherapy providing distinct therapeutic advantages showing possible clinical utility for breast cancers as well as for other malignancies.

  13. Efficient inhibition of murine breast cancer growth and metastasis by gene transferred mouse survivin Thr34→Ala mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen li-Juan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastasis in breast cancer is a vital concern in treatment because most women with primary breast cancer have micrometastases to distant sites at diagnosis. As a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family, survivin has been proposed as an attractive target for new anticancer interventions. In this study, we investigated the role of the plasmid encoding the phosphorylation-defective mouse survivin threonine 34→alanine mutant (Msurvivin T34A plasmid in suppressing both murine primary breast carcinomas and pulmonary metastases. Methods In vitro study, induction of apoptosis by Msurvivin T34A plasmid complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol was examined by PI staining fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. The anti-tumor and anti-metastases activity of Msurvivin T34A plasmid complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol was evaluated in female BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 s.c. tumors. Mice were treated twice weekly with i.v. administration of Msurvivin T34A plasmid complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol, PORF-9 null plasmid complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol, 0.9% NaCl solution for 4 weeks. Tumor volume was observed. After sacrificed, tumor net weight was measured and Lung metastatic nodules of each group were counted. Assessment of apoptotic cells by TUNEL assay was conducted in tumor tissue. Microvessel density within tumor tissue was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Alginate-encapsulated tumor cells test was conducted to evaluate the effect on angiogenesis. By experiment of cytotoxicity T lymphocytes, we test whether Msurvivin T34A plasmid complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol can induce specific cell immune response. Results Administration of Msurvivin T34A plasmid complexed with cationic liposome (DOTAP/Chol resulted in significant inhibition in the growth and metastases of 4T1 tumor model. These anti-tumor and anti-metastases responses were associated with

  14. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  15. Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of breast cancer that can occur in men include Paget's disease of the nipple and inflammatory breast cancer. Inherited genes that increase breast cancer risk Some men inherit abnormal (mutated) genes from their parents that ...

  16. Cross-species comparison of aCGH data from mouse and human BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstege, Henne; Wessels, Lodewyk FA; Nederlof, Petra M; Jonkers, Jos; Beers, Erik van; Velds, Arno; Liu, Xiaoling; Joosse, Simon A; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Schut, Eva; Kerkhoven, Ron; Klijn, Christiaan N

    2010-01-01

    Genomic gains and losses are a result of genomic instability in many types of cancers. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers are associated with increased amounts of chromosomal aberrations, presumably due their functions in genome repair. Some of these genomic aberrations may harbor genes whose absence or overexpression may give rise to cellular growth advantage. So far, it has not been easy to identify the driver genes underlying gains and losses. A powerful approach to identify these driver genes could be a cross-species comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from cognate mouse and human tumors. Orthologous regions of mouse and human tumors that are commonly gained or lost might represent essential genomic regions selected for gain or loss during tumor development. To identify genomic regions that are associated with BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers we compared aCGH data from 130 mouse Brca1 Δ/Δ ;p53 Δ/Δ , Brca2 Δ/Δ ;p53 Δ/Δ and p53 Δ/Δ mammary tumor groups with 103 human BRCA1-mutated, BRCA2-mutated and non-hereditary breast cancers. Our genome-wide cross-species analysis yielded a complete collection of loci and genes that are commonly gained or lost in mouse and human breast cancer. Principal common CNAs were the well known MYC-associated gain and RB1/INTS6-associated loss that occurred in all mouse and human tumor groups, and the AURKA-associated gain occurred in BRCA2-related tumors from both species. However, there were also important differences between tumor profiles of both species, such as the prominent gain on chromosome 10 in mouse Brca2 Δ/Δ ;p53 Δ/Δ tumors and the PIK3CA associated 3q gain in human BRCA1-mutated tumors, which occurred in tumors from one species but not in tumors from the other species. This disparity in recurrent aberrations in mouse and human tumors might be due to differences in tumor cell type or genomic organization between both species. The selection of the oncogenome during

  17. Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    FACTS FOR LIFE Breast Cancer Surgery The goal of breast cancer surgery is to remove the whole tumor from the breast. Some lymph nodes ... might still be in the body. Types of breast cancer surgery There are two types of breast cancer ...

  18. Global Expression Profiling and Pathway Analysis of Mouse Mammary Tumor Reveals Strain and Stage Specific Dysregulated Pathways in Breast Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Yang, Jun-Ping; Lang, Yan-Hong; Peng, Li-Xia; Yang, Ming-Ming; Liu, Qin; Meng, Dong-Fang; Zheng, Li-Sheng; Qiang, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Liang; Li, Chang-Zhi; Wei, Wen-Wen; Niu, Ting; Peng, Xing-Si; Yang, Qin; Lin, Fen; Hu, Hao; Xu, Hong-Fa; Huang, Bi-Jun; Wang, Li-Jing; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2018-05-01

    It is believed that the alteration of tissue microenvironment would affect cancer initiation and progression. However, little is known in terms of the underlying molecular mechanisms that would affect the initiation and progression of breast cancer. In the present study, we use two murine mammary tumor models with different speeds of tumor initiation and progression for whole genome expression profiling to reveal the involved genes and signaling pathways. The pathways regulating PI3K-Akt signaling and Ras signaling were activated in Fvb mice and promoted tumor progression. Contrastingly, the pathways regulating apoptosis and cellular senescence were activated in Fvb.B6 mice and suppressed tumor progression. We identified distinct patterns of oncogenic pathways activation at different stages of breast cancer, and uncovered five oncogenic pathways that were activated in both human and mouse breast cancers. The genes and pathways discovered in our study would be useful information for other researchers and drug development.

  19. Oncogenic Viruses and Breast Cancer: Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus (MMTV, Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV, Human Papilloma Virus (HPV, and Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough the risk factors for breast cancer are well established, namely female gender, early menarche and late menopause plus the protective influence of early pregnancy, the underlying causes of breast cancer remain unknown. The development of substantial recent evidence indicates that a handful of viruses may have a role in breast cancer. These viruses are mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, bovine leukemia virus (BLV, human papilloma viruses (HPVs, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-also known as human herpes virus type 4. Each of these viruses has documented oncogenic potential. The aim of this review is to inform the scientific and general community about this recent evidence.The evidenceMMTV and human breast cancer—the evidence is detailed and comprehensive but cannot be regarded as conclusive. BLV and human breast cancer—the evidence is limited. However, in view of the emerging information about BLV in human breast cancer, it is prudent to encourage the elimination of BLV in cattle, particularly in the dairy industry. HPVs and breast cancer—the evidence is substantial but not conclusive. The availability of effective preventive vaccines is a major advantage and their use should be encouraged. EBV and breast cancer—the evidence is also substantial but not conclusive. Currently, there are no practical means of either prevention or treatment. Although there is evidence of genetic predisposition, and cancer in general is a culmination of events, there is no evidence that inherited genetic traits are causal.ConclusionThe influence of oncogenic viruses is currently the major plausible hypothesis for a direct cause of human breast cancer.

  20. Mechanisms of Twist 1-Induced Invasion in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    affect breast cancer metastasis with a subcutaneous mouse tumor implantation model of breast cancer metastasis. HMLE -Twist1 cells expressing shRNAs...13 4 Introduction Distant metastases are responsible for the vast majority of breast cancer deaths. This process...to migrate and invade is therefore essential to the metastatic process. The initial steps of breast cancer metastasis, local invasion and

  1. Breast Cancer in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ultrasound or a breast MRI cannot rule out breast cancer then you will need a biopsy to confirm diagnosis. If diagnosed When first diagnosed with breast cancer, many men are in shock. After all, ...

  2. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  3. Breast cancer in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  4. Novel Antiangiogenic/Cytotoxic Therapies for Advanced Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fett, James

    2000-01-01

    .... In order to evaluate whether these inhibitors may be useful for treating breast cancer, we have during the grant period developed mouse models for both primary and metastatic growth of human breast cancer cells...

  5. 4-tert-Octylphenol stimulates the expression of cathepsins in human breast cancer cells and xenografted breast tumors of a mouse model via an estrogen receptor-mediated signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cathepsins B and D were markedly enhanced by octylphenol (OP) in MCF-7 cells. ► OP may accelerate breast cancer cell growth and cathepsins via ER-mediated signaling. ► Breast cancer cells exposed with OP to mouse model were more aggressive. ► OP can promote metastasis through the amplification of cathepsins B and D via ER-mediated signaling pathway. -- Abstract: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are defined as environmental compounds that modulate steroid hormone receptor-dependent responses an abnormal manner, resulting in adverse health problems for humans such as cancer growth and metastasis. Cathepsins are proteases that have been implicated in cancer progression. However, there have been few studies about the association between cathepsins and estrogenic chemicals during the cancer progression. In this study, we examined the effect(s) of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), a potent EDC, on the expression of cathepsins B and D in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and a xenograft mouse model. Treatment with OP significantly induced the proliferation MCF-7 cells in an MTT assay. In addition, the expression of cathepsins B and D was markedly enhanced in MCF-7 cells at both the transcriptional and the translational levels following treatment with E2 or OP up to 48 h. These results demonstrated the ability of OP to disrupt normal transcriptional regulation of cathepsins B and D in human breast cancer cells. However, the effects of OP on cell growth or overexpression of cathepsins by inhibiting ER-mediated signaling were abolished by an ER antagonist and siRNA specific for ERα. In conclusion, our findings suggest that OP at 10 −6 M, like E2, may accelerate breast cancer cell proliferation and the expression of cathepsins through an ER-mediated signaling pathway. In addition, the breast cancer cells exposed with OP to a xenograft mouse model were more aggressive according to our histological analysis and showed markedly increased expression of

  6. Evaluation of Listeria Monocytogenes Based Vaccines for HER-2/neu in Mouse Transgenic Models of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Reshma

    2006-01-01

    ...% of all breast cancers. Five Listeria monocytogenes vaccines have been made consisting of fragments of HER-2/neu that are capable of stopping the growth of transplantable tumors in wild type FVB/N mice and can cause...

  7. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  8. Enhancing photodynamic therapy of a metastatic mouse breast cancer by immune stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    One in 8 women in the United States will develop breast cancer during her lifetime and 40,000 die each year. Deaths are due to tumors that have metastasized despite local control. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment in which a photosensitizer (PS) accumulates in tumors and is subsequently activated by visible light of an appropriate wavelength. The energy of the light is transferred to molecular oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species that produce cell death and tumor ablation. Mechanisms include cytotoxicity to tumor cells, shutting down of the tumor vasculature, and the induction of a host immune response. The precise mechanisms involved in the PDT-mediated induction of anti-tumor immunity are not yet understood. Potential contributing factors are alterations in the tumor microenvironment via stimulation of proinflammatory cytokines and direct effects of PDT on the tumor that increase immunogenicity. We have studied PDT of 410.4 variant 4T1 tumors growing in the mammary fat pad (orthotopic) in Balb/c mice and which produce metastasis. We have shown that a PDT regimen that produces vascular shutdown and tumor necrosis leads to initial tumor ablation but the tumors recur at the periphery. We studied the combination of PDT with immunostimulating therapies. Low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) is a specific mechanism to deplete the regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+), these cells play an important role in the immunosuppression activity of tumors. In combination with PDT that produces release of tumor specific antigens, this immunostimulation may lead to generation of cytotoxic CD8 T-lymphocytes that recognize and destroy the tumor. The second alternative therapy is the use of a novel combination of the immunostimulant CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) and PDT. CpG-ODN is recognized by Toll-like receptor 9 and directly or indirectly triggers B cells, NK cells, monocyte-macrophages and dendritic cells to proliferate, mature and secrete cytokines

  9. Hormone Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... sensitive breast cancer cells contain proteins called hormone receptors that become activated when hormones bind to them. ...

  10. The landscape of chromosomal aberrations in breast cancer mouse models reveals driver-specific routes to tumorigenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-David, Uri; Ha, Gavin; Khadka, Prasidda; Jin, Xin; Wong, Bang; Franke, Lude; Golub, Todd R.

    Aneuploidy and copy-number alterations (CNAs) are a hallmark of human cancer. Although genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) are commonly used to model human cancer, their chromosomal landscapes remain underexplored. Here we use gene expression profiles to infer CNAs in 3,108 samples from 45

  11. Longitudinal MRI evaluation of intracranial development and vascular characteristics of breast cancer brain metastases in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heling Zhou

    Full Text Available Longitudinal MRI was applied to monitor intracranial initiation and development of brain metastases and assess tumor vascular volume and permeability in a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastases. Using a 9.4T system, high resolution anatomic MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC perfusion MRI were acquired at different time points after an intracardiac injection of brain-tropic breast cancer MDA-MB231BR-EGFP cells. Three weeks post injection, multifocal brain metastases were first observed with hyperintensity on T2-weighted images, but isointensity on T1-weighted post contrast images, indicating that blood-tumor-barrier (BTB at early stage of brain metastases was impermeable. Follow-up MRI revealed intracranial tumor growth and increased number of metastases that distributed throughout the whole brain. At the last scan on week 5, T1-weighted post contrast images detected BTB disruption in 160 (34% of a total of 464 brain metastases. Enhancement in some of the metastases was only seen in partial regions of the tumor, suggesting intratumoral heterogeneity of BTB disruption. DSC MRI measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV showed that rCBV of brain metastases was significantly lower (mean= 0.89±0.03 than that of contralateral normal brain (mean= 1.00±0.03; p<0.005. Intriguingly, longitudinal measurements revealed that rCBV of individual metastases at early stage was similar to, but became significantly lower than that of contralateral normal brain with tumor growth (p<0.05. The rCBV data were concordant with histological analysis of microvascular density (MVD. Moreover, comprehensive analysis suggested no significant correlation among tumor size, rCBV and BTB permeability. In conclusion, longitudinal MRI provides non-invasive in vivo assessments of spatial and temporal development of brain metastases and their vascular volume and permeability. The characteristic rCBV of brain metastases may have a diagnostic value.

  12. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  13. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Breast Cancer KidsHealth / For Kids / Breast Cancer What's in this ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  15. Breast asymmetry and predisposition to breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Scutt, Diane; Lancaster, Gillian A; Manning, John T

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: It has been shown in our previous work that breast asymmetry is related to several of the known risk factors for breast cancer, and that patients with diagnosed breast cancer have more breast volume asymmetry, as measured from mammograms, than age-matched healthy women. METHODS: In the present study, we compared the breast asymmetry of women who were free of breast disease at time of mammography, but who had subsequently developed breast cancer, with that of age-matched healthy ...

  16. Anti-VEGF Therapy in Breast and Lung Mouse Models of Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Domenico Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world after cardiovascular diseases. Some types of cancer cells often travel to other parts of the body through blood circulation or lymph vessels, where they begin to grow. This process is recognized as metastasis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from existing vessel. Normally angiogenesis is a healthy process, that helps the body to heal wounds and repair damaged body tissues, whereas in cancerous condition this process supports new blood vessels formation that provide a tumor with its own blood supply, nutrients and allow it to grow. The most important proximal factor for angiogenesis is the vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF. Angioinhibition is a form of targeted therapy that uses drugs to stop tumors from making new blood vessels. Therefore, in this paper we analyse the importance of VEGF as target of cancer therapy, analysing murine models.

  17. Breast Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Breast Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... from breast cancer each year. Rates of Getting Breast Cancer by State The number of people who get ...

  18. Prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N

    2016-11-21

    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  19. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euhus, David M; Diaz, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with 232,670 new cases estimated in the USA for 2014. Approaches for reducing breast cancer risk include lifestyle modification, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery. Lifestyle modification has a variety of health benefits with few associated risks and is appropriate for all women regardless of breast cancer risk. Chemoprevention options have expanded rapidly, but most are directed at estrogen receptor positive breast cancer and uptake is low. Prophylactic surgery introduces significant additional risks of its own and is generally reserved for the highest risk women. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  1. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  2. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Breast cancer Breast cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in ...

  4. Breast Cancer and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menopause Map Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Breast Cancer and Bone Loss July 2010 Download PDFs English ... G. Komen Foundation What is the link between breast cancer and bone loss? Certain treatments for breast cancer ...

  5. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  6. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    cells we observed that it promoted transformation of HMLE cells, suggesting a tumor suppressive role of Merlin in breast cancer (Figure 4B). A...08-1-0767 TITLE: Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yashaswi Shrestha...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-1-0767 Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes Yashaswi Shrestha Dana-Farber

  7. Ultrasound imaging-guided intracardiac injection to develop a mouse model of breast cancer brain metastases followed by longitudinal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Heling; Zhao, Dawen

    2014-03-06

    Breast cancer brain metastasis, occurring in 30% of breast cancer patients at stage IV, is associated with high mortality. The median survival is only 6 months. It is critical to have suitable animal models to mimic the hemodynamic spread of the metastatic cells in the clinical scenario. Here, we are introducing the use of small animal ultrasound imaging to guide an accurate injection of brain tropical breast cancer cells into the left ventricle of athymic nude mice. Longitudinal MRI is used to assessing intracranial initiation and growth of brain metastases. Ultrasound-guided intracardiac injection ensures not only an accurate injection and hereby a higher successful rate but also significantly decreased mortality rate, as compared to our previous manual procedure. In vivo high resolution MRI allows the visualization of hyperintense multifocal lesions, as small as 310 µm in diameter on T2-weighted images at 3 weeks post injection. Follow-up MRI reveals intracranial tumor growth and increased number of metastases that distribute throughout the whole brain.

  8. Breast cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Villena, C.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in female breast imaging have substantially influenced the diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. Mammography using conventional or digital technique is considered the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Other modalities such as breast ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the breast play an important role in diagnostic imaging, staging, and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a faster, less invasive, and more cost-effective method than surgical biopsy for verifying the histological diagnosis. New methods such as breast tomosynthesis, contrast-enhanced mammography, and positron emission tomography promise to further improve breast imaging. Further studies are mandatory to adapt these new methods to clinical needs and to evaluate their performance in clinical practice. (orig.) [de

  9. Stimulation of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3) expression in mouse fibroblasts by cytokines, collagen and co-culture with human breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvey, Saxon; Haupt, Larisa M; Thompson, Erik W; Matthaei, Klaus I; Irving, Michael G; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are central to degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane during both normal and carcinogenic tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP (MMP-14) and stromelysin-3 (MMP-11) are two members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes that have been specifically implicated in breast cancer progression. Expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells, the mechanism of MT1-MMP and MMP-11 induction remains unknown. To investigate possible mechanisms of induction, we examined the effects of a number of plausible regulatory agents and treatments that may physiologically influence MMP expression during tumour progression. Thus NIH3T3 and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were: a) treated with the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours; b) grown on collagens I, IV and V; c) treated with fibronectin, con-A and matrigel; and d) co-cultured with a range of HBC (human breast cancer) cell lines of varied invasive and metastatic potential. Competitive quantitative RT-PCR indicated that MMP-11 expression was stimulated to a level greater than 100%, by 48 hour treatments of IL-1β, IL-2, TGF-β, fibronectin and collagen V. No other substantial changes in expression of MMP-11 or MT1-MMP in either tested fibroblast culture, under any treatment conditions, were observed. We have demonstrated significant MMP-11 stimulation in mouse fibroblasts using cytokines, matrix constituents and HBC cell lines, and also some inhibition of MT1-MMP. Our data suggest that the regulation of these genes in the complex stromal-epithelial interactions that occur in human breast carcinoma, is influenced by several mechanisms

  10. Stimulation of MMP-11 (stromelysin-3 expression in mouse fibroblasts by cytokines, collagen and co-culture with human breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthaei Klaus I

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are central to degradation of the extracellular matrix and basement membrane during both normal and carcinogenic tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP (MMP-14 and stromelysin-3 (MMP-11 are two members of the MMP family of proteolytic enzymes that have been specifically implicated in breast cancer progression. Expressed in stromal fibroblasts adjacent to epithelial tumour cells, the mechanism of MT1-MMP and MMP-11 induction remains unknown. Methods To investigate possible mechanisms of induction, we examined the effects of a number of plausible regulatory agents and treatments that may physiologically influence MMP expression during tumour progression. Thus NIH3T3 and primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were: a treated with the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours; b grown on collagens I, IV and V; c treated with fibronectin, con-A and matrigel; and d co-cultured with a range of HBC (human breast cancer cell lines of varied invasive and metastatic potential. Results Competitive quantitative RT-PCR indicated that MMP-11 expression was stimulated to a level greater than 100%, by 48 hour treatments of IL-1β, IL-2, TGF-β, fibronectin and collagen V. No other substantial changes in expression of MMP-11 or MT1-MMP in either tested fibroblast culture, under any treatment conditions, were observed. Conclusion We have demonstrated significant MMP-11 stimulation in mouse fibroblasts using cytokines, matrix constituents and HBC cell lines, and also some inhibition of MT1-MMP. Our data suggest that the regulation of these genes in the complex stromal-epithelial interactions that occur in human breast carcinoma, is influenced by several mechanisms.

  11. Breast cancer statistics, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Siegel, Rebecca; Bandi, Priti; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including trends in incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 230,480 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 39,520 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2011. Breast cancer incidence rates were stable among all racial/ethnic groups from 2004 to 2008. Breast cancer death rates have been declining since the early 1990s for all women except American Indians/Alaska Natives, among whom rates have remained stable. Disparities in breast cancer death rates are evident by state, socioeconomic status, and race/ethnicity. While significant declines in mortality rates were observed for 36 states and the District of Columbia over the past 10 years, rates for 14 states remained level. Analyses by county-level poverty rates showed that the decrease in mortality rates began later and was slower among women residing in poor areas. As a result, the highest breast cancer death rates shifted from the affluent areas to the poor areas in the early 1990s. Screening rates continue to be lower in poor women compared with non-poor women, despite much progress in increasing mammography utilization. In 2008, 51.4% of poor women had undergone a screening mammogram in the past 2 years compared with 72.8% of non-poor women. Encouraging patients aged 40 years and older to have annual mammography and a clinical breast examination is the single most important step that clinicians can take to reduce suffering and death from breast cancer. Clinicians should also ensure that patients at high risk of breast cancer are identified and offered appropriate screening and follow-up. Continued progress in the control of breast cancer will require sustained and increased efforts to provide high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to all segments of the population. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  12. DIAGNOSIS OF MUCINOUS BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. К. Saribekyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the diagnostic results of 27 patients with mucinous breast cancer, which is a rare type of invasive ductal breast cancer accounting for less than 2% of all breast cancers. The role of radiological, histological and cytological examination in the diagnosis of mucinous breast cancer is evaluated. In cases with large tumors, it was difficult to differentiate mucinous breast cancer from fibrocystic and other benign breast lesions.

  13. Increasing Breast Cancer Surveillance among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Hayley

    2005-01-01

    ...; they also are at considerable risk for breast cancer recurrence. According to the American Society of Clinical Oncology, survivors should undergo careful breast cancer surveillance, including annual mammography and breast self-exam...

  14. Mouse breast cancer model-dependent changes in metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes caused by maternal dioxin exposure and dietary fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele; Baston, David S.; Denison, Michael S.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Pomp, Daniel; Threadgill, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fat are associated with increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Increased adipose tissue that is caused by high-fat diets (HFD) results in altered storage of lipophilic toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which may further increase susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Because both TCDD and HFD are associated with increased breast cancer risk, we examined their effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes in three mouse models of breast cancer: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), Tg(MMTV-Neu)202Mul/J (HER2), and TgN(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul/J (PyMT), all on an FVB/N genetic background. Pregnant mice dosed with 1 μg/kg of TCDD or vehicle on gestational day 12.5 were placed on a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) at parturition. Body weights, percent body fat, and fasting blood glucose were measured longitudinally, and triglycerides were measured at study termination. On HFD, all cancer models reached the pubertal growth spurt ahead of FVB controls. Among mice fed HFD, the HER2 model had a greater increase in body weight and adipose tissue from puberty through adulthood compared with the PyMT and DMBA models. However, the DMBA model consistently had higher fasting blood glucose levels than the PyMT and HER2 models. TCDD only impacted serum triglycerides in the PyMT model maintained on HFD. Because the estrogenic activity of the HFD was three times lower than that of the LFD, differential dietary estrogenic activities did not drive the observed phenotypic differences. Rather, the HFD-dependent changes were cancer model dependent. These results show that cancer models can have differential effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes even before cancers arise. PMID:18840765

  15. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  16. PET scan for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for breast cancer. This tracer can help identify areas of cancer ... only after a woman has been diagnosed with breast cancer. It is done to see if the cancer ...

  17. Breast cancer and HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intuition might dictate that the outcome of both surgical and adjuvant treatment of breast cancer in these patients would be poor because of the effect on immunity. We recently published a prospective cohort study which compared the treatment outcomes of breast cancer in HIV- infected and -uninfected patients.3 This was ...

  18. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980-2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  19. Antitumor activity of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] in mouse xenograft model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, A; Vetrugno, C; Migoni, D; Biagioni, F; Fanizzi, F P; Fornai, F; De Pascali, S A; Marsigliante, S

    2014-01-23

    The higher and selective cytotoxicity of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] toward cancer cell in both immortalized cell lines and in breast cancer cells in primary cultures, stimulated a pre-clinical study so as to evaluate its therapeutic potential in vivo. The efficacy of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] was assessed using a xenograft model of breast cancer developed by injection of MCF-7 cells in the flank of BALB/c nude mice. Treatment of solid tumor-bearing mice with [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] induced up to 50% reduction of tumor mass compared with an average 10% inhibition recorded in cisplatin-treated animals. Thus, chemotherapy with [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] was much more effective than cisplatin. We also demonstrated enhanced in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and tolerability of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] when compared with cisplatin administered in Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics studies with [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] revealed prolonged Pt persistence in systemic blood circulation and decreased nefrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity, major target sites of cisplatin toxicity. Overall, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] turned out to be extremely promising in terms of greater in vivo anticancer activity, reduced nephrotoxicity and acute toxicity compared with cisplatin.

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  1. [Fibrocystic breast disease--breast cancer sequence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habor, V; Habor, A; Copotoiu, C; Panţîru, A

    2010-01-01

    Fibrocystic breast disease has developed a major issue: the breast cancer sequence. Its involvement regarding the increse of breast cancer risk has 2 aspects: it may be either the marker of a prone tissue or a premalignant hystological deffect. Difficult differential diagnosis of benign proliferative breast lession and carcinoma led to the idea of sequency between the two: cancer does not initiate on normal mammary epithelia; it takes several proliferative stages for it to occur. In our series we analized a number of 677 breast surgical procedures where the pathologic examination reveals 115 cases (17%) of coexistence between cancer and fibrocystic breast disease. This aspect has proved to be related to earlier debut of breast cancer, suggesting that epithelial hyperplasia is a risk factor for breast cancer.

  2. A Bone Metastasis Nude Mouse Model Created by Ultrasound Guided Intracardiac Injection of Breast Cancer Cells: the Micro-CT, MRI and Bioluminescence Imaging Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Jin; Song, Eun Hye; Kim, Seol Hwa; Song, Ho Taek; Suh, Jin Suck [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyun [Korean Minjok Leadership Academy, Heongsung (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a nude mouse model of bone metastasis by performing intracardiac injection of breast cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance and we wanted to evaluate the development and the distribution of metastasis in vivo using micro-CT, MRI and bioluminescence imaging. Animal experiments were performed in 6-week-old female nude mice. The animals underwent left ventricular injection of 2x105 MDA-MB-231Bo-Luc cells. After injection of the tumor cells, serial bioluminescence imaging was performed for 7 weeks. The findings of micro-CT, MRI and the histology were correlated with the 'hot' lesions seen on the bioluminescence imaging. Metastasis was found in 62.3% of the animals. Two weeks after intracardiac injection, metastasis to the brain, spine and femur was detected with bioluminescence imaging with an increasing intensity by week 7. Micro-CT scan confirmed multiple osteolytic lesions at the femur, spine and skull. MRI and the histology were able to show metastasis in the brain and extraskeletal metastasis around the femur. The intracardiac injection of cancer cells under ultrasonography guidance is a safe and highly reproducible method to produce bone metastasis in nude mice. This bone metastasis nude mouse model will be useful to study the mechanism of bone metastasis and to validate new therapeutics

  3. Ghrelin receptor agonists as novel breast cancer therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    CHEUK MAN CHERIE AU

    2017-01-01

    The human cell studies and the live mouse studies are intended to provide the information that is needed to apply therapies to treat breast cancer patients, based on our novel discoveries. We believe that des-acyl ghrelin-like compounds will be novel breast cancer therapeutics while avoiding well-documented serious side effects, including joint pain, osteoporosis or endometrial cancer. Our findings could therefore improve the quality of life of women treated for breast cancer, improve complia...

  4. Sildenafil citrate improves the delivery and anticancer activity of doxorubicin formulations in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greish, Khaled; Fateel, Maryam; Abdelghany, Sara; Rachel, Nanitha; Alimoradi, Houman; Bakhiet, Moiz; Alsaie, Ahmed

    2017-11-21

    Sildenafil is an approved drug for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The drug exerts its action through the relaxation of smooth muscles and the modulation of vascular endothelial permeability. In this work, we tested whether the aforementioned effects of sildenafil on tumour vasculatures could result in an improvement of anticancer drug concentration in tumour tissues and hence improves its anticancer effect. Sildenafil when added to doxorubicin showed synergistic anticancer activity against 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro. Adding 1, 30 and 100 μM of Viagra to 1 μM of doxorubicin resulted in 1.8-fold, 6.2-fold and 21-fold statistically significant increases in its cytotoxic effect, respectively. As a result, 4T1 tumour-bearing mice showed up to 2.7-fold increase in drug concentrations of the fluorescent Dye DiI and doxorubicin in tumour tissues, as well as their nanoformulations. Animals treated with the combinations of both Sildenafil citrate and doxorubicin showed a statistically significant 4.7-fold reduction in tumour size compared to doxorubicin alone. This work highlights the effect of Sildenafil on tumour vasculatures and provides a rational for further testing the combination on breast cancer patients.

  5. Mena invasive (MenaINV) promotes multicellular streaming motility and transendothelial migration in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Evanthia T; Balsamo, Michele; Alford, Shannon K; Wyckoff, Jeffrey B; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Wang, Yarong; Pozzuto, Maria; Stobezki, Robert; Goswami, Sumanta; Segall, Jeffrey E; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Bresnick, Anne R; Gertler, Frank B; Condeelis, John S

    2011-07-01

    We have shown previously that distinct Mena isoforms are expressed in invasive and migratory tumor cells in vivo and that the invasion isoform (Mena(INV)) potentiates carcinoma cell metastasis in murine models of breast cancer. However, the specific step of metastatic progression affected by this isoform and the effects on metastasis of the Mena11a isoform, expressed in primary tumor cells, are largely unknown. Here, we provide evidence that elevated Mena(INV) increases coordinated streaming motility, and enhances transendothelial migration and intravasation of tumor cells. We demonstrate that promotion of these early stages of metastasis by Mena(INV) is dependent on a macrophage-tumor cell paracrine loop. Our studies also show that increased Mena11a expression correlates with decreased expression of colony-stimulating factor 1 and a dramatically decreased ability to participate in paracrine-mediated invasion and intravasation. Our results illustrate the importance of paracrine-mediated cell streaming and intravasation on tumor cell dissemination, and demonstrate that the relative abundance of Mena(INV) and Mena11a helps to regulate these key stages of metastatic progression in breast cancer cells.

