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Sample records for mouse blastocyst formation

  1. Expression of HSG is essential for mouse blastocyst formation

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    Jiang Guangjian; Pan Lei; Huang Xiuying; Han Mei; Wen Jinkun; Sun Fangzhen

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown recently that hyperplasia suppressor gene (HSG) is a powerful regulator for cell proliferation and has a critical role in mitochondrial fusion in many cells. However, little is known about its expression, localization, and function during oocyte maturation and early embryogenesis. In this study, with indirect immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting, we found that HSG was expressed in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos which primarily exhibited a submembrane distribution pattern in the cytoplasm. Moreover, HSG mainly associated with β-tubulin during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development. When mouse zygotes were injected with HSG antisense plasmid and cultured in vitro, their capacity to form blastocysts was severely impaired. Our results indicate that HSG plays an essential role in mouse preimplantation development

  2. Monoclonal antibodies against trophectoderm-specific markers during mouse blastocyst formation.

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    Brûlet, P; Babinet, C; Kemler, R; Jacob, F

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has allowed the detection of proteins characteristic of inner cell mass and trophectoderm in mouse blastocyst. Certain of the proteins characterizing trophectoderm copurify with intermediate filaments from trophectoderm and a trophoblastoma cell line. A monoclonal antibody prepared against proteins of these intermediate filaments labels a filament network in trophectoderm but not in inner cell mass cells. Images PMID:6933460

  3. Fusion of blastomeres in mouse embryos under the action of femtosecond laser radiation. Efficiency of blastocyst formation and embryo development

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    Osychenko, A A; Zalesskii, A D; Krivokharchenko, A S; Zhakhbazyan, A K; Nadtochenko, V A [N N Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ryabova, A V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-31

    Using the method of femtosecond laser surgery we study the fusion of two-cell mouse embryos under the action of tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with the fusion efficiency reaching 60%. The detailed statistical analysis of the efficiency of blastomere fusion and development of the embryo up to the blastocyst stage after exposure of the embryos from different mice to a femtosecond pulse is presented. It is shown that the efficiency of blastocyst formation essentially depends on the biological characteristics of the embryo, namely, the strain and age of the donor mouse. The possibility of obtaining hexaploid embryonal cells using the methods of femtosecond laser surgery is demonstrated. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  4. Live imaging of primitive endoderm precursors in the mouse blastocyst.

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    Grabarek, Joanna B; Plusa, Berenika

    2012-01-01

    The separation of two populations of cells-primitive endoderm and epiblast-within the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mammalian blastocyst is a crucial event during preimplantation development. However, many aspects of this process are still not very well understood. Recently, the identification of platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (Pdgfrα) as an early-expressed protein that is also a marker of the later primitive endoderm lineage, together with the availability of the Pdgfra(H2B-GFP) mouse strain (Hamilton et al. Mol Cell Biol 23:4013-4025, 2003), has made in vivo imaging of primitive endoderm formation possible. In this chapter we present two different approaches that can be used to follow the behavior of primitive endoderm cells within the mouse blastocyst in real time.

  5. Tight junction protein ZO-2 expression and relative function of ZO-1 and ZO-2 during mouse blastocyst formation

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    Sheth, Bhavwanti; Nowak, Rachael L.; Anderson, Rebecca; Kwong, Wing Yee; Papenbrock, Thomas; Fleming, Tom P.

    2008-01-01

    Apicolateral tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells are multiprotein complexes regulating membrane polarity and paracellular transport and also contribute to signalling pathways affecting cell proliferation and gene expression. ZO-2 and other ZO family members form a sub-membranous scaffold for binding TJ constituents. We investigated ZO-2 contribution to TJ biogenesis and function during trophectoderm epithelium differentiation in mouse preimplantation embryos. Our data indicate that ZO-2 is expressed from maternal and embryonic genomes with maternal ZO-2 protein associated with nuclei in zygotes and particularly early cleavage stages. Embryonic ZO-2 assembled at outer blastomere apicolateral junctional sites from the late 16-cell stage. Junctional ZO-2 first co-localised with E-cadherin in a transient complex comprising adherens junction and TJ constituents before segregating to TJs after their separation from the blastocyst stage (32-cell onwards). ZO-2 siRNA microinjection into zygotes or 2-cell embryos resulted in specific knockdown of ZO-2 mRNA and protein within blastocysts. Embryos lacking ZO-2 protein at trophectoderm TJs exhibited delayed blastocoel cavity formation but underwent normal cell proliferation and outgrowth morphogenesis. Quantitative analysis of trophectoderm TJs in ZO-2-deficient embryos revealed increased assembly of ZO-1 but not occludin, indicating ZO protein redundancy as a compensatory mechanism contributing to the mild phenotype observed. In contrast, ZO-1 knockdown, or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 knockdown, generated a more severe inhibition of blastocoel formation indicating distinct roles for ZO proteins in blastocyst morphogenesis

  6. Dysfunction in gap junction intercellular communication induces aberrant behavior of the inner cell mass and frequent collapses of expanded blastocysts in mouse embryos.

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    Togashi, Kazue; Kumagai, Jin; Sato, Emiko; Shirasawa, Hiromitsu; Shimoda, Yuki; Makino, Kenichi; Sato, Wataru; Kumazawa, Yukiyo; Omori, Yasufumi; Terada, Yukihiro

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of gap junctions (GJs) in embryological differentiation, and observed the morphological behavior of the inner cell mass (ICM) by time-lapse movie observation (TLM) with gap junction inhibitors (GJis). ICR mouse embryos were exposed to two types of GJis in CZB medium: oleamide (0 to 50 μM) and 1-heptanol (0 to 10 mM). We compared the rate of blastocyst formation at embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) with E5.5. We also observed and evaluated the times from the second cleavage to each embryonic developing stage by TLM. We investigated embryonic distribution of DNA, Nanog protein, and Connexin 43 protein with immunofluorescent staining. In the comparison of E4.5 with E5.5, inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) delayed embryonic blastocyst formation. The times from the second cleavage to blastocyst formation were significantly extended in the GJi-treated embryos (control vs with oleamide, 2224 ± 179 min vs 2354 ± 278 min, p = 0.013). Morphological differences were traced in control versus GJi-treated embryos until the hatching stage. Oleamide induced frequent severe collapses of expanded blastocysts (77.4 % versus 26.3 %, p = 0.0001) and aberrant ICM divisions connected to sticky strands (74.3 % versus 5.3 %, p = 0.0001). Immunofluorescent staining indicated Nanog-positive cells were distributed in each divided ICM. GJIC plays an important role in blastocyst formation, collapses of expanded blastocysts, and the ICM construction in mouse embryos.

  7. Ouabain stimulates a Na+/K+-ATPase-mediated SFK-activated signalling pathway that regulates tight junction function in the mouse blastocyst.

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    Holly Giannatselis

    Full Text Available The Na(+/K(+-ATPase plays a pivotal role during preimplantation development; it establishes a trans-epithelial ionic gradient that facilitates the formation of the fluid-filled blastocyst cavity, crucial for implantation and successful pregnancy. The Na(+/K(+-ATPase is also implicated in regulating tight junctions and cardiotonic steroid (CTS-induced signal transduction via SRC. We investigated the expression of SRC family kinase (SFK members, Src and Yes, during preimplantation development and determined whether SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation. Embryos were collected following super-ovulation of CD1 or MF1 female mice. RT-PCR was used to detect SFK mRNAs encoding Src and Yes throughout preimplantation development. SRC and YES protein were localized throughout preimplantation development. Treatment of mouse morulae with the SFK inhibitors PP2 and SU6656 for 18 hours resulted in a reversible blockade of progression to the blastocyst stage. Blastocysts treated with 10(-3 M ouabain for 2 or 10 minutes and immediately immunostained for phosphorylation at SRC tyr418 displayed reduced phosphorylation while in contrast blastocysts treated with 10(-4 M displayed increased tyr418 fluorescence. SFK inhibition increased and SFK activation reduced trophectoderm tight junction permeability in blastocysts. The results demonstrate that SFKs are expressed during preimplantation development and that SFK activity is required for blastocyst formation and is an important mediator of trophectoderm tight junction permeability.

  8. Rho-associated kinase activity is required for proper morphogenesis of the inner cell mass in the mouse blastocyst.

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    Laeno, Arlene May A; Tamashiro, Dana Ann A; Alarcon, Vernadeth B

    2013-11-01

    The blastocyst consists of the outer layer of trophectoderm and pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM), the precursor of the placenta and fetus, respectively. During blastocyst expansion, the ICM adopts a compact, ovoidal shape, whose proper morphology is crucial for normal embryogenesis. Rho-associated kinase (ROCK), an effector of small GTPase RHO signaling, mediates the diverse cellular processes of morphogenesis, but its role in ICM morphogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that ROCK is required for cohesion of ICM cells and formation of segregated tissues called primitive endoderm (PrE) and epiblast (Epi) in the ICM of the mouse blastocyst. Blastocyst treatment with ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and Fasudil caused widening or spreading of the ICM, and intermingling of PrE and Epi. Widening of ICM was independent of trophectoderm because isolated ICMs as well as colonies of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) also spread upon Y-27632 treatment. PrE, Epi, and trophectoderm cell numbers were similar between control and treated blastocysts, suggesting that ROCK inhibition affected ICM morphology but not lineage differentiation. Rock1 and Rock2 knockdown via RNA interference in mESC also induced spreading, supporting the conclusion that morphological defects caused by the pharmacological inhibitors were due to ROCK inactivation. When blastocysts were transferred into surrogates, implantation efficiencies were unaffected by ROCK inhibition, but treated blastocysts yielded greater fetal loss. These results show that proper ICM morphology is dependent on ROCK activity and is crucial for fetal development. Our studies have wider implication for improving efficiencies of human assisted reproductive technologies that diminish pregnancy loss and promote successful births.

  9. Vitamin C supplementation enhances compact morulae formation but reduces the hatching blastocyst rate of bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

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    Li, Qian; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Wang, Li-Jun; Zhang, Hui; Li, Rui-Zhe; Cui, Chen-Chen; Li, Wen-Zhe; Zhang, Yong; Jin, Ya-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin C, an antioxidant that reduces reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, is capable of significantly improving the developmental competence of porcine and mouse somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the effects of vitamin C on the developmental competence of bovine SCNT embryos were investigated. The results indicated that vitamin C (40 μg/mL) positively affected the scavenging of intracellular ROS, cleavage rate at 24 h (76.67 vs. 68.26%, pvitamin C supplementation did not significantly affect the blastocyst formation rate and proportion of inner cell mass over total cells per blastocyst on day 7. Moreover, vitamin C supplementation obviously impaired the total cell numbers per blastocyst (97.20 ± 11.35 vs. 88.57 ± 10.43, pVitamin C supplementation preferentially improved the viability of bovine SCNT embryos prior to the blastocyst stage, but did not enhance the formation and quality of blastocysts in vitro. In conclusion, the effect of vitamin C on the development of bovine SCNT embryos is complex, and vitamin C is not a suitable antioxidant chemical for the in vitro culture of bovine SCNT embryos.

  10. Identification and expression analysis of genes associated with bovine blastocyst formation

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    Van Zeveren Alex

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal preimplantation embryo development encompasses a series of events including first cleavage division, activation of the embryonic genome, compaction and blastocyst formation. First lineage differentiation starts at the blastocyst stage with the formation of the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. The main objective of this study was the detection, identification and expression analysis of genes associated with blastocyst formation in order to help us better understand this process. This information could lead to improvements of in vitro embryo production procedures. Results A subtractive cDNA library was constructed enriched for transcripts preferentially expressed at the blastocyst stage compared to the 2-cell and 8-cell stage. Sequence information was obtained for 65 randomly selected clones. The RNA expression levels of 12 candidate genes were determined throughout 3 stages of preimplantation embryo development (2-cell, 8-cell and blastocyst and compared with the RNA expression levels of in vivo "golden standard" embryos using real-time PCR. The RNA expression profiles of 9 (75% transcripts (KRT18, FN1, MYL6, ATP1B3, FTH1, HINT1, SLC25A5, ATP6V0B, RPL10 were in agreement with the subtractive cDNA cloning approach, whereas for the remaining 3 (25% (ACTN1, COPE, EEF1A1 the RNA expression level was equal or even higher at the earlier developmental stages compared to the blastocyst stage. Moreover, significant differences in RNA expression levels were observed between in vitro and in vivo produced embryos. By immunofluorescent labelling, the protein expression of KRT18, FN1 and MYL6 was determined throughout bovine preimplantation embryo development and showed the same pattern as the RNA expression analyses. Conclusion By subtractive cDNA cloning, candidate genes involved in blastocyst formation were identified. For several candidate genes, important differences in gene expression were observed between in vivo and in

  11. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

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    Kim, Chang-Woon; Choe, Changyong; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Ik; Yoon, Sook-Young; Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee; Kang, Dawon

    2012-01-01

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K + channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from CaMKII activation

  12. Dual effects of fluoxetine on mouse early embryonic development

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    Kim, Chang-Woon [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Samsung Changwon Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University, Changwon 630-723 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Changyong [National Institute of Animal Science, RDA, Cheonan 330-801 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Jin [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae-Ik [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 660-702 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Sook-Young [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 135-081 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young-Woo; Han, Sunkyu; Tak, Hyun-Min; Han, Jaehee [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dawon, E-mail: dawon@gnu.ac.kr [Department of Physiology and Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju 660-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, regulates a variety of physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, in mammalian cells. Little is known about the role of fluoxetine in early embryonic development. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluoxetine during mouse early embryonic development. Late two-cell stage embryos (2-cells) were cultured in the presence of various concentrations of fluoxetine (1 to 50 μM) for different durations. When late 2-cells were incubated with 5 μM fluoxetine for 6 h, the percentage that developed into blastocysts increased compared to the control value. However, late 2-cells exposed to fluoxetine (5 μM) over 24 h showed a reduction in blastocyst formation. The addition of fluoxetine (5 μM) together with KN93 or KN62 (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors) failed to increase blastocyst formation. Fluoxetine treatment inhibited TREK-1 and TREK-2, members of the two-pore domain K{sup +} channel family expressed in mouse embryos, activities, indicating that fluoxetine-induced membrane depolarization in late 2-cells might have resulted from TREK inhibition. In addition, long-term exposure to fluoxetine altered the TREK mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, injection of siRNA targeting TREKs significantly decreased blastocyst formation by ∼ 30% compared to injection of scrambled siRNA. Long-term exposure of fluoxetine had no effect on blastocyst formation of TREK deficient embryos. These results indicate that low-dose and short-term exposures of late 2-cells to fluoxetine probably increase blastocyst formation through activation of CaMKII-dependent signal transduction pathways, whereas long-term exposure decreases mouse early embryonic development through inhibition of TREK channel gating. Highlights: ► Short-term exposure of 2-cells to fluoxetine enhances mouse blastocyst formation. ► The enhancive effect of fluoxetine is resulted from Ca

  13. Targeted organ generation using Mixl1-inducible mouse pluripotent stem cells in blastocyst complementation.

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    Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-15

    Generation of functional organs from patients' own cells is one of the ultimate goals of regenerative medicine. As a novel approach to creation of organs from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), we employed blastocyst complementation in organogenesis-disabled animals and successfully generated PSC-derived pancreas and kidneys. Blastocyst complementation, which exploits the capacity of PSCs to participate in forming chimeras, does not, however, exclude contribution of PSCs to the development of tissues-including neural cells or germ cells-other than those specifically targeted by disabling of organogenesis. This fact provokes ethical controversy if human PSCs are to be used. In this study, we demonstrated that forced expression of Mix-like protein 1 (encoded by Mixl1) can be used to guide contribution of mouse embryonic stem cells to endodermal organs after blastocyst injection. We then succeeded in applying this method to generate functional pancreas in pancreatogenesis-disabled Pdx1 knockout mice using a newly developed tetraploid-based organ-complementation method. These findings hold promise for targeted organ generation from patients' own PSCs in livestock animals.

  14. Cytotoxic Effects of Dillapiole on Embryonic Development of Mouse Blastocysts in Vitro and in Vivo

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    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole, a phenylpropanoid with antileishmanial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and acaricidal activities, on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, subsequent embryonic attachment and outgrowth in vitro, and in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Blastocysts treated with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole exhibited a significant increase in apoptosis and corresponding decrease in total cell number. Notably, the implantation success rates of blastocysts pretreated with dillapiole were lower than those of their control counterparts. Moreover, in vitro treatment with 2.5–10 μM dillapiole was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Our results collectively indicate that dillapiole induces apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. However, the extent to which this organic compound exerts teratogenic effects on early human development is not known at present. Further studies are required to establish effective protection strategies against the cytotoxic effects of dillapiole.

  15. Rhein Induces Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Blastocysts and Has Immunotoxic Effects during Embryonic Development

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    Chien-Hsun Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhein, a glucoside chemical compound found in a traditional Chinese medicine derived from the roots of rhubarb, induces cell apoptosis and is considered to have high potential as an antitumor drug. Several previous studies showed that rhein can inhibit cell proliferation and trigger mitochondria-related or endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-dependent apoptotic processes. However, the side effects of rhein on pre- and post-implantation embryonic development remain unclear. Here, we show that rhein has cytotoxic effects on blastocyst-stage mouse embryos and induces oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in mouse fetuses. Blastocysts incubated with 5–20 μM rhein showed significant cell apoptosis, as well as decreases in their inner cell mass cell numbers and total cell numbers. An in vitro development assay showed that rhein affected the developmental potentials of both pre- and post-implantation embryos. Incubation of blastocysts with 5–20 μM rhein was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos and decreased fetal weight in an embryo transfer assay. Importantly, in an in vivo model, intravenous injection of dams with rhein (1, 3, and 5 mg/kg body weight/day for four days resulted in apoptosis of blastocyst-stage embryos, early embryonic developmental injury, and decreased fetal weight. Intravenous injection of dams with 5 mg/kg body weight/day rhein significantly increased the total reactive oxygen species (ROS content of fetuses and the transcription levels of antioxidant proteins in fetal livers. Additional work showed that rhein induced apoptosis through ROS generation, and that prevention of apoptotic processes effectively rescued the rhein-induced injury effects on embryonic development. Finally, the transcription levels of the innate-immunity related genes, CXCL1, IL-1 β and IL-8, were down-regulated in the fetuses of dams that received intravenous injections of rhein. These results collectively show that rhein has

  16. The 'GO' system--a novel method of microculture for in vitro development of mouse zygotes to the blastocyst stage.

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    Thouas, G A; Jones, G M; Trounson, A O

    2003-08-01

    A novel system of in vitro culture termed the 'glass oviduct' or 'GO' culture system is described. Mouse zygotes were cultured in pairs to the blastocyst stage in open-ended 1 microl glass capillaries. 'GO' culture supported the development of significantly more hatching or hatched blastocysts than did a standard microdroplet (10 zygotes per 20 microl) control culture (48.3 versus 3.3%, respectively). 'GO' bslastocysts contained significantly larger populations of cells (92+/-3 versus 75+/-3), and inner cell mass (25+/-1 versus 21+/-1) and trophectoderm (68+/-2 versus 53+/-3) subpopulations, compared with microdroplet-derived blastocysts. Before blastulation, 'GO'-derived morulae were found to contain significantly more cells than microdroplet-derived morulae (27+/-0.7 versus 14+/-0.5). After implantation, 'GO' blastocysts formed fetuses at a similar rate to microdroplet-derived blastocysts (55 versus 62%), but at a lower rate than blastocysts derived in vivo (80%). 'GO'- and microdroplet-derived fetuses were similar in wet weight to each other (0.412 and 0.415 g, respectively) but were heavier than fetuses derived from flushed blastocysts (0.390 g). An additional experiment investigated whether the beneficial effect of 'GO' culture was due to the significantly increased embryo density. Proportions of hatching or hatched blastocysts after 'GO' culture (50%) were higher than after standard microdroplet culture (7.6%), but were not different from culture in high embryo density microdroplets (20 zygotes per 10 microl; 42%). 'GO' blastocysts contained more cells (79.6+/-2.1) than did standard microdroplet-derived blastocysts (68.7+/-2.0), but were similar to high density microdroplet-derived blastocysts (85.8+/-2.7). Similarly, 'GO' blastocysts contained more trophectoderm cells (62.2+/-2.0) than did standard microdroplet-derived blastocysts (52.7+/-1.7), but were similar to the high density microdroplet blastocysts (68.8+/-2.5). Numbers of inner cell mass cells ('GO

  17. Completely ES cell-derived mice produced by tetraploid complementation using inner cell mass (ICM deficient blastocysts.

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    Duancheng Wen

    Full Text Available Tetraploid complementation is often used to produce mice from embryonic stem cells (ESCs by injection of diploid (2n ESCs into tetraploid (4n blastocysts (ESC-derived mice. This method has also been adapted to mouse cloning and the derivation of mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s of the tetraploid complementation remains largely unclear. Whether this approach can give rise to completely ES cell-derived mice is an open question, and has not yet been unambiguously proven. Here, we show that mouse tetraploid blastocysts can be classified into two groups, according to the presence or absence of an inner cell mass (ICM. We designate these as type a (presence of ICM at blastocyst stage or type b (absence of ICM. ESC lines were readily derived from type a blastocysts, suggesting that these embryos retain a pluripotent epiblast compartment; whereas the type b blastocysts possessed very low potential to give rise to ESC lines, suggesting that they had lost the pluripotent epiblast. When the type a blastocysts were used for tetraploid complementation, some of the resulting mice were found to be 2n/4n chimeric; whereas when type b blastocysts were used as hosts, the resulting mice are all completely ES cell-derived, with the newborn pups displaying a high frequency of abdominal hernias. Our results demonstrate that completely ES cell-derived mice can be produced using ICM-deficient 4n blastocysts, and provide evidence that the exclusion of tetraploid cells from the fetus in 2n/4n chimeras can largely be attributed to the formation of ICM-deficient blastocysts.

  18. Effect of vitrification on number of inner cell mass in mouse blastocysts in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop carriers

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    Ghasem, S.; Negar, K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of using open and closed carriers on count of inner cell mass in vitrified mouse blastocyst after warming. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran, from April to September 2010. Forty female NMRI (Naval Medical Research Institute, USA) mice were injected with pregnant mares serum gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin in order to induce super ovulation. Following the latter injection, two or three females were caged with the same-breed male mice. The presence of vaginal plug was examined the following morning. To collect blastocyst embryos, the pregnant females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at 88-90 hours after the injection and dissected. Blastocysts were collected in phosphate-buffered saline and allocated to four groups: vitrification in conventional straw, closed pulled straw, open pulled straw and cryoloop. The vitrification solution was ethylene glycol, Ficol and sucrose (EFS) 20% and 40%. After storage for 1 month in liquid nitrogen, the blastocysts were thawed in 0.5 M sucrose then cultured in M16 medium. After 6 hours of culture, the number of expanded blastocysts was recorded and stained by double-dye technique. After staining, the number of total cell and inner cell mass was calculated. Results: The re-expansion rate of blastocysts in the cryoloop group (n=90; 78.26%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than open pulled straw (n=83; 69.16%), closed pulled straw (n=68; 54.83%) and conventional straws (n=63; 51.21%) groups. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the number of inner cell mass in blastocysts vitrified in open pulled straws, closed straws and cryoloop with blastocysts cryopreserved in conventional straws. Conclusion: The re-expansion rate and total cell number of mouse blastocysts vitrified using open system had a better result compared with the closed system. The value of cryoloop and open pulled straws as carriers in

  19. Na--dependent transport of basic, zwitterionic, and bicyclic amino acids by a broad-scope system in mouse blastocysts

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    Van Winkle, L.J.; Christensen, H.N.; Campione, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Mouse blastocysts which had been activated from diapause in utero appeared to take up amino acids via a Na - -dependent transport system with novel characteristics. In contrast to other cell types, uptake of 3-aminoendobicyclo [3,2,1]octane-3-carboxylic acid (BCO) by blastocysts was largely Na - dependent. Moreover, L-alanine and BCO met standard criteria for mutual competitive inhibition of the Na - -dependent transport of each other. The Ki for each of these amino acids as an inhibitor of transport of the other had a value similar to the value of its Km for transport. In addition, both 2-aminoendobicyclo [2,2,1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid and L-valine appeared to inhibit Na - -dependent transport of alanine and BCO competitively. Finally, alanine and L-lysine appeared to compete for the same Na+-dependent transport sites in blastocysts. For these reasons, the authors conclude that lysine, alanine, and BCO are transported by a common Na+-dependent system in blastocysts. In addition, the apparent interaction of the system with other basic amino acids, such as 1-dimethylpiperidine-4-amino-4-carboxylic acid, which has a nondissociable positive charge on its side chain, and L-arginine and L-homoarginine, whose cationic forms are highly predominant at neutral pH, suggests that the cationic forms of basic amino acids are transported by the wide-scope system

  20. Inhibition of Apoptosis Overcomes Stage-Related Compatibility Barriers to Chimera Formation in Mouse Embryos.

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    Masaki, Hideki; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Umino, Ayumi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Era, Takumi; Loh, Kyle M; Wu, Sean M; Weissman, Irving L; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2016-11-03

    Cell types more advanced in development than embryonic stem cells, such as EpiSCs, fail to contribute to chimeras when injected into pre-implantation-stage blastocysts, apparently because the injected cells undergo apoptosis. Here we show that transient promotion of cell survival through expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 enables EpiSCs and Sox17 + endoderm progenitors to integrate into blastocysts and contribute to chimeric embryos. Upon injection into blastocyst, BCL2-expressing EpiSCs contributed to all bodily tissues in chimeric animals while Sox17 + endoderm progenitors specifically contributed in a region-specific fashion to endodermal tissues. In addition, BCL2 expression enabled rat EpiSCs to contribute to mouse embryonic chimeras, thereby forming interspecies chimeras that could survive to adulthood. Our system therefore provides a method to overcome cellular compatibility issues that typically restrict chimera formation. Application of this type of approach could broaden the use of embryonic chimeras, including region-specific chimeras, for basic developmental biology research and regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  2. The impact of food intake and social habits on embryo quality and the likelihood of blastocyst formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Daniela Paes Almeida Ferreira; Halpern, Gabriela; Setti, Amanda S; Figueira, Rita Cássia S; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of patients' lifestyle factors and eating habits on embryo development. A total of 2659 embryos recovered from 269 patients undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included. The frequency of intake of food items and social habits were registered and its influences on embryo development evaluated. The consumption of cereals, vegetables and fruits positively influenced the embryo quality at the cleavage stage. The quality of the embryo at the cleavage stage was also negatively correlated with the consumption of alcoholic drinks and smoking habits. The consumption of fruits influenced the likelihood of blastocyst formation, which was also positively affected by the consumption of fish. Being on a weight-loss diet and consumption of red meat had a negative influence on the likelihood of blastocyst formation. The likelihood of blastocyst formation was also negatively influenced by the consumption of alcoholic drinks and by smoking habits. The consumption of red meat and body mass index had a negative effect on the implantation rate and the likelihood of pregnancy. In addition, being on a weight-loss diet had a negative influence on implantation rate. Our evidence suggests a possible relationship between environmental factors and ovary biology. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The loss of imprinted DNA methylation in mouse blastocysts is inflicted to a similar extent by in vitro follicle culture and ovulation induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-de-Juano, M D; Billooye, K; Smitz, J; Anckaert, E

    2016-06-01

    Does in vitro follicle culture (IFC) have an effect on maintenance of imprinted DNA methylation in preimplantation mouse embryos? We report similar alterations in the methylation pattern of H19 imprinted maternally expressed transcript (H19), small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (Snrpn) and mesoderm specific transcript (Mest) imprinted genes in mouse blastocysts obtained after ovulation induction and IFC. Furthermore, we observed no differences in the gene expression of maternal effect proteins related with imprinting maintenance between superovulated in vivo grown or IFC oocytes. Assisted reproductive technology is associated with adverse post-natal outcomes such as increased risk of premature birth, altered birthweight, congenital anomalies and genomic imprinting syndromes in human and in animal models. Previous studies have shown that ovulation induction allowed normal imprinting establishment in mouse oocytes, but interfered with imprinting maintenance during preimplantation . Normal imprinting establishment was also observed in mouse oocytes derived from a standardized IFC from the early pre-antral follicle stage. The methylation profiles of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of three key imprinted genes (H19, Snrpn and Mest) were compared at hatched blastocyst stage between embryos obtained from IFC or superovulated oocytes, each subjected to IVF and preimplantation in vitro culture (IVC); in non-manipulated in vivo produced late blastocyst (control) and in in vivo produced 2-cell embryos that were in vitro cultured until the hatched blastocyst stage (to assess the effect of IVC). Two different mice strains (Mus musculus C57BL/6J X CBA/Ca and Mus musculus B6 (CAST7)) were used to discriminate between maternal and paternal alleles of imprinted genes. Additionally, a limiting-dilution bisulfite-sequencing technique was carried out on individual embryos in order to avoid amplification bias. To assess whether IFC and ovulation induction

  4. Protective effects of resveratrol on ethanol-induced apoptosis in embryonic stem cells and disruption of embryonic development in mouse blastocysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.-H.; Shiao, N.-H.; Hsuuw, Y.-D.; Chan, W.-H.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have established that ethanol induces apoptosis, but the precise molecular mechanisms are currently unclear. Here, we show that 0.3-1.0% (w/v) ethanol induces apoptosis in mouse blastocysts and that resveratrol, a grape-derived phytoalexin with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, prevents ethanol-induced apoptosis and inhibition of cell proliferation. Moreover, ethanol-treated blastocysts show normal levels of implantation on culture dishes in vitro but a reduced ability to reach the later stages of embryonic development. Pretreatment with resveratrol prevented ethanol-induced disruption of embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro cell-based assay, we further found that ethanol increases the production of reactive oxygen species in ESC-B5 embryonic stem cells, leading to an increase in the intracellular concentrations of cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ and NO, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, activation of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis. These changes were blocked by pretreatment with resveratrol. Based on these results, we propose a model for the protective effect of resveratrol on ethanol-induced cell injury in blastocysts and ESC-B5 cells

  5. Melatonin protect the development of preimplantation mouse embryos from sodium fluoride-induced oxidative injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiamin; Fu, Beibei; Peng, Wei; Mao, Tingchao; Wu, Haibo; Zhang, Yong

    2017-09-01

    Recently study shows that melatonin can protect embryos from the culture environment oxidative stress. However, the protective effect of melatonin on the mouse development of preimplantation embryos under sodium fluoride (NaF) induced oxidative stress is still unclear. Here, we showed that exposure to NaF significantly increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, decreased the blastocyst formation rates, and increased the fragmentation, apoptosis and retardation of blastocysts in the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. However, the protective of melatonin remarkable increased the of blastocyst formation rates, maintained mitochondrial function and total antioxidant capacity by clearing ROS. Importantly the data showed that melatonin improved the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, including glutathione(GSH), superoxide dismutase(SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA), and increased the expression levels of antioxidative genes. Taken together, our results indicate that melatonin prevent NaF-induced oxidative damage to mouse preimplantation embryo through down regulation of ROS level, stabilization of mitochondrial function and modulation of the activity of antioxidases and antioxidant genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decreased Blastocyst Production in Mice Exposed to Increased Rack Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Bernadette M; Jiang, Meisheng; Wang, Ying; Chai, Minghua; Lawson, P Timothy; Lawson, Gregory W

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible effect of rack type on the blastocyst yield of mouse embryo donors. The first phase of the study consisted of housing some mice (group A) in a ventilated rack and others (group B) in a static rack in the same room for 3 d, followed by euthanasia for blastocyst collection and corticosterone assay. Parametric tests were used to compare groups. The number of blastocysts per donor was lower in group A (5.0 ± 1.4 blastocysts) than group B (13.1 ± 3.7 blastocysts). Mean noise was higher in the ventilated rack (80.4 dBC) than in the static rack (69.2 dBC). Serum corticosterone concentrations did not differ between groups. For the second phase of the study, a third group of mice (group C) was housed in a static rack without a ventilated rack in the same room. The noise level for group C was even lower (45.18 ± 2.91 dBC), and the blastocyst count per donor (16.4 ± 2.4) was higher than that of group B. The mean noise levels of empty ventilated and static racks differed significantly between groups for 10 different sound frequencies. Plotting mean blastocyst production against mean rack noise revealed a negative linear relationship with good strength of correlation. These results support the earlier observation that decreased blastocyst count occurs following housing of bred C57BL/6 donor mice in ventilated cages. PMID:19807968

  7. Mouse oocytes nucleoli rescue embryonic development of porcine enucleolated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovic, Martin; Strejcek, Frantisek; Nakagawa, Shoma; Deshmukh, Rahul S; Murin, Matej; Benc, Michal; Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Pendovski, Lazo; Fulka, Josef; Laurincik, Jozef

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF)). Our results show that the re-injection of isolated oocyte nucleoli, either from the pig (P + P) or mouse (P + M), into previously enucleolated and subsequently matured porcine oocytes rescues their development after parthenogenetic activation and some of these develop up to the blastocyst stage (P + P, 11.8%; P + M, 13.5%). In nucleolus re-injected 8-cell and blastocyst stage embryos the number of nucleoli labeled with C23 in P + P and P + M groups was lower than in control (non-manipulated) group. UBF was localized in small foci within the nucleoli of blastocysts in control and P + P embryos, however, in P + M embryos the labeling was evenly distributed in the nucleoplasm. The TEM and autoradiographic evaluations showed the formation of functional nucleoli and de novo rRNA synthesis at the 8-cell stage in both, control and P + P group. In the P + M group the formation of comparable nucleoli was delayed. In conclusion, our results indicate that the mouse nucleolus can rescue embryonic development of enucleolated porcine oocytes, but the localization of selected nucleolar proteins, the timing of transcription activation and the formation of the functional nucleoli in NuTE compared with control group show evident aberrations.

  8. In Vitro Maturation and Embryo Development to blastocyst Mouse Germinal Vesicle Oocytes after Vitrification

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    M Nikseresht

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Vitrification is a simple and ultra rapid technique for the conservation of fertility. Improving pregnancy rate associate with the use of cryopreserved oocytes would be an important advanced in human assisted reproductive technology (ART. The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival, oocytes maturation and embryo development to the blastocyst stage after vitrification of oocytes germinal vesicle-stage and multi stage Methods: In the present experimental study, germinal vesicle oocytes with or without cumulus cells were transferred to vitrification solution containing 30% (v/v ethylene glycol, 18% (w/v Ficoll-70, and 0.3 M sucrose, either by single step or in a step-wise way. After vitrification and storage in liquid nitrogen, the oocytes were thawed and washed twice in culture medium TCM119, and then subjected to in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture. Data analysis was performed by using One-way variance and Tukey tests. Results: Oocytes survival, metaphase 2 stage oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo formed blastocyst in vitrification methods multistage were significantly higher than the single step procedure (P<0/05 Conclusion: The Germinal vesicle stage oocytes vitrified with cumulus cells and stepwise procedure had positive effect on the survival, maturation and developmental rate on blastocyst compared to oocytes without cumulus cell and single step procedure. Key words: Germinal Vesicle Oocyte, Blastocyst, Vitrification, Ethylene glycol

  9. Blastocyst Development in a Single Medium Compared to Sequential Media: A Prospective Study With Sibling Oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Lainas, George T; Petsas, George K; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Trifon G

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare blastocyst formation rates after embryo culture in a single medium (Global) as compared to sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist). In this prospective trial with sibling oocytes, 542 metaphase II (ΜΙΙ) oocytes from 31 women were randomly and equally divided to be fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage in either sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist; n = 271 MII oocytes) or a single medium (Global; n = 271 MII oocytes). In both groups, embryos were cultured in an interrupted fashion with media changes on day 3. Embryo transfer was performed on day 5. Blastocyst formation rates on day 5 (61.7% ± 19.9% vs 37.0% ± 25.5%, P ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. Fertilization rates, cleavage rates, and percentage of good quality embryos on day 3 were similar between Global and ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. The percentages of good quality blastocysts (63.0% ± 24.8% vs 32.1% ± 37.2%, P ISM1/BlastAssist, respectively. In conclusion, culture in Global was associated with higher blastocyst formation rates compared to ISM1/BlastAssist, suggesting that the single medium may provide better support to the developing embryo.

  10. Coasting, embryo development and outcomes of blastocyst transfer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebi Chahvar, Solmas; Zosmer, Ariel; Caragia, Alina; Balestrini, Simona; Sabatini, Luca; Tranquilli, Andrea Luigi; Al-Shawaf, Talha

    2014-08-01

    This study compared the effect on blastocyst development and clinical outcome of coasting in women at increased risk of moderate-severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS; n=389) with a control group matched for age and basal FSH that did not undergo coasting (n=386) in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. The main outcome measures were rate of blastocyst development and live birth. More cycles progressed to the blastocyst stage in the coasted group (n=169) compared with the control group (n=83; 43.4% versus 21.5%; P<0.001). The biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar (46.5% versus 42.0%; 40.6% versus 37.8%; 31.6% versus 30.1%). The duration of coasting up to 4 days did not affect progression to blastocyst stage. The multivariate model showed that coasting (OR 1.73, P=0.004) and the number of oocytes retrieved (OR 1.17, P=0.001) were positively correlated with blastocyst formation. Coasting, a measure to reduce the risk of OHSS, does not impair blastocyst development or clinical outcome. Coasting should remain an effective measure to prevent OHSS. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiotoxicity and incorporation of methyl-tritiated-thymidine on preimplantation mouse embryo. In vitro fertilization and culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, O.K.; Ohyama, H.; Yamada, T.

    1993-04-01

    In the present work different concentrations of methyl- 3 H-thymidine was added to the culture medium micro drops containing the mouse zygotes at pro nuclear stage and the embryos were cultured in vitro at 37 0 C in a humidified atmosphere with 5% of CO 2 for four days up to the expanded blastocyst stage, the established end point to calculate the L D 50 lethal dose. The blastocyst formation rate decreased with increasing concentration of tritium in medium and a value of 2.4 X 10 3 Bq/ml for L D 50 was obtained. The 3 H-Td R incorporation by the embryo during the preimplantation period was low at the beginning and increased quickly during the morula and the blastocyst development. (author)

  12. ART culture conditions change the probability of mouse embryo gestation through defined cellular and molecular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Caroline; Esteves, Telma Cristina; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J; Le Gac, Séverine; Nordhoff, Verena; Schlatt, Stefan; Boiani, Michele

    2012-09-01

    (low fetal rate), were analyzed in depth using outbred and inbred fertilization schemes. Resultant blastocysts show imbalances of cell lineage composition; culture medium-specific deviation of gene expression (38 genes, ≥ 4-fold) compared with the in vivo pattern; and produce different litter sizes (P ≤ 0.0076) after transfer into fosters. Confounding effects of subfertility, life style and genetic heterogeneity are reduced to a minimum in the mouse model compared with ART patients. This is an animal model study. Mouse embryo responses to human ART media are not transferable 1-to-1 to human development due to structural and physiologic differences between oocytes of the two species. Our data promote awareness that human ART culture media affect embryo development. Effects reported here in the mouse may apply also in human, because no ART medium presently available on the market has been optimized for human embryo development. The mouse embryo assay (MEA), which requires ART media to support at least 80% blastocyst formation, is in need of reform and should be extended to include post-implantation development.

  13. Two-cell embryos are more sensitive than blastocysts to AMPK-dependent suppression of anabolism and stemness by commonly used fertility drugs, a diet supplement, and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Alan; Abdulhasan, Mohammed; Kilburn, Brian; Xie, Yufen; Howard, Mindie; Andresen, Paul; Shamir, Alexandra M; Dai, Jing; Puscheck, Elizabeth E; Secor, Eric; Rappolee, Daniel A

    2017-12-01

    This study tests whether metformin or diet supplement BR-DIM-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediated effects on development are more pronounced in blastocysts or 2-cell mouse embryos. Culture mouse zygotes to two-cell embryos and test effects after 0.5-1 h AMPK agonists' (e.g., Met, BR-DIM) exposure on AMPK-dependent ACCser79P phosphorylation and/or Oct4 by immunofluorescence. Culture morulae to blastocysts and test for increased ACCser79P, decreased Oct4 and for AMPK dependence by coculture with AMPK inhibitor compound C (CC). Test whether Met or BR-DIM decrease growth rates of morulae cultured to blastocyst by counting cells. Aspirin, metformin, and hyperosmotic sorbitol increased pACC ser79P ~ 20-fold, and BR-DIM caused a ~ 30-fold increase over two-cell embryos cultured for 1 h in KSOMaa but only 3- to 6-fold increase in blastocysts. We previously showed that these stimuli decreased Oct4 40-85% in two-cell embryos that was ~ 60-90% reversible by coculture with AMPK inhibitor CC. However, Oct4 decreased only 30-50% in blastocysts, although reversibility of loss by CC was similar at both embryo stages. Met and BR-DIM previously caused a near-complete cell proliferation arrest in two-cell embryos and here Met caused lower CC-reversible growth decrease and AMPK-independent BR-DIM-induced blastocyst growth decrease. Inducing drug or diet supplements decreased anabolism, growth, and stemness have a greater impact on AMPK-dependent processes in two-cell embryos compared to blastocysts.

  14. Technique of the 'in vitro' fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Yamada, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    The mammal embryo is an intensive cellular proliferating system, very radiosensitive and therefore adequate to the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The technique of the in vitro fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation period, modified by Yamada et al (1982) to improve the efficiency of more than 95% of blastocyst formation is described. (author)

  15. Interspecies chimera between primate embryonic stem cells and mouse embryos: monkey ESCs engraft into mouse embryos, but not post-implantation fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simerly, Calvin; McFarland, Dave; Castro, Carlos; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Redinger, Carrie; Jacoby, Ethan; Mich-Basso, Jocelyn; Orwig, Kyle; Mills, Parker; Ahrens, Eric; Navara, Chris; Schatten, Gerald

    2011-07-01

    Unequivocal evidence for pluripotency in which embryonic stem cells contribute to chimeric offspring has yet to be demonstrated in human or nonhuman primates (NHPs). Here, rhesus and baboons ESCs were investigated in interspecific mouse chimera generated by aggregation or blastocyst injection. Aggregation chimera produced mouse blastocysts with GFP-nhpESCs at the inner cell mass (ICM), and embryo transfers (ETs) generated dimly-fluorescencing abnormal fetuses. Direct injection of GFP-nhpESCs into blastocysts produced normal non-GFP-fluorescencing fetuses. Injected chimera showed >70% loss of GFP-nhpESCs after 21 h culture. Outgrowths of all chimeric blastocysts established distinct but separate mouse- and NHP-ESC colonies. Extensive endogenous autofluorescence compromised anti-GFP detection and PCR analysis did not detect nhpESCs in fetuses. NhpESCs localize to the ICM in chimera and generate pregnancies. Because primate ESCs do not engraft post-implantation, and also because endogenous autofluorescence results in misleading positive signals, interspecific chimera assays for pluripotency with primate stem cells is unreliable with the currently available ESCs. Testing primate ESCs reprogrammed into even more naïve states in these inter-specific chimera assays will be an important future endeavor. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Blastomere nucleation: Predictive factors and influence of blastomere with no apparent nuclei on blastocyst development and implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Amanda Souza; Figueira, Rita Cássia Sávio; Braga, Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira; Iaconelli, Assumpto; Borges, Edson

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether embryos presenting blastomere(s) with no apparent nucleus (BNAN) on days 2 and 3 are more likely to fail to develop into blastocysts, hatch and implant. A total of 5705 zygotes obtained from 743 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles were analyzed. The presence and incidence of BNAN on days 2 and 3 of embryo development were recorded and then associated with ICSI outcomes. The occurrence of BNAN on day 2 of embryo development was determinant to the decreased odds of blastocyst formation (OR: 0.57, CI: 0.50-0.65), quality (OR: 0.56, CI: 0.43-0.73) and hatching status (OR: 0.66, CI: 0.50-0.87). The presence of BNAN on day 3 of embryo development was determinant to the decreased odds of blastocyst formation (OR: 0.67, CI: 0.58-0.78) and hatching status (OR: 0.61, CI: 0.45-0.83). The occurrence of BNAN on day 2 of embryo development was determinant to the decreased odds of blastocyst implantation (OR: 0.50, CI: 0.27-0.94). The presence of BNAN on day 2 or day 3 reduces development to blastocyst stage, hatching and implantation. Careful nuclear observation, taking into account the absence of blastomere nucleus, should be part of the strategies used for embryo selection.

  17. TallyHO obese female mice experience poor reproductive outcomes and abnormal blastocyst metabolism that is reversed by metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louden, Erica D; Luzzo, Kerri M; Jimenez, Patricia T; Chi, Tiffany; Chi, Maggie; Moley, Kelle H

    2014-12-01

    Obese women experience worse reproductive outcomes than normal weight women, specifically infertility, pregnancy loss, fetal malformations and developmental delay of offspring. The aim of the present study was to use a genetic mouse model of obesity to recapitulate the human reproductive phenotype and further examine potential mechanisms and therapies. New inbred, polygenic Type 2 diabetic TallyHO mice and age-matched control C57BL/6 mice were superovulated to obtain morula or blastocyst stage embryos that were cultured in human tubal fluid (HTF) medium. Deoxyglucose uptake was determined for individual insulin-stimulated blastocysts. Apoptosis was detected by confocal microscopy using the terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end-labelling (TUNEL) assay and Topro-3 nuclear dye. Embryos were scored for TUNEL-positive as a percentage of total nuclei. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression and adiponectin expression were analysed by western immunoblot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy. Lipid accumulation was assayed by BODIPY. Comparisons were made between TallyHO morulae cultured to blastocyst embryos in either HTF medium or HTF medium with 25 μg mL(-1) metformin. TallyHO mice developed whole body abnormal insulin tolerance, had decreased litter sizes and increased non-esterified fatty acid levels. Blastocysts from TallyHO mice exhibited increased apoptosis, decreased insulin sensitivity and decreased AMPK. A possible cause for the insulin resistance and abnormal AMPK phosphorylation was the increased TNF-α expression and lipid accumulation, as detected by BODIPY, in TallyHO blastocysts and decreased adiponectin. Culturing TallyHO morulae with the AMPK activator metformin led to a reversal of all the abnormal findings, including increased AMPK phosphorylation, improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and normalisation of lipid accumulation. Women with obesity and

  18. E-cadherin promotes incorporation of mouse epiblast stem cells into normal development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ohtsuka

    Full Text Available Mouse epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs are pluripotent stem cells derived from epiblasts of postimplantation mouse embryos. Their pluripotency is distinct from that of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs in several cell biological criteria. One of the distinctions is that mEpiSCs contribute either not at all or at much lower efficiency to chimeric embryos after blastocyst injection compared to mESCs. However, here we showed that mEpiSCs can be incorporated into normal development after blastocyst injection by forced expression of the E-cadherin transgene for 2 days in culture. Using this strategy, mEpiSCs gave rise to live-born chimeras from 5% of the manipulated blastocysts. There were no obvious signs of reprogramming of mEpiSCs toward the mESC-like state during the 2 days after induction of the E-cadherin transgene, suggesting that mEpiSCs possess latent ability to integrate into the normal developmental process as its origin, epiblasts.

  19. Human Endometrial CD98 Is Essential for Blastocyst Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Francisco; Simón, Carlos; Quiñonero, Alicia; Ramírez, Miguel Ángel; González-Muñoz, Elena; Burghardt, Hans; Cervero, Ana; Martínez, Sebastián; Pellicer, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2010-01-01

    Background Understanding the molecular basis of embryonic implantation is of great clinical and biological relevance. Little is currently known about the adhesion receptors that determine endometrial receptivity for embryonic implantation in humans. Methods and Principal Findings Using two human endometrial cell lines characterized by low and high receptivity, we identified the membrane receptor CD98 as a novel molecule selectively and significantly associated with the receptive phenotype. In human endometrial samples, CD98 was the only molecule studied whose expression was restricted to the implantation window in human endometrial tissue. CD98 expression was restricted to the apical surface and included in tetraspanin-enriched microdomains of primary endometrial epithelial cells, as demonstrated by the biochemical association between CD98 and tetraspanin CD9. CD98 expression was induced in vitro by treatment of primary endometrial epithelial cells with human chorionic gonadotropin, 17-β-estradiol, LIF or EGF. Endometrial overexpression of CD98 or tetraspanin CD9 greatly enhanced mouse blastocyst adhesion, while their siRNA-mediated depletion reduced the blastocyst adhesion rate. Conclusions These results indicate that CD98, a component of tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, appears to be an important determinant of human endometrial receptivity during the implantation window. PMID:20976164

  20. Toxicity testing of human assisted reproduction devices using the mouse embryo assay.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt-Van der Zalm, J.P.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Teerenstra, S.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Systems to assess the toxicity of materials used in human assisted reproduction currently lack efficiency and/or sufficient discriminatory power. The development of 1-cell CBA/B6 F1 hybrid mouse embryos to blastocysts, expressed as blastocyst rate (BR), is used to measure toxicity. The embryos were

  1. De novo formation of nucleoli in developing mouse embryos originating from enucleolated zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Fulka, Josef; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Miyano, Takashi

    2014-06-01

    The large, compact oocyte nucleoli, sometimes referred to as nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs), are essential for embryonic development in mammals; in their absence, the oocytes complete maturation and can be fertilized, but no nucleoli are formed in the zygote or embryo, leading to developmental failure. It has been convincingly documented that zygotes inherit the oocyte nucleolar material and form NPBs again in pronuclei. It is commonly accepted that during early embryonic development, the original compact zygote NPBs gradually transform into reticulated nucleoli of somatic cells. Here, we show that zygote NPBs are not required for embryonic and full-term development in the mouse. When NPBs were removed from late-stage zygotes by micromanipulation, the enucleolated zygotes developed to the blastocyst stage and, after transfer to recipients, live pups were obtained. We also describe de novo formation of nucleoli in developing embryos. After removal of NPBs from zygotes, they formed new nucleoli after several divisions. These results indicate that the zygote NPBs are not used in embryonic development and that the nucleoli in developing embryos originate from de novo synthesized materials. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Eight-Shaped Hatching Increases the Risk of Inner Cell Mass Splitting in Extended Mouse Embryo Culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Yan

    Full Text Available Increased risk of monozygotic twinning (MZT has been shown to be associated with assisted reproduction techniques, particularly blastocyst culture. Interestingly, inner cell mass (ICM splitting in human '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts that resulted in MZT was reported. However, the underlying cause of MZT is not known. In this study, we investigated in a mouse model whether in vitro culture leads to ICM splitting and its association with hatching types. Blastocyst hatching was observed in: (i in vivo developed blastocysts and (ii-iii in vitro cultured blastocysts following in vivo or in vitro fertilization. We found that '8'-shaped hatching occurred with significantly higher frequency in the two groups of in vitro cultured blastocysts than in the group of in vivo developed blastocysts (24.4% and 20.4% versus 0.8%, respectively; n = 805, P < 0.01. Moreover, Oct4 immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify the ICM in the hatching and hatched blastocysts. Scattered and split distribution of ICM cells was observed around the small zona opening of '8'-shaped hatching blastocysts. This occurred at a high frequency in the in vitro cultured groups. Furthermore, we found more double OCT4-positive masses, suggestive of increased ICM splitting in '8'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts than in 'U'-shaped hatching and hatched blastocysts (12.5% versus 1.9%, respectively; n = 838, P < 0.01. Therefore, our results demonstrate that extended in vitro culture can cause high frequencies of '8'-shaped hatching, and '8'-shaped hatching that may disturb ICM herniation leading to increased risk of ICM splitting in mouse blastocysts. These results may provide insights into the increased risk of human MZT after in vitro fertilization and blastocyst transfer.

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Human Blastocoel Fluid and Blastocyst Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnert Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen

    The human blastocyst consists of 100-200 cells that are organized in an outer layer of differentiated trophectoderm (TE) cells lining the blastocyst cavity into which the undifferentiated inner cell mass (ICM) protrudes. The cavity of the blastocyst is filled with blastocoel fluid to which all...... the cells of the blastocyst are exposed. The ICM is the starting point for the development of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which posses the potential to develop into any cell type present in the adult human body [1,2]. This ability makes hESCs a potential source of cells...

  4. Ochratoxin A Inhibits Mouse Embryonic Development by Activating a Mitochondrion-Dependent Apoptotic Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Der Hsuuw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA, a mycotoxin found in many foods worldwide, causes nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and immunotoxicity, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we explored the cytotoxic effects exerted by OTA on the blastocyst stage of mouse embryos, on subsequent embryonic attachment, on outgrowth in vitro, and following in vivo implantation via embryo transfer. Mouse blastocysts were incubated with or without OTA (1, 5, or 10 μM for 24 h. Cell proliferation and growth were investigated using dual differential staining; apoptosis was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay; and embryo implantation and post-implantation development were assessed by examination of in vitro growth and the outcome of in vivo embryo transfer, respectively. Blastocysts treated with 10 μM OTA displayed a significantly increased level of apoptosis and a reduction in total cell number. Interestingly, we observed no marked difference in implantation success rate between OTA-pretreated and control blastocysts either during in vitro embryonic development (following implantation in a fibronectin-coated culture dish or after in vivo embryo transfer. However, in vitro treatment with 10 μM OTA was associated with increased resorption of post-implantation embryos by the mouse uterus, and decreased fetal weight upon embryo transfer. Our results collectively indicate that in vitro exposure to OTA triggers apoptosis and retards early post-implantation development after transfer of embryos to host mice. In addition, OTA induces apoptosis-mediated injury of mouse blastocysts, via reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, and promotes mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling processes that impair subsequent embryonic development.

  5. A close look at the mammalian blastocyst: epiblast and primitive endoderm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artus, Jérôme; Chazaud, Claire

    2014-09-01

    During early development, the mammalian embryo undergoes a series of profound changes that lead to the formation of two extraembryonic tissues--the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm. These tissues encapsulate the pluripotent epiblast at the time of implantation. The current model proposes that the formation of these lineages results from two consecutive binary cell fate decisions. The first controls the formation of the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass, and the second controls the formation of the primitive endoderm and the epiblast within the inner cell mass. While early mammalian embryos develop with extensive plasticity, the embryonic pattern prior to implantation is remarkably reproducible. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms driving the cell fate decision between primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse embryo and integrate data from recent studies into the current model of the molecular network regulating the segregation between these lineages and their subsequent differentiation.

  6. Rabbit blastocysts accumulate [3H]prostaglandins in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.A.; Harper, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rabbit blastocysts obtained on days 5, 6, and 6.8 of pregnancy were incubated in vitro in Tyrode's buffer with 3 H-labeled prostaglandins (PGs). Accumulation of PGs was studied, using Whatman GF/F filters to separate bound and free ligands. The uptake and efflux of [ 3 H]PGs were studied as a function of PG type, incubation time, temperature, and effect of metabolic inhibitors as well as age and number of blastocysts. Blastocysts of the same age accumulated approximately the same amount of [ 3 H]PGE2 and [ 3 H]PGF2 alpha from their environment; however, there was no apparent saturation over a PG concentration range of 1-1000 nM. Both the uptake and efflux of PG were age dependent, with older blastocysts accumulating more PGs. Approximately 90% of the [ 3 H]PGs appear to be transported into the blastocoelic fluid, with little PG remaining in the blastomeres. PG accumulation was relatively insensitive to azide, ouabain, cyanide, or bromcresol green, but was affected by incubation at 0 C or the addition of indomethacin (10 micrograms/ml). No catabolism of the accumulated PGs was observed. The release of PGE2 in general did not differ from that of PGF2 alpha, except on day 6.8 of pregnancy when PGE2 was released more rapidly than on day 6. The authors conclude that rabbit blastocysts can accumulate PGs from their environment, which may imply a storage potential in the blastocyst and release before implantation

  7. Physiology and culture of the human blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, David K; Lane, Michelle; Schoolcraft, William B

    2002-01-01

    The human embryo undergoes many changes in physiology during the first 4 days of life as it develops and differentiates from a fertilized oocyte to the blastocyst stage. Concomitantly, the embryo is exposed to gradients of nutrients within the female reproductive tract and exhibits changes in its own nutrient requirements and utilization. Determining the nature of such nutrient gradients in the female tract and the changing requirements of the embryo has facilitated the formulation of stage-specific culture media designed to support embryo development throughout the preimplantation period. Resultant implantation rates attained with the culture and transfer of human blastocysts are higher than those associated with the transfer of cleavage stage embryos to the uterus. Such increases in implantation rates have facilitated the establishment of high pregnancy rates while reducing the number of embryos transferred. With the introduction of new scoring systems for the blastocyst and the non-invasive assessment of metabolic activity of individual embryos, it should be possible to move to single blastocyst transfer for the majority of patients.

  8. Contribution of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Chimeras through Injection and Coculture of Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jitong; Wu, Baojiang; Li, Shuyu; Bao, Siqin; Zhao, Lixia; Hu, Shuxiang; Sun, Wei; Su, Jie; Dai, Yanfeng; Li, Xihe

    2014-01-01

    Blastocyst injection and morula aggregation are commonly used to evaluate stem cell pluripotency based on chimeric contribution of the stem cells. To assess the protocols for generating chimeras from stem cells, 8-cell mouse embryos were either injected or cocultured with mouse embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, respectively. Although a significantly higher chimera rate resulted from blastocyst injection, the highest germline contribution resulted from injection of 8-cel...

  9. Effect of Culture System on Developmental Competence, Cryosurvival and DNA-Fragmentation of In Vitro Bovine Blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study investigated the effect of two in vitro embryo culture systems (co-culturesystem versus cell-free sequential-media on developmental competence, cryosurvival and DNAfragmentationof in vitro developed bovine blastocysts.Materials and Methods: Bovine presumptive zygotes were cultured in Ménézo's B2 (B2 plusvero-cells or sequential synthetic oviductal fluid (SOF for eight days. Subsequently, half of theexpanded blastocysts developed in both groups were vitrified, warmed within 30 minutes and postwarmingembryos along with their corresponding non-vitrified embryos were cultured for twoadditional days in the same medium used before vitrification. Embryo development, cryosurvivaland apoptosis were compared between the groups.Results: For non-vitrified embryos, culture in SOF significantly promoted the potency of embryosto develop into blastocysts compared with the co-culture system. The difference in post vitrificationsurvival rate of SOF blastocysts (83.3% was insignificant compared with co-culture (84.3%.However, while total cell number of warmed blastocysts in the co-culture system was significantlyhigher in the co-culture versus the sequential system (215.4 vs. 170.4, the quality of survived embryosin terms of hatching ability and apoptosis was adversely affected by co-culture compared with SOF(65.0% vs. 74.3%, and 13.5% vs. 10.0%, respectively; p<0.05.Conclusion: Although co-culture system may increase the viability of embryos followingcryopreservation, the potency and dynamics of blastocyst formation significantly increased withsequential media compared to the co-culture system which can compensate for the lower efficiency ofsequential media for vitrification/warming purposes.

  10. Cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrkasheva, Anastasiya G; Dolgushina, Nataliya V; Romanov, Andrey Yu; Burmenskaya, Olga V; Makarova, Nataliya P; Ibragimova, Espet O; Kalinina, Elena A; Sukhikh, Gennady T

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to identify cell and genetic predictors of human blastocyst hatching success in assisted reproduction programmes via a prospective case-control study. Blastocysts, donated by couples in assisted reproduction programmes were used. Hatching success assessment was performed after 144-146 h post-fertilization. The mRNA expression levels of cathepsin V (CTSV), GATA-binding protein 3 (GATA3) and human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit 3, 5, 7 and 8 (CGB) genes were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The odds ratio (OR) of hatching due to zona pellucida (ZP) thickness, oocyte and sperm quality, embryo quality and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes in blastocysts was determined. From 62 blastocysts included in the study, 47 (75.8%) were unable to hatch spontaneously. The ZP thickening, and oocyte and sperm quality did not affect human blastocyst ability to hatch, except the combination of cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic oocyte dysmorphisms (OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 1.45). Hatching-capable blastocysts had higher Gardner scale grade and mRNA expression of CTSV, GATA3 and CGB genes than hatching-incapable blastocysts. The human blastocyst hatching success depends on the blastocyst Gardner grade, but not on ZP and gamete quality. Blastocyst development was regulated by CTSV, GATA3 and CGB gene expression.

  11. H2O2-induced mild stress in relation with in vitro ovine oocyte developmental competence: implications for blastocyst apoptosis and related genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikdel, K; Aminafshar, M; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, A; EmamJomeh-Kashan, N; Seyedjafari, E

    2017-05-20

    In this study, in vitro maturation was performed in presence of various concentrations (0, 10, 100, or 1000 µM) of H2O2. The intracellular glutathione (GSH) level, fertilization, cleavage, and blastocyst rates, total cell number, and apoptotic cell number and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes in blastocyst-stage embryos were studied. At 10 μM H2O2 concentration, a higher GSH level was detected in comparison to the other groups while oocytes exposed to 1000 μM H2O2 had the lowest GSH level. Treatment of oocytes with 1000 μM H2O2 decreased the rate of two pronuclei formation as compared with other groups. A higher rate of blastocyst formation was seen in 100 μM H2O2 group as compared with the control group. However, exogenous H2O2 in maturation medium did not affect total cell numbers and apoptotic cell ratio at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, mRNA transcript abundance of Bax, Bcl-2, and p53 genes was similar between blastocysts derived from H2O2-induced oocytes and control blastocysts. Treatment of oocytes with H2O2 at mild level during in vitro maturation had a positive effect on GSH level and this, in turn, may lead to improvement in preimplantation embryonic development.

  12. Proteomic analysis of human blastocoel fluid and blastocyst cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille; Beck, Hans Christian; Petersen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the blastocyst and can differentiate into any cell type in the human body. These cells hold a great potential for regenerative medicine, but to obtain enough cells needed for medical treatment, culture is required......, the blastocoel fluid, which is in contact with all the cells in the blastocyst, including hESCs. Fifty-three surplus human blastocysts were donated after informed consent, and blastocoel fluid was isolated by micromanipulation. Using highly sensitive nano-high-pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass...... from the ICM of the human blastocyst are exposed to via the blastocoel fluid. These results can be an inspiration for the development of improved culture conditions for hESCs....

  13. Blastocyst Morphology Holds Clues Concerning The Chromosomal Status of The Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia Savio Figueira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Embryo morphology has been proposed as an alternative marker of chromosomal status. The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the association between the chromosomal status on day 3 of embryo development and blastocyst morphology. Materials and Methods: A total of 596 embryos obtained from 106 cycles of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI followed by preimplantation genetic aneuploidy screening (PGS were included in this retrospective study. We evaluated the relationship between blastocyst morphological features and embryonic chromosomal alteration. Results: Of the 564 embryos with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH results, 200 reached the blastocyst stage on day 5 of development. There was a significantly higher proportion of euploid embryos in those that achieved the blastocyst stage (59.0% compared to embryos that did not develop to blastocysts (41.2% on day 5 (P<0.001. Regarding blastocyst morphology, we observed that all embryos that had an abnormal inner cell mass (ICM were aneuploid. Embryos with morphologically normal ICM had a significantly higher euploidy rate (62.1%, P<0.001. As regards to the trophectoderm (TE morphology, an increased rate of euploidy was observed in embryos that had normal TE (65.8% compared to embryos with abnormal TE (37.5%, P<0.001. Finally, we observed a two-fold increase in the euploidy rate in high-quality blastocysts with both high-quality ICM and TE (70.4% compared to that found in low-quality blastocysts (31.0%, P<0.001. Conclusion: Chromosomal abnormalities do not impair embryo development as aneuploidy is frequently observed in embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. A high-quality blastocyst does not represent euploidy of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 22, X and Y. However, aneuploidy is associated with abnormalities in the ICM morphology. Further studies are necessary to confirm whether or not the transfer of blastocysts with low-quality ICM should be

  14. Ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake in mouse eggs and preimplantation conceptuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, L.J.; Campione, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    The results of histochemical and immunocytochemical studies have been used elsewhere to support the hypothesis that Na+/K(+)-ATPase expression is initiated or increases dramatically in preimplantation mouse conceptuses just before they begin to cavitate. Moreover, localization of the enzyme in the inner membrane of the mural trophoblast is thought to be involved directly in formation and maintenance of the blastocyst cavity. Presumably, Na+/K(+)-ATPase extrudes the cation, Na+, and therefore water into the cavity. The cation transporting activity of the enzyme can be determined by measuring ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake by cells. Therefore, we measured Rb+ uptake in mouse eggs and preimplantation conceptuses at various stages of development. 86Rb+ uptake by conceptuses increased linearly with time for at least 60 min in medium containing 0.7 mM total Rb+ plus K+ in the absence or presence of 1.0 mM ouabain, and ouabain inhibited more than 70% of 86Rb+ uptake. The ouabain concentration at 1/2 of maximum inhibition of the ouabain-sensitive component of 86Rb+ uptake was about 10-20 microM in eggs and conceptuses at all stages of preimplantation development. Moreover, ouabain-sensitive Rb+ uptake had a twofold higher Vmax value in blastocysts than in eggs or conceptuses at earlier stages of development (i.e., approximately 173 vs 70-100 fmole.conceptus-1.min-1), although the total cell surface area also was probably about two times greater in blastocysts than in eggs or other conceptuses. Ouabain-sensitive Rb+ transport in eggs and conceptuses may have occurred via a single ouabain-sensitive Rb+ transporter with a Hill coefficient of 1.5-1.8 (Hill plots). When it was assumed that the Hill coefficient had a value of 2.0, however, eggs and conceptuses appeared to contain at least two forms of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity

  15. Super cool X-1000 and Super cool Z-1000, two ice blockers, and their effect on vitrification/warming of mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badrzadeh, H; Najmabadi, S; Paymani, R; Macaso, T; Azadbadi, Z; Ahmady, A

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the survival and blastocyst formation rates of mouse embryos after vitrification/thaw process with different ice blocker media. We used X-1000 and Z-1000 separately and mixed using V-Kim, a closed vitrification system. Mouse embryos were vitrified using ethylene glycol based medium supplemented with Super cool X-1000 and/or Super cool Z-1000. Survival rates for the control, Super cool X-1000, Super cool Z-1000, and Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 groups were 74%, 72%, 68%, and 85% respectively, with no significant difference among experimental and control groups; however, a significantly higher survival rate was noticed in the Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 group when compared with the Super cool Z-1000 group. Blastocyst formation rates for the control, Super cool X-1000, Super cool Z-1000, and Super cool X-1000/Z-1000 groups were 71%, 66%, 65%, and 72% respectively. There was no significant difference in this rate among control and experimental groups. In a closed vitrification system, addition of ice blocker Super cool X-1000 to the vitrification solution containing Super cool Z-1000 may improve the embryo survival rate. We recommend combined ice blocker usage to optimize the vitrification outcome. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditional deletion of Msx homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2011-12-13

    An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Short-Term Hypergravity Treatment on Mouse 2-Cell Embryo Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li-Na; Lei, Xiao-Hua; Cao, Yu-Jing; Zhang, Yun-Fang; Cao, Zhong-Hong; Chen, Qi; Duan, En-Kui

    2015-11-01

    Though there are numerous biological experiments, which have been performed in a space environment, to study the physiological effect of space travel on living organisms, while the potential effect of weightlessness or short-term hypergravity on the reproductive system in most species, particularly in mammalian is still controversial and unclear. In our previous study, we investigated the effect of space microgravity on the development of mouse 4-cell embryos by using Chinese SJ-8. .Unexpectedly, we did not get any developed embryo during the space-flight. Considering that the process of space experiment is quite different from most experiments done on earth in several aspects such as, the vibration and short-term hypergravity during the rock launching and landing. Thus we want to know whether the short-term hypergravity produced by the launch process affect the early embryo development in mice, and howthe early embryos respond to the hypergravity. In present study, we are mimicking the short-term hypergravity during launch by using a centrifuge to investigate its influence on the development of early embryo (2-cell) in mice. We also examined the actin filament distribution in 2-cell embryos by immunostaining to test their potential capacity of development under short-term hypergravity exposure. Our results showed that most 2-cell embryos in the hypergravity exposure groups developed into blastocysts with normal morphology after 72h cultured in vitro, and there is no obvious difference in the development rate of blastocyst formation compared to the control. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences in birth rates after oviduct transfer of 2-cell mouse embryos exposed on short-term hypergravity compared with 1 g condition. In addition, the well-organized actin distribution appeared in 2-cell embryos after exposed on hypergravity and also in the subsequent developmental blastocysts. Taken together, our data shows that short-term exposure in

  18. the production of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells ... cells into the cavity of the blastocyst, it will be possible to test the effect of .... to the use of efficient immunosuppressive drugs like cyclosporin – was ...

  19. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Mullerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, E Scott

    2011-12-02

    Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79) and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+\\/- SD) age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45) yrs, and mean (+\\/- SD) terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +\\/- 4056 pmol\\/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65) was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44) was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61), suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol\\/l; p = 0.029). Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  20. Functional analysis of lysosomes during mouse preimplantation embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Yuki; Wada, Ayako; Ishida, Yuka; Kito, Seiji; Nishikawa, Tetsu; Minami, Naojiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic and highly dynamic organelles that are essential for macromolecule degradation and many other cellular functions. However, little is known about lysosomal function during early embryogenesis. Here, we found that the number of lysosomes increased after fertilization. Lysosomes were abundant during mouse preimplantation development until the morula stage, but their numbers decreased slightly in blastocysts. Consistently, the protein expression level of mature cathepsins B and D was high from the one-cell to morula stages but low in the blastocyst stage. One-cell embryos injected with siRNAs targeted to both lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 and 2 (LAMP1 and LAMP2) were developmentally arrested at the two-cell stage. Pharmacological inhibition of lysosomes also caused developmental retardation, resulting in accumulation of lipofuscin. Our findings highlight the functional changes in lysosomes in mouse preimplantation embryos.

  1. Technique of the `in vitro` fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation; Tecnica de fertilizacao `in vitro` e cultura de embrioes de camundongo durante a pre-implantacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamada, Takeshi [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1993-03-01

    The mammal embryo is an intensive cellular proliferating system, very radiosensitive and therefore adequate to the study of the biological effects of ionizing radiation. The technique of the in vitro fertilization and the culture of mouse embryos at preimplantation period, modified by Yamada et al (1982) to improve the efficiency of more than 95% of blastocyst formation is described. (author) 2 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Effect of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI on Mouse Embryos Preimplantational Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cârstea

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the in vitro culture (IVC of preimplantation embryos is associated with changes in gene expression. It is however, not known if the method of fertilization affects the global pattern of gene expression. We compared the development of mouse blastocysts produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI versus blastocysts fertilized in vivo and cultured in vitro from the zygote stage (IVC. At the end of cultivation (96 hrs for blastocyst stage embryos, expanded blastocysts of each group were randomly selected, and ICM and total cells number were differentially stained. The total cell number of blastocysts was estimated by counting the total number of nuclei using DAPI staining. Cell number for inner cell mass (ICM was estimated by counting the OCT4 (POU5FL positive cells. Digitally recombined, composite images were analyzed using the Zeiss Axion Vision software and Zeiss Apotome. All 5–10 optical sections were divided using a standard grid over each layer to count all. Comparing the total cells and the ICM cells number, it appears that each method of fertilization has a unique pattern development. The developmental rate and the total cell number of the blastocyst were significantly lower in ICSI versus in vivo fertilized embryos which affect the embryonic developmental rate and the total cell number of blastocysts.

  3. 309 proteomic analysis of the blastocoel fluid and remaining cells of bovine blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P L; Groendahl, M L; Beck, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are derived from the human blastocyst and possess the potential to differentiate into any cell type present in the adult human body. Human ESC are considered to have great potential in regenerative medicine for the future treatment of severe diseases and conditions...... such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. One of today's challenges in regenerative medicine is to define proper culture conditions for hESC. The natural milieu in the blastocyst may provide clues on how to improve culture conditions, and the aim of the present study was to determine...... the proteome of the blastocoel fluid and the remaining cells of bovine blastocysts. Bovine blastocysts were produced by in vitro fertilization of oocytes retrieved from slaughterhouse ovaries. The blastocoel from 195 blastocysts (1-8nL per blastocyst) were isolated by micromanipulation and analysed by nano...

  4. Bivariate analysis of basal serum anti-Müllerian hormone measurements and human blastocyst development after IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sills E Scott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report on relationships among baseline serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH measurements, blastocyst development and other selected embryology parameters observed in non-donor oocyte IVF cycles. Methods Pre-treatment AMH was measured in patients undergoing IVF (n = 79 and retrospectively correlated to in vitro embryo development noted during culture. Results Mean (+/- SD age for study patients in this study group was 36.3 ± 4.0 (range = 28-45 yrs, and mean (+/- SD terminal serum estradiol during IVF was 5929 +/- 4056 pmol/l. A moderate positive correlation (0.49; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.65 was noted between basal serum AMH and number of MII oocytes retrieved. Similarly, a moderate positive correlation (0.44 was observed between serum AMH and number of early cleavage-stage embryos (95% CI 0.24 to 0.61, suggesting a relationship between serum AMH and embryo development in IVF. Of note, serum AMH levels at baseline were significantly different for patients who did and did not undergo blastocyst transfer (15.6 vs. 10.9 pmol/l; p = 0.029. Conclusions While serum AMH has found increasing application as a predictor of ovarian reserve for patients prior to IVF, its roles to estimate in vitro embryo morphology and potential to advance to blastocyst stage have not been extensively investigated. These data suggest that baseline serum AMH determinations can help forecast blastocyst developmental during IVF. Serum AMH measured before treatment may assist patients, clinicians and embryologists as scheduling of embryo transfer is outlined. Additional studies are needed to confirm these correlations and to better define the role of baseline serum AMH level in the prediction of blastocyst formation.

  5. Infertility diagnosis has a significant impact on the transcriptome of developing blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallie, Blair R; Parks, Jason C; Griffin, Darren K; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2017-08-01

    Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)? The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis. Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development. Blastocysts created during infertility treatment from patients with specific infertility diagnoses (PCO, MF and UE) were analyzed for global transcriptome compared to fertile donor oocyte blastocysts (control). Surplus cryopreserved blastocysts were donated with patient consent and institutional review board approval. Female patients were infertility diagnosis: PCO (n = 50), MF (n = 50), UE (n = 50) and fertile donor oocyte controls (n = 50). Pooled blastocysts were lysed for RNA isolation followed by microarray analysis using the SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray. Validation was performed on significant genes of interest using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Transcription alterations were observed for all infertility etiologies compared to controls, resulting in differentially expressed genes: PCO = 869, MF = 348 and UE = 473 (P 2-fold). Functional annotation of biological and molecular processes revealed both similarities, as well as differences, across the infertility groups. All infertility etiologies displayed transcriptome alterations in signal transducer activity, receptor binding, reproduction, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. Blastocysts from PCO patients were also enriched for apoptotic genes while MF blastocysts displayed enrichment for genes involved in cancer processes. Blastocysts from couples with unexplained infertility displayed transcription alterations related to various disease states

  6. Blastocyst culture using single versus sequential media in clinical IVF: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Martins, Wellington P; Nastri, Carolina O; Viana, Iara G R; Navarro, Paula A; Raine-Fenning, Nick; van der Poel, Sheryl; Rienzi, Laura; Racowsky, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to undertake a review of the available evidence comparing the use of a single medium versus sequential media for embryo culture to the blastocyst stage in clinical IVF. We searched the Cochrane Central, PubMed, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to identify randomized controlled trials comparing single versus sequential media for blastocyst culture and ongoing pregnancy rate. Included studies randomized either oocytes/zygotes or women. Eligible oocyte/zygote studies were analyzed to assess the risk difference (RD) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) between the two media systems; eligible woman-based studies were analyzed to assess the risk ratio (RR) and 95 % CI for clinical pregnancy rate. No differences were observed between single and sequential media for either ongoing pregnancy per randomized woman (relative risk (RR) = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.7 to 1.3, two studies including 246 women, I 2  = 0 %) or clinical pregnancy per randomized woman (RR = 1.0, 95 % CI = 0.7 to 1.4, one study including 100 women); or miscarriage per clinical pregnancy: RR = 1.3, 95 % CI = 0.4 to 4.3, two studies including 246 participants, I 2  = 0 %). Single media use was associated with an increase blastocyst formation per randomized oocyte/zygote (relative distribution (RD) = +0.06, 95 % CI = +0.01 to +0.12, ten studies including 7455 oocytes/zygotes, I 2  = 83 %) but not top/high blastocyst formation (RD = +0.05, 95 % CI = -0.01 to +0.11, five studies including 3879 oocytes/zygotes, I 2  = 93 %). The overall quality of the evidence was very low for all these four outcomes. Although using a single medium for extended culture has some practical advantages and blastocyst formation rates appear to be higher, there is insufficient evidence to recommend either sequential or single-step media as being superior for the culture of

  7. Blastocyst utilization rates after continuous culture in two commercial single-step media: a prospective randomized study with sibling oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Lainas, George T; Venetis, Christos A; Petsas, George K; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether blastocyst utilization rates are different after continuous culture in two different commercial single-step media. This is a paired randomized controlled trial with sibling oocytes conducted in infertility patients, aged ≤40 years with ≥10 oocytes retrieved assigned to blastocyst culture and transfer. Retrieved oocytes were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (Origio) or Continuous Single Culture (CSC) medium (Irvine Scientific) without medium renewal up to day 5 post oocyte retrieval. Main outcome measure was the proportion of embryos suitable for clinical use (utilization rate). A total of 502 oocytes from 33 women were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (n = 250) or CSC medium (n = 252). Fertilization was performed by either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfers were performed on day 5. Two patients had all blastocysts frozen due to the occurrence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertilization and cleavage rates, as well as embryo quality on day 3, were similar in the two media. Blastocyst utilization rates (%, 95% CI) [55.4% (46.4-64.1) vs 54.7% (44.9-64.6), p = 0.717], blastocyst formation rates [53.6% (44.6-62.5) vs 51.9 (42.2-61.6), p = 0.755], and proportion of good quality blastocysts [36.8% (28.1-45.4) vs 36.1% (27.2-45.0), p = 0.850] were similar in Sage one-step and CSC media, respectively. Continuous culture of embryos in Sage one-step and CSC media is associated with similar blastocyst development and utilization rates. Both single-step media appear to provide adequate support during in vitro preimplantation embryo development. Whether these observations are also valid for other continuous single medium protocols remains to be determined. NCT02302638.

  8. Vitrification of bovine matured oocytes and blastocysts in a paper container.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ashit Kumar; Liang, Yuanyuan; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Nagai, Takashi; Parnpai, Rangsun

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed to determine the applicability of a paper container for the vitrification of in vitro matured (IVM) bovine oocytes. In experiment 1, IVM oocytes were exposed to vitrification solution (20% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 20% ethylene glycol (EG), and 5 mol/L sucrose), using a two-step method, for 30 s; loaded onto either a paper container or Cryotop; and stored in liquid nitrogen. No significant difference (P container and Cryotop. In experiment 2, IVM oocytes were exposed to either a two- or three-step vitrification solution. The three-step vitrification solution was not significantly different from the two-step solution in terms of oocyte survival, cleavage and blastocyst rates. In experiment 3, in vitro produced blastocysts were graded according to the manual of the International Embryo Transfer Society (grades 1 and 2) and vitrified using the two- and three-step methods. For grade 2 blastocysts, the three-step method showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) survival and hatched blastocyst rates than the two-step method, whereas for grade 1 blastocysts, no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, the paper device and three-step technique are suitable for oocytes and embryo vitrification. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Inverted light-sheet microscope for imaging mouse pre-implantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Petr; Gunther, Stefan; Reichmann, Judith; Krzic, Uros; Balazs, Balint; de Medeiros, Gustavo; Norlin, Nils; Hiiragi, Takashi; Hufnagel, Lars; Ellenberg, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Despite its importance for understanding human infertility and congenital diseases, early mammalian development has remained inaccessible to in toto imaging. We developed an inverted light-sheet microscope that enabled us to image mouse embryos from zygote to blastocyst, computationally track all cells and reconstruct a complete lineage tree of mouse pre-implantation development. We used this unique data set to show that the first cell fate specification occurs at the 16-cell stage.

  10. Analysis of embryo morphokinetics, multinucleation and cleavage anomalies using continuous time-lapse monitoring in blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nina; Ploskonka, Stephanie; Goodman, Linnea R; Austin, Cynthia; Goldberg, Jeffrey; Falcone, Tommaso

    2014-06-20

    Time-lapse imaging combined with embryo morphokinetics may offer a non-invasive means for improving embryo selection. Data from clinics worldwide are necessary to compare and ultimately develop embryo classifications models using kinetic data. The primary objective of this study was to determine if there were kinetic differences between embryos with limited potential and those more often associated with in vitro blastocyst formation and/or implantation. We also wanted to compare putative kinetic markers for embryo selection as proposed by other laboratories to what we were observing in our own laboratory setting. Kinetic data and cycle outcomes were retrospectively analyzed in patients age 39 and younger with 7 or more zygotes cultured in the Embryoscope. Timing of specific events from the point of insemination were determined using time-lapse (TL) imaging. The following kinetic markers were assessed: time to syngamy (tPNf), t2, time to two cells (c), 3c (t3), 4c ( t4), 5c (t5), 8c (t8), morula (tMor), start of blastulation (tSB); tBL, blastocyst (tBL); expanded blastocyst (tEBL). Durations of the second (cc2) and third (cc3) cell cycles, the t5-t2 interval as well as time to complete synchronous divisions s1, s2 and s3 were calculated. Incidence and impact on development of nuclear and cleavage anomalies were also assessed. A total of 648 embryos transferred on day 5 were analyzed. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were 72% and 50%, respectively. Morphokinetic data showed that tPNf, t2,t4, t8, s1, s2,s3 and cc2 were significantly different in embryos forming blastocysts (ET or frozen) versus those with limited potential either failing to blastulate or else forming poor quality blastocysts ,ultimately discarded. Comparison of embryo kinetics in cycles with all embryos implanting (KID+) versus no implantation (KID-) suggested that markers of embryo competence to implant may be different from ability to form a blastocyst. The incidence of multinucleation

  11. Accumulation of RNA in blastocysts during embryonic diapause and the periimplantation period in the western spotted skunk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, R.A.; Rourke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The in vivo incorporation of 3 H-uridine into RNA was studied in delayed implanting and activated blastocysts obtained from 33 western spotted skunks. 3 H-uridine was incorporated into RNA by all blastocysts; however, significantly more label was incorporated as blastocyst diameter increased. Activated blastocysts with diameters of 1.6 mm or greater on average incorporated 65 times more 3 H-precursor in 5 hr than diapausing blastocysts with diameters of 1.1 mm or less. Polyadenylated RNA was likewise synthesized by delayed implanting and activated skunk blastocysts; however, the proportion of polyadenylated RNA synthesized by the former was greater than in the latter. The data suggest that the transition from embryonic diapause to fully activated blastocysts first occurs gradually for several days before entering a 1-2-day period of rapid development characterized by an abrupt increase in RNA accumulation

  12. Application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis in equine blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grady ST

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD is a procedure used to screen in vitroproduced embryos or embryos recovered after uterine flush to determine genetic traits by DNA testing prior to transfer into the uterus. Biopsy methods to obtain a sample of cells for genetic analysis before implantation have been successful in small embryos (morulae and blastocysts 300 µm diameter. The successful biopsy of expanded equine blastocysts via micromanipulation, with subsequent normal pregnancy rates, was first reported in 2010. Direct PCR may be performed when evaluating only one gene, such as for embryo sexing, while whole genome amplification is effective for subsequent multiplex PCR of multiple genes.

  13. Vitrified/warmed single blastocyst transfer in preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Li, Rong; Lian, Ying; Chen, Lixue; Shi, Xiaodan; Qiao, Jie; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the single blastocyst transfer in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) cycles. 80 PGD/PGS cycles undergoing blastocyst biopsy were studied. There were 88 warming cycles during the study period. Only one warmed blastocyst was transferred per cycle. The outcomes were followed up to the infants were born. The embryo implantation rate was 54.55% (48/88). The clinical pregnancy rate was 54.55% (48/88) per transfer cycle and 60% (48/80) per initial PGD/PGS cycle. There was no multi-pregnant in this study. The live birth rate was 42.05% (37/88) per transfer cycle and 46.25% (37/80) per initial PGD/PGS cycle. In PGD/PGS cycles, single blastocyst transfer reduces the multiple pregnancy rate without affecting the clinical outcomes.

  14. Vitamin K2 improves developmental competency and cryo-tolerance of in vitro derived ovine blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefid, Fatemeh; Ostadhosseini, S; Hosseini, S M; Ghazvini Zadegan, F; Pezhman, M; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin K2 (VK2), acts as an electron carrier in mitochondria and thereby effects reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP production. This study evaluates role of VK2 on in vitro developmental competency and cryo-survival of pre-implantation ovine embryos. Initially the optimal and beneficial concentration of VK2 on compaction and blastocyst formation rates was defined (0.1 μM). Subsequently, it was shown that 0.1 μM VK2, at blastocyst stage, reduces H2O2 production, increase the expression of mitochondrial related gene and improved embryos quality. We further assessed presence VK2 supplementation before and/or after vitrification of in vitro derived blastocysts. Our results reveal that presence of VK2 before and after vitrification improves rates of blastocysts re-expansion (88.19± 3.37% vs 73.68± 1.86%, P < 0.05) and hatching (49.55± 4.37% vs 32.7± 3.32%) compared to control group. These observation were consistent with reduction in H2O2 production and improved in expression of mitochondrial related genes. However, VK2 before or after vitrification, not only had no positive effect on these two parameters, but also significantly reduced these parameters. Therefore, in concordance with pervious report in bovine, we show that VK2 supplementation post genomic activation (Day 3-7) improved developmental competency of ovine in vitro derived embryos. We also showed that presence of VK2 after vitrification improves the cryo-survival of ovine embryos. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, L; Fernández, S; López, T

    1976-12-01

    Cell membrane and cell junctions in differentiation of preimplanted mouse embryos, (membrana celular y uniones celulares en la diferenciación del embrión de ratón antes de la implantación). Arch. Biol. Med. Exper. 10: 130-134, 1976. The development of cell junctions that seal the peripheral blastomeres could be a decisive step in the differentiation of morulae into blastocysts. The appearance of these junctions is studied by electron microscopy of late morulae and initial blastocysts. Zonulae occludentes as well as impermeability to lanthanum emulsion precedes the appearance of the blastocel and hence might be considered as one of its necessary causes.

  16. Blastocyst morphology, actin cytoskeleton quality and chromosome content are correlated with embryo quality in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, C.; Kidson, A.; Schoevers, E.J.; Daemen, A.J.J.M.; Tharasanit, T.; Kuijk, E.W.; Hazeleger, W.; Ducro-Steverink, D.W.B.; Colenbrander, B.; Roelen, B.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Embryo survival rates obtained after transfer of in vitro produced porcine blastocysts are very poor. This is probably related to poor quality of the embryos. The aim of the present study was to determine markers for good quality blastocysts. Therefore, we tried to link blastocyst morphology to

  17. Single blastocyst transfer: The key to reduce multiple pregnancy rates without compromising the live birth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Sundhararaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Historically, to achieve higher pregnancy rates, multiple embryos were transferred after an in-vitro fertilisation (IVF. However, this practice is being reassessed, because it leads to multiple pregnancies that is known to cause adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Aim: To compare the pregnancy outcomes in fresh IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles among women undergoing elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT vs. those undergoing double blastocyst transfer (DBT. Settings and Design: It is a retrospective data analysis of 582 patients undergoing fresh IVF/ICSI cycles performed from January 2012 to June 2015. Materials and Methods: Patients, who underwent IVF/ICSI and developed more than one blastocyst, were included in the study. Donor cycles were excluded from the study. All the embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in sequential media followed by transfer of two blastocysts (DBT or eSBT and cryopreservation of the remaining. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using chi square test. Results: Out of 582 patients, in 149 patients one blastocyst was transferred and in 433 patients two blastocysts were transferred. There was no statistical difference in the biochemical pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate in both the groups. Statistics demonstrated a significant drop in miscarriage rate in eSBT group. There was no incidence of twins in eSBT group, whereas twin birth rate per clinical pregnancy was 29.02% in DBT group. Conclusion: Single blastocyst transfer is an effective method to reduce the risk of multiple births without compromising the pregnancy outcomes. Given the promising potential of vitrification; the remaining blastocyst can be cryopreserved.

  18. Embryonic stem cells derived from in vivo or in vitro-generated murine blastocysts display similar transcriptome and differentiation potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodel K Simbulan

    Full Text Available The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART such as in vitro fertilization (IVF has resulted in the birth of more than 5 million children. While children conceived by these technologies are generally healthy, there is conflicting evidence suggesting an increase in adult-onset complications like glucose intolerance and high blood pressure in IVF children. Animal models indicate similar potential risks. It remains unclear what molecular mechanisms may be operating during in vitro culture to predispose the embryo to these diseases. One of the limitations faced by investigators is the paucity of the material in the preimplantation embryo to test for molecular analysis. To address this problem, we generated mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC from blastocysts conceived after natural mating (mESCFB or after IVF, using optimal (KSOM + 5% O2; mESCKAA and suboptimal (Whitten's Medium, + 20% O2, mESCWM conditions. All three groups of embryos showed similar behavior during both derivation and differentiation into their respective mESC lines. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of microarray data showed that blastocyst culture does not affect the transcriptome of derived mESCs. Transcriptomic changes previously observed in the inner cell mass (ICM of embryos derived in the same conditions were not present in mESCs, regardless of method of conception or culture medium, suggesting that mESC do not fully maintain a memory of the events occurring prior to their derivation. We conclude that the fertilization method or culture media used to generate blastocysts does not affect differentiation potential, morphology and transcriptome of mESCs.

  19. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  20. Clinical outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst and cleavage-stage embryo transfers in ethnic Chinese ART patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Guo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study sought to evaluate the outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers in patients undergoing ART treatment within an ethnic Chinese population. Study design We compared the clinical results of embryo transfer on the 3rd (cleavage stage or 5th (blastocyst stage day after oocyte retrieval, including clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates and multiple pregnancy rates. Results Our data showed that blastocyst transfer on day 5 did not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate (41.07% vs 47.08%, p>0.05 and implantation rate (31.8% vs 31.2%, p>0.05 in patients under 35 years of age, in comparison with day 3 cleavage stage embryo transfer. In patients older than 35 years of age, the clinical pregnancy rate after blastocyst transfer was slightly decreased compared with cleavage stage embryo transfer (33.33% vs 42.31%, p>0.05. Unexpectedly, It was found that vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer resulted in significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (56.8% and implantation rate (47% compared with fresh blastocyst transfer in controlled stimulation cycles (41.07% and 31.8%, respectively. For patients under 35 years of age, the cumulative clinical pregnancy rate combining fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles were significantly higher compared to just cleavage-stage embryo transfer (70.1% versus 51.8%, p Conclusions In an ethnic Chinese patient population, fresh blastocyst transfer does not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate. However, subsequent vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a non-controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle dramatically improves clinical outcomes. Therefore, blastocyst culture in tandem with vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer is recommended as a favourable and promising protocol in human ART treatment, particularly for ethnic Chinese patients.

  1. Clinical outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst and cleavage-stage embryo transfers in ethnic Chinese ART patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Guo Qing; Cao, Shan Ren; Wu, Xun; Zhang, Jun Qiang; Cui, Ji; Heng, Boon Chin; Ling, Xiu Feng

    2012-10-05

    This study sought to evaluate the outcome of fresh and vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage and blastocyst-stage embryo transfers in patients undergoing ART treatment within an ethnic Chinese population. We compared the clinical results of embryo transfer on the 3rd (cleavage stage) or 5th (blastocyst stage) day after oocyte retrieval, including clinical pregnancy rates, implantation rates and multiple pregnancy rates. Our data showed that blastocyst transfer on day 5 did not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate (41.07% vs 47.08%, p>0.05) and implantation rate (31.8% vs 31.2%, p>0.05) in patients under 35 years of age, in comparison with day 3 cleavage stage embryo transfer. In patients older than 35 years of age, the clinical pregnancy rate after blastocyst transfer was slightly decreased compared with cleavage stage embryo transfer (33.33% vs 42.31%, p>0.05). Unexpectedly, It was found that vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer resulted in significantly higher clinical pregnancy rate (56.8%) and implantation rate (47%) compared with fresh blastocyst transfer in controlled stimulation cycles (41.07% and 31.8%, respectively). For patients under 35 years of age, the cumulative clinical pregnancy rate combining fresh and vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles were significantly higher compared to just cleavage-stage embryo transfer (70.1% versus 51.8%, p<0.05). However, the cumulative multiple pregnancy rates showed no significant difference between the two groups. In an ethnic Chinese patient population, fresh blastocyst transfer does not significantly increase clinical pregnancy rate. However, subsequent vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer in a non-controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycle dramatically improves clinical outcomes. Therefore, blastocyst culture in tandem with vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer is recommended as a favourable and promising protocol in human ART treatment, particularly for ethnic Chinese patients.