  6. Radiolabeling and animal experimental studies of anti-breast cancer McAb 6C6 and mouse-human chimeric antibody 6C6CHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhi; Hu Xiaoqian; Li Erqiu

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study bio-distribution and tumor absorption of anti breast cancer monoclonal antibody 6C6 and its chimeric antibody 6C6-CHI. The modified Schwartz method was employed to label 6C6 and 6C6CHI with 99 Tc m . The labeled antibody was injected to mouse via tail vein and the blood clearance and whole body clearance were observed. Nude mice bearing breast cancer MCF7 were injected with 99 Tc m -labeled antibody and the bio-distribution was studied and imaged with γ-ray camera. The yield of the two labeled antibodies was more than 90% and their immunoactivities were more than 80%. The whole body eliminated half-time of 99 Tc m -6C6 was 4.1h, and the half-times in blood were T α =0.55h and T β =12.42h respectively. The whole body half-time of 99 Tc m -6C6CHI was 4.28h and the half-times in blood were T α =0.98h and T β =12.42h respectively. The bio-distribution of nude mice bearing breast cancer MCF7 cells was as follows: the ID%/g of tumor and blood was (7.42±0.85) and (5.67±1.44) respectively at 23h after injection of 99 Tc m -6C6. The T/NT (tumor to non tumor) ratios were all more than 1.0 except kidney and the ID%/g of tumor and blood was (4.23±0.64) and (6.97±0.23) respectively at 23 h after injection of 99 Tc m -6C6CHI. The T/NT (tumor to non tumor) ratios were all more than 1.0 except blood and kidney. The γ imaging results showed that the tumor was imaged clearly at 24h after injection of radiolabeled antibodies and the other organs did not concentrate the antibodies except kidney. Anti-breast cancer monoclonal antibody 6C6 can be well located in tumor. Although ID%/g of tumor of the chimeric antibody 6C6CHI was slightly lower than that of 6C6 antibody, and ID%/g of blood was higher than that of 6C6, the tumor imaging of 6C6-CHI was also clear

  7. Docosahexaenoic Acid in Preventing Recurrence in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Benign Breast Neoplasm; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Paget Disease of the Breast; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  8. Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Breast Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved to Prevent Breast Cancer Evista (Raloxifene Hydrochloride) Raloxifene Hydrochloride Tamoxifen Citrate Drugs ...

  9. Broccoli Sprout Extract in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Postmenopausal; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer

  10. Characterization of Two Novel Oncogenic Pathways Collaborating With Loss of P53 or Activated Neu in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lu, Jianrong; Leder, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cancer develops through accumulation of multiple genetic mutations. Loss of tumor suppressor gene p53 and activation of oncogene Neu/ErbB2 are among the most frequent genetic alterations in human breast cancer...

  11. Morphine does not facilitate breast cancer progression in two preclinical mouse models for human invasive lobular and HER2⁺ breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornebal, Chris W.; Vrijland, Kim; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Coffelt, Seth B.; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E.; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2015-01-01

    Morphine and other opioid analgesics are potent pain-relieving agents routinely used for pain management in patients with cancer. However, these drugs have recently been associated with a worse relapse-free survival in patients with surgical cancer, thus suggesting that morphine adversely affects

  12. Endocrine therapy of human breast cancer grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Osborne, C K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1987-01-01

    mice bearing transplanted human breast tumors have been proposed as such a model. This review therefore discusses the use of the athymic nude mouse model of the study of human breast cancer biology, and focuses on four subjects: 1. biological characteristics of heterotransplanted breast tumors; 2...

  13. Early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dongen, J.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The therapy of early breast cancer has been changing during the last decennium. It requires a multi-disciplinary approach and in each of these disciplines improvements have been implemented. The result is that treatment schedules can now be adapted to specific subgroups. In this review early breast cancer is defined as operable disease, using the criteria set out by Haagensen. Emphasis is given to describing the new developments in prognostic criteria, since these form the basis for creating subgroups for specific treatment schedules. Distinction is made between the factors relating to growth rate and those relating to metastatic potential. Data on screening promises a beneficial effect of the implementation of screening in national health care programs. Important shifts are seen in treatment schedules; the place of postoperative radiotherapy after classic ablative treatment is being challenged, whereas it plays a major role in the new breast conserving therapy schedules. The data mentioned in the review suggest that a large proportion of 'operable' cases can be treated with breast conservation but details in the technique of breast conserving therapy are still under investigation. They form a major part of the coming prospective studies in breast cancer. Improvements in reconstruction techniques, creating better cosmetic results, make reconstruction more competitive with breast conserving therapy. The use of chemotherapy and endocrine manipulation in early breast cancer has now been clearly confirmed by the overview technique by the Peto-group, thanks to all efforts of individual trialists together. (orig.)

  14. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  15. Obesity and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortner, Renée T; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf

    The relationship between adiposity and breast cancer risk and prognosis is complex, with associations that differ depending on when body size is assessed (e.g., pre- vs. postmenopausal obesity) and when breast cancer is diagnosed (i.e., pre- vs. postmenopausal disease). Further, the impact of obesity on risk differs by tumor hormone receptor status (e.g., estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor) and, among postmenopausal women, use of exogenous hormones (i.e., hormone replacement therapy (HRT)). In the context of these complexities, this review focuses on associations between childhood and adolescent adiposity, general adiposity, weight changes (i.e., loss and gain), abdominal adiposity, and breast cancer risk and survival. Finally, we discuss potential mechanisms linking adiposity to breast cancer.

  16. Preeclampsia and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco, Nadja Livia Pekkola; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In parous women preeclampsia has been associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer. Characteristics of births following preeclamptic pregnancies may help understand mechanisms involved in the breast cancer risk reduction inferred by preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted...... a register-based cohort study of all Danish women giving birth during 1978-2010 (n = 778,701). The association between preeclampsia and breast cancer was evaluated overall and according to birth characteristics by means of incidence rate ratios (IRR) estimated in Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Compared...... with women with non-preeclamptic pregnancies only, women with one or more preeclamptic pregnancies were 19% significantly less likely to develop breast cancer (IRR = 0.81 [95% CI 0.72-0.93]). We found some indication of greater risk reduction in women with term births, one or more previous births...

  17. Learning about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Breast Cancer Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  18. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  19. Characterization of IKBKE as a Breast Cancer Oncogene

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    HMLE -MEKDD cells stably expressing either pWZL or MF-IKKε. Immunoblot analysis by IKKε antibody. (D) IP with an IKK antibody from MCF-7 breast cancer ...summary is presented of research performed during three years of a project to further characterize the breast cancer oncogene IKKε. Two specific aims...constitutive IKKε transgenic mouse model to study the role of IKKε in breast cancer initiation and maintenance. The long term goals of this research

  20. 14. Breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  1. Importance of CD200 expression by tumor or host cells to regulation of immunotherapy in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Curry

    Full Text Available Cell-surface CD200 expression by mouse EMT6 breast tumor cells increased primary tumor growth and metastasis to the draining lymph nodes (DLN in normal (WT BALB/c female recipients, while lack of CD200R1 expression in a CD200R1-/- host negated this effect. Silencing CD200 expression in EMT6siCD200 tumor cells also reduced their ability to grow and metastasize in WT animals. The cellular mechanisms responsible for these effects have not been studied in detail. We report characterization of tumor infiltrating (TILs and draining lymph node (DLN cells in WT and CD200-/- BALB/c mice, receiving WT tumor cells, or EMT6 lacking CD200 expression (EMT6siCD200 cells. Our data show an important correlation with augmented CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and resistance to tumor growth in mice lacking exposure (on either host cells or tumor to the immunoregulatory molecule CD200. Confirmation of the importance of such CD8+ cells came from monitoring tumor growth and characterization of the TILs and DLN cells in WT mice challenged with EMT6 and EMT6siCD200 tumors and treated with CD8 and CD4 depleting antibodies. Finally, we have assessed the mechanisms(s whereby addition of metformin as an augmenting chemotherapeutic agent in CD200-/- animals given EMT6 tumors and treated with a previously established immunotherapy regime can increase host resistance. Our data support the hypothesis that increased autophagy in the presence of metformin increases CD8+ responses and tumor resistance, an effect attenuated by the autophagy inhibitor verteporfin.

  2. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  3. Human Breast Cancer Histoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Pavinder; Ward, Brenda; Saha, Baisakhi; Young, Lillian; Groshen, Susan; Techy, Geza; Lu, Yani; Atkinson, Roscoe; Taylor, Clive R.; Ingram, Marylou

    2011-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of cancer cells and fibroblasts. Breast cancer cells (UACC-893) and fibroblasts at various densities were co-cultured in a rotating suspension culture system to establish co-culture parameters. Subsequently, UACC-893, BT.20, or MDA.MB.453 were co-cultured with fibroblasts for 9 days. Co-cultures resulted in the generation of breast cancer histoid (BCH) with cancer cells showing the invasion of fibroblast spheroids, which were visualized by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of sections (4 µm thick) of BCH. A reproducible quantitative expression of C-erbB.2 was detected in UACC-893 cancer cells in BCH sections by IHC staining and the Automated Cellular Imaging System. BCH sections also consistently exhibited qualitative expression of pancytokeratins, p53, Ki-67, or E-cadherin in cancer cells and that of vimentin or GSTPi in fibroblasts, fibronectin in the basement membrane and collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. The expression of the protein analytes and cellular architecture of BCH were markedly similar to those of breast cancer tissue. PMID:22034518

  4. Expression of the breast cancer resistance protein in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faneyte, Ian F.; Kristel, Petra M. P.; Maliepaard, Marc; Scheffer, George L.; Scheper, Rik J.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; van de Vijver, Marc J.

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) is involved in in vitro multidrug resistance and was first identified in the breast cancer cell line MCF7/AdrVp. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BCRP in resistance of breast cancer to anthracycline treatment. EXPERIMENTAL

  5. New Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Eradicating Recurrent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    barcode vectors, which allows for PCR amplification of barcodes from genomic DNA . To identify and quantify relative abundance of each clonal population...Define tumor cell hallmarks that predict risk of breast cancer recurrence a. Identify human breast cancer barcoded DTCs that convert to malignancy in...xenograft mouse models of metastasis – 100% complete in one model; 40% complete for bone metastasis model b. Identify mouse Her2+ barcoded DTCs that

  6. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  7. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janowsky, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our current work is to determine whether there are differences in blood levels of 1,25-dihydroxy- vitamin D between women with breast cancer and two control groups of women without breast cancer...

  8. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Theresa; Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action, the current evidence on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, and the optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention are summarized.

  9. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  10. The role of the ubiquitination–proteasome pathway in breast cancer: Use of mouse models for analyzing ubiquitination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Sabrina; Loda, Massimo

    2003-01-01

    Turnover of several regulatory proteins results from targeted destruction via ubiquitination and subsequent degradation through the proteosome. The timely and irreversible degradation of critical regulators is essential for normal cellular function. The precise biochemical mechanisms that are involved in protein turnover by ubiquitin-mediated degradation have been elucidated using in vitro assays and cell culture systems. However, pathways that lead to ubiquitination of critical regulatory proteins in vivo are more complex, and have both temporal and tissue-specific differences. In vivo models will allow identification of substrates and enzymes of the ubiquitin–proteosome pathway that play important roles in selected tissues and diseases. In addition, assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of drugs designed to inhibit or enhance protein turnover by ubiquitination requires in vivo models. In the present review we describe selected examples of transgenic and knockout models of proteins that are known either to be regulated by ubiquitin-mediated degradation or to have a catalytic function in this process, and to play an important role in breast cancer. We outline the functions of these proteins in vivo and focus on knowledge gained in the comparison of in vivo behavior predicted from cell-free in vitro data or from experiments conducted in cell culture systems

  11. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohibited. Considering the psychological importance of the breast in modern society, the possibility of breast reconstruction for the woman about to undergo a mastectomy is a comforting alternative. We can perform breast reconstruction with autologous tissue (autologous reconstruction, with breast implants and combination of both methods. For autologous reconstruction we can use local tissue (local flaps, or tissue from distant parts of the body (free vascular tissue transfer. Tissue expansion must be performed first, in many cases of breast reconstructions with breast implants. Conclusions. Possibility of breast reconstruction made a big progress last 3 decades. Today we are able to reconstruct almost every defect of the breast and the entire breast. Breast reconstruction rise the quality of life for breast cancer patients. Breast reconstruction is a team work of experts from many medicine specialites. In Slovenia we can offer breast reconstruction for breast cancer patients in Ljubljana, where plastic surgeons from Clinical Department for Plastic Surgery and Burns cooperate with oncologic surgeons. Ten years ago a similar cooperation between plastic surgeons and surgeons of the Centre for Breast Diseases was established in Maribor.

  12. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, P.

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may

  13. Breast Cancer Basics and You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Basics and You Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... more than 232,670 new cases of female breast cancer in the United States in 2014. More than ...

  14. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  15. Breast cancer in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, S.; Ramsey-Goldman, R.; Petri, M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. Methods We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi......-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration. Results...... There were 86 SLE breast cancers and 4498 female SLE cancer-free controls. Patients were followed on average for 7.6 years. Versus controls, SLE breast cancer cases tended to be white and older. Breast cancer cases were similar to controls regarding anti-dsDNA positivity, disease activity, and most drug...

  16. Inheritance of proliferative breast disease in breast cancer kindreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skolnick, M.H.; Cannon-Albright, L.A.; Goldgar, D.E.; Ward, J.H.; Marshall, C.J.; Schumann, G.B.; Hogle, H.; McWhorter, W.P.; Wright, E.C.; Tran, T.D.; Bishop, D.T.; Kushner, J.P.; Eyre, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have emphasized that genetic susceptibility to breast cancer is rare and is expressed primarily as premenopausal breast cancer, bilateral breast cancer, or both. Proliferative breast disease (PBD) is a significant risk factor for the development of breast cancer and appears to be a precursor lesion. PBD and breast cancer were studied in 103 women from 20 kindreds that were selected for the presence of two first degree relatives with breast cancer and in 31 control women. Physical examination, screening mammography, and four-quadrant fine-needle breast aspirates were performed. Cytologic analysis of breast aspirates revealed PBD in 35% of clinically normal female first degree relatives of breast cancer cases and in 13% of controls. Genetic analysis suggests that genetic susceptibility causes both PBD and breast cancer in these kindreds. This study supports the hypothesis that this susceptibility is responsible for a considerable portion of breast cancer, including unilateral and postmenopausal breast cancer

  17. Therapeutic application of injectable thermosensitive hydrogel in preventing local breast cancer recurrence and improving incision wound healing in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Na; Gong, Changyang; Qian, Zhiyong; Luo, Feng; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Helan; Wei, Yuquan

    2012-08-01

    Many drug delivery systems (DDSs) have been investigated for local targeting of malignant disease with the intention of increasing anti-tumor activity and minimizing systemic toxicity. An injectable thermosensitive hydrogel was applied to prevent locoregional recurrence of 4T1 breast cancer in a mouse model. The presented hydrogel, which is based on poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-PCL-PEG, PECE), flows freely at normal temperature, forms a gel within seconds in situ at body temperature, and eventually releases the drug in a consistent and sustained fashion as it gradually biodegrades. Locoregional recurrence after primary tumor removal was significantly inhibited in mice treated with the paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded PECE hydrogel subcutaneously (9.1%) administered, compared with the blank hydrogel (80.0%), systemic (77.8%) and locally (75.0%) administered PTX, and the control group (100%) (P 0.05), in agreement with histopathological examinations. This novel DDSs represents a promising approach for local adjuvant therapy in malignant disease.

  18. Accelerated Radiation Therapy After Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Inflammatory Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  19. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Medellin D, Mohsin SK, Hilsenbeck SG, Lamph WW, Gottardis MM, Shirley MA, Kuhn JG et al: 9-cis-Retinoic acid suppresses mammary tumorigenesis in C3...asymptomatic women who were imaged with a 3D bilateral dynamic MR sequence. Breast density was classified independently by one reader on digital x...plane. Digital mammograms acquired on GE Senograph 2000D. Image Analysis: Breast density was classified on mammograms by one reader according to BI

  20. Human mammary fibroblasts stimulate invasion of breast cancer cells in a three-dimensional culture and increase stroma development in mouse xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Charlotta J; Moreira, José; Lukanidin, Eugene M; Ambartsumian, Noona S

    2010-01-01

    Tumour phenotype is regulated in a complex fashion as a result of interactions between malignant cells and the tumour stroma. Fibroblasts are the most abundant and perhaps most active part of the tumour stroma. A better understanding of the changes that occur in fibroblasts in response to the presence of malignant cells may lead to the development of new strategies for cancer treatment. We explored the effects of fibroblasts on the growth and invasion of mammary carcinoma tumour cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to analyse secreted factors that affect invasive abilities of breast cancer cells we co-cultured human mammary fibroblasts (HMF3s) and cancer cells (MCF7S1) in three-dimensional (3D) growth conditions devoid of heterogeneous cell-cell contact. To study the possible influence of fibroblasts on MCF7S1 cancer cell growth in vivo we co-injected HMF3s and MCF7S1 cells in Balb/c nu/nu mice. In 3D co-culture both HMF3s and MCF7S1 cells demonstrated enhanced invasion into a Matrigel matrix. This was correlated with enhanced expression of the metastasis promoting S100A4 protein in fibroblasts, stimulation of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, and enhanced secretion of a range of different cytokines. Orthotopic injection of oestrogen-dependent MCF7S1 cancer cells together with fibroblasts showed stimulation of tumour growth in mice without an external oestrogen supply. The resulting tumours were characterized by increased development of extracellular matrix, as well as an increase of murine S100A4 concentration and activity of MMP-2 in the tumour interstitial fluid. Stimulation of the invasive phenotype of tumour cells in 3D co-cultures with fibroblasts could be correlated with increased production of S100A4 and MMP-2. We propose that enhanced development of mouse host-derived tumour stroma in a MCF7S1 co-injection xenograft model leads to oestrogen independency and is triggered by the initial presence of human fibroblasts

  1. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  2. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  3. Breast Cancer - Early Diagnosis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-28

    This podcast answers a listener's question about how to tell if she has breast cancer.  Created: 4/28/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/28/2011.

  4. Early diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semiglazov, V.F.

    1989-01-01

    Modern data are presentd on epidemology etiopathogensis and statistics of breast cancer. Home and international clinical and histological classifications is given. Much attention is paid to the methods for early diagnosis of pretumor diseases and breast cancer: clinical roentgenomammography, thrmography and computerized tomomammography. The role of self-examination in cancer early detection has been analyzed. Special attention is paid to system of detection of minimal and unpalpable form of breast cancer, screening of these tumors. 113 refs.; 60 figs.; 6 tabs

  5. Opioids and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Ahern, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Opioids may alter immune function, thereby potentially affecting cancer recurrence. The authors investigated the association between postdiagnosis opioid use and breast cancer recurrence. METHODS: Patients with incident, early stage breast cancer who were diagnosed during 1996 through...... 2008 in Denmark were identified from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Registry. Opioid prescriptions were ascertained from the Danish National Prescription Registry. Follow-up began on the date of primary surgery for breast cancer and continued until breast cancer recurrence, death......, emigration, 10 years, or July 31, 2013, whichever occurred first. Cox regression models were used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals associating breast cancer recurrence with opioid prescription use overall and by opioid type and strength, immunosuppressive effect, chronic use (≥6 months...

  6. Mastopathy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, K.

    2007-01-01

    Mastopathy (mastopathia fibroso-cystica) and breast cancer are two major epidemiologic, economic and medical problems of women. In Poland, annually, 0.2 - 1.6 billion Polish zlotys is spent on diagnosis and treatment of mastopathy; half of that sum is spent improperly. Many papers suggest relationships between these two diseases, however, it is not certain, whether, or how much, mastopathy increases breast cancer incidence. The available papers from the recent years indicate increased risk, but the methodology of these data is not perfect. It is not excluded that fibrocystic diseases of the breast increase breast cancer incidence. If such an influence exists, independent of other well-know factors, it is probably very small. Moreover, due to the diversity of medical information there is a lack of diagnostic and therapeutic standards in mastopathy. Different types of scans, hormonal, biochemical and immunohistochemical examinations are performed improperly, and there has been no genetic analysis of mastopathy. Therefore, there is a strong need of well planned, prospective trials in this field. (author)

  7. Cutaneous manifestations of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka B. Owczarczyk-Saczonek; Dawid Sigorski; Paweł Różanowski; Agnieszka Markiewicz; Waldemar J. Placek

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland and in the European Union. According to most recent data of the Polish National Cancer Registry, in 2014 breast cancer was diagnosed in over 17,000 women. Based on the National Health Fund records, it is estimated that there are about 55,000–60,000 women in Poland who have a history of breast cancer diagnosis and are potentially at a risk of relapse. The most common sign of breast cancer is the presence of a nodule, how...

  8. Breast-Conserving Surgery Followed by Radiation Therapy With MRI-Detected Stage I or Stage II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Male Breast Cancer; Medullary Ductal Breast Carcinoma With Lymphocytic Infiltrate; Mucinous Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Tubular Ductal Breast Carcinoma

  9. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  10. Getting free of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halttunen, Arja; Hietanen, P; Jallinoja, P

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two breast cancer patients who were relapse-free and had no need for cancer-related treatment were interviewed 8 years after mastectomy in order to evaluate their feelings of getting free of breast cancer and the meaning of breast cancer in their lives. The study is a part of an intervention...... and follow-up study of 57 breast cancer patients. Half of the 22 patients still had frequent or occasional thoughts of recurrence and over two-thirds still thought they had not been 'cured' of cancer. More than half of the patients admitted that going through breast cancer had made them more mature. Women...... who had less thoughts of recurrence belonged to a group that had gone through an eight-week group psychotherapy intervention, were less depressed and had more other illnesses. Women who felt 'cured' had less limitations and restrictions due to cancer and belonged more often to higher social classes...

  11. Hereditary forms of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common oncologic disease in the female population. Besides the sporadic occurrence it occurs in the familial and hereditary form. Persons with the occurrence of positive family anamnesis of breast cancer should be actively investigated. In the indicated cases it is necessary to send the woman to genetic examination. In case that the hereditary form of breast cancer is affirmed it is necessary to examine her family relatives. Women with the hereditary form of breast cancer occur in about 5 – 10 % portion from all women diagnosed with breast cancer. Nowadays we already know that 80 % of hereditary breast cancers are due to germ mutations in BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 gene. Persons with detected gene mutations must be dispensarized in the centres intended for it. (author)

  12. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Mary A; Voorhees, Jeffrey L; Cole, Sara L; Dakhlallah, Duaa; Patterson, Ivory L; Gross, Amy C; Moldovan, Leni; Mo, Xiaokui; Evans, Randall; Marsh, Clay B; Eubank, Tim D

    2014-01-01

    Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1) in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2), the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor expression.

  13. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor augments Tie2-expressing monocyte differentiation, angiogenic function, and recruitment in a mouse model of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary A Forget

    Full Text Available Reports demonstrate the role of M-CSF (CSF1 in tumor progression in mouse models as well as the prognostic value of macrophage numbers in breast cancer patients. Recently, a subset of CD14+ monocytes expressing the Tie2 receptor, once thought to be predominantly expressed on endothelial cells, has been characterized. We hypothesized that increased levels of CSF1 in breast tumors can regulate differentiation of Tie2- monocytes to a Tie2+ phenotype. We treated CD14+ human monocytes with CSF1 and found a significant increase in CD14+/Tie2+ positivity. To understand if CSF1-induced Tie2 expression on these cells improved their migratory ability, we pre-treated CD14+ monocytes with CSF1 and used Boyden chemotaxis chambers to observe enhanced response to angiopoietin-2 (ANG2, the chemotactic ligand for the Tie2 receptor. We found that CSF1 pre-treatment significantly augmented chemotaxis and that Tie2 receptor upregulation was responsible as siRNA targeting Tie2 receptor abrogated this effect. To understand any augmented angiogenic effect produced by treating these cells with CSF1, we cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs with conditioned supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated CD14+ monocytes for a tube formation assay. While supernatants from CSF1-pre-treated TEMs increased HUVEC branching, a neutralizing antibody against the CSF1R abrogated this activity, as did siRNA against the Tie2 receptor. To test our hypothesis in vivo, we treated PyMT tumor-bearing mice with CSF1 and observed an expansion in the TEM population relative to total F4/80+ cells, which resulted in increased angiogenesis. Investigation into the mechanism of Tie2 receptor upregulation on CD14+ monocytes by CSF1 revealed a synergistic contribution from the PI3 kinase and HIF pathways as the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, as well as HIF-1α-deficient macrophages differentiated from the bone marrow of HIF-1αfl/fl/LysMcre mice, diminished CSF1-stimulated Tie2 receptor

  14. Progesterone in Breast Cancer Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Monica C.; Soares, Raquel; Alves, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of steroid hormones in breast carcinogenesis is well established. Recent evidence suggests that angiogenesis can be regulated by hormones. Both oestrogen and progesterone have been implicated in the angiogenic process of hormone-dependent cancers, such as breast cancer. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is a growth factor involved in angiogenesis in breast cancer that is up-regulated by estrogens. In our study we evaluated the role of progesterone in the expression of ...

  15. Male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, F.; Vidal, M.A.; Caballero, A.J.; Martinez, A.; Lluch, A.

    1997-01-01

    To analyze the radiological and ultrasonographic signs that contribute to the diagnosis of male breast cancer to establish its differential diagnosis with regard to the most common pathologies involving the male breast. We studied 14 patients diagnosed as heaving breast cancer over the past 23 years. We reviewed their medical records, personal and familial history disease, use of pharmacological agents and the mammographic and ultrasonographic findings. The literature on this subject was also reviewed. Given the fact that his lesion is rare and unexpected in men, a large percentage of the cases, especially those studied in the early years of the study period, involved very advanced stages of the disease at diagnosis. The most common clinical finding was retroarelar mass. Mammography usually reveals a well.defined mass and ultrasound shows a well-defined, hypoechoic, heterogeneous mass. The most frequent histological type is, an in women, the infiltrating ductal carcinoma. A palpable breast mass in a man should suggest possible malignant disease. Thus, mammographic and ultrasonographic studies should be performed early, accompanied, if necessary, by aspiration biopsy; with these measures the prognosis may approximate that of women. (Author) 21 refs

  16. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  17. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  18. Estrogens and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HANKINSON SUSAN E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarize the epidemiologic evidence for the associations of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormones with risk of breast cancer. We also describe the biologic plausibility of these relationships. Overall, there appears to be little, if any, increase in risk with oral contraceptive use in general, even among users for 10 or more years. However, compared to never users, current oral contraceptive users appear to have a modest elevation in risk that subsides within about 10 years after cessation of use. For postmenopausal hormones, the weight of the evidence suggests little or no increase in risk among users of short duration, or for use in the past. However, current longer term use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer that increases with duration. This increase in risk is large enough, and well enough supported, to be considered along with the other risks and benefits of postmenopausal hormone therapy.

  19. Dosimetry of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez C, G; Restrepo, J; Aguirre, C A [Hospital Universitario del Valle, Cali (Colombia)

    1996-08-01

    The systemic therapy of breast cancer has also changed profoundly during the last 60 years, and in this time the integration of treatment modalities involve a major area of investigation. The dosimetry of breast cancer presents different complications which can range from the Physician`s handling of the neoplasia up to the simple aspects of physical simulation, contour design, radiation fields, irregular surfaces and computer programs containing mathematical equations which differ little or largely with the reality of the radiation distribution into the volume to be irradiated. We have studied the problem using two types of measurements to determine how the radiation distribution is in irregular surfaces, and designing an easier skill to be used with each patient, in order to optimize the treatment with respect to the simulation and verification process. (author). 7 refs.

  20. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  1. Proteomic classification of breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel, Dalia

    2012-11-01

    Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.

  2. In situ breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Luis

    2004-01-01

    In situ breast cancer, particularly the ductal type, is increasing in frequency in the developed countries as well as in Ecuador, most probably. These lesions carry a higher risk of developing a subsequent invasive cancer. Treatment has changed recently due to results of randomized studies, from classical mastectomy to conservative surgery associated to radiotherapy. The Van Nuys Prognostic Index is currently the most usual instrument to guide diagnosis and treatment. Tamoxifen seems to decrease significantly the risk of tumor recurrence after initial treatment. (The author)

  3. Interleukin-19 in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory cytokines within the tumor microenvironment are linked to progression in breast cancer. Interleukin- (IL- 19, part of the IL-10 family, contributes to a range of diseases and disorders, such as asthma, endotoxic shock, uremia, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis. IL-19 is expressed in several types of tumor cells, especially in squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, tongue, esophagus, and lung and invasive duct carcinoma of the breast. In breast cancer, IL-19 expression is correlated with increased mitotic figures, advanced tumor stage, higher metastasis, and poor survival. The mechanisms of IL-19 in breast cancer have recently been explored both in vitro and in vivo. IL-19 has an autocrine effect in breast cancer cells. It directly promotes proliferation and migration and indirectly provides a microenvironment for tumor progression, which suggests that IL-19 is a prognostic marker in breast cancer and that antagonizing IL-19 may have therapeutic potential.

  4. Photo activation of HPPH encapsulated in “Pocket” liposomes triggers multiple drug release and tumor cell killing in mouse breast cancer xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sine J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jessica Sine,1,* Cordula Urban,2,* Derek Thayer,1 Heather Charron,2 Niksa Valim,2 Darrell B Tata,3 Rachel Schiff,4 Robert Blumenthal,1 Amit Joshi,2 Anu Puri1 1Membrane Structure and Function Section, Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute – Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3US Food and Drug Administration, CDRH/OSEL/Division of Physics, White Oak Campus, MD, USA; 4Lester and Sue Smith Breast Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: We recently reported laser-triggered release of photosensitive compounds from liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC and 1,2 bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC. We hypothesized that the permeation of photoactivated compounds occurs through domains of enhanced fluidity in the liposome membrane and have thus called them “Pocket” liposomes. In this study we have encapsulated the red light activatable anticancer photodynamic therapy drug 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH (Ex/Em410/670 nm together with calcein (Ex/Em490/517 nm as a marker for drug release in Pocket liposomes. A mole ratio of 7.6:1 lipid:HPPH was found to be optimal, with >80% of HPPH being included in the liposomes. Exposure of liposomes with a cw-diode 660 nm laser (90 mW, 0–5 minutes resulted in calcein release only when HPPH was included in the liposomes. Further analysis of the quenching ratios of liposome-entrapped calcein in the laser treated samples indicated that the laser-triggered release occurred via the graded mechanism. In vitro studies with MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cell line showed significant cell killing upon treatment of cell-liposome suspensions with the laser. To assess in vivo efficacy, we implanted MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells containing the luciferase gene along the mammary fat pads

  5. Targeting Tie2 to Increase Breast Cancer Responsiveness to Antiangiogenic Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    2004-01-01

    .... Results from human trials have been poorer than results from mouse testing. This disparity may be explained by more extensive coverage of vessels in human cancers, like breast cancer, by protective periendothelial mesenchymal cells (pericytes...