  2. Effect of organically bound tritium (OBT) on pre-implantation mouse embryos in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Ohyama, Harumi

    1989-01-01

    Effect of organically bound tritium (OBT), such as tritiated thymidine and tritium-labeled amino acids, on mouse preimplantation embryos was examined in vitro. Mouse zygotes fertilized in vitro (BC3F 1 eggs x ICR sperm) were cultured in the media containing OBT in various concentrations up to the blastocyst stage. The LD 50 in terms of tritium concentrations in the culture medium were determined by measuring tritium concentrations in the medium to inhibit 50 % of embryos to form blastocyst in vitro. Tritium activities in the embryos were measured at various times during culture of embryos at LD 50 concentration in order to estimate absorbed radiation dose in embryonic cells. The LD 50 values obtained indicate that OBT could inhibit the embryonic development 1000 times more effectively that tritiated water (HTO). However, differences in LD 50 values in terms of absorbed radiation dose between OBT and HTO is not so essential, and might be explained by localized spatial distribution of OBT within the cell. (author)

  3. Superoxide dismutase and taurine supplementation improves in vitro blastocyst yield from poor-quality feline oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochota, Małgorzata; Pasieka, Anna; Niżański, Wojciech

    2016-03-15

    Blastocyst production in vitro seems to be crucial part of assisted reproduction techniques in feline species. However, the results of cats' oocyte maturation and embryo development are still lower than those in other species. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and taurine during maturation or culture would improve the blastocyst yield obtained from lower grades of oocytes, that are usually discarded, as not suitable for further in vitro purposes. To investigate the effect of antioxidants' addition, the good- and poor-quality oocytes, were cultured with the addition of 10-mmol taurine and 600 UI/mL SOD. The nuclear maturity, embryo development, and blastocyst quality were subsequently assessed. In control group, without antioxidant supplementation, significantly less poor-quality oocytes matured (42% vs. 62%) and more degenerated (35% vs. 20%), comparing to the experimental group supplemented with SOD and taurine. The amount of obtained blastocyst was much higher, when poor quality oocytes were supplemented with SOD and taurine (supplementation to IVM-4%; supplementation to IVC-5.5%; supplementation to IVM and IVC-5.9% of blastocyst), comparing to not supplemented control group (1.3%). The best blastocysts were obtained when poor oocytes had antioxidants added only during embryo culture (185 ± 13.4 blastomeres vs. 100 ± 1.5 in control). In the present study, we reported that the lower grades of oocytes can better mature and form significantly more blastocysts with better quality, when cultured with addition of SOD and taurine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Are there ethnic differences in pregnancy rates in African-American versus white women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csokmay, John M; Hill, Micah J; Maguire, Marcy; Payson, Mark D; Fujimoto, Victor Y; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer pregnancy rates (PR) are lower in African-American compared with white women. Retrospective review of frozen blastocyst cycles. University-based assisted reproductive technology (ART) program. All patients who underwent a frozen blastocyst transfer between 2003 and 2008. None. Live birth rate. One hundred sixty-nine patients underwent transfer of a frozen-thawed blastocyst. African-American women had a higher incidence of leiomyoma (40% vs. 10%) and tubal and uterine factor infertility. There was no difference in the live birth rate for African-American patients (28.0%) compared with white patients (30.2%). Of the patients who underwent a frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer, 58% (n=98) had their fresh, autologous IVF cycle, which produced the cryopreserved blastocyst, at Walter Reed Medical Center. A higher peak serum E2 level was noted in African-American patients (5,355 pg/mL) compared with white patients (4,541 pg/mL). During the fresh cycle, the live birth rates between African-American and white patients were significantly different at 16.7% versus 39.7%, respectively. Live birth rates after frozen blastocyst transfer are not different between African-American and white women despite a fourfold higher incidence of leiomyomas in African-American women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Clinical outcomes after IVF or ICSI using human blastocysts derived from oocytes containing aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoi, Fumiaki; Asano, Yukiko; Shimizu, Masashi; Nagai, Rika; Saitou, Kanako; Honnma, Hiroyuki; Murata, Yasutaka

    2017-04-01

    In this study the clinical and neo-natal outcomes after transfer of blastocysts derived from oocytes containing aggregates of smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) were compared between IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Clinical and neo-natal outcomes of blastocysts in cycles with at least one SER metaphase II oocyte (SER + MII; SER + cycles) did not significantly differ between the two insemination methods. When SER + MII were cultured to day 5/6, fertilization, embryo cleavage and blastocyst rates were not significantly different between IVF and ICSI cycles. In vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles, the clinical pregnancy rates from SER + MII in IVF and ICSI did not significantly differ. In this study, 52 blastocysts (27 IVF and 25 ICSI) derived from SER + MII were transferred, yielding 15 newborns (5 IVF and 10 ICSI) and no malformations. Moreover, 300 blastocysts (175 IVF and 125 ICSI) derived from SER-MII were transferred, yielding 55 newborns (24 IVF and 31 ICSI cycles). Thus, blastocysts derived from SER + cycles exhibited an acceptable ongoing pregnancy rate after IVF (n = 125) or ICSI (n = 117) cycles. In conclusion, blastocysts from SER + MII in both IVF and ICSI cycles yield adequate ongoing pregnancy rates with neo-natal outcomes that do not differ from SER-MII. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interacttions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A; tin-Ley, U; Ravn, V

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  7. The antiprogesterone Org 31710 inhibits human blastocyst-endometrial interactions in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid; Bentin-Ley, Ursula; Ravn, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the anti-P Org 31710 on human blastocyst attachment to cultured endometrial epithelial cells. DESIGN: Experimental in vitro study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENT(S): Eleven fertile endometrial donors. INTERVENTION(S): Timed endometrial biopsy for cell...... statistical significance. The presence of swollen microvilli, precursors of endometrial pinopodes, was significantly reduced on cultures with Org 31710 (P=.03). CONCLUSION(S): The study presents a model for human blastocyst-endometrial interactions responding to an anti-P drug. The exact mechanism...

  8. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd...

  9. Toxicity of various combinations of X-rays, caffeine, and mercury in mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W-U. (Universitaetklinikum Essen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Medizinische Strahlenbiologie)

    1989-09-01

    Preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro were exposed to various doses of X-rays (0.25-2 Gy) and to different concentrations of two chemicals: caffeine (0.5-2 mM) and mercury (0.5-5 mum). X-irradiation was given first, followed immediately by exposure to the chemicals. The effects of the agents, applied either singly or in combination to two or of three, were studied using morphological, proliferative and cytogenetic endpoints (formation of blastocysts, hatching, trophoblast outgrowth, formation of inner cell mass, cell numbers, micro-nucleus frequency). The term 'enhancement in risk' was used whenever the effects observed after combined exposure (two or three agents) significantly exceeded the sum of the effects due to the component individual agents. The enhancement in risk observed after exposure to the three agents could be explained by the interactions already detected at the level of a combined exposure to only two agents. There was no increase in risk specific for the presence of all three agents. (author).

  10. Quality of porcine blastocysts produced in vitro in the presence of absence of GH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidson, A.; Rubio-Pomar, F.J.; Knegsel, van A.; Tol, van H.T.A.; Hazeleger, W.; Ducro-Steverink, D.W.B.; Colenbrander, B.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    GH receptor (GHR) mRNA is expressed in bovine in vitro produced embryos up to the blastocyst stage and GH improves the quality of bovine embryos by increasing blastocyst cell numbers and reducing the incidence of apoptosis as evaluated by DNA strand-break labelling. Porcine in vitro produced

  11. Male gender explains increased birthweight in children born after transfer of blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaartinen, N M; Kananen, K M; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A; Tomás, C M; Huhtala, H Sa; Tinkanen, H I

    2015-10-01

    Does extended embryo culture have a different effect on the birthweight of girls and boys? The mean birthweight of boys born after fresh and frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer was increased compared with those born after cleavage stage embryo transfer. This effect was not detected among girls. Previous studies indicate that newborns from frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryos may present with a higher weight than newborns from fresh embryo transfers. With regard to fresh embryos, newborns after a blastocyst transfer have been reported as having higher birthweights than newborns from cleavage stage embryos. Retrospective multicentre case-control cohort study. All IVF/ICSI treatments were performed in the time-period from January 2008 to March 2014. Birthweight of singletons born at full-term (≥37 weeks), after fresh or frozen blastocyst embryo transfers (n = 277), were compared with weights of children born after fresh or frozen cleavage stage embryo transfers (Day 2-3) (n = 277). The cases and controls were matched by delivery week, and by gender. Data of IVF/ICSI treatments, and the treatments' outcomes were collected and analysed. The birthweight after a fresh blastocyst transfer was significantly higher (mean 3530.6 g) than that after a transfer of cleavage stage embryos (mean 3418.8 g; weight difference 111.8 g, P = 0.047). The weights of newborns after frozen-thawed blastocyst transfers (mean 3647.5 g) and the frozen-thawed cleavage stage embryo transfers (mean 3650.9 g), were similar (weight difference 3.4 g, P = 0.95). The boys born after transfer of frozen-thawed blastocysts had a significantly higher birthweight (mean 3767.9 g) than girls (3525.2 g; weight difference 242.7 g, P = 0.002), whereas the difference of birthweights between genders was only 13.5 g in cleavage stage (P = 0.863). The same effect was seen after fresh blastocyst transfers (weight difference 211.5 g, P = 0.011), but not after fresh Day 2-3 embryo transfers (weight difference 53.6 g, P

  12. Inner cell mass incarceration in 8-shaped blastocysts does not increase monozygotic twinning in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin-Wei; Zhang, Shuo-Ping; Lu, Chang-Fu; Gong, Fei; Tan, Yue-Qiu; Lu, Guang-Xiu; Lin, Ge

    2018-01-01

    Background The use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been reported to increase the incidence of monozygotic twinning (MZT) compared with the incidence following natural conception. It has been hypothesized that splitting of the inner cell mass (ICM) through a small zona hole may result in MZT. In this study, using a cohort of patients undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/PGS), we compared the clinical and neonatal outcomes of human 8-shaped blastocysts hatching with ICM incarceration with partially or fully hatched blastocysts, and attempted to verify whether this phenomenon increases the incidence of MZT pregnancy or negatively impact newborns. Methods This retrospective study included 2059 patients undergoing PGD/PGS between March 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. Clinical and neonatal outcomes were only collected from patients who received a single blastocyst transfer after PGD/PGS (n = 992). A 25- to 30-μm hole was made in the zona of day 3 embryos by laser. The blastocysts were biopsied and vitrified on day 6. The biopsied trophectoderm (TE) cells were analyzed using different genetic methods. One tested blastocyst was thawed and transferred to each patient in the subsequent frozen embryo transfer cycle. All the biopsied blastocysts were divided into three types: 8-shaped with ICM incarceration (type I), partially hatched without ICM incarceration (type II), and fully hatched (type III). ICM/TE grading, clinical and neonatal outcomes were compared between the groups. Results The percentage of grade A ICMs in type I blastocysts (22.2%) was comparable to that in type III blastocysts (20.1%) but higher than that in type II blastocysts (4.5%). The percentage of grade A TEs in type I blastocysts (4.2%) was comparable to that in type II (3.6%) but lower than that in type III (13.5%). There were no significant differences in clinical pregnancy, MZT pregnancy, miscarriage, live birth, MZT births, and neonatal outcomes between the

  13. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Patterns of Bovine Blastocysts Developed In Vivo from Embryos Completed Different Stages of Development In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available Early embryonic loss and altered gene expression in in vitro produced blastocysts are believed to be partly caused by aberrant DNA methylation. However, specific embryonic stage which is sensitive to in vitro culture conditions to alter the DNA methylation profile of the resulting blastocysts remained unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the stage specific effect of in vitro culture environment on the DNA methylation response of the resulting blastocysts. For this, embryos cultured in vitro until zygote (ZY, 4-cell (4C or 16-cell (16C were transferred to recipients and the blastocysts were recovery at day 7 of the estrous cycle. Another embryo group was cultured in vitro until blastocyst stage (IVP. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of ZY, 4C, 16C and IVP blastocyst groups were then determined with reference to blastocysts developed completely under in vivo condition (VO using EmbryoGENE DNA Methylation Array. To assess the contribution of methylation changes on gene expression patterns, the DNA methylation data was superimposed to the transcriptome profile data. The degree of DNA methylation dysregulation in the promoter and/or gene body regions of the resulting blastocysts was correlated with successive stages of development the embryos advanced under in vitro culture before transfer to the in vivo condition. Genomic enrichment analysis revealed that in 4C and 16C blastocyst groups, hypermethylated loci were outpacing the hypomethylated ones in intronic, exonic, promoter and proximal promoter regions, whereas the reverse was observed in ZY blastocyst group. However, in the IVP group, as much hypermethylated as hypomethylated probes were detected in gene body and promoter regions. In addition, gene ontology analysis indicated that differentially methylated regions were found to affected several biological functions including ATP binding in the ZY group, programmed cell death in the 4C, glycolysis in 16C and genetic

  14. Aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of imprinted microRNA-127 and Rtl1 in cloned mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xiangshun; Zhang Dingxiao; Ko, Yoeung-Gyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The microRNA (miRNA) genes mir-127 and mir-136 are located near two CpG islands in the imprinted mouse retrotransposon-like gene Rtl1, a key gene involved in placenta formation. These miRNAs appear to be involved in regulating the imprinting of Rtl1. To obtain insights into the epigenetic reprogramming of cloned embryos, we compared the expression levels of mir-127 and mir-136 in fertilized mouse embryos, parthenotes, androgenotes and cloned embryos developing in vitro. We also examined the DNA methylation status of the promoter regions of Rtl1 and mir-127 in these embryos. Our data showed that mir-127 and mir-136 were highly expressed in parthenotes, but rarely expressed in androgenotes. Interestingly, the expression levels of mir-127 and mir-136 in parthenotes were almost twice that seen in the fertilized embryos, but were much lower in the cloned embryos. The Rtl1 promoter region was hyper-methylated in blastocyst stage parthenotes (75.0%), moderately methylated (32.4%) in the fertilized embryos and methylated to a much lower extent (∼10%) in the cloned embryos. Conversely, the promoter region of mir-127 was hypo-methylated in parthenogenetically activated embryos (0.4%), moderately methylated (30.0%) in fertilized embryos and heavily methylated in cloned blastocysts (63-70%). These data support a role for mir-127 and mir-136 in the epigenetic reprogramming of the Rtl1 imprinting process. Analysis of the aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of mir-127 and Rtl1 in cloned embryos may help to explain the nuclear reprogramming procedures that occur in donor cells following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).

  15. Ploidy of Bovine Nuclear Transfer Blastocysts Blastomere Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, P J; VIUFF, D; THOMSEN, P D

    2000-01-01

    The higher rate of embryonic loss in nuclear transfer compared to in vitro produced embryos may be due to chromosome abnormalities that occur during preimplantation in vitro devel- opment. Because little is known about ploidy errors in nuclear transfer embryos, this was ex- amined using embryos...... cultured until day 7 at which time blastocyst nuclei were extracted and chromosome abnormalities were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization using two probes that bind to the subcentromeric regions on chromosomes 6 and 7. In 16 nuclear transfer blastocysts generated from 5 donor embryos, 53.8 6 20...... comprised mainly triploid (8.2 6 10.3 [0–26.3]: SD [range]) and tetraploid (10.6 6 19.9 [0–54.9]) nuclei with other ploidy com- binations accounting for only 0.9 6 2.1 [0–2.1]% of deviant nuclei. The proportion of com- pletely normal nuclear transfer embryos was no less than those produced by in vitro...

  16. X-linked gene transcription patterns in female and male in vivo, in vitro and cloned porcine individual blastocysts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hun Park

    Full Text Available To determine the presence of sexual dimorphic transcription and how in vitro culture environments influence X-linked gene transcription patterns in preimplantation embryos, we analyzed mRNA expression levels in in vivo-derived, in vitro-fertilized (IVF, and cloned porcine blastocysts. Our results clearly show that sex-biased expression occurred between female and male in vivo blastocysts in X-linked genes. The expression levels of XIST, G6PD, HPRT1, PGK1, and BEX1 were significantly higher in female than in male blastocysts, but ZXDA displayed higher levels in male than in female blastocysts. Although we found aberrant expression patterns for several genes in IVF and cloned blastocysts, similar sex-biased expression patterns (on average were observed between the sexes. The transcript levels of BEX1 and XIST were upregulated and PGK1 was downregulated in both IVF and cloned blastocysts compared with in vivo counterparts. Moreover, a remarkable degree of expression heterogeneity was observed among individual cloned embryos (the level of heterogeneity was similar in both sexes but only a small proportion of female IVF embryos exhibited variability, indicating that this phenomenon may be primarily caused by faulty reprogramming by the somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT process rather than in vitro conditions. Aberrant expression patterns in cloned embryos of both sexes were not ameliorated by treatment with Scriptaid as a potent HDACi, although the blastocyst rate increased remarkably after this treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that female and male porcine blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro transcriptional sexual dimorphisms in the selected X-linked genes and compensation of X-linked gene dosage may not occur at the blastocyst stage. Moreover, altered X-linked gene expression frequently occurred in porcine IVF and cloned embryos, indicating that X-linked gene regulation is susceptible to in vitro culture and the SCNT process

  17. Changes in radiosensitivity of the in vitro fertilized mouse ova during zygotic stage from fertilization to first cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Yukawa, Osami; Matsuda, Yoichi; Ohkawa, Akiko

    1982-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of mouse zygotes fertilized in vitro (BC3F 1 ovum x ICR sperm) to X-rays has been measured as a function of time from fertilization to first cleavage. The dose of X-rays (LD 50 ) required to prevent development of 50% of the zygotes to the blastocyst stage in vitro varied markedly depending on the time of irradiation from about 40 to 400 R. Sensitivity is relatively low shortly after sperm entry and becomes extremely high (LD 50 , 40 R) at the stage just before pronuclear formation (4 to 6 hr after insemination). In the later pronuclear stage (12 hr of fertilization) the sensitivity becomes low (LD 50 , about 400 R), and it increases again just before first cleavage. (author)

  18. Xenogeneic chimera-Generated by blastocyst complementation-As a potential unlimited source of recipient-tailored organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Graziano; Peloso, Andrea; Lacotte, Stéphanie; Meier, Raphael; Toso, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Blastocyst complementation refers to the injection of cells into a blastocyst. The technology allows for the creation of chimeric animals, which have the potential to be used as an unlimited source of organ donors. Pluripotent stem cells could be generated from a patient in need of a transplantation and injected into a large animal blastocyst (potentially of a pig), leading to the creation of organ(s) allowing immunosuppression-free transplantation. Various chimera combinations have already been generated, but one of the most recent steps leads to the creation of human-pig chimeras, which could be studied at an embryo stage. Although still far from clinical reality, the potential application is almost unlimited. The present review illustrates the historical steps of intra- and interspecific blastocyst complementation in rodents and large animals, specifically looking at its potential for generation of organ grafts. We also speculate on how it could change transplant indications, on its economic impact, and on the linked ethical concerns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-01-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques

  20. Aberrant behavior of mouse embryo development after blastomere biopsy as observed through time-lapse cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugajin, Tomohisa; Terada, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Hisataka; Velayo, Clarissa L; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

    2010-05-15

    To analyze whether blastomere biopsy affects early embryonal growth as observed through time-lapse cinematography. Comparative prospective study between embryos in which a blastomere was removed and embryos in which a blastomere was not removed. An experimental laboratory of the university. We calculated the time between blastocele formation and the end of hatching, the time between the start and end of hatching, the number of contractions and expansions between blastocyst formation and the end of hatching, and the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst. In blastomere removal embryos, compaction began at the six-cell stage instead of at the eight-cell stage. We also found that hatching was delayed in these embryos as compared with matched controls. Moreover, the frequency of contraction and expansion movements after blastocyst formation was significantly higher in the blastomere removal group as compared with the control group. Finally, the maximum diameter of the expanded blastocyst just before hatching was not significantly different between both groups. These findings suggested that blastomere removal has an adverse effect on embryonic development around the time of hatching. Thus, future developments in preimplantation genetic diagnosis and screening should involve further consideration and caution in light of the influence of blastomere biopsy on embryonal growth. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Min; Hu, Mei-Hong; Tong, Xian-Hong; Han, Hui; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang; He, Guo-Ping; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  2. Chronic unpredictable stress decreases expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF in mouse ovaries: relationship to oocytes developmental potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Min Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. METHODS: Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. RESULTS: Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn't affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. CONCLUSION: BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress.

  3. Melatonin promotes the in vitro development of pronuclear embryos and increases the efficiency of blastocyst implantation in murine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, XiuZhi; Zhang, Lu; Tan, DunXian; Reiter, Russel J; Liu, GuoShi

    2013-10-01

    When a defect occurs in the in vitro development of a pronuclear embryo, the interruption of the subsequent implantation limits the success of assisted conception. This common problem remains to be solved. In this study, we observed that melatonin at its physiological concentration (10(-7)  m) significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine pronuclear embryos. This was indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate, and blastocyst cell number with melatonin treatment. In addition, when these blastocysts were implanted into female recipient mice, the pregnancy rates (95.0% versus control 67.8%), litter sizes (4.1 pups/litter versus control 2.7 pups/litter), and postnatal survival rates of offspring (96.84% versus control 81.24%) were significantly improved compared with their non-melatonin-treated counterparts. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment upregulates gene expression of the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the anti-apoptotic factor bcl-2 while downregulating the expression of pro-apoptotic genes p53 and caspase-3. Due to these changes, melatonin treatment reduces ROS production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improves the quality of blastocysts. The implantation of blastocysts with higher quality leads to more healthy offspring and increased pup survival. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Experimental vitrification of human compacted morulae and early blastocysts using fine diameter plastic micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, N; Sousa, M; Silva, J; Viana, P; Sousa, S; Oliveira, C; Teixeira da Silva, J; Barros, A

    2004-02-01

    Vitrification of human blastocysts has been successfully applied using grids, straws and cryoloops. We assessed the survival rate of human compacted morulae and early blastocysts vitrified in pipette tips with a smaller inner diameter and solution volume than the previously described open pulled straw (OPS) method. Excess day 5 human embryos (n = 63) were experimentally vitrified in vessels. Embryos were incubated at 37 degrees C with sperm preparation medium (SPM) for 1 min, SPM + 7.5% ethylene glycol (EG)/dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) for 3 min, and SPM + 16.5% EG + 16.5% DMSO + 0.67 mol/l sucrose for 25 s. They were then aspirated (0.5 microl) into a plastic micropipette tip (0.36 mm inner diameter), exposed to liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) vapour for 2 min before being placed into a pre-cooled cryotube, which was then closed and plunged into LN(2). Embryos were warmed and diluted using 0.33 mol/l and 0.2 mol/l sucrose. The survival rate for compacted morulae was 73% (22/30) and 82% (27/33) for early blastocysts. The survival rates of human compacted morulae and early blastocysts after vitrification with this simple technique are similar to those reported in the literature achieved by slow cooling and other vitrification protocols.

  5. Chromosomal analysis of blastocyst derived from monopronucleated ICSI zygotes: approach by double trophectoderm biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Silvia; Vidal, Francesca; Coll, Lluc; Veiga, Anna; Boada, Montserrat

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to increase the knowledge about monopronucleated ICSI-derived blastocysts, analyzing trophectoderm biopsies by aCGH and FISH to evaluate their chromosome constitution. Fifteen monopronucleated ICSI-derived blastocysts were studied. Double trophectoderm biopsy was performed and analyzed by FISH and aCGH. The blastocysts were classified according to chromosome constitution. Disagreements between the two techniques were assessed. Results obtained after FISH and aCGH analyses showed the following: 20% (3/15) and 60% (9/15) diploid females, respectively; 26.7% (4/15) and 26.7% (4/15) diploid males, respectively; and 53.3% (8/15) and 13.3% (2/15) mosaics, respectively. No mosaic male embryos were found using FISH or aCGH. There were disagreements in 40% (6/15) of the cases due to the higher detection of mosaicism by FISH compared to aCGH. The combination of FISH and aCGH has been shown to be a suitable approach to increase the knowledge about monopronucleated ICSI-derived embryos. FISH analysis of blastocysts derived from monopronucleated ICSI zygotes enabled us to conclude that aCGH underestimates haploidy. Some diploid embryos diagnosed by aCGH are in fact mosaic. In cases where these embryos would be used for reproductive purposes, extra analysis of parental genome origin is recommended.

  6. Gene repressive mechanisms in the mouse brain involved in memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nam-Kyung; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2016-04-01

    Gene regulation in the brain is essential for long-term plasticity and memory formation. Despite this established notion, the quantitative translational map in the brain during memory formation has not been reported. To systematically probe the changes in protein synthesis during memory formation, our recent study exploited ribosome profiling using the mouse hippocampal tissues at multiple time points after a learning event. Analysis of the resulting database revealed novel types of gene regulation after learning. First, the translation of a group of genes was rapidly suppressed without change in mRNA levels. At later time points, the expression of another group of genes was downregulated through reduction in mRNA levels. This reduction was predicted to be downstream of inhibition of ESR1 (Estrogen Receptor 1) signaling. Overexpressing Nrsn1, one of the genes whose translation was suppressed, or activating ESR1 by injecting an agonist interfered with memory formation, suggesting the functional importance of these findings. Moreover, the translation of genes encoding the translational machineries was found to be suppressed, among other genes in the mouse hippocampus. Together, this unbiased approach has revealed previously unidentified characteristics of gene regulation in the brain and highlighted the importance of repressive controls. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(4): 199-200].

  7. Comparative action spectra for pyrimidine dimer formation in Cloudman S91 mouse melanoma and EMT6 mouse mammary carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, H Z [New Jersey, Medical School, Newark (USA); Setlow, R B [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1982-05-01

    Pyrimidine dimer formation in melanotic mouse melanoma cells, Cloudman S91H-, and in mouse mammary carcinoma cells, EMT6, was compared as a function of wavelength by irradiating equal numbers of cells from the two cell lines simultaneously. More dimers were formed in EMT6 than in S91H- by light of wavelengths less than 289nm, while light of higher wavelengths caused equivalent dimer formation, as measured by the Micrococcus luteus UV-endonuclease assay. The cells of S91H- are lightly melanotic, yet shielding at lower wavelengths is considerable. It is speculated that melanin pigmentation arose by selection during an evolutionary period when UV-C light reaching the earth's surface was significantly greater than it is today.

  8. Protein Expression Landscape of Mouse Embryos during Pre-implantation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Gao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-implantation embryo development is an intricate and precisely regulated process orchestrated by maternally inherited proteins and newly synthesized proteins following zygotic genome activation. Although genomic and transcriptomic studies have enriched our understanding of the genetic programs underlying this process, the protein expression landscape remains unexplored. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we identified nearly 5,000 proteins from 8,000 mouse embryos of each stage (zygote, 2-cell, 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst. We found that protein expression in zygotes, morulas, and blastocysts is distinct from 2- to 8-cell embryos. Analysis of protein phosphorylation identified critical kinases and signal transduction pathways. We highlight key factors and their important roles in embryo development. Combined analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic data reveals coordinated control of RNA degradation, transcription, and translation and identifies previously undefined exon-junction-derived peptides. Our study provides an invaluable resource for further mechanistic studies and suggests core factors regulating pre-implantation embryo development.

  9. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine Kjær; Fredsted, Palle Villesen; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  10. [Investigation of neural stem cell-derived donor contribution in the inner ear following blastocyst injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkenstein, S; Brors, D; Hansen, S; Mlynski, R; Dinger, T C; Müller, A M; Dazert, S

    2008-03-01

    Utilising the enormous proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation potentials of somatic stem cells represents a possible therapeutical strategy for diseases of non-regenerative tissues like the inner ear. In the current study, the possibility of murine neural stem cells to contribute to the developing inner ear following blastocyst injection was investigated. Fetal brain-derived neural stem cells from the embryonic day 14 cortex of male mice were isolated and expanded for four weeks in neurobasal media supplemented with bFGF and EGF. Neural stem cells of male animals were harvested, injected into blastocysts and the blastocysts were transferred into pseudo-pregnant foster animals. Each blastocyst was injected with 5-15 microspheres growing from single cell suspension from neurospheres dissociated the day before. The resulting mice were investigated six months POST PARTUM for the presence of donor cells. Brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA) was performed in six animals. To visualize donor cells Lac-Z staining was performed on sliced cochleas of two animals. In addition, the cochleas of four female animals were isolated and genomic DNA of the entire cochlea was analyzed for donor contribution by Y-chromosome-specific PCR. All animals had normal thresholds in brainstem evoked response audiometry. The male-specific PCR product indicating the presence of male donor cells were detected in the cochleas of three of the four female animals investigated. In two animals, male donor cells were detected unilateral, in one animal bilateral. The results suggest that descendants of neural stem cells are detectable in the inner ear after injection into blastocysts and possess the ability to integrate into the developing inner ear without obvious loss in hearing function.

  11. Selection of Suitable Internal Control Genes for Accurate Normalization of Real-Time Quantitative PCR Data of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Blastocysts Produced by SCNT and IVF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Tanushri Jerath; Lagah, Swati Viviyan; Sharma, Ankita; Singla, Suresh Kumar; Mukesh, Manishi; Chauhan, Manmohan Singh; Manik, Radheysham; Palta, Prabhat

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated the suitability of 10 candidate internal control genes (ICGs), belonging to different functional classes, namely ACTB, EEF1A1, GAPDH, HPRT1, HMBS, RPS15, RPS18, RPS23, SDHA, and UBC for normalizing the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data of blastocyst-stage buffalo embryos produced by hand-made cloning and in vitro fertilization (IVF). Total RNA was isolated from three pools, each of cloned and IVF blastocysts (n = 50/pool) for cDNA synthesis. Two different statistical algorithms geNorm and NormFinder were used for evaluating the stability of these genes. Based on gene stability measure (M value) and pairwise variation (V value), calculated by geNorm analysis, the most stable ICGs were RPS15, HPRT1, and ACTB for cloned blastocysts, HMBS, UBC, and HPRT1 for IVF blastocysts and RPS15, GAPDH, and HPRT1 for both the embryo types analyzed together. RPS18 was the least stable gene for both cloned and IVF blastocysts. Following NormFinder analysis, the order of stability was RPS15 = HPRT1>GAPDH for cloned blastocysts, HMBS = UBC>RPS23 for IVF blastocysts, and HPRT1>GAPDH>RPS15 for cloned and IVF blastocysts together. These results suggest that despite overlapping of the three most stable ICGs between cloned and IVF blastocysts, the panel of ICGs selected for normalization of qPCR data of cloned and IVF blastocyst-stage embryos should be different.

  12. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  13. A Simple Method for Transportation of Mouse Embryos Using Microtubes and a Warm Box.

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    Mikiko Tokoro

    Full Text Available Generally, transportation of preimplantation embryos without freezing requires incubators that can maintain an optimal culture environment with a suitable gas phase, temperature, and humidity. Such incubators are expensive to transport. We reported previously that normal offspring were obtained when the gas phase and temperature could be maintained during transportation. However, that system used plastic dishes for embryo culture and is unsuitable for long-distance transport of live embryos. Here, we developed a simple low-cost embryo transportation system. Instead of plastic dishes, several types of microtubes-usually used for molecular analysis-were tested for embryo culture. When they were washed and attached to a gas-permeable film, the rate of embryo development from the 1-cell to blastocyst stage was more than 90%. The quality of these blastocysts and the rate of full-term development after embryo transfer to recipient female mice were similar to those of a dish-cultured control group. Next, we developed a small warm box powered by a battery instead of mains power, which could maintain an optimal temperature for embryo development during transport. When 1-cell embryos derived from BDF1, C57BL/6, C3H/He and ICR mouse strains were transported by a parcel-delivery service over 3 days using microtubes and the box, they developed to blastocysts with rates similar to controls. After the embryos had been transferred into recipient female mice, healthy offspring were obtained without any losses except for the C3H/He strain. Thus, transport of mouse embryos is possible using this very simple method, which might prove useful in the field of reproductive medicine.

  14. Melatonin improves the quality of in vitro produced (IVP bovine embryos: implications for blastocyst development, cryotolerance, and modifications of relevant gene expression.

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    Feng Wang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the potential effects of melatonin on the kinetics of embryo development and quality of blastocyst during the process of in vitro bovine embryo culture. Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were fertilized after in vitro maturation. The presumed zygotes were cultured in in vitro culture medium supplemented with or without 10(-7 M melatonin. The cleavage rate, 8-cell rate and blastocyst rate were examined to identify the kinetics of embryo development. The hatched blastocyst rate, mortality rate after thawing and the relevant transcript abundance were measured to evaluate the quality of blastocyst. The results showed that melatonin significantly promoted the cleavage rate and 8-cell embryo yield of in vitro produced bovine embryo. In addition, significantly more blastocysts were observed by Day 7 of embryo culture at the presence of melatonin. These results indicated that melatonin accelerated the development of in vitro produced bovine embryos. Following vitrification at Day 7 of embryo culture, melatonin (10(-7 M significantly increased the hatched blastocyst rate from 24 h to 72 h and decreased the mortality rate from 48 h to 72 h after thawing. The presence of melatonin during the embryo culture resulted in a significant increase in the gene expressions of DNMT3A, OCC, CDH1 and decrease in that of AQP3 after thawing. In conclusion, melatonin not only promoted blastocyst yield and accelerated in vitro bovine embryo development, but also improved the quality of blastocysts which was indexed by an elevated cryotolerance and the up-regulated expressions of developmentally important genes.

  15. Numerical chromosome errors in day 7 somatic nuclear blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Paul J; Viuff, Dorthe; Tan, Shijian J

    2003-01-01

    Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona-free manipulat......Day 7 bovine somatic nuclear transfer (NT) embryos reconstructed from granulosa cells were examined for numerical chromosome aberrations as a potential cause of the high embryonic and fetal loss observed in such embryos after transfer. The NT embryos were reconstructed using a zona...... families, consisting of 112 blastocysts reconstructed from five different primary granulosa cell cultures, were examined. Overall, the mean chromosome complement within embryos was 86.9 +/- 3.7% (mean +/- SEM) diploid, 2.6 +/- 0.5% triploid, 10.0 +/- 3.1% tetraploid, and 0.5 +/- 0.2% pentaploid or greater......; the vast majority (>75%) of the abnormal nuclei were tetraploid. Completely diploid and mixoploid embryos represented 22.1 +/- 4.5% and 73.7 +/- 5.5%, respectively, of all clones. Six totally polyploid blastocysts, containing or=5N chromosome complements, respectively) between two clone families were...

  16. Next generation sequencing for preimplantation genetic testing of blastocysts aneuploidies in women of different ages

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    Krzysztof Lukaszuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current preimplantation genetic screening of aneuploidies tests are based on the low quality and low density comparative genomic hybridization arrays. The results are based on fewer than 2,700 probes. Our main outcome was the association of aneuploidy rates and the women’s age. Between August–December 2013, 198 blastocysts from women (mean age 36.3+-4.6 undergoing in vitro fertilization underwent routine trophectoderm biopsy. NGS was performed on Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies. The results were analyzed in five age groups ( 40. 85 blastocysts were normal according to NGS results. The results in the investigated groups were (% of normal blastocyst in each group: 40 (38.5%. Our study suggests that NGS PGD is applicable for routine preimplantation genetic testing. It allows also for easy customization of the procedure for each individual patient making personalized diagnostics a reality.

  17. Susceptibility of in vitro produced hatched bovine blastocysts to infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8

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    Vandaele Leen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8, which caused an epidemic in ruminants in central Western Europe in 2006 and 2007, seems to differ from other bluetongue serotypes in that it can spread transplacentally and has been associated with an increased incidence of abortion and other reproductive problems. For these reasons, and also because BTV-8 is threatening to spread to other parts of the world, there is a need for more information on the consequences of infection during pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether hatched (i.e. zona pellucida-free in vitro produced bovine blastocysts at 8-9 days post insemination are susceptible to BTV-8 and whether such infection induces cell death as indicated by apoptosis. Exposure of hatched in vitro produced bovine blastocysts for 1 h to a medium containing 103.8 or 104.9 TCID50 of the virus resulted in active viral replication in between 25 and 100% of the cells at 72 h post exposure. The infected blastocysts also showed growth arrest as evidenced by lower total cell numbers and a significant level of cellular apoptosis. We conclude from this in vitro study that some of the reproductive problems that are reported when cattle herds are infected with BTV-8 may be attributed to direct infection of blastocysts and other early-stage embryos in utero.

  18. Over-expression of CXCR4, a stemness enhancer, in human blastocysts by low level laser irradiation

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    Mohammad Hossein Tahmasbi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The key role of chemokine receptor CXCR4 in the maintenance of stemness property of stem cells has been shown recently. The low level laser irradiation (LLLI is being used currently in a wide variety of clinical cases as a therapeutic tool for wound healing, relieving pain and destroying tumor cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI mimicking low level laser therapy (LLLT on the expression level of CXCR4 gene a few hours after irradiation on human blastocysts. After the development of human embryos to the first grade blastocyst stage, they were irradiated with a low power Ga-Al-As laser at a continuous wavelength of 650 nm and a power output of 30 mW. The total RNA of the irradiated blastocysts and control groups were isolated in groups of 1x2 J/cm2, 2x2 J/cm2, 1x4 J/cm2 and 2x4 J/cm2 LLLI. Specific Real-Time PCR primers were designed to amplify all the two CXCR4 isoforms yet identified. RNA amplifications were done for all the groups. We showed for the first time that LLLI makes the human blastocysts to increase the expression level of CXCR4 a few hours after irradiation. Moreover, it was shown that two irradiation doses with one day interval can cause a significant increase in CXCR4 expression level in human blastocysts. This study revealed that LLLI could be a proliferation motivator for embryonic cell divisions through enhanced over-expression of CXCR4 level.

  19. Blastocysts production and collection in albino Syrian hamster using superovulation and intrauterine artificial insemination in non-breeding season

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    A. Amiri Divani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In vivo blastocyst production and collection using superovulation and intrauterine insemination was established in albino Syrian hamsters. Twenty female albino hamsters were injected pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG, 25 IU in non-breeding season and 48 h or 56 h later, 25 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG were injected. Both groups were divided into two subgroups of natural mating and artificial insemination. The former group was mated with a fertile male (1 male for 2 fe-males after hCG injection and in the next morning, the hamsters with vaginal plug were regarded as pregnant. In the artificial insemination group, intrauterine artificial insemination of 1×108 sperms was done 12 h after hCG injection. Blastocysts were counted at 3.5 days after mating or insemination. However, 48 h and 56 h hCG and natural mating and 48 h hCG and artificial insemination were without blastocyst; however the method of 56 h hCG and artificial insemination produced of 15±5 (mean and standard deviation blastocysts in each albino hamster in the winter.

  20. Cryostorage duration does not affect pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective single-centre cohort study of vitrified-warmed blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Satoshi; Uchiyama, Kazuo; Kuroda, Tomoko; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Ezoe, Kenji; Okimura, Tadashi; Okuno, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tamotsu; Kato, Keiichi

    2018-06-01

    A retrospective cohort study of 8736 autologous single vitrified-warmed blastocyst transfer cycles was conducted in a single centre to investigate the effect of cryostorage on clinical and neonatal outcomes. Cryostorage duration was classified into three groups: (A) 0-2 months (n = 4702); (B) 2-13 months (n = 2853) and (C) 13-97 months (n = 1181). Blastocysts were vitrified using the Cryotop method. No significant differences were observed in live birth rates: (A) 37.3%; (B) 34.9%; (C) (35.2%). Gestational period was significantly shorter in group C: (A) 38.7 ± 1.8; (B) 38.6 ± 1.6; (C) 38.1 ± 1.7; P limitation of this study was that maximum storage duration was 8 years; most blastocysts were in cryostorage for much shorter periods. Long-term storage of blastocysts that are vitrified using an open device vitrification system has no negative effect on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of retinol on the in vitro development of Bos indicus embryos to blastocysts in two different culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, P F; Oliveira, M A L; Gonçalves, P B D; Montagner, M M; Reichenbach, H-D; Weppert, M; Neto, C C C; Pina, V M R; Santos, M H B

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of retinol on the in vitro development of early embryos of cultured Bos indicus (Expt 1) to the blastocyst stage in medium simplex of optimization (KSOM) or sintetic fluid of oviduct (SOF) or co-cultured (Expt 2) with an oviduct cell monolayer (OCM) in KSOM or SOF. A total of 3149 cumulus-oocyte complexes obtained by aspirating follicles (2-5 mm diameter) from ovaries of slaughtered animals were selected for IVM and incubated in TCM 199 supplemented with 25 mM HEPES at 39 degrees C in air with 5% CO(2) and maximum humidity for 24 h. In vitro fertilization (IVF) was performed in modified defined medium (mDM) medium. Eighteen hours after IVF, cumulus cells were removed and presumptive zygotes were randomly allocated to the experimental groups. Zygotes cultured (Expt 1) in KSOM + retinol, KSOM, SOF + retinol and SOF were incubated in maximum humidity at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2), 5% O(2) and 90% N(2). Zygotes co-cultured (Expt 2) in KSOM + retinol + OCM, KSOM + OCM, SOF + retinol + OCM and SOF + OCM were incubated at 39 degrees C, 5% CO(2). In both experiments media were partially changed 48 h after IVF and unfertilized ova were removed. Afterwards embryos were kept in culture or co-culture for further 9 days. In Expt 1, blastocyst rates (day 7) were 14.6% (KSOM + retinol), 15.8% (KSOM), 16.4% (SOF + retinol) and 15.9% (SOF). In Expt 2, the blastocyst rates (day 7) were 25.4% (KSOM + retinol + OCM) 14.2% (KSOM + OCM), 24.3% (SOF + retinol + OCM) and 15.9% (SOF + OCM). The same influence profile of retinol was observed in the formation of the expanded (day 9) and hatched (day 11) blastocysts. The results obtained in Expt 2 demonstrated that the addition of 0.28 microg/ml retinol to the embryo culture media used in this study had a significant (p < 0.05) positive effect on bovine early embryonic development, under the conditions tested, and can be used to enhance in vitro embryo production.

  2. Prepubertal goat oocytes from large follicles result in similar blastocyst production and embryo ploidy than those from adult goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaguera, R; Moll, X; Morató, R; Roura, M; Palomo, M J; Catalá, M G; Jiménez-Macedo, A R; Hammami, S; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    2011-07-01

    Developmental competence of oocytes from prepubertal females is lower than those from adult females. Oocyte development competence is positively related to follicular diameter. Most of the follicles of prepubertal goat ovaries are smaller than 3 mm. The aim of this study was to compare oocytes of two follicle sizes (goats with oocytes from adult goats in relation to their in vitro production and quality of blastocysts. Oocytes from prepubertal goats were obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries and selected according to the follicle diameter whereas oocytes from adult goats were recovered in vivo by LOPU technique without prior selection of follicle size. COCs were IVM for 27 h, IVF at the conventional conditions with fresh semen and presumptive zygotes were cultured in SOF medium for 8 days. Blastocysts obtained were vitrified and after warming their blastocoele re-expansion and the ploidy by FISH technique were assessed. We found significant differences between blastocysts yield of oocytes recovered from follicles smaller than 3 mm of prepubertal goats compared to those from adult goats (5.45% vs 20. 83%, respectively) however, these differences disappear if oocytes were recovered form large follicles (18.07%). A total of 28 blastocysts were analysed and 96.43% showed mixoploidy. Age did not affect the number of embryos with abnormal ploidy or blastocyst re-expansion after warming. Furthermore, the percentage of diploid blastomeres per embryo was similar in the 3 groups studied, adult, prepubertal from follicles ≥ 3 mm and goats 45 days old were not different to the blastocysts produced from adult goats, both in terms of quantity and quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An Epigenetic Modifier Results in Improved In Vitro Blastocyst production after Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan; Villemoes, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, on development of porcine cloned embryos. Our results showed that treatment of cloned embryos derived from sow oocytes with 50 nM TSA for up to 24 h after the onset of activation cou...... were tested, and for all cell lines an enhancement in blastocyst development compared to their corresponding control was observed. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after somatic cell nuclear transfer in the pig can significantly improve the in vitro blastocyst production...

  4. Native plants ( and extracts act as antioxidants to support developmental competence of bovine blastocysts

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    Geon-Yeop Do

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective Phellodendron amurense (P. amurense and Humulus japonicus (H. japonicus are closely involved in anti-oxidative response and increasing antioxidant enzymes activities. However, the effects of their extracts on development of preimplantation bovine embryos have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of P. amurense and H. japonicus extracts on developmental competence and quality of preimplantation bovine embryos. Methods After in vitro fertilization, bovine embryos were cultured for 7 days in Charles Rosenkrans amino acid medium supplemented with P. amurense (0.01 μg/mL and H. japonicus (0.01 μg/mL. The effect of this supplementation during in vitro culture on development competence and antioxidant was investigated. Results We observed that the blastocysts rate was significantly increased (p<0.05 in P. amurense (28.9%±2.9%, H. japonicus (30.9%±1.5%, and a mixture of P. amurense and H. japonicus (34.8%± 2.1% treated groups compared with the control group (25.4%±1.6%. We next confirmed that the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were significantly decreased (p<0.01 in P. amurense and/or H. japonicus extract treated groups when compared with the control group. Our results also showed that expression of cleaved caspase-3 and apoptotic cells of blastocysts were significantly decreased (p<0.05 in bovine blastocysts derived from both P. amurense and H. japonicus extract treated embryos. Conclusion These results suggest that proper treatment with P. amurense and H. japonicus extracts in the development of preimplantation bovine embryos improves the quality of blastocysts, which may be related to the reduction of ROS level and apoptosis.

  5. Effect of Hyaluronan on Developmental Competence and Quality of Oocytes and Obtained Blastocysts from In Vitro Maturation of Bovine Oocytes

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    Jolanta Opiela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hyaluronan (HA during IVM on meiotic maturation, embryonic development, and the quality of oocytes, granulosa cells (GC, and obtained blastocysts. COCs were matured in vitro in control medium and medium with additional 0.035% or 0.07% of exogenous HA. The meiotic maturity did not differ between the analysed groups. The best rate and the highest quality of obtained blastocysts were observed when 0.07% HA was used. A highly significant difference (P<0.001 was noted in the mean number of apoptotic nuclei per blastocyst and in the DCI between the 0.07% HA and the control blastocysts (P<0.01. Our results suggest that addition of 0.035% HA and 0.07% HA to oocyte maturation media does not affect oocyte nuclear maturation and DNA fragmentation. However, the addition of 0.07% HA during IVM decreases the level of blastocysts DNA fragmentation. Finally, our results suggest that it may be risky to increase the HA concentration during IVM above 0.07% as we found significantly higher Bax mRNA expression levels in GC cultured with 0.07% HA. The final concentration of HA being supplemented to oocyte maturation media is critical for the success of the IVP procedure.

  6. Embryonic stem-like cells derived from in vitro produced bovine blastocysts

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    Erika Regina Leal de Freitas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the derivation of bovine embryonic stem-like (ES-like cells from the inner cell mass (ICM of in vitro produced blastocysts. The ICMs were mechanically isolated and six out of seventeen (35% ICMs could attach to a monolayer of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF. Ten days after, primary outgrowths were mechanically dissected into several small clumps and transferred to a new MEF layer. Cells were further propagated and passaged by physical dissociation over a 60 days period. The pluripotency of the bovine ES-like cells was confirmed by RT-PCR of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene markers. The colonies were weakly stained for alkaline phosphatase and the mesoderm and endoderm differentiation gene markers such as GATA-4 and Flk-1, respectively, were not expressed. Embryoid bodies were spontaneously formed at the seventh passage. Results showed that bovine ES-like cells could be obtained and passaged by mechanical procedures from the fresh in vitro produced blastocysts.

  7. Effect of culture medium volume and embryo density on early mouse embryonic development: tracking the development of the individual embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shan-Jun; Xu, Chang-Long; Wang, Jeffrey; Sun, Ying-Pu; Chian, Ri-Cheng

    2012-07-01

    To determine the optimal volume or density of embryos for the well-of-the-well (WOW) system in order to track the development of individual embryos and to determine whether the WOW system can reverse the negative impact of culturing embryos singly. (1) Mouse embryos (groups of nine at the 2-cell stage) were cultured in 6.25 μl, 12.50 μl, 25.00 μl and 50.00 μl of droplets of culture medium under paraffin oil; (2) Groups of three, six, nine and twelve embryos at the 2-cell stage were cultured in 50 μl of droplet of culture medium under paraffin oil; (3) Groups of nine embryos at the 2-cell stage were cultured in 50 μl of droplet under paraffin oil with or without nine micro-wells made on the bottom of the Petri dish into each of which were placed one of the nine embryos (WOW system). Also single 2-cell stage embryos was cultured individually in 5.5 μl of droplet of culture medium under paraffin oil with or without a single micro-well made on the bottom of the Petri dish (WOW system for single culture). At the end of culture, the percentages of blastocyst development, hatching and hatched blastocysts were compared in each group. The blastocysts were fixed for differential staining. The blastocyst development was significantly higher (P WOW system. The blastocyst development was not improved when single embryo cultured individually in a micro-well was compared to single embryo cultured individually without micro-well. The total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly higher in group embryo culture than single embryo culture regardless of whether the WOW system was used. In addition, the total cell numbers of blastocysts were significantly higher (P WOW system than without. Group embryo culture is superior to single embryo culture for blastocyst development. The WOW system with 50 μl of droplet of culture medium can be used to track the individual development of embryo cultured in groups while preserving good embryonic development. The reduced

  8. Psychological stress on female mice diminishes the developmental potential of oocytes: a study using the predatory stress model.

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    Yu-Xiang Liu

    Full Text Available Although the predatory stress experimental protocol is considered more psychological than the restraint protocol, it has rarely been used to study the effect of psychological stress on reproduction. Few studies exist on the direct effect of psychological stress to a female on developmental competence of her oocytes, and the direct effect of predatory maternal stress on oocytes has not been reported. In this study, a predatory stress system was first established for mice with cats as predators. Beginning 24 h after injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin, female mice were subjected to predatory stress for 24 h. Evaluation of mouse responses showed that the predatory stress system that we established increased anxiety-like behaviors and plasma cortisol concentrations significantly and continuously while not affecting food and water intake of the mice. In vitro experiments showed that whereas oocyte maturation and Sr(2+ activation or fertilization were unaffected by maternal predatory stress, rate of blastocyst formation and number of cells per blastocyst decreased significantly in stressed mice compared to non-stressed controls. In vivo embryo development indicated that both the number of blastocysts recovered per donor mouse and the average number of young per recipient after embryo transfer of blastocysts with similar cell counts were significantly lower in stressed than in unstressed donor mice. It is concluded that the predatory stress system we established was both effective and durative to induce mouse stress responses. Furthermore, predatory stress applied during the oocyte pre-maturation stage significantly impaired oocyte developmental potential while exerting no measurable impact on nuclear maturation, suggesting that cytoplasmic maturation of mouse oocytes was more vulnerable to maternal stress than nuclear maturation.

  9. Effects of a combination of X-rays and caffeine on preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.U.; Streffer, C.; Fischer-Lahdo, C.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of a combination of caffeine (0.1 mM, 1 mM, or 2 mM) and X-rays (0.24 Gy, 0.94 Gy, or 1.88 Gy) on preimplantation mouse embryos in vitro was studied under different conditions. The agents were applied either singly or in combination. The embryos were irradiated in the G 2 -phase of the two-cell stage (28 h p.c. or 32 h p.c.) either 1 h after or immediately before application of caffeine. Caffeine was present during the whole incubation period (until 144 h p.c.). The effects on the microscopic visible development (formation of blastocysts 96 h p.c., hatching of blastocysts 144 h p.c.) and on the cell numbers of embryos at different times (48 h p.c., 56 h p.c., 96 h p.c., 144 h p.c.) were determined. We found conditions under which caffeine markedly enhanced radiation risk, i.e., under which the combination effect exceeded the sum of the single effects. This is true, in particular, for the embryonal development, for which the risk may almost be doubled, whereas the enhancement of risk is not so great for the proliferation of cells. In some cases the combination results lie even outside the envelope of additivity in the range of supra-additivity. The amount of caffeine necessary for such marked effects, however, is so high (at least 1 mM caffeine for rather long times), that it is almost impossible to reach them in vivo by consumption of caffeine-containing beverages. (orig.)

  10. Modified natural cycle for embryo transfer using frozen-thawed blastocysts: A satisfactory option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quoc V; Abhari, Sina; Abuzeid, Omar M; DeAnna, Jennifer; Satti, Mohamed A; Abozaid, Tarek; Khan, Iqbal; Abuzeid, Mostafa I

    2017-06-01

    To describe pregnancy outcomes of frozen-thawed blastocysts cycles using modified natural cycle frozen embryo transfers (NC-FET) and down-regulated hormonally controlled frozen embryo transfers (HC-FET) protocols. This retrospective cohort study included all patients undergoing either modified NC-FET or down-regulated HC-FET using frozen-thawed day 5 embryos. Cycles with donor blastocysts were excluded. Four hundred twenty eight patients underwent a total of 493 FET cycles. Patients with regular menses and evidence of ovulation underwent modified NC-FET. These patients were given hCG 10,000 IU IM on the day of LH-surge. Vaginal progesterone (P4) was started two days later and blastocyst transfer was planned seven days after detecting the LH surge. Anovulatory patients and some ovulatory patients underwent down-regulated HC-FET. These patients were placed on medroxy-progesterone acetate (10mg) for 10days to bring on menses and were also given a half-dose of GnRH-agonist (GnRH-a) on the third day of medroxy-progesterone acetate. Exogenous estradiol was initiated on the third day of menses. Once serum E2 levels reached >500pg/mL and endometrial lining reached >8mm, intramuscular (IM) P4 in oil was administered. Blastocyst FET was planned 6days after initiating P4. The primary outcomes included clinical pregnancy and delivery rates. There were 197 patients in the modified NC-FET protocol and 181 in the down-regulated HC-FET protocol. Mean age (years), day-3 FSH levels (mIU/mL) and percentage of patients with male factor infertility were significantly higher and mean BMI (kg/m 2 ) was significantly lower in modified NC-FET compared to HC-FET, respectively. Analysis of the first cycle pregnancy outcomes revealed no significant differences in clinical pregnancy rate (54.3% vs. 52.5%) and delivery rate (47.2% vs. 43.6%) between modified NC-FET and HC-FET. Logistic regression analysis showed age (OR=0.939, 95% CI 0.894-0.989, p=0.011), number of blastocysts transferred (OR

  11. Effect of quercetin on the number of blastomeres, zona pellucida thickness, and hatching rate of mouse embryos exposed to actinomycin D: An experimental study

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    Hamid Reza Sameni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quercetin is a flavonoid with the ability to improve the growth of embryos in vitro, and actinomycin D is an inducer of apoptosis in embryonic cells. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of quercetin on the number of viable and apoptotic cells, the zona pellucida (ZP thickness and the hatching rate of preimplantation embryos exposed to actinomycin D in mice. Materials and Methods: Two-cell embryos were randomly divided into four groups (Control, Quercetin, actinomycin D, and Quercetin + actinomycin D group. Blastocysts percentage, hatched blastocysts, and ZP thickness of blastocysts was measured. The number of blastomeres was counted by Hoechst and propidium iodide staining and the apoptotic cells number was counted by TUNEL assay. Results: The results showed that the use of quercetin significantly improved the growth of embryos compared to the control group (p=0.037. Moreover, quercetin reduced the destructive effects of actinomycin D on the growth of embryos significantly (p=0.026. Conclusion: quercetin may protect the embryos against actinomycin D so that increases the number of viable cells and decreases the number of apoptotic cells, which can help the expansion of the blastocysts, thinning of the ZP thickness and increasing the hatching rate in mouse embryos.

  12. Enhancement of NMRI Mouse Embryo Development In vitro

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    Abedini, F.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the systematic studies used in the development of human embryo culture media have been done first on mouse embryos. The general use of NMRI outbred mice is a model for toxicology, teratology and pharmacology. NMRI mouse embryo exhibit the two-cell block in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of four kinds of culture media on the development of zygotes (NMRI after embryo vitrification. One-cell mouse embryos were obtained from NMRI mice after superovulation and mating with adult male NMRI mice. And then randomly divided into 4 groups for culture in four different cultures media including: M16 (A, DMEM/Ham, F-12 (B, DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with Vero cells(C and DMEM/Ham's F-12 co-culture with MEF cells (D. Afterward all of the embryos were vitrified in EFS40 solution and collected. Results of our study revealed, more blastocysts significantly were developed with co-culture with MEF cells in DMEM/Ham's F-12 medium. More research needed to understand the effect of other components of culture medium, and co-culture on NMRI embryo development.

  13. Essential roles of BCCIP in mouse embryonic development and structural stability of chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimei Lu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BCCIP is a BRCA2- and CDKN1A(p21-interacting protein that has been implicated in the maintenance of genomic integrity. To understand the in vivo functions of BCCIP, we generated a conditional BCCIP knockdown transgenic mouse model using Cre-LoxP mediated RNA interference. The BCCIP knockdown embryos displayed impaired cellular proliferation and apoptosis at day E7.5. Consistent with these results, the in vitro proliferation of blastocysts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs of BCCIP knockdown mice were impaired considerably. The BCCIP deficient mouse embryos die before E11.5 day. Deletion of the p53 gene could not rescue the embryonic lethality due to BCCIP deficiency, but partially rescues the growth delay of mouse embryonic fibroblasts in vitro. To further understand the cause of development and proliferation defects in BCCIP-deficient mice, MEFs were subjected to chromosome stability analysis. The BCCIP-deficient MEFs displayed significant spontaneous chromosome structural alterations associated with replication stress, including a 3.5-fold induction of chromatid breaks. Remarkably, the BCCIP-deficient MEFs had a ∼20-fold increase in sister chromatid union (SCU, yet the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE was modestly at 1.5 fold. SCU is a unique type of chromatid aberration that may give rise to chromatin bridges between daughter nuclei in anaphase. In addition, the BCCIP-deficient MEFs have reduced repair of irradiation-induced DNA damage and reductions of Rad51 protein and nuclear foci. Our data suggest a unique function of BCCIP, not only in repair of DNA damage, but also in resolving stalled replication forks and prevention of replication stress. In addition, BCCIP deficiency causes excessive spontaneous chromatin bridges via the formation of SCU, which can subsequently impair chromosome segregations in mitosis and cell division.

  14. Sperm DNA fragmentation index does not correlate with blastocyst aneuploidy or morphological grading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Gat

    Full Text Available High DNA fragmentation index (DFI may be associated with poor outcome after IVF. Our aim was to determine whether DFI impacts blastocyst quality or clinical outcome. This retrospective study included 134 couples who underwent 177 IVF-ICSI and pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS cycles during January 1st, 2014-March 31st, 2016 and had documented previous DFI. Group 1 (DFI>30% encompassed 25 couples who underwent 36 cycles; Group 2 (DFI 15-30% included 45 couples and 57 cycles; group 3 (DFI<15% included 64 couples and 83 cycles. Male partners within group 1 were older (45.1 compared to 40.6 and 38.3 years, respectively, p<0.05, had higher BMI (32.4 compared to 26.6 and 25.8 respectively, p<0.05 and lower sperm count and motility (46*106/ml and 35.5%, respectively compared to groups 2 (61.8*106/ml and 46.6%, respectively and 3 (75.8*106/ml and 55.1%, respectively, p<0.05. Female parameters including ovarian reserve and response and embryo development were similar. Total numbers of biopsied blastocysts were 116, 175 and 259 in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PGS for 24 chromosomes revealed comparable euploidy rate of 46-50.4%, with a similar morphological classification. No significant differences were found regarding pregnancy rates or pregnancy loss. It seems that DFI doesn't correlate with blastocyst aneuploidy or morphological grading.

  15. Lower blastocyst quality after conventional vs. Piezo ICSI in the horse reflects delayed sperm component remodeling and oocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, R M; Brom-de-Luna, J G; Resende, H L; Canesin, H S; Hinrichs, Katrin

    2018-04-10

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differential effects of conventional and Piezo-driven ICSI on blastocyst development, and on sperm component remodeling and oocyte activation, in an equine model. In vitro-matured equine oocytes underwent conventional (Conv) or Piezo ICSI, the latter utilizing fluorocarbon ballast. Blastocyst development was compared between treatments to validate the model. Then, oocytes were fixed at 0, 6, or 18 h after injection, and stained for the sperm tail, acrosome, oocyte cortical granules, and chromatin. These parameters were compared between injection techniques and between sham-injected and sperm-injected oocytes among time periods. Blastocyst rates were 39 and 40%. The nucleus number was lower, and the nuclear fragmentation rate was higher, in blastocysts produced by Conv. Cortical granule loss started at 0H after both sperm and sham injection. The acrosome was present at 0H in both ICSI treatments, and persisted to 18H in significantly more Conv than Piezo oocytes (72 vs. 21%). Sperm head area was unchanged at 6H in Conv but significantly increased at this time in Piezo; correspondingly, at 6H significantly more Conv than Piezo oocytes remained at MII (80 vs. 9.5%). Sham injection did not induce significant meiotic resumption. These data show that Piezo ICSI is associated with more rapid sperm component remodeling and oocyte meiotic resumption after sperm injection than is conventional ICSI, and with higher embryo quality at the blastocyst stage. This suggests that there is value in exploring the Piezo technique, utilized with a non-toxic fluorocarbon ballast, for use in clinical human ICSI.

  16. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

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    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  17. Successful application of the strategy of blastocyst biopsy, vitrification, whole genome amplification, and thawed embryo transfer for preimplantation genetic diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Lin Chen

    2011-03-01

    Conclusion: We first demonstrate successful application of blastocyst biopsy, vitrification, WGA, and thawed embryo transfer for PGD of a monogenic disease. Vitrification of blastocysts after biopsy permits sufficient time for shipment of samples and operation of molecular diagnosis.

  18. Prediction of in-vitro developmental competence of early cleavage-stage mouse embryos with compact time-lapse equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribenszky, Csaba; Losonczi, Eszter; Molnár, Miklós; Lang, Zsolt; Mátyás, Szabolcs; Rajczy, Klára; Molnár, Katalin; Kovács, Péter; Nagy, Péter; Conceicao, Jason; Vajta, Gábor

    2010-03-01

    Single blastocyst transfer is regarded as an efficient way to achieve high pregnancy rates and to avoid multiple pregnancies. Risk of cancellation of transfer due to a lack of available embryos may be reduced by early prediction of blastocyst development. Time-lapse investigation of mouse embryos shows that the time of the first and second cleavage (to the 2- and 3-cell stages, respectively) has a strong predictive value for further development in vitro, while cleavage from the 3-cell to the 4-cell stage has no predictive value. In humans, embryo fragmentation during preimplantation development has been associated with lower pregnancy rates and a higher incidence of developmental abnormalities. Analysis of time-lapse records shows that most fragmentation is reversible in the mouse and is resorbed in an average of 9 h. Daily or bi-daily microscopic checks of embryo development, applied routinely in human IVF laboratories, would fail to detect 36 or 72% of these fragmentations, respectively. Fragmentation occurring in a defined time frame has a strong predictive value for in-vitro embryo development. The practical compact system used in the present trial, based on the 'one camera per patient' principle, has eliminated the usual disadvantages of time-lapse investigations and is applicable for the routine follow-up of in-vitro embryo development. Copyright 2009 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...

  20. GHSR deficiency suppresses neointimal formation in injured mouse arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Man; Wang, Mo; Wang, Zhipeng; Liu, Yahan; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Nanping

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is involved in appetite regulation and energy homeostasis. In the present study, we examined the role of GHSR in neointimal formation following vascular injury. In the mouse model of femoral artery wire injury, we found that vessel intima-to-media ratio was significantly reduced in GHSR deficiency (GHSR −/− ) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the smooth muscle cell (SMCs) in the neointima were significantly decreased in the injured arteries of GHSR −/− mice which was associated with decreased SMC proliferation and migration. Furthermore, immunoblotting demonstrated that, in cultured rat aortic SMCs, small interfering RNA-mediated GHSR knockdown suppressed the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. These findings suggested a novel role of GHSR in neointimal formation likely via promoting the proliferation and migration of SMCs involving Akt and ERK1/2 signaling. Therefore, GHSR may be a potential therapeutic target in restenosis and vascular remodeling. - Highlights: • GHSR deficiency inhibits neointimal formation after vascular injury. • GHSR deficiency suppresses SMCs numbers in vivo. • Knockdown GHSR represses SMCs proliferation and migration in vitro. • Knockdown GHSR inhibited Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in SMCs.

  1. Female age, serum antimüllerian hormone level, and number of oocytes affect the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Greco, Pierfrancesco; Argento, Cindy; Grisendi, Valentina; Fiorentino, Francesco; Greco, Ermanno

    2017-11-01

    To study the relative role of female age and ovarian reserve, measured through serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) in determining the rate and number of euploid blastocysts in in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. Retrospective analysis of cycles performed in 2014-2015. Tertiary referral IVF center. A total of 578 infertile couples undergoing IVF/ICSI and preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) analysis. All embryos were cultured and biopsied at the blastocyst stage. The method involved whole-genome amplification followed by array comparative genome hybridization. Serum AMH was measured by means of the modified Beckman Coulter AMH Gen II assay. The rate and number of euploid blastocysts and their correlation with ovarian reserve and response to stimulation. The mean (±SD) age of patients was 37.6 ± 4.1 years, and the mean number of blastocysts per patient was 3.1 ± 2. The total number of blastocysts available to the analysis was 1,814, and 36% of them were euploid after PGS. Age and serum AMH were significantly and independently related to the rate of euploid blastocysts available for patients. As an effect of the cohort size, the number of mature oocytes positively affected the total number of euploid blastocysts per patient. A strong positive age-independent relationship between AMH level and the rate of euploid blastocysts was found. This confirms that the measurement of ovarian reserve by means of AMH has high relevance when counseling infertile patients. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated microinjection of recombinant BCL-X into mouse zygotes enhances embryo development.

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    Xinyu Liu

    Full Text Available Progression of fertilized mammalian oocytes through cleavage, blastocyst formation and implantation depends on successful implementation of the developmental program, which becomes established during oogenesis. The identification of ooplasmic factors, which are responsible for successful embryo development, is thus crucial in designing possible molecular therapies for infertility intervention. However, systematic evaluation of molecular targets has been hampered by the lack of techniques for efficient delivery of molecules into embryos. We have developed an automated robotic microinjection system for delivering cell impermeable compounds into preimplantation embryos with a high post-injection survival rate. In this paper, we report the performance of the system on microinjection of mouse embryos. Furthermore, using this system we provide the first evidence that recombinant BCL-XL (recBCL-XL protein is effective in preventing early embryo arrest imposed by suboptimal culture environment. We demonstrate that microinjection of recBCL-XL protein into early-stage embryos repairs mitochondrial bioenergetics, prevents reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation, and enhances preimplantation embryo development. This approach may lead to a possible treatment option for patients with repeated in vitro fertilization (IVF failure due to poor embryo quality.

  3. In-vitro developmental potential of individual mouse blastomeres cultured with and without zona pellucida: future implications for human assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illmensee, K; Kaskar, K; Zavos, P M

    2006-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the developmental potential of individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell mouse embryos cultured with and without zona pellucida (ZP). In the first series, one, three, five and seven blastomeres were biopsied from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos respectively, and inserted individually into empty ZP recipients, leaving the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. In the second series, the same protocol was used except that the biopsied blastomeres were cultured without ZP and compared with the remaining blastomere within its original ZP. For the first series, individual blastomeres derived from 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-cell embryos cultured with ZP showed blastocyst development of 82.4, 68.6, 44.4 and 23.1% respectively, with corresponding hatching rates of 70.6, 60.0, 25.9 and 7.7%. For the second series, individual blastomeres cultured without ZP progressed with blastocyst development of 73.3, 64.5, 35.7 and 22.7% respectively. Blastocyst multiplication was achieved most efficiently when using individual blastomeres from 4- and 6-cell embryos. This is the first report on comparative in-vitro propagation of single blastomeres derived from various cleavage stages in a mammalian species. Blastomere cloning with its multiple applications may be envisaged for human assisted reproductive technologies.

  4. Decreased Bone Formation Explains Osteoporosis in a Genetic Mouse Model of Hemochromatosiss.

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    Mathilde Doyard

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis may complicate iron overload diseases such as genetic hemochromatosis. However, molecular mechanisms involved in the iron-related osteoporosis remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies support a role of osteoblast impairment in iron-related osteoporosis. Our aim was to analyse the impact of excess iron in Hfe-/- mice on osteoblast activity and on bone microarchitecture. We studied the bone formation rate, a dynamic parameter reflecting osteoblast activity, and the bone phenotype of Hfe-/- male mice, a mouse model of human hemochromatosis, by using histomorphometry. Hfe-/- animals were sacrificed at 6 months and compared to controls. We found that bone contains excess iron associated with increased hepatic iron concentration in Hfe-/- mice. We have shown that animals with iron overload have decreased bone formation rate, suggesting a direct impact of iron excess on active osteoblasts number. For bone mass parameters, we showed that iron deposition was associated with bone loss by producing microarchitectural impairment with a decreased tendency in bone trabecular volume and trabecular number. A disorganization of trabecular network was found with marrow spaces increased, which was confirmed by enhanced trabecular separation and star volume of marrow spaces. These microarchitectural changes led to a loss of connectivity and complexity in the trabecular network, which was confirmed by decreased interconnectivity index and increased Minkowski's fractal dimension. Our results suggest for the first time in a genetic hemochromatosis mouse model, that iron overload decreases bone formation and leads to alterations in bone mass and microarchitecture. These observations support a negative effect of iron on osteoblast recruitment and/or function, which may contribute to iron-related osteoporosis.

  5. Duration of blastulation may be associated with ongoing pregnancy rate in single euploid blastocyst transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumusoglu, Sezcan; Ozbek, Irem Y; Sokmensuer, Lale K; Polat, Mehtap; Bozdag, Gurkan; Papanikolaou, Evangelos; Yarali, Hakan

    2017-12-01

    Not all euploid embryos implant, necessitating additional tools to select viable blastocysts in preimplantation genetic screening cycles. In this retrospective cohort study, 129 consecutive patients who underwent 129 single euploid blastocyst transfers in cryopreserved embryo transfer cycles were included. All embryos were individually cultured in a time-lapse incubator from intracytoplasmic sperm injection up to trophoectoderm biopsy. Twenty-three time-lapse morphokinetic variables were tested among patients with (n = 68) or without (n = 61) ongoing pregnancy. All 23 time-lapse morphokinetic variables, apart from duration of blastulation (tB-tSB), were comparable between patients with or without ongoing pregnancy. Duration of blastulation was significantly shorter in patients with ongoing pregnancy (8.1 ± 3.2 versus 9.5 ± 3.4 h; P = 0.014); shorter duration of blastulation remained an independent predictor for ongoing pregnancy, when tested by logistic regression analysis (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.93). One important limitation of this study, and a reason for caution, is the use of multiple comparisons, which can lead to differences at the 0.05 level simply by chance or random variation. Nonetheless, the study suggests that when more than one euploid blastocyst is available, priority might be given to those with a shorter duration of blastulation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stereoselective formation of a cholesterol ester conjugate from fenvalerate by mouse microsomal carboxyesterase(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, J; Kaneko, H; Takamatsu, Y

    1986-06-01

    In accordance with in vivo findings, of the four chiral isomers of fenvalerate (S-5602 Sumicidin, Pydrin, [RS]-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl [RS]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovalerate), only the [2R, alpha S]-isomer (B-isomer) yielded cholesteryl [2R]-2-(4-chlorophenyl)isovalerate (CPIA-cholesterol ester) in the in vitro study using several tissue homogenates of mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys. There were species differences in the extent of CPIA-cholesterol-ester formation, with mouse tissues showing relatively higher activity than those of other animals. The kidney, brain, and spleen of mice showed relatively higher capacities to form this ester compared to other tissues, and the enzyme activity was mainly localized in microsomal fractions. The CPIA-cholesterol ester did not seem to be produced by three known biosynthetic pathways of endogenous cholesterol esters--acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACAT), lecithin:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (LCAT), and cholesterol esterase. Carboxyesterase(s) of mouse kidney microsomes solubilized by digitonin hydrolyzed only the B alpha-isomer of fenvalerate, yielding CPIA, whereas they yielded the corresponding cholesterol ester in the presence of artificial liposomes containing cholesterol. Thus, it appears that the stereoselective formation of the CPIA-cholesterol ester results from the stereoselective formation of the CPIA-carboxyesterase complex only from the B alpha-isomer, which subsequently undergoes cleavage by cholesterol to yield the CPIA-cholesterol ester.

  7. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  8. Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi Gharenaz, Nasrin; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Mazaheri, Zohreh; Pour beiranvand, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. Objective: The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. Results: Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. Conclusion: Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage. PMID:27679826

  9. Effects of Multimodal Analgesia on the Success of Mouse Embryo Transfer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, John M.; Austin, Jamie; Wilkerson, James; Carbone, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Multimodal analgesia is promoted as the best practice pain management for invasive animal research procedures. Universal acceptance and incorporation of multimodal analgesia requires assessing potential effects on study outcome. The focus of this study was to assess effects on embryo survival after multimodal analgesia comprising an opioid and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) compared with opioid-only analgesia during embryo transfer procedures in transgenic mouse production. Mice were assigned to receive either carprofen (5 mg/kg) with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg; CB) or vehicle with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg; VB) in a prospective, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Data were analyzed in surgical sets of 1 to 3 female mice receiving embryos chimeric for a shared targeted embryonic stem-cell clone and host blastocyst cells. A total of 99 surgical sets were analyzed, comprising 199 Crl:CD1 female mice and their 996 offspring. Neither yield (pups weaned per embryo implanted in the surgical set) nor birth rate (average number of pups weaned per dam in the set) differed significantly between the CB and VB conditions. Multimodal opioid–NSAID analgesia appears to have no significant positive or negative effect on the success of producing novel lines of transgenic mice by blastocyst transfer. PMID:21838973

  10. Cloning, characterization and targeting of the mouse HEXA gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakamatsu, N.; Trasler, J.M.; Gravel, R.A. [McGill Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The HEXA gene, encoding the {alpha} subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A, is essential for the metabolism of ganglioside G{sub M2}, and defects in this gene cause Tay-Sachs disease in humans. To elucidate the role of the gene in the nervous system of the mouse and to establish a mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, we have cloned and characterized the HEXA gene and targeted a disruption of the gene in mouse ES cells. The mouse HEXA gene spans {approximately}26 kb and consists of 14 exons, similar to the human gene. A heterogeneous transcription initiation site was identified 21-42 bp 5{prime} of the initiator ATG, with two of the sites fitting the consensus CTCA (A = start) as seen for some weak initiator systems. Promoter analysis showed that the first 150 bp 5{prime} of the ATG contained 85% of promoter activity observed in constructs containing up to 1050 bp of 5{prime} sequence. The active region contained a sequence matching that of the adenovirus major late promoter upstream element factor. A survey of mouse tissues showed that the highest mRNA levels were in (max to min): testis (5.5 x brain cortex), adrenal, epididymis, heart, brain, lung, kidney, and liver (0.3 x brain cortex). A 12 kb BstI/SalI fragment containing nine exons was disrupted with the insertion of the bacterial neo{sup r} gene in exon 11 and was targeted into 129/Sv ES cells by homologous recombination. Nine of 153 G418 resistant clones were correctly targeted as confirmed by Southern blotting. The heterozygous ES cells were microinjected into mouse blastocysts and implanted into pseudo-pregnant mice. Nine male chimeric mice, showing that 40-95% chimerism for the 129/Sv agouti coat color marker, are being bred in an effort to generate germline transmission of the disrupted HEXA gene.

  11. Four simple rules that are sufficient to generate the mammalian blastocyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Silas Boye; Perera Pérez, Marta; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    requiring any initial transcriptional variation. It also suggests that a fixed time point for the cells’ competence of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal—regulated kinase (ERK) sets an embryonic clock that enables certain scaling phenomena, a concept that we evaluate quantitatively......Early mammalian development is both highly regulative and self-organizing. It involves the interplay of cell position, predetermined gene regulatory networks, and environmental interactions to generate the physical arrangement of the blastocyst with precise timing. However, this process occurs...

  12. Comparison of male chimeric mice generated from microinjection of JM8.N4 embryonic stem cells into C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NTac blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielder, Thomas J; Yi, Charles S; Masumi, Juliet; Waymire, Katrina G; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Wang, Shuling; Shi, Kai-Xuan; Wallace, Douglas C; MacGregor, Grant R

    2012-12-01

    To identify ways to improve the efficiency of generating chimeric mice via microinjection of blastocysts with ES cells, we compared production and performance of ES-cell derived chimeric mice using blastocysts from two closely related and commonly used sub-strains of C57BL/6. Chimeras were produced by injection of the same JM8.N4 (C57BL/6NTac) derived ES cell line into blastocysts of mixed sex from either C57BL/6J (B6J) or C57BL/6NTac (B6NTac) mice. Similar efficiency of production and sex-conversion of chimeric animals was observed with each strain of blastocyst. However, B6J chimeric males had fewer developmental abnormalities involving urogenital and reproductive tissues (1/12, 8%) compared with B6NTac chimeric males (7/9, 78%). The low sample size did not permit determination of statistical significance for many parameters. However, in each category analyzed the B6J-derived chimeric males performed as well, or better, than their B6NTac counterparts. Twelve of 14 (86%) B6J male chimeras were fertile compared with 6 of 11 (55%) B6NTac male chimeras. Ten of 12 (83%) B6J chimeric males sired more than 1 litter compared with only 3 of 6 (50%) B6NTac chimeras. B6J male chimeras produced more litters per productive mating (3.42 ± 1.73, n = 12) compared to B6NTac chimeras (2.17 ± 1.33, n = 6). Finally, a greater ratio of germline transmitting chimeric males was obtained using B6J blastocysts (9/14; 64%) compared with chimeras produced using B6NTac blastocysts (4/11; 36%). Use of B6J host blastocysts for microinjection of ES cells may offer improvements over blastocysts from B6NTac and possibly other sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice.

  13. The effect of hepatocyte growth factor on mouse oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent fertilization and embryo development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Bahadori

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte invitro maturation is an enormously promising technology for the treatment of infertility, yet its clinical application remains limited owing to poor success rates. Therefore, this study was devised to evaluate the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF on in vitro maturation of immature mouse oocytes and resulting embryos development. Materials and Method: Cumulus – oocyte complex and germinal vesicle were obtained from eighteen 6-8 weeks-old female NMRI mice 46-48 hours after administration of an injection of 5 IU PMSG (Pregnant Mares’ Serum Gonadotrophin. Oocytes were culture in TCM199 (Tissue culture medium-199 supplemented with dosages of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 ng/ml of HGF. After 24 hours, metaphase ІІ oocytes were co-incubated with sperms for 4-6 hours in T6 medium. Following isolation of two pronucleus embryos, cleavage of embryos was assessed in the same medium till blastocyst stage. The number of oocytes and embryos was recorded under an invert microscope and the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryos cleavage until blastocyst stage compared using of student χ2 test. Results: In all compared groups, oocytes growth and embryos development rate in the 20 ng/ml of HGF treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: 20 ng/ml of HGF improved the nuclear maturation and embryo development up to blastocyst stage during culture condition

  14. The effect of air bubble position after blastocyst transfer on pregnancy rates in IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Brooke E; Lathi, Ruth B; Henne, Melinda B; Fisher, Stephanie L; Milki, Amin A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by a single provider. Catheters were loaded with 25 μL of culture media, 20 μL of air, 25 μL of media containing the blastocysts, 20 μL of air, and a small amount of additional media. The distance from the air bubble to the fundus, as seen on abdominal ultrasound examination, was measured at the time of transfer. Air bubble location was categorized as 20 mm from the fundus. Clinical pregnancy rate. After controlling for age, parity, FSH and frozen transfers, and accounting for repeated cycles per patient, the PRs for both the >20-mm (38.3%) and the 10-20-mm (42.0%) from the fundus group were significantly reduced compared with the group in which the bubble was Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of proposed implantation marker genes CDX2 and HOXB7 in the blastocyst does not distinguish viable from non-viable human embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2012-01-01

    expression differs between viable and non-viable embryos in both human and non-humans, suggesting transcriptome analysis of trophectoderm (TE) as a novel method of improving embryo selection. Potential candidate marker genes have been identified with array studies on animal blastocysts. The aim of this study...... was to investigate the expression of selected genes in human blastocysts in relation to the outcome of implantation. Materials and methods: Embryos from 10 oatients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment were included in the project. A single blastocyst was chosen for biopsy on the morning of day 5 after oocyte...... of 15 key genes associated with developmental competence in animals were evaluated in high quality human embryos with monogenic or chromosomal disorders from a pre-implantation genetic disorder program. Triplicate cDNA amplifications for quantitative (q) RT-PCR were performed using pre-designed gene...

  16. Spindle formation in the mouse embryo requires Plk4 in the absence of centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Paula A; Bury, Leah; Sharif, Bedra; Riparbelli, Maria G; Fu, Jingyan; Callaini, Giuliano; Glover, David M; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2013-12-09

    During the first five rounds of cell division in the mouse embryo, spindles assemble in the absence of centrioles. Spindle formation initiates around chromosomes, but the microtubule nucleating process remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that Plk4, a protein kinase known as a master regulator of centriole formation, is also essential for spindle assembly in the absence of centrioles. Depletion of maternal Plk4 prevents nucleation and growth of microtubules and results in monopolar spindle formation. This leads to cytokinesis failure and, consequently, developmental arrest. We show that Plk4 function depends on its kinase activity and its partner protein, Cep152. Moreover, tethering Cep152 to cellular membranes sequesters Plk4 and is sufficient to trigger spindle assembly from ectopic membranous sites. Thus, the Plk4-Cep152 complex has an unexpected role in promoting microtubule nucleation in the vicinity of chromosomes to mediate bipolar spindle formation in the absence of centrioles. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with Xenopus egg extract and/or digitonin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan

    2012-01-01

    from Xenopus laevis eggs. In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor cells in handmade cloning (HMC). Controls were produced by HMC with non-treated donor cells....... The blastocyst rate for reconstructed embryos increased significantly when digitonin-permeabilized, extract-treated cells were used after 5 days of culture after re-sealing. In Experiment 2, fetal and adult fibroblasts were treated with digitonin alone before re-sealing the cell membranes, then cultured for 3...... cells after pre-treatment with permeabilization/re-sealing and Xenopus egg extract. Interestingly, we observe a similar increase in cloning efficiency by permeabilization/re-sealing of donor cells without extract treatment that seems to depend on choice of donor cell type. Thus, pre-treatment of donor...

  18. [Comparative study of expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the hard tissue formation of mouse tooth development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Gao, Y

    2001-07-01

    To observe and compare the expression pattern of Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the first mandibular molar of mouse and investigate the relationship between the two genes. First mandibular molar germs from 1, 3, 7 and 14-days old mouse were separated and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on the total RNA of them using Msx-1, Msx-2 specific primers separately. Expression of both genes were detected during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the mouse first mandibular molars, but there was some interesting differences in the quantitiy between the two genes. Msx-1 transcripts appeared at the 1 day postnatally, and increase through 3 day, 7 day, then maximally expressed at 14 days postnatally; while Msx-2 mRNA was seen and expressed maximally at the 3 days postnatally, then there was a gradual reduction at 7 days, and 14 days postnatally. The homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 may play a role in the events of the hard tissue formation. The complementary expression pattern of them during the specific stage of hard tissue formation indicates that there may be some functional redundancy between them during the biomineralization.

  19. Alternation of apoptotic and implanting genes expression of mouse embryos after re-vitrification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Majidi Gharenaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. Objective: The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240 were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80, vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80, vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80. Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. Results: Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03. In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004, however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003, but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. Conclusion: Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage

  20. MODELS FOR MOUSE CHIMERA PRODUCTION: AGGREGATION OF ES CELLS WITH CLEAVAGE STAGE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCA CLAUDIA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mutant ES cells↔ wild-type embryo chimera, ES cells behave more like epiblastcells. They can contribute to the primitive ectoderm layers, which give rise to all theembryonic tissues and some extraembryonic tissues (Beddington and Robertson,1989, but not to trophectoderm or primitive endoderm. Using transgenic ES celllines, aggregated with cleavage stage host embryo, ES cells can integrate randomlyin the embryo proper. If they will be take part in the formation of ICM (inner cellmass, it will be possible to obtain germline chimera animals. To generate ES cells↔ cleavage stage host embryo chimeras, we used (CD-1 mice as donors of hostembryos as well as recipients of manipulated embryos. For chimera production, weused fluorescent-labeled ES cell line (CD1/EGFP, because in this case we canfollow the fate of ES cells during the embryonic development. We produced thechimers using “aggregation chimera technique”. 8 cells stage zona pellucida free,mouse embryos were aggregated in an aggregation plates, with a clump of ES cells(10 – 15 cells. The chimera embryos were cultivated for 24 hours in the incubator(at 37 °C, 5% CO2 in air. The chimera blastocysts resulted after cultivation, weretransferred to the uterus of the 2.5-dpc pseudo pregnant females.

  1. MODELS FOR MOUSE CHIMERA PRODUCTION: AGGREGATION OF ES CELLS WITH CLEAVAGE STAGE EMBRYOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA STANCA

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a mutant ES cells↔ wild-type embryo chimera, ES cells behave more like epiblastcells. They can contribute to the primitive ectoderm layers, which give rise to all theembryonic tissues and some extraembryonic tissues (Beddington and Robertson,1989, but not to trophectoderm or primitive endoderm. Using transgenic ES celllines, aggregated with cleavage stage host embryo, ES cells can integrate randomlyin the embryo proper. If they will be take part in the formation of ICM (inner cellmass, it will be possible to obtain germline chimera animals. To generate ES cells↔ cleavage stage host embryo chimeras, we used (CD-1 mice as donors of hostembryos as well as recipients of manipulated embryos. For chimera production, weused fluorescent-labeled ES cell line (CD1/EGFP, because in this case we canfollow the fate of ES cells during the embryonic development. We produced thechimers using “aggregation chimera technique”. 8 cells stage zona pellucida free,mouse embryos were aggregated in an aggregation plates, with a clump of ES cells(10 – 15 cells. The chimera embryos were cultivated for 24 hours in the incubator(at 37 °C, 5% CO2 in air. The chimera blastocysts resulted after cultivation, weretransferred to the uterus of the 2.5-dpc pseudo pregnant females.

  2. The value of blastocyst culture on preimplantation genetic diagnosis%囊胚培养在植入前遗传学诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    偶健; 王玮; 马燕琳; 周知; 丁洁; 王馥新; 段程颖; 李林江; 郑爱燕

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the value of blastocyst culture for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).Methods Day 3 embryos were biopsied and analyzed with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique.Embryos with normal FISH results were cultured into blastocysts,and the ones with better morphology scores were transferred.Fourteen embryos with abnormal FISH results were cultured into blastocysts.Part of the cells taken from the blastocysts were amplified by whole genomic amplification (WGA) and assessed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis.Results Six blastocysts with normal FISH results were transferred in 5 cycles.Four healthy babies of 3 cycles were delivered.Another one was a singleton pregnancy but with embryo growth arrest,whose villus karyotype was normal.Fourteen embryos with abnormal FISH results were cultured into blastocysts and analyzed by array-CGH.Six blastocysts were normal by array-CGH.Conclusion FISH combined with blastocyst culture may further ensure the accuracy of PGD result.Detection at the blastocyst stage can avoid false positive results and mosaic interferences on Day 3 stage and are therefore more authentic.%目的 探讨囊胚培养在植入前遗传学诊断(preimplantation genetic diagnosis,PGD)中的应用价值.方法 受精后第3天(Day 3)行胚胎活检,进行荧光原位杂交(fluorescent in situ hybridization,FISH).对于诊断为正常的胚胎,培养到囊胚阶段后选择形态评分优良的囊胚进行移植;对于诊断为异常的胚胎,有14个培养到囊胚阶段,各取其一部分细胞用于全基因组扩增(whole genomic amplification,WGA),将扩增后的DNA用微阵列比较基因组杂交(array-based comparative genomic hybridization,arrayCGH)进行再次检测.结果 FISH诊断为正常的6个囊胚进行了5个周期的胚胎移植,3个周期成功生育了4个健康婴儿,1个周期单胎妊娠见胚囊后流产,绒毛染色体检测为正常核型.FISH诊断为异常的14

  3. In vitro fertilization outcomes after fresh and frozen blastocyst transfer in South Asian compared with Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meera Sridhar; Caballes, Marissa; Lathi, Ruth Bunker; Baker, Valerie Lynn; Westphal, Lynn Marie; Milki, Amin A

    2016-06-01

    To study pregnancy outcomes between South Asian and Caucasian women undergoing frozen blastocyst transfer cycles. Retrospective cohort study. Not applicable. Caucasian and South Asian patients undergoing frozen blastocyst transfer between January 2011 and December 2014. Not applicable. Live birth rate. A total of 196 Caucasian and 117 South Asian women were included in our study. Indians were on average 2.2 years younger than Caucasian women (34.9 vs. 37.1 years), and were more likely to be nulliparous (59% vs. 43%). All other baseline characteristics were similar. In women undergoing their first frozen ET cycle, implantation rate (49% vs. 47%), clinical pregnancy rate (PR; 54% vs. 49%), and live birth rate (43% vs. 43%) were similar between South Asians and Caucasians, respectively. In patients who underwent a prior fresh blastocyst transfer, the live birth rate was significantly lower in South Asian versus Caucasian women (21% vs. 37%). Our data demonstrate that IVF outcomes are better in frozen versus fresh cycles among South Asian women. The IVF clinics may wish to consider these findings when counseling South Asian patients about the timing of ET. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Absence of nucleolus formation in raccoon dog-porcine interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos results in embryonic developmental failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Nam, Yeong-Hee; Cheong, Seung-A; Kwak, Seong-Sung; Lee, Eunsong; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-08-25

    Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) can be a solution for preservation of endangered species that have limited oocytes. It has been reported that blastocyst production by iSCNT is successful even if the genetic distances between donors and recipients are large. In particular, domestic pig oocytes can support the development of canine to porcine iSCNT embryos. Therefore, we examined whether porcine oocytes may be suitable recipient oocytes for Korean raccoon dog iSCNT. We investigated the effects of trichostatin A (TSA) treatment on iSCNT embryo developmental patterns and nucleolus formation. Enucleated porcine oocytes were fused with raccoon dog fibroblasts by electrofusion and cleavage, and blastocyst development and nucleolus formation were evaluated. To our knowledge, this study is the first in which raccoon dog iSCNT was performed using porcine oocytes; we found that 68.5% of 158 iSCNT embryos had the ability to cleave. However, these iSCNT embryos did not develop past the 4-cell stage. Treatment with TSA did not affect iSCNT embryonic development; moreover, the nuclei failed to form nucleoli at 48 and 72 h post-activation (hpa). In contrast, pig SCNT embryos of the control group showed 18.8% and 87.9% nucleolus formation at 48 and 72 hpa, respectively. Our results demonstrated that porcine cytoplasts efficiently supported the development of raccoon dog iSCNT embryos to the 4-cell stage, the stage of porcine embryonic genome activation (EGA); however, these embryos failed to reach the blastocyst stage and showed defects in nucleolus formation.

  5. 两种助孕方式下D5、D6囊胚行冻融移植后妊娠结局的比较%Comparison of pregnancy outcome after D5 and D6 blastocysts under freeze-thawing in two kinds of ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷芹; 周平; 陈蓓丽; 章志国; 陈大蔚; 曹云霞; 魏兆莲

    2017-01-01

    目的 比较体外受精-胚胎移植(IVF-ET)与胚胎植入前遗传学诊断或胚胎植入前遗传学筛查(PGD/PGS)周期中D5、D6囊胚形成情况及妊娠结局,同时探究D5、D6囊胚的发育潜能及两种助孕方式的优劣.方法 回顾性分析行IVF-ET助孕的138个周期及PGD/PGS筛查助孕的148个周期,按移植胚胎的发育天数分为IVF-D5组、IVF-D6组、PGD/PGS-D5组和PGD/PGS-D6组,分析比较各组的一般情况、囊胚形成情况及冻融移植后的种植率、临床妊娠率、流产率等.结果 IVF-D5组与IVF-D6组相比、PGD/PGS-D5组与PGD/PGS-D6组相比,D5组囊胚形成率、优质胚胎率、种植率、临床妊娠率均高于D6组(P<0.05);PGD/PGS周期中D5组整倍体囊胚检出率高于D6组(p<0.05);IVF-D5组与PGD/PGS-D5组相比、IVF-D6组与PGD/PGS-D6组相比,两组间的囊胚形成率、优质胚胎率、种植率及临床妊娠率均差异无统计学意义.结论 两种助孕方式下冻融移植D5囊胚比D6囊胚可获得较好的临床妊娠结局;与IVF相比,PGD/PGS并未明显改善患者的妊娠结局.%Objective To compare the embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy about D5 and D6 blastocyst of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer(IVF-ET) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening(PGD/PGS) cycles,meanwhile explore the development potential of D5 and D6 blastocysts and the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods.Methods 138 cycles of in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer and 148 cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis/preimplantation genetic screening were analysed retrospectively.According to the development of transplanted embryos,the patients were divided into four groups:IVF-D5 group,IVF-D6 group,PGD/PGS-D5 group and PGD/PGS-D6 group.The general situation of each group,the formation of blastocyst and the implantation rate after freeze-thawing,clinical pregnancy rate,abortion rate were analysed.Results Compared with IVF-D6 group

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF P2-PURINOCEPTOR MEDIATED CYCLIC-AMP FORMATION IN MOUSE C2C12 MYOTUBES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HENNING, RH; DUIN, M; DENHERTOG, A; NELEMANS, A

    1 The formation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) and inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3), induced by ATP and other nucleotides was investigated in mouse C2Cl2 myotubes. 2 ATP (100 muM) and ATPgammaS (100 muM) caused a sustained increase in cyclic AMP content of the cells,

  7. PRODUCTION OF EMBBRYONIC STEM CELLS FROM INNER CELL MASS OF BLASTOCYST ISOLATED BY ENZYMATIC AND IMMUNOSURGERY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mata Hine

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is determining the ICM isolation method to produce ESC. Blastocyst stage of DDy mice embryos were used in this study. Zona pellucida of blastocysts were removed by 0.25% pronase, the ICM isolation were done by enzimatic or immunosurgery method, and then they were cultured in DMEM-high glucose supplemented with mercaptoethanol, gentamycin, fetal bovine serum, and cumulus cells as feeder layer. The result of the research indicated that immunosurgery method yielding attachment rate and number ESC colony 93.85% and 43.08%, respectively, higher (P<0.05 than enzimatic method that weree 79.63% and 18.52%, respectively, but the viability of ICM cells were equal (P >0.05 that are 93.59% in enzymatic method and 98.56% in immunosurgery method. This research concluded that immunosurgery more effective method for isolation of ICM and ESC production than enzymatic method.

  8. Nepro is localized in the nucleolus and essential for preimplantation development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Sato, Tatsuya; Muroyama, Yuko; Fujimura, Lisa; Hatano, Masahiko; Saito, Tetsuichiro

    2015-09-01

    We generated knockout (KO) mice of Nepro, which has been shown to be necessary to maintain neural progenitor cells downstream of Notch in the mouse developing neocortex by using knockdown experiments, to explore its function in embryogenesis. Nepro KO embryos were morphologically indistinguishable from wild type (WT) embryos until the morula stage but failed in blastocyst formation, and many cells of the KO embryos resulted in apoptosis. We found that Nepro was localized in the nucleolus at the blastocyst stage. The number of nucleolus precursor bodies (NPBs) and nucleoli per nucleus was significantly higher in Nepro KO embryos compared with WT embryos later than the 2-cell stage. Furthermore, at the morula stage, whereas 18S rRNA and ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), which are components of the ribosome, were distributed to the cytoplasm in WT embryos, they were mainly localized in the nucleoli in Nepro KO embryos. In addition, in Nepro KO embryos, the amount of the mitochondria-associated p53 protein increased, and Cytochrome c was distributed in the cytoplasm. These findings indicate that Nepro is a nucleolus-associated protein, and its loss leads to the apoptosis before blastocyst formation in mice. © 2015 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  9. Perkembangan Praimplantasi Embrio Mencit dengan Materi Genetik yang Berasal dari Parental, Maternal, dan Inti Sel Somatik (PRE-IMPLANTATION DEVELOPMENT OF MOUSE EMBRYO WITH GENETIC MATERIAL DERIVED FROM PARENTAL, MATERNAL AND SOMATIC CELL NUCLEUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Murti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloned embryo and parthenogenetic embryo are a potential source of stem cells for regenerativemedicine. Stem cells derived from those embryos are expected to overcome the ethical issues to the use offertilization embryos for therapeutic purposes. The pre-implantation development is a critical step fordeveloping embryos reach the blastocyst stage. The objectives in vivo of this research are to produce mousecloned embryo, parthenogenetic embryo, and fertilized embryo and to study stages of  in vitro pre-implantation development culture. In vivo fertilized embryos, mouse oocytes, and cumulus cells were usedin this study. Treatment was performed on female mice superovulated with PMSG and hCG injections.Two-cell stage of in vivo fertilized embryos were collected on the second day post hCG injection. Clonedembryos were produced through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT, which included enucleation, nucleartransfer and artificial activation. Parthenogenetic embryos were produced with artificial activationtechnique. The result of the research indicated that SCNT application was able to produce cloned embryos which could develop to blastocyst stage (3,2%. In addition, artificial activation of oocytes could produceparthenogenetic embryos which were able to develop up to the blastocyst stage (8,6%. In conclusion,efficiency level of parthenogenetic embryos that is able to reach the blastocyst stage was higher than in thecloned embryos. Fertilized embryos shows a better development and more efficient compared to in vitrocloned embryos and parthenogenetic embryos cultures.