  6. Paclitaxel Albumin-Stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation in Treating Older Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-positive Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  7. Novel Approaches to Breast Cancer Prevention and Inhibition of Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Using mouse genetics, we showed that RANKL and its receptor RANK are critical regulators of sex hormone and BRCA1 mutation-driven breast cancer...into breast cancer patients and controls due to self reporting and histological examination. We have tested differences in RANKL, OPG and RANKL/OPG...cohort, we determined RANKL and OPG serum levels of participants from the Bruneck study [28, 29], that allowed us to analyse matched patient samples

  8. Brachytherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spikalovas, V.; Mudenas, A.; Karoesiene, E.; Mickevicius, R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1987-1995 a total of 347 patients with breast cancer underwent interstitial treatment. Two methods of irradiation were applied. 1. When patients refused surgery, external radiotherapy was given followed by implant radiotherapy for a dose of 20-30 Gy. Needle sources were applied for treatment with an increasing activity on the ends. The application of special template devices made it possible to implant radioactive sources in a strictly pre-set geometry. This allowed to place the sources in the necessary geometry for the whole course of irradiation. Dosimetric planning was performed in Gray-equivalents to a selected isodose curve mostly 85%. Treatment time was 20-50 hours. 2. In cases when the tumour was localized in the medial quadrant of breast, interstitial therapy was applied to the parasternal lymph nodes. During mastectomy catheters were placed in a. thoracica interna of the corresponding side. On the first or second postoperative day flexible radioactive sources were inserted into catheters. Their active length was 10-12 cm. Irradiation dose at a distance of 2 cm from the centre of source was 40-45 Gy. Results: There was minimum radiation effect on the adjusting organs and tissues. Local recurrence of tumour in the region of irradiation was in 6 patients. Conclusions: The application of interstitial radiotherapy in treatment of breast cancer is effective and the results of radiation treatment are encouraging

  9. Inflammatory breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an extremely aggressive disease that progresses rapidly and carries a very grim prognosis. It is characterized by erythema, rapid enlargement of the breast, skin ridging, and a characteristics peau d´orange appearance of the skin secondary to dermal lymphatic tumor involvement. Although a palpable tumor may not by present, about 55% to 85% of patient will present with metastases to the axillary or supraclavicular lymph nodes. Diagnosis of IBC is made on the basis of these clinical characteristics, as well as histologic verification of carcinoma. Accurate diagnosis is critically important, as multimodal therapy can significantly improve outcome if instituted early enough. Primary systemic treatment (neoadjuvant, induction, initials) is standard treatment for inflammatory breast cancer. If treatment response is not satisfactory it is necessary to look for new treatment regimens with different concept of dose intensity, density and sequence of treatment. In the neoadjuvant setting it is possible to employ all targeted and non-targeted therapies as was shown in a number of clinical trials. (author)

  10. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  11. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  12. Fulvestrant and/or Anastrozole in Treating Postmenopausal Patients With Stage II-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  13. Oral Administration and Detection of a Near-Infrared Molecular Imaging Agent in an Orthotopic Mouse Model for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Sumit; Verma, Kirti Dhingra; Hu, Yongjun; Khera, Eshita; Priluck, Aaron; Smith, David E; Thurber, Greg M

    2018-05-07

    Molecular imaging is advantageous for screening diseases such as breast cancer by providing precise spatial information on disease-associated biomarkers, something neither blood tests nor anatomical imaging can achieve. However, the high cost and risks of ionizing radiation for several molecular imaging modalities have prevented a feasible and scalable approach for screening. Clinical studies have demonstrated the ability to detect breast tumors using nonspecific probes such as indocyanine green, but the lack of molecular information and required intravenous contrast agent does not provide a significant benefit over current noninvasive imaging techniques. Here we demonstrate that negatively charged sulfate groups, commonly used to improve solubility of near-infrared fluorophores, enable sufficient oral absorption and targeting of fluorescent molecular imaging agents for completely noninvasive detection of diseased tissue such as breast cancer. These functional groups improve the pharmacokinetic properties of affinity ligands to achieve targeting efficiencies compatible with clinical imaging devices using safe, nonionizing radiation (near-infrared light). Together, this enables development of a "disease screening pill" capable of oral absorption and systemic availability, target binding, background clearance, and imaging at clinically relevant depths for breast cancer screening. This approach should be adaptable to other molecular targets and diseases for use as a new class of screening agents.

  14. System delays in breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    registry with an audit capability. We suggest targeting an 8-week period for the work-up and staging of every patient with breast cancer. The establishment of ... or less' and 'women with symptoms and signs suggestive of breast cancer must be ...

  15. Conventional surgery in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapia Herrera, Andres

    2013-01-01

    General aspects of breast cancer were described from the epidemiological point of view, clinical and pathological, as well as its impact at global and national levels. Parenchyma conservative surgery and/or breast skin was analyzed exhaustively as a cancer treatment analyzed exhaustively, to your specifications, requirements, technical aspects, risks, benefits, degree of oncological safety and benefits for patients [es

  16. Breast cancer in the elderly

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JhfBK: A I'ccr-mvicw Journal of liiomeclical Scicnccs. July 2002, Vol. 1 No. 1 pp 33-42. Breast cancer in the elderly. ABSTRACT. Between Janua~y 1997 and December 2001,107 patients were admitted and treated for breast cancer at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Of these, 27. (25.2%) were aged 60 ...

  17. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  18. Breast Cancer in Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screenings Most Schools Can Do More to Help Students Stay Sun Safe Parents and Friends Can Influence ... Starts in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer ... notice a change in the size or shape of your breast, feel pain in your breast, have nipple discharge other than ...

  19. Statins and breast cancer prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahern, Thomas P; Lash, Timothy L; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    Much preclinical and epidemiological evidence supports the anticancer effects of statins. Epidemiological evidence does not suggest an association between statin use and reduced incidence of breast cancer, but does support a protective effect of statins-especially simvastatin-on breast cancer...... recurrence. Here, we argue that the existing evidence base is sufficient to justify a clinical trial of breast cancer adjuvant therapy with statins and we advocate for such a trial to be initiated without delay. If a protective effect of statins on breast cancer recurrence is supported by trial evidence......, then the indications for a safe, well tolerated, and inexpensive treatment can be expanded to improve outcomes for breast cancer survivors. We discuss several trial design opportunities-including candidate predictive biomarkers of statin safety and efficacy-and off er solutions to the key challenges involved...

  20. Decline in breast cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Schwartz, Walter; Blichert-Toft, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: When estimating the decline in breast cancer mortality attributable to screening, the challenge is to provide valid comparison groups and to distinguish the screening effect from other effects. In Funen, Denmark, multidisciplinary breast cancer management teams started before screening...... was introduced; both activities came later in the rest of Denmark. Because Denmark had national protocols for breast cancer treatment, but hardly any opportunistic screening, Funen formed a "natural experiment", providing valid comparison groups and enabling the separation of the effect of screening from other...... factors. METHODS: Using Poisson regression we compared the observed breast cancer mortality rate in Funen after implementation of screening with the expected rate without screening. The latter was estimated from breast cancer mortality in the rest of Denmark controlled for historical differences between...

  1. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  2. Radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnerty, N.A.; Buzdar, A.U.; Blumenschein, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1983, sixteen patients with a history of irradiation at an early age to the head, neck, or chest areas for a variety of conditions in whom breast cancer subsequently developed were seen at out institute. The median latent period between the irradiation and the development of breast cancer was 420 months. The distribution of patients by stage of the disease and the median age at diagnosis of this subgroup was similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. The subsequent course of this disease was also similar to the breast cancer observed in the general population. A substantial number of women have been exposed to irradiation at a young age, and these women are at a higher risk of having breast cancer develop. These women should be closely observed to discover the disease in an early curable stage

  3. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  5. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  6. Other Considerations for Pregnancy and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Tests may include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  7. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  8. Early Diagnosis of Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu

    2017-07-05

    Early-stage cancer detection could reduce breast cancer death rates significantly in the long-term. The most critical point for best prognosis is to identify early-stage cancer cells. Investigators have studied many breast diagnostic approaches, including mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, computerized tomography, positron emission tomography and biopsy. However, these techniques have some limitations such as being expensive, time consuming and not suitable for young women. Developing a high-sensitive and rapid early-stage breast cancer diagnostic method is urgent. In recent years, investigators have paid their attention in the development of biosensors to detect breast cancer using different biomarkers. Apart from biosensors and biomarkers, microwave imaging techniques have also been intensely studied as a promising diagnostic tool for rapid and cost-effective early-stage breast cancer detection. This paper aims to provide an overview on recent important achievements in breast screening methods (particularly on microwave imaging) and breast biomarkers along with biosensors for rapidly diagnosing breast cancer.

  9. Photo activation of HPPH encapsulated in "Pocket" liposomes triggers multiple drug release and tumor cell killing in mouse breast cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, Jessica; Urban, Cordula; Thayer, Derek; Charron, Heather; Valim, Niksa; Tata, Darrell B; Schiff, Rachel; Blumenthal, Robert; Joshi, Amit; Puri, Anu

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported laser-triggered release of photosensitive compounds from liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2 bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC(8,9)PC). We hypothesized that the permeation of photoactivated compounds occurs through domains of enhanced fluidity in the liposome membrane and have thus called them "Pocket" liposomes. In this study we have encapsulated the red light activatable anticancer photodynamic therapy drug 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) (Ex/Em410/670 nm) together with calcein (Ex/Em490/517 nm) as a marker for drug release in Pocket liposomes. A mole ratio of 7.6:1 lipid:HPPH was found to be optimal, with >80% of HPPH being included in the liposomes. Exposure of liposomes with a cw-diode 660 nm laser (90 mW, 0-5 minutes) resulted in calcein release only when HPPH was included in the liposomes. Further analysis of the quenching ratios of liposome-entrapped calcein in the laser treated samples indicated that the laser-triggered release occurred via the graded mechanism. In vitro studies with MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cell line showed significant cell killing upon treatment of cell-liposome suspensions with the laser. To assess in vivo efficacy, we implanted MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells containing the luciferase gene along the mammary fat pads on the ribcage of mice. For biodistribution experiments, trace amounts of a near infrared lipid probe DiR (Ex/Em745/840 nm) were included in the liposomes. Liposomes were injected intravenously and laser treatments (90 mW, 0.9 cm diameter, for an exposure duration ranging from 5-8 minutes) were done 4 hours postinjection (only one tumor per mouse was treated, keeping the second flank tumor as control). Calcein release occurred as indicated by an increase in calcein fluorescence from laser treated tumors only. The animals were observed for up to 15 days postinjection and tumor volume and luciferase expression was measured. A

  10. Photo activation of HPPH encapsulated in “Pocket” liposomes triggers multiple drug release and tumor cell killing in mouse breast cancer xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sine, Jessica; Urban, Cordula; Thayer, Derek; Charron, Heather; Valim, Niksa; Tata, Darrell B; Schiff, Rachel; Blumenthal, Robert; Joshi, Amit; Puri, Anu

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported laser-triggered release of photosensitive compounds from liposomes containing dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and 1,2 bis(tricosa-10,12-diynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DC8,9PC). We hypothesized that the permeation of photoactivated compounds occurs through domains of enhanced fluidity in the liposome membrane and have thus called them “Pocket” liposomes. In this study we have encapsulated the red light activatable anticancer photodynamic therapy drug 2-(1-Hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) (Ex/Em410/670 nm) together with calcein (Ex/Em490/517 nm) as a marker for drug release in Pocket liposomes. A mole ratio of 7.6:1 lipid:HPPH was found to be optimal, with >80% of HPPH being included in the liposomes. Exposure of liposomes with a cw-diode 660 nm laser (90 mW, 0–5 minutes) resulted in calcein release only when HPPH was included in the liposomes. Further analysis of the quenching ratios of liposome-entrapped calcein in the laser treated samples indicated that the laser-triggered release occurred via the graded mechanism. In vitro studies with MDA-MB-231-LM2 breast cancer cell line showed significant cell killing upon treatment of cell-liposome suspensions with the laser. To assess in vivo efficacy, we implanted MDA-MB-231-LM2 cells containing the luciferase gene along the mammary fat pads on the ribcage of mice. For biodistribution experiments, trace amounts of a near infrared lipid probe DiR (Ex/Em745/840 nm) were included in the liposomes. Liposomes were injected intravenously and laser treatments (90 mW, 0.9 cm diameter, for an exposure duration ranging from 5–8 minutes) were done 4 hours postinjection (only one tumor per mouse was treated, keeping the second flank tumor as control). Calcein release occurred as indicated by an increase in calcein fluorescence from laser treated tumors only. The animals were observed for up to 15 days postinjection and tumor volume and luciferase expression was measured. A

  11. Breast cancer in men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Villas-Boas, C.L.P.; Koch, H.A.; Nogueira, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    After a study of all cases of masculine breast cancer registered at the INCa from 1983 to 1989, the author present the most usual clinical, radiological and histopathological findings. The ductal infiltrating type of carcinoma was predominant; there were also six cases of secondary implant and two patients who died. The value of this article lies on the opportunity of presenting 11 cases of this pathology, which represent only 0,2% of malignant tumors in men, and to describe its manifestations and call the attention of radiologists for this entity. (author)

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Breast cancer in Kumasi, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohene-Yeboah, M.; Adjei, E.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Ghanaian women.To describes the characteristics of breast cancer patients attending the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana.The study was conducted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital. Between July 1st 2004 and June 30th 2009 patients presenting with breast lumps were assessed by clinical examination, imaging studies and pathological examination. Relevant clinical and pathological were recorded prospectively data on all patients with microscopically proven breast cancer. The cancers were graded according to the modified Bloom-Richardson system. Tissue immunoperoxidase stains for oestrogen, progesterone receptors and c-erb2 oncogene were performed with commercially prepared antigens and reagents.Nineteen thousand four hundred and twenty – three (19,423) patients were seen during the study period. There were 330 (1.7%) patients with histologically proven breast cancer. The mean age was 49.1 years. A palpable breast lump was detected in 248 patients (75.2%). Two hundred and eighty –one patients (85.2%) presented with Stages III and IV , 271 (82.1%) invasive and 230 ( 85.2%) high grade carcinomas. Oestrogen and progesterone receptors were positive in 32 and 9 cases respectively. Her2 protein was positive in 11 cases. In Kumasi, as in other parts of Ghana, breast cancer affects mostly young pre-menopausal who present with advanced disease. The cancers have unfavourable prognostic features and are unlikely to respond to hormonal therapy. (au)

  14. Treatment response assessment with (R)-[11CPAQ PET in the MMTV-PyMT mouse model of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegnebratt, T; Lu, L; Eksborg, S; Chireh, A; Damberg, P; Nikkhou-Aski, S; Foukakis, T; Rundqvist, H; Holmin, S; Kuiper, R V; Samen, E

    2018-04-03

    The goal of the study was to assess the potential of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2-targeting carbon-11 labeled (R)-N-(4-bromo-2-fluorophenyl)-6-methoxy-7-((1-methyl-3-piperidinyl)methoxy)-4-quinazolineamine ((R)-[ 11 C]PAQ) as a positron emission tomography (PET) imaging biomarker for evaluation of the efficacy of anticancer drugs in preclinical models. MMTV-PyMT mice were treated with vehicle alone (VEH), murine anti-VEGFA antibody (B20-4.1.1), and paclitaxel (PTX) in combination or as single agents. The treatment response was measured with (R)-[ 11 C]PAQ PET as standardized uptake value (SUV) mean , SUV max relative changes at the baseline (day 0) and follow-up (day 4) time points, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived PyMT mammary tumor volume (TV) changes. Expression of Ki67, VEGFR-2, and CD31 in tumor tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Non-parametric statistical tests were used to evaluate the relation between (R)-[ 11 C]PAQ radiotracer uptake and therapy response biomarkers. The (R)-[ 11 C]PAQ SUV max in tumors was significantly reduced after 4 days in the B20-4.1.1/PTX combinational and B20-4.1.1 monotherapy groups (p R)-[ 11 C]PAQ SUV max change and TV reduction in the B20-4.1.1/PTX group. Statistical testing showed a significant difference in the blood vessel density between the B20-4.1.1/PTX combinational group and the VEH group (p R)-[ 11 C]PAQ can be approved as a predictive radiotracer for cancer therapy response.

  15. Self assessment and detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Priyanka; Yadav, Umesh

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths in India. Approx. three million patients suffering from the disease while Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women in India. Post operative radiotherapy after the breast conservative surgery and mastectomy have been shown to reduce the rates of local recurrence and death due to breast carcinomas. Hence awareness of breast cancer signs, symptoms and self assessment plays critical role in the care of breast cancer patients

  16. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  17. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  18. [Management of breast cancer in a woman with breast implants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacle, S; Lifrange, E; Nizet, J-L

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or of delaying its diagnosis; however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants.

  19. Diet and breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Romieu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Both diet and nutrition have been studied in relationship with breast cancer risk, as the great variation among different countries in breast cancer incidence could possibly be explained through the inflammatory and immune response, as well as antioxidant intake, among others.To date, no clear association with diet beyond overweight and weight gain has been found, except for alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, the small number of studies done in middle to low income countries where variability of food intake is wider,is beginning to show interesting results.Tanto la dieta como la nutrición han sido estudiadas en relación con el riesgo de cáncer de mama, dada la gran variación de incidencia de cáncer entre países, y la posibilidad de explicarla a través de la respuesta inflamatoria o inmune, así como ingesta de antioxidantes,entre otros.Hasta la fecha, ninguna asociación clara con la dieta ha sido encontrada, excepto para el consumo de alcohol, más allá del sobrepeso y del incremento de peso. Sin embargo, los estudios que se están realizando en países de mediano a bajo nivel de ingresos, con mayor variabilidad de ingesta de alimentos, comienzan a mostrar resultados interesantes.

  20. Estrogens in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prolonged exposure to estrogen increases the risk of cancer breast, the precise role of estrogen in the carcinogenesis process is unclear. They are capable of inducing cell proliferation through different channels receptor Estrogen (ER) known, for example through MAPkinasa sensitivity the promoter of proliferation effect depends on the level of RE, or type to â, integrity (mutations may alter its function) and ligand. The different types of estrogens and related compounds have different profile of affinity for RE and effect end. The modulatory role of progestogens proliferation is very complex, and the interaction between the effector pathways of progestin’s, estrogens, EGF and IGF family - maybe others - determines the final effect .. Estrogens are mutagenic per se weak, but is now known for its hepatic metabolism occur highly reactive species such as quinones, and catechol, powerful mutagens in vitro. Direct or indirect genotoxicity probably explains Part of the effects of estrogen on tumor cells. The use of hormone replacement (HTR) increases the risk of CM, as proportional to the time of use. The combination with progestin seems to be increased risk (R R 2). It is unclear the role of phyto estrogens in the prevention the CM. In the male breast is known that the proliferative response to parenchymal different hormonal maneuvers is different. The effect is minimal castration are and maximum with the combination of estrogen and progesterone. It is unclear, however, the risk of the population exposed to hormone therapy for cancer prostate or otherwise

  1. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Breast Self Examination Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy affecting women in Nigeria. Regular breast self examination reduces morbidity and mortality from this disease. Objective: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer, breast self examination and practice amongst secondary school teachers in Enugu , Nigeria.

  2. The Effect of Simvastatin on Breast Cancer Cell Growth in Women With Stage I-II Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-02

    Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  3. Metastasis of breast cancer rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, L.; Santander, G.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Metastases to the breast are rare, corresponding approximately to 3% of breast cancers. Primary tumors that spread more commonly are own breast, often following them in melanomas, neuroendocrine, ovarian and lymphoma. Medical history: A 59-year consultation rectoragias repeated and thinning. It is studied and finally intervenes (low anterior resection) diagnosed with rectal cancer whose Histopathology revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage III. Concomitantly the patient has a left breast lump that was studied with mammography, which revealed a dense mass of larger diameter 4 cm in topografiada 3 hour left breast with well defined contours and ultrasonographic structure solid. MI lumpectomy is performed whose pathology reports a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with cytoarchitectural features matching the lesion of rectum. Hormone receptors were negative. The patient is treated as a rectal cancer with RT spread over QT (5FU i /c). Died 7 months after diagnosis. Discusion: In literature are reported only 3 cases of breast metastases secondary to rectal cancer; how unusual this presentation justify this report.In this event they occurred in patients with a previous diagnosis of rectal cancer and in the context of systemic lesion progression. In our case clinician early diagnosis of rectal and breast metastases was synchronous. The mammographic image consistent with those described for these cases in the literature.The development of metastases in breast tissue is associated with a poor prognosis as which correlates with the survival of the patient

  4. Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0390 TITLE: Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zheng Li CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0390 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Zheng Li 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...14 Theranostics Targeting Metastatic Breast  Cancer   A. Introduction (1paragraph) The overall goal of this proposal is to prepare TrkC

  5. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... white blood cells that help fight illness. If breast cancer spreads, the lymph nodes in the underarm (called ... if they contain cancer cells. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. Sentinel node biopsy and ...

  6. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  7. Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Breast Cancer Chemotherapy and Your Heart Christine Unitt , Kamaneh Montazeri , ... Disclosures Footnotes Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Introduction Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. ...

  8. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2002-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  9. National Native American Breast Cancer Survivor's Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Burhansstipanov, Linda

    2003-01-01

    .... The purpose of this project is to improve the survival from breast cancer and quality of life after being diagnosed with breast cancer for both the patient and loved ones of the cancer patient...

  10. Enhanced Metastatic Recurrence Via Lymphatic Trafficking of a High-Metastatic Variant of Human Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Surgical Resection in Orthotopic Nude Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shuya; Takehara, Kiyoto; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-03-01

    We previously developed and characterized a highly invasive and metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) variant by serial orthotopic implantation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in nude mice. Eventually, a highly invasive and metastatic variant of human TNBC was isolated after lymph node metastases was harvested and orthotopically re-implanted into the mammary gland of nude mice for two cycles. The variant thereby isolated is highly invasive in the mammary gland and metastasized to lymph nodes in 10 of 12 mice compared to 2 of 12 of the parental cell line. In the present report, we observed that high-metastatic MDA-MB-231H-RFP cells produced significantly larger subcutaneous tumors compared with parental MDA-MB-231 cells in nude mice. Extensive lymphatic trafficking by high-metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells was also observed. High-metastatic MDA-MB-231 developed larger recurrent tumors 2 weeks after tumor resection compared with tumors that were not resected in orthotopic models. Surgical resection of the MDA-MB-231 high-metastatic variant primary tumor in orthotopic models also resulted in rapid and enhanced lymphatic trafficking of residual cancer cells and extensive lymph node and lung metastasis that did not occur in the non-surgical mice. These results suggest that surgical resection of high metastatic TNBC can greatly increase the malignancy of residual cancer. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 559-569, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  12. Mammographic detection of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mammography, whether film or xerography, is a complementary examination to breast palpation in the detection of breast cancer. According to the guidelines of the American Cancer Society, mammography should be performed on every asymptomatic woman, at least once, over the age of 35. Annual mammography after 50 is also advised. The radiation dose to the breast from current equipment is so low as to not be considered a factor in denying a woman this screening examination. Mammography has a role in evaluating the woman with solitary and multiple breast masses. It is the only proved reliable modality able to detect nonpalpable breast cancers and small tumors less than 2 cm in size. All nonpalpable lesions should be excised by directed biopsy, using a preoperative localization technique

  13. Awareness of Breast Cancer and Practice of Breast Self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer among women in globally and in Nigeria. In Nigeria, cases of breast cancer cases have been prevalent for three decades and more than 90% of cases can be detected by women themselves through breast self – examination. The objective of this study ...

  14. Radiofrequency Tagged Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-18

    Positive Axillary Lymph Node; Stage 0 Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage I Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIA Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIB Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage III Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer AJCC v7

  15. Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Leary, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    .... During this time effective adjuvant therapy was not available to treat early breast cancer. Social security numbers for a subset of these women were obtained by crossmatching AFIP records with the DEERS database...

  16. Mevalonates, Ras and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Michael

    2001-01-01

    .... This selective inhibition appears to be a consequence of expression of oncogenic Ras. Here we are evaluating the ability of Fmev to selectively interfere with proliferation of breast cancer cells...

  17. Molecular genetics of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radice, P.; Pierotti, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the last two decades, molecular studies have enlightened the complexity of the genetic alterations that occur in breast cancer cells. To date, more than 40 different genes or loci have been found to be altered in breast carcinomas. Although some of these genes, as for example ERBB2, appear to be mutated in a high proportion of cases, their mechanism of action and their role in the different stages of cancer development are still poorly understood. More recently, two major determinants of the inherited predisposition to breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2, have been isolated. As a consequence, it is now possible to screen families with a positive history of breast carcinomas for the identification of mutations carriers, in order to address these individuals into adequate programs of cancer surveillance and prevention

  18. Palbociclib for Advanced Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim analysis of the PALOMA3 trial shows that women with hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer who received palbociclib plus fulvestrant had longer progression-free survival rates than women who received a placebo plus fulvestrant.

  19. Management of male breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay V. Dimitro v

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of male breast cancer is still under discussion due to lack of information from prospective, randomized clinical trials and low incidence of this disease. Current management is based largely on extrapolation from data related to treatment of female breast cancer. Over the last two decades, several review articles have discussed mainly retrospective and anecdotal data related to hormonal and chemotherapy treatment modalities. In this review, we present the most recent information and future considerations related to the management of male breast cancer. In addition to the conventional treatment options we will discuss the possible role of targeted therapy. Establishing a national or global registry for male breast cancer will provide more precise information about the natural history of the disease and will facilitate the design and execution of prospective, randomized multicenter clinical trials.

  20. Melatonin, Aging and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... conditions for tumor induction, promotion and progression. The pineal gland, via its hormone melatonin, has been shown by numerous laboratories to inhibit the proliferation of both human and animal models of breast cancer...

  1. Selenium and Breast Cancer Chemoprevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    .... The intermediate biomarkers being studied are as follows: indicators of oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules such as DNA and lipids, indicators of IGF metabolic status, and cellular indicators of breast cancer risk...

  2. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  3. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  4. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  5. [Sexuality after breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alder, Judith; Bitzer, Johannes

    2010-03-01

    Sexual complaints are an often reported complication of breast cancer treatment, however still under diagnosed and rarely subject of oncologic counseling. The etiology is multifactorial: predisposing factors, triggers and maintaining factors can be identified on a somatic, psychological and social-interactional level. Accordingly, the development of the therapeutic approach is based on the identification and, where possible, modification or compensation of those factors which explain and maintain the sexual problems. Most often, loss of appetence is being reported, however, as it may develop secondary to sexual pain (dyspareunia) which is partly due to lack of lubrication as a consequence of therapy induced hormonal changes, the entire sexual interaction as well as sexual experiences since diagnosis and treatment should be systematically assessed. For treatment, vaginal atrophy, climacteric symptoms and, most importantly, the psychological and relational adjustment process to illness induced changes have to be considered.

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gampenrieder, Simon Peter; Westphal, Theresa; Greil, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Summary Based on a strong rationale for anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) treatment in breast cancer and promising preclinical data, great hopes have been placed on the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab. Clinical trials, however, reported conflicting results. In metastatic human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-negative breast cancer, the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved consistently progression-free survival (PFS), however, without effect on overall...

  7. Breast cancer in Accra, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Most can- cers (97.1%) were found in women with only 24. (2.9%) in males, giving a female:male ratio of. 33.2:1. Figure 1: Age characteristics of breast cancers in Accra. Ductal type represents the most common (90.1%) breast cancer cases followed by lobular carcinomas. (3.9%) (Table 1). The ductal to lobular ratio is.

  8. Dormancy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banys M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Malgorzata Banys,1,2 Andreas D Hartkopf,1 Natalia Krawczyk,1 Tatjana Kaiser,1 Franziska Meier-Stiegen,1 Tanja Fehm,1 Hans Neubauer11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Hamburg, GermanyAbstract: Tumor dormancy describes a prolonged quiescent state in which tumor cells are present, but disease progression is not yet clinically apparent. Breast cancer is especially known for long asymptomatic periods, up to 25 years, with no evidence of the disease, followed by a relapse. Factors that determine the cell's decision to enter a dormant state and that control its duration remain unclear. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in understanding how tumor cells circulating in the blood interact and extravasate into secondary sites and which factors might determine whether these cells survive, remain dormant, or become macrometastases. The mechanisms of tumor cell dormancy are still not clear. Two different hypotheses are currently discussed: tumor cells persist either by completely withdrawing from the cell cycle or by continuing to proliferate at a slow rate that is counterbalanced by cell death. Because dormant disseminated tumor cells may be the founders of metastasis, one hypothesis is that dormant tumor cells, or at least a fraction of them, share stem cell-like characteristics that may be responsible for their long half-lives and their suggested resistance to standard chemotherapy. Therefore, knowledge of the biology of tumor cell dormancy may be the basis from which to develop innovative targeted therapies to control or eliminate this tumor cell fraction. In this review, we discuss biological mechanisms and clinical implications of tumor dormancy in breast cancer patients.Keywords: tumor dormancy, disseminated tumor cell, circulating tumor cell, targeted therapy

  9. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and ...

  10. Iodide transport and breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Vikki L; McCabe, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in women, with incidence rates that continue to rise. The heterogeneity of the disease makes breast cancer exceptionally difficult to treat, particularly for those patients with triple-negative disease. To address the therapeutic complexity of these tumours, new strategies for diagnosis and treatment are urgently required. The ability of lactating and malignant breast cells to uptake and transport iodide has led to the hypothesis that radioiodide therapy could be a potentially viable treatment for many breast cancer patients. Understanding how iodide is transported, and the factors regulating the expression and function of the proteins responsible for iodide transport, is critical for translating this hypothesis into reality. This review covers the three known iodide transporters - the sodium iodide symporter, pendrin and the sodium-coupled monocarboxylate transporter - and their role in iodide transport in breast cells, along with efforts to manipulate them to increase the potential for radioiodide therapy as a treatment for breast cancer. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, Sarah; McLaughlin, Sarah L.; Hobbs, Gerald; Coad, James; Martin, Karen H.; Olfert, I. Mark; Vona-Davis, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer

  12. High-Fat, High-Calorie Diet Enhances Mammary Carcinogenesis and Local Inflammation in MMTV-PyMT Mouse Model of Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowen, Sarah [Department of Surgery, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); McLaughlin, Sarah L. [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Hobbs, Gerald [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Statistics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Coad, James [Department of Pathology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Martin, Karen H. [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Olfert, I. Mark [Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Department of Human Performance and Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Vona-Davis, Linda, E-mail: lvdavis@hsc.wvu.edu [Department of Surgery, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University Health Sciences Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2015-06-26

    Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence that obesity and the associated adipose tissue inflammation are risk factors for breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. We evaluated the effect of a high-fat/high-calorie diet on mammary carcinogenesis in the immunocompetent MMTV-PyMT murine model. Four-week old female mice (20/group) were randomized to receive either a high-fat (HF; 60% kcal as fat) or a low-fat (LF; 16% kcal) diet for eight weeks. Body weights were determined, and tumor volumes measured by ultrasound, each week. At necropsy, the tumors and abdominal visceral fat were weighed and plasma collected. The primary mammary tumors, adjacent mammary fat, and lungs were preserved for histological and immunohistochemical examination and quantification of infiltrating macrophages, crown-like structure (CLS) formation, and microvessel density. The body weight gains, visceral fat weights, the primary mammary tumor growth rates and terminal weights, were all significantly greater in the HF-fed mice. Adipose tissue inflammation in the HF group was indicated by hepatic steatosis, pronounced macrophage infiltration and CLS formation, and elevations in plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), leptin and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations. HF intake was also associated with higher tumor-associated microvascular density and the proangiogenic factor MCP-1. This study provides preclinical evidence in a spontaneous model of breast cancer that mammary adipose tissue inflammation induced by diet, enhances the recruitment of macrophages and increases tumor vascular density suggesting a role for obesity in creating a microenvironment favorable for angiogenesis in the progression of breast cancer.

  13. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, L.M.; Khan, S.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737\\ud and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast\\ud cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer\\ud predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the\\ud coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for\\ud identifi...

  14. RAD51B in familial breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pelttari, LM; Khan, S; Vuorela, M; Kiiski, JI; Vilske, S; Nevanlinna, V; Ranta, S; Schleutker, J; Winqvist, R; Kallioniemi, A; Dörk, T; Bogdanova, NV; Figueroa, J; Pharoah, PDP; Schmidt, MK

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possi...

  15. Radioisotope techniques used in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au-Yong Ting Kun

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the commonest cancer in women. Treatment and prognosis of breast cancer depend very much on accurate diagnosis, staging and follow-up of patients. Recently, there are several radioisotope techniques developed and have great impact on management of breast cancer. These include scintimammography, sentinel lymph node detection and positron emission tomography. This article is to review these important techniques

  16. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi, Seyed Hesam Bani; Karimi, Samieh; Mahboobi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among women. Lifestyle changes are shown to be important in the prevention of breast cancer. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol use, and vitamin and mineral use are key factors influencing the risk of breast cancer among women. Because these factors are related to each other, it is difficult to assess their individual roles in breast cancer. Some of these factors are alterable, meaning that women can decrease their risk...

  17. Awareness and current knowledge of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mehwish; Daniyal, Muhammad; Khan, Asmat Ullah

    2017-10-02

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health dilemma and is currently the most common tumour in the globe. Awareness of breast cancer, public attentiveness, and advancement in breast imaging has made a positive impact on recognition and screening of breast cancer. Breast cancer is life-threatening disease in females and the leading cause of mortality among women population. For the previous two decades, studies related to the breast cancer has guided to astonishing advancement in our understanding of the breast cancer, resulting in further proficient treatments. Amongst all the malignant diseases, breast cancer is considered as one of the leading cause of death in post menopausal women accounting for 23% of all cancer deaths. It is a global issue now, but still it is diagnosed in their advanced stages due to the negligence of women regarding the self inspection and clinical examination of the breast. This review addresses anatomy of the breast, risk factors, epidemiology of breast cancer, pathogenesis of breast cancer, stages of breast cancer, diagnostic investigations and treatment including chemotherapy, surgery, targeted therapies, hormone replacement therapy, radiation therapy, complementary therapies, gene therapy and stem-cell therapy etc for breast cancer.

  18. Breast Cancer: Reactions, Choices, Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Alexia N.

    2000-01-01

    Women with breast cancer often experience a predictable set of emotional and psychological reactions to their cancer diagnosis according to recognized influencing factors such as age at the time of diagnosis and stage of life. The time between a breast biopsy and the receipt of the pathology results has been identified by patients as the most stressful period throughout the entire cancer experience. Treatment decisions, until recently, were made solely by physicians while patients assumed passive roles. Increasingly, breast cancer patients want to assume an active role in their treatment decisions and care and are no longer satisfied to be passive observers. More and more women educate themselves about their disease through the Internet, investigating available treatment options, side effects, and in some cases, alternative therapies. This new type of breast cancer patient wants to be cared for by physicians who embrace the patient as part of the team. They appreciate the physician who is not threatened by the educated breast cancer patient and understands that she is ultimately motivated by an attempt to regain some of the control the cancer has taken away from her. PMID:21765661

  19. Microwaves for breast cancer treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Abdelhamid Elkayal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is potentially an effective method for the treatment of cancer, especially breast cancer tumors. One of the most attractive attributes of hyperthermia is the possibility of providing therapeutic benefit noninvasively, minimizing side effects. To be effective, a hyperthermia treatment must selectively heat the cancerous tissue, elevating the temperature in the tumor without exposing healthy tissue to excessive temperature elevations. In this paper, a suggested simple model of Annular Phased Array (APA using eight half wavelength linear dipoles is presented. New software (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS is used to calculate the temperature distribution inside a model of a three layered breast (skin, breast tissue, and tumor. In addition, the effect of changing the amplitude and phases of the array elements on the temperature distributions and the conditions on the values of the phases are demonstrated in order to achieve the objective of hyperthermia for breast tumor treatment.

  20. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Nearly 7,000 women with early-stage, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the trial ...

  1. Environmental exposures, breast development and cancer risk: Through the looking glass of breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Michele R; Winn, Deborah M; Collman, Gwen W; Rizzo, Jeanne; Birnbaum, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    This review summarizes the report entitled: Breast Cancer and the Environment: Prioritizing Prevention, highlights research gaps and the importance of focusing on early life exposures for breast development and breast cancer risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Living Beyond Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACTH CAF CMF FAC TAC TC TCH TH THP Radiation Therapy Whole Breast Radiation Partial Breast Radiation ... Basics Treatments and Your Bone Health Bone Health Tests Improving Bone Health Medicines To Protect Bones Diet, ...

  3. Antibodies to Placental Immunoregulatory Ferritin with Transfer of Polyclonal Lymphocytes Arrest MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Growth in a Nude Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Halpern

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently cloned human gene named “placental immunoregulatory ferritin” (PLIF is a pregnancyrelated immunomodulator. Recombinant PLIF and its bioactive domain C48 are immune-suppressive and induce pronounced IL-10 production by immune cells. PLIF is expressed in the placenta and breast cancer cells. Blocking PLIF in pregnant mice by anti-C48 antibodies inhibited placental and fetal growth and modulated the cytokine network. It has been revealed that anti-C48 treatment inhibited MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice. However, this significant effect was observed only in those transfused with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Blocking PLIF in tumor-engrafted human immune cell transfused mice resulted in massive infiltration of human CD45+ cells (mainly CD8+ T cells, both intratumorally and in the tumor periphery, and a significant number of caspase-3+ cells. In vitro, antiC48 treatment of MCF-7 tumor cells cocultured with human lymphocytes induced a significant increase in interferon-γ secretion. We conclude that blocking PLIF inhibits breast cancer growth, possibly by an effect on the cytokine network in immune cells and on breakdown of immunosuppression.

  4. Mammographic Breast Density in Malaysian Women with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriah Jamal; Humairah Samad Cheung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the mammographic breast density of women with breast cancer detected on voluntary mammographic screening at two selected screening centers in Malaysia. This was a retrospective study of Full-Field Digital Mammography (FFDM) images of 150 Malaysian women with biopsy-proven breast cancer. The study population comprised 73 Malays (37.7 %), 59 Chinese (39.3 %) and 18 Indians (12.0 %). The Tabar breast density Patterns (I - V) were used to evaluate mammographic breast density. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results were compared with findings from a similar study on a group of 668 women who did not have breast cancer. The results showed that 44.7 % of the study population had dense breasts (Patterns IV and V), 14.7 % had predominantly fatty breasts (Patterns II and III) while 40.7 % had Pattern I. The proportion of study population with dense breasts decreased with age. In conclusion, the proportion of women with dense breasts decreased with age. Majority of the women with cancer (44.7 %) had dense breasts of Tabar Patterns IV and V, which has been associated with increased risk of breast cancer detected by voluntary mammographic screening. The results support the notion that increased breast density is a risk factor of breast cancer. (author)

  5. Endocrine determinants of breast density and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common malignancy among females. The total breast area on a mammogram can be dived in a radiologicaly dense area (glandular and stromal tissue) and a non-dense area (mainly fat tissue). Women with a high proportion of dense breast tissue (percent breast density)

  6. Propranolol and survival from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardwell, Chris R; Pottegård, Anton; Vaes, Evelien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all......-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network. Propranolol and non-selective beta-blocker use was ascertained for each patient. Breast cancer-specific and all......-analysis techniques. Dose-response analyses by number of prescriptions were also performed. Analyses were repeated investigating propranolol use before cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: The combined study population included 55,252 and 133,251 breast cancer patients in the analysis of breast cancer-specific and all...

  7. Archives of Breast Cancer: An Academic Multidisciplinary Breast Cancer Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kaviani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to Archives of Breast Cancer (ABC, a new journal with sole focus on breast diseases and especially breast cancer. Breast cancer is a devastating disease that impacts many women and threatens their health and wellbeing. A large number of health professionals from a wide spectrum of clinical disciplines, such as surgery, medical oncology, public health, pathology, radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology, and nuclear medicine, are involved in dealing with such a challenging and common disease.The concept of applying a multidisciplinary approach to clinical and non-clinical aspects of breast cancer has been found to be of vital importance to the understanding of this prevalent type of cancer. Such collaboration can also improve the quantity and quality of the research in this field. To this end, journals which choose to publish multidisciplinary articles as their primary focus can serve as the academic forum to share ideas from a variety of expertise. Archives of Breast Cancer can certainly add to the depth and quality of the research in the field. Articles on a single topic would be readily available to the readers from multiple disciplines and all in one journal. This would eventually lead to fruitful interaction among specialists seeking to investigate this disease, yet,from different perspectives. The benefits of this interaction in the process of devising appropriate strategies and approaches in dealing with the problem are crystal clear.The world of medical sciences has witnessed an abundant increase in the quality and quantity of breast-cancer-related research. In the past 20 years, the number of published articles indexed in PubMed from 1994 to 2014 is more than 5 times than the number published before 1993 (about 170,000 compared to 30,000. Meanwhile, the number of PubMed indexed medical journals dedicated to breast cancer research has also risen from 5 in 1993 to 17 in 2014. This increasing trend highlights an essential need for

  8. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among female undergraduate students in a higher teachers training college in Cameroon. ... Conclusion: Though most students are aware of the existence of breast cancer, their overall knowledge on its risk factors and clinical presentation is insufficient with a ...

  10. DNA Methylation Alterations in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We have performed the NotI-MseI MS-AFLP experiments using normal and tumor DNA from breast cancer patients and determined the identity of bands exhibiting consistent changes in breast cancer DNA fingerprint...

  11. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuwei; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors are growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, exerting their roles in embryogenesis, tissue homeostasis, and development of breast cancer. Recent genetic studies have identified some subtypes of fibroblast growth factor receptors as strong genetic loci associated with breast cancer. In this article, we review the recent epidemiological findings and experiment results of fibroblast growth factor receptors in breast cancer. First, we summarized the structure and physiological function of fibroblast growth factor receptors in humans. Then, we discussed the common genetic variations in fibroblast growth factor receptors that affect breast cancer risk. In addition, we also introduced the potential roles of each fibroblast growth factor receptors isoform in breast cancer. Finally, we explored the potential therapeutics targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors for breast cancer. Based on the biological mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor receptors leading to the pathogenesis in breast cancer, targeting fibroblast growth factor receptors may provide new opportunities for breast cancer therapeutic strategies.

  13. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  14. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2005-01-01

    ... in a murine model of human breast cancer. These results are in agreement with human cancer studies documenting an upregulation of this receptor in breast tumors as well as are consistent with the correlation between Ron overexpression...

  15. IGF-IR Signaling in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Surmacz, Ewa

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system is involved in the growth of breast cancer cells in vitro and may be important in breast cancer etiology and progression...

  16. Breast Cancer Epidemiology in Puerto Rico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazario, Cruz M; Freudenheim, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This project has two mayor goals: to design and conduct a pilot case-control breast cancer study among Puerto Rican women, and to train and develop researchers in breast cancer at the University of Puerto Rico...

  17. HER2 Genetic Link to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When researchers discovered the HER2 gene's importance to breast cancer growth, this led to the development of trastuzumab and other treatments that have improved survival for women with HER2-positive breast cancer.

  18. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  19. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  20. THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Georgescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer remains a major public health problem, being the second cause of cancer death in women. There is a marked tendency to restrict the extension of surgical gesture, which directly leads to two different attitudes: radical surgery and conservative surgery, to which, at least in our country, there are still some delays. Prospective and retrospective studies have shown that, in 20 years, conservative and radical therapy had about the same rate of survival and disease-free interval, at least for stage I and II breast cancer, the only real counterargument against conservative surgery being that, in principle, the higher rate of recurrence local constraint can be solved by postoperative radiotherapy. Finally, the survival rate is the main parameter of evaluation, assessing the effectiveness of the treatment in breast cancer, and in all its other forms.

  1. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  2. Heavy Metal Exposure in Predicting Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Male Breast Cancer; Neurotoxicity; Peripheral Neuropathy; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Minocycline Hydrochloride in Reducing Chemotherapy Induced Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  4. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  5. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy After Mastectomy in Preventing Recurrence in Patients With Stage IIa-IIIa Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-06

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Medullary Breast Carcinoma; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  6. Breast self examination and breast cancer: Knowledge and practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... within their communities for screening behaviours in health promotion. Medical ... breast self examination (BSE) and breast cancer to be effective health educators. ... female students drawn from schools within the College of Health sciences, ...

  7. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-01-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  8. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  9. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  10. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  11. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...communications 215, 566 (Oct 13, 1995). 87. S. J. Reshkin, R. A. Cardone , S. Harguindey, Na+-H+ exchanger, pH regulation and cancer. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 8, 85 (Jan 1, 2013).

  12. New Treatment Option for Young Women with Hormone-Sensitive Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... breast cancer, defined as estrogen and/or progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer, represents 79 percent of breast ...

  13. Trastuzumab Emtansine in Treating Older Patients With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Stage I-III Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Estrogen Receptor Status; HER2 Positive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Status; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  14. Small interfering RNA targeted to IGF-IR delays tumor growth and induces proinflammatory cytokines in a mouse breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphanie Durfort

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I and its type I receptor (IGF-IR play significant roles in tumorigenesis and in immune response. Here, we wanted to know whether an RNA interference approach targeted to IGF-IR could be used for specific antitumor immunostimulation in a breast cancer model. For that, we evaluated short interfering RNA (siRNAs for inhibition of in vivo tumor growth and immunological stimulation in immunocompetent mice. We designed 2'-O-methyl-modified siRNAs to inhibit expression of IGF-IR in two murine breast cancer cell lines (EMT6, C4HD. Cell transfection of IGF-IR siRNAs decreased proliferation, diminished phosphorylation of downstream signaling pathway proteins, AKT and ERK, and caused a G0/G1 cell cycle block. The IGF-IR silencing also induced secretion of two proinflammatory cytokines, TNF- α and IFN-γ. When we transfected C4HD cells with siRNAs targeting IGF-IR, mammary tumor growth was strongly delayed in syngenic mice. Histology of developing tumors in mice grafted with IGF-IR siRNA treated C4HD cells revealed a low mitotic index, and infiltration of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils, suggesting activation of an antitumor immune response. When we used C4HD cells treated with siRNA as an immunogen, we observed an increase in delayed-type hypersensitivity and the presence of cytotoxic splenocytes against wild-type C4HD cells, indicative of evolving immune response. Our findings show that silencing IGF-IR using synthetic siRNA bearing 2'-O-methyl nucleotides may offer a new clinical approach for treatment of mammary tumors expressing IGF-IR. Interestingly, our work also suggests that crosstalk between IGF-I axis and antitumor immune response can mobilize proinflammatory cytokines.

  15. Checkpoint inhibitors in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polk, Anne; Svane, Inge-Marie; Andersson, Michael

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of compounds directed against immune checkpoints are currently under clinical development. In this review we summarize current research in breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed and EMBASE; data...... reported at international meetings and clinicaltrials.gov were included as well. RESULTS: The obtained overall response rate of PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy varied from 5 to 30% in heavily pretreated triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The median duration of progression free survival and overall survival were...... and induce long standing anti-tumor immunity in a subgroup of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of predictive biomarkers is crucial for further development of this treatment modality....

  16. Granzyme B-based cytolytic fusion protein targeting EpCAM specifically kills triple negative breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in a subcutaneous mouse tumor model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoury, Manal; Kolberg, Katharina; Pham, Anh-Tuan; Hristodorov, Dmitrij; Mladenov, Radoslav; Di Fiore, Stefano; Helfrich, Wijnand; Kiessling, Fabian; Fischer, Rainer; Pardo, Alessa; Thepen, Theophilus; Hussain, Ahmad F.; Nachreiner, Thomas; Barth, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with poor prognosis and high prevalence among young premenopausal women. Unlike in other breast cancer subtypes, no targeted therapy is currently available. Overexpression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in 60% of TNBC tumors correlates

  17. Job Authority and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2013-01-01

    Using the 1957-2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women's job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others' pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women's occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions.

  18. Epigenetic reprogramming of breast cancer cells with oocyte extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is a disease characterised by both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes is an early event in breast carcinogenesis and reversion of gene silencing by epigenetic reprogramming can provide clues to the mechanisms responsible for tumour initiation and progression. In this study we apply the reprogramming capacity of oocytes to cancer cells in order to study breast oncogenesis. Results We show that breast cancer cells can be directly reprogrammed by amphibian oocyte extracts. The reprogramming effect, after six hours of treatment, in the absence of DNA replication, includes DNA demethylation and removal of repressive histone marks at the promoters of tumour suppressor genes; also, expression of the silenced genes is re-activated in response to treatment. This activity is specific to oocytes as it is not elicited by extracts from ovulated eggs, and is present at very limited levels in extracts from mouse embryonic stem cells. Epigenetic reprogramming in oocyte extracts results in reduction of cancer cell growth under anchorage independent conditions and a reduction in tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conclusions This study presents a new method to investigate tumour reversion by epigenetic reprogramming. After testing extracts from different sources, we found that axolotl oocyte extracts possess superior reprogramming ability, which reverses epigenetic silencing of tumour suppressor genes and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells in a mouse xenograft model. Therefore this system can be extremely valuable for dissecting the mechanisms involved in tumour suppressor gene silencing and identifying molecular activities capable of arresting tumour growth. These applications can ultimately shed light on the contribution of epigenetic alterations in breast cancer and advance the development of epigenetic therapies.

  19. Quality indicators for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poortmans, Philip; Aznar, Marianne; Bartelink, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer has considerably changed over the years, from simple simulator-based 2-dimensional techniques to sophisticated image-guided individualized treatments, with maximally protected normal structures. This has led to a substantial improvement in the outcome of breast...... cancer patients in terms of disease control, survival, and quality of life. This progress is based on clinical research and paralleled by progress in delivering sophisticated radiation treatment. Clinical trials resulted in identifying patients groups who will benefit from radiation treatment. They also...

  20. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  1. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. NUCKS overexpression in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittas Christos

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NUCKS (Nuclear, Casein Kinase and Cyclin-dependent Kinase Substrate is a nuclear, DNA-binding and highly phosphorylated protein. A number of reports show that NUCKS is highly expressed on the level of mRNA in several human cancers, including breast cancer. In this work, NUCKS expression on both RNA and protein levels was studied in breast tissue biopsies consisted of invasive carcinomas, intraductal proliferative lesions, benign epithelial proliferations and fibroadenomas, as well as in primary cultures derived from the above biopsies. Specifically, in order to evaluate the level of NUCKS protein in correlation with the histopathological features of breast disease, immunohistochemistry was employed on paraffin sections of breast biopsies of the above types. In addition, NUCKS expression was studied by means of Reverse Transcription PCR (RT-PCR, real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and Western immunoblot analyses in the primary cell cultures developed from the same biopsies. Results The immunohistochemical Results showed intense NUCKS staining mostly in grade I and II breast carcinomas compared to normal tissues. Furthermore, NUCKS was moderate expressed in benign epithelial proliferations, such as adenosis and sclerosing adenosis, and highly expressed in intraductal lesions, specifically in ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS. It is worth noting that all the fibroadenoma tissues examined were negative for NUCKS staining. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR showed an increase of NUCKS expression in cells derived from primary cultures of proliferative lesions and cancerous tissues compared to the ones derived from normal breast tissues and fibroadenomas. This increase was also confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis. Although NUCKS is a cell cycle related protein, its expression does not correlate with Ki67 expression, neither in tissue sections nor in primary cell cultures. Conclusion The results show overexpression of the NUCKS protein in a number of non

  4. Interactive Gentle Yoga in Improving Quality of Life in Patients With Stage I-III Breast Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-28

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Fatigue; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  5. Delayed breast reconstruction with implants after invasive breast cancer does not impair prognosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmich, L.R.; During, M.; Henriksen, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women......We investigated if delayed breast implant reconstruction after breast cancer impairs prognosis. Using data from the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group register, we identified all women...

  6. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    breast cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia [28], while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29...Relation between insulin resistance and serum concentrations of IL-6 and TNF- alpha in overweight or obese women with early stage breast cancer...without oophorectomy, hysterectomy with uni- or bilateral oophorectomy), prior breast biopsy (no, yes), ever been pregnant (no, yes), and

  7. Common breast cancer susceptibility loci are associated with triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kristen N.; Vachon, Celine M.; Lee, Adam M.; Slager, Susan; Lesnick, Timothy; Olswold, Curtis; Fasching, Peter A.; Miron, Penelope; Eccles, Diana; Carpenter, Jane E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Ambrosone, Christine; Winqvist, Robert; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor; Hartmann, Arndt; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Schulz-Wendtland, Rüdiger; Ekici, Arif B.; Tapper, William J; Gerty, Susan M; Durcan, Lorraine; Graham, Nikki; Hein, Rebecca; Nickels, Stephan; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Hans-Peter; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Dimopoulos, Athanasios M.; Fountzilas, George; Clarke, Christine L.; Balleine, Rosemary; Olson, Janet E.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Diasio, Robert B.; Pathak, Harsh; Ross, Eric; Weaver, JoEllen; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Dünnebier, Thomas; Ademuyiwa, Foluso; Kulkarni, Swati; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Van Limbergen, Erik; Janssen, Hilde; Peto, Julian; Fletcher, Olivia; Giles, Graham G.; Baglietto, Laura; Verhoef, Senno; Tomlinson, Ian; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Beesley, Jonathan; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Blows, Fiona M.; Dawson, Sarah-Jane; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W; Lambrechts, Diether; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Severi, Gianluca; Hamann, Ute; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Nevanlinna, Heli; Wang, Xianshu; Couch, Fergus J.

    2012-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancers are an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with poor survival, but there remains little known about the etiological factors which promote its initiation and development. Commonly inherited breast cancer risk factors identified through genome wide association studies (GWAS) display heterogeneity of effect among breast cancer subtypes as defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status. In the Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC), 22 common breast cancer susceptibility variants were investigated in 2,980 Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer and 4,978 healthy controls. We identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) significantly associated with risk of triple negative breast cancer, including rs2046210 (ESR1), rs12662670 (ESR1), rs3803662 (TOX3), rs999737 (RAD51L1), rs8170 (19p13.11) and rs8100241 (19p13.11). Together, our results provide convincing evidence of genetic susceptibility for triple negative breast cancer. PMID:21844186

  8. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen K Bronsveld

    Full Text Available Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes.This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years, women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR, HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211 and women without diabetes (n = 101, irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55, HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22, and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60 tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45 and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67 tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general.We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes

  9. Diabetes and Breast Cancer Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronsveld, Heleen K; Jensen, Vibeke; Vahl, Pernille; De Bruin, Marie L; Cornelissen, Sten; Sanders, Joyce; Auvinen, Anssi; Haukka, Jari; Andersen, Morten; Vestergaard, Peter; Schmidt, Marjanka K

    2017-01-01

    Women with diabetes have a worse survival after breast cancer diagnosis compared to women without diabetes. This may be due to a different etiological profile, leading to the development of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Our aim was to investigate whether insulin and non-insulin treated women with diabetes develop specific clinicopathological breast cancer subtypes compared to women without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included randomly selected patients with invasive breast cancer diagnosed in 2000-2010. Stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis (≤50 and >50 years), women with diabetes were 2:1 frequency-matched on year of birth and age at breast cancer diagnosis (both in 10-year categories) to women without diabetes, to select ~300 patients with tumor tissue available. Tumor MicroArrays were stained by immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER, PR), HER2, Ki67, CK5/6, CK14, and p63. A pathologist scored all stains and revised morphology and grade. Associations between diabetes/insulin treatment and clinicopathological subtypes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Morphology and grade were not significantly different between women with diabetes (n = 211) and women without diabetes (n = 101), irrespective of menopausal status. Premenopausal women with diabetes tended to have more often PR-negative (OR = 2.44(95%CI:1.07-5.55)), HER2-negative (OR = 2.84(95%CI:1.11-7.22)), and basal-like (OR = 3.14(95%CI:1.03-9.60) tumors than the women without diabetes, with non-significantly increased frequencies of ER-negative (OR = 2.48(95%CI:0.95-6.45)) and triple negative (OR = 2.60(95%CI:0.88-7.67) tumors. After adjustment for age and BMI, the associations remained similar in size but less significant. We observed no evidence for associations of clinicopathological subtypes with diabetes in postmenopausal women, or with insulin treatment in general. We found no compelling evidence that women with diabetes, treated

  10. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-25

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  11. Human papilloma viruses (HPV and breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Sutherland Lawson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Human papillomaviruses (HPV may have a role in some breast cancers. The purpose of this study is to fill important gaps in the evidence. These gaps are: (i confirmation of the presence of high risk for cancer HPVs in breast cancers, (ii evidence of HPV infections in benign breast tissues prior to the development of HPV positive breast cancer in the same patients, (iii evidence that HPVs are biologically active and not harmless passengers in breast cancer.Methods: RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA was used to identify HPV RNA sequences in breast cancers. We also conducted a retrospective cohort study based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses to identify HPVs in archival specimens from Australian women with benign breast biopsies who later developed breast cancer. To assess whether HPVs in breast cancer were biologically active, the expression of the oncogenic protein HPV E7 was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC.Results: Thirty (3.5% low risk and 20 (2.3% high risk HPV types were identified in 855 breast cancers from the TCGA data base. The high risk types were HPV 18 (48%, HPV 113 (24%, HPV 16 (10%, HPV 52 (10%. Data from the PCR cohort study, indicated that HPV type 18 was the most common type identified in breast cancer specimens (55% of 40 breast cancer specimens followed by HPV 16 (13%. The same HPV type was identified in both the benign and subsequent breast cancer in 15 patients. HPV E7 proteins were identified in 72% of benign breast specimens and 59% of invasive breast cancer specimens.Conclusions: There were 4 observations of particular interest: (i confirmation by both NGS and PCR of the presence of high risk HPV gene sequences in breast cancers, (ii a correlation between high risk HPV in benign breast specimens and subsequent HPV positive breast cancer in the same patient, (iii HPVs in breast cancer are likely to be biologically active (as shown by transcription of HPV DNA to RNA plus the expression of

  12. System of breast cancer recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhkova, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the resUlts of the multimodality system of breast cancer recognition using methods, of clinical X-ray and cytological examinations. Altogether 1671 women were examined; breast cancer was detected in 165. Stage 1 was detected in 63 patients, Stage 2 in 34, Stage 3 in 34, and Stage 4 in 8. In 7% of the cases, tumors were inpalpable and could be detected by X-ray only. In 9.9% of the cases, the multicentric nature of tumor growth was established. In 71% tumors had a mixed histological structure. The system of breast cancer recognition provided for accurate diagnosis in 98% of the cases making it possible to avoid surgical intervention in 38%. Good diagnostic results are possible under conditions of a special mammology unit where a roentgenologist working in a close contact with surgeonns working in a close contact with surgeos and morphologists, performs the first stages of diagnosis beginning from clinical examination up to special methods that require X-ray control (paracentesis, ductography, pneumocystography, preoperative marking of the breast and marking of the remote sectors of the breast)

  13. Noninvasive imaging of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medarova, Z.

    2009-01-01

    With the development of molecularly targeted cancer therapies, it is highly advantageous to be able to determine their efficacy, to improve overall patient survival. Non-invasive imaging techniques are currently available for visualizing different pathological conditions of the human body, but their use for cancer monitoring is limited due to the lack of tumor-specific imaging probes. This review will attempt to summarize the current clinical diagnostic approaches for breast cancer detection, staging, and therapy assessment. In addition, I will present some novel concepts from the field of molecular imaging that form the basis of some of our research. We believe that this general imaging strategy has the potential of significantly advancing our ability to diagnose breast cancer at the earliest stages of the pathology, before any overt clinical symptoms have developed, as well as to better direct the development of molecularly-targeted individualized therapy protocols.

  14. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    and optimal use of these agents for the treatment of breast cancer. Currently, the most promising approach has been the use of bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the most potent pro-angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Small molecular inhibitors of VEGF...... tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria......ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is an important component of cancer growth, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, inhibition of angiogenesis is an attractive strategy for treatment of cancer. We describe existing clinical trials of antiangiogenic agents and the challenges facing the clinical development...

  15. Understanding and potentially reducing second breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Long term survival after breast cancer diagnosis has increased markedly in the last decade: 15-year relative survival after breast cancer diagnosis is now 75% in the US. Associated with these excellent survival prospects, however, long term studies suggest that contralateral second breast cancer rates are in the range from 10 to 15% at 15 years post treatment, and are still higher for BRCA1/2 carriers, as well as for still longer term survivors. These second cancer risks are much higher than those for a comparable healthy woman to develop a first breast cancer. It follows that women with breast cancer are highly prone to develop a second breast cancer. We propose here a new option for reducing the disturbingly high risk of a contralateral second breast cancer. in patients with both estrogen positive and negative primary breast cancer: prophylactic mammary irradiation (PMI) of the contralateral breast. The rationale behind PMI is evidence that standard post-Iumpectomy radiotherapy of the affected (ipsilateral) breast substantially reduces the long-term genetically-based second cancer risk in the ipsilateral breast, by killing the existing premalignant cells in that breast. This suggests that there are relatively few premalignant cells in the breast (hundreds or thousands, not millions), so even a fairly modest radiation cell-kill level across the whole breast would be expected to kill essentially all of them. If this is so, then a modest radiation dose-much lower than that to the affected breast--delivered uniformly to the whole contralateral breast, and typically delivered at the same time as the radiotherapy of the ipsilateral breast, would have the potential to markedly reduce second-cancer risks in the contralateral breast by killing essentially all the pre-malignant cells in that breast while causing only a very low level of radiation-induced sequelae. Therefore we hypothesize that low-dose prophylactic mammary irradiation of the contralateral breast

  16. Breast Cancer in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tessier Cloutier, B; Clarke, A E; Ramsey-Goldman, R

    2013-01-01

    Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries.......Evidence points to a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed data from a large multisite SLE cohort, linked to cancer registries....

  17. Breast Cancer Tissue Repository

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iglehart, J

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Tissue Repository at Duke enters its fourth year of finding. The purpose of the Repository at Duke is to provide substantial quantities of frozen tissue for explorative molecular studies...

  18. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetti, Rosaria; Dell’Aversana, Carmela; Giorgio, Cristina; Astorri, Roberta; Altucci, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men), due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and rec...

  19. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  20. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  2. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoum, Manar F.; Al-Kayed, Sameer A.

    2004-01-01

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  3. Radiation pneumonitis in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrino, R.; Carvalho, H.A.; Gomes, H.C.; Kuang, L.F.; Aguilar, P.B.; Lederman, M.V.

    1987-01-01

    Forty-nine observations of patients with breast cancer frm 1980 to 1985 were reviewed. All of them received radiotherapy. In 44.9% radiologic findings of radiation pneumonitis were detected and only 9% presented mild or moderate respiratory symptoms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Genetic determinants of breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Gonzalez-Zuloeta Ladd (Angela)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignancy in women in the Western world and it is estimated that women who survive to the age of 85 years will have a 1 in 9 lifetime probability of developing this type of neoplasia (1, 2). The degree of risk is not spread homogeneously across the

  5. Antiangiogenic therapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, D.L.; Andersson, M.; Andersen, Jon Alexander Lykkegaard

    2010-01-01

    tyrosine kinase activity, such as sorafenib, appear promising. While, the role of sunitinib and inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in breast cancer has to be defined. Several unanswered questions remain, such as choice of drug(s), optimal duration of therapy and patient selection criteria...

  6. Breast Cancer Startup Challenge winners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten winners of a world-wide competition to bring emerging breast cancer research technologies to market faster were announced today by the Avon Foundation for Women, in partnership with NCI and the Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI). Avon is providing

  7. What You Need to Know about Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Breast Cancer This booklet is about breast cancer. Learning about your cancer can help you take ... This booklet covers: Basics about breast anatomy and breast cancer Treatments for breast cancer, including taking part in ...