  10. Successful pregnancy following single blastocyst transfer in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, V Arun; Ravindran, Manipriya; Chander, Aravind; Veluswamy, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Numerous spontaneous pregnancies have been reported in renal transplant recipients; however, only a few pregnancies after the use of assisted reproductive techniques. The authors report a case of renal transplant recipient with secondary infertility who delivered a healthy baby without any complications. The report highlights the importance of minimal stimulation protocol during ovarian stimulation, single embryo transfer, and the need for multispecialty care for these patients. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present report is the first such case from India and also the second in the world to report a blastocyst transfer among renal transplant recipients.

  11. Introduction of the human proα1(I) collagen gene into proα1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the proα1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of proα2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse proα1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse proα1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse proα2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human α1 chains and one mouse α2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both α1(I) and α2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the α(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse α1 and α2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human α chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected proα1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I

  12. In vitro culture of pre-implanted mouse embryos. A model system for studying combined effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.; Beuningen, D. van; Molls, M.; Pon, A.; Schulz, S.; Zamboglou, N.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on combined effects, e.g. interaction between chemical toxicants and ionizing radiation, are difficult to perform, as they are dependent on many factors (substance concentration, radiation dose, sequence of treatments, etc.). In order to obtain data from such studies it is necessary to establish a comparatively simple experimental model system. We have established such a model system by studying combined effects on pre-implanted mouse embryos cultured in vitro. This system has the following advantages: (1) The embryos can be cultivated for several days in vitro; (2) Their physiological intactness can be tested; and (3) Cell proliferation, cell killing and chromosomal damage can be investigated comparatively easily. The embryos are isolated at the 2-cell stage and incubated in a culture medium in vitro. The development of the embryos is followed under the microscope until the development of blastocysts or the hatching of blastocysts is observed. These blastocysts can be transplanted to fostered mice and the development of normal animals determined. The proliferation kinetics can be studied easily, and the methods are described. A method has also been developed to measure the DNA content of individual cells by microscope fluorometry. After treatment of the embryos with ionizing radiation or drugs the release of micronuclei has been observed from the cell nuclei, which is an expression for chromosomal damage. Substances or radionuclides can be added to the culture medium or external irradiation can be performed during the culture period. Also the combined effects of radiation and heating can be studied. The effects of X-rays and tritiated compounds have also been investigated. The combined effects of radiation with antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and environmental toxicants such as lead, have been determined. The system described has been useful to evaluate cytological, teratogenic and cytogenetic effects

  13. Construction of a mouse model of factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, L.; Lawler, A.; Gearhart, J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    To develop a small animal model of hemophilia A for gene therapy experiments, we set out to construct a mouse model for factor VIII deficiency by gene targeting. First, we screened a mouse liver cDNA library using a human FVIII cDNA probe. We cloned a 2.6 Kb partial mouse factor VIII cDNA which extends from 800 base pairs of the 3{prime} end of exon 14 to the 5{prime} end of exon 26. A mouse genomic library made from strain 129 was then screened to obtain genomic fragments covering the exons desired for homologous recombination. Two genomic clones were obtained, and one covering exon 15 through 22 was used for gene targeting. To make gene targeting constructs, a 5.8 Kb genomic DNA fragment covering exons 15 to 19 of the mouse FVIII gene was subcloned, and the neo expression cassette was inserted into exons 16 and 17 separately by different strategies. These two constructs were named MFVIIIC-16 and MFVIIIC-17. The constructs were linearized and transfected into strain 129 mouse ES cells by electroporation. Factor VIII gene-knockout ES cell lines were selected by G-418 and screened by genomic Southern blots. Eight exon 16 targeted cell lines and five exon 17 targeted cell lines were obtained. Three cell lines from each construct were injected into blastocysts and surgically transferred into foster mothers. Multiple chimeric mice with 70-90% hair color derived from the ES-cell genotype were seen with both constructs. Germ line transmission of the ES-cell genotype has been obtained for the MFVIIIC-16 construct, and multiple hemophilia A carrier females have been identified. Factor VIII-deficient males will be conceived soon.

  14. Increased cleavage and blastocyst rate in ewes treated with bovine somatotropin 5 days before the end of progestin-based estrous synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Pardo, A; Hernández-Cerón, J; Rojas-Maya, S; Valencia, J; Rodríguez-Cortez, A; Gutiérrez, C G

    2011-05-01

    Treatment with bovine somatotropin (bST) during estrous synchronization increased fertility and prolificacy in sheep. In the present study, a single dose of bST 5 days before the end of progestin treatment improved cleavage and embryo development. Stage of estrous cycle was synchronized in ewes (n=32) with progestin and superovulation was induced by use of FSH. Five days before the end of progestin treatment, ewes were randomly assigned to two groups: bST group (n=16) received a depot injection of 125 mg of bST sc (Lactotropina, Elanco, México) and the control group (n=16) received saline solution. Estrous was detected with rams fitted with an apron every 2 h and estrous sheep were mated every 8 h whilst in estrous. Embryos were recovered on Day 7 post mating, assessed microscopically and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Cell number in blastocysts was counted after Hoechst 33342 staining. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin and progesterone were determined in eight sheep per group from the day of bST treatment to the day of embryo recovery. Cleavage rate, percentage of transferable embryos (transferable embryos/cleaved) and percentage of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage (blastocyst/cleaved) were compared between groups by logistic regression. IGF-I, insulin and progesterone plasma concentrations were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measurements and cell number by ANOVA. Cleavage rate was greater (Psheep. Plasma concentrations of IGF-I and insulin were greater (Pprogesterone concentrations (P=0.5). It is concluded that bST injection 5 days before progestin removal increases cleavage rate and the proportion of embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. These effects are associated with an increase in IGF-I and insulin concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improved Murine Blastocyst Quality and Development in a Single Culture Medium Compared to Sequential Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, Justin M; Zimmer, Randall L; Nabli, Henda; Davis, J Wade; Sutovsky, Peter; Sutovsky, Miriam; Sharpe-Timms, Kathy L

    2016-03-01

    Validate single versus sequential culture media for murine embryo development. Prospective laboratory experiment. Assisted Reproduction Laboratory. Murine embryos. Thawed murine zygotes cultured for 3 or 5 days (d3 or d5) in single or sequential embryo culture media developed for human in vitro fertilization. On d3, zygotes developing to the 8 cell (8C) stage or greater were quantified using 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), and quality was assessed by morphological analysis. On d5, the number of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage was counted. DAPI was used to quantify total nuclei and inner cell mass nuclei. Localization of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L3 (UCHL3) was reference points for evaluating cell quality. Comparing outcomes in single versus to sequential media, the odds of embryos developing to the 8C stage on d3 were 2.34 time greater (P = .06). On d5, more embryos reached the blastocyst stage (P = culture. Human embryo studies are needed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Reduced developmental competence of immature, in-vitro matured and postovulatory aged mouse oocytes following IVF and ICSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trounson Alan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study highlights basic physiological differences associated with oocyte maturation and ageing. The study explores the fertilizing capacity and resistance to injury of mouse oocytes at different stages of maturation and ageing following IVF and ICSI. Also, the study examines the developmental competence of embryos obtained from these oocytes. The outcome of the study supports views that the mouse can be a model for human IVF suggesting that utilizing in-vitro matured and failed fertilized oocytes to produce embryos mainly when limited number of oocytes is retrieved in a specific cycle, should be carefully considered. Methods Hybrid strain mouse oocytes were inseminated by in-vitro fertilization (IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Oocytes groups that were used were germinal vesicle (GV in-vitro matured metaphase II (IVM-MII, freshly ovulated MII (OV-MII, 13 hrs in-vitro aged MII (13 hrs-MII and 24 hrs in-vitro aged MII (24 hrs-MII. Fertilization and embryo development to the blastocyst stage were monitored up to 5 days in culture for IVF and ICSI zygotes. Sperm head decondensation and pronuclear formation were examined up to 9 hrs in oocytes following ICSI. Apoptotic events in blocked embryos were examined using the TUNNEL assay. Differences between females for the number and quality of GV and OV-MII oocytes were examined by ANOVA analyses. Differences in survival after ICSI, fertilization by IVF and ICSI and embryo development were analysed by Chi-square test with Yates correction. Results No differences in number and quality of oocytes were identified between females. The findings suggest that inability of GV oocytes to participate in fertilization and embryo development initiates primarily from their inability to support initial post fertilization events such as sperm decondensation and pronuclei formation. These events occur in all MII oocytes in similar rates (87–98% for IVF and ICSI. Following

  17. Expression of Aquaporins in Human Embryos and Potential Role of AQP3 and AQP7 in Preimplantation Mouse Embryo Development

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    Yun Xiong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Water channels, also named aquaporins (AQPs, play crucial roles in cellular water homeostasis. Methods: RT-PCR indicated the mRNA expression of AQPs 1-5, 7, 9, and 11-12, but not AQPs 0, 6, 8, and 10 in the 2∼8-cell stage human embryos. AQP3 and AQP7 were further analyzed for their mRNA expression and protein expression in the oocyte, zygote, 2-cell embryo, 4-cell embryo, 8-cell embryo, morula, and blastocyst from both human and mouse using RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, respectively. Results: AQP3 and AQP7 were detected in all these stages. Knockdown of either AQP3 or AQP7 by targeted siRNA injection into 2-cell mouse embryos significantly inhibited preimplantation embryo development. However, knockdown of AQP3 in JAr spheroid did not affect its attachment to Ishikawa cells. Conclusion: These data demonstrate that multiple aquaporins are expressed in the early stage human embryos and that AQP3 and AQP7 may play a role in preimplantation mouse embryo development.

  18. Effect of exogenous glutathione in medium fertilization to improve blastocyst rates of bovine embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Triwulaninngsih

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (C10H17N3O6S is a tripeptide (γ-Glu-Cys-Gly widespread in living organism. Glutathione (GSH at the 5 mM concentration increased the motility and fertility of frozen-thawed sperm. Intracellulair glutathione improved the cleavage rate and embryo development to the blastocyst rate. Research on in vitro embryos production through the implementation of GSH during IVF (in vitro fertilization on embryo development has been conducted at the Laboratorium Reproductive of Physiology, Research Institute for Animal Production. Ovaries of beef cattle as source of oocytes were collected from the slaughterhouse in a thermo flask with 350C PBS as medium and transported to the laboratory. The oocytes were fertilized in vitro with selected motile sperm using Percoll gradient (90 and 45%. Ten COCs (cumulus oocytes complexes were transfered to 44 μl of fertilization medium (mTALP was performed with either 0; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 mM of glutathione as treatment A, B, C, D and E respectively, and inseminated with 2 μl of capacitated sperm and added 2 μl of heparin and 2 μl of PHE (consisting of 20 μM penicillamine, 10 μM hypotaurine, 1 μM epinephrine. Incubation between sperm and oocytes in the 5% CO2 incubator and RH 90% in fertilization media (TALP for 20 hours. All zygotes were cultured in modification of CR1aa medium up to blastocyst and were fed serum 5 μl/50μl medium on day 6. Results of this experiment showed that the effect of concentration of glutathione (0, 0.25; 0.50; 0.75 and 1.00 mM on fertilization medium to the percentage of cleavage rates were 69.35 + 29.40; 79.07 + 13.17; 67.88 + 10.65; 98.10 + 3.30 and 82.62 + 24.19% not significant different (P>0.05 among treatments A, B, C, D dan E respectively.The precentages of morula and blastocyst for treatment D were 50.45 + 42.64% and 31.28 + 24.28%; while 36.55 + 24.13% and 17.74 + 17.86% for treatment E respectively.

  19. Injurious Effects of Curcumin on Maturation of Mouse Oocytes, Fertilization and Fetal Development via Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsiung Chan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, a common dietary pigment and spice, is a hydrophobic polyphenol derived from the rhizome of the herb Curcuma longa. Previously, we reported a cytotoxic effect of curcumin on mouse embryonic stem cells and blastocysts and its association with defects in subsequent development. In the present study, we further investigated the effects of curcumin on oocyte maturation and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, curcumin induced a significant reduction in the rate of oocyte maturation, fertilization, and in vitro embryonic development. Treatment of oocytes with curcumin during in vitro maturation (IVM led to increased resorption of postimplantation embryos and decreased fetal weight. Experiments with an in vivo mouse model disclosed that consumption of drinking water containing 40 μM curcumin led to decreased oocyte maturation and in vitro fertilization as well as early embryonic developmental injury. Finally, pretreatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively prevented curcumin-triggered injury effects, suggesting that embryo impairment by curcumin occurs mainly via a caspase-dependent apoptotic process.

  20. A Rapid Embryonic Stem Cell-Based Mouse Model for B-cell Lymphomas Driven by Epstein-Barr Virus Protein LMP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Zhaoqing; Meng, Fei-Long; Gostissa, Monica; Huang, Pei-Yi; Ke, Qiang; Wang, Zhe; Dao, Mai N; Fujiwara, Yuko; Rajewsky, Klaus; Zhang, Baochun; Alt, Frederick W

    2015-06-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) contributes to oncogenic human B-cell transformation. Mouse B cells conditionally expressing LMP1 are not predisposed to B-cell malignancies, as LMP1-expressing B cells are eliminated by T cells. However, mice with conditional B-cell LMP1 expression and genetic elimination of α/β and γ/δ T cells ("CLT" mice) die early in association with B-cell lymphoproliferation and lymphomagenesis. Generation of CLT mice involves in-breeding multiple independently segregating alleles. Thus, although introduction of additional activating or knockout mutations into the CLT model is desirable for further B-cell expansion and immunosurveillance studies, doing such experiments by germline breeding is time-consuming, expensive, and sometimes unfeasible. To generate a more tractable model, we generated clonal CLT embryonic stem (ES) cells from CLT embryos and injected them into RAG2-deficient blastocysts to generate chimeric mice, which, like germline CLT mice, harbor splenic CLT B cells and lack T cells. CLT chimeric mice generated by this RAG2-deficient blastocyst complementation ("RDBC") approach die rapidly in association with B-cell lymphoproliferation and lymphoma. Because CLT lymphomas routinely express the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) antibody diversifier, we tested potential AID roles by eliminating the AID gene in CLT ES cells and testing them via RDBC. We found that CLT and AID-deficient CLT ES chimeras had indistinguishable phenotypes, showing that AID is not essential for LMP1-induced lymphomagenesis. Beyond expanding accessibility and utility of CLT mice as a cancer immunotherapy model, our studies provide a new approach for facilitating generation of genetically complex mouse cancer models. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Influence of irradiation (Co60) in pre-implant rabbits embryos: effect on blastocyst diameters and embryos smaller than 2 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Cunha Junior, Carlos; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-01-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), in three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses, 5 c Gy and 10 c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. The matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after (± 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. The embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryos parameters were studied: diameter growth; percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm. We observed that only the irradiation time influenced the blastocysts diameter (no irradiation dose). There was no relation between percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm and the irradiation. (author)

  2. A systematic analysis of the suitability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for mitochondrial diseases in a heteroplasmic mitochondrial mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Jitesh; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Heindryckx, Björn; Ghimire, Sabitri; Lu, Yuechao; Qian, Chen; Lierman, Sylvie; Van Coster, Rudy; Gerris, Jan; Deroo, Tom; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra

    2014-04-01

    What is the reliability of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) based on polar body (PB), blastomere or trophectoderm (TE) analysis in a heteroplasmic mitochondrial mouse model? The reliability of PGD to determine the level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) heteroplasmy is questionable based on either the first or second PB analysis; however, PGD based on blastomere or TE analysis seems more reliable. PGD has been suggested as a technique to determine the level of mtDNA heteroplasmy in oocytes and embryos to avoid the transmission of heritable mtDNA disorders. A strong correlation between first PBs and oocytes and between second PBs and zygotes was reported in mice but is controversial in humans. So far, the levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy in first PBs, second PBs and their corresponding oocytes, zygotes and blastomeres, TE and blastocysts have not been analysed within the same embryo. We explored the suitability of PGD by comparing the level of mtDNA heteroplasmy between first PBs and metaphase II (MII) oocytes (n = 33), between first PBs, second PBs and zygotes (n = 30), and between first PBs, second PBs and their corresponding blastomeres of 2- (n = 10), 4- (n = 10) and 8-cell embryos (n = 11). Levels of mtDNA heteroplasmy in second PBs (n = 20), single blastomeres from 8-cell embryos (n = 20), TE (n = 20) and blastocysts (n = 20) were also compared. Heteroplasmic mice (BALB/cOlaHsd), containing mtDNA mixtures of BALB/cByJ and NZB/OlaHsd, were used in this study. The first PBs were biopsied from in vivo matured MII oocytes. The ooplasm was then subjected to ICSI. After fertilization, second PBs were biopsied and zygotes were cultured to recover individual blastomeres from 2-, 4- and 8-cell embryos. Similarly, second PBs were biopsied from in vivo fertilized zygotes and single blastomeres were biopsied from 8-cell stage embryos. The remaining embryo was cultured until the blastocyst stage to isolate TE cells. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment

  3. Intact fetal ovarian cord formation promotes mouse oocyte survival and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pera Renee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female reproductive potential, or the ability to propagate life, is limited in mammals with the majority of oocytes lost before birth. In mice, surviving perinatal oocytes are enclosed in ovarian follicles for subsequent oocyte development and function in the adult. Before birth, fetal germ cells of both sexes develop in clusters, or germline cysts, in the undifferentiated gonad. Upon sex determination of the fetal gonad, germ cell cysts become organized into testicular or ovarian cord-like structures and begin to interact with gonadal somatic cells. Although germline cysts and testicular cords are required for spermatogenesis, the role of cyst and ovarian cord formation in mammalian oocyte development and female fertility has not been determined. Results Here, we examine whether intact fetal ovarian germ and somatic cell cord structures are required for oocyte development using mouse gonad re-aggregation and transplantation to disrupt gonadal organization. We observed that germ cells from disrupted female gonad prior to embryonic day e13.5 completed prophase I of meiosis but did not survive following transplantation. Furthermore, re-aggregated ovaries from e13.5 to e15.5 developed with a reduced number of oocytes. Oocyte loss occurred before follicle formation and was associated with an absence of ovarian cord structure and ovary disorganization. However, disrupted ovaries from e16.5 or later were resistant to the re-aggregation impairment and supported robust oocyte survival and development in follicles. Conclusions Thus, we demonstrate a critical window of oocyte development from e13.5 to e16.5 in the intact fetal mouse ovary, corresponding to the establishment of ovarian cord structure, which promotes oocyte interaction with neighboring ovarian somatic granulosa cells before birth and imparts oocytes with competence to survive and develop in follicles. Because germline cyst and ovarian cord structures are conserved in the

  4. Generation of human embryonic stem cells from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Chen, Jing; Du, Juan; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge; Ouyang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line chHES-478 was derived from abnormal blastocyst diagnosed with albinism after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) treatment. DNA sequencing analysis confirmed that chHES-478 cell line carried a compound heterozygous mutation, c.896G>A(p.Arg299His) and c.929_930insC(p.Pro310Glnfs*9), of TYR gene. Characteristic tests proved that the chHES-478 cell line presented typical markers of pluripotency and had the capability to form the three germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Michael Boutros, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro culture of individual mouse preimplantation embryos: the role of embryo density, microwells, oxygen, timing and conditioned media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L; Gardner, David K

    2017-05-01

    Single embryo culture is suboptimal compared with group culture, but necessary for embryo monitoring, and culture systems should be improved for single embryos. Pronucleate mouse embryos were used to assess the effect of culture conditions on single embryo development. Single culture either before or after compaction reduced cell numbers (112.2 ± 3.1; 110.2 ± 3.5) compared with group culture throughout (127.0 ± 3.4; P media volume from 20 µl to 2 µl increased blastocyst cell numbers in single embryos cultured in 5% oxygen (84.4 ± 3.2 versus 97.8 ± 2.8; P Culture in microwell plates for the EmbryoScope and Primo Vision time-lapse systems changed cleavage timings and increased inner cell mass cell number (24.1 ± 1.0; 23.4 ± 1.2) compared with a 2 µl microdrop (18.4 ± 1.0; P media to single embryos increased hatching rate and blastocyst cell number (91.5 ± 4.7 versus 113.1 ± 4.4; P culture before or after compaction is therefore detrimental; oxygen, media volume and microwells influence single embryo development; and embryo-conditioned media may substitute for group culture. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcription factor ERG and joint and articular cartilage formation during mouse limb and spine skeletogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Masahiro; Tamamura, Yoshihiro; Koyama, Eiki; Komori, Toshihisa; Takeshita, Nobuo; Williams, Julie A; Nakamura, Takashi; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2007-05-01

    Articular cartilage and synovial joints are critical for skeletal function, but the mechanisms regulating their development are largely unknown. In previous studies we found that the ets transcription factor ERG and its alternatively-spliced variant C-1-1 have roles in joint formation in chick. Here, we extended our studies to mouse. We found that ERG is also expressed in developing mouse limb joints. To test regulation of ERG expression, beads coated with the joint master regulator protein GDF-5 were implanted close to incipient joints in mouse limb explants; this led to rapid and strong ectopic ERG expression. We cloned and characterized several mammalian ERG variants and expressed a human C-1-1 counterpart (hERG3Delta81) throughout the cartilaginous skeleton of transgenic mice, using Col2a1 gene promoter/enhancer sequences. The skeletal phenotype was severe and neonatal lethal, and the transgenic mice were smaller than wild type littermates and their skeletons were largely cartilaginous. Limb long bone anlagen were entirely composed of chondrocytes actively expressing collagen IX and aggrecan as well as articular markers such as tenascin-C. Typical growth plates were absent and there was very low expression of maturation and hypertrophy markers, including Indian hedgehog, collagen X and MMP-13. The results suggest that ERG is part of molecular mechanisms leading chondrocytes into a permanent developmental path and become joint forming cells, and may do so by acting downstream of GDF-5.

  7. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Expression Profiles of In Vitro Produced Vitrified Bovine Blastocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zongliang; Harrington, Patrick; Zhang, Ming; Marjani, Sadie L.; Park, Joonghoon; Kuo, Lynn; Pribenszky, Csaba; Tian, Xiuchun (Cindy)

    2016-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) has been used to pre-condition embryos before essential, yet potentially detrimental procedures such as cryopreservation. However, the mechanisms for HHP are poorly understood. We treated bovine blastocysts with three different HHP (40, 60 and 80 MPa) in combination with three recovery periods (0, 1 h, 2 h post HHP). Re-expansion rates were significantly higher at 40 and 60 but lower at 80 MPa after vitrification-warming in the treated groups than controls. Microarray analysis revealed 399 differentially expressed transcripts, representing 254 unique genes, among different groups. Gene ontology analysis indicated that HHP at 40 and 60 MPa promoted embryo competence through down-regulation of genes in cell death and apoptosis, and up-regulation of genes in RNA processing, cellular growth and proliferation. In contrast, 80 MPa up-regulated genes in apoptosis, and down-regulated protein folding and cell cycle-related genes. Moreover, gene expression was also influenced by the length of the recovery time after HHP. The significantly over-represented categories were apoptosis and cell death in the 1 h group, and protein folding, response to unfolded protein and cell cycle in the 2 h group compared to 0 h. Taken together, HHP promotes competence of vitrified bovine blastocysts through modest transcriptional changes. PMID:26883277

  8. Formation of DNA adducts in mouse tissues after 1-nitropyrene administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    DNA adducts were isolated and characterized in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of [ 3 H]-1-nitropyrene (1-NP). HPLC analysis of the enzymatically digested DNA indicated the presence of multiple DNA adducts in mouse lung, liver and kidney. These results indicate that DNA adducts of 1-NP are formed in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of 1-NP; the HPLC profiles of the multiple adducts suggests that adducts may be formed via metabolic pathways that involve both nitroreduction and ring-oxidation. 6 references, 1 figure

  9. Symmetry breaking, germ layer specification and axial organisation in aggregates of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Susanne C; Baillie-Johnson, Peter; Balayo, Tina; Hadjantonakis, Anna-Katerina; Nowotschin, Sonja; Turner, David A; Martinez Arias, Alfonso

    2014-11-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are clonal populations derived from preimplantation mouse embryos that can be propagated in vitro and, when placed into blastocysts, contribute to all tissues of the embryo and integrate into the normal morphogenetic processes, i.e. they are pluripotent. However, although they can be steered to differentiate in vitro into all cell types of the organism, they cannot organise themselves into structures that resemble embryos. When aggregated into embryoid bodies they develop disorganised masses of different cell types with little spatial coherence. An exception to this rule is the emergence of retinas and anterior cortex-like structures under minimal culture conditions. These structures emerge from the cultures without any axial organisation. Here, we report that small aggregates of mESCs, of about 300 cells, self-organise into polarised structures that exhibit collective behaviours reminiscent of those that cells exhibit in early mouse embryos, including symmetry breaking, axial organisation, germ layer specification and cell behaviour, as well as axis elongation. The responses are signal specific and uncouple processes that in the embryo are tightly associated, such as specification of the anteroposterior axis and anterior neural development, or endoderm specification and axial elongation. We discuss the meaning and implications of these observations and the potential uses of these structures which, because of their behaviour, we suggest to call 'gastruloids'. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Functional studies of signaling pathways in peri-implantation development of the mouse embryo by RNAi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Graham

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of gene function in the mouse have relied mainly on gene targeting via homologous recombination. However, this approach is difficult to apply in specific windows of time, and to simultaneously knock-down multiple genes. Here we report an efficient method for dsRNA-mediated gene silencing in late cleavage-stage mouse embryos that permits examination of phenotypes at post-implantation stages. Results We show that introduction of Bmp4 dsRNA into intact blastocysts by electroporation recapitulates the genetic Bmp4 null phenotype at gastrulation. It also reveals a novel role for Bmp4 in the regulation the anterior visceral endoderm specific gene expression and its positioning. We also show that RNAi can be used to simultaneously target several genes. When applied to the three murine isoforms of Dishevelled, it leads to earlier defects than previously observed in double knock-outs. These include severe delays in post-implantation development and defects in the anterior midline and neural folds at headfold stages. Conclusion Our results indicate that the BMP4 signalling pathway contributes to the development of the anterior visceral endoderm, and reveal an early functional redundancy between the products of the murine Dishevelled genes. The proposed approach constitutes a powerful tool to screen the functions of genes that govern the development of the mouse embryo.

  11. Influence of some methodological factors on the radiosensitivity of the mouse zygote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Grinfeld, S.

    1990-01-01

    The experiments reported here were undertaken to investigate the influence of some methodological factors on the radiosensitivity of the mouse zygote. The following factors were studied: (1) the use of natural or hormone-stimulated ovulation; (2) the procedure followed for fertilization:mating overnight, or only during a short period in the morning after all oocytes have been ovulated, in vitro fertilization; (3) the type of irradiation, i.e., in vivo or in vitro irradiation. The radiosensitivity of the zygotes was estimated under the different experimental conditions by measuring the ability of the irradiated embryos to cleave and to develop further to the blastocyst stage. Our results suggest that the protocols used for mating and fertilization probably have a greater influence on embryonic survival following irradiation than the use of gonadotropins to stimulate ovulation. The highest degree of synchrony in the development of the embryos is achieved by restricting mating to a short period or by using in vitro fertilization. The very low LD50s obtained under such synchronous conditions confirm the high radiosensitivity of the mouse zygote at the early pronuclear stage. Comparison between the effects of in vivo and in vitro irradiation does not indicate a greater radiosensitivity of the embryo irradiated in vitro in comparison to the embryo irradiated in vivo

  12. Metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction in early mouse embryos following maternal dietary protein intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Megan; Schulz, Samantha L; Armstrong, David T; Lane, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    Dietary supply of nutrients, both periconception and during pregnancy, influence the growth and development of the fetus and offspring and their health into adult life. Despite the importance of research efforts surrounding the developmental origins of health and disease hypothesis, the biological mechanisms involved remain elusive. Mitochondria are of major importance in the oocyte and early embryo, particularly as a source of ATP generation, and perturbations in their function have been related to reduced embryo quality. The present study examined embryo development following periconception exposure of females to a high-protein diet (HPD) or a low-protein diet (LPD) relative to a medium-protein diet (MPD; control), and we hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial metabolism in the mouse embryo may be responsible for the impaired embryo and fetal development reported by others. Although the rate of development to the blastocyst stage did not differ between diets, both the HPD and LPD reduced the number of inner cell mass cells in the blastocyst-stage embryo. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was reduced and mitochondrial calcium levels increased in the 2-cell embryo. Embryos from HPD females had elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and ADP concentrations, indicative of metabolic stress and, potentially, the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, whereas embryos from LPD females had reduced mitochondrial clustering around the nucleus, suggestive of an overall quietening of metabolism. Thus, although periconception dietary supply of different levels of protein is permissive of development, mitochondrial metabolism is altered in the early embryo, and the nature of the perturbation differs between HPD and LPD exposure.

  13. Dynamics of dendritic spines in the mouse auditory cortex during memory formation and memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moczulska, Kaja Ewa; Tinter-Thiede, Juliane; Peter, Manuel; Ushakova, Lyubov; Wernle, Tanja; Bathellier, Brice; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-11-05

    Long-lasting changes in synaptic connections induced by relevant experiences are believed to represent the physical correlate of memories. Here, we combined chronic in vivo two-photon imaging of dendritic spines with auditory-cued classical conditioning to test if the formation of a fear memory is associated with structural changes of synapses in the mouse auditory cortex. We find that paired conditioning and unpaired conditioning induce a transient increase in spine formation or spine elimination, respectively. A fraction of spines formed during paired conditioning persists and leaves a long-lasting trace in the network. Memory recall triggered by the reexposure of mice to the sound cue did not lead to changes in spine dynamics. Our findings provide a synaptic mechanism for plasticity in sound responses of auditory cortex neurons induced by auditory-cued fear conditioning; they also show that retrieval of an auditory fear memory does not lead to a recapitulation of structural plasticity in the auditory cortex as observed during initial memory consolidation.

  14. De novo CNV formation in mouse embryonic stem cells occurs in the absence of Xrcc4-dependent nonhomologous end joining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Arlt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous copy number variant (CNV mutations are an important factor in genomic structural variation, genomic disorders, and cancer. A major class of CNVs, termed nonrecurrent CNVs, is thought to arise by nonhomologous DNA repair mechanisms due to the presence of short microhomologies, blunt ends, or short insertions at junctions of normal and de novo pathogenic CNVs, features recapitulated in experimental systems in which CNVs are induced by exogenous replication stress. To test whether the canonical nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ pathway of double-strand break (DSB repair is involved in the formation of this class of CNVs, chromosome integrity was monitored in NHEJ-deficient Xrcc4(-/- mouse embryonic stem (ES cells following treatment with low doses of aphidicolin, a DNA replicative polymerase inhibitor. Mouse ES cells exhibited replication stress-induced CNV formation in the same manner as human fibroblasts, including the existence of syntenic hotspot regions, such as in the Auts2 and Wwox loci. The frequency and location of spontaneous and aphidicolin-induced CNV formation were not altered by loss of Xrcc4, as would be expected if canonical NHEJ were the predominant pathway of CNV formation. Moreover, de novo CNV junctions displayed a typical pattern of microhomology and blunt end use that did not change in the absence of Xrcc4. A number of complex CNVs were detected in both wild-type and Xrcc4(-/- cells, including an example of a catastrophic, chromothripsis event. These results establish that nonrecurrent CNVs can be, and frequently are, formed by mechanisms other than Xrcc4-dependent NHEJ.

  15. RNA-Seq analysis uncovers transcriptomic variations between morphologically similar in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts

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    Driver Ashley M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A valuable tool for both research and industry, in vitro fertilization (IVF has applications range from gamete selection and preservation of traits to cloning. Although IVF has achieved worldwide use, with approximately 339,685 bovine embryos transferred in 2010 alone, there are still continuing difficulties with efficiency. It is rare to have more than 40% of fertilized in vitro cattle oocytes reach blastocyst stage by day 8 of culture, and pregnancy rates are reported as less than 45% for in vitro produced embryos. To investigate potential influences in-vitro fertilization (IVF has on embryonic development, this study compares in vivo- and in vitro-derived bovine blastocysts at a similar stage and quality grade (expanded, excellent quality to determine the degree of transcriptomic variation beyond morphology using RNA-Seq. Results A total of 26,906,451 and 38,184,547 fragments were sequenced for in vitro and in vivo embryo pools, respectively. We detected expression for a total of 17,634 genes, with 793 genes showing differential expression between the two embryo populations with false discovery rate (FDR Conclusions Thus, our results support that IVF may influence at the transcriptomic level and that morphology is limited in full characterization of bovine preimplantation embryos.

  16. High survival of mouse embryos after rapid freezing and thawing inside plastic straws with 1-2 propanediol as cryoprotectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, J P; Babinet, C

    1984-06-01

    A method for obtaining a high survival rate of frozen-thawed mouse embryos is presented. Eight-cell mouse embryos were frozen inside small plastic straws in the presence of 1-2 propanediol and stored at -196 C. After thawing, the embryos were diluted for only 5 min in a 1.0 M sucrose solution to remove the 1-2 propanediol from the cells. At high rate of thawing (is equivalent to 2500 C/min) more than 88% of the embryos survived in vitro to the blastocyst stage provided that the dilution of propanediol was performed rapidly during thawing. At a lower rate of thawing (is equivalent to 300 C/min), survival tended to be higher (94.7%) when dilution was done 5 min after thawing. When the frozen-thawed embryos were transferred to the oviducts of day 1 pseudopregnant recipients either directly after the dilution of 1-2 propanediol or after 24 or 48 hr of culture, a high proportion of them (65.9%) develop normally to viable fetuses.

  17. Laser fusion of mouse embryonic cells and intra-embryonic fusion of blastomeres without affecting the embryo integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokharchenko, Alexander; Karmenyan, Artashes; Sarkisov, Oleg; Bader, Michael; Chiou, Arthur; Shakhbazyan, Avetik

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation with early mammalian embryos is the one of the most important approach to study preimplantation development. Artificial cell fusion is a research tool for various biotechnological experiments. However, the existing methods have various disadvantages, first of them impossibility to fuse selected cells within multicellular structures like mammalian preimplantation embryos. In our experiments we have successfully used high repetition rate picosecond near infrared laser beam for fusion of pairs of oocytes and oocytes with blastomeres. Fused cells looked morphologically normal and keep their ability for further divisions in vitro. We also fused two or three blastomeres inside four-cell mouse embryos. The presence of one, two or three nuclei in different blastomeres of the same early preimplantation mouse embryo was confirmed under UV-light after staining of DNA with the vital dye Hoechst-33342. The most of established embryos demonstrated high viability and developed in vitro to the blastocyst stage. We demonstrated for the first time the use of laser beam for the fusion of various embryonic cells of different size and of two or three blastomeres inside of four-cell mouse embryos without affecting the embryo's integrity and viability. These embryos with blastomeres of various ploidy maybe unique model for numerous purposes. Thus, we propose laser optical manipulation as a new tool for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of mammalian development.

  18. The effect of anandamide on uterine nitric oxide synthase activity depends on the presence of the blastocyst.

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    Micaela S Sordelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide production, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, should be strictly regulated to allow embryo implantation. Thus, our first aim was to study NOS activity during peri-implantation in the rat uterus. Day 6 inter-implantation sites showed lower NOS activity (0.19±0.01 pmoles L-citrulline mg prot(-1 h(-1 compared to days 4 (0.34±0.03 and 5 (0.35±0.02 of pregnancy and to day 6 implantation sites (0.33±0.01. This regulation was not observed in pseudopregnancy. Both dormant and active blastocysts maintained NOS activity at similar levels. Anandamide (AEA, an endocannabinoid, binds to cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1 and type 2 (CB2, and high concentrations are toxic for implantation and embryo development. Previously, we observed that AEA synthesis presents an inverted pattern compared to NOS activity described here. We adopted a pharmacological approach using AEA, URB-597 (a selective inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase, the enzyme that degrades AEA and receptor selective antagonists to investigate the effect of AEA on uterine NOS activity in vitro in rat models of implantation. While AEA (0.70±0.02 vs 0.40±0.04 and URB-597 (1.08±0.09 vs 0.83±0.06 inhibited NOS activity in the absence of a blastocyst (pseudopregnancy through CB2 receptors, AEA did not modulate NOS on day 5 pregnant uterus. Once implantation begins, URB-597 decreased NOS activity on day 6 implantation sites via CB1 receptors (0.25±0.04 vs 0.40±0.05. While a CB1 antagonist augmented NOS activity on day 6 inter-implantation sites (0.17±0.02 vs 0.27±0.02, a CB2 antagonist decreased it (0.17±0.02 vs 0.12±0.01. Finally, we described the expression and localization of cannabinoid receptors during implantation. In conclusion, AEA levels close to and at implantation sites seems to modulate NOS activity and thus nitric oxide production, fundamental for implantation, via cannabinoid receptors. This modulation depends on the presence of the blastocyst. These

  19. Individual blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell mouse embryos are able to develop into foetuses and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkowski, Andrzej K; Suwińska, Aneta; Czołowska, Renata; Ożdżeński, Wacław

    2010-12-15

    Cell and developmental studies have clarified how, by the time of implantation, the mouse embryo forms three primary cell lineages: epiblast (EPI), primitive endoderm (PE), and trophectoderm (TE). However, it still remains unknown when cells allocated to these three lineages become determined in their developmental fate. To address this question, we studied the developmental potential of single blastomeres derived from 16- and 32-cell stage embryos and supported by carrier, tetraploid blastomeres. We were able to generate singletons, identical twins, triplets, and quadruplets from individual inner and outer cells of 16-cell embryos and, sporadically, foetuses from single cells of 32-cell embryos. The use of embryos constitutively expressing GFP as the donors of single diploid blastomeres enabled us to identify their cell progeny in the constructed 2n↔4n blastocysts. We showed that the descendants of donor blastomeres were able to locate themselves in all three first cell lineages, i.e., epiblast, primitive endoderm, and trophectoderm. In addition, the application of Cdx2 and Gata4 markers for trophectoderm and primitive endoderm, respectively, showed that the expression of these two genes in the descendants of donor blastomeres was either down- or up-regulated, depending on the cell lineage they happened to occupy. Thus, our results demonstrate that up to the early blastocysts stage, the destiny of at least some blastomeres, although they have begun to express markers of different lineage, is still labile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of bovine embryos cultured in CR1aa and IVD101 media using different oxygen tensions and culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somfai, Tamás; Inaba, Yasushi; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Kobayashi, Shuji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to optimise the culture conditions for the in vitro production of bovine embryos. The development of in vitro fertilised bovine oocytes in CR1aa supplemented with 5% calf serum and IVD101 culture media were compared using traditional microdrops and Well of the Well (WOW) culture systems either under 5% or 20% oxygen tension. After 7 days of culture, a significantly higher blastocyst formation rate was obtained for embryos cultured in CR1aa medium compared to those cultured in IVD101, irrespective of O2 tensions and culture systems. The blastocyst formation in IVD101 was suppressed under 20% O2 compared to 5% O2 . Despite their similar total cell numbers, higher rates of inner cell mass (ICM) cells were observed in blastocysts developed in IVD101 medium than in those developed in CR1aa, irrespective of O2 tensions. There was no significant difference in blastocyst formation, total, ICM and trophectoderm (TE) cell numbers between embryos obtained by microdrop and WOW culture systems irrespective of the culture media and O2 tensions used. In conclusion, CR1aa resulted in higher blastocyst formation rates irrespective of O2 tension, whereas IVD101 supported blastocyst formation only under low O2 levels but enhanced the proliferation of ICM cells.

  1. Genetic mouse embryo assay: improving performance and quality testing for assisted reproductive technology (ART) with a functional bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rebecca S; Nunez, Brandy; Sakurai, Kumi; Fielder, Thomas; Ni, Hsiao-Tzu

    2016-03-24

    Growing concerns about safety of ART on human gametes, embryos, clinical outcomes and long-term health of offspring require improved methods of risk assessment to provide functionally relevant assays for quality control testing and pre-clinical studies prior to clinical implementation. The one-cell mouse embryo assay (MEA) is the most widely used for development and quality testing of human ART products; however, concerns exist due to the insensitivity/variability of this bioassay which lacks standardization and involves subjective analysis by morphology alone rather than functional analysis of the developing embryos. We hypothesized that improvements to MEA by the use of functional molecular biomarkers could enhance sensitivity and improve detection of suboptimal materials/conditions. Fresh one-cell transgenic mouse embryos with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by Pou6f1 or Cdx2 control elements were harvested and cultured to blastocysts in varied test and control conditions to compare assessment by standard morphology alone versus the added dynamic expression of GFP for screening and selection of critical raw materials and detection of suboptimal culture conditions. Transgenic mouse embryos expressing functionally relevant biomarkers of normal early embryo development can be used to monitor the developmental impact of culture conditions. This novel approach provides a superior MEA that is more meaningful and sensitive for detection of embryotoxicity than morphological assessment alone.

  2. Melatonin Promotes the In Vitro Development of Microinjected Pronuclear Mouse Embryos via Its Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiuzhi; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Lu; Ji, Pengyun; Wang, Jing; Lv, Dongying; Li, Guangdong; Chai, Menglong; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Guoshi

    2017-05-05

    CRISPR/Cas9 (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) combined with pronuclear microinjection has become the most effective method for producing transgenic animals. However, the relatively low embryo developmental rate limits its application. In the current study, it was observed that 10 -7 M melatonin is considered an optimum concentration and significantly promoted the in vitro development of murine microinjected pronuclear embryos, as indicated by the increased blastocyst rate, hatching blastocyst rate and blastocyst cell number. When these blastocysts were implanted into recipient mice, the pregnancy rate and birth rate were significantly higher than those of the microinjected control, respectively. Mechanistic studies revealed that melatonin treatment reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cellular apoptosis during in vitro embryo development and improved the quality of the blastocysts. The implantation of quality-improved blastocysts led to elevated pregnancy and birth rates. In conclusion, the results revealed that the anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic activities of melatonin improved the quality of microinjected pronuclear embryos and subsequently increased both the efficiency of embryo implantation and the birth rate of the pups. Therefore, the melatonin supplementation may provide a novel alternative method for generating large numbers of transgenic mice and this method can probably be used in human-assisted reproduction and genome editing.

  3. Insulin and branched-chain amino acid depletion during mouse preimplantation embryo culture programmes body weight gain and raised blood pressure during early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Miguel A; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Smith, Stephanie J; Eckert, Judith J; Osmond, Clive; Fleming, Tom P

    2018-02-01

    Mouse maternal low protein diet exclusively during preimplantation development (Emb-LPD) is sufficient to programme altered growth and cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring. Here, we use an in vitro model comprising preimplantation culture in medium depleted in insulin and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), two proposed embryo programming inductive factors from Emb-LPD studies, to examine the consequences for blastocyst organisation and, after embryo transfer (ET), postnatal disease origin. Two-cell embryos were cultured to blastocyst stage in defined KSOM medium supplemented with four combinations of insulin and BCAA concentrations. Control medium contained serum insulin and uterine luminal fluid amino acid concentrations (including BCAA) found in control mothers from the maternal diet model (N-insulin+N-bcaa). Experimental medium (three groups) contained 50% reduction in insulin and/or BCAA (L-insulin+N-bcaa, N-insulin+L-bcaa, and L-insulin+N-bcaa). Lineage-specific cell numbers of resultant blastocysts were not affected by treatment. Following ET, a combined depletion of insulin and BCAA during embryo culture induced a non sex-specific increase in birth weight and weight gain during early postnatal life. Furthermore, male offspring displayed relative hypertension and female offspring reduced heart/body weight, both characteristics of Emb-LPD offspring. Combined depletion of metabolites also resulted in a strong positive correlation between body weight and glucose metabolism that was absent in the control group. Our results support the notion that composition of preimplantation culture medium can programme development and associate with disease origin affecting postnatal growth and cardiovascular phenotypes and implicate two important nutritional mediators in the inductive mechanism. Our data also have implications for human assisted reproductive treatment (ART) practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A feasible strategy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for carriers with chromosomal translocation: Using blastocyst biopsy and array comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu-Chun Huang

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: Our study demonstrates an effective PGD strategy with promising outcomes. Blastocyst biopsy can retrieve more genetic material and may provide more reliable results, and aCGH offers not only detection of chromosomal translocation but also more comprehensive analysis of 24 chromosomes than traditional FISH. More cases are needed to verify our results and this strategy might be considered in general clinical practice.

  5. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H. (Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium). Dep. de Biologie Moleculaire)

    1984-06-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with (/sup 3/H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min (/sup 3/H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with (/sup 3/H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed.

  6. Ultrastructural and autoradiographic studies of nucleolar development and rDNA transcription in preimplantation mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geuskens, M.; Alexandre, H.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the nucleoli and the sites of rDNA transcription have been studies by high-resolution autoradiography during the cleavage stages of mouse embryos. The appearance of fibrillar centres at the periphery of the fibrillar primary nucleoli has been observed at the 4-cell stage. Several fibrillar centres interconnected by electron-dense fibrillar strands, form a reticulated region around the fibrillar mass at the 6- to 8-cell stage. After a 10 min pulse with ( 3 H)uridine, only this peripheral network is labelled. At the late morula and at the blastocyst stage, the fibrillar component (nucleolonema) of the reticulated nucleoli is labelled after 10 min ( 3 H)uridine incorporation. When the embryos are reincubated for 2 h in cold medium, the label is localized mainly in the granular component. Fibrillar centres are not labelled. Autoradiograms of in vitro developed embryos pulsed for 2 h with ( 3 H)uridine confirm that the central fibrillar core of the nucleoli of 6- to 8-cell embryos is never labelled. Thus, the fibrillar constituent of this core is not homologous to the fibrillar component of the nucleoli of later stage embryos, which is the site of active rDNA transcription. An interpretation of nucleologenesis during early mouse embryogenesis is proposed. (author)

  7. The perfect host: a mouse host embryo facilitating more efficient germ line transmission of genetically modified embryonic stem cells.

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    Robert A Taft

    Full Text Available There is a continual need to improve efficiency in creating precise genetic modifications in mice using embryonic stem cells (ESCs. We describe a novel approach resulting in 100% germline transmission from competent injected ESCs. We developed an F1 mouse host embryo (Perfect Host, PH that selectively ablates its own germ cells via tissue-specific induction of diphtheria toxin. This approach allows competent microinjected ESCs to fully dominate the germline, eliminating competition for this critical niche in the developing and adult animal. This is in contrast to conventional methods, where competition from host germ cells results in offspring derived from host cells and ESCs, necessitating extensive breeding of chimeras and genotyping to identify germline. The germline transmission process is also complicated by variability in the actual number of ESCs that colonize the germline niche and the proportion that are germline competent. To validate the PH approach we used ESC lines derived from 129 F1, BALB/cByJ, and BTBR backgrounds as well as an iPS line. Resulting chimeric males produced 194 offspring, all paternally derived from the introduced stem cells, with no offspring being derived from the host genome. We further tested this approach using eleven genetically modified C57BL/6N ESC lines (International Knockout Mouse Consortium. ESC germline transmission was observed in 9/11 (82% lines using PH blastocysts, compared to 6/11 (55% when conventional host blastocysts were used. Furthermore, less than 35% (83/240 of mice born in the first litters from conventional chimeras were confirmed to be of ESC-origin. By comparison, 100% (137/137 of the first litter offspring of PH chimeras were confirmed as ESC-derived. Together, these data demonstrate that the PH approach increases the probability of germline transmission and speeds the generation of ESC derived animals from chimeras. Collectively, this approach reduces the time and costs inherent in the

  8. Live imaging of individual cell divisions in mouse neuroepithelium shows asymmetry in cilium formation and Sonic hedgehog response

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    Piotrowska-Nitsche Karolina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary cilia are microtubule-based sensory organelles that play important roles in developmental signaling pathways. Recent work demonstrated that, in cell culture, the daughter cell that inherits the older mother centriole generates a primary cilium and responds to external stimuli prior to its sister cell. This asynchrony in timing of cilia formation could be especially critical during development as cell divisions are required for both differentiation and maintenance of progenitor cell niches. Methods Here we integrate several fluorescent markers and use ex vivo live imaging of a single cell division within the mouse E8.5 neuroepithelium to reveal both the formation of a primary cilium and the transcriptional response to Sonic hedgehog in the daughter cells. Results We show that, upon cell division, cilia formation and the Sonic hedgehog response are asynchronous between the daughter cells. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that we can directly observe single cell divisions within the developing neuroepithelium and concomitantly monitor cilium formation or Sonic hedgehog response. We expect this method to be especially powerful in examining whether cellular behavior can lead to both differentiation and maintenance of cells in a progenitor niche.