  8. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of an antagonist (SM-406/AT-406) of multiple inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in a mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Yu, Jing-yu; McEachern, Donna; Wang, Shaomeng; Sun, Duxin

    2013-09-01

    The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a class of key apoptosis regulators overexpressed or dysregulated in cancer. SM-406/AT-406 is a potent and selective small molecule mimetic of Smac that antagonizes the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model was developed to predict the tissue concentration-time profiles of SM-406, the related onco-protein levels in tumor, and the tumor growth inhibition in a mouse model bearing human breast cancer xenograft. In the whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pharmacokinetics characterization, a well stirred (perfusion rate-limited) model was used to describe SM-406 pharmacokinetics in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine, liver and spleen, and a diffusion rate-limited (permeability limited) model was used for tumor. Pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to correlate the SM-406 concentration in tumor to the cIAP1 degradation, pro-caspase 8 decrease, CL-PARP accumulation and tumor growth inhibition. The PBPK-PD model well described the experimental pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacodynamic biomarker responses and tumor growth. This model may be helpful to predict tumor and plasma SM-406 concentrations in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Haemorheological Changes in African Breast Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    complications, African patients with breast cancer may well be predisposed to thrombotic complications during illness. ... having breast cancer were studied. The patients were diagnosed by one of the authors from histological biopsy from the lump removed from the breast. None of ... statistics (Student's t-test for paired data.

  10. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer

  11. Targeted Therapy for Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Petra; Savage, Michelle I.; Brown, Powel H.

    2013-01-01

    With a better understanding of the etiology of breast cancer, molecularly targeted drugs have been developed and are being testing for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Targeted drugs that inhibit the estrogen receptor (ER) or estrogen-activated pathways include the selective ER modulators (tamoxifen, raloxifene, and lasofoxifene) and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane) have been tested in preclinical and clinical studies. Tamoxifen and raloxifene have been shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer and promising results of AIs in breast cancer trials, suggest that AIs might be even more effective in the prevention of ER-positive breast cancer. However, these agents only prevent ER-positive breast cancer. Therefore, current research is focused on identifying preventive therapies for other forms of breast cancer such as human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, breast cancer that does express ER, progesterone receptor, or HER2). HER2-positive breast cancers are currently treated with anti-HER2 therapies including trastuzumab and lapatinib, and preclinical and clinical studies are now being conducted to test these drugs for the prevention of HER2-positive breast cancers. Several promising agents currently being tested in cancer prevention trials for the prevention of TNBC include poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, vitamin D, and rexinoids, both of which activate nuclear hormone receptors (the vitamin D and retinoid X receptors). This review discusses currently used breast cancer preventive drugs, and describes the progress of research striving to identify and develop more effective preventive agents for all forms of breast cancer. PMID:24069582

  12. The normal breast microenvironment of premenopausal women differentially influences the behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginsburg Erika

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer studies frequently focus on the role of the tumor microenvironment in the promotion of cancer; however, the influence of the normal breast microenvironment on cancer cells remains relatively unknown. To investigate the role of the normal breast microenvironment on breast cancer cell tumorigenicity, we examined whether extracellular matrix molecules (ECM derived from premenopausal African-American (AA or Caucasian-American (CAU breast tissue would affect the tumorigenicity of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We chose these two populations because of the well documented predisposition of AA women to develop aggressive, highly metastatic breast cancer compared to CAU women. Methods The effects of primary breast fibroblasts on tumorigenicity were analyzed via real-time PCR arrays and mouse xenograft models. Whole breast ECM was isolated, analyzed via zymography, and its effects on breast cancer cell aggressiveness were tested in vitro via soft agar and invasion assays, and in vivo via xenograft models. Breast ECM and hormone metabolites were analyzed via mass spectrometry. Results Mouse mammary glands humanized with premenopausal CAU fibroblasts and injected with primary breast cancer cells developed significantly larger tumors compared to AA humanized glands. Examination of 164 ECM molecules and cytokines from CAU-derived fibroblasts demonstrated a differentially regulated set of ECM proteins and increased cytokine expression. Whole breast ECM was isolated; invasion and soft agar assays demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER-, progesterone receptor (PR/PR- cells were significantly more aggressive when in contact with AA ECM, as were ER+/PR+ cells with CAU ECM. Using zymography, protease activity was comparatively upregulated in CAU ECM. In xenograft models, CAU ECM significantly increased the tumorigenicity of ER+/PR+ cells and enhanced metastases. Mass spectrometry analysis of ECM proteins showed that only 1

  13. B-cell lymphoma 6 protein stimulates oncogenicity of human breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-jun; Xu, Xiao-chun; Lobie, Peter E; Zhu, Tao; Wu, Zheng-sheng; Liu, Xue; Yan, Hong; He, Yin-huan; Ye, Shan; Cheng, Xing-wang; Zhu, Gui-lu; Wu, Wen-yong; Wang, Xiao-nan

    2014-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) protein, an evolutionarily conserved zinc finger transcription factor, showed to be highly expressed in various human cancers in addition to malignancies in the lymphoid system. This study investigated the role of BCL6 expression in breast cancer and its clinical significance in breast cancer patients. Expression of BCL6 protein was assessed using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in 127 breast cancer patients and 50 patients with breast benign disease as well as in breast cell lines. Expression of BCL6 was restored or knocked down in two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and T47D) using BCL6 cDNA and siRNA, respectively. The phenotypic change of these breast cancer cell lines was assessed using cell viability MTT, Transwell invasion, colony formation, and flow cytometry assays and in a xenograft mice model. Luciferase reporter gene, immunoblot, and qRT-PCR were used to investigate the molecular events after manipulated BCL6 expression in breast cancer cells. BCL6 protein was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue specimens and expression of BCL6 protein was associated with disease progression and poor survival of breast cancer patients. In vitro, the forced expression of BCL6 results in increased proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration, invasion and survival of breast cancer cell lines, whereas knockdown of BCL6 expression reduced these oncogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Moreover, forced expression of BCL6 increased tumor growth and invasiveness in a nude mouse xenograft model. At the gene level, BCL6 was a target gene of miR-339-5p. Expression of BCL6 induced expression of CXCR4 and cyclinD1 proteins. The current study demonstrated the oncogenic property of BCL6 in breast cancer and further study could target BCL6 as a novel potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer

  14. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ikeda, Debra

    2002-01-01

    .... Choline peaks are present in 57% of breast cancers but contrary to other research data some invasive ductal cancers do not contain choline as a detectable metabolite, particularly in lobular cancer that has dispersed cells...

  15. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu

    1985-01-01

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease

  16. Computed tomography of the breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Yul; Bae, Sang Hoon; Yoon, Jong Sup; Lee, Ki Chu [Hallym University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The indication of computed tomography for the breast lesion are 1) Unusually extensive or small breast caused technical difficulties in performing mammograms. 2) Questionable mammographic findings, especially in dense proliferative breast parenchyme. 3) Microcancer. 4) Suspicious regional lymph node enlargement or invasive of the chest wall by breast cancer. The diagnosis of breast CT in breast cancer is based on pathologic anatomic changes and characteristic increase of mean CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement. Authors analysed CT of the 34 patients who were clinically suspected breast cancer, and compared with mammography. The results are as follows: 1. Pathological diagnosis of 34 cases were 27 cases of breast cancer, 4 cases of fibrocystic disease, 2 cases of fibroadenoma, and 1 case of intraductal papilloma. The diagnostic accuracy of CT in 27 breast cancer was 93% (25 cases) and mammography 71% (19 case). 2. Correct diagnosis of CT in 7 benign breast disease is in 5 cases and mammography in 5 cases. 3. The most important finding of CT in breast cancer is characteristic increase of CT No. of lesion following contrast enhancement (200 ml, 65%): over average 50 HU in 19 cases of 27 breast cancers, 30-50 HU in a 6 cases, 20-30 HU in 2 cases with tumor necrosis. 4. Computed with mammography, other more valuable CT findings of breast cancer are axillary lymph node enlargement and adjacentic pectoral muscle invasion. 5. In conclusion, breast CT is considered as valuable diagnostic tool in evaluation of breast cancer, but not of benign breast disease.

  17. Breast tissue, oral and urinary microbiomes in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hannah; Altemus, Jessica; Niazi, Farshad; Green, Holly; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Sturgis, Charles; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Eng, Charis

    2017-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the gut microbiome contributes to breast carcinogenesis by modifying systemic estrogen levels. This is often cited as a possible mechanism linking breast cancer and high-fat, low-fiber diets as well as antibiotic exposure, associations previously identified in population-based studies. More recently, a distinct microbiome has been identified within breast milk and tissue, but few studies have characterized differences in the breast tissue microbiota of patients ...

  18. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan E

    2004-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown that Ron is over-expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  19. Ron in Breast Development and Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Waltz, Susan

    2003-01-01

    .... Virtually nothing is known regarding the function of Ron in the breast. However, two recent studies have shown the Ron is over- expressed and highly phosphorylated in a significant fraction of human and feline breast cancers...

  20. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  1. Epigenetics in Breast and Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2015-01-01

    Most recent investigations into cancer etiology have identified a key role played by epigenetics. Specifically, aberrant DNA and histone modifications which silence tumor suppressor genes or promote oncogenes have been demonstrated in multiple cancer models. While the role of epigenetics in several solid tumor cancers such as colorectal cancer are well established, there is emerging evidence that epigenetics also plays a critical role in breast and prostate cancer. In breast cancer, DNA methy...

  2. Drug transporters in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Stenvang, Jan; Moreira, José

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advances that have taken place in the past decade, including the development of novel molecular targeted agents, cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of cancer treatment. In breast cancer, anthracyclines and taxanes are the two main chemotherapeutic options used on a routine...... basis. Although effective, their usefulness is limited by the inevitable development of resistance, a lack of response to drug-induced cancer cell death. A large body of research has resulted in the characterization of a plethora of mechanisms involved in resistance; ATP-binding cassette transporter...

  3. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho [Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer.

  4. Breast MRI in pregnancy-associated breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shin Jung; Shin, Sang Soo; Lim, Hyo Soon; Baek, Jang Mi; Seon, Hyun Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Park, Min Ho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging and to describe the MR imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. From 2006 to 2013, MR images of 23 patients with pregnancy-associated breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated. MR images were reviewed to evaluate lesion detection and imaging findings of pregnancy-associated breast cancer. MR images were analyzed by using the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System and an additional MR-detected lesion with no mammographic or sonographic abnormality was determined. MR imaging depicted breast cancer in all patients, even in marked background parenchymal enhancement. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was seen as a mass in 20 patients and as non-mass enhancement with segmental distribution in 3 patients. The most common features of the masses were irregular shape (85%), non-circumscribed margin (85%), and heterogeneous enhancement (60%). An additional site of cancer was detected with MR imaging in 5 patients (21.7%) and the type of surgery was changed. Pregnancy-associated breast cancer was usually seen as an irregular mass with heterogeneous enhancement on MR images. Although these findings were not specific, MR imaging was useful in evaluating the disease extent of pregnancy-associated breast cancer

  5. Epidemiology of radiogenic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of epidemiologic studies of radiogenic breast cancer is to use empirical data from human populations exposed to radiation, in order to delineate increases in risk of breast cancer as a function of the radiation characteristics and the characteristics of the women exposed. In addition, such empirical data may be used to test hypotheses concerning the biological mechanism of radiation-induced breast cancer, and this mechanism in turn may serve as a useful model both for other radiogenic solid tumors, and for breast tumors induced by other carcinogens. Specifically, the objective may be formulated in terms of developing an appropriate relatively simple mathematical model, whose functional form may be tested and whose parameters may be estimated from the relevant human data. It is necessary to derive such a model, both because of the sampling instability of estimates based on small subgroups of populations and also because observations may not be available in populations with the characteristics of interest. These latter two restrictions are exemplified by the problem of estimating an increase in risk for individuals with relatively small exposures, and the problem of estimating lifetime risk

  6. Environmental cadmium and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent women's cancer, with an age-adjusted incidence of 122.9 per 100,000 US women. Cadmium, a ubiquitous carcinogenic pollutant with multiple biological effects, has been reported to be associated with breast cancer in one US regional case-control study. We examined the association of breast cancer with urinary cadmium (UCd), in a case-control sample of women living on Long Island (LI), NY (100 with breast cancer and 98 without), a region with an especially high...

  7. Increased utilization of fructose has a positive effect on the development of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiajing Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid proliferation and Warburg effect make cancer cells consume plenty of glucose, which induces a low glucose micro-environment within the tumor. Up to date, how cancer cells keep proliferating in the condition of glucose insufficiency still remains to be explored. Recent studies have revealed a close correlation between excessive fructose consumption and breast cancer genesis and progression, but there is no convincing evidence showing that fructose could directly promote breast cancer development. Herein, we found that fructose, not amino acids, could functionally replace glucose to support proliferation of breast cancer cells. Fructose endowed breast cancer cells with the colony formation ability and migratory capacity as effective as glucose. Interestingly, although fructose was readily used by breast cancer cells, it failed to restore proliferation of non-tumor cells in the absence of glucose. These results suggest that fructose could be relatively selectively employed by breast cancer cells. Indeed, we observed that a main transporter of fructose, GLUT5, was highly expressed in breast cancer cells and tumor tissues but not in their normal counterparts. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the fructose diet promoted metastasis of 4T1 cells in the mouse models. Taken together, our data show that fructose can be used by breast cancer cells specifically in glucose-deficiency, and suggest that the high-fructose diet could accelerate the progress of breast cancer in vivo.

  8. 212Pb-Labeled Antibody 225.28 Targeted to Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycan 4 for Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Therapy in Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin B. Kasten

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer with a poor prognosis. There is a clinical need for effective, targeted therapy strategies that destroy both differentiated TNBC cells and TNBC cancer initiating cells (CICs, as the latter are implicated in the metastasis and recurrence of TNBC. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 is overexpressed on differentiated tumor cells and CICs obtained from TNBC patient specimens, suggesting that CSPG4 may be a clinically relevant target for the imaging and therapy of TNBC. The purpose of this study was to determine whether α-particle radioimmunotherapy (RIT targeting TNBC cells using the CSPG4-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 225.28 as a carrier was effective at eliminating TNBC tumors in preclinical models. To this end, mAb 225.28 labeled with 212Pb (212Pb-225.28 as a source of α-particles for RIT was used for in vitro Scatchard assays and clonogenic survival assays with human TNBC cells (SUM159 and 2LMP grown as adherent cells or non-adherent CIC-enriched mammospheres. Immune-deficient mice bearing orthotopic SUM159 or 2LMP xenografts were injected i.v. with the targeted (225.28 or irrelevant isotype-matched control (F3-C25 mAbs, labeled with 99mTc, 125I, or 212Pb for in vivo imaging, biodistribution, or tumor growth inhibition studies. 212Pb-225.28 bound to adherent SUM159 and 2LMP cells and to CICs from SUM159 and 2LMP mammospheres with a mean affinity of 0.5 nM. Nearly ten times more binding sites per cell were present on SUM159 cells and CICs compared with 2LMP cells. 212Pb-225.28 was six to seven times more effective than 212Pb-F3-C25 at inhibiting SUM159 cell and CIC clonogenic survival (p < 0.05. Radiolabeled mAb 225.28 showed significantly higher uptake than radiolabeled mAb F3-C25 in SUM159 and 2LMP xenografts (p < 0.05, and the uptake of 212Pb-225.28 in TNBC xenografts was correlated with target epitope expression. 212Pb-225.28 caused dose

  9. Phospholipid makeup of the breast adipose tissue is impacted by obesity and mammary cancer in the mouse: Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Michael; Perez, Osvaldo; Martinez, Mitchell; Santander, Ana M; Mendez, Armando J; Nadji, Mehrdad; Nayer, Ali; Bhattacharya, Sanjoy; Torroella-Kouri, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, an established risk factor for breast cancer (BC), is associated with systemic inflammation. The breast contains adipose tissue (bAT), yet whether it plays a role in BC progression in obese females is being intensively studied. There is scarce knowledge on the lipid composition of bAT in health and disease. The purpose of this pilot study was: 1) to determine whether obesity and BC are associated with inflammatory changes in bAT 2) to analyze for the first time the lipid profile of bAT in obese and lean mammary tumor-bearing and normal mice. Syngeneic E0771 mammary tumor cells were implanted into the mammary fat pad of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. BATs were analyzed four weeks after tumor cell inoculation by immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids were identified and subjected to ratiometric quantification using a TSQ Quantum Access Max triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing precursor ion scan or neutral ion loss scan employing appropriate class specific lipid standards in a two step quantification process. Four main classes of phospholipids were analyzed: phosphatidylcholines phosphatidylserines, phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylinositols. Our results showed that bAT in obese (normal and tumor-bearing) mice contained hypertrophic adipocytes compared with their corresponding samples in lean mice; higher numbers of macrophages and crown-like structures were observed in obese tumor bearers compared to obese normal mice. BAT from normal obese mice revealed higher concentrations of phosphatidylethanolamines. Furthermore, bAT from tumor-bearing mice expressed higher phosphatidylcholines than that from non-tumor bearing mice, suggesting the presence of the tumor is associated with phosphatidylcholines. Conversion of phosphatidylethanolamines to phosphatidylcholines will be investigated in E0771 cells. Additional studies are projected to investigate macrophage activation by these specific classes of phospholipids

  10. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Min [Galactophore Department, JingZhou Central Hospital, JingZhou (China); Li, Ruishu, E-mail: liruishu2016@yahoo.com [Forensic Surgery Department, JingZhou Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, JingZhou (China); Zhang, Juan [Endocrinology Department, JingZhou Central Hospital, JingZhou (China)

    2016-03-18

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Levofloxacin targets a panel of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Levofloxacin acts synergistically with 5-Fluorouracil in breast cancer. • Levofloxacin targets breast cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis. • Breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal cells. • Mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition lead to deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  11. Repositioning of antibiotic levofloxacin as a mitochondrial biogenesis inhibitor to target breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Min; Li, Ruishu; Zhang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitochondrial biogenesis has become a potential therapeutic strategy in cancer due to their unique metabolic dependencies. In this study, we show that levofloxacin, a FDA-approved antibiotic, is an attractive candidate for breast cancer treatment. This is achieved by the inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis in a panel of breast cancer cell lines while sparing normal breast cells. It also acts synergistically with conventional chemo drug in two independent in vivo breast xenograft mouse models. Importantly, levofloxacin inhibits mitochondrial biogenesis as shown by the decreased level of mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and ATP. In addition, the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of levofloxacin are reversed by acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR, a mitochondrial fuel), confirming that levofloxacin's action in breast cancer cells is through inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis. A consequence of mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition by levofloxacin in breast cancer cells is the deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. We further demonstrate that breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal breast cells, and this explains their different sensitivity to levofloxacin. Our work suggest that levofloxacin is a useful addition to breast cancer treatment. Our work also establish the essential role of mitochondrial biogenesis on the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways in breast cancer cells. - Highlights: • Levofloxacin targets a panel of breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo. • Levofloxacin acts synergistically with 5-Fluorouracil in breast cancer. • Levofloxacin targets breast cancer cells via inhibiting mitochondrial biogenesis. • Breast cancer cells have increased mitochondrial biogenesis than normal cells. • Mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition lead to deactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

  12. Analysis and Diagnosis of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Poulami Das; Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir K. Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to identify abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test, if necessary. We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps. Normal ductalepithelial cells and ductal / lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper. In fact, features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue. We also ...

  13. The Japanese Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. THE MAMMOGRAPHIC CALCIFICATIONS IN BREAST CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Ruiying; Liu Jingxian; Gaowen

    1998-01-01

    Objective: This study was performed to exam the relativeship between mammographic calcifications and breast cancer. Methods: All of the 184 patients with breast diseases underwent mammography before either an open biopsy or a mastectomy. The presence,morphology, and distribution of calcifications visualized on mammograms for breast cancer were compared with the controls who remained cancer free. Statistical comparisons were made by using the x2 test. Results:Of the 184 patients with breast diaeases, 93 malignant and 91 benign lesions were histologically confirmed.Calcifications were visualized on mammograms in 60(64%) of 93 breast cancers and 26 (28%) of 91 non breast cancers. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of breast cancer was 4.5 in women with calcifications seen on mammograms, compared with those having none (P<0.01). Of the 60 breast carcinomas having mammographic calcifications, 28 (47%) were infiltrating ductal carcinomas.There were only 8 (24%) cases with infiltrating ductal cancers in the group of without calcifications seen on the mammograms (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our finding suggests that mammographic calcification appears to be a risk factor for breast cancer. The granular and linear cast type calcification provide clues to the presence of breast cancer, especially when the carcinomas without associated masses were seen on mammograms.

  15. Diagnosis of breast cancer by tissue analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debnath Bhattacharyya; Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay; Tai-hoon Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we propose a technique to locate abnormal growth of cells in breast tissue and suggest further pathological test,when require.We compare normal breast tissue with malignant invasive breast tissue by a series of image processing steps.Normal ductal epithelial cells and ductal/lobular invasive carcinogenic cells also consider for comparison here in this paper.In fact,features of cancerous breast tissue (invasive) are extracted and analyses with normal breast tissue.We also suggest the breast cancer recognition technique through image processing and prevention by controlling p53 gene mutation to some extent.

  16. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  17. Breast cancer and the environment: a life course approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Breast Cancer and the Environment: The Scientific Evidence, Research Methodology, and Future Directions; Institute of Medicine

    2012-01-01

    .... Breast Cancer and the Environment reviews the current evidence on a selection of environmental risk factors for breast cancer, considers gene-environment interactions in breast cancer, and explores...

  18. Fertility after breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; Beketić-Orešković, Lidija; Peddi, Parvin F; Orešković, Slavko; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2014-02-01

    In many countries of the developed world, there is an increasing trend toward delay in childbearing from 30 to 40 years of age for various reasons. This is unfortunately concordant with an increasing incidence of breast cancer in women who have not yet completed their family. The current choice for premenopausal women with breast cancer is adjuvant therapy which includes cytotoxic chemotherapy, ovarian ablation (by surgery, irradiation, or chemical ovarian suppression), anti-estrogen therapy, or any combination of these. Although the use of adjuvant therapies with cytotoxic drugs can significantly reduce mortality, it raises issues of the long-term toxicity, such as induction of an early menopause and fertility impairment. The risk of infertility is a potential hardship to be faced by the patients following treatment of breast cancer. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after completion of chemotherapy have shown no adverse effects and congenital anomalies from the treatment, but sometimes high rates of abortion (29%) and premature deliveries with low birth weight (40%) have been demonstrated. Therefore, the issue of recent cytotoxic treatment remains controversial and further research is required to define a "safety period" between cessation of treatment and pregnancy. Preservation of fertility in breast cancer survivors of reproductive age has become an important issue regarding the quality of life. Currently, there are several potential options, including all available assisted technologies, such as in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, in vitro maturation, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue. Because increased estrogen levels are thought to be potentially risky in breast cancer patients, recently developed ovarian stimulation protocols with the aromatase inhibitor letrozole and tamoxifen appear to provide safe stimulation with endogenous estrogen. Embryo cryopreservation seems to be the most established

  19. Efficacy of reovirus against breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jingzhi; Chen Jue; Dong Shengxiang; Yan Weili; Wu Zhiyong

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the role of oncolytic reovirus in breast cancer, a tumor xenograft model of NOD/SCID mice was established using a biopsy sample of a primary infiltrating ductal carcinoma obtained from a breast cancer patient. The result of HE and TUNEL was analyzed after injecting the reovirus peritoneally for 3 days. The results showed that estrogen supplementation was required to establish appropriate human breast cancer xenograft model of NOD/SCID mice. 29.6% of these transplanted tumors grew with supplementation of Estrogen. Otherwise none grew (P<0.01). ER of the xenograft model was positive.After treatment with reovirus for 3 days, breast cancer cells were disrupted and disappeared which induced tissue looseness. The rate of apoptosis increased double than before. The biological characteristics of tumor xenograft model confirm with the primary breast cancer. The oncolytic reovirus can kill breast cancer in short time. (authors)

  20. Breast cancer with axillary lymph node involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaid, A.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Azoury, F.; Heymann, S.; Marsiglia, H.; Bourgier, C.; Belaid, A.; Ghorbel, I.; Kanoun, S.; Kallel, A.; Pichenot, C.; Verstraet, R.; Marsiglia, H.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer of women in western countries. There are one million new cases per year in the world which represents 22% of all female cancers, and more than 370.000 deaths due to breast cancer per year (14% of cancer mortality). More than half of breast cancers are associated with axillary nodal involvement. Post-operative radiation therapy (XRT) is a crucial part of locoregional treatment in axillary nodal involvement breast cancer owing to a 15-years risk reduction of locoregional recurrence of 70% and to a 5.4% risk reduction of specific mortality. In 3D-conformal irradiation in such breast cancers, target volumes are chest wall when mastectomy was performed or breast and boost of tumor bed in case of breast conservative surgery, and supra-clavicular and/or axillary and/or internal mammary node areas. The main organs at risk are ipsilateral lung, heart and brachial plexus. The aim of this article is to describe epidemiologic, radio anatomic and prognostic features of axillary nodal involvement breast cancer and to propose guidelines for 3D-conformal treatment planning in locally advanced breast cancers. This review is illustrated by a case report. (authors)

  1. Breast cancer and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    Case Study Amy is a 44-year-old woman with severe autism. She lives with her sister Susan, who is her caregiver and guardian. Amy is ambulatory and able to dress and feed herself. She is a healthy individual with no other significant comorbidities. She walks daily and enjoys her sister's company. Amy's life expectancy is greater than 10 years. However, she is difficult to care for medically, as she will not allow a physical examination and strikes out when strangers try to touch her. She is nonverbal and unable to participate in decision-making. INITIAL DIAGNOSIS Amy has a history of breast cancer diagnosed 2 years ago, originally presenting as a stage I lesion (T2N0) that was palpated by her caregiver while bathing. She underwent right simple mastectomy with sentinel lymph node resection. Susan recalls that the mastectomy was a very challenging ordeal, as Amy kept pulling out IV lines, drains, and dressings. Susan felt that Amy withdrew from her after the procedure as she most likely associated Susan with the cause of the pain, making her role as caregiver more difficult. Pathology confirmed an invasive ductal carcinoma, moderately differentiated, 2.4 cm, estrogen/progesterone receptor negative, HER2/neu negative, with negative surgical margins. Two right axillary sentinel lymph nodes were negative for disease. The standard of care for a patient with these tumor features is surgery plus adjuvant chemotherapy (National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN], 2012). According to the Adjuvant Online! database (2012), Amy's risk for relapse was approximately 40% without adjuvant treatment; her risk for mortality was approximately 29%. After meeting with a medical oncologist, Amy did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. According to Susan, she was not offered the choice, and the decision was not explained to them. She was simply told that it was not necessary. Aside from pathology, previous records were unavailable for review. Medical assessment of Amy's level of autism

  2. Educational Counseling in Improving Communication and Quality of Life in Spouses and Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. Breast cancer screening in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G

    1996-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.

  4. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  5. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  6. Osthole inhibits bone metastasis of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chunyu; Sun, Zhenping; Guo, Baofeng; Ye, Yiyi; Han, Xianghui; Qin, Yuenong; Liu, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Bone is one of the most common sites for breast cancer metastasis, which greatly contributes to patient morbidity and mortality. Osthole, a major extract from Cnidium monnieri (L.), exhibits many biological and pharmacological activities, however, its potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of breast cancer bone metastases remain poorly understood. In this study, we set out to investigate whether osthole could inhibit breast cancer metastasis to bone in mice and clarified the potent...

  7. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    tyrosine kinases with an SH3, SH2 and catalytic domain, it lacks a native myristylation signal shared by most members of this class [14], [38]. The...therapeutics and consequently, improve clinical outcomes. We aim to identify novel drivers of breast oncogenesis. We hypothesize that a kinase gain-of...human mammary epithelial cells. A pBabe-Puro-Myr-Flag kinase open reading frame (ORF) library was screened in immortalized human mammary epithelial

  8. Breast cancer in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecka, Barbara; Litwiniuk, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) in young women is rare, affecting only 4-6% of women under the age of 40. Regardless, BC remains the most common malignancy among younger patients. Recently, a significant increase in BC rates has been observed among pre-menopausal subjects. Breast cancer in young women requires special attention due to its specific morphologic and prognostic characteristics and unique aspects, including fertility preservation and psychosocial issues (e.g. its impact on family life and career). Young women are more likely to have tumors with higher incidence of negative clinicopathologic features (higher histological grade, more lymph node positivity, lower estrogen receptor (ER) positivity, higher rates of Her2/neu overexpression). Also, they tend to be diagnosed at more advanced stages of the disease. That, in turn, contributes to less favorable prognosis as compared to older women. Young women are generally treated similarly to older patients. Surgical management includes mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery, followed by radiation therapy (younger women have higher local recurrence rates than older women, especially after breast-conserving therapy). Although the basics of chemotherapy are the same for patients of all ages, younger women have some special considerations. It is important to consider options for fertility preservation before starting systemic treatment. Patients should have access to genetic testing as their results may affect the choice of therapy. Younger women and their families should receive adequate psychological support and counselling.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells in an in vivo model of spontaneous metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Gargi D; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Lagioia, Michelle; Gendler, Sandra J; Mukherjee, Pinku

    2004-11-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are rapidly emerging as a new generation of therapeutic drug in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy for the treatment of cancer. The mechanisms underlying its antitumor effects are not fully understood and more thorough preclinical trials are needed to determine if COX-2 inhibition represents a useful approach for prevention and/or treatment of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth inhibitory mechanism of a highly selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, in an in vivo oncogenic mouse model of spontaneous breast cancer that resembles human disease. The oncogenic mice carry the polyoma middle T antigen driven by the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter and develop primary adenocarcinomas of the breast. Results show that oral administration of celecoxib caused significant reduction in mammary tumor burden associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis and decreased proliferation in vivo. In vivo apoptosis correlated with significant decrease in activation of protein kinase B/Akt, a cell survival signaling kinase, with increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax and decreased expression of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, celecoxib treatment reduced levels of proangiogenic factor (vascular endothelial growth factor), suggesting a role of celecoxib in suppression of angiogenesis in this model. Results from these preclinical studies will form the basis for assessing the feasibility of celecoxib therapy alone or in combination with conventional therapies for treatment and/or prevention of breast cancer.

  10. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and its Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melbye, Mads

    1998-01-01

    ...: Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk Having started the process of working with these questions, we discovered a unique opportunity to differentiate the outcome variable of breast cancer...

  11. Prognostic factors of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ortega, Jose Maria; Morales Wong, Mario Miguel; Lopez Cuevas, Zoraida; Diaz Valdez, Marilin

    2011-01-01

    The prognostic factors must to be differentiated of the predictive ones. A prognostic factor is any measurement used at moment of the surgery correlated with the free interval of disease or global survival in the absence of the systemic adjuvant treatment and as result is able to correlate with the natural history of the disease. In contrast, a predictive factor is any measurement associated with the response to a given treatment. Among the prognostic factors of the breast cancer are included the clinical, histological, biological, genetic and psychosocial factors. In present review of psychosocial prognostic factors has been demonstrated that the stress and the depression are negative prognostic factors in patients presenting with breast cancer. It is essential to remember that the assessment of just one prognostic parameter is a help but it is not useful to clinical and therapeutic management of the patient.(author)

  12. Virus-Targeted Therapeutic for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faller, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    .... Our approach initially involves investigation of EBV sequences in breast cancer cell lines and specimens, determination of whether treatment with Arginine Butyrate will induce the viral thymidine...

  13. Biopsychosocial Research Training in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... Three others successfully defended their Master's theses. Training throughout YR 4 was closely coordinated with ongoing ACS-funded and NCI-funded biopsychosocial breast cancer research projects...

  14. Pleiotrophin Signaling Through PTNR in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Ciaron

    2001-01-01

    ... of intracellular signaling cascades. The pleiotrophin signaling pathway is known to be important in angiogenesis and breast cancer growth, but the exact mechanisms of pleiotrophin signaling remain undefined...