  9. Cell colony formation induced by Xenopus egg extract as a marker for improvement of cloned blastocyst formation in pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan

    2011-01-01

    method based on the colony formation of cells after extract treatment, and subsequent in vitro cloning efficiency using treated cells as chromatin donors. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were treated with each batch of extract, and cultured in embryonic stem cell (ES) medium for 12 days. The number of forming...

  10. Live Birth from Previously Vitrified Oocytes, after Trophectoderm Biopsy, Revitrification, and Transfer of a Euploid Blastocyst

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    Jamie A. Grifo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to describe a successful live birth from oocyte vitrification followed by thaw, fertilization, blastocyst culture, trophectoderm biopsy, vitrification, and subsequent thaw. Fifteen mature oocytes were frozen from a patient with uterine factor infertility. Thirteen oocytes survived the thaw, and five underwent trophectoderm biopsy and were refrozen. Three euploid embryos were obtained. A single euploid embryo was transferred in the second thaw cycle to a known recipient leading to the delivery of a normal male infant. This case report is proof of the concept that preimplantation screening and diagnosis is an option for fertility preservation patients.

  11. Single-mass mutations associated with mouse lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, I.; Berman, J.W.; Diamond, L.E.; Newcomb, E.W.; Villasante, A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the induction of mouse lymphomas after treatment with a chemical carcinogen, nitrosomethyl urea (NMU), or with gamma irradiation. The koplan fractionated gamma radiation scheme and an established protocol for NMU tumor formation were chosen as protocols for induction of mouse lymphomas. In both cases, the mice developed thymic lymphomas with up to 90% incidence. In NMU induction, the latency period is shorter than irradiation

  12. Genome Transfer Prevents Fragmentation and Restores Developmental Potential of Developmentally Compromised Postovulatory Aged Mouse Oocytes

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    Mitsutoshi Yamada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in oocyte quality can have great impact on the developmental potential of early embryos. Here we test whether nuclear genome transfer from a developmentally incompetent to a developmentally competent oocyte can restore developmental potential. Using in vitro oocyte aging as a model system we performed nuclear transfer in mouse oocytes at metaphase II or at the first interphase, and observed that development to the blastocyst stage and to term was as efficient as in control embryos. The increased developmental potential is explained primarily by correction of abnormal cytokinesis at anaphase of meiosis and mitosis, by a reduction in chromosome segregation errors, and by normalization of the localization of chromosome passenger complex components survivin and cyclin B1. These observations demonstrate that developmental decline is primarily due to abnormal function of cytoplasmic factors involved in cytokinesis, while the genome remains developmentally fully competent.

  13. Quantitative imaging of lipids in live mouse oocytes and early embryos using CARS microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Josephine; Pope, Iestyn; Masia, Francesco; Sanusi, Randa; Langbein, Wolfgang; Borri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes contain lipid droplets that are a store of fatty acids, whose metabolism plays a substantial role in pre-implantation development. Fluorescent staining has previously been used to image lipid droplets in mammalian oocytes and embryos, but this method is not quantitative and often incompatible with live cell imaging and subsequent development. Here we have applied chemically specific, label-free coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy to mouse oocytes and pre-implantation embryos. We show that CARS imaging can quantify the size, number and spatial distribution of lipid droplets in living mouse oocytes and embryos up to the blastocyst stage. Notably, it can be used in a way that does not compromise oocyte maturation or embryo development. We have also correlated CARS with two-photon fluorescence microscopy simultaneously acquired using fluorescent lipid probes on fixed samples, and found only a partial degree of correlation, depending on the lipid probe, clearly exemplifying the limitation of lipid labelling. In addition, we show that differences in the chemical composition of lipid droplets in living oocytes matured in media supplemented with different saturated and unsaturated fatty acids can be detected using CARS hyperspectral imaging. These results demonstrate that CARS microscopy provides a novel non-invasive method of quantifying lipid content, type and spatial distribution with sub-micron resolution in living mammalian oocytes and embryos. PMID:27151947

  14. Cross-species transcriptomic approach reveals genes in hamster implantation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wei; Herington, Jennifer; Galindo, Cristi L; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, Bibhash C

    2014-12-01

    The mouse model has greatly contributed to understanding molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of progesterone (P4) plus estrogen (E)-dependent blastocyst implantation process. However, little is known about contributory molecular mechanisms of the P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation process that occurs in species such as hamsters, guineapigs, rabbits, pigs, rhesus monkeys, and perhaps humans. We used the hamster as a model of P4-only-dependent blastocyst implantation and carried out cross-species microarray (CSM) analyses to reveal differentially expressed genes at the blastocyst implantation site (BIS), in order to advance the understanding of molecular mechanisms of implantation. Upregulation of 112 genes and downregulation of 77 genes at the BIS were identified using a mouse microarray platform, while use of the human microarray revealed 62 up- and 38 down-regulated genes at the BIS. Excitingly, a sizable number of genes (30 up- and 11 down-regulated genes) were identified as a shared pool by both CSMs. Real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization validated the expression patterns of several up- and down-regulated genes identified by both CSMs at the hamster and mouse BIS to demonstrate the merit of CSM findings across species, in addition to revealing genes specific to hamsters. Functional annotation analysis found that genes involved in the spliceosome, proteasome, and ubiquination pathways are enriched at the hamster BIS, while genes associated with tight junction, SAPK/JNK signaling, and PPARα/RXRα signalings are repressed at the BIS. Overall, this study provides a pool of genes and evidence of their participation in up- and down-regulated cellular functions/pathways at the hamster BIS. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  15. Anti-osteoporotic activity of harpagide by regulation of bone formation in osteoblast cell culture and ovariectomy-induced bone loss mouse models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwa-Jin; Kyung Kim, Won; Joo Park, Hyen; Cho, Lan; Kim, Me-Riong; Kim, Min Jeong; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ho Lee, Jin; Ha, In-Hyuk; Kook Lee, Sang

    2016-02-17

    Harpagide, an iridoid glucoside, is a constituent of the root of Harpagophytum procumbens var. sublobatum (Engl.) Stapf, Devil's claw which has been used in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). In the present study, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic potential of harpagide and its underlying mechanism of action in in vitro cell culture and in vivo bone loss animal models. Harpagide was obtained from the alkalic hydrolysis of harpagoside, a major constituent of H. procumbens var. sublobatum Analysis of biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone resorption in osteoclast cells derived from mouse bone marrow cells was performed to evaluate the mechanism of action. The protective activity of harpagide against bone loss was also evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. Harpagide improved bone properties by stimulating the process of differentiation and maturation of osteoblast cells and suppressing the process of RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclast cells. In OVX-induced bone loss mouse model, oral administration of harpagide significantly improved recovery of bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, and trabecular number in the femur. Harpagide also prevented increase of trabecular separation and structure model index induced by OVX. Harpagide effectively inhibited the serum levels of biochemical markers of bone loss, including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, C-terminal telopeptide, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that harpagide has a potential for prevention of bone loss in OVX mice by regulating the stimulation of osteoblast differentiation and the suppression of osteoclast formation. Therefore, these findings suggest that harpagide might serve as a bioactive compound derived from H. procumbens var. sublobatum for improvement of age-dependent bone destruction disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel embryo culture media supplement that improves pregnancy rates in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highet, A R; Bianco-Miotto, T; Pringle, K G; Peura, A; Bent, S; Zhang, J; Nottle, M B; Thompson, J G; Roberts, C T

    2017-03-01

    The preimplantation embryo in vivo is exposed to numerous growth factors in the female reproductive tract, which are not recapitulated in embryo culture media in vitro The IGF2 and plasminogen activator systems facilitate blastocyst development. We hypothesized that the addition of IGF2 in combination with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen could improve rates of blastocyst hatching and implantation in mice. B6BcF1 and CBAB6F2 mouse embryos were divided into one of four supplemented culture media treatment groups: (1) control (media only); (2) 12.5 nM IGF2; (3) 10 µg/mL uPA and 5 µg/mL plasminogen; or (4) a combination of IGF2, uPA and plasminogen treatments. Embryo development to blastocyst stage and hatching were assessed before transfer to pseudopregnant recipient females and implantation, pregnancy rates and postnatal growth were assessed. After 90.5 h of culture, IGF2 + U + P treatment increased the percentage of B6BcF1 embryos that were hatching/hatched and percentage developing to blastocyst stage compared with controls (P culture, IGF2, uPA and plasminogen supplementation of culture media can improve pregnancy success, but the effect of treatment is dependent on the mouse strain. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  17. High-fidelity Glucagon-CreER mouse line generated by CRISPR-Cas9 assisted gene targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Ackermann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: α-cells are the second most prominent cell type in pancreatic islets and are responsible for producing glucagon to increase plasma glucose levels in times of fasting. α-cell dysfunction and inappropriate glucagon secretion occur in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Thus, there is growing interest in studying both normal function and pathophysiology of α-cells. However, tools to target gene ablation or activation specifically of α-cells have been limited, compared to those available for β-cells. Previous Glucagon-Cre and Glucagon-CreER transgenic mouse lines have suffered from transgene silencing, and the only available Glucagon-CreER “knock-in” mouse line results in glucagon haploinsufficiency, which can confound the interpretation of gene deletion analyses. Therefore, we sought to develop a Glucagon-CreERT2 mouse line that would maintain normal glucagon expression and would be less susceptible to transgene silencing. Methods: We utilized CRISPR-Cas9 technology to insert an IRES-CreERT2 sequence into the 3′ UTR of the Glucagon (Gcg locus in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs. Targeted ESC clones were then injected into mouse blastocysts to obtain Gcg-CreERT2 mice. Recombination efficiency in GCG+ pancreatic α-cells and glucagon-like peptide 1 positive (GLP1+ enteroendocrine L-cells was measured in Gcg-CreERT2;Rosa26-LSL-YFP mice injected with tamoxifen during fetal development and adulthood. Results: Tamoxifen injection of Gcg-CreERT2;Rosa26-LSL-YFP mice induced high recombination efficiency of the Rosa26-LSL-YFP locus in perinatal and adult α-cells (88% and 95%, respectively, as well as in first-wave fetal α-cells (36% and adult enteroendocrine L-cells (33%. Mice homozygous for the Gcg-CreERT2 allele were phenotypically normal. Conclusions: We successfully derived a Gcg-CreERT2 mouse line that expresses CreERT2 in pancreatic α-cells and enteroendocrine L-cells without disrupting preproglucagon gene expression. These mice

  18. Synthesis and Blastocyst Implantation Inhibition Potential of Lupeol Derivatives in Female Mice

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    Anita Mahapatra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Blastocyst implantation which is analogous to pro-inflammatory response, mediated by different inflammatory mediators and ovarian hormones found to be an effective target for the development of emergency contraceptives. In the present study, a series of derivatives an anti-inflammatory natural scaffold, lupeol were synthesized under mild reaction conditions and good yield. All the compounds were evaluated for acute anti-inflammation. The three active compounds with 62-92% edema protection were screened for chronic anti-inflammation. The analogue 3-(p-chlorocinnamoyl lupeol ( 2 with potent anti-inflammatory activity (85% protection was evaluated for t he anti-implantation activity by studying changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD and lipid peroxidation (LPO levels, visualization of implantation site and anti-estrogenic activity. As expected, a sharp decrease in superoxide anion radical and increase in SOD activity was seen in the endometrium of treated animals. Also no implantation sites were observed in the uterus of treated animals. The active compound also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity.

  19. Increased synthesis of heparin affin regulatory peptide in the perforant path lesioned mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F R; Lagord, C; Courty, J

    2000-01-01

    Heparin affin regulatory peptide (HARP), also known as pleiotrophin or heparin-binding growth-associated molecule, is a developmentally regulated extracellular matrix protein that induces cell proliferation and promotes neurite outgrowth in vitro as well as pre- and postsynaptic developmental...... differentiation in vivo. Here we have investigated the expression of HARP mRNA and protein in the perforant path lesioned C57B1/6 mouse hippocampal formation from 1 to 35 days after surgery. This type of lesion induces a dense anterograde and terminal axonal degeneration, activation of glial cells, and reactive...... axonal sprouting within the perforant path zones of the fascia dentata and hippocampus as well as axotomy-induced retrograde neuronal degeneration in the entorhinal cortex. Analysis of sham- and unoperated control mice showed that HARP mRNA is expressed in neurons and white and gray matter glial cells...

  20. Spatiotemporal expression of endogenous opioid processing enzymes in mouse uterus at peri-implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Chen, Yongjie; Wang, Haibin

    2016-02-01

    Successful implantation requires intimate interactions between a competent blastocyst and a receptive uterus. We recently demonstrated that the aberrant activation of opioid signaling by exogenous ligands adversely affects preimplantation embryonic development and subsequent implantation in mice. However, the underlying machinery governing the dynamic homeostasis of the endogenous opioid system in the uterus during early pregnancy remains elusive. We now show that all three major endogenous opioid precursors are spatiotemporally expressed in the uterus during early pregnancy. Moreover, we observe the well-coordinated expression of the synthetic enzyme prohormone convertases 1/3 (PC1/3) at lower levels and of its inhibitor proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 inhibitor (Pcsk1n) and the degrading enzyme membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) at higher levels in the receptive uterus. Both estrogen and progestin tend to reduce the uterine levels of opioid ligand precursors in the ovariectomized mouse model. This tight regulation of the endogenous opioid system by PC1/3, Pcsk1n and MME has been further confirmed in physiologically related pseudopregnancy and delayed implantation mouse models. The coordinated regulation of opioid precursor biosynthesis and metabolism helps to create appropriate opioid signaling ensuring uterine receptivity for implantation. Thus, endogenous uterine opioid levels are primarily determined by the coordinated expressions of PC1/3, Pcsk1n and MME under the influence of ovarian progestin and estrogen. Our findings raise an additional cautionary note regarding the effects of opioid abuse on early pregnancy events.

  1. Single-Cell Profiling of Epigenetic Modifiers Identifies PRDM14 as an Inducer of Cell Fate in the Mammalian Embryo

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    Adam Burton

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell plasticity or potency is necessary for the formation of multiple cell types. The mechanisms underlying this plasticity are largely unknown. Preimplantation mouse embryos undergo drastic changes in cellular potency, starting with the totipotent zygote through to the formation of the pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM and differentiated trophectoderm in the blastocyst. Here, we set out to identify and functionally characterize chromatin modifiers that define the transitions of potency and cell fate in the mouse embryo. Using a quantitative microfluidics approach in single cells, we show that developmental transitions are marked by distinctive combinatorial profiles of epigenetic modifiers. Pluripotent cells of the ICM are distinct from their differentiated trophectoderm counterparts. We show that PRDM14 is heterogeneously expressed in 4-cell-stage embryos. Forced expression of PRDM14 at the 2-cell stage leads to increased H3R26me2 and can induce a pluripotent ICM fate. Our results shed light on the epigenetic networks that govern cellular potency and identity in vivo.

  2. Poor embryo development in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, but mitochondrial transfer from somatic cells is not sufficient for rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Hideki; Takahashi, Toshifumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Osamu; Nagase, Satoru

    2016-10-01

    Does in vivo aging of mouse oocytes affect mitochondrial function? Mitochondrial function was impaired in post-ovulatory in vivo-aged mouse oocytes and microinjection of somatic cell mitochondria did not rescue poor fertilization and embryonic development rates. The mechanisms underlying the decline in oocyte quality associated with oocyte aging remain unknown, although studies have suggested that the decline is regulated by mitochondrial dysfunction. However, only a limited number of studies have provided direct evidence implicating mitochondrial dysfunction in oocyte quality during the aging of oocytes. We used post-ovulatory, in vivo-aged mouse oocytes as a model for studying low-quality oocytes in oocyte aging. Superovulated oocytes released from the oviduct at 14 h and 20-24 h post-hCG injection were designated as 'fresh' and 'aged' oocytes, respectively. Membrane potentials and oxygen consumption in single oocytes were evaluated as measures of mitochondrial function in fresh and aged oocytes. Mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) expression levels were examined by western blotting, and colocalization of mitochondria and TFAM was analyzed by measuring immunofluorescence in fresh and aged oocytes. IVF and blastocyst formation rates were calculated after oocyte microinjection with mitochondria derived from liver cells. The average mitochondrial membrane potential in fresh oocytes was significantly higher than that in aged oocytes (P transfer of cytosolic factors or cellular organelles, such as the endoplasmic reticulum or mitochondria, from specific cell types. This study was supported by Grants-in-Aid for General Science Research to Toshifumi Takahashi (No. 25462550) and Hideki Igarashi (No. 26462474). The funding source played no role in study design in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. The authors have no conflict of interest to disclose.

  3. Wnt/β-catenin signalling regulates Sox17 expression and is essential for organizer and endoderm formation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engert, Silvia; Burtscher, Ingo; Liao, W Perry; Dulev, Stanimir; Schotta, Gunnar; Lickert, Heiko

    2013-08-01

    Several signalling cascades are implicated in the formation and patterning of the three principal germ layers, but their precise temporal-spatial mode of action in progenitor populations remains undefined. We have used conditional gene deletion of mouse β-catenin in Sox17-positive embryonic and extra-embryonic endoderm as well as vascular endothelial progenitors to address the function of canonical Wnt signalling in cell lineage formation and patterning. Conditional mutants fail to form anterior brain structures and exhibit posterior body axis truncations, whereas initial blood vessel formation appears normal. Tetraploid rescue experiments reveal that lack of β-catenin in the anterior visceral endoderm results in defects in head organizer formation. Sox17 lineage tracing in the definitive endoderm (DE) shows a cell-autonomous requirement for β-catenin in midgut and hindgut formation. Surprisingly, wild-type posterior visceral endoderm (PVE) in midgut- and hindgut-deficient tetraploid chimera rescues the posterior body axis truncation, indicating that the PVE is important for tail organizer formation. Upon loss of β-catenin in the visceral endoderm and DE lineages, but not in the vascular endothelial lineage, Sox17 expression is not maintained, suggesting downstream regulation by canonical Wnt signalling. Strikingly, Tcf4/β-catenin transactivation complexes accumulated on Sox17 cis-regulatory elements specifically upon endoderm induction in an embryonic stem cell differentiation system. Together, these results indicate that the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway regulates Sox17 expression for visceral endoderm pattering and DE formation and provide the first functional evidence that the PVE is necessary for gastrula organizer gene induction and posterior axis development.

  4. Mouse model of chromosome mosaicism reveals lineage-specific depletion of aneuploid cells and normal developmental potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Helen; Graham, Sarah J L; Van der Aa, Niels; Kumar, Parveen; Theunis, Koen; Fernandez Gallardo, Elia; Voet, Thierry; Zernicka-Goetz, Magdalena

    2016-03-29

    Most human pre-implantation embryos are mosaics of euploid and aneuploid cells. To determine the fate of aneuploid cells and the developmental potential of mosaic embryos, here we generate a mouse model of chromosome mosaicism. By treating embryos with a spindle assembly checkpoint inhibitor during the four- to eight-cell division, we efficiently generate aneuploid cells, resulting in embryo death during peri-implantation development. Live-embryo imaging and single-cell tracking in chimeric embryos, containing aneuploid and euploid cells, reveal that the fate of aneuploid cells depends on lineage: aneuploid cells in the fetal lineage are eliminated by apoptosis, whereas those in the placental lineage show severe proliferative defects. Overall, the proportion of aneuploid cells is progressively depleted from the blastocyst stage onwards. Finally, we show that mosaic embryos have full developmental potential, provided they contain sufficient euploid cells, a finding of significance for the assessment of embryo vitality in the clinic.

  5. Convergence of bone morphogenetic protein and laminin-1 signaling pathways promotes proliferation and colony formation by fetal mouse pancreatic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Fangxu; Harrison, Leonard C.

    2005-01-01

    We previously reported that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, together with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin-1 (Ln-1), promote proliferation of fetal pancreatic cells and formation of colonies containing peripheral insulin-positive cells. Here, we further investigate the cross-talk between BMP and Ln-1 signals. By RT-PCR, receptors for BMP (BMPR) (excepting BMPR-1B) and Ln-1 were expressed in the fetal pancreas between E13.5 and E17.5. Specific blocking antibodies to BMP-4 and -6 and selective BMP antagonists partially inhibited colony formation by fetal pancreas cells. Colony formation induced by BMP-6 and Ln-1 was completely abolished in a dose-dependent manner by blocking Ln-1 binding to its α 6 integrin and α-dystroglycan receptors or by blocking the Ln-1 signaling molecules, phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (P13K) and MAP kinase kinase-1. These results demonstrate a convergence of BMP and Ln-1 signaling through P13K and MAP kinase pathways to induce proliferation and colony formation in E15.5 fetal mouse pancreatic cells

  6. Blastocyst development in single medium with or without renewal on day 3: a prospective cohort study on sibling donor oocytes in a time-lapse incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Borges, Nuno; Bellés, Marta; Meseguer, Marcos; Galliano, Daniela; Ballesteros, Agustin; Calderón, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of using a continuous (one-step) protocol with a single medium for the culture of human embryos in a time-lapse incubator (TLI). Prospective cohort study on sibling donor oocytes. University-affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. Embryos from 59 patients. Culture in a TLI in a single medium with or without renewal of the medium on day-3. Embryo morphology and morphokinetic parameters, clinical pregnancy, take-home baby rate, and perinatal outcomes. The blastocyst rates (68.3 vs. 66.8%) and the proportion of good-quality blastocysts (transferred plus frozen) obtained with the two-step (80.0%) protocol were statistically significantly similar to those obtained in the one-step protocol (72.2%). Similarly, morphokinetic events from early cleavage until late blastocyst stages were statistically significantly equivalent between both groups. No differences were found either in clinical pregnancy rates when comparing pure transfers performed with embryos selected from the two-step (75.0%), one-step (70.0%, respectively), and mixed (57.1%) groups. A total of 55 out of 91 embryos transferred implanted successfully (60.4%), resulting in a total of 37 newborns with a comparable birth weight mean among groups. Our findings support the idea that in a TLI with a controlled air purification system, human embryos can be successfully cultured continuously from day 0 onward in single medium with no need to renew it on day-3. This strategy does not affect embryo morphokinetics or development to term and offers more stable culture conditions for embryos as well as practical advantages and reduced costs for the IVF laboratory. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. OCT4 expression in outgrowth colonies derived from porcine inner cell masses and epiblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M A; Wolf, X A; Schauser, K

    2011-01-01

    on the relationship between OCT4 expression and embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like morphology. A total of 104 zona pellucida-enclosed and 101 hatched blastocysts were subjected to four different methods of ICM and epiblast isolation, respectively: Manual isolation, immunosurgery, immunosurgery with manual cleaning......, or whole blastocyst culture. OCs were established on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells and categorized according to morphology and OCT4 staining. Although all isolation methods resulted in ESC-like OCs, immunosurgery with manual cleaning yielded significantly higher rates of ICM/epiblast attachment...

  8. No cytotoxic effects from application of pentoxifylline to spermatozoa on subsequent pre-implantation embryo development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Khalili

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the effect of spermatozoa exposed to PTX on the rates of fertilization and embryo development and apoptotic cells within blastocysts in an animal model. Mice Oocytes were inseminated with spermatozoa exposed to 3.6 mmol PTX for 30 min, or with neat spermatozoa. Then fertilization and embryo development rate, blastocyst formation and quality, as well as total cell number of blastocyst, and DNA fragmentation index (DFI in blastocysts were surveyed in both groups. Fertilization and embryo development rate were similar between the groups. The rates of blastocyst formation did not differ significantly between control and PTX groups (52.4% vs. 51.8%. The average of total cell count in blastocysts and DFI in control and PTX groups were also insignificant (31.08 ± 1.5 vs. 34.14 ± 1.5 and 9.76 ± 5.0 vs. 11.77 ± 5.4. Application of PTX for enhancing sperm motility does not cause a cytotoxic effect on subsequent embryo development and embryo genome integrity.

  9. Metformin prevents methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis of mouse Schwann cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kimiko; Nakamura, Jiro; Li, Weiguo; Kozakae, Mika; Watarai, Atsuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Yasuda, Yutaka; Nakashima, Eirtaro; Naruse, Keiko; Watabe, Kazuhiko; Kato, Koichi; Oiso, Yutaka; Hamada, Yoji

    2007-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MG) is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications via the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). To clarify whether the antidiabetic drug metformin prevents Schwann cell damage induced by MG, we cultured mouse Schwann cells in the presence of MG and metformin. Cell apoptosis was evaluated using Hoechst 33342 nuclear staining, caspase-3 activity, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Intracellular ROS formation was determined by flow cytometry, and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation was also examined. MG treatment resulted in blunted cell proliferation, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, and the activation of caspase-3 and JNK along with enhanced intracellular ROS formation. All of these changes were significantly inhibited by metformin. No significant activation of AMPK by MG or metformin was observed. Taken together, metformin likely prevents MG-induced apoptotic signals in mouse Schwann cells by inhibiting the formation of AGEs and ROS

  10. Comparison of the metabolic activation of environmental carcinogens in mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krais, Annette M.; Mühlbauer, Karl-Rudolf; Kucab, Jill E.; Chinbuah, Helena; Cornelius, Michael G.; Wei, Quan-Xiang; Hollstein, Monica; Phillips, David H.; Arlt, Volker M.; Schmeiser, Heinz H.

    2015-01-01

    We compared mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and fibroblasts (MEFs) for their ability to metabolically activate the environmental carcinogens benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) and aristolochic acid I (AAI), measuring DNA adduct formation by 32P-postlabelling and expression of xenobiotic-metabolism genes by quantitative real-time PCR. At 2 μM, BaP induced Cyp1a1 expression in MEFs to a much greater extent than in ES cells and formed 45 times more adducts. Nqo1 mRNA expression was increased by 3-NBA in both cell types but induction was higher in MEFs, as was adduct formation. For AAI, DNA binding was over 450 times higher in MEFs than in ES cells, although Nqo1 and Cyp1a1 transcriptional levels did not explain this difference. We found higher global methylation of DNA in ES cells than in MEFs, which suggests higher chromatin density and lower accessibility of the DNA to DNA damaging agents in ES cells. However, AAI treatment did not alter DNA methylation. Thus mouse ES cells and MEFs have the metabolic competence to activate a number of environmental carcinogens, but MEFs have lower global DNA methylation and higher metabolic capacity than mouse ES cells. PMID:25230394

  11. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, Young Woo [Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering Center, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin [Biomedical Research Institute, Lifeliver Co., Ltd., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Jin [Dr. Park' s Aesthetic Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong In, E-mail: oncochem@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Soo, E-mail: khsmd@unitel.co.kr [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. {yields} hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  12. Effective myotube formation in human adipose tissue-derived stem cells expressing dystrophin and myosin heavy chain by cellular fusion with mouse C2C12 myoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Young Woo; Lee, Jong Eun; Yang, Mal Sook; Jang, In Keun; Kim, Hyo Eun; Lee, Doo Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Won Jin; Kong, Jee Hyun; Shim, Kwang Yong; Lee, Jong In; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → hASCs were differentiated into skeletal muscle cells by treatment with 5-azacytidine, FGF-2, and the supernatant of cultured hASCs. → Dystrophin and MyHC were expressed in late differentiation step by treatment with the supernatant of cultured hASCs. → hASCs expressing dystrophin and MyHC contributed to myotube formation during co-culture with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. -- Abstract: Stem cell therapy for muscular dystrophies requires stem cells that are able to participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. However, the differentiation steps that are the most critical for this process are not clear. We investigated the myogenic phases of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) step by step and the capability of myotube formation according to the differentiation phase by cellular fusion with mouse myoblast C2C12 cells. In hASCs treated with 5-azacytidine and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) for 1 day, the early differentiation step to express MyoD and myogenin was induced by FGF-2 treatment for 6 days. Dystrophin and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression was induced by hASC conditioned medium in the late differentiation step. Myotubes were observed only in hASCs undergoing the late differentiation step by cellular fusion with C2C12 cells. In contrast, hASCs that were normal or in the early stage were not involved in myotube formation. Our results indicate that stem cells expressing dystrophin and MyHC are more suitable for myotube formation by co-culture with myoblasts than normal or early differentiated stem cells expressing MyoD and myogenin.

  13. Increased synthesis of heparin affin regulatory peptide in the perforant path lesioned mouse hippocampal formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, F R; Lagord, C; Courty, J

    2000-01-01

    differentiation in vivo. Here we have investigated the expression of HARP mRNA and protein in the perforant path lesioned C57B1/6 mouse hippocampal formation from 1 to 35 days after surgery. This type of lesion induces a dense anterograde and terminal axonal degeneration, activation of glial cells, and reactive...... axonal sprouting within the perforant path zones of the fascia dentata and hippocampus as well as axotomy-induced retrograde neuronal degeneration in the entorhinal cortex. Analysis of sham- and unoperated control mice showed that HARP mRNA is expressed in neurons and white and gray matter glial cells...... as well as vascular and pial cells throughout the normal, adult brain. Lesioning induced high levels of HARP mRNA in astroglial-like cells in the denervated zones of fascia dentata and hippocampus as soon as day 2 postlesion. This expression reached maximum at day 4, and declined toward normal at day 7...

  14. Comparison of the developmental potential of 2-week-old preantral follicles derived from vitrified ovarian tissue slices, vitrified whole ovaries and vitrified/transplanted newborn mouse ovaries using the metal surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Kung-Hao

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryopreservation of preantral follicles or ovarian tissues would enable the storage of large numbers of primordial follicles or preantral follicles and preserves the structural integrity of somatic and reproductive cells. In the present study, we compared the developmental potential of cryopreserved two-week-old mouse preantral follicles, ovarian tissue slices, two-week-old mouse ovaries and newborn mouse ovaries using a metal plate with a high cooling rate for cooling the droplet of vitrification solution. Methods Groups of 2 to 4 samples (including of 14-day old preantral follicles, ovarian tissue slices, whole ovaries, and whole newborn ovaries were exposed to 4% ethylene glycol (EG in DPBS + 10% FBS for 15 min and then rinsed in a vitrification solution composed of 6 M ethylene glycol and 0.4 M trehalose in DPBS + 10% FBS. Equilibration in room temperature was performed for 20–30 seconds for preantral follicle and 5 min equilibration was performed in an ice bath for ovaries. The samples were dropped onto the surface of metal plate around -180°C in the volume of 2 μl and 6 μl. After thawing, the ovarian tissue was mechanically isolated for collecting the preantral follicles. The thawed newborn ovaries were transplanted under the renal capsule of recipient male mice for 14 days. Preantral follicles collected from each groups were cultured individually in 20-μl droplets of α-MEM culture medium in culture dish for 12 days. On the day 12 of culture, the cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were collected for IVM and IVF. Fertilization and embryo cleavage were scored. Results After the vitrification of 14-day-old preantral follicles using 2 μl or 6 μl droplet onto surface of metal plate, the results indicated that no significant difference in survival rate, antral-like cavity formation, COCs collected, 2 cell embryo cleavage and blastocyst development was found in vitrification of the 2 μl and 6 μl droplet groups. As

  15. The Influence of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Microarray-Based Molecular Karyotype on Preimplantation Embryonic Development Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the influence of the molecular karyotype based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray on embryonic development potential in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical data generated by PGD using embryos retrieved from parents with chromosome rearrangements in our center. In total, 929 embryos from 119 couples had exact diagnosis and development status. The blastocyst formation rate of balanced molecular karyotype embryos was 56.6% (276/488, which was significantly higher than that of genetic imbalanced embryos 24.5% (108/441 (P35 respectively. Blastocyst formation rates of male and female embryos were 44.5% (183/411 and 38.8% (201/518 respectively, with no significant difference between them (P>0.05. The rates of balanced molecular karyotype embryos vary from groups of embryos with different cell numbers at 68 hours after insemination. The blastocyst formation rate of embryos with 6-8 cells (48.1% was significantly higher than that of embryos with 8 cells (42.9% (P8 cells, embryos with 6-8 blastomeres have higher rate of balanced molecular karyotype and blastocyst formation.

  16. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for chromosomal rearrangements with the use of array comparative genomic hybridization at the blastocyst stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Christodoulos; Dheedene, Annelies; Heindryckx, Björn; van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Deforce, Dieter; De Sutter, Petra; Menten, Björn; Van den Abbeel, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    To establish the value of array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in embryos of translocation carriers in combination with vitrification and frozen embryo transfer in nonstimulated cycles. Retrospective data analysis study. Academic centers for reproductive medicine and genetics. Thirty-four couples undergoing PGD for chromosomal rearrangements from October 2013 to December 2015. Trophectoderm biopsy at day 5 or day 6 of embryo development and subsequently whole genome amplification and array CGH were performed. This approach revealed a high occurrence of aneuploidies and structural rearrangements unrelated to the parental rearrangement. Nevertheless, we observed a benefit in pregnancy rates of these couples. We detected chromosomal abnormalities in 133/207 embryos (64.2% of successfully amplified), and 74 showed a normal microarray profile (35.7%). In 48 of the 133 abnormal embryos (36.1%), an unbalanced rearrangement originating from the parental translocation was identified. Interestingly, 34.6% of the abnormal embryos (46/133) harbored chromosome rearrangements that were not directly linked to the parental translocation in question. We also detected a combination of unbalanced parental-derived rearrangements and aneuploidies in 27 of the 133 abnormal embryos (20.3%). The use of trophectoderm biopsy at the blastocyst stage is less detrimental to the survival of the embryo and leads to a more reliable estimate of the genomic content of the embryo than cleavage-stage biopsy. In this small cohort PGD study, we describe the successful implementation of array CGH analysis of blastocysts in patients with a chromosomal rearrangement to identify euploid embryos for transfer. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Extended Culture of Encapsulated Human Blastocysts in Alginate Hydrogel Containing Decidualized Endometrial Stromal Cells in the Presence of Melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Fatemeh; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Arasteh, Shaghayegh; Mohammadzadeh, Afsaneh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Akhondi, Mohammad-Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Extended in vitro culture of human embryos beyond blastocyst stage could serve as a tool to explore the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying embryo development and to identify factors regulating pregnancy outcomes. This study presents the first report on the maintenance of human embryo in vitro by alginate co-encapsulation of human blastocyst and decidualized endometrial stromal cells (EnSCs) under melatonin-fortified culture conditions. The effectiveness of the 3D culture system was studied through monitoring of embryo development in terms of survival time, viability, morphological changes, and production of the two hormones of 17b-oestradiol and human chorionic gonadotropin. The embryo structural integrity was preserved during alginate encapsulation; however, only 23 % of the encapsulated embryos could retain in the hydrogels over time and survived until day 4 post-encapsulation. The culture medium fortification with melatonin significantly elevated the maintenance rate of expanded embryos in alginate beads by 65 % and prolonged survival time of human embryos to day 5. Furthermore, embryo co-culture with EnSCs using melatonin-fortified medium increased the survival time of encapsulated embryos to 44 %. The levels of two measured hormones significantly rose at day 4 in comparison with day 2 post-encapsulation especially in the group co-encapsulated with EnSCs and cultivated in melatonin-fortified culture medium. These data are the first evidence representing in vitro development of human embryos until day 10 post-fertilization. This achievement can facilitate the investigation of the mechanisms regulating human embryo development.

  18. In vitro culture of bovine embryos in murine ES cell conditioned media negatively affects expression of pluripotency-related markers OCT4, SOX2 and SSEA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C S; de Souza, M M; Saraiva, N Z; Tetzner, T A D; Lima, M R; Lopes, F L; Garcia, J M

    2012-06-01

    Despite extensive efforts, establishment of bovine embryonic stem (ES) cell lines has not been successful. We hypothesized that culture conditions for in vitro-produced (IVP) embryos, the most used source of inner cell mass (ICM) to obtain ES cells, might affect their undifferentiated state. Therefore, the aim of this work was to improve pluripotency of IVP blastocysts to produce suitable ICM for further culturing. We tested KSR and foetal calf serum (FCS) supplements in SOF medium and ES cell conditioned medium (CM) on IVC (groups: KSR, KSR CM, FCS and FCS CM). Cleavage and blastocyst rates were similar between all groups. Also, embryonic quality, assessed by apoptosis rates (TUNEL assay), total cell number and ICM percentage did not differ between experimental groups. However, expression of pluripotency-related markers was affected. We detected down-regulation of OCT3/4, SOX2 and SSEA1 in ICM of FCS CM blastocysts (p < 0.05). SOX2 gene expression revealed lower levels (p < 0.05) on KSR CM blastocysts and a remarkable variation in SOX2 mRNA levels on FCS-supplemented blastocysts. In conclusion, pluripotency-related markers tend to decrease after supplementation with ES cell CM, suggesting different mechanisms regulating mouse and bovine pluripotency. KSR supplementation did not differ from FCS, but FCS replacement by KSR may produce blastocysts with stable SOX2 gene expression levels. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Fenelon, Jane; Lefèvre, Pavine; Daikoku, Takiko; Shaw, Geoff; Maxson, Robert; Murphy, Bruce D.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian embryonic diapause is a phenomenon defined by the temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within the uterus which synchronously becomes quiescent to blastocyst activation and implantation. This reproductive strategy temporally uncouples conception from parturition until environmental or maternal conditions are favourable for the survival of the mother and newborn. The underlying molecular mechanism by which the uterus and embryo temporarily achieve quiescence, maintain blastocyst survival and then resume blastocyst activation with subsequent implantation remains unknown. Here, we show that uterine expression of Msx1 or Msx2, members of an ancient, highly conserved homeobox gene family, persists in three unrelated mammalian species during diapause, followed by rapid downregulation with blastocyst activation and implantation. Mice with uterine inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 fail to achieve diapause and reactivation. Remarkably, the North American mink and Australian tammar wallaby share similar expression patterns of MSX1 or MSX2 as in mice—it persists during diapause and is rapidly downregulated upon blastocyst activation and implantation. Evidence from mouse studies suggests that the effects of Msx genes in diapause are mediated through Wnt5a, a known transcriptional target of uterine Msx. These studies provide strong evidence that the Msx gene family constitutes a common conserved molecular mediator in the uterus during embryonic diapause to improve female reproductive fitness. PMID:23615030

  20. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Fenelon, Jane; Lefèvre, Pavine; Daikoku, Takiko; Shaw, Geoff; Maxson, Robert; Murphy, Bruce D; Renfree, Marilyn B; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2013-04-24

    Mammalian embryonic diapause is a phenomenon defined by the temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within the uterus which synchronously becomes quiescent to blastocyst activation and implantation. This reproductive strategy temporally uncouples conception from parturition until environmental or maternal conditions are favourable for the survival of the mother and newborn. The underlying molecular mechanism by which the uterus and embryo temporarily achieve quiescence, maintain blastocyst survival and then resume blastocyst activation with subsequent implantation remains unknown. Here, we show that uterine expression of Msx1 or Msx2, members of an ancient, highly conserved homeobox gene family, persists in three unrelated mammalian species during diapause, followed by rapid downregulation with blastocyst activation and implantation. Mice with uterine inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 fail to achieve diapause and reactivation. Remarkably, the North American mink and Australian tammar wallaby share similar expression patterns of MSX1 or MSX2 as in mice-it persists during diapause and is rapidly downregulated upon blastocyst activation and implantation. Evidence from mouse studies suggests that the effects of Msx genes in diapause are mediated through Wnt5a, a known transcriptional target of uterine Msx. These studies provide strong evidence that the Msx gene family constitutes a common conserved molecular mediator in the uterus during embryonic diapause to improve female reproductive fitness.

  1. Combination effects of epidermal growth factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor on the in vitro developmental potential of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hyttel, Poul

    2016-01-01

    of improving this issue, the single and combined effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) on oocyte developmental competence were investigated. Porcine cumulus–oocyte cell complexes (COCs) were matured in serum-free medium supplemented with EGF (0, 10...... with the combination of EGF and GDNF was shown to significantly improve oocyte competence in terms of blastocyst formation, blastocyst cell number and blastocyst hatching rate (P

  2. In-straw cryoprotectant dilution of IVP bovine blastocysts vitrified in hand-pulled glass micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A D; Forell, F; Feltrin, C; Rodrigues, J L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of two ethylene glycol-based vitrification solutions on in vitro and in vivo survival after in-straw cryoprotectant dilution of vitrified in vitro-produced bovine embryos. Day-7 expanded blastocysts were selected according to diameter (> or = 180 microm) and osmotic characteristics and randomly assigned to one of three groups (i) VSa: vitrification in 40% EG+17.1% SUC+0.1% PVA; (ii) VSb: vitrification in 20% EG+20% DMSO; (iii) control: non-vitrified embryos. Vitrification was performed in hand-pulled glass micropipettes (GMP) and cryoprotectant dilution in 0.25 ml straws after warming in a plastic tube. Embryo viability was assessed by re-expansion and hatching rates after 72 h of IVC and by pregnancy rates after direct transfer of vitrified embryos. No differences in re-expansion rates were observed between vitrified groups after 24 h in culture (VSa=84.5%; VSb=94.8%). However, fewer VSa embryos (55.2%, Pstraw cryoprotectant dilution and direct embryo transfer.

  3. Mouse mammary tumor virus uses mouse but not human transferrin receptor 1 to reach a low pH compartment and infect cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Enxiu; Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Ying Qihua; Meertens, Laurent; Dragic, Tanya; Davey, Robert A.; Ross, Susan R.

    2008-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a pH-dependent virus that uses mouse transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) for entry into cells. Previous studies demonstrated that MMTV could induce pH 5-dependent fusion-from-with of mouse cells. Here we show that the MMTV envelope-mediated cell-cell fusion requires both the entry receptor and low pH (pH 5). Although expression of the MMTV envelope and TfR1 was sufficient to mediate low pH-dependent syncytia formation, virus infection required trafficking to a low pH compartment; infection was independent of cathepsin-mediated proteolysis. Human TfR1 did not support virus infection, although envelope-mediated syncytia formation occurred with human cells after pH 5 treatment and this fusion depended on TfR1 expression. However, although the MMTV envelope bound human TfR1, virus was only internalized and trafficked to a low pH compartment in cells expressing mouse TfR1. Thus, while human TfR1 supported cell-cell fusion, because it was not internalized when bound to MMTV, it did not function as an entry receptor. Our data suggest that MMTV uses TfR1 for all steps of entry: cell attachment, induction of the conformational changes in Env required for membrane fusion and internalization to an appropriate acidic compartment

  4. Embryonic stem-like cells from rabbit blastocysts cultured with melatonin could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ruxue; Zhao, Xueming; Hao, Haisheng; Du, Weihua; Zhu, Huabin

    2016-11-01

    The rabbit is considered an important model animal from which to obtain embryonic stem cells because of the utility of this animal in physiology and reproductive research. Here, we derived rabbit ES-like (rES-like) cells from blastocysts of superovulated Japanese white rabbits using culture medium containing 10 -7  M melatonin, 10 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor, and 1,000 IU/mL human leukemia inhibitory factor. This concentration of melatonin had the most significant positive effects on the proliferation inner cell mass-derived cells (improving rates from 19.97% to 34.57%) and the longevity of passaging rES-like cells. Melatonin also enhanced the expression of pluripotent genes-including alkaline phosphatase, Pou5f1, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, Line28a, and surface marker proteins-in fifth-passage rES-like cells. In vitro, these rES-like cells could spontaneously differentiate into some somatic cells, such as beating cardiomyocytes; formed embryoid bodies; expressed markers of the three germ layers after differentiation; and formed teratomas after injection into non-obese diabetic-severe combined immune deficient (NOD-SCID) mice. Thus, melatonin helped coax ES-like cells from rabbit blastocysts, which raises intriguing questions about the relationship between pluripotency and proliferation in rabbit embryonic stem cells. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 1003-1014, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Deep sequencing analysis of the developing mouse brain reveals a novel microRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piltz Sandra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that can exert multilevel inhibition/repression at a post-transcriptional or protein synthesis level during disease or development. Characterisation of miRNAs in adult mammalian brains by deep sequencing has been reported previously. However, to date, no small RNA profiling of the developing brain has been undertaken using this method. We have performed deep sequencing and small RNA analysis of a developing (E15.5 mouse brain. Results We identified the expression of 294 known miRNAs in the E15.5 developing mouse brain, which were mostly represented by let-7 family and other brain-specific miRNAs such as miR-9 and miR-124. We also discovered 4 putative 22-23 nt miRNAs: mm_br_e15_1181, mm_br_e15_279920, mm_br_e15_96719 and mm_br_e15_294354 each with a 70-76 nt predicted pre-miRNA. We validated the 4 putative miRNAs and further characterised one of them, mm_br_e15_1181, throughout embryogenesis. Mm_br_e15_1181 biogenesis was Dicer1-dependent and was expressed in E3.5 blastocysts and E7 whole embryos. Embryo-wide expression patterns were observed at E9.5 and E11.5 followed by a near complete loss of expression by E13.5, with expression restricted to a specialised layer of cells within the developing and early postnatal brain. Mm_br_e15_1181 was upregulated during neurodifferentiation of P19 teratocarcinoma cells. This novel miRNA has been identified as miR-3099. Conclusions We have generated and analysed the first deep sequencing dataset of small RNA sequences of the developing mouse brain. The analysis revealed a novel miRNA, miR-3099, with potential regulatory effects on early embryogenesis, and involvement in neuronal cell differentiation/function in the brain during late embryonic and early neonatal development.

  6. Live embryo imaging to follow cell cycle and chromosomes stability after nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbach, Sebastian T; Boiani, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) into mouse oocytes yields a transcriptionally and functionally heterogeneous population of cloned embryos. Most studies of NT embryos consider only embryos at predefined key stages (e.g., morula or blastocyst), that is, after the bulk of reprogramming has taken place. These retrospective approaches are of limited use to elucidate mechanisms of reprogramming and to predict developmental success. Observing cloned embryo development using live embryo cinematography has the potential to reveal otherwise undetectable embryo features. However, light exposure necessary for live cell cinematography is highly toxic to cloned embryos. Here we describe a protocol for combined bright-field and fluorescence live-cell imaging of histone H2b-GFP expressing mouse embryos, to record cell divisions up to the blastocyst stage. This protocol, which can be adapted to observe other reporters such as Oct4-GFP or Nanog-GFP, allowed us to quantitatively analyze cleavage kinetics of cloned embryos.

  7. The Well-of-the-Well system: an efficient approach to improve embryo development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Gábor; Korösi, Tamás; Du, Yutao; Nakata, Kumiko; Ieda, Shoko; Kuwayama, Masashige; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

    2008-07-01

    Transfer of human embryos at the blastocyst stage may offer considerable benefits including an increased implantation rate and a decreased risk of multiple pregnancies; however, blastocyst culture requires an efficient and reliable in-vitro embryo culture system. In this study, the effect of the Well-of-the-Well (WOW) system consisting of microwells formed on the bottom of the culture dish was tested in three mammalian species, including humans. The WOW system resulted in significant improvement when comparing the drops for culture of in-vitro-matured and parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes, and in-vivo-derived mouse zygotes. In human embryos, using a sibling oocyte design, embryos cultured in WOW developed to the blastocyst stage in a significantly higher proportion than did embryos cultured traditionally (55% in WOW and 37% in conventional culture; P WOW system or in microdrops. Transferable quality blastocyst development (48.9% of cultured zygotes) was observed in the WOW system. Ninety-four blastocysts transferred to 45 patients resulted in clinical pregnancy rates of 48.9%, including nine twin pregnancies, seven single pregnancies, five miscarriages and one ectopic pregnancy. The results indicate that the WOW system provides a promising alternative for microdrop culture of mammalian embryos, including human embryos.

  8. Improvement of ovarian response and oocyte quality of aged female by administration of bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seung S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advancing female age remains a difficult problem in infertility treatment. Ovarian angiogenesis plays an important role in follicular development and the activation of ovarian angiogenesis has been emerged as a new strategy for the improvement of age-related decline of oocyte quality. BMP-6 affect gonadotropin signals in granulosa cells and it promotes normal fertility by enabling appropriate response to LH and normal oocyte quality. BMP-6 has a potential role in regulation of angiogenesis and regulates the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins (Ids. Ids involved in the control and timing of follicle selection and granulosa cells differentiation. Especially, Id-1 is well-characterized target of BMP-6 signaling. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-administration of BMP-6 during superovulation process improves ovarian response, oocyte quality and expression of Id-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the ovary of aged female using a mouse model. Methods Aged C57BL/6 female mice (26–31 weeks old were superovulated by injection with 0.1 mL of 5 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG containing recombinant mouse BMP-6 at various doses (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 ng, followed by injection with 5 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG 48 h later. Then, the mice were immediately paired with an individual male. The aged control group was superovulated without BMP-6. Young mice of 6–9 weeks old were superovulated without BMP-6 as a positive control for superovulation and in vitro culture of embryos. Eighteen hours after hCG injection, zygotes were retrieved and cultured for 4 days. Both ovaries of each mouse were provided in the examination of ovarian expression of Id-1 and VEGF by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Results Administration of 0.1 ng BMP-6 significantly increased the number and blastocyst formation rate of oocytes ovulated and ovarian

  9. Conditional inactivation of PDCD2 induces p53 activation and cell cycle arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine J. Granier

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PDCD2 (programmed cell death domain 2 is a highly conserved, zinc finger MYND domain-containing protein essential for normal development in the fly, zebrafish and mouse. The molecular functions and cellular activities of PDCD2 remain unclear. In order to better understand the functions of PDCD2 in mammalian development, we have examined PDCD2 activity in mouse blastocyst embryos, as well as in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs. We have studied mice bearing a targeted PDCD2 locus functioning as a null allele through a splicing gene trap, or as a conditional knockout, by deletion of exon2 containing the MYND domain. Tamoxifen-induced knockout of PDCD2 in MEFs, as well as in ESCs, leads to defects in progression from the G1 to the S phase of cell cycle, associated with increased levels of p53 protein and p53 target genes. G1 prolongation in ESCs was not associated with induction of differentiation. Loss of entry into S phase of the cell cycle and marked induction of nuclear p53 were also observed in PDCD2 knockout blastocysts. These results demonstrate a unique role for PDCD2 in regulating the cell cycle and p53 activation during early embryonic development of the mouse.

  10. Transferência de blastocisto após descongelamento de embriões em mórula resultando em gestação gemelar: relato de caso Twin pregnancy after thawing of morula embryos and blastocyst transfer: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo T. Albuquerque

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A criopreservação de embriões em estágios mais tardios do desenvolvimento parece apresentar resultados satisfatórios. Com o objetivo de melhor testar a sobrevivência e o desenvolvimento de embriões, os mesmos foram criopreservados e descongelados em estadio de mórula ou blastocisto e deixados em cultura para que pudesse ser avaliada sua evolução natural. Dos 2 blastocistos e 5 mórulas congelados, 4 mórulas sobreviveram ao descongelamento, tendo sido transferidas em estadio de blastocisto, 24 horas depois. A transferência, realizada em paciente jovem, segundo casamento de homem vasectomizado há dez anos, resultou em gestação gemelar. O descongelamento de embriões em estadio de mórula e a observação in vitro da retomada de seu desenvolvimento até o estadio de blastocisto fornecem um parâmetro adicional na avaliação da qualidade do embrião e, provavelmente, melhore as taxas de gravidez.The cryopreservation of embryos in late developing stages seems to present satisfactory results. With the purpose of better testing the embryos' survival, they were cryopreserved in the morula or blastocyst stage, thawed and left in culture for 24 hours so that their natural evolution could be observed. Amongst the frozen 2 blastocysts and 5 morulas, 4 morulas survived the thawing process, being transferred as blastocysts 24 hours later. The transfer was performed in a young patient, second marriage of a ten-year vasectomized man and resulted in twin pregnancy. Thawing morula embryos and the in vitro observation of their development resumption until the blastocyst stage give us an additional parameter in the quality evaluation of the embryo and probably an improvement in pregnancy rates.

  11. Number of blastocysts biopsied as a predictive indicator to obtain at least one normal/balanced embryo following preimplantation genetic diagnosis with single nucleotide polymorphism microarray in translocation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zi; Ding, Chen-Hui; Wang, Jing; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Zhou, Wen; Li, Rong; Zhou, Can-Quan; Deng, Ming-Fen; Xu, Yan-Wen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the minimum number of blastocysts for biopsy to increase the likelihood of obtaining at least one normal/balanced embryo in preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for translocation carriers. This blinded retrospective study included 55 PGD cycles for Robertsonian translocation (RT) and 181 cycles for reciprocal translocation (rcp) to indicate when only one of the couples carried a translocation. Single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray after trophectoderm biopsy was performed. Reliable results were obtained for 355/379 (93.7 %) biopsied blastocysts in RT group and 986/1053 (93.6 %) in rcp group. Mean numbers of biopsied embryos per patient, normal/balanced embryos per patient, and mean normal/balanced embryo rate per patient were 7.4, 3.1, and 40.7 % in RT group and 8.0, 2.1, and 27.3 %, respectively, in rcp group. In a regression model, three factors significantly affected the number of genetically transferrable embryos: number of biopsied embryos (P = 0.001), basal FSH level (P = 0.040), and maternal age (P = 0.027). ROC analysis with a cutoff of 1.5 was calculated for the number of biopsied embryos required to obtain at least one normal/balanced embryo for RT carriers. For rcp carriers, the cutoff was 3.5. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 44.2 and 42.6 % in RT and rcp groups (P = 0.836). The minimum numbers of blastocysts to obtain at least one normal/balanced embryo for RT and rcp were 2 and 4 under the conditions of female age < 37 years with a basal FSH level < 11.4 IU/L.

  12. Development of teeth in chick embryos after mouse neural crest transplantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiadis, Thimios A; Chéraud, Yvonnick; Sharpe, Paul; Fontaine-Pérus, Josiane

    2003-05-27

    Teeth were lost in birds 70-80 million years ago. Current thinking holds that it is the avian cranial neural crest-derived mesenchyme that has lost odontogenic capacity, whereas the oral epithelium retains the signaling properties required to induce odontogenesis. To investigate the odontogenic capacity of ectomesenchyme, we have used neural tube transplantations from mice to chick embryos to replace the chick neural crest cell populations with mouse neural crest cells. The mouse/chick chimeras obtained show evidence of tooth formation showing that avian oral epithelium is able to induce a nonavian developmental program in mouse neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells.

  13. Immunotherapy for choroidal neovascularization in a laser-induced mouse model simulating exudative (wet) macular degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Puran S.; Hu, Zhiwei; Tezel, Tongalp H.; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Shin Goo; Cruz, Jose M. C.; Bora, Nalini S.; Garen, Alan; Kaplan, Henry J.

    2003-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness after age 55 in the industrialized world. Severe loss of central vision frequently occurs with the exudative (wet) form of AMD, as a result of the formation of a pathological choroidal neovasculature (CNV) that damages the macular region of the retina. We tested the effect of an immunotherapy procedure, which had been shown to destroy the pathological neovasculature in solid tumors, on the formation of laser-induced CNV in a mouse model simulating exudative AMD in humans. The procedure involves administering an Icon molecule that binds with high affinity and specificity to tissue factor (TF), resulting in the activation of a potent cytolytic immune response against cells expressing TF. The Icon binds selectively to TF on the vascular endothelium of a CNV in the mouse and pig models and also on the CNV of patients with exudative AMD. Here we show that the Icon dramatically reduces the frequency of CNV formation in the mouse model. After laser treatment to induce CNV formation, the mice were injected either with an adenoviral vector encoding the Icon, resulting in synthesis of the Icon by vector-infected mouse cells, or with the Icon protein. The route of injection was i.v. or intraocular. The efficacy of the Icon in preventing formation of laser-induced CNV depends on binding selectively to the CNV. Because the Icon binds selectively to the CNV in exudative AMD as well as to laser-induced CNV, the Icon might also be efficacious for treating patients with exudative AMD.

  14. The beneficial effects of cumulus cells and oocyte-cumulus cell gap junctions depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Jie Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cumulus cells are a group of closely associated granulosa cells that surround and nourish oocytes. Previous studies have shown that cumulus cells contribute to oocyte maturation and fertilization through gap junction communication. However, it is not known how this gap junction signaling affects in vivo versus in vitro maturation of oocytes, and their subsequent fertilization and embryonic development following insemination. Therefore, in our study, we performed mouse oocyte maturation and insemination using in vivo- or in vitro-matured oocyte-cumulus complexes (OCCs, which retain gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes, in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes co-cultured with cumulus cells (DCs, which lack gap junctions between the cumulus cells and the oocytes, and in vitro-matured, denuded oocytes without cumulus cells (DOs. Using these models, we were able to analyze the effects of gap junction signaling on oocyte maturation, fertilization, and early embryo development. We found that gap junctions were necessary for both in vivo and in vitro oocyte maturation. In addition, for oocytes matured in vivo, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization and blastocyst formation, and this improvement was strengthened by gap junctions. Moreover, for oocytes matured in vitro, the presence of cumulus cells during insemination improved fertilization, but not blastocyst formation, and this improvement was independent of gap junctions. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the beneficial effect of gap junction signaling from cumulus cells depends on oocyte maturation and fertilization methods.

  15. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Contribute to Bone Formation Following Infusion into Femoral Cavities of a Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Xujun; Niyibizi, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there are conflicting data in literature regarding contribution of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) to bone formation when the cells are systemically delivered in recipient animals. To understand if BMSCs contribute to bone cell phenotype and bone formation in osteogenesis imperfecta bones (OI), MSCs marked with GFP were directly infused into the femurs of a mouse model of OI (oim). The contribution of the cells to the cell phenotype and bone formation was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry and biomechanical loading of recipient bones. Two weeks following infusion of BMSCs, histological examination of the recipient femurs demonstrated presence of new bone when compared to femurs injected with saline which showed little or no bone formation. The new bone contained few donor cells as demonstrated by GFP fluorescence. At six weeks following cell injection, new bone was still detectable in the recipient femurs but was enhanced by injection of the cells suspended in pepsin solublized type I collagen. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining showed that donor GFP positive cells in the new bone were localized with osteocalcin expressing cells suggesting that the cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo. Biomechanical loading to failure in thee point bending, revealed that, femurs infused with BMSCs in PBS or in soluble type I collagen were biomechanically stronger than those injected with PBS or type I collagen alone. Taken together, the results indicate that transplanted cells differentiated into osteoblasts in vivo and contributed to bone formation in vivo; we also speculate that donor cells induced differentiation or recruitment of endogenous cells to initiate reparative process at early stages following transplantation. PMID:20570757

  16. Dazlin' pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welling, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst embryos and differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro. However, despite their similar origin, mouse embryonic stem cells represent a more naïve ICM-like pluripotent state whereas human

  17. Porphyromonas gingivalis hydrogen sulfide enhances methyl mercaptan-induced pathogenicity in mouse abscess formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Suguru; Shioya, Koki; Hiraoka, B Yukihiro; Suzuki, Nao; Hoshino, Tomonori; Fujiwara, Taku; Yoshinari, Nobuo; Ansai, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Akihiro

    2018-04-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from l-cysteine. However, the role of H2S produced by P. gingivalis in periodontal inflammation is unclear. In this study, we identified the enzyme that catalyses H2S production from l-cysteine and analysed the role of H2S using a mouse abscess model. The enzyme identified was identical to methionine γ-lyase (PG0343), which produces methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) from l-methionine. Therefore, we analysed H2S and CH3SH production by P. gingivalis W83 and a PG0343-deletion mutant (ΔPG0343) with/without l-cysteine and/or l-methionine. The results indicated that CH3SH is produced constitutively irrespective of the presence of l-methionine, while H2S was greatly increased by both P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0343 in the presence of l-cysteine. In contrast, CH3SH production by ΔPG0343 was absent irrespective of the presence of l-methionine, and H2S production was eliminated in the absence of l-cysteine. Thus, CH3SH and H2S production involves different substrates, l-methionine or l-cysteine, respectively. Based on these characteristics, we analysed the roles of CH3SH and H2S in abscess formation in mice by P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0343. Abscess formation by P. gingivalis W83, but not ΔPG0343, differed significantly in the presence and absence of l-cysteine. In addition, the presence of l-methionine did not affect the size of abscesses generated by P. gingivalis W83 and ΔPG0343. Therefore, we conclude that H2S produced by P. gingivalis does not induce inflammation; however, H2S enhances inflammation caused by CH3SH. Thus, these results suggest the H2S produced by P. gingivalis plays a supportive role in inflammation caused by methionine γ-lyase.

  18. Embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells in collagen/Matrigel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Ye; Lin, Qiuxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Haibin; Duan, Cuimi; Wang, Yanmeng; Hao, Tong; Wu, Kuiwu; Wang, Changyong

    2010-07-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells have the potential to develop into any type of tissue and are considered as a promising source of seeding cells for tissue engineering and transplantation therapy. The main catalyst for ES cells differentiation is the growth into embryoid bodies (EBs), which are utilized widely as the trigger of in vitro differentiation. In this study, a novel method for generating EBs from mouse ES cells through culture in collagen/Matrigel scaffolds was successfully established. When single ES cells were seeded in three dimensional collagen/Matrigel scaffolds, they grew into aggregates gradually and formed simple EBs with circular structures. After 7 days' culture, they formed into cystic EBs that would eventually differentiate into the three embryonic germ layers. Evaluation of the EBs in terms of morphology and potential to differentiate indicated that they were typical in structure and could generate various cell types; they were also able to form into tissue-like structures. Moreover, with introduction of ascorbic acid, ES cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes efficiently and started contracting synchronously at day 19. The results demonstrated that collagen/Matrigel scaffolds supported EBs formation and their subsequent differentiation in a single three dimensional environment. Copyright 2010 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology and the Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcome as compared to D3 transfer in antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Cem; Aydoğdu, Serkan; Özdemir, Arzu İlknur; Keskin, Gülşah; Baştu, Ercan; Buyru, Faruk

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the association between progesterone elevation on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration and clinical pregnancy rates of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles with the transfer of embryos at different developmental stages (day-3 versus day-5 ETs). This is a retrospective analysis of fresh IVF/ICSI; 194 cycles out of 2676 conducted in a single center. A total of 2676 cycles were analyzed, of which 386 had no progesterone measurements available. Two hundred eighteen cycles had progesterone elevation (p>1.5 ng/mL) giving an overall incidence of 9.5%. Twenty-four cycles were excluded from further analysis. Of the remaining 194 cycles, 151 had day-3 transfers and 43 had blastocyst transfers. There was no statistically significant difference in pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer between the D3-ET and D5-ET groups (46% vs. 49%, and 39% vs. 35%, respectively). The results of this study suggest that blastocyst transfer does not improve cycle outcomes compared with D3 transfer in GnRH antagonist cycles with an elevated progesterone level on the day of hCG.

  20. p75 neurotrophin receptor is involved in proliferation of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscatelli, Ilana; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Camaioni, Antonella; Siracusa, Gregorio [Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, Section of Histology and Embryology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Campagnolo, Luisa, E-mail: campagno@med.uniroma2.it [Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, Section of Histology and Embryology, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Via Montpellier 1, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2009-11-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors are known to play a role in the proliferation and survival of many different cell types of neuronal and non-neuronal lineages. In addition, there is much evidence in the literature showing that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75{sup NTR}), alone or in association with members of the family of Trk receptors, is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells, although its role in such cells has not been completely elucidated. In the present work we have investigated the expression of p75{sup NTR} and Trks in totipotent and pluripotent cells, the mouse pre-implantation embryo and embryonic stem and germ cells (ES and EG cells). p75{sup NTR} and TrkA can be first detected in the blastocyst from which ES cell lines are derived. Mouse ES cells retain p75{sup NTR}/TrkA expression. Nerve growth factor is the only neurotrophin able to stimulate ES cell growth in culture, without affecting the expression of stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase, Oct4 and Nanog. Such proliferation effect was blocked by antagonizing either p75{sup NTR} or TrkA. Interestingly, immunoreactivity to anti-p75{sup NTR} antibodies is lost upon ES cell differentiation. The expression pattern of neurotrophin receptors in murine ES cells differs from human ES cells, that only express TrkB and C, and do not respond to NGF. In this paper we also show that, while primordial germ cells (PGC) do not express p75{sup NTR}, when they are made to revert to an ES-like phenotype, becoming EG cells, expression of p75{sup NTR} is turned on.

  1. p75 neurotrophin receptor is involved in proliferation of undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscatelli, Ilana; Pierantozzi, Enrico; Camaioni, Antonella; Siracusa, Gregorio; Campagnolo, Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Neurotrophins and their receptors are known to play a role in the proliferation and survival of many different cell types of neuronal and non-neuronal lineages. In addition, there is much evidence in the literature showing that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 NTR ), alone or in association with members of the family of Trk receptors, is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells, although its role in such cells has not been completely elucidated. In the present work we have investigated the expression of p75 NTR and Trks in totipotent and pluripotent cells, the mouse pre-implantation embryo and embryonic stem and germ cells (ES and EG cells). p75 NTR and TrkA can be first detected in the blastocyst from which ES cell lines are derived. Mouse ES cells retain p75 NTR /TrkA expression. Nerve growth factor is the only neurotrophin able to stimulate ES cell growth in culture, without affecting the expression of stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase, Oct4 and Nanog. Such proliferation effect was blocked by antagonizing either p75 NTR or TrkA. Interestingly, immunoreactivity to anti-p75 NTR antibodies is lost upon ES cell differentiation. The expression pattern of neurotrophin receptors in murine ES cells differs from human ES cells, that only express TrkB and C, and do not respond to NGF. In this paper we also show that, while primordial germ cells (PGC) do not express p75 NTR , when they are made to revert to an ES-like phenotype, becoming EG cells, expression of p75 NTR is turned on.

  2. Mouse Models of the Skin: Models to Define Mechanisms of Skin Carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, D. L.; Verma, A. K.; Denning, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    The multistep model of mouse skin carcinogenesis has facilitated identification of irreversible genetic events of initiation and progression, and epigenetic events of tumor promotion. Mouse skin tumor initiation can be accomplished by a single exposure to a sufficiently small dose of a carcinogen, and this step is rapid and irreversible. However, promotion of skin tumor formation requires a repeated and prolonged exposure to a promoter, and that tumor promotion is reversible. Investigations focused on the mechanisms of mouse carcinogenesis have resulted in the identifications of potential molecular targets of cancer induction and progression useful in planning strategies for human cancer prevention trials. This special issue contains eight papers that focus on mouse models used to study individual proteins expressed in the mouse skin and the role they play in differentiation, tissue homeostasis, skin carcinogenesis, and chemo prevention of skin cancer.

  3. Derivation of hybrid ES cell lines from two different strains of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Tak Lau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Parental origin-dependent expression of the imprinted genes is essential for mammalian development. Zfp57 maintains genomic imprinting in mouse embryos and ES cells. To examine the allelic expression patterns of the imprinted genes in ES cells, we obtained multiple hybrid ES clones that were directly derived from the blastocysts generated from the cross between mice on two different genetic backgrounds. The blastocyst-derived ES clones displayed largely intact DNA methylation imprint at the tested imprinted regions. These hybrid ES clones will be useful for future studies to examine the allelic expression of the imprinted genes in ES cells and their differentiated progeny.

  4. Embryonic Stem Cell Proteins and MicroRNAs in the Etiology of Germ Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Eini (Ronak)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the early 1980s, a population of unique cells was isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the mouse pre-implantation embryo named embryonic stem (ES) cells. These cells were generated by removing the ICM from pre-implantation blastocysts. The resulting cells were found to be

  5. Interspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer with porcine oocytes as recipients: A novel bioassay system for assessing the competence of canine somatic cells to develop into embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, S; Narita, K; Yamashiro, H; Sugawara, A; Shoji, T; Terashita, Y; Nishimori, K; Konno, T; Yoshida, M; Sato, E

    2009-09-01

    Interspecies somatic cell nucleus transfer (iSCNT) could be a useful bioassay system for assessing the ability of mammalian somatic cells to develop into embryos. To examine this possibility, we performed canine iSCNT using porcine oocytes, allowed to mature in vitro, as recipients. Canine fibroblasts from the tail tips and dewclaws of a female poodle (Fp) and a male poodle (Mp) were used as donors. We demonstrated that the use of porcine oocytes induced blastocyst formation in the iSCNT embryos cultured in porcine zygote medium-3. In Fp and Mp, the rate of blastocyst formation from cleaved embryos (Fp: 6.3% vs. 22.4%; and Mp: 26.1% vs. 52.4%) and the number of cells at the blastocyst stage (Fp: 30.7 vs. 60.0; and Mp: 27.2 vs. 40.1) were higher in the embryos derived from dewclaw cells than in those derived from tail-tip cells (Ptip cells of Fp. Only blastocysts derived from dewclaw cells of Mp developed outgrowths. However, outgrowth formation was retrieved in the embryos derived from dewclaw cells of Fp by aggregation at the 4-cell stage. We inferred that iSCNT performed using porcine oocytes as recipients could represent a novel bioassay system for evaluating the developmental competence of canine somatic cells.

  6. Abnormal bone formation induced by implantation of osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance in the X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, H.; Masuhara, K.; Takaoka, K.; Ono, K.; Tanaka, H.; Seino, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The X-linked hypophosphatemic mouse (Hyp) has been proposed as a model for the human familial hypophosphatemia (the most common form of vitamin D-resistant rickets). An osteosarcoma-derived bone-inducing substance was subcutaneously implanted into the Hyp mouse. The implant was consistently replaced by cartilage tissue at 2 weeks after implantation. The cartilage matrix seemed to be normal, according to the histological examination, and 35sulphur ( 35 S) uptake was also normal. Up to 4 weeks after implantation the cartilage matrix was completely replaced by unmineralized bone matrix and hematopoietic bone marrow. Osteoid tissue arising from the implantation of bone inducing substance in the Hyp mouse showed no radiologic or histologic sign of calcification. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of endochondral ossification in the Hyp mouse might be characterized by the failure of mineralization in cartilage and bone matrix. Analysis of the effects of bone-inducing substance on the Hyp mouse may help to give greater insight into the mechanism and treatment of human familial hypophosphatemia

  7. The STR/ort mouse model of spontaneous osteoarthritis - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K A; Poulet, B; Wentworth, D N; Pitsillides, A A

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease and a world-wide healthcare burden. Characterized by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening and osteophyte formation, osteoarthritis inflicts much pain and suffering, for which there are currently no disease-modifying treatments available. Mouse models of osteoarthritis are proving critical in advancing our understanding of the underpinning molecular mechanisms. The STR/ort mouse is a well-recognized model which develops a natural form of osteoarthritis very similar to the human disease. In this Review we discuss the use of the STR/ort mouse in understanding this multifactorial disease with an emphasis on recent advances in its genetics and its bone, endochondral and immune phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Monozygotic twinning after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment is not related to advanced maternal age, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, assisted hatching, or blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Wu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Until definite conclusions are drawn from larger trials, patients receiving IVF should not be overly concerned about the increase in MZT risk when proceeding to various assisted reproductive procedures (i.e., ICSI, AH, and blastocyst transfer. However, there is some evidence that the incidence of monochorionic–monoamniotic twins may be significantly increased after IVF/ICSI cycles. Patients should be informed about the possible obstetric complications regarding this rare type of MZT.

  9. Embryo developmental capacity of oocytes fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasem, S.; Majid, J.; Shiva, R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess developmental capacity of fertilised oocytes by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress. Methods: The experimental study was conducted at the Physiology Research Center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, from August 2011 to January 2012. It comprised 20 adult male and 10 female mice. The male mice were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10): control and experimental. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress. All male mice were euthanised and the cauda epididymis removed before contents were squeezed out. A pre-incubated capacitated sperm was gently added to the freshly collected ova of the two groups of study. The combined sperm-oocyte suspension was incubated for 4-6 hours under a condition of 5% Carbon dioxide and 37 degree C temperature. The ova were then washed through several changes of medium and finally incubated. Fertilisation was assessed by recording the number of 1-cell embryos 4-6 hours after insemination. The 1-cell embryos were allowed to further develop in vitro for about 120 hours. Development of embryos everyday and during 5 days of culture was observed by using inverted microscope. SPSS 13.0.1 was used for statistical analysis. Results: The percentage of oocytes fertilised was 75:96 (78.12+-4.8%) and 50:10 (49.5+-3.9%) in the control and experimental groups, respectively. The difference was significant (p 0.05) between the two groups in terms of speed and developmental capacity of blastocysts. Conclusions: Fertilisation capacity of male mice affected by forced swimming stress and also the developmental capacity of oocyte fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress decreased. (author)

  10. Embryo developmental capacity of oocytes fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasem, Saki; Majid, Jasemi; Shiva, Razi

    2013-07-01

    To assess developmental capacity of fertilised oocytes by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress. The experimental study was conducted at the Physiology Research Center of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, from August 2011 to January 2012. It comprised 20 adult male and 10 female mice. The male mice were randomly divided into two equal groups (n=10): control and experimental. Animals of the experimental group were submitted to forced swimming stress. All male mice were euthanised and the cauda epididymis removed before contents were squeezed out. A pre-incubated capacitated sperm was gently added to the freshly collected ova of the two groups of study. The combined sperm-oocyte suspension was incubated for 4-6 hours under a condition of 5% Carbon dioxide and 37 degreeC temperature. The ova were then washed through several changes of medium and finally incubated. Fertilisation was assessed by recording the number of 1-cell embryos 4-6 hours after insemination. The 1-cell embryos were allowed to further develop in vitro for about 120 hours. Development of embryos everyday and during 5 days of culture was observed by using inverted microscope. SPSS 13.0.1 was used for statistical analysis. The percentage of oocytes fertilised was 75:96 (78.12+/-4.8%) and 50:10 (49.5+/-3.9%) in the control and experimental groups, respectively. The difference was significant (p 0.05) between the two groups in terms of speed and developmental capacity of blastocysts. Fertilisation capacity of male mice affected by forced swimming stress and also the developmental capacity of oocyte fertilised by sperm of mouse exposed to forced swimming stress decreased.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography of rat and mouse islet polypeptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde, S; Hansen, B; Welinder, B S

    1990-01-01

    After preparative high-performance liquid chromatography of mouse islet culture medium, concentrated on disposable C18 cartridges (Sep-Pak), an unexpected insulin immunoreactive peak eluting earlier than mouse insulin I and II was detected. Molecular mass determination by mass spectrometry...... on the buffer, the organic modifier and the procedure. In particular the use of methanol-trifluoroacetic acid resulted in extensive oxidation. The oxidation could be minimized by adding 2 mM dithiothreitol to the buffer and by degassing and/or nitrogen-bubbling of the buffer. Minimal formation of Met...

  12. Effects of sorbitol on porcine oocyte maturation and embryo development in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tao; Zhang, Jin Yu; Diao, Yun Fei; Kang, Jung Won; Jin, Dong-Il

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, a porcine system was supplemented with sorbitol during in vitro maturation (IVM) or in vitro culture (IVC), and the effects of sorbitol on oocyte maturation and embryonic development following parthenogenetic activation were assessed. Porcine immature oocytes were treated with different concentrations of sorbitol during IVM, and the resultant metaphase II stage oocytes were activated and cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) for 7 days. No significant difference was observed in cumulus expansion and the nuclear maturation between the control and sorbitol-treated groups, with the exception of the 100 mM group, which showed significantly decreased nuclear maturation and cumulus expansion. There was no significant difference in the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels between oocytes matured with 10 or 20 mM sorbitol and control groups, but 50 and 100 mM groups had significantly higher ROS levels than other groups. The 20 mM group showed significant increases in intracellular glutathione and subsequent blastocyst formation rates following parthenogenetic activation compared with the other groups. During IVC, supplementation with sorbitol significantly reduced blastocyst formation and increased the apoptotic index compared with the control. The apoptotic index of blastocysts from the sorbitol-treated group for entire culture period was significantly higher than those of the partially sorbitol-exposed groups. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the addition of a low concentration of sorbitol (20 mM) during IVM of porcine oocytes benefits subsequent blastocyst development and improves embryo quality, whereas sorbitol supplement during IVC has a negative effect on blastocyst formation.

  13. The Mouse That Soared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    diameter of about 12 miles. Their formation is associated with a Type II supernova, the collapse and subsequent explosion of a massive star. The origin of a pulsar's high velocity is not known, but many astrophysicists suspect that it is directly related to the explosive circumstances involved in the birth of the pulsar. The rapid rotation and strong magnetic field of a pulsar can generate a wind of high-energy matter and antimatter particles that rush out at near the speed of light. These pulsar winds create large, magnetized bubbles of high-energy particles called pulsar wind nebulae. The X-ray and radio data on the Mouse have enabled Gaensler and his colleagues to constrain the properties of the ambient gas, to estimate the velocity of the pulsar, and to analyze the structure of the various shock waves created by the pulsar, the flow of particles away from the pulsar, and the magnetic field in the nebula. Zoom into Chandra's Image of the Mouse Zoom into Chandra's Image of the Mouse Other members of the research team were Eric van der Swaluw (FOM Institute of Physics, The Netherlands), Fernando Camilo (Columbia Univ., New York), Vicky Kaspi (McGill Univ., Montreal), Frederick K. Baganoff (MIT, Cambridge, Mass.), Farhad Yusef-Zadeh (Northwestern), and Richard Manchester (Australia Telescope National Facility). The pulsar in the Mouse was originally detected by Camilo et al. in 2002 using Australia's Parkes radio telescope. Chandra observed the Mouse on October 23 and 24, 2002. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington. Northrop Grumman of Redondo Beach, Calif., formerly TRW, Inc., was the prime development contractor for the observatory. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls science and flight operations from the Chandra X-ray Center in Cambridge, Mass. Additional information and images are available at: http://chandra.harvard.edu and http://chandra.nasa.gov

  14. Combined effect of fluoride and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on mouse dental hard tissue formation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela, Eija; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Partanen, Anna-Maija; Sahlberg, Carin; Alaluusua, Satu

    2011-08-01

    Fluoride interferes with enamel matrix secretion and mineralization and dentin mineralization. The most toxic dioxin congener, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), also impairs dental hard tissue formation and mineralization in vitro and in vivo. Our aim was to investigate in vitro whether the combined effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) and TCDD on dental hard tissue formation is potentiative. For this purpose, mandibular first and second molar tooth germs of E18 mouse embryos were cultured for 5-12 days with NaF and TCDD alone at various concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 12.5, 15, and 20 μM and 5, 10, 12.5, and 15 nM, respectively) to determine the highest concentrations, which alone cause no or negligible effects. Morphological changes were studied from the whole tooth photographs and histological tissue sections. The concentrations found were 15 μM for NaF and 10 nM for TCDD. While at these concentrations, the effects of NaF and TCDD alone were barely detectable, the effect of simultaneous exposure on dentin and enamel formation was overt; mineralization of predentin to dentin and enamel matrix secretion and mineralization were impaired. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the combined exposure modified amelogenin expression by odontoblasts. Morphology of ameloblasts and the expression of amelogenin indicated that ameloblasts were still secretory. The results show that NaF and TCDD have potentiative, harmful effects on the formation of dental hard tissues. Since children can be exposed to subclinical levels of fluoride and dioxins during early childhood, coincidently with mineralization of the first permanent teeth, this finding may have clinical significance.

  15. Simultaneous suppression of TGF-β and ERK signaling contributes to the highly efficient and reproducible generation of mouse embryonic stem cells from previously considered refractory and non-permissive strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Seyedeh-Nafiseh; Totonchi, Mehdi; Farrokhi, Ali; Taei, Adeleh; Larijani, Mehran Rezaei; Gourabi, Hamid; Baharvand, Hossein

    2012-06-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent stem cell lines derived from pre-implantation embryos. The efficiency of mESC generation is affected by genetic variation in mice; that is, some mouse strains are refractory or non-permissive to ESC establishment. Developing an efficient method to derive mESCs from strains of various genetic backgrounds should be valuable for establishment of ESCs in various mammalian species. In the present study, we identified dual inhibition of TGF-β and ERK1/2, by SB431542 and PD0325901, respectively led to the highly efficient and reproducible generation of mESC lines from NMRI, C57BL/6, BALB/c, DBA/2, and FVB/N strains, which previously considered refractory or non-permissive for ESC establishment. These mESCs expressed pluripotency markers and retained the capacity to differentiate into derivatives of all three germ layers. The evaluated lines exhibited high rates of chimerism when reintroduced into blastocysts. To our knowledge, this is the first report of efficient (100%) mESC lines generation from different genetic backgrounds. The application of these two inhibitors will not only solve the problems of mESC derivation but also clarifies new signaling pathways in pluripotent mESCs.

  16. Myeloid protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B deficiency protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation in the ApoE−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis with alterations in IL10/AMPKα pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thompson

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Here we demonstrate that inhibiting the activity of PTP1B specifically in myeloid lineage cells protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation, under atherogenic conditions, in an ApoE−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis. Our findings suggest for the first time that macrophage PTP1B targeting could be a therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment and reduction of CVD risk.

  17. Transition Metal Chelator Induces Progesterone Production in Mouse Cumulus-Oocyte Complexes and Corpora Lutea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X; Anthony, K; Diaz, Francisco J

    2017-04-01

    Progesterone production is upregulated in granulosa cells (cumulus and mural) after the LH surge, but the intra-follicular mechanisms regulating this transition are not completely known. Recent findings show that the transition metal chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN), impairs ovarian function. In this study, we provide evidence that chelating transition metals, including zinc, enhances progesterone production. The findings show that TPEN (transition metal chelator) increases abundance of Cyp11a1 and Star messenger RNA (mRNA) between 8- and 20-fold and progesterone production more than 3-fold in cultured cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC). Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 10 days, but not 3 days, increased Star, Hsd3b, and prostaglandin F2 alpha receptor (Ptgfr) mRNA ~2.5-fold, suggesting that the effect of TPEN is through modulation of zinc availability. Progesterone from cumulus cells promotes oocyte developmental potential. Blocking progesterone production with epostane during maturation reduced subsequent blastocyst formation from 89 % in control to 18 % in epostane-treated complexes, but supplementation with progesterone restored blastocyst developmental potential to 94 %. Feeding a zinc-deficient diet for 5 days before ovulation did not affect the number of CL, STAR protein, or serum progesterone. However, incubating luteal tissue with TPEN increased abundance of Star, Hsd3b, and Ptgfr mRNA 2-3-fold and increased progesterone production 3-fold. TPEN is known to abolish SMAD2/3 signaling in cumulus cells. However, treatment of COC with the SMAD2/3 phosphorylation inhibitor, SB421542, did not by itself induce steroidogenic transcripts but did potentiate EGF-induced Star mRNA expression. Collectively, the results show that depletion of transition metals with TPEN acutely enhances progesterone biosynthesis in COC and luteal tissue.

  18. Embryonic stem cells in pig and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech

    2007-01-01

    Porcine and bovine cell lines derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) or epiblasts of blastocysts have been maintained over extended periods of time and characterized by morphology, identification of some stem cell markers and, in few cases, by production of chimaeric offspring. However, germ line...... transmission in chimaeras has never been obtained. Due to this incomplete characterization of the cell lines, the expression embryonic stem (ES)-like cells is presently used in pig and cattle. The ICM or epiblast can be isolated from the blastocyst by whole blastocyst culture, mechanical isolation......, or immunosurgery, and they are generally cultured on feeder cells. The resulting ES-like cells may be differentiated in vivo by chimaera and teratoma formation or in vitro by embryoid body formation and monolayer induction. It is likely that more well characterized and stable porcine and bovine ES cell lines...

  19. Knock-in fibroblasts and transgenic blastocysts for expression of human FGF2 in the bovine β-casein gene locus using CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease-mediated homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Yeong Ji; Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Jiwoo; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Hong-Gu; Park, Se Pill; Kang, Man-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Many transgenic domestic animals have been developed to produce therapeutic proteins in the mammary gland, and this approach is one of the most important methods for agricultural and biomedical applications. However, expression and secretion of a protein varies because transgenes are integrated at random sites in the genome. In addition, distal enhancers are very important for transcriptional gene regulation and tissue-specific gene expression. Development of a vector system regulated accurately in the genome is needed to improve production of therapeutic proteins. The objective of this study was to develop a knock-in system for expression of human fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) in the bovine β-casein gene locus. The F2A sequence was fused to the human FGF2 gene and inserted into exon 3 of the β-casein gene. We detected expression of human FGF2 mRNA in the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells by RT-PCR and human FGF2 protein in the culture media using western blot analysis when the knock-in vector was introduced. We transfected the knock-in vector into bovine ear fibroblasts and produced knock-in fibroblasts using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system. Moreover, the CRISPR/Cas9 system was more efficient than conventional methods. In addition, we produced knock-in blastocysts by somatic cell nuclear transfer using the knock-in fibroblasts. Our knock-in fibroblasts may help to create cloned embryos for development of transgenic dairy cattle expressing human FGF2 protein in the mammary gland via the expression system of the bovine β-casein gene.

  20. Failure of catalase to protect against aflatoxin B1-induced mouse lung tumorigenicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, Katherine A.; Foley, Julie F.; Maronpot, Robert R.; Massey, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    The carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) induces 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation in mouse lung, an effect that can be prevented by treatment with polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-CAT). G → T transversion mutation in K-ras, an early event in AFB 1 -induced mouse lung carcinogenesis, is thought to result from AFB 1 -8,9-exo-epoxide binding to DNA to form AFB 1 -N 7 -guanine, but may also result from formation of 8-OHdG. Therefore, oxidative DNA damage may be important in AFB 1 carcinogenicity. The objective of this study was to determine whether PEG-CAT would prevent AFB 1 tumorigenicity. Mouse lung tumorigenesis was assessed following treatment of female A/J mice with 300 kU/kg PEG-CAT ip and/or 50 mg/kg AFB 1 . Mice were killed 7 months post-treatment and tumors greater than 1 mm in diameter were excised. Unexpectedly, the mean number of tumors per mouse in the PEG-CAT + AFB 1 group (8.81 ± 3.64, n = 47) was greater than that of the group treated with AFB 1 alone (7.05 ± 3.45, n = 42) (P 1 were larger than those from mice treated with AFB 1 alone (P 1 and PEG-CAT + AFB 1 groups (P > 0.05). In vitro incubation with mouse liver catalase (CAT) resulted in conversion of [ 3 H]AFB 1 into a DNA-binding species, a possible explanation for the results observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that PEG-CAT is not protective against AFB 1 carcinogenicity in mouse lung despite preventing DNA oxidation

  1. Antibody formation in mouse bone marrow. II. Evidence for a memory-dependent phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.; Meima, F.; Meulen, G.M. van der

    1974-01-01

    Mouse bone marrow is barely capable of plaque-forming cell (PFC) activity in a primary response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), while PFC activity in the secondary response to SRBC can be clearly demonstrated. This phenomenon was studied by means of cell transfer experiments. T cells, which are involved in an anti-SRBC PFC response, were shown to be very scarce in normal mouse bone marrow. This is considered to be the cause of the low PFC activity in the marrow during the primary response to SRBC. In normal mouse bone marrow precursors of IgM-PFC but not of IgG- and IgA-PFC could be found. Priming with SRBC induced the appearance of IgM-, IgG-, IgA- and T-memory cells in the marrow. These B- and T-memory cells were shown to be specific for the antigen which induced their appearance. It is thought that after a second injection of SRBC the IgM-, IgG- and IgA-memory cells can differentiate with the help of the T-memory cells within the bone marrow into IgM-, IgG- and IgA-PFC respectively. The sequence of appearance of the B-memory cells in the bone marrow was shown to be IgM--IgG--IgA. Six months after the intravenous injection of SRBC, the presence of B-memory cells could be demonstrated not only in spleen and bone marrow, but also in peripheral lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus and blood. The increase in amount of B-memory cells was most prominent in the spleen

  2. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Imai

    Full Text Available Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  3. Tetraploid Embryonic Stem Cells Maintain Pluripotency and Differentiation Potency into Three Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hiroyuki; Kano, Kiyoshi; Fujii, Wataru; Takasawa, Ken; Wakitani, Shoichi; Hiyama, Masato; Nishino, Koichiro; Kusakabe, Ken Takeshi; Kiso, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid amphibians and fishes occur naturally in nature, while polyploid mammals do not. For example, tetraploid mouse embryos normally develop into blastocysts, but exhibit abnormalities and die soon after implantation. Thus, polyploidization is thought to be harmful during early mammalian development. However, the mechanisms through which polyploidization disrupts development are still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to elucidate how genome duplication affects early mammalian development. To this end, we established tetraploid embryonic stem cells (TESCs) produced from the inner cell masses of tetraploid blastocysts using electrofusion of two-cell embryos in mice and studied the developmental potential of TESCs. We demonstrated that TESCs possessed essential pluripotency and differentiation potency to form teratomas, which differentiated into the three germ layers, including diploid embryonic stem cells. TESCs also contributed to the inner cell masses in aggregated chimeric blastocysts, despite the observation that tetraploid embryos fail in normal development soon after implantation in mice. In TESCs, stability after several passages, colony morphology, and alkaline phosphatase activity were similar to those of diploid ESCs. TESCs also exhibited sufficient expression and localization of pluripotent markers and retained the normal epigenetic status of relevant reprogramming factors. TESCs proliferated at a slower rate than ESCs, indicating that the difference in genomic dosage was responsible for the different growth rates. Thus, our findings suggested that mouse ESCs maintained intrinsic pluripotency and differentiation potential despite tetraploidization, providing insights into our understanding of developmental elimination in polyploid mammals.

  4. [Effect of topical application of a recombinant adenovirus carrying promyelocytic leukemia gene in a psoriasis-like mouse model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongyu; Zhang, Aijun; Ma, Huiqun; Wang, Shijie; Ma, Yunyun; Zou, Xingwei; Li, Ruilian

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the effects of topical treatment with adenovirus-mediated promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) gene in a psoriasis-like mouse model. The effect of adenovirus-mediated PML gene on the granular layer of mouse tail scale epidermis and epithelial mitosis were observed on longitudinal histological sections prepared from the tail skin and vaginal epithelium of the mice. Adenovirus-mediated PML gene significantly inhibited mitosis of mouse vaginal epithelial cells and promoted the formation of granular layer in mouse tail scale epidermis. The therapeutic effect of PML gene in the psoriasis-like mouse model may be associated with increased granular cells and suppressed epidemic cell proliferation.

  5. Establishment of new murine embryonic stem cell lines for the generation of mouse models of human genetic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sukoyan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are totipotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts. Recently, the development of appropriate culture conditions for the differentiation of these cells into specific cell types has permitted their use as potential therapeutic agents for several diseases. In addition, manipulation of their genome in vitro allows the creation of animal models of human genetic diseases and for the study of gene function in vivo. We report the establishment of new lines of murine embryonic stem cells from preimplantation stage embryos of 129/Sv mice. Most of these cells had a normal karyotype and an XY sex chromosome composition. The pluripotent properties of the cell lines obtained were analyzed on the basis of their alkaline phosphatase activity and their capacity to form complex embryoid bodies with rhythmically contracting cardiomyocytes. Two lines, USP-1 and USP-3, with the best in vitro characteristics of pluripotency were used in chimera-generating experiments. The capacity to contribute to the germ line was demonstrated by the USP-1 cell line. This cell line is currently being used to generate mouse models of human diseases.

  6. The effect of prefreezing the diluent portion of the straw in a step-wise vitrification process using ethylene glycol and polyvinylpyrrolidone to preserve bovine blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtango, N R; Varisanga, M D; Dong, Y J; Otoi, T; Suzuki, T

    2001-03-01

    A total of 678 bovine blastocysts, which had been produced by in vitro maturation, fertilization, and culture, were placed into plastic straws and were vitrified in various solutions of ethylene glycol (EG) + polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Part of the straw was loaded with TCM199 medium + 0.3 M trehalose as a diluent; the diluent portions of the straw were prefrozen to either -30 or -196 degrees C. Then, the embryos suspended in the vitrification solution were pipetted into the balance of the straw and vitrified by direct immersion into liquid nitrogen. For thawing, the straws were warmed for 3 s in air and 20 s in a water bath at 39 degrees C and then agitated to mix the diluent and cryoprotectant solution for 5 min followed by culture in TCM199 + 10% FCS + 5 + microg/ml insulin + 50 microg/ml gentamycin sulfate for 72 h. Variables that were examined were the time of exposure to EG prior to vitrification, the PVP concentration, and the temperature of exposure to EG + PVP prior to vitrification. Survival and hatching rates of the blastocysts exposed to 40% EG in four steps at 4 degrees C were higher than those of embryos exposed in two steps (81.3 +/- 4.3% and 80.2 +/- 3.4% vs 67.6 +/- 4.5% and 71.5 +/- 4.7%, respectively; P straws do favor developmental competence of in vitro produced embryos.

  7. Genome editing reveals a role for OCT4 in human embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Norah M E; McCarthy, Afshan; Snijders, Kirsten E; Powell, Benjamin E; Kubikova, Nada; Blakeley, Paul; Lea, Rebecca; Elder, Kay; Wamaitha, Sissy E; Kim, Daesik; Maciulyte, Valdone; Kleinjung, Jens; Kim, Jin-Soo; Wells, Dagan; Vallier, Ludovic; Bertero, Alessandro; Turner, James M A; Niakan, Kathy K

    2017-10-05

    Despite their fundamental biological and clinical importance, the molecular mechanisms that regulate the first cell fate decisions in the human embryo are not well understood. Here we use CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing to investigate the function of the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4 during human embryogenesis. We identified an efficient OCT4-targeting guide RNA using an inducible human embryonic stem cell-based system and microinjection of mouse zygotes. Using these refined methods, we efficiently and specifically targeted the gene encoding OCT4 (POU5F1) in diploid human zygotes and found that blastocyst development was compromised. Transcriptomics analysis revealed that, in POU5F1-null cells, gene expression was downregulated not only for extra-embryonic trophectoderm genes, such as CDX2, but also for regulators of the pluripotent epiblast, including NANOG. By contrast, Pou5f1-null mouse embryos maintained the expression of orthologous genes, and blastocyst development was established, but maintenance was compromised. We conclude that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing is a powerful method for investigating gene function in the context of human development.