  15. Paclitaxel and doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, J; Boesgaard, M; Paaske, T

    1996-01-01

    For the past decades the anthracyclines have been regarded as among the most active drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. However, the 5-year survival rate in patients with stage IV breast cancer continues to be below 20%, and new active drugs and drug combinations clearly must...... be explored. Paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) has been demonstrated to be highly effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer, including those with anthracycline-resistant breast cancer, a fact that has led to efforts to combine paclitaxel and anthracyclines...

  16. Adherence to Guidelines for Breast Surveillance in Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddy, Kathryn J; Sangaralingham, Lindsey; Freedman, Rachel A; Mougalian, Sarah; Neuman, Heather; Greenberg, Caprice; Jemal, Ahmedin; Duma, Narjust; Haddad, Tufia C; Lemaine, Valerie; Ghosh, Karthik; Hieken, Tina J; Hunt, Katie; Vachon, Celine; Gross, Cary; Shah, Nilay D

    2018-05-01

    Background: Guidelines recommend annual mammography after curative-intent treatment for breast cancer. The goal of this study was to assess contemporary patterns of breast imaging after breast cancer treatment. Methods: Administrative claims data were used to identify privately insured and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries with nonmetastatic breast cancer who had residual breast tissue (not bilateral mastectomy) after breast surgery between January 2005 and May 2015. We calculated the proportion of patients who had a mammogram, MRI, both, or neither during each of 5 subsequent 13-month periods. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess associations between patient characteristics, healthcare use, and breast imaging in the first and fifth years after surgery. Results: A total of 27,212 patients were followed for a median of 2.9 years (interquartile range, 1.8-4.6) after definitive breast cancer surgery. In year 1, 78% were screened using mammography alone, 1% using MRI alone, and 8% using both tests; 13% did not undergo either. By year 5, the proportion of the remaining cohort (n=4,790) who had no breast imaging was 19%. Older age was associated with an increased likelihood of mammography and a decreased likelihood of MRI during the first and fifth years. Black race, mastectomy, chemotherapy, and no MRI at baseline were all associated with a decreased likelihood of both types of imaging. Conclusions: Even in an insured cohort, a substantial proportion of breast cancer survivors do not undergo annual surveillance breast imaging, particularly as time passes. Understanding factors associated with imaging in cancer survivors may help improve adherence to survivorship care guidelines. Copyright © 2018 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  17. Genomic Instability and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    distinguish these possibilities. The possible function of human SWI5-MEI5 in meiosis also needs to be investigated. It remains to be determined whether the... human SWI5-MEI5 complex acts in meiosis and, if it does, whether it acts with DMC1, RAD51, or both. Considering that SWI5-MEI5 is the only human ...tumorigenesis. This has been clearly illustrated in familial breast cancer, since human genetic studies reveal that many genes involved in DNA damage response

  18. The Breast Cancer DNA Interactome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    an antisense orientation compared with the IGF1R gene, and it is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, with the maternal allele being...orientation compared with the IGF1R gene, and it is expressed exclusively from the paternal allele, with the maternal allele being silenced...progression and metastasis is not yet fully understood. Our major goal has been to characterize physical interactions among selected breast cancer gene loci

  19. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-07

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  20. Role of Aspirin in Breast Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wendy Y; Holmes, Michelle D

    2017-07-01

    Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer. Although the potential mechanism for aspirin preventing breast cancer is not known, possible pathways may involve platelets, inflammation, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2, hormones, or PI3 kinase. This review article summarizes the current epidemiologic and clinical trial evidence as well as possible underlying mechanisms that justify current phase III randomized trials of aspirin to improve breast cancer survival.

  1. Tetrofosmin in metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghammer, P.; Obwegeser, R.; Ulm, M.; Wiltschke, C.; Kubista, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Zielinski, C.

    1997-01-01

    Tetrofosmin (1,2-bis[bis(2-ethoxyethyl)phosphino]ethan) is currently under investigation for its tumor seeking properties, encouraged by the incidental finding of a malignant breast-lesion on myocardial scintigraphy in 1995 (Rambaldi et al, Clin Nucl Med 1995) using tetrofosmin. Recent reports have confirmed tetrofosmins role in detecting primary tumors in breast cancer. To investigate whether tetrofosmin significantly helps detect metastatic lesions in such patients we performed tetrofosmin scintigraphy in 21 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Patients and methods: Median age of patients was 61 years. In one patient the primary site was unknown. All patients had at least one distant metastasis. 550 MBq of 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin was administered ten minutes before imaging was begun. After obtaining a planar image, a single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was done of every suspected distant lesion. CT-scans or MRI were used to confirm positive correlation with tetrofosmin scintigraphy. Results: Tetrofosmin scintigraphy correctly diagnosed metastatic disease in 71 % of patients with no false negative and two false positive results. In each of the two patients a mediastinal hot spot suggestive of malignancy was found, but none of those lesions could be proven using CT scans. Excluding patients with liver metastasis from the present analysis, 91 % of all metastasis would have been correctly diagnosed. The first patient in our department had a large metastasis in the upper mediastinum which could not be seen on regular chest films. In the patient in whom the primary site of cancer was unknown, tetrofosmin scintigraphy showed three consecutive nodules in the left mammary, gland in a coronary fashion. Magnetic resonance imaging then confirmed two single nodules of 0.8 cm in diameter. Conclusions: Evaluating 21 patients, the present study was performed to investigate tetrofosmins properties of detecting metastatic lesions in patients with breast cancer. A 91

  2. Computed radiography for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Muramatsu, Yukio

    1990-01-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility of using computed radiographic mammography in mass surveys of the breast, we have retrospectively examined 71 breast cancer lesions in 71 patients using computed radiographic and conventional non-screen mammographies and have carried out comparative studies on tumor detection rate and calcification. A 95.8% detection rate was obtained for the tumor image (n 71) using computed radiography (CR) and one of 93.0% using non-screen techniques. Three lesions remained undetected by either study. A 100% detection rate was obtained for calcification associated with cancer (n 33) from each method. No significant differences in either detection rate or calcification were seen between the two images. On the other hand, the ability to recognize tumor images (n 66) was as follows; CR superior to non-screen radiography in 53 lesions (80.3%), equal in eight lesions (12.1%) and inferior in five lesions (7.6%). For the calcification images (n 18), CR was superior to non-screen radiography in all 18 lesions. Obviously, CR gives better results than non-screen radiography. Furthermore, an adequate image can be obtained using CR even although the X-ray dosage is only a twentieth of that required for non-screen radiography. It can therefore be applied not only to mass surveys for breast cancer but also to routine clinical diagnoses. (author)

  3. cAMP-response-element-binding protein positively regulates breast cancer metastasis and subsequent bone destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jieun; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Ha, Hyunil, E-mail: hyunil74@hotmail.com; Lee, Zang Hee, E-mail: zang1959@snu.ac.kr

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} CREB is highly expressed in advanced breast cancer cells. {yields} Tumor-related factors such as TGF-{beta} further elevate CREB expression. {yields} CREB upregulation stimulates metastatic potential of breast cancer cells. {yields} CREB signaling is required for breast cancer-induced bone destruction. -- Abstract: cAMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling has been reported to be associated with cancer development and poor clinical outcome in various types of cancer. However, it remains to be elucidated whether CREB is involved in breast cancer development and osteotropism. Here, we found that metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells exhibited higher CREB expression than did non-metastatic MCF-7 cells and that CREB expression was further increased by several soluble factors linked to cancer progression, such as IL-1, IGF-1, and TGF-{beta}. Using wild-type CREB and a dominant-negative form (K-CREB), we found that CREB signaling positively regulated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, K-CREB prevented MDA-MB-231 cell-induced osteolytic lesions in a mouse model of cancer metastasis. Furthermore, CREB signaling in cancer cells regulated the gene expression of PTHrP, MMPs, and OPG, which are closely involved in cancer metastasis and bone destruction. These results indicate that breast cancer cells acquire CREB overexpression during their development and that this CREB upregulation plays an important role in multiple steps of breast cancer bone metastasis.

  4. Automatically assessed volumetric breast density and breast cancer risk : The era of digital screening mammography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, J.O.P .

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among females worldwide. As the burden of breast cancer is high, many countries have introduced a breast cancer screening program with the aim to find and treat breast cancers in an early stage. In the Netherlands, women between the ages of 50

  5. High Salt Intake Attenuates Breast Cancer Metastasis to Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yijuan; Wang, Wenzhe; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Xuejiao; Lee, Mee-Hyun; Wang, Mingfu; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haitao; Chen, Wei

    2018-04-04

    Diet-related factors are thought to modify the risk of cancers, while the influence of high salt intake remains largely uncharacterized. Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. In the present study, we examined the effect of salt intake on breast cancer by using a 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model. Unexpectedly, both the fitness and the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice were improved by high salt intake. Similarly, high salt intake suppressed the primary tumor growth as well as metastasis to lung in mice. Mechanistically, high salt intake greatly reduced food intake and thus might exert antitumor effect through mimicking calorie restriction. Immunoblotting showed the lower proliferation marker Ki-67 and the higher expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in tumors of high salt intake mice. Importantly, high salt intake might induce hyperosmotic stress, which sensitized breast cancer cells to p53-dependent anoikis. Collectively, our findings raise the possibility that endogenous salt deposition might act as the first-line defense system against breast cancer progression as well as metastasis.

  6. Long-term side effects of adjuvant breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Ciska

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Breast cancer accounts for one-third of all cancers in females and 24% of the patients are younger than 55 years of age. More than 10% all Dutch women will develop breast cancer and 70-80% of all breast cancer patients will survive over 5 years.

  7. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  8. High dietary level of synthetic vitamin E on lipid peroxidation, membrane fatty acid composition and cytotoxicity in breast cancer xenograft and in mouse host tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes Christopher J

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background d-α-tocopherol is a naturally occurring form of vitamin E not previously known to have antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E (sE is a commonly used dietary supplement consisting of a mixture of d-α-tocopherol and 7 equimolar stereoisomers. To test for antilipid peroxidation and for antitumor activity of sE supplementation, two groups of nude mice bearing a MDA-MB 231 human breast cancer tumor were fed an AIN-76 diet, one with and one without an additional 2000 IU/kg dry food (equivalent to 900 mg of all-rac-α-tocopherol or sE. This provided an intake of about 200 mg/kg body weight per day. The mice were killed at either 2 or 6 weeks after the start of dietary intervention. During necropsy, tumor and host tissues were excised for histology and for biochemical analyses. Results Tumor growth was significantly reduced by 6 weeks of sE supplementation. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, were suppressed in tumor and in host tissues in sE supplemented mice. In the sE treated mice, the fatty acid composition of microsomal and mitochondrial membranes of tumor and host tissues had proportionately less linoleic acid (n-6 C 18-2, similar levels of arachidonic acid (n-6 C 20-4, but more docosahexanoic acid (n-3 C 22-6. The sE supplementation had no significant effect on blood counts or on intestinal histology but gave some evidence of cardiac toxicity as judged by myocyte vacuoles and by an indicator of oxidative stress (increased ratio of Mn SOD mRNA over GPX1 mRNA. Conclusions At least one of the stereoisomers in sE has antitumor activity. Synthetic vitamin E appears to preferentially stabilize membrane fatty acids with more double bonds in the acyl chain. Although sE suppressed tumor growth and lipid peroxidation, it may have side-effects in the heart.

  9. Psychosocially influenced cancer: diverse early-life stress experiences and links to breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Linda A; Auger, Anthony P

    2010-11-01

    This perspective on Boyd et al. (beginning on page 1398 in this issue of the journal) discusses recent published research examining the interplay between social stress and breast cancer. Cross-disciplinary studies using genetically defined mouse models and established neonatal and peripubertal paradigms of social stress are illuminating biological programming by diverse early-life experiences for the risk of breast cancer. Understanding the mechanisms underlying this programming can lead to the identification of risk factors and sensitive developmental windows, enabling improved prevention and treatment strategies for this devastating disease. ©2010 AACR.

  10. Observed and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer Death in Randomized Trials on Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Smans, Michel; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflect reductions in advanced cancer rates. We verified whether in breast screening trials, the observed reductions in the risk of breast cancer death could be predicted from reductions of advanced breast cancer rates. The Greater New York Health Insurance Plan trial (HIP) is the only breast screening trial that reported stage-specific cancer fatality for the screening and for the control group separately. The Swedish Two-County trial (TCT)) reported size-specific fatalities for cancer patients in both screening and control groups. We computed predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths, from which we calculated predicted relative risks (RR) and (95% confidence intervals). The Age trial in England performed its own calculations of predicted relative risk. The observed and predicted RR of breast cancer death were 0.72 (0.56-0.94) and 0.98 (0.77-1.24) in the HIP trial, and 0.79 (0.78-1.01) and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) in the Age trial. In the TCT, the observed RR was 0.73 (0.62-0.87), while the predicted RR was 0.89 (0.75-1.05) if overdiagnosis was assumed to be negligible and 0.83 (0.70-0.97) if extra cancers were excluded. In breast screening trials, factors other than screening have contributed to reductions in the risk of breast cancer death most probably by reducing the fatality of advanced cancers in screening groups. These factors were the better management of breast cancer patients and the underreporting of breast cancer as the underlying cause of death. Breast screening trials should publish stage-specific fatalities observed in each group.

  11. Development of a Tumour Growth Inhibition Model to Elucidate the Effects of Ritonavir on Intratumoural Metabolism and Anti-tumour Effect of Docetaxel in a Mouse Model for Hereditary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huixin; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Rottenberg, Sven; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2016-03-01

    In a mouse tumour model for hereditary breast cancer, we previously explored the anti-cancer effects of docetaxel, ritonavir and the combination of both and studied the effect of ritonavir on the intratumoural concentration of docetaxel. The objective of the current study was to apply pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) modelling on this previous study to further elucidate and quantify the effects of docetaxel when co-administered with ritonavir. PK models of docetaxel and ritonavir in plasma and in tumour were developed. The effect of ritonavir on docetaxel concentration in the systemic circulation of Cyp3a knock-out mice and in the implanted tumour (with inherent Cyp3a expression) was studied, respectively. Subsequently, we designed a tumour growth inhibition model that included the inhibitory effects of both docetaxel and ritonavir. Ritonavir decreased docetaxel systemic clearance with 8% (relative standard error 0.4%) in the co-treated group compared to that in the docetaxel only-treated group. The docetaxel concentration in tumour tissues was significantly increased by ritonavir with mean area under the concentration-time curve 2.5-fold higher when combined with ritonavir. Observed tumour volume profiles in mice could be properly described by the PK/PD model. In the co-treated group, the enhanced anti-tumour effect was mainly due to increased docetaxel tumour concentration; however, we demonstrated a small but significant anti-tumour effect of ritonavir addition (p value effect observed when docetaxel is combined with ritonavir is mainly caused by enhanced docetaxel tumour concentration and to a minor extent by a direct anti-tumour effect of ritonavir.

  12. Manganese superoxide dismutase and breast cancer recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Christensen, Mariann; Lash, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) inhibits oxidative damage and cancer therapy effectiveness. A polymorphism in its encoding gene (SOD2: Val16Ala rs4880) may confer poorer breast cancer survival, but data are inconsistent. We examined the association of SOD2 genotype and breast......-metastatic breast cancer from 1990-2001, received adjuvant Cyclo, and were registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. We identified 118 patients with BCR and 213 matched breast cancer controls. We genotyped SOD2 and used conditional logistic regression to compute the odds ratio (OR) and associated 95...... cancer recurrence (BCR) among patients treated with cyclophosphamide-based chemotherapy (Cyclo). We compared our findings with published studies using meta-analyses. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of BCR among women in Jutland, Denmark. Subjects were diagnosed with non...

  13. Breast cancer in women using digoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biggar, Robert J; Andersen, Louise Elisabeth; Kroman, Niels

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Digoxin use is associated with increased incidence of breast and uterus cancers. We postulated that digoxin use might affect tumor characteristics and increase relapse risk in women with breast cancer. METHODS: Incident breast cancer cases in Danish women (n = 49,312; 1995 to 2008...... in Cox regression models. RESULTS: At diagnosis, tumors in digoxin users were more likely ER+ (85.4% vs. 78.6%: P = 0.002) and have grade 1 ductal histology (37.2% vs. 25.7%; P = 0.004), compared to non-users. 45 relapses occurred in women already using digoxin at breast cancer diagnosis (1,487 person...... cancers arising in digoxin-using women had better prognostic features. After adjustment for markers, overall breast cancer relapse risk in digoxin users was not increased significantly, although recurrence hazards for ER+ tumors were higher in the first year following diagnosis....

  14. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelttari, Liisa M; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition......, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD......51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients...

  15. A Mouse Model for Human Anal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Marie K.; Pitot, Henry C.; Liem, Amy; Schweizer, Johannes; Mahoney, Charles; Lambert, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    Human anal cancers are associated with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause other anogenital cancers and head and neck cancers. As with other cancers, HPV16 is the most common high-risk HPV in anal cancers. We describe the generation and characterization of a mouse model for human anal cancer. This model makes use of K14E6 and K14E7 transgenic mice in which the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes are directed in their expression to stratified squamous epithelia. HPV16 E6 and E7 possess oncogenic properties including but not limited to their capacity to inactivate the cellular tumor suppressors p53 and pRb, respectively. Both E6 and E7 were found to be functionally expressed in the anal epithelia of K14E6/K14E7 transgenic mice. To assess the susceptibility of these mice to anal cancer, mice were treated topically with dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a chemical carcinogen that is known to induce squamous cell carcinomas in other sites. Nearly 50% of DMBA-treated HPV16 E6/E7 transgenic mice showed overt signs of tumors; whereas, none of the like treated non-transgenic mice showed tumors. Histopathological analyses confirmed that the HPV16 transgenic mice were increased in their susceptibility to anal cancers and precancerous lesions. Biomarker analyses demonstrated that these mouse anal cancers exhibit properties that are similar to those observed in HPV-positive precursors to human anal cancer. This is the first mouse model for investigating the contributions of viral and cellular factors in anal carcinogenesis, and should provide a platform for assessing new therapeutic modalities for treating and/or preventing this type of cancer. PMID:20947489

  16. Predictors of Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swenson, Karen K

    2006-01-01

    .... Cases will be identified in the physical therapy or cancer centers. Controls will be identified using the oncology registry and include patients with breast cancer surgery who have not developed lymphedema...

  17. Genetics and molecular biology of breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Lippman, M. [Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)] [comps.

    1992-12-31

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral presentations and poster sessions presented at the Cold Springs Harbor Meeting on Cancer Cells, this meeting entitled Genetics and Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer.

  18. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  19. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2003-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) to quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2) To examine...

  20. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2001-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  1. Physiological Stress Reactivity and Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadhwa, Pathik

    2005-01-01

    ... cancer and matched healthy controls. The aims of the project are: (1) To quantify parameters of biological reactivity to a behavioral stress paradigm in women with and without breast cancer; (2...

  2. Breast Cancer Screening, Mammography, and Other Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, James V

    2016-12-01

    This article is an overview of the modalities available for breast cancer screening. The modalities discussed include digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical breast examination. There is a review of pertinent randomized controlled trials, studies and meta-analyses which contributed to the evolution of screening guidelines. Ultimately, 5 major medical organizations formulated the current screening guidelines in the United States. The lack of consensus in these guidelines represents an ongoing controversy about the optimal timing and method for breast cancer screening in women. For mammography screening, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon is explained which corresponds with recommended clinical management. The presentation and discussion of the data in this article are designed to help the clinician individualize breast cancer screening for each patient.

  3. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs. PMID:26943775

  4. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  5. [Breast tomosynthesis: a new tool for diagnosing breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Miravete, P; Etxano, J

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most common malignant tumor in women in occidental countries. Mammography is currently the technique of choice for screening programs; however, although it has been widely validated, mammography has its limitations, especially in dense breasts. Breast tomosynthesis is a revolutionary advance in the diagnosis of breast cancer. It makes it possible to define lesions that are occult in the glandular tissue and therefore to detect breast tumors that are impossible to see on conventional mammograms. In considering the combined use of mammography and tomosynthesis, many factors must be taken into account apart from cancer detection; these include additional radiation, the recall rate, and the time necessary to carry out and interpret the two tests. In this article, we review the technical principles of tomosynthesis, it main uses, and the future perspective for this imaging technique. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Breast Cancer Fatalism on Breast Cancer Awareness Among Turkish Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Hulya Kulakci; Ayyildiz, Tulay Kuzlu; Veren, Funda; Topan, Aysel Kose

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of breast cancer fatalism and other factors on breast cancer awareness among Turkish women. This cross-sectional and comparative descriptive study was conducted with 894 women. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Powe Fatalism Inventory and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale. Seriousness, health motivation, BSE benefits and BSE self-efficacy perceptions of the women were moderate, and susceptibility and BSE barriers perceptions were low. It was determined that awareness of breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism, age, education level, employment status, marital status, family type, economic status, social assurance, menopause status, family history of cancer, family history of breast cancer, knowledge on BSE, source of information on BSE, performing of BSE, frequency of BSE performing, having a problem with breast, having a breast examination in hospital, feeling during breast examination by healthcare professional, sex of healthcare professional for breast examination and their health beliefs (p breast cancer of the women was affected by breast cancer fatalism. In providing breast cancer early diagnosis behaviors, it is recommended to evaluate fatalism perceptions and health beliefs of the women and to arrange educational programs for this purpose.

  7. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Esophageal Cancer: Insights from Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pier Tétreault

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is the eighth leading cause of cancer and the sixth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in the development of surgical techniques in combination with the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the prognosis for esophageal cancer remains poor. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer are still poorly understood. Hence, understanding these mechanisms is crucial to improving outcomes for patients with esophageal cancer. Mouse models constitute valuable tools for modeling human cancers and for the preclinical testing of therapeutic strategies in a manner not possible in human subjects. Mice are excellent models for studying human cancers because they are similar to humans at the physiological and molecular levels and because they have a shorter gestation time and life cycle. Moreover, a wide range of well-developed technologies for introducing genetic modifications into mice are currently available. In this review, we describe how different mouse models are used to study esophageal cancer.

  9. LGR4 modulates breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhiying; Yuan, Zengjin; Zeng, Li; Wang, Ying; Lai, Li; Li, Jing; Sun, Peng; Xue, Xiwen; Qi, Junyi; Yang, Zhengfeng; Zheng, Yansen; Fang, Yuanzhang; Li, Dali; Siwko, Stefan; Li, Yi; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2018-05-01

    The fourth member of the leucine-rich repeat-containing GPCR family (LGR4, frequently referred to as GPR48) and its cognate ligands, R-spondins (RSPOs) play crucial roles in the development of multiple organs as well as the survival of adult stem cells by activation of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt/β-catenin signaling acts to regulate breast cancer; however, the molecular mechanisms determining its spatiotemporal regulation are largely unknown. In this study, we identified LGR4 as a master controller of Wnt/β-catenin signaling-mediated breast cancer tumorigenesis, metastasis, and cancer stem cell (CSC) maintenance. LGR4 expression in breast tumors correlated with poor prognosis. Either Lgr4 haploinsufficiency or mammary-specific deletion inhibited mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)- PyMT- and MMTV- Wnt1-driven mammary tumorigenesis and metastasis. Moreover, LGR4 down-regulation decreased in vitro migration and in vivo xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis. Furthermore, Lgr4 deletion in MMTV- Wnt1 tumor cells or knockdown in human breast cancer cells decreased the number of functional CSCs by ∼90%. Canonical Wnt signaling was impaired in LGR4-deficient breast cancer cells, and LGR4 knockdown resulted in increased E-cadherin and decreased expression of N-cadherin and snail transcription factor -2 ( SNAI2) (also called SLUG), implicating LGR4 in regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our findings support a crucial role of the Wnt signaling component LGR4 in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and breast CSCs.-Yue, Z., Yuan, Z., Zeng, L., Wang, Y., Lai, L., Li, J., Sun, P., Xue, X., Qi, J., Yang, Z., Zheng, Y., Fang, Y., Li, D., Siwko, S., Li, Y., Luo, J., Liu, M. LGR4 modulates breast cancer initiation, metastasis, and cancer stem cells.

  10. APC selectively mediates response to chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanKlompenberg, Monica K.; Bedalov, Claire O.; Soto, Katia Fernandez; Prosperi, Jenifer R.

    2015-01-01

    The Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) tumor suppressor is mutated or hypermethylated in up to 70 % of sporadic breast cancers depending on subtype; however, the effects of APC mutation on tumorigenic properties remain unexplored. Using the Apc Min/+ mouse crossed to the Polyoma middle T antigen (PyMT) transgenic model, we identified enhanced breast tumorigenesis and alterations in genes critical in therapeutic resistance independent of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Apc mutation changed the tumor histopathology from solid to squamous adenocarcinomas, resembling the highly aggressive human metaplastic breast cancer. Mechanistic studies in tumor-derived cell lines demonstrated that focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Src/JNK signaling regulated the enhanced proliferation downstream of Apc mutation. Despite this mechanistic information, the role of APC in mediating breast cancer chemotherapeutic resistance is currently unknown. We have examined the effect of Apc loss in MMTV-PyMT mouse breast cancer cells on gene expression changes of ATP-binding cassette transporters and immunofluorescence to determine proliferative and apoptotic response of cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel. Furthermore we determined the added effect of Src or JNK inhibition by PP2 and SP600125, respectively, on chemotherapeutic response. We also used the Aldefluor assay to measure the population of tumor initiating cells. Lastly, we measured the apoptotic and proliferative response to APC knockdown in MDA-MB-157 human breast cancer cells after chemotherapeutic treatment. Cells obtained from MMTV-PyMT;Apc Min/+ tumors express increased MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), which is augmented by treatment with paclitaxel or doxorubicin. Furthermore MMTV-PyMT;Apc Min/+ cells are more resistant to cisplatin and doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, and show a larger population of ALDH positive cells. In the human metaplastic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-157, APC knockdown led to paclitaxel and cisplatin

  11. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  12. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcote, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  13. Exploring the breast cancer patient journey: do breast cancer survivors need menopause management support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanna, Nuttan; Buijs, Helene; Pitkin, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer survivors can be expected to suffer from menopause symptoms with estrogen deprivation due to cancer treatments, in addition to natural menopause-related estrogen loss. To gain an understanding of what support breast cancer patients have when they suffer from menopausal symptoms, and utilize findings to further inform National Health Service (NHS) care provision for breast cancer survivors. Qualitative study with focus group sessions targeting Caucasian and Asian women with breast cancer. Patient stories, with women describing their breast cancer journey and speaking about support received for any menopausal symptoms. Thematic data analysis of transcription. Breast cancer patients were not sure if they had menopausal symptoms or whether this was due to their breast cancer condition or treatment. Patients had an attitude of acceptance of menopausal symptoms and reported trying to cope with these by themselves. This research identifies a need for more information that is culturally sensitive on managing menopause symptoms, both as side-effects of breast cancer treatments as well as for affect on quality of life during the survivorship phase. Our work also gives insight into cultural remedies used for hot flushes by Asian patients, which they consider as 'cooling' foods. Breast cancer patients want to know whether side-effects of cancer treatment persist long term and how these can be managed. There is a need for improved patient support within any new NHS service models that are developed along breast cancer patient pathways, and inclusion of personalized advice for menopause symptoms.

  14. Cutaneous Silicone Granuloma Mimicking Breast Cancer after Ruptured Breast Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous manifestations due to migration of silicone from ruptured implants are rare. Migrated silicone with cutaneous involvement has been found in the chest wall, abdominal wall, and lower extremities. We describe a case of cutaneous silicone granuloma in the breast exhibiting unusual growth mimicking breast cancer after a ruptured implant.

  15. A new look at breast density and breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haars, G.

    2008-01-01

    Breast density, as visible on mammograms, comprises connective and epithelial tissue and can be seen to represent the glandular target tissue for breast cancer, whereas the non-dense tissue mainly comprises fat. High percentages of density are established to be one of the strongest risk factors of

  16. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  17. The hidden sentinel node in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, P. J.; van Sandick, J. W.; Nieweg, O. E.; Valdés Olmos, R. A.; Rutgers, E. J. T.; Hoefnagel, C. A.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of non-visualisation during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 495 clinically node-negative breast cancer patients (501 sentinel node procedures)

  18. Braquitherapy at breast cancer - preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra e Oliveira, V.; Lima, G.R. de; Libonati, S.; Morales, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty - two cases of cancer of the breast, treated by radiation therapy (cesium 137 , cobalt 60 , electrons, iridium 192 , radium 226 , gold 198 ) are reported. The techniques are described and comparative comments about radiation and surgery for breast cancer therapy are made. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. The conservative treatment of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souhami, L.

    1982-01-01

    Despite major achievements in the medical field, the survival rate of patients with breast cancer has not changed over the last 50 years. Certain treatments once taken as definitive are now being reviewed. The therapeutic evolution of breast cancer is studied and emphasis is given to new treatment modalities, particularly the conservative ones. (Author) [pt

  20. Bringing Breast Cancer Technologies to Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR research is recognized in novel competition to encourage the commercialization of breast cancer inventions. Editor’s note: This article was originally published in CCR Connections (Volume 8, No. 1). The Breast Cancer Startup Challenge was named one of six finalists in the HHS Innovates Award Competition, and was one of three finalists recognized by HHS Secretary Sylvia

  1. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Partial axillary dissection in early breast cancer. Tarek Abdel Halim El-Fayoumi *. Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Egypt. Received 16 October 2012; accepted 7 January 2013. Available online 7 March 2013. KEYWORDS. Breast cancer;. Axillary lymph nodes.

  2. Spindle Cell Metaplastic Breast Cancer: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dursun Ozgur Karakas

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Spindle cell metaplastic breast cancer must be considered in differential diagnosis of breast cancers, and preoperative immunohistochemical examination, including cytokeratin and vimentin, must be added to pathological examination in intervening cases. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(4.000: 259-262

  3. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  4. Breast Cancer Types: What Your Type Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... B breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy and may benefit from hormone therapy and treatment targeted to HER2. ... HER2 positive. HER2 breast cancers are likely to benefit from chemotherapy and treatment targeted to HER2. Group 4 (basal- ...

  5. Breast Cancer In Pregnancy: Management Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reflecting the more advanced stage of the disease at diagnosis. An approach to the management of breast cancer in pregnancy is presented by a case illustration and a review of literature. KEY WORDS: Breast Cancer, ... function tests, haemogram and ultra— sound. She delivered a live female baby weighing 2.8 kilogram's ...

  6. Management of pregnancy associated breast cancer | Ohanaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The peak age incidence for breast cancer in developing countries is 35-45 years, which is part of the reproductive years of our women. As women defer childbearing on account of education and careers, the incidence of pregnancy associated breast cancer is expected to increase. Aim: This study presents 4 ...

  7. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  8. Awareness of breast cancer and breast self-examination among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-29

    Sep 29, 2017 ... 81.2% and 64% observed in a group of Malaysian [19] and Iranian. [20] women respectively. ... 95% among female university students in Ghana [22]. The lower ..... International Journal of Breast Cancer. 2013; 814395:6.

  9. BREAST RECONSTRUCTIONS AFTER BREAST CANCER TREATING

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Vrabič

    2018-01-01

    Background. Breasts are an important symbol of physical beauty, feminity, mothering and sexual desire through the entire history of mankind. Lost of the whole or part of the breast is functional and aesthetic disturbance for woman. It is understandable, that the woman, who is concerned over breast loss, is as appropriate as another person´s concern over the loss of a limb or other body part. Before the 1960, breast reconstruction was considered as a dangerous procedure and it was almost prohi...

  10. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  11. [Diagnostic imaging of breast cancer : An update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, M

    2016-10-01

    Advances in imaging of the female breast have substantially influenced the diagnosis and probably also the therapy and prognosis of breast cancer in the past few years. This article gives an overview of the most important imaging modalities in the diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital mammography is considered to be the gold standard for the early detection of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis can increase the diagnostic accuracy of mammography and is used for the assessment of equivocal or suspicious mammography findings. Other modalities, such as ultrasound and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) play an important role in the diagnostics, staging and follow-up of breast cancer. Percutaneous needle biopsy is a rapid and minimally invasive method for the histological verification of breast cancer. New breast imaging modalities, such as contrast-enhanced spectral mammography, diffusion-weighted MRI and MR spectroscopy can possibly further improve breast cancer diagnostics; however, further studies are necessary to prove the advantages of these methods so that they cannot yet be recommended for routine clinical use.

  12. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  13. FGF receptor genes and breast cancer susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, D; Pineda, S; Michailidou, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Genome-wide association studies have identified FGFR2 as a breast cancer susceptibility gene. Common variation in other fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors might also modify risk. We tested this hypothesis by studying...... genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and imputed SNPs in FGFR1, FGFR3, FGFR4 and FGFRL1 in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.Methods:Data were combined from 49 studies, including 53 835 cases and 50 156 controls, of which 89 050 (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) were of European ancestry......, 12 893 (6269 cases and 6624 controls) of Asian and 2048 (1116 cases and 932 controls) of African ancestry. Associations with risk of breast cancer, overall and by disease sub-type, were assessed using unconditional logistic regression.Results:Little evidence of association with breast cancer risk...

  14. T cell recognition of breast cancer antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nadia Viborg; Andersen, Sofie Ramskov; Andersen, Rikke Sick

    Recent studies are encouraging research of breast cancer immunogenicity to evaluate the applicability ofimmunotherapy as a treatment strategy. The epitope landscape in breast cancer is minimally described, thus it is necessary to identify T cell targets to develop immune mediated therapies.......This project investigates four proteins commonly upregulated in breast cancer and thus probable tumor associated antigens (TAAs). Aromatase, prolactin, NEK3, and PIAS3 contribute to increase growth, survival, and motility of malignant cells. Aspiring to uncover novel epitopes for cytotoxic T cells, a reverse...... recognition utilizing DNA barcode labeled MHC multimers to screen peripheral blood lymphocytes from breast cancer patients and healthy donor samples. Signif-icantly more TAA specific T cell responses were detected in breast cancer patients than healthy donors for both HLA-A*0201 (P

  15. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  16. Tiamulin inhibits breast cancer growth and pulmonary metastasis by decreasing the activity of CD73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xu; Pei, Shimin; Wang, Huanan; Jin, Yipeng; Yu, Fang; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Di; Lin, Degui

    2017-04-11

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. CD73, also known as ecto-5'-nucleotidase, plays a critical role in cancer development including metastasis. The existing researches indicate that overexpression of CD73 promotes growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Therefore, CD73 inhibitor can offer a promising treatment for breast cancer. Here, we determined whether tiamulin, which was found to inhibit CD73, was able to suppress breast cancer development and explored the related mechanisms. We firstly measured the effect of tiamulin hydrogen fumarate (THF) on CD73 using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Then, we investigated cell proliferation, migration and invasion in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell line and 4 T1 mouse breast cancer cell line treated with THF by migration assay, invasion assay and activity assay. Besides, we examined the effect of THF on syngeneic mammary tumors of mice by immunohistochemistry. Our data demonstrated that THF inhibited CD73 by decreasing the activity instead of the expression of CD73. In vitro, THF inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and 4 T1 cells by suppressing CD73 activity. In vivo, animal experiments showed that THF treatment resulted in significant reduction in syngeneic tumor growth, microvascular density and lung metastasis rate. Our results indicate that THF inhibits growth and metastasis of breast cancer by blocking the activity of CD73, which may offer a promising treatment for breast cancer therapy.

  17. GATA3 expression in triple-negative breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, David J; Deb, Siddhartha; Takano, Elena A; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-07-01

    GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) is a well-studied transcription factor found to be essential in the development of luminal breast epithelium and has been identified in a variety of tumour types, including breast and urothelial carcinomas, making it a useful immunohistochemistry marker in the diagnosis of both primary and metastatic disease. We investigated GATA3 protein expression in a 106 primary triple-negative breast carcinomas (100 basal-like, six non-basal-like) using Cell Marque mouse monoclonal anti-GATA3 (L50-823). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to quantify mRNA expression in 22 triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) (20 primary and two cell lines), four luminal (three primary and one cell line) and five human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (four primary and one cell line) amplified tumours. In 98 TNBCs where IHC was assessable, 47 (48%) had a 1+ or greater staining with 20 (21%) having high GATA3 expression when using a weighted scoring. Our study has demonstrated that GATA3 expression is common in primary triple-negative breast carcinomas. It also suggests that although GATA3 is an oestrogen receptor (ER) regulated gene, it still proves useful in differentiating between primary and metastatic tumours in patients with a history of breast cancer regardless of its molecular subtype. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Benign breast disease, mammographic breast density, and the risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; O'Meara, Ellen S; Weaver, Donald L; Vachon, Celine; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2013-07-17

    Benign breast disease and high breast density are prevalent, strong risk factors for breast cancer. Women with both risk factors may be at very high risk. We included 42818 women participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium who had no prior diagnosis of breast cancer and had undergone at least one benign breast biopsy and mammogram; 1359 women developed incident breast cancer in 6.1 years of follow-up (78.1% invasive, 21.9% ductal carcinoma in situ). We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using Cox regression analysis. The referent group was women with nonproliferative changes and average density. All P values are two-sided. Benign breast disease and breast density were independently associated with breast cancer. The combination of atypical hyperplasia and very high density was uncommon (0.6% of biopsies) but was associated with the highest risk for breast cancer (HR = 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.52 to 8.09, P < .001). Proliferative disease without atypia (25.6% of biopsies) was associated with elevated risk that varied little across levels of density: average (HR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.69, P = .003), high (HR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.68 to 2.44, P < .001), or very high (HR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.72, P < .001). Low breast density (4.5% of biopsies) was associated with low risk (HRs <1) for all benign pathology diagnoses. Women with high breast density and proliferative benign breast disease are at very high risk for future breast cancer. Women with low breast density are at low risk, regardless of their benign pathologic diagnosis.

  19. Questionnaires in Identifying Upper Extremity Function and Quality of Life After Treatment in Patients With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Musculoskeletal Complication; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Therapy-Related Toxicity

  20. Role of KCNMA1 in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Oeggerli

    Full Text Available KCNMA1 encodes the α-subunit of the large conductance, voltage and Ca(2+-activated (BK potassium channel and has been reported as a target gene of genomic amplification at 10q22 in prostate cancer. To investigate the prevalence of the amplification in other human cancers, the copy number of KCNMA1 was analyzed by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization (FISH in 2,445 tumors across 118 different tumor types. Amplification of KCNMA1 was restricted to a small but distinct fraction of breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer with the highest prevalence in invasive ductal breast cancers and serous carcinoma of ovary and endometrium (3-7%. We performed an extensive analysis on breast cancer tissue microarrays (TMA of 1,200 tumors linked to prognosis. KCNMA1 amplification was significantly associated with high tumor stage, high grade, high tumor cell proliferation, and poor prognosis. Immunofluorescence revealed moderate or strong KCNMA1 protein expression in 8 out of 9 human breast cancers and in the breast cancer cell line MFM223. KCNMA1-function in breast cancer cell lines was confirmed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings and proliferation assays, using siRNA-knockdown, BK channel activators such as 17ß-estradiol and the BK-channel blocker paxilline. Our findings revealed that enhanced expression of KCNMA1 correlates with and contributes to high proliferation rate and malignancy of breast cancer.

  1. [Persistence of social representation regarding breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Mora, Clara V

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the social representation of breast cancer and how it has influenced breast cancer prevention and self-care practice in a group of women from the city of Medellin. This was a qualitative study using 19 semi-structured interviews with adult females who had not had breast cancer, using maximum variation criterion as sampling technique. The analysis was orientated by grounded theory. Some women physiologically represented breast cancer while others represented it by its social and psychological effects. They identified its causes with personal and emotional problems and certain daily habits such as inadequate food ("a bodily payback for the abuses which we subject ourselves to"). The word "breast cancer" was associated with inevitable death, terror, suffering, incurability, devastation, powerlessness and pain. This cancer has strong social representation due to its severe implications for females, their attractiveness and self-image. The persistence of breast cancer's negative image is associated with "the life-style myth" (1) for which people tend to blame the patient. Our biological reductionism hides environmental, social and political factors. We are obsessed by the dangers and their control (2) and powerful images are added to these messages such as those in which "one out of nine women will develop breast cancer" to foster self-responsibility (2). However, the ghost of cancer in developing societies in which many people are still trapped is magnified and has also yet to be overcome.

  2. DDT Exposure in Utero and Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Barbara A; La Merrill, Michele; Krigbaum, Nickilou Y; Yeh, Gregory; Park, June-Soo; Zimmermann, Lauren; Cirillo, Piera M

    2015-08-01

    Currently no direct evidence links in utero dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exposure to human breast cancer. However, in utero exposure to another xenoestrogen, diethylstilbestrol, predicts an increased breast cancer risk. If this finding extends to DDT, it could have far-reaching consequences. Many women were heavily exposed in utero during widespread DDT use in the 1960s. They are now reaching the age of heightened breast cancer risk. DDT exposure persists and use continues in Africa and Asia without clear knowledge of the consequences for the next generation. In utero exposure to DDT is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. This was a case-control study nested in a prospective 54-year follow-up of 9300 daughters in the Child Health and Development Studies pregnancy cohort (n = 118 breast cancer cases, diagnosed by age 52 y and 354 controls matched on birth year). Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members who received obstetric care in Alameda County, California, from 1959 to 1967, and their adult daughters participated in the study. Daughters' breast cancer diagnosed by age 52 years as of 2012 was measured. Maternal o,p'-DDT predicted daughters' breast cancer (odds ratio fourth quartile vs first = 3.7, 95% confidence interval 1.5-9.0). Mothers' lipids, weight, race, age, and breast cancer history did not explain the findings. This prospective human study links measured DDT exposure in utero to risk of breast cancer. Experimental studies are essential to confirm results and discover causal mechanisms. Findings support classification of DDT as an endocrine disruptor, a predictor of breast cancer, and a marker of high risk.

  3. 75 FR 62297 - National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A.... During National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, we reaffirm our commitment to supporting breast cancer... coverage for a pre-existing condition or charged higher premiums. During National Breast Cancer Awareness...

  4. Tryptophan-induced pathogenesis of breast cancer | Cao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The pathogenesis of breast cancer remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the pathogenesis of breast cancer through targeted metabolomics of amino acids components in serum of patients with breast cancer. Methods: Patients with breast cancers were enrolled in our hospital between year January 1st, 2013 ...

  5. Estrogen sulfotransferases in breast and endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2009-02-01

    Estrogen sulfotransferase is significantly more active in the normal breast cell (e.g., Human 7) than in the cancer cell (e.g., MCF-7). The data suggest that in breast cancer sulfoconjugated activity is carried out by another enzyme, the SULT1A, which acts at high concentration of the substrates. In breast cancer cells sulfotransferase (SULT) activity can be stimulated by various progestins: medrogestone, promegestone, and nomegestrol acetate, as well as by tibolone and its metabolites. SULT activities can also be controlled by other substances including phytoestrogens, celecoxib, flavonoids (e.g., quercetin, resveratrol), and isoflavones. SULT expression was localized in breast cancer cells, which can be stimulated by promegestone and correlated with the increase of the enzyme activity. The estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), which acts at nanomolar concentration of estradiol, can inactivate most of this hormone present in the normal breast; however, in the breast cancer cells, the sulfotransferase denoted as SULT1A1 is mainly present, and this acts at micromolar concentrations of E(2). A correlation was postulated among breast cancer cell proliferation, the effect of various progestins, and sulfotransferase stimulation. In conclusion, it is suggested that factors involved in the stimulation of the estrogen sulfotransferases could provide new possibilities for the treatment of patients with hormone-dependent breast and endometrial cancers.

  6. Breast cancer in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the expectation of life in the Western world increases the incidence of breast cancer rises and more and more of our patients present over the age of 70. The expectation of life amongst women in the UK is now 85 so a fit elderly woman of 70 has many years left for the natural history of breast cancer to express itself Never the less the older the woman with breast cancer the more likely she is to die of co-morbidity. The first point to make therefore is that age alone should not be a determinant of therapy but that should remain a decision based on the stage and biological variables within the primary tumour. In spite of all that there may be a place to compromise on default therapies if the expectation of life of the woman is say less than three years. I will illustrate these points by focussing on three trials with which Fve been actively involved. The first are the trials comparing surgery plus tamoxifen versus surgery alone in women over the age of 70, secondly the TRAGIT trial of intra-operative radiotherapy and thirdly the ATAC trial comparing tamoxifen with arimidex. I will argue that surgery is still required in primary therapy in the elderly whose expectation of life exceeds 3 years but also there is room for a new trial of aromatase inhibitors as sole therapy for women with tumours that express the ER and are say 80 years or more at presentation. I also believe that there is a place for lORT for women with serious co-morbidity and I will argue that there may be an age of transition when tamoxifen might be favoured above aromatase inhibitors as first line adjuvant therapy. (author)

  7. Breast cancer: Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariel, I.M.; Clearly, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This is a publication about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with an appeal for unified reporting of end results. Nine chapters cover historical reviews, risk factors, pathology-receptors-immunology, detection and diagnosis, treatment of the potentially curable patient, and treatment of the patient with advanced disease. The three concluding chapters discuss reconstruction, special clinical situations, and support for the patient. The role of radiation therapy is presented well. The current status of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and combined therapies is also addressed by authoritative authors

  8. Intensity modulated radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riou, O.; Fenoglietto, P.; Lemanski, C.; Azria, D.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a technique allowing dose escalation and normal tissue sparing for various cancer types. For breast cancer, the main goals when using IMRT were to improve dose homogeneity within the breast and to enhance coverage of complex target volumes. Nonetheless, better heart and lung protections are achievable with IMRT as compared to standard irradiation for difficult cases. Three prospective randomized controlled trials of IMRT versus standard treatment showed that a better breast homogeneity can translate into better overall cosmetic results. Dosimetric and clinical studies seem to indicate a benefit of IMRT for lymph nodes irradiation, bilateral treatment, left breast and chest wall radiotherapy, or accelerated partial breast irradiation. The multiple technical IMRT solutions available tend to indicate a widespread use for breast irradiation. Nevertheless, indications for breast IMRT should be personalized and selected according to the expected benefit for each individual. (authors)

  9. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Velichko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of breast imaging for 47200 women. Breast cancer was detected in 862 (1.9% patients, fibroadenoma in 1267 (2.7% patients and isolated breast cysts in 1162 (2.4% patients. Different types of fibrocystic breast disease (adenosis, diffuse fibrocystic changes, local fibrosis and others were observed in 60.1% of women. Problems of breast cancer visualization during mammography, characterized by the appearance of fibrocystic mastopathy (sclerosing adenosis, fibrous bands along the ducts have been analyzed. Data on the development of diagnostic algorithms including the modern techniques for ultrasound and interventional radiology aimed at detecting early breast cancer have been presented.  

  11. Who's talking about breast cancer? Analysis of daily breast cancer posts on the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Edel M; Corrigan, Mark A; McHugh, Seamus M; Murphy, David; O'Mullane, John; Hill, Arnold D; Redmond, Henry Paul

    2013-02-01

    Breast cancer is the cancer most commonly searched for on the internet. Our aim was to assess daily new breast cancer related posting on the internet. We analyzed numbers of new daily posts for common cancers for one month and subsequently analyzed content of 1426 breast cancer related posts. We also assessed use of online discussion forums for breast cancer related dialogue. Breast related topics had significantly more posts per day compared to others (mean 66.7, p Anonymous posts were common (55%) and less likely to be accurate (p internet has become a primary forum within which health information, particularly relating to breast cancer, is both sought and shared. Increasingly information is provided by patients themselves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breast Cancer After Chest Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Mubdi, Nidha Z.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A.; Henderson, Tara O.; Boice, John D.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Begg, Colin B.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Results Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer–specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Conclusion Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. PMID:24752044

  13. Application of PET in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Dong Young

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging method that employs radionuclide and tomography techniques. Since 1995, we applied PET not only to the diagnosis of breast cancer but also to the detection of abnormalities in the augmented breast and to the detection of metastasis. Until 2001, we evaluated 242 breast cases by PET at PET center of Seoul National University Hospital. Our group has reported serially at the international journals. In the firtst report, PET showed high sensitivity for detecting breast cancer, both the primary and axillary node metastasis. A total of 27 patients underwent breast operations based on PET results at Seoul National University Hospital from 1995 to 1996. The diagnostic accuracy of PET were 97% for the primary tumor mass and 96% for axillary lymph node metastasis. In case of the breast augmented, PET also showed excellent diagnostic results for primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis where mammography and ultrasound could not diagnose properly. PET also had outstanding results in the detection of recurrent or metastatic breast cancer(sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%, accuracy 89%). In addition, our study gave some evidence that PET could be applied further to evaluate the growth rate of tumors by measuring SUV, and finally to prognosticated the disease. PET could also be applied to evaluate the response after chemotherapy to measure its metabolic rate and size. In conclsion, PET is a highly sensitive, accurate diagnostic tool for breast cancer of primary lesion in various conditions including metastasis

  14. The Role of Exosomes in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Michelle C; Gallagher, William M; O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2015-12-01

    Although it has been long realized that eukaryotic cells release complex vesicular structures into their environment, only in recent years has it been established that these entities are not merely junk or debris, but that they are tailor-made specialized minimaps of their cell of origin and of both physiological and pathological relevance. These exosomes and microvesicles (ectosomes), collectively termed extracellular vesicles (EVs), are often defined and subgrouped first and foremost according to size and proposed origin (exosomes approximately 30-120 nm, endosomal origin; microvesicles 120-1000 nm, from the cell membrane). There is growing interest in elucidating the relevance and roles of EVs in cancer. Much of the pioneering work on EVs in cancer has focused on breast cancer, possibly because breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. This review provides an in-depth summary of such studies, supporting key roles for exosomes and other EVs in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis, stem cell stimulation, apoptosis, immune system modulation, and anti-cancer drug resistance. Exosomes as diagnostic, prognostic, and/or predictive biomarkers and their potential use in the development of therapeutics are discussed. Although not fully elucidated, the involvement of exosomes in breast cancer development, progression, and resistance is becoming increasingly apparent from preclinical and clinical studies, with mounting interest in the potential exploitation of these vesicles for breast cancer biomarkers, as drug delivery systems, and in the development of future novel breast cancer therapies. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  15. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, T.M.; Tresham, J.; Fritschi, L.; Wylie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  16. Annotating breast cancer microarray samples using ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfang; Li, Xin; Yoon, Victoria; Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the most common cancer among women, breast cancer results from the accumulation of mutations in essential genes. Recent advance in high-throughput gene expression microarray technology has inspired researchers to use the technology to assist breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment prediction. However, the high dimensionality of microarray experiments and public access of data from many experiments have caused inconsistencies which initiated the development of controlled terminologies and ontologies for annotating microarray experiments, such as the standard microarray Gene Expression Data (MGED) ontology (MO). In this paper, we developed BCM-CO, an ontology tailored specifically for indexing clinical annotations of breast cancer microarray samples from the NCI Thesaurus. Our research showed that the coverage of NCI Thesaurus is very limited with respect to i) terms used by researchers to describe breast cancer histology (covering 22 out of 48 histology terms); ii) breast cancer cell lines (covering one out of 12 cell lines); and iii) classes corresponding to the breast cancer grading and staging. By incorporating a wider range of those terms into BCM-CO, we were able to indexed breast cancer microarray samples from GEO using BCM-CO and MGED ontology and developed a prototype system with web interface that allows the retrieval of microarray data based on the ontology annotations. PMID:18999108

  17. Nuclear localization of the transcriptional coactivator YAP is associated with invasive lobular breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlug, Eva J; van de Ven, Robert A H; Vermeulen, Jeroen F; Bult, Peter; van Diest, Paul J; Derksen, Patrick W B

    2013-10-01

    Yes Associated Protein (YAP) has been implicated in the control of organ size by regulating cell proliferation and survival. YAP is a transcriptional coactivator that controls cellular responses through interaction with TEAD transcription factors in the nucleus, while its transcriptional functions are inhibited by phosphorylation-dependent translocation to the cytosol. YAP overexpression has been associated with different types of cancer, such as lung, skin, prostate, ovary and liver cancer. Recently, YAP was linked to E-cadherin-dependent regulation of contact inhibition in breast cancer cells. In this study we examined YAP protein expression and cellular localization in 237 cases of human invasive breast cancer by immunohistochemistry and related its expression to clinicopathological features and E-cadherin expression. We observed that invasive lobular carcinoma is characterized by higher expression levels of both nuclear and cytosolic YAP (p invasive breast cancer. We observed that high nuclear and cytosolic YAP expression are associated with the E-cadherin deficient breast cancer subtype ILC (p cancers and conditional mouse models of human lobular breast cancer. Since our data indicate that nuclear YAP localization is more common in breast cancers lacking functional adherens junctions, it suggests that YAP-mediated transcription may be involved in the development and progression of invasive lobular breast cancer.

  18. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeinali Rafsanjani, B.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. A.; Faghihi, R.; Mosalaei, A.; Omidvar, Sh.; Hadad, K.; Karbasi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy), hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  19. Breast Cancer and its Radiotherapeutic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banafsheh Zeinali Rafsanjani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women after skin cancer. In Iran, the presentation age of this cancer is younger than the global average. There are different therapeutic methods for treatment of breast cancer and the choice of treatment depends on the stage of the disease as well as its type and characteristics. Therapeutic methods include surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, each consisting of a variety of techniques. The two main surgical techniques are lumpectomy and mastectomy. The main systemic methods are biological therapy (immunotherapy, hormone therapy, and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is mainly categorized into external-beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In this paper, we present a brief review of the different types of breast cancer and their treatments using conventional and modern radiotherapy methods, as well as the treatment efficacy and side effects of breast radiotherapy.

  20. Primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Agnieszka; Kamińska, Marzena; Sygit, Katarzyna; Budny, Agnieszka; Surdyka, Dariusz; Kukiełka-Budny, Bożena; Burdan, Franciszek

    2017-12-23

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and is the second cancer frequently occurring worldwide of newly-diagnosed cancers. There is much evidence showing the influence of life style and environmental factors on the development of mammary gland cancer (high-fat diet, alcohol consumption, lack of physical exercise), the elimination of which (primary prevention) may contribute to a decrease in morbidity and mortality. Secondary prevention, comprising diagnostic tests (e.g. mammography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, breast self-examination, as well as modern and more precise imaging methods) help the early detection of tumours or lesions predisposing to tumours. The aim of this study paper is to review current knowledge and reports regarding primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer. It is estimated that nearly 70% of malign tumours are caused by environmental factors, whereas in breast cancer this percentage reaches 90-95%. There are national programmes established in many countries to fight cancer, where both types of prevention are stressed as serving to decrease morbidity and mortality due to cancers. Cancer prevention is currently playing a key role in the fight against the disease. Behaviour modification, as well as greater awareness among women regarding breast cancer, may significantly contribute towards reducing the incidence of this cancer. Another important aspect is the number of women undergoing diagnostic tests, which still remains at an unsatisfactory level.

  1. Prognostic Gene Expression Profiles in Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristina Pilekær

    Each year approximately 4,800 Danish women are diagnosed with breast cancer. Several clinical and pathological factors are used as prognostic and predictive markers to categorize the patients into groups of high or low risk. Around 90% of all patients are allocated to the high risk group...... clinical courses, and they may be useful as novel prognostic biomarkers in breast cancer. The aim of the present project was to predict the development of metastasis in lymph node negative breast cancer patients by RNA profiling. We collected and analyzed 82 primary breast tumors from patients who...... and the time of event. Previous findings have shown that high expression of the lncRNA HOTAIR is correlated with poor survival in breast cancer. We validated this finding by demonstrating that high HOTAIR expression in our primary tumors was significantly associated with worse prognosis independent...

  2. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  3. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...

  4. Cytogenetic report of a male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, L R; Rogatto, S R; Rainho, C A

    1995-01-01

    of chromosome 8 in the characterization of the subtype of ductal breast carcinomas and demonstrate that chromosome 17, which is frequently involved in female breast cancers, is also responsible for the development or progression of primary breast cancers in males.......The cytogenetic findings on G-banding in an infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma in a 69-year-old man are reported. The main abnormalities observed were trisomy of chromosomes 8 and 9 and structural rearrangement in the long arm of chromosome 17 (add(17)(q25)). Our results confirm the trisomy...

  5. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  6. A Study of Triple Negative Breast Cancer at a Tertiary Cancer Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It is the ... Background: Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a diverse and heterogeneous group .... nonHispanic black patients with breast cancer, at 24.6%. ... chance of breast conservation rates.

  7. Radiation as a cause of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Silverstone, S.M.

    1976-01-01

    The possible role of radiation as a factor in the causation of breast cancer was investigated. Some variables said to be associated with a high risk of breast cancer include genetic factors, pre-existing breast disease, artificial menopause, family history of breast cancer, failure to breast feed, older than usual age at time of first pregnancy, high socioeconomic status, specific blood groups, fatty diet, obesity, and hormonal imbalances. To this list we must add ionizing radiation as an additional and serious risk factor in the causation of breast cancer. Among the irradiated groups which have an increase in the incidence of cancer of the breast are: tuberculous women subjected to repeated fluoroscopy; women who received localized x-ray treatments for acute post-partum mastitis; atom-bomb survivors; other x-ray exposures involving the breast, including irradiation in children and in experimental animals; and women who were treated with x rays for acne or hirsuitism. The dose of radiation received by the survivors of the atom bomb who subsequently developed cancer of the breast ranged from 80 to 800 rads, the tuberculous women who were fluoroscoped received an estimated 50 to 6,000 rads, the women who were treated for mastitis probably were exposed to 30 to 700 rads, and the patients with acne received 100 to 6,000 rads. These imprecise estimates are compared with mammographic doses in the range of 10s of rads to the breast at each examination, an imprecise estimate depending on technique and equipment. However imprecise these estimates may be, it is apparent that younger women are more likely than older women to develop cancer from exposure to radiation. It is pointed out that the American Cancer Society advises that women under 35 years should have mammography only for medical indication, not for so-called screening

  8. Aromatase inhibitors and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Arun, Banu K; Brown, Powel H; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N

    2012-02-01

    Endocrine therapy with selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) has been the mainstay of breast cancer prevention trials to date. The aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the final chemical conversion of androgens to estrogens, have shown increased disease-free survival benefit over tamoxifen in patients with primary hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, as well as reducing the risk of developing contralateral breast cancers. The aromatase inhibitors are being actively evaluated as prevention agents for women with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ as well as for women who are considered to be at high risk for developing primary invasive breast cancer. This review evaluates the available prevention data, as evidenced by the decrease in contralateral breast cancers, when aromatase inhibitors are used in the adjuvant setting, as well as the emerging data of the aromatase inhibitors specifically tested in the prevention setting for women at high risk. Exemestane is a viable option for breast cancer prevention. We continue to await further follow-up on exemestane as well as other aromatase inhibitors in the prevention setting for women at high risk of developing breast cancer or with a history of ductal carcinoma in situ.

  9. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  10. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa M Pelttari

    Full Text Available Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS. We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259 and population controls (n = 3586 from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR: 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.11-1.19, P = 8.88 x 10-16 and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16-1.32, P = 6.19 x 10-11, compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk.

  11. RAD51B in Familial Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelttari, Liisa M.; Khan, Sofia; Vuorela, Mikko; Kiiski, Johanna I.; Vilske, Sara; Nevanlinna, Viivi; Ranta, Salla; Schleutker, Johanna; Winqvist, Robert; Kallioniemi, Anne; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Figueroa, Jonine; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Dunning, Alison M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Rosenberg, Efraim H.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Burwinkel, Barbara; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Benitez, Javier; González-Neira, Anna; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Van Dyck, Laurien; Janssen, Hilde; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Hallberg, Emily; Olson, Janet E.; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Simard, Jacques; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hooning, Maartje J.; Collée, Margriet; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert N.; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Couch, Fergus J.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Orr, Nick; Swerdlow, Anthony; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Mattson, Johanna; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Common variation on 14q24.1, close to RAD51B, has been associated with breast cancer: rs999737 and rs2588809 with the risk of female breast cancer and rs1314913 with the risk of male breast cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of RAD51B variants in breast cancer predisposition, particularly in the context of familial breast cancer in Finland. We sequenced the coding region of RAD51B in 168 Finnish breast cancer patients from the Helsinki region for identification of possible recurrent founder mutations. In addition, we studied the known rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 SNPs and RAD51B haplotypes in 44,791 breast cancer cases and 43,583 controls from 40 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) that were genotyped on a custom chip (iCOGS). We identified one putatively pathogenic missense mutation c.541C>T among the Finnish cancer patients and subsequently genotyped the mutation in additional breast cancer cases (n = 5259) and population controls (n = 3586) from Finland and Belarus. No significant association with breast cancer risk was seen in the meta-analysis of the Finnish datasets or in the large BCAC dataset. The association with previously identified risk variants rs999737, rs2588809, and rs1314913 was replicated among all breast cancer cases and also among familial cases in the BCAC dataset. The most significant association was observed for the haplotype carrying the risk-alleles of all the three SNPs both among all cases (odds ratio (OR): 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.19, P = 8.88 x 10−16) and among familial cases (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.16–1.32, P = 6.19 x 10−11), compared to the haplotype with the respective protective alleles. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in RAD51B are rare, but common variation at the RAD51B region is significantly associated with familial breast cancer risk. PMID:27149063

  12. Spectrum of breast cancer in Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gaurav; Pradeep, P V; Aggarwal, Vivek; Yip, Cheng-Har; Cheung, Polly S Y

    2007-05-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Asia, and in recent years is emerging as the commonest female malignancy in the developing Asian countries, overtaking cancer of the uterine cervix. There have been no studies objectively comparing data and facts relating to breast cancer in the developed, newly developed, and developing Asian countries thus far. This multi-national collaborative study retrospectively compared the demographic, clinical, pathological and outcomes data in breast cancer patients managed at participating breast cancer centers in India, Malaysia and Hong Kong. Data, including those on the availability of breast screening, treatment facilities and outcomes from other major cancer centers and cancer registries of these countries and from other Asian countries were also reviewed. Despite an increasing trend, the incidence of breast cancer is lower, yet the cause-specific mortality is significantly higher in developing Asian countries compared with developed countries in Asia and the rest of the world. Patients are about one decade younger in developing countries than their counterparts in developed nations. The proportions of young patients (women and the clinical picture are different from those of average patients managed elsewhere in the world. Owing to lack of awareness, lack of funding, lack of infrastructure, and low priority in public health schemes, breast cancer screening and early detection have not caught up in these under-privileged societies. The inadequacies of health care infrastructures and standards, sociocultural barriers, economic realities, illiteracy, and the differences in the clinical and pathological attributes of this disease in Asian women compared with the rest of the world together result in a different spectrum of the disease. Better socioeconomic conditions, health awareness, and availability of breast cancer screening in developed Asian countries seem to be the major causes of a favorable clinical

  13. Photo activation of HPPH encapsulated in “Pocket” liposomes triggers multiple drug release and tumor cell killing in mouse breast cancer xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Anu; Sine,Jessica; Urban,Cordula; Charron,Heather; Valim,Niksa; Tata,Darrell; Schiff,Rachel; Joshi,Amit; Blumenthal,Robert; Thayer,Derek

    2014-01-01

    Jessica Sine,1,* Cordula Urban,2,* Derek Thayer,1 Heather Charron,2 Niksa Valim,2 Darrell B Tata,3 Rachel Schiff,4 Robert Blumenthal,1 Amit Joshi,2 Anu Puri1 1Membrane Structure and Function Section, Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute – Frederick, Frederick, MD, USA; 2Department of Radiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA; 3US Food and Drug Administration, CDRH/OSEL/Division of Physics, White Oak Campus, MD, USA; 4Lester ...