  8. Effects of embryo-derived exosomes on the development of bovine cloned embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxiang Qu

    Full Text Available The developmental competence of in vitro cultured (IVC embryos is markedly lower than that of their in vivo counterparts, suggesting the need for optimization of IVC protocols. Embryo culture medium is routinely replaced three days after initial culture in bovine, however, whether this protocol is superior to continuous nonrenewal culture method under current conditions remains unclear. Using bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos as the model, our results showed that compared with routine renewal treatment, nonrenewal culture system significantly improved blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality (increased total cell number, decreased stress and apoptosis, enhanced Oct-4 expression and ratio of ICM/TE, as well as following development to term. Existence and function of SCNT embryo-derived exosomes were then investigated to reveal the cause of impaired development induced by culture medium replacement. Exosomes were successfully isolated through differential centrifugation and identified by both electron microscopy and immunostaining against exosomal membrane marker CD9. Supplementation of extracted exosomes into freshly renewed medium significantly rescued not only blastocyst formation and quality (in vitro development, but also following growth to term (in vivo development. Notably, ratio of ICM/TE and calving rate were enhanced to a similar level as that in nonrenewal group. In conclusion, our results for the first time indicate that 1: bovine SCNT embryos can secrete exosomes into chemically defined culture medium during IVC; 2: secreted exosomes are essential for SCNT blastocyst formation, blastocyst quality, and following development to term; 3: removal of exosomes induced by culture medium replacement impairs SCNT embryo development, which can be avoided by nonrenewal culture procedure or markedly recovered by exosome supplementation.

  9. LIM kinase activity is required for microtubule organising centre positioning in mouse oocyte meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhu, Yubo; Cao, Yan; Wang, Qian; Du, Juan; Tian, Jianhui; Liang, Yuanjing; Ma, Wei

    2017-04-01

    LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) activity is essential for cell migration and cell cycle progression. Little is known about LIMK1 expression and function in mammalian oocytes. In the present study we assessed LIMK1 protein expression, subcellular distribution and function during mouse oocyte meiosis. Western blot analysis revealed high and stable expression of LIMK1 from the germinal vesicle (GV) to MII stage. In contrast, activated LIMK1 (i.e. LIMK1 phosphorylated at threonine 508 (pLIMK1 Thr508 )) was only detected after GV breakdown, with levels increasing gradually to peak at MI and MII. Immunofluorescence showed pLIMK1 Thr508 was colocalised with the microtubule organising centre (MTOC) components pericentrin and γ-tubulin at the spindle poles. A direct interaction between γ-tubulin and pLIMK1 Thr508 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. LIMK inhibition with 1μM BMS3 damaged MTOC protein localisation to spindle poles, undermined the formation and positioning of functional MTOC and thus disrupted spindle formation and chromosome alignment. These effects were phenocopied by microinjection of LIMK1 antibody into mouse oocytes. In summary, the data demonstrate that LIMK activity is essential for MTOC organisation and distribution and so bipolar spindle formation and maintenance in mouse oocytes.

  10. Maternal SENP7 programs meiosis architecture and embryo survival in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jie; Wu, Di; Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Xiong, Cheng-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Jing; Yin, Tai-Lang; Huo, Li-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying abnormal egg production and pregnancy loss is significant for human fertility. SENP7, a SUMO poly-chain editing enzyme, has been regarded as a mitotic regulator of heterochromatin integrity and DNA repair. Herein, we report the roles of SENP7 in mammalian reproductive scenario. Mouse oocytes deficient in SENP7 experienced meiotic arrest at prophase I and metaphase I stages, causing a substantial decrease of mature eggs. Hyperaceylation and hypomethylation of histone H3 and up-regulation of Cdc14B/C accompanied by down-regulation of CyclinB1 and CyclinB2 were further recognized as contributors to defective M-phase entry and spindle assembly in oocytes. The spindle assembly checkpoint activated by defective spindle morphogenesis, which was also caused by mislocalization and ubiquitylation-mediated proteasomal degradation of γ-tubulin, blocked oocytes at meiosis I stage. SENP7-depleted embryos exhibited severely defective maternal-zygotic transition and progressive degeneration, resulting in nearly no blastocyst production. The disrupted epigenetic landscape on histone H3 restricted Rad51C loading onto DNA lesions due to elevated HP1α euchromatic deposition, and reduced DNA 5hmC challenged the permissive status for zygotic DNA repair, which induce embryo death. Our study pinpoints SENP7 as a novel determinant in epigenetic programming and major pathways that govern oocyte and embryo development programs in mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rex3 (reduced in expression 3) as a new tumor marker in mouse hepatocarcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braeuning, Albert; Jaworski, Maike; Schwarz, Michael; Koehle, Christoph

    2006-01-01

    In a previous microarray expression analysis, Rex3, a gene formerly not linked to tumor formation, was found to be highly overexpressed in both Ctnnb1-(β-Catenin) and Ha-ras-mutated mouse liver tumors. Subsequent analyses by in situ hybridization and real-time PCR confirmed a general liver tumor-specific overexpression of the gene (up to 400-fold). To investigate the role of Rex3 in liver tumors, hepatoma cells were transfected with FLAG- and Myc-tagged Rex3 expression vectors. Rex3 was shown to be exclusively localized to the cytoplasm, as determined by fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. However, forced overexpression of Rex3 did not significantly affect proliferation or stress-induced apoptosis of transfected mouse hepatoma cells. Rex3 mRNA was determined in primary hepatocytes in culture by real-time PCR. In primary mouse hepatocytes, expression of Rex3 increased while cells dedifferentiated in culture. This effect was abolished when hepatocytes were maintained in a differentiated state. Furthermore, expression of Rex3 decreased in mouse liver with age of mice and the expression profile was highly correlated to that of the tumor markers α-fetoprotein and H19. The findings suggest a role of Rex3 as a marker for hepatocyte differentiation/dedifferentiation processes and tumor formation

  12. Neuroinformatics of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Leonard; Li, Yang; Lau, Chris; Feng, David; Bernard, Amy; Sunkin, Susan M; Zeng, Hongkui; Dang, Chinh; Hawrylycz, Michael; Ng, Lydia

    2015-02-01

    The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a mesoscale whole brain axonal projection atlas of the C57Bl/6J mouse brain. Anatomical trajectories throughout the brain were mapped into a common 3D space using a standardized platform to generate a comprehensive and quantitative database of inter-areal and cell-type-specific projections. This connectivity atlas has several desirable features, including brain-wide coverage, validated and versatile experimental techniques, a single standardized data format, a quantifiable and integrated neuroinformatics resource, and an open-access public online database (http://connectivity.brain-map.org/). Meaningful informatics data quantification and comparison is key to effective use and interpretation of connectome data. This relies on successful definition of a high fidelity atlas template and framework, mapping precision of raw data sets into the 3D reference framework, accurate signal detection and quantitative connection strength algorithms, and effective presentation in an integrated online application. Here we describe key informatics pipeline steps in the creation of the Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas and include basic application use cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Indomethacin inhibits the uptake of 22sodium by ovine trophoblastic tissue in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.S.

    1986-01-01

    Blastocysts from several species synthesize prostaglandins in vitro, but the exact functions of the prostaglandins are unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if indomethacin, an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, would inhibit the uptake of 22sodium ([22Na]) by ovine trophoblastic tissue. To determine the concentration of indomethacin that would inhibit the synthesis of PGF2 alpha and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) by blastocysts, blastocysts were collected from ewes 16 days after mating, sliced into pieces approximately 2 mm in length and incubated for 48 h at 37 degrees C in 2 ml of medium containing either 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 or 1.6 mM of indomethacin. Concentrations of indomethacin greater than or equal to 0.2 mM reduced (P less than .01) trophoblastic release (ng/micrograms DNA) of PGF2 alpha from 205 +/- 71.2 to less than or equal to 3.3 +/- 0.2, reduced PGFM from 0.7 +/- 0.1 to less than or equal to 0.17 +/- 0.01, and inhibited formation of trophoblastic vesicles. In a second experiment, blastocysts were recovered from ewes 16 days after mating and pieces of trophoblast were incubated with [22Na] and either 0 or 0.4 mM of indomethacin. Indomethacin reduced the uptake of [22Na], which is an indirect measure of the transport of water across epithelia, from 3680 +/- 1118 to 934 +/- 248 cpm/micrograms DNA (P less than .03) and prevented formation of trophoblastic vesicles. Prostaglandins produced by ovine blastocysts might be involved in controlling uptake of water, which is essential for expansion of blastocysts

  14. Effect of supplementation of green tea polyphenols on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.G. Wang

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of green tea polyphenols (GTPs supplementation during in vitro maturation, in vitro fertilization, and in vitro culture on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes aspirated from the ovaries were matured in vitro (38.5ºC for 24 h and fertilized (38.5ºC for 15-18 h and embryos were cultured (38.5ºC for 192 h in a defined conditioned medium with or without GTPs supplementation. The GTPs used in the present study contained 99% catechin derivatives, with the major components being 50% (--epigallocatechin gallate, 22% (--epicatechin gallate, 18% (--epigallocatechin, and 10% (--epicatechin. Four replicate trials were done for each type of experiment. GTPs supplementation (15 µM of the maturation medium led to a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation (34.0 vs 21.4%, P < 0.05. However, the rate of blastocyst formation was not improved when higher GTPs concentrations (20 or 25 µM were added to the in vitro maturation medium. During in vitro fertilization, supplementation with higher GTPs concentrations (20 or 25 µM significantly reduced the rate of blastocyst formation (P < 0.05. Supplementation of the culture medium with 15 µM GTPs improved the rate of blastocyst formation, while higher GTPs concentrations (25 µM significantly reduced embryo development (P < 0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that supplementation with GTPs at low concentration (15 µM during in vitro maturation and in vitro culture improved the developmental competence of bovine oocytes.

  15. Formate supplementation enhances folate-dependent nucleotide biosynthesis and prevents spina bifida in a mouse model of folic acid-resistant neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiwala, Sonia; De Castro, Sandra C P; Leung, Kit-Yi; Brosnan, John T; Brosnan, Margaret E; Mills, Kevin; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E

    2016-07-01

    The curly tail mouse provides a model for neural tube defects (spina bifida and exencephaly) that are resistant to prevention by folic acid. The major ct gene, responsible for spina bifida, corresponds to a hypomorphic allele of grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) but the frequency of NTDs is strongly influenced by modifiers in the genetic background. Moreover, exencephaly in the curly tail strain is not prevented by reinstatement of Grhl3 expression. In the current study we found that expression of Mthfd1L, encoding a key component of mitochondrial folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM), is significantly reduced in ct/ct embryos compared to a partially congenic wild-type strain. This expression change is not attributable to regulation by Grhl3 or the genetic background at the Mthfd1L locus. Mitochondrial FOCM provides one-carbon units as formate for FOCM reactions in the cytosol. We found that maternal supplementation with formate prevented NTDs in curly tail embryos and also resulted in increased litter size. Analysis of the folate profile of neurulation-stage embryos showed that formate supplementation resulted in an increased proportion of formyl-THF and THF but a reduction in proportion of 5-methyl THF. In contrast, THF decreased and 5-methyl THF was relatively more abundant in the liver of supplemented dams than in controls. In embryos cultured through the period of spinal neurulation, incorporation of labelled thymidine and adenine into genomic DNA was suppressed by supplemental formate, suggesting that de novo folate-dependent biosynthesis of nucleotides (thymidylate and purines) was enhanced. We hypothesise that reduced Mthfd1L expression may contribute to susceptibility to NTDs in the curly tail strain and that formate acts as a one-carbon donor to prevent NTDs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological and physiological assessment of serotonin formation and degradation in isolated preparations from mouse and human hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergs, Ulrich; Jung, Franziska; Buchwalow, Igor B; Hofmann, Britt; Simm, Andreas; Treede, Hendrik; Neumann, Joachim

    2017-12-01

    Using transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress the human serotonin (5-HT) 4a receptor specifically in cardiomyocytes, we wanted to know whether 5-HT can be formed and degraded in the mammalian heart and whether this can likewise lead to inotropic and chronotropic effects in this TG model. We noted that the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP) can exert inotropic and chronotropic effects in cardiac preparations from TG mice but not from wild-type (WT) mice; similar results were found in human atrial preparations as well as in intact TG animals using echocardiography. Moreover, by immunohistochemistry we could detect 5-HT metabolizing enzymes and 5-HT transporters in mouse hearts as well as in human atria. Hence, in the presence of an inhibitor of aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, the positive inotropic effects of 5-HTP were absent in TG and isolated human atrial preparations, and, moreover, inhibitors of enzymes involved in 5-HT degradation enhanced the efficacy of 5-HT in TG atria. A releaser of neurotransmitters increased inotropy in the isolated TG atrium, and this effect could be blocked by a 5-HT 4a receptor antagonist. Fluoxetine, an inhibitor of 5-HT uptake, elevated the potency of 5-HT to increase contractility in the TG atrium. In addition, inhibitors of organic cation and monoamine transporters apparently reduced the positive inotropic potency of 5-HT in the TG atrium. Hence, we tentatively conclude that a local production and degradation of 5-HT in the mammalian heart and more specifically in mammalian myocytes probably occurs. Conceivably, this formation of 5-HT and possibly impaired degradation may be clinically relevant in cases of unexplained tachycardia and other arrhythmias. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present work suggests that inotropically active serotonin (5-HT) can be formed in the mouse and human heart and probably by cardiomyocytes themselves. Moreover, active degradation of 5-HT seems to occur in the mammalian heart. These findings may again

  17. Genomic targets of Brachyury (T in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Evans

    Full Text Available The T-box transcription factor Brachyury (T is essential for formation of the posterior mesoderm and the notochord in vertebrate embryos. Work in the frog and the zebrafish has identified some direct genomic targets of Brachyury, but little is known about Brachyury targets in the mouse.Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation and mouse promoter microarrays to identify targets of Brachyury in embryoid bodies formed from differentiating mouse ES cells. The targets we identify are enriched for sequence-specific DNA binding proteins and include components of signal transduction pathways that direct cell fate in the primitive streak and tailbud of the early embryo. Expression of some of these targets, such as Axin2, Fgf8 and Wnt3a, is down regulated in Brachyury mutant embryos and we demonstrate that they are also Brachyury targets in the human. Surprisingly, we do not observe enrichment of the canonical T-domain DNA binding sequence 5'-TCACACCT-3' in the vicinity of most Brachyury target genes. Rather, we have identified an (AC(n repeat sequence, which is conserved in the rat but not in human, zebrafish or Xenopus. We do not understand the significance of this sequence, but speculate that it enhances transcription factor binding in the regulatory regions of Brachyury target genes in rodents.Our work identifies the genomic targets of a key regulator of mesoderm formation in the early mouse embryo, thereby providing insights into the Brachyury-driven genetic regulatory network and allowing us to compare the function of Brachyury in different species.

  18. Influence of high- and low-LET radiation on the cardiac differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, Alexander

    2013-07-19

    The in utero exposure to ionising radiation poses a risk for the radiosensitive developing embryo. Effects of low-LET radiation on different developmental stages of the embryo are relatively well known due to experimental studies and epidemiological data. Data for effects on the very early stage of the embryonic development, particularly the effects of high-LET radiation instead are rather limited. However, unanticipated exposures of the early embryo to ionising radiation may occur through diagnostic or therapeutic applications or through radiation accidents. Additionally, protons and carbon ions are increasingly used in radiotherapy. Thus, a risk estimation of high-LET exposure especially to the early embryo is of a certain importance. To address this topic, pluripotent mouse embryonic stem cells resembling the blastocyst stage were irradiated with high-LET carbon ions or low-LET X-rays and subsequently differentiated to mimic the early embryonic development. The occurrence of spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes was used as a marker to asses the radiation effects on the differentiation. Among others, cell inactivation, cell death and gene expression were analysed. A delay in the cardiac differentiation after radiation exposure was found. The results point to radiation-induced cell killing as the main effector of the developmental delay. Carbon ions were found to be more effective than X-rays.

  19. Systematic review of survival time in experimental mouse stroke with impact on reliability of infarct estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Carina Kirstine; Klarskov, Mikkel Buster; Hasseldam, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    infarcts with more substantial edema. Purpose: This paper will give an overview of previous studies of experimental mouse stroke, and correlate survival time to peak time of edema formation. Furthermore, investigations of whether the included studies corrected the infarct measurements for edema...... of reasons for the translational problems from mouse experimental stroke to clinical trials probably exists, including infarct size estimations around the peak time of edema formation. Furthermore, edema is a more prominent feature of stroke in mice than in humans, because of the tendency to produce larger...... of the investigated process. Our findings indicate a need for more research in this area, and establishment of common correction methodology....

  20. Centralized mouse repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Leah Rae; Hrabe de Angelis, Martin; Hagn, Michael; Franklin, Craig; Lloyd, K C Kent; Magnuson, Terry; McKerlie, Colin; Nakagata, Naomi; Obata, Yuichi; Read, Stuart; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hörlein, Andreas; Davisson, Muriel T

    2012-10-01

    Because the mouse is used so widely for biomedical research and the number of mouse models being generated is increasing rapidly, centralized repositories are essential if the valuable mouse strains and models that have been developed are to be securely preserved and fully exploited. Ensuring the ongoing availability of these mouse strains preserves the investment made in creating and characterizing them and creates a global resource of enormous value. The establishment of centralized mouse repositories around the world for distributing and archiving these resources has provided critical access to and preservation of these strains. This article describes the common and specialized activities provided by major mouse repositories around the world.

  1. Synovial joint formation requires local Ext1 expression and heparan sulfate production in developing mouse embryo limbs and spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Christina; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Yu; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi; Koyama, Eiki; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2011-03-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) regulate a number of major developmental processes, but their roles in synovial joint formation remain unknown. Here we created conditional mouse embryo mutants lacking Ext1 in developing joints by mating Ext1(f/f) and Gdf5-Cre mice. Ext1 encodes a subunit of the Ext1/Ext2 Golgi-associated protein complex responsible for heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis. The proximal limb joints did form in the Gdf5-Cre;Ext1(f/f) mutants, but contained an uneven articulating superficial zone that expressed very low lubricin levels. The underlying cartilaginous epiphysis was deranged as well and displayed random patterns of cell proliferation and matrillin-1 and collagen IIA expression, indicative of an aberrant phenotypic definition of the epiphysis itself. Digit joints were even more affected, lacked a distinct mesenchymal interzone and were often fused likely as a result of local abnormal BMP and hedgehog activity and signaling. Interestingly, overall growth and lengthening of long bones were also delayed in the mutants. To test whether Ext1 function is needed for joint formation at other sites, we examined the spine. Indeed, entire intervertebral discs, normally composed by nucleus pulposus surrounded by the annulus fibrosus, were often missing in Gdf5-Cre;Ext1(f/f) mice. When disc remnants were present, they displayed aberrant organization and defective joint marker expression. Similar intervertebral joint defects and fusions occurred in Col2-Cre;β-catenin(f/f) mutants. The study provides novel evidence that local Ext1 expression and HS production are needed to maintain the phenotype and function of joint-forming cells and coordinate local signaling by BMP, hedgehog and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. The data indicate also that defects in joint formation reverberate on, and delay, overall long bone growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  3. PLK1 regulates spindle formation kinetics and APC/C activation in mouse zygote

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baran, V.; Brzáková, Adéla; Rehák, P.; Kovaříková, V.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 338-345 ISSN 0967-1994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124; GA MŠk LH12057 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : APC/C * BI2536 * live cell imaging * mouse zygote * PLK1 * securin * spindle assembly Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2016

  4. Embryo Aggregation in Pig Improves Cloning Efficiency and Embryo Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemo, Carla Paola; Gambini, Andrés; Moro, Lucia Natalia; Hiriart, María Inés; Fernández-Martín, Rafael; Collas, Philippe; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the effects of the cloned embryo aggregation on in vitro embryo development and embryo quality by measuring blastocyst diameter and cell number, DNA fragmentation levels and the expression of genes associated with pluripotency, apoptosis, trophoblast and DNA methylation in the porcine. Zona-free reconstructed cloned embryos were cultured in the well of the well system, placing one (1x non aggregated group) or three (3x group) embryos per microwell. Our results showed that aggregation of three embryos increased blastocyst formation rate and blastocyst diameter of cloned pig embryos. DNA fragmentation levels in 3x aggregated cloned blastocysts were significantly decreased compared to 1x blastocysts. Levels of Oct4, Klf4, Igf2, Bax and Dnmt 1 transcripts were significantly higher in aggregated embryos, whereas Nanog levels were not affected. Transcripts of Cdx2 and Bcl-xl were essentially non-detectable. Our study suggests that embryo aggregation in the porcine may be beneficial for cloned embryo development and embryo quality, through a reduction in apoptotic levels and an improvement in cell reprogramming.

  5. Ultrastructural observations of lethal yellow (A/sup y//A/sup y/) mouse embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calarco, P G; Pedersen, R A

    1976-01-01

    A/sup y//A/sup y/ embryos were identified by the presence of large excluded blastomeres (Pedersen, 1974) and examined cytologically and ultrastructurally. Cell organelles, inclusions and junctions in the excluded blastomeres were compared with those of non-excluded cells of A/sup y//A/sup y/ embryos and control embryos. Excluded blastomeres always had the fine structural characteristics of earlier developmental stages and may have arrested at the 4- to 8-cell stage or slightly later. Interior cells (inner cell mass) were observed in all mutant blastocysts. Nonexcluded cells of A/sup y//A/sup y/ embryos were normal until degenerative changes appear in the late blastocyst stage. The mode of action of the +/sup A/sup y/ gene was not determined, but evidence from this study and others indicates that the effects of +/sup A/sup y/ gene action occur over a wide range of time in early cleavage and implantation.

  6. Temporal Transcriptome of Mouse ATDC5 Chondroprogenitors Differentiating under Hypoxic Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Li; Fink, Trine; Ebbesen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The formation of cartilage takes place in vivo in an environment of reduced oxygen tension. To study the effect of hypoxia on the process of chondrogenesis, ATDC5 mouse chondroprogenitor cells were induced to differentiate by the addition of insulin and cultured under ambient and hypoxic conditions...

  7. Y-27632 enhances differentiation of blastocyst like cystic human embryoid bodies to endocrinologically active trophoblast cells on a biomimetic platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totey Satish M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trophoblast differentiation and formation of the placenta are important events linked to post-implantation embryonic development. Models mimicking the biology of trophoblast differentiation in a post-implantation maternal microenvironment are needed for understanding disorders like placental-ischemia or for applications in drug-screening, and would help in overcoming the ethical impasse on using human embryos for such research. Here we attempt to create such a model by using embryoid bodies (EBs and a biomimetic platform composed of a bilayer of fibronectin and gelatin on top of low-melting agarose. Using this model we test the hypothesis that cystic-EBs (day 30 that resemble blastocysts morphologically, are better sources as compared to noncytic EBs (day 10, for functional trophoblast differentiation; and that the Rho kinases inhibitor Y27632 can enhance this differentiation. Non/cytic EBs with/out Y27632 were grown on this platform for 28 days, and screened from secretion and expression of trophoblast and other lineage markers using ECLIA, RT-PCR, and Immunofluorescence. All EBs attached on this surface and rapidly proliferated into hCG and progesterone (P2 secreting functional trophoblast cells. However, the cells derived from cytic-EBs and cytic-EBs+ Y27632 showed the maximum secretion of these hormones and expressed IGF2, supporting our hypothesis. Also Y27632 reduced extraembryonic endoderm and trophoblast lineage differentiation from early noncystic-EBs, whereas, it specifically enhanced the induction of trophoblast and multinucleated syncitiotrophoblast differentiation from late cystic-EBs. In vivo trophoblast differentiation can be replicated in fibronectin based biomaterials, using cytic-EBs and by maneuvering the Rho-ROCK pathways. Response of EBs to a compound may vary temporally, and determination of their right stage is crucial for applications in directed-differentiation or drug-screening.

  8. Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse model of experimental dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Wang, Yuqian; Zhou, Tong; Li, Jie; Luo, Pingping; He, Hui; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-08-07

    To investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of serine protease inhibitor A3K (SERPINA3K) on the formation of ocular surface squamous metaplasia in a mouse dry eye model induced by topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC). The eye drops containing SERPINA3K were topically administered during the induction of BAC-induced dry eye. The clinical indications of dry eye were evaluated on day (D)16, including tear break-up time (BUT), tear volume, corneal fluorescein staining, and inflammatory index. Global specimens were collected on D16 and the following examinations were performed: histologic investigation, immunostaining of cytokeratin 10 (K10), p63 and Ki67 in the cornea, and Western blot analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Serine protease inhibitor A3K suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye, presenting with longer BUTs, lower corneal fluorescein staining scores, and inflammatory index, while no significant changes in tear volume. It also reduced the severity of abnormal differentiation and proliferation on ocular surface with lower expressions of K10, p63, and Ki67, and retained the number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix. Serine protease inhibitor A3K significantly decreased the levels of TNF-α in the cornea. Topical application of SERPINA3K ameliorated the severity of ocular surface squamous metaplasia and suppressed the formation of BAC-induced dry eye. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. A randomized assessor-blind trial comparing highly purified hMG and recombinant FSH in a GnRH antagonist cycle with compulsory single-blastocyst transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devroey, Paul; Pellicer, Antonio; Nyboe Andersen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    MG versus 27% with rFSH for the per-protocol (PP) population and 29% versus 27% for the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Noninferiority of hphMG compared to rFSH was established. Considering frozen cycles initiated within 1 year, the cumulative live birth rate for a single stimulation cycle was 40...... blastocyst replacement in natural cycles initiated within 1 year of each patient's start of treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Ongoing pregnancy (primary end point) and live birth rates, as well as pharmacodynamic parameters. RESULT(S): The ongoing pregnancy rate after a fresh cycle was 30% with hph...

  10. Time-lapse cinematography of dynamic changes occurring during in vitro development of human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Kazuo

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify developmental changes of early human embryos by using time-lapse cinematography (TLC). For human ova, fertilization and cleavage, development of the blastocyst, and hatching, as well as consequent changes were repeatedly photographed at intervals of 5-6 days by using an inverse microscope under stabilized temperature and pH. Photographs were taken at 30 frames per second and the movies were studied. Cinematography has increased our understanding of the morphologic mechanisms of fertilization, development, and behavior of early human embryos, and has identified the increased risk of monozygotic twin pregnancy based on prolonged incubation in vitro to the blastocyst stage. Using TLC, we observed the fertilization of an ovum by a single spermatozoon, followed by early cleavages, formation of the morula, blastocyst hatching, changes in the embryonic plates, and the development of monozygotic twins from the incubated blastocysts.

  11. Effects of extracellular matrices and growth factors on the development of isolated porcine blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Niemann, H

    1991-05-01

    The effects of extracellular matrices and growth factors on the development of isolated blastomeres derived from intact 4-, 8-, and 16-cell porcine embryos (termed, respectively, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 blastomeres) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Blastomeres were incubated in extracellular matrix components fibronectin (FIN) or swine skin gelatin (SSG)-precoated culture dishes containing either modified Krebs' Ringer Bicarbonate solution (mKRB) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated lamb serum, or Hanks' solution supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated newborn calf serum (NBCS) or Waymouth medium supplemented with 10% NBCS or in noncoated dishes in mKRB supplemented with either insulin (10, 100, or 1,000 micrograms/ml), transferrin (10, 100, or 1,000 micrograms/ml), or cAMP (0.2 or 2.0 micrograms/ml). Cultures observed at 24-h intervals and morphological development was recorded. Blastomeres were classified into three categories according to their morphology: (1) regular blastocysts, (2) trophectodermal vesicles, or (3) no development. After 96 h, culture was determined; the overall diameter of the blastocysts was determined and the nuclei were counted. Blastomeres/blastocysts did not adhere to the bottom of the culture dishes coated with extracellular matrices. Blastocyst formation rate was highest when FIN/mKRB was used and reached 44.3%, 41.8%, and 36.5% for 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 blastomeres, respectively. The respective blastocysts contained an average of 31.2 +/- 5.8, 58.2 +/- 8.4, and 18.5 +/- 3.5 nuclei and had an overall diameter of 250.0 +/- 10.1, 235.0 +/- 12.8, and 172.5 +/- 13.7 microns, 1/8 blastomeres displayed a better (p less than 0.05) growth rate than 1/4 and 1/16 blastomeres, and 1/8 blastomeres in FIN/mKRB grew better (p less than 0.01) when cultured in an open system than in a microdrop under oil (35.5% vs. 5.0% blastocysts). Neither cAMP nor transferrin had a significant stimulating effect on blastocyst development of 1/8 blastomeres when m

  12. Effect of embryo density on in vitro development and gene expression in bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in a microwell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Satoshi; Akai, Tomonori; Hashiyada, Yutaka; Aikawa, Yoshio; Ohtake, Masaki; Matsuda, Hideo; Kobayashi, Shuji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Konishi, Kazuyuki; Imai, Kei

    2013-01-01

    To identify embryos individually during in vitro development, we previously developed the well-of-the-well (WOW) dish, which contains 25 microwells. Here we investigated the effect of embryo density (the number of embryos per volume of medium) on in vitro development and gene expression of bovine in vitro-fertilized embryos cultured in WOW dishes. Using both conventional droplet and WOW culture formats, 5, 15, and 25 bovine embryos were cultured in 125 μl medium for 168 h. The blastocysts at Day 7 were analyzed for number of cells and expression of ten genes (CDX2, IFN-tau, PLAC8, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, AKR1B1, ATP5A1, GLUT1 and IGF2R). In droplet culture, the rates of formation of >4-cell cleavage embryos and blastocysts were significantly lower in embryos cultured at 5 embryos per droplet than in those cultured at 15 or 25 embryos per droplet, but not in WOW culture. In both droplet and WOW culture, developmental kinetics and blastocyst cell numbers did not differ among any groups. IFN-tau expression in embryos cultured at 25 embryos per droplet was significantly higher than in those cultured at 15 embryos per droplet and in artificial insemination (AI)-derived blastocysts. Moreover, IGF2R expression was significantly lower in the 25-embryo group than in the 5-embryo group and in AI-derived blastocysts. In WOW culture, these expressions were not affected by embryo density and were similar to those in AI-derived blastocysts. These results suggest that, as compared with conventional droplet culture, in vitro development and expression of IFN-tau and IGF2R in the microwell system may be insensitive to embryo density.

  13. A mouse model of mitochondrial complex III dysfunction induced by myxothiazol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudi, Mina [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Kallijärvi, Jukka; Marjavaara, Sanna [Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Levéen, Per [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Fellman, Vineta, E-mail: Vineta.Fellman@med.lu.se [Pediatrics, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund 22185 (Sweden); Folkhälsan Research Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, University of Helsinki, 00014 (Finland); Children’s Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00029 (Finland)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Reversible chemical inhibition of complex III in wild type mouse. • Myxothiazol causes decreased complex III activity in mouse liver. • The model is useful for therapeutic trials to improve mitochondrial function. - Abstract: Myxothiazol is a respiratory chain complex III (CIII) inhibitor that binds to the ubiquinol oxidation site Qo of CIII. It blocks electron transfer from ubiquinol to cytochrome b and thus inhibits CIII activity. It has been utilized as a tool in studies of respiratory chain function in in vitro and cell culture models. We developed a mouse model of biochemically induced and reversible CIII inhibition using myxothiazol. We administered myxothiazol intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.56 mg/kg to C57Bl/J6 mice every 24 h and assessed CIII activity, histology, lipid content, supercomplex formation, and gene expression in the livers of the mice. A reversible CIII activity decrease to 50% of control value occurred at 2 h post-injection. At 74 h only minor histological changes in the liver were found, supercomplex formation was preserved and no significant changes in the expression of genes indicating hepatotoxicity or inflammation were found. Thus, myxothiazol-induced CIII inhibition can be induced in mice for four days in a row without overt hepatotoxicity or lethality. This model could be utilized in further studies of respiratory chain function and pharmacological approaches to mitochondrial hepatopathies.

  14. Overexpression of mouse TTF-2 gene causes cleft palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Tian; Shi, Jia-Yu; Wu, Min; Wang, Yan; Li, Ling; Liu, Yan; Zheng, Qian; Huang, Lei; Shi, Bing

    2012-01-01

    In humans, mutations of the gene encoding for thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2 or FOXE1) result in Bamforth syndrome. Bamforth syndrome is characterized by agenesis, cleft palate, spiky hair and choanal atresia. TTF-2 null mice (TTF-2−/−) also exhibit cleft palate, suggesting its involvement in the palatogenesis. However, the molecular pathology and genetic regulation by TTF2 remain largely unknown. In the present study, the recombinant expression vector pBROAD3-TTF-2 containing the promoter of the mouse ROSA26 gene was created to form the structural gene of mouse TTF-2 and was microinjected into the male pronuclei of fertilized ova. Sequence analysis confirmed that the TTF-2 transgenic mouse model was established successfully. The transgenic mice displayed a phenotype of cleft palate. In addition, we found that TTF-2 was highly expressed in the medial edge epithelium (MEE) from the embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) to E14.5 in TTF-2 transgenic mice. These observations suggest that overexpression of TTF-2 during palatogenesis may contribute to formation of cleft palate. PMID:22304410

  15. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-02-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grown in vivo. The application of different in vitro culture (IVC) media for human ART has an effect on birthweight of newborns. In the mouse model, differences in blastocyst formation were reported after culture in different ART media. Moreover, abnormalities in the liver and heart have been detected as a result of suboptimal IVC conditions. Fertilized oocytes from inbred and outbred breeding schemes were retrieved and either immediately transferred to foster mothers or incubated in control or human ART culture media up to the blastocyst stage prior to transfer. Placental and fetal anatomy and particularly bone development were evaluated. B6C3F1 female mice were used as oocyte donors after ovulation induction. C57Bl/6 and CD1 males were used for mating and CD1 females as foster mothers for embryo transfer. Fertilized oocytes were recovered from mated females and incubated in sequential human ART media (ISM1/ISM2 and HTF/Multiblast), in control media [KSOM(aa) and Whitten's medium] or grown in utero without IVC (zygote control). As in vivo, control B6C3F1 females were superovulated and left untreated. Fetuses and placentae were isolated by Caesarean section and analysed at 18.5 days post-coitum (dpc) for placenta composition and at 15.5 dpc for body weight, crown-rump length (CRL), fetal organ development, morphological development, total bone length and extent of bone ossification. No major differences in the number of implantation sites or in histological appearance of the placentae were detected. CRL of KSOM(aa) fetuses was higher compared with zygote control and Whitten's medium. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed no gross morphological differences compared

  16. A Method Based on Artificial Intelligence To Fully Automatize The Evaluation of Bovine Blastocyst Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José Celso; Passalia, Felipe José; Matos, Felipe Delestro; Takahashi, Maria Beatriz; Ciniciato, Diego de Souza; Maserati, Marc Peter; Alves, Mayra Fernanda; de Almeida, Tamie Guibu; Cardoso, Bruna Lopes; Basso, Andrea Cristina; Nogueira, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia

    2017-08-09

    Morphological analysis is the standard method of assessing embryo quality; however, its inherent subjectivity tends to generate discrepancies among evaluators. Using genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks (ANNs), we developed a new method for embryo analysis that is more robust and reliable than standard methods. Bovine blastocysts produced in vitro were classified as grade 1 (excellent or good), 2 (fair), or 3 (poor) by three experienced embryologists according to the International Embryo Technology Society (IETS) standard. The images (n = 482) were subjected to automatic feature extraction, and the results were used as input for a supervised learning process. One part of the dataset (15%) was used for a blind test posterior to the fitting, for which the system had an accuracy of 76.4%. Interestingly, when the same embryologists evaluated a sub-sample (10%) of the dataset, there was only 54.0% agreement with the standard (mode for grades). However, when using the ANN to assess this sub-sample, there was 87.5% agreement with the modal values obtained by the evaluators. The presented methodology is covered by National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) patents and is currently undergoing a commercial evaluation of its feasibility.

  17. Characterization of a genetically engineered mouse model of hemophilia A with complete deletion of the F8 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, B N; Baldwin, W H; Healey, J F; Parker, E T; Shafer-Weaver, K; Cox, C; Jiang, P; Kanellopoulou, C; Lollar, P; Meeks, S L; Lenardo, M J

    2016-02-01

    ESSENTIALS: Anti-factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory antibody formation is a severe complication in hemophilia A therapy. We genetically engineered and characterized a mouse model with complete deletion of the F8 coding region. F8(TKO) mice exhibit severe hemophilia, express no detectable F8 mRNA, and produce FVIII inhibitors. The defined background and lack of FVIII in F8(TKO) mice will aid in studying FVIII inhibitor formation. The most important complication in hemophilia A treatment is the development of inhibitory anti-Factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in patients after FVIII therapy. Patients with severe hemophilia who express no endogenous FVIII (i.e. cross-reacting material, CRM) have the greatest incidence of inhibitor formation. However, current mouse models of severe hemophilia A produce low levels of truncated FVIII. The lack of a corresponding mouse model hampers the study of inhibitor formation in the complete absence of FVIII protein. We aimed to generate and characterize a novel mouse model of severe hemophilia A (designated the F8(TKO) strain) lacking the complete coding sequence of F8 and any FVIII CRM. Mice were created on a C57BL/6 background using Cre-Lox recombination and characterized using in vivo bleeding assays, measurement of FVIII activity by coagulation and chromogenic assays, and anti-FVIII antibody production using ELISA. All F8 exonic coding regions were deleted from the genome and no F8 mRNA was detected in F8(TKO) mice. The bleeding phenotype of F8(TKO) mice was comparable to E16 mice by measurements of factor activity and tail snip assay. Similar levels of anti-FVIII antibody titers after recombinant FVIII injections were observed between F8(TKO) and E16 mice. We describe a new C57BL/6 mouse model for severe hemophilia A patients lacking CRM. These mice can be directly bred to the many C57BL/6 strains of genetically engineered mice, which is valuable for studying the impact of a wide variety of genes on FVIII inhibitor formation on a

  18. Does simvastatin stimulate bone formation in vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorev Michael

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins, potent compounds that inhibit cholesterol synthesis in the liver have been reported to induce bone formation, both in tissue culture and in rats and mice. To re-examine potential anabolic effects of statins on bone formation, we compared the activity of simvastatin (SVS to the known anabolic effects of PTH in an established model of ovariectomized (OVX Swiss-Webster mice. Methods Mice were ovariectomized at 12 weeks of age (T0, remained untreated for 5 weeks to allow development of osteopenia (T5, followed by treatment for 8 weeks (T13. Whole, trabecular and cortical femoral bone was analyzed by micro-computed tomography (micro CT. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS was used to detect the presence of SVS and its active metabolite, simvastatin β-hydroxy acid (SVS-OH in the mouse serum. Results Trabecular BV/TV at T13 was 4.2 fold higher in animals treated with PTH (80 micro-g/kg/day compared to the OVX-vehicle treated group (p in vivo study. Conclusions While PTH demonstrated the expected anabolic effect on bone, SVS failed to stimulate bone formation, despite our verification by LC/MS of the active SVS-OH metabolite in mouse serum. While statins have clear effects on bone formation in vitro, the formulation of existing 'liver-targeted' statins requires further refinement for efficacy in vivo.

  19. Enamel formation in vitro in mouse molar explants exposed to amelogenin polypeptides ATMP and LRAP on enamel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindranath, Rajeswari M H; Devarajan, Asokan; Bringas, Pablo

    2007-12-01

    The enamel matrix contains amelogenin, leucine-rich amelogenin-polypeptide (LRAP), resulting from alternative splicing of the primary amelogenin-RNA transcript and tyrosine-rich amelogenin-polypeptide (TRAP), a proteolytic product of amelogenin. Presence of amelogenin-trityrosyl-motif peptide (ATMP) distinguishes TRAP from LRAP. The roles of these polypeptides in the formation of enamel remain to be elucidated. The mouse in vitro molar tooth-organ developed from bud stage (E16) was exposed to LRAP, ATMP, and mutated ATMP (T-ATMP, third proline replaced by threonine). The histology and morphometry of the explants on day-12 in culture was examined using Mallory's stain. Guanidine-HCl soluble protein concentrations of explants were compared. The enamel width and protein solubility indicate that the explant on day-12 is comparable to postnatal molar on day-3 in vivo. The enamel of both untreated explants as well as that in vivo is fuchinophilic (acid fuchsin, AF+). ATMP reduced the ameloblast-height, accumulated AF+ spherules at the apical end of ameloblasts, and disrupted enamel-dentin bonding. T-ATMP abrogated deposition of AF+ material on the aniline blue positive (AB+) enamel matrix. LRAP reduced ameloblast-height, increased the enamel-width without disruption (at 17.25 nmol) and increased the density of AF+ dentinal tubules. AF+ substance from the tubules is released onto the surface of the dentin. The Guanidine-HCl-soluble protein is elevated in ATMP-treated explants but decreased in LRAP-treated explants. Exogenous ATMP, T-ATMP and LRAP have divergent effects on developing enamel. Exogenous ATMP, but not LRAP, abrogates enamel-dentin bonding at 17.25 nmol. LRAP may play a role in the differentiation of ameloblasts, growth of enamel and formation of dentinal tubules.

  20. Hedgehog Signaling Promotes the Proliferation and Subsequent Hair Cell Formation of Progenitor Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Lu, Xiaoling; Guo, Luo; Ni, Wenli; Zhang, Yanping; Zhao, Liping; Wu, Lingjie; Sun, Shan; Zhang, Shasha; Tang, Mingliang; Li, Wenyan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2017-01-01

    Hair cell (HC) loss is the major cause of permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Unlike lower vertebrates, mammalian cochlear HCs cannot regenerate spontaneously after damage, although the vestibular system does maintain limited HC regeneration capacity. Thus HC regeneration from the damaged sensory epithelium has been one of the main areas of research in the field of hearing restoration. Hedgehog signaling plays important roles during the embryonic development of the inner ear, and it is involved in progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the cell fate decision. In this study, we show that recombinant Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein effectively promotes sphere formation, proliferation, and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitor cells isolated from the neonatal mouse cochlea. To further explore this, we determined the effect of Hedgehog signaling on cell proliferation and HC regeneration in cultured cochlear explant from transgenic R26-SmoM2 mice that constitutively activate Hedgehog signaling in the supporting cells of the cochlea. Without neomycin treatment, up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling did not significantly promote cell proliferation or new HC formation. However, after injury to the sensory epithelium by neomycin treatment, the over-activation of Hedgehog signaling led to significant supporting cell proliferation and HC regeneration in the cochlear epithelium explants. RNA sequencing and real-time PCR were used to compare the transcripts of the cochleae from control mice and R26-SmoM2 mice, and multiple genes involved in the proliferation and differentiation processes were identified. This study has important implications for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by manipulating the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:29311816

  1. Hedgehog Signaling Promotes the Proliferation and Subsequent Hair Cell Formation of Progenitor Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hair cell (HC loss is the major cause of permanent sensorineural hearing loss in mammals. Unlike lower vertebrates, mammalian cochlear HCs cannot regenerate spontaneously after damage, although the vestibular system does maintain limited HC regeneration capacity. Thus HC regeneration from the damaged sensory epithelium has been one of the main areas of research in the field of hearing restoration. Hedgehog signaling plays important roles during the embryonic development of the inner ear, and it is involved in progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the cell fate decision. In this study, we show that recombinant Sonic Hedgehog (Shh protein effectively promotes sphere formation, proliferation, and differentiation of Lgr5+ progenitor cells isolated from the neonatal mouse cochlea. To further explore this, we determined the effect of Hedgehog signaling on cell proliferation and HC regeneration in cultured cochlear explant from transgenic R26-SmoM2 mice that constitutively activate Hedgehog signaling in the supporting cells of the cochlea. Without neomycin treatment, up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling did not significantly promote cell proliferation or new HC formation. However, after injury to the sensory epithelium by neomycin treatment, the over-activation of Hedgehog signaling led to significant supporting cell proliferation and HC regeneration in the cochlear epithelium explants. RNA sequencing and real-time PCR were used to compare the transcripts of the cochleae from control mice and R26-SmoM2 mice, and multiple genes involved in the proliferation and differentiation processes were identified. This study has important implications for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by manipulating the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  2. Cellular events in adhesion formation due to thermal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplun, A; Aronson, M; Halperin, B; Griffel, B

    1984-01-01

    Consequent to thermal traumatization of the intestinal wall of the mouse, histopathological events ensue which lead to peritoneal adhesion formation. In the first 48 h, the main pathological findings are of a necrotic and inflammatory nature, but subsequently fibroplasia is the main feature, as evidenced by the appearance of spindle-shaped cells followed by fibroblasts. Factors essential for and contributing to the formation of adhesions are described.

  3. The Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol or a Defined Grape Powder Inhibits New Blood Vessel Formation in a Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaie Kanavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV. To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch’s membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV.

  4. The Sustained Delivery of Resveratrol or a Defined Grape Powder Inhibits New Blood Vessel Formation in a Mouse Model of Choroidal Neovascularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaie; Darjatmoko, Soesiawati; Wang, Shoujian; Azari, Amir A.; Farnoodian, Mitra; Kenealey, Jason D.; van Ginkel, Paul R.; Albert, Daniel M.; Sheibani, Nader; Polans, Arthur S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether resveratrol or a defined, reconstituted grape powder can attenuate the formation of new blood vessels in a mouse model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). To accomplish this objective, C57BL/6J mice were randomized into control or treatment groups which received either resveratrol or grape powder by daily oral gavage, resveratrol or grape powder delivered ad libitum through the drinking water, or resveratrol by slow release via implanted osmotic pumps. A laser was used to rupture Bruch’s membrane to induce CNV which was then detected in sclerochoroidal eyecups stained with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2. CNV area was measured using fluorescence microscopy and Image J software. Ad libitum delivery of both resveratrol and grape powder was shown to significantly reduce the extent of CNV by 68% and 57%, respectively. Parallel experiments conducted in vitro demonstrated that resveratrol activates p53 and inactivates Akt/protein kinase B in choroidal endothelial cells, contributing to its anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties. In addition resveratrol was shown to inhibit the formation of endothelial cell networks, augmenting its overall anti-angiogenic effects. The non-toxic nature of resveratrol makes it an especially attractive candidate for the prevention and/or treatment of CNV. PMID:25361423

  5. Comparison of toxicity of smoke from traditional and harm-reduction cigarettes using mouse embryonic stem cells as a novel model for preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S; Tran, V; Talbot, P

    2009-02-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESC), which originate from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, are valuable models for testing the effects of toxicants on preimplantation development. In this study, mouse ESC (mESC) were used to compare the toxicity of mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke on cell attachment, survival and proliferation. In addition, smoke from a traditional commercial cigarette was compared with smoke from three harm-reduction brands. MS and SS smoke solutions were made using an analytical smoking machine and tested at three doses using D3 mESC plated on 0.2% gelatin. At 6 and 24 h, images were taken and the number of attached cells was evaluated. Both MS and SS smoke from traditional and harm-reduction cigarettes inhibited cell attachment, survival and proliferation dose dependently. For all brands, SS smoke was more potent than MS smoke. However, removal of the cigarette filter increased the toxicity of MS smoke to that of SS smoke. Both MS and SS smoke from harm-reduction cigarettes were as inhibitory, or more inhibitory, than their counterparts from the traditional brand. When preimplantation mouse embryos were cultured for 1 h in MS or SS smoke solutions from a harm-reduction brand, blastomeres became apoptotic, in agreement with the data obtained using mESC. mESC provide a valuable model for toxicological studies on the preimplantation stage of development and were used to show that MS and SS smoke from traditional and harm-reduction cigarettes are detrimental to embryonic cells prior to implantation.

  6. Mouse allergen exposure and immunologic responses: IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG and IgG4 levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Krop, Esmeralda J. M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Aalberse, Rob C.; Smith, Abigail L.; Eggleston, Peyton A.

    2004-01-01

    Although there is evidence that contact with mice is associated with IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific antibody responses, the exposure-response relationships remain unclear. To determine whether IgE-mediated mouse sensitization and mouse specific IgG (mIgG) and mIgG4 levels

  7. Protein degradation in preimplantation mouse embryos and the lethality of tritiated amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielbold, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The role of protein degradation in preimplantation development in the mouse was studied. Proteins of morulae and blastocysts (M and B) cultured in vitro after labeling for 1 hour (h) in 3 H-leucine exhibit a mean half-life (t 1 / 2 ) of 8.1 h. The t 1 / 2 tends to increase (9.5 h) when 10% fetal calf serum is added to the chase