  14. Dichotomous roles for the orphan nuclear receptor NURR1 in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llopis, Shawn; Singleton, Brittany; Duplessis, Tamika; Carrier, Latonya; Rowan, Brian; Williams, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    NR4A orphan nuclear receptors are involved in multiple biological processes which are important in tumorigenesis such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and glucose utilization. The significance of NR4A family member NURR1 (NR4A2) in breast cancer etiology has not been elucidated. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the impact of NURR1 expression on breast transformation, tumor growth, and breast cancer patient survival. We determined the expression of NURR1 in normal breast versus breast carcinoma in tissue microarrays (immunohistochemistry), tissue lysates (immunoblot), and at the mRNA level (publically available breast microarrays). In addition NURR1 expression was compared among breast cancer patients in cohorts based on p53 expression, estrogen receptor α expression, tumor grade, and lymph node metastases. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were used to determine the correlation between NURR1 expression and relapse free survival (RFS). Using shRNA-mediated silencing, we determined the effect of NURR1 expression on tumor growth in mouse xenografts. Results from breast cancer tissue arrays demonstrate a higher NURR1 expression in the normal breast epithelium compared to breast carcinoma cells (p ≤ 0.05). Among cases of breast cancer, NURR1 expression in the primary tumors was inversely correlated with lymph node metastases (p ≤ 0.05) and p53 expression (p ≤ 0.05). Clinical stage and histological grade were not associated with variation in NURR1 expression. In gene microarrays, 4 of 5 datasets showed stronger mean expression of NURR1 in normal breast as compared to transformed breast. Additionally, NURR1 expression was strongly correlated with increase relapse free survival (HR = 0.7) in a cohort of all breast cancer patients, but showed no significant difference in survival when compared among patients whom have not been treated systemically (HR = 0.91). Paradoxically, NURR1 silenced breast xenografts showed significantly decreased growth

  15. Dosimetry studies during breast cancer radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. O. M.

    2005-06-01

    Previous studies indicated that breast cancer is wildly spread especially in women as compared to men. It is increased after an age of thirty five years in women so it is important to study the effect of exposure to the radiation on the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer. In this work the scattered doses for the intact breast during the treatment of the breast suffering from cancer were measured and also the probability of inducing cancer in it is also discussed. The study was performed for a group of patients composed of twenty five females. Also the backscattered doses to the intact breast were measured for thirteen female patients. During the treatment using gamma rays from Co-60 source the two tangential fields (lateral and medial) were selected for the measurements. The results of exposure to gamma radiation for the lateral and medial fields showed that the mean scattered and backscattered doses to the intact breast were (241.26 cGY,47.49 cGY) and (371.6 cGY,385.4 cGY), respectively. Beside that the somatic risk of induced cancer to the intact breast was found to be (6 .1X10 -3 ,1.2X10 -3 ) and (9.29X10 -3 , 9.63X10 -3 ), respectively. From the results obtained it was concluded that the intact breast received small amounts of radiation doses which may lead to breast cancer for the healthy breast. The recommendations from the present study are to take care of radiation protection to the patient, and also to take care of the patient treatment conditions like temperature, pressure and humidity during the radiation exposure.(Author)

  16. Breast cancer: surgery at the South egypt cancer institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed A S; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-09-30

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute's (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females); 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  17. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.S. Salem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females; 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  18. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening through Storytelling by Chamorro Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglona, Rosa Duenas; Robert, Suzanne; Isaacson, Lucy San Nicolas; Garrido, Marie; Henrich, Faye Babauta; Santos, Lola Sablan; Le, Daisy; Peters, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The largest Chamorro population outside of Guam and the Mariana Islands reside in California. Cancer health disparities disproportionally affect Pacific Islander communities, including the Chamorro, and breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. To address health concerns such as cancer, Pacific Islander women frequently utilize storytelling to initiate conversations about health and to address sensitive topics such as breast health and cancer. One form of storytelling used in San Diego is a play that conveys the message of breast cancer screening to the community in a culturally and linguistically appropriate way. This play, Nan Nena’s Mammogram, tells the story of an older woman in the community who learns about breast cancer screening from her young niece. The story builds upon the underpinnings of Chamorro culture - family, community, support, and humor - to portray discussing breast health, getting support for breast screening, and visiting the doctor. The story of Nan Nena’s Mammogram reflects the willingness of a few pioneering Chamorro women to use their personal experiences of cancer survivorship to promote screening for others. Through the support of a Chamorro community-based organization, these Chamorro breast cancer survivors have used the success of Nan Nena’s Mammogram to expand their education activities and to form a new cancer survivor organization for Chamorro women in San Diego.

  19. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  20. Ki67 and proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Balleine, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    New approaches to the prognostic assessment of breast cancer have come from molecular profiling studies. A major feature of this work has been to emphasise the importance of cancer cell proliferation as a key discriminative indicator of recurrence risk for oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer in particular. Mitotic count scoring, as a component of histopathological grade, has long formed part of a routine evaluation of breast cancer biology. However, there is an increasingly compelling case to include a specific proliferation score in breast cancer pathology reports based on expression of the cell cycle regulated protein Ki67. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 is a widely available and economical test with good tolerance of pre-analytical variations and staining conditions. However, there is currently no evidence based protocol established to derive a reliable and informative Ki67 score for routine clinical use. In this circumstance, pathologists must establish a standardised framework for scoring Ki67 and communicating results to a multidisciplinary team.

  1. Axillary staging for breast cancer during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, S N; Amant, F; Cardonick, E H

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Safety of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer during pregnancy is insufficiently explored. We investigated efficacy and local recurrence rate in a large series of pregnant patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy during...... pregnancy were identified from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy, the German Breast Group, and the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry. Chart review was performed to record technique and outcome of SLN biopsy, locoregional and distant recurrence, and survival. RESULTS: We identified...... were alive and free of disease. Eleven patients experienced a locoregional relapse, including 1 isolated ipsilateral axillary recurrence (0.7%). Eleven (7.6%) patients developed distant metastases, of whom 9 (6.2%) died of breast cancer. No neonatal adverse events related to SLN procedure during...

  2. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  3. Adjuvant bisphosphonates in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadji, P; Coleman, R E; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonates have been studied in randomised trials in early breast cancer to investigate their ability to prevent cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) and reduce the risk of disease recurrence and metastasis. Treatment benefits have been reported but bisphosphonates do not currently have...... regulatory approval for either of these potential indications. This consensus paper provides a review of the evidence and offers guidance to breast cancer clinicians on the use of bisphosphonates in early breast cancer. Using the nominal group methodology for consensus, a systematic review of the literature...... was augmented by a workshop held in October 2014 for breast cancer and bone specialists to present and debate the available pre-clinical and clinical evidence for the use of adjuvant bisphosphonates. This was followed by a questionnaire to all members of the writing committee to identify areas of consensus...

  4. Breast Cancer Vaccines: New Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Benedetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer (BC is a persistent global challenge for its high frequency in women (although it seldom occurs in men, due to the large diffusion of risk factors and gene mutations, and for its peculiar biology and microenvironment. To date, BC can benefit from different therapeutic strategies involving surgery, ablation, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and more specific approaches such as hormone therapy and the administration of various substances impairing cancer growth, aggressivity, and recurrence with different modalities. Despite these relatively wide chances, also used in combinatory protocols, relevant mortality and relapse rates, often associated with resistant phenotypes, stress the need for a personalized-medicine based on prompting the patient’s immune system (IS against cancer cells. BC immunogenicity was latterly proven, so the whole immunotherapy field for BC is still at a very early stage. This immunotherapeutic approach exploits both the high specificity of adaptive immune response and the immunological memory. This review is focused on some of the majorly relevant BC vaccines available (NeuVax, AVX901, and INO-1400, providing a description of the more promising clinical trials. The efficacy of cancer vaccines highly depends on the patient’s IS, and a wide optimization is needed in terms of targets’ selection, drug design and combinations, dose finding, protocol structuring, and patients’ recruitment; moreover, new standards are being discussed for the outcome evaluation. However, early-phases excellent results suggest that the manipulation of the IS via specific vaccines is a highly attractive approach for BC.

  5. Radiographic characteristics of male breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Park, Chang Yun; Kook, Shin Ho

    1995-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate mammographic findings of breast cancer in men. This study includes 9 man with breast cancer diagnosed pathologically by radical mastectomy. Clinical and pathologic data were obtained by review of patients medical record. Mammograms were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 9 patients, eight had masses with spiculated margin or schirrous pattern with irregular margin. One patient had no specific evidence of breast cancer mammographically. Microcalcifications were seen in three patients, these calcifications were irregular in shape and were clustered. Of the 8 cases, four patients had the masses at the right breast, four at the left breast. Locations of breast cancer were subareolar (n=4) and were eccentric (n=4) from the nipple. The most common location was the upper outer quadrant. On histologic evaluation, 7 cases were infiltrating ductal carcinomas, one case was mucinous adenocarcinoma, and the remainder was proved as combined form of intraductal and infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Axillary lymph node metastasis were found in 4 cases. Mammographic findings of male breast carcinoma were that of subareolar or eccentrically located mass. Calcifications were same to the patterns of calcification as female breast cancer

  6. Methylation of Breast Cancer Predisposition Genes in Early-Onset Breast Cancer: Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M Scott

    Full Text Available DNA methylation can mimic the effects of both germline and somatic mutations for cancer predisposition genes such as BRCA1 and p16INK4a. Constitutional DNA methylation of the BRCA1 promoter has been well described and is associated with an increased risk of early-onset breast cancers that have BRCA1-mutation associated histological features. The role of methylation in the context of other breast cancer predisposition genes has been less well studied and often with conflicting or ambiguous outcomes. We examined the role of methylation in known breast cancer susceptibility genes in breast cancer predisposition and tumor development. We applied the Infinium HumanMethylation450 Beadchip (HM450K array to blood and tumor-derived DNA from 43 women diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 40 years and measured the methylation profiles across promoter regions of BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, PALB2, CDH1, TP53, FANCM, CHEK2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Prior genetic testing had demonstrated that these women did not carry a germline mutation in BRCA1, ATM, CHEK2, PALB2, TP53, BRCA2, CDH1 or FANCM. In addition to the BRCA1 promoter region, this work identified regions with variable methylation at multiple breast cancer susceptibility genes including PALB2 and MLH1. Methylation at the region of MLH1 in these breast cancers was not associated with microsatellite instability. This work informs future studies of the role of methylation in breast cancer susceptibility gene silencing.

  7. The medical management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.J.; Buchanan, R.

    1988-01-01

    The text is brief and directed primarily to the breast cancer specialist. Topics include epidemiology, screening, prognostic factors, pre- and postoperative assessment, surgery, radiotherapy adjuvant endocrine therapy, and management of advanced disease. Brief chapters also address nonspecific symptoms of advanced disease, male breast cancer, and psychological considerations. Emphasis is on clinical management and review of many published controlled trials. Chapters conclude with short lists of recommendations and long alphabetic lists of reference material from the world literature. Since breast cancer continues to increase gradually in incidence and is most common in the United States, it commands attention

  8. Cardiac risks in multimodal breast cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Almost all breast cancer patients receive one or more adjuvant treatments consisting of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, LHRH-antogonists, chemotherapy, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy. These treatments have been shown to considerably improve overall survival. As a result, long term survival for 15 and more years is achieved in more than two thirds of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Therefore, more interest in short and long term risks of adjuvant treatments has been arisen. The focus of this article is the long term cardiac risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients and possible interactions with chemotherapy and trastuzumab. (orig.)

  9. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  10. Pepducin Based Intervention of Breast Cancer Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Metalloprotease-1 Receptor that Promotes Invasion and Tumorigenesis of Breast Cancer Cells. Cell 120, 303-313. (6) Arribas , J. (2005) Matrix Metalloproteases...promotes invasion and tumorigenesis of breast cancer cells. Cell 2005;120:303–13. 6. Arribas J. Matrix metalloproteases and tumor inva- sion. N Engl J Med...to ala - provide a model for more aggressive, tamoxifen-insen- nine. The F43A PAR1 mutant does not transduce a sig- sitive, breast cancers. MDA-MB-231

  11. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence...... in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management....

  12. Heavy-ion mammography and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Holley, W.R.; Woodruff, K.H.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy-ion radiography is a new diagnostic imaging technique developed in our laboratory that produces superior density resolution at low radiation doses. Heavy-ion mammography has now emerged as a low-dose, safe, reliable, noninvasive diagnostic radiological procedure that can quantitate and image very small differences in soft tissue densities in the breast tissues of patients with clinical breast disease. The improved density resolution of heavy-ion mammography over conventional X-ray mammography and breast xerography provides the potential of detecting small breast cancers of less than 1 cm diameter. The radiation dose to the breast from carbon-ion mammorgraphy is about 50 mrad or less, and can potentially be only a fraction of this level. The results of the present clinical trial in progress of heavy-ion mammography in 37 patients, thus far studied, are extremely encouraging, and warrant continued study for application to the early diagnosis of breast cancer in women

  13. Urinary estrogen metabolites and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallal, Cher M; Stone, Roslyn A; Cauley, Jane A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Circulating estrogens are associated with increased breast cancer risk, yet the role of estrogen metabolites in breast carcinogenesis remains unclear. This combined analysis of 5 published studies evaluates urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), 16a-hydroxyestrone (16a-OHE1......), and their ratio (2:16a-OHE1) in relation to breast cancer risk. ¿Methods: Primary data on 726 premenopausal women (183 invasive breast cancer cases and 543 controls) and 1,108 postmenopausal women (385 invasive breast cancer cases and 723 controls) were analyzed. Urinary estrogen metabolites were measured using...... premenopausal 2:16a-OHE1 was suggestive of reduced breast cancer risk overall (study-adjusted ORIIIvsI=0.80; 95% CI: 0.49-1.32) and for estrogen receptor negative (ER-) subtype (ORIIIvsI=0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.84). Among postmenopausal women, 2:16a-OHE1 was unrelated to breast cancer risk (study-adjusted ORIIIvs...

  14. Exemestane in early breast cancer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Untch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael Untch1, Christian Jackisch21Interdisciplinary Breast Centre, Helios Klinikum Berlin-Buch, University Charité, Berlin, Germany; 2Department of Gynecology/Obstetrics, Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach, GermanyAbstract: The adjuvant treatment of women with endocrine-sensitive early breast cancer has been dominated for the last 40 years by tamoxifen. However, the side-effects associated with this therapy have prompted a search for safer and biochemically more selective endocrine agents and led to the development of the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs anastrozole, letrozole and exemestane. Promising results in advanced disease have paved the way for treating early breast cancer, and AIs are increasingly replacing tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting. Several large, randomized trials with AIs have been completed or are ongoing in women with early-stage breast cancer, documenting the significant impact that these drugs are making on the risk for recurrence of breast cancer. As a result, there is increasing and widespread use of AI therapy for the treatment of early-stage endocrine-responsive breast cancer. This review summarizes the data for exemestane in the adjuvant setting, showing that a switch to exemestane after 2 to 3 years of tamoxifen therapy is associated with a statistically significant survival benefit and is regarded as being sensitive by international and national experts.Keywords: early breast cancer, adjuvant setting, endocrine-sensitive, tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, switch, IES 31, NSABP B-33, TEAM

  15. TOX3 mutations in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Owain Jones

    Full Text Available TOX3 maps to 16q12, a region commonly lost in breast cancers and recently implicated in the risk of developing breast cancer. However, not much is known of the role of TOX3 itself in breast cancer biology. This is the first study to determine the importance of TOX3 mutations in breast cancers. We screened TOX3 for mutations in 133 breast tumours and identified four mutations (three missense, one in-frame deletion of 30 base pairs in six primary tumours, corresponding to an overall mutation frequency of 4.5%. One potentially deleterious missense mutation in exon 3 (Leu129Phe was identified in one tumour (genomic DNA and cDNA. Whilst copy number changes of 16q12 are common in breast cancer, our data show that mutations of TOX3 are present at low frequency in tumours. Our results support that TOX3 should be further investigated to elucidate its role in breast cancer biology.

  16. Breast metastasis from cutaneous malignant melanoma mimicking a breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Marina; Capalbo, Emanuela; Viganò, Sara; Trecate, Giovanna; Scaperrotta, Gianfranco Paride; Panizza, Pietro

    2015-06-25

    Breast metastases are very uncommon, either from solid tumors or malignant melanoma. We present the case of a 42-year-old woman with a history of cutaneous melanoma of the shoulder excised 21 years ago. She presented with a palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the right breast. Ultrasound demonstrated a solid mass within a cystic lesion. A core biopsy was taken and first histology reported a poorly differentiated primary breast cancer suspected to be triple negative. MRI detected a satellite lesion in the same breast, a focus of suspected enhancement in the other breast, and the extramammary finding of an enhancing pulmonary lesion. Staging computed tomography detected widespread metastases to the lungs, brain, subcutaneous left shoulder, liver, pancreas, and hepatorenal recess. A core biopsy was taken from the left breast lesion and the previous slides were reviewed; histopathology and immunohistochemistry were in keeping with metastasis from melanoma. The possibility of a metastatic lesion to the breast should be taken into account in any patient presenting with a breast lump and a previous history of melanoma. Breast involvement cannot be considered an isolated finding, as it might be the first manifestation of widespread disease.

  17. Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk factors for breast cancer are female sex and advancing age, inherited risk, breast density, obesity, alcohol consumption, and exposure to ionizing radiation. Interventions to prevent breast cancer include chemoprevention (e.g. SERMs, AIs), risk-reducing surgery (e.g. mastectomy, oophorectomy). Review the evidence on risk factors and interventions to prevent breast cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in breast screening assessment cases and women with a family history of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen W; Morrish, Oliver W E; Allgood, Prue C; Black, Richard; Gillan, Maureen G C; Willsher, Paula; Cooke, Julie; Duncan, Karen A; Michell, Michael J; Dobson, Hilary M; Maroni, Roberta; Lim, Yit Y; Purushothaman, Hema N; Suaris, Tamara; Astley, Susan M; Young, Kenneth C; Tucker, Lorraine; Gilbert, Fiona J

    2018-01-01

    Mammographic density has been shown to be a strong independent predictor of breast cancer and a causative factor in reducing the sensitivity of mammography. There remain questions as to the use of mammographic density information in the context of screening and risk management, and of the association with cancer in populations known to be at increased risk of breast cancer. To assess the association of breast density with presence of cancer by measuring mammographic density visually as a percentage, and with two automated volumetric methods, Quantra™ and VolparaDensity™. The TOMosynthesis with digital MammographY (TOMMY) study of digital breast tomosynthesis in the Breast Screening Programme of the National Health Service (NHS) of the United Kingdom (UK) included 6020 breast screening assessment cases (of whom 1158 had breast cancer) and 1040 screened women with a family history of breast cancer (of whom two had breast cancer). We assessed the association of each measure with breast cancer risk in these populations at enhanced risk, using logistic regression adjusted for age and total breast volume as a surrogate for body mass index (BMI). All density measures showed a positive association with presence of cancer and all declined with age. The strongest effect was seen with Volpara absolute density, with a significant 3% (95% CI 1-5%) increase in risk per 10 cm 3 of dense tissue. The effect of Volpara volumetric density on risk was stronger for large and grade 3 tumours. Automated absolute breast density is a predictor of breast cancer risk in populations at enhanced risk due to either positive mammographic findings or family history. In the screening context, density could be a trigger for more intensive imaging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of irradiation for cervical cancer on subsequent breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harlan, L.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    Previous research suggests that cervical cancer patients have a lower risk of breast cancer than women in the general population. Possible explanations include opposing risk factors for cervical cancer and breast cancer, the effect of irradiation used to treat cervical cancer, or both. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between irradiation for cervical cancer and the subsequent development of breast cancer. There was no statistically significant relationship between radiation to the ovarian area and the risk of breast cancer in this study. However, the results were consistent with a 19% reduction in risk for women irradiated for cervical cancer when compared to nonirradiated women. In a dose-response analysis, there was a nonsignificant trend of decreased risk of breast cancer with increased radiation up to 1800 rad. There was no consistent pattern for higher doses. The trend, although nonsignificant, differed by age. Women <60 years of age at irradiation were generally at a lower risk of breast cancer than nonirradiated women. Women over 59 years were at an increased risk. There are some potentially important findings from this study which might influence medical care. These should be examined in the larger International Radiation Study

  20. Addressing the Global Burden of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US National Cancer Institute’s Center for Global Health (CGH) has been a key partner in a multi-institutional expert team that has developed a set of publications to address foundational concerns in breast cancer care across the cancer care continuum and within limited resource settings.

  1. Micropapillary Lung Cancer with Breast Metastasis Simulating Primary Breast Cancer due to Architectural Distortion on Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran; Hong, Eun Kyung; Lee, See Yeon [Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Ro, Jae Yoon [The Methodist Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Houston (United States)

    2012-03-15

    A 47-year-old Korean woman with right middle lobe lung adenocarcinoma, malignant pleural effusion, and multiple lymph node and bone metastases, after three months of lung cancer diagnosis, presented with a palpable right breast mass. Images of the right breast demonstrated architectural distortion that strongly suggested primary breast cancer. Breast biopsy revealed metastatic lung cancer with a negative result for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and mammaglobin, and a positive result for thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1). We present a case of breast metastasis from a case of lung cancer with an extensive micropapillary component, which was initially misinterpreted as a primary breast cancer due to unusual image findings with architectural distortion.

  2. Galectin-7 Expression Potentiates HER-2-Positive Phenotype in Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrée-Anne Grosset

    Full Text Available HER-2 positive tumors are among the most aggressive subtypes of breast cancer and are frequently associated with metastasis and poor outcome. As with other aggressive subtypes of breast cancer, these tumors are associated with abnormally high expression of galectin-7 (gal-7, which confers metastatic breast tumor cells with increased invasive behavior. Although previous studies in the rat model of breast tumorigenesis have shown that gal-7 is also increased in primary breast tumor, its contribution to the development of the primary breast tumors remains unclear. In the present work, we have used genetically-engineered gal-7-deficient mice to examine the role of gal-7 in the development of the mammary gland and of breast cancer. Using histological and immunohistological analysis of whole mammary glands at different stages of development, we detected no significant changes between normal and gal-7-deficient mice. To test the involvement of gal-7 in breast cancer, we next examined the effects of loss of gal-7 on mammary tumor development by crossing gal-7-deficient mice with the mammary tumor transgenic mouse strain FVB-Tg(MMTV-Erbb2NK1Mul/J. Finally, assessment of mice survival and tumor volume showed a delay of mammary tumor growth in the absence of systemic gal-7. These data suggest that gal-7 could potentiate the phenotype of HER-2 positive primary breast cancer.

  3. Exercise after breast cancer treatment: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieli-Conwright CM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina M Dieli-Conwright, Breanna Z Orozco Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, Women's Health and Exercise Laboratory, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, great strides have been made in the field of exercise-oncology research, particularly with breast cancer. This area of research is particularly important since there are >2.8 million breast cancer survivors who are in need of an intervention that can offset treatment-related side effects. Noticeable reductions in physical fitness (ie, cardiopulmonary fitness and muscular strength, negative changes in body composition (ie, increase in body mass, decrease in lean body mass, and increase in fat mass, increased fatigue, depression, or anxiety are some of the common side effects of cancer treatments that negatively impact overall quality of life and increase the risk for the development of comorbidities. Exercise plays a vital role in improving cardiopulmonary function, psychological events, muscular strength, and endurance in breast cancer survivors, and thus should be considered as a key factor of lifestyle intervention to reverse negative treatment-related side effects. The purpose of this review is to address current perspectives on the benefits of aerobic and resistance exercise after breast cancer treatments. This review is focused on the well-established benefits of exercise on physical and emotional well-being, bone health, lymphedema management, and the postulated benefits of exercise on risk reduction for recurrence of breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, exercise, physical well-being

  4. MODERN VIEWS ON BILATERAL BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. A. Fesik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented modern literature data on the features of the pathogenesis, course, clinical and morphological expression and tumor characteristics, parameters and nodal metastasis of hematogenous bilateral breast cancer. Highlight the results of domestic and foreign studies in recent years to determine the prognostic factors and recurrence of synchronous and metachronous bilateral breast cancer. It was revealed that the frequency of bilateral breast tumor lesions varies widely, ranging from 0.1 to 20%, with metachronous tumors recorded significantly higher (69.6% than the synchronous (22.7%. The probability of occurrence of metachronous breast cancer is higher in women with a family history, as well as if they have a gene mutation BRCA-1. Found that the most common histological type of breast tumor with bilateral lesions is invasive ductal. However, the incidence of invasive lobular cancer and non-invasive lobular cancer is slightly higher among synchronous bilateral cancer compared with unilateral disease. Studies have shown that in a double-sided synchronous breast cancer tumor, as a rule, has a lower degree of differentiation, and the higher the expression level of estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors. Relevance of the issue because the identification of patterns in the study of lymphatic and hematogenous features bilateral metastasis of mammary tumors provides a basis for speculation about the differences in the progression of neoplastic disease in these groups and is a cause for further detailed research in this area to identify and evaluate the prognosis and also the choice of tactics of such patients.

  5. Fetal microchimerism in breast and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Biggar, R J; Stamper, Casey L

    2011-01-01

    1574 Background: Cells acquired by a woman from her baby that durably persist in her blood and tissues is known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). In women with breast cancer, frequency and quantity of FMc in blood and breast tissue is reduced compared to healthy women. Whether the absence of fetal...

  6. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  7. [Treatment of elderly patients with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaschburg, B.; Pedersen, A.; Tuxen, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    The latest investigations have been searched in order to present new guidelines for the treatment of elderly patients with primary breast cancer. It is concluded that breast-conserving surgery should be offered as well as the sentinel node technique. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary...

  8. Genotyping and Phenotyping of Male Breast Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornegoor, R.

    2012-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease and most of the knowledge has been extrapolated from females, although these entities are likely different. A better understanding of male breast carcinogenesis is crucial for developing novel targets suitable for personalized treatment. A major problem in

  9. Ultrasound Elastography in Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, J.; Ewertsen, C; Sletting, S

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound elastography is an established method for characterization of focal lesions in the breast. Different techniques and analyses of the images may be used for the characterization. This article addresses the use of ultrasound elastography in breast cancer diagnosis. In the first part...

  10. Conservative therapy of breast cancer in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Marie-Frances; Allison, Roger; Tripcony, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy in Europe and North America for many years. In Australia, however, the history of breast conservation for early invasive breast cancer is much shorter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of breast conservation in a state-wide Australian radiotherapy service. Methods and Materials: Between January 1982 and December 1989, 512 patients were treated with primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. This analysis is based on a review of these patients, all of whom had Stage I or II breast cancer. Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of overall survival was 84% and disease-free survival was 80%. There have been 22 isolated local recurrences in the breast. The time to an isolated breast recurrence ranged from 12 to 83 months (median, 26 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of an isolated breast recurrence was 4%. The recurrence rate was higher for patients with involved margins (15% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Local recurrence was also more likely in the presence of extensive ductal carcinoma insitu (DCIS), as opposed to no extensive DCIS (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results affirm that primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery in Queensland, has been given with a low rate of local recurrence, comparable to that obtained in other centers

  11. Conservative therapy of breast cancer in Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Marie-Frances; Allison, Roger; Tripcony, Lee

    1995-01-15

    Purpose: Primary radiation therapy following breast-conserving surgery has been an accepted alternative to mastectomy in Europe and North America for many years. In Australia, however, the history of breast conservation for early invasive breast cancer is much shorter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of breast conservation in a state-wide Australian radiotherapy service. Methods and Materials: Between January 1982 and December 1989, 512 patients were treated with primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery. This analysis is based on a review of these patients, all of whom had Stage I or II breast cancer. Results: With a median follow-up of 50 months, the 5-year actuarial rate of overall survival was 84% and disease-free survival was 80%. There have been 22 isolated local recurrences in the breast. The time to an isolated breast recurrence ranged from 12 to 83 months (median, 26 months). The 5-year actuarial rate of an isolated breast recurrence was 4%. The recurrence rate was higher for patients with involved margins (15% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Local recurrence was also more likely in the presence of extensive ductal carcinoma insitu (DCIS), as opposed to no extensive DCIS (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results affirm that primary radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery in Queensland, has been given with a low rate of local recurrence, comparable to that obtained in other centers.

  12. Psychiatric Problems in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munevver Tunel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a physical disorder with concurrent mental and social components. During cancer, the feelings of fear, hopelessness, guilt, helplessness, abandonment perceived as a crisis leading to destruction in the suffering person. Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer among women. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among cancer patients is approximately 50% and most of disorders are related with the occurrence of cancer and cancer treatment. Majority of patients present with major depression, adjustment disorder, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, suicidial ideation, and delirium. Treatment of psychiatric disorders and cancer therapy should be conducted along with special consideration of drug interactions. This article reviews the adaptation process experienced by individuals during diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, it psychological effects, resulting psychiatric comorbidites and their treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 189-219

  13. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Immediate results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, M.V.; Silveira Filho, L.; Martorelli Filho, B.

    1976-01-01

    Seventy-four patients with advanced breast cancer were submited to local radiotherapy of the affected regions. The response of 155 metastatic lesions are recorded. Early results are good, with objective and functional clinical improvement [pt

  15. IMMUNOPHENOTYPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF INFLAMMATORY BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Berishvili

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The investigation enrolled 31 patients with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC treated at the N. N. Blokhin Cancer Research Center from 2006 to 2008. IBC is diagnosed on the basis of signs of rapid progression, such as localized or generalized breast induration, red- ness and edema. IBC accounts for less than 5% of all diagnosed breast cancers and is the most lethal form of primary breast cancer. We studied tumor markers of the immunophenotype of IBC and levels and subpopulations of immunocompetent tumor-infiltrating cells. We found that expression of HLA-DR is in negative correlation with MUC-1 expression and lymphoid cells tumor infiltration is asso- ciated with the increase in T-cell subpopulations.

  16. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  17. Systemic treatment of breast cancer in pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegheoova, O.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancer in pregnancy is increasing due to trend of postponing child-bearing to later age. Breast cancer diagnosed during lactation has different biologic behaviour and worse prognosis than when diagnosed during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not constitute a negative prognostic factor per se for outcomes of breast cancer in pregnancy, therefore breast cancer should be treated while containing pregnancy. Pregnancy should not delay treatment. Therapy should follow standard procedures as closely as possible, though with different timing of treatment modalities. Experienced multidisciplinary team is crucial for achieving good treatment results and involvement of an informed patient in decision-making is a must. Properly managed treatment during pregnancy does not carry detrimental effect on development and well-being of children. (author)

  18. Optimized NSAIDs for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2006-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  19. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A

    2017-01-01

    Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence in ...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management.......Effective management of breast cancer depends on early diagnosis and proper monitoring of patients' response to therapy. However, these goals are difficult to achieve because of the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers for early detection and for disease monitoring. Accumulating evidence...... in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...

  20. Treatment of advanced breast cancer. An experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnoni, G; Corcione, S; Api, P

    1984-01-01

    The Authors report their experience about the efficacy of the association surgery-radiotherapy-polichemotherapy, in the treatment of advanced breast cancer, emphasizing the importance of this association in the survival rate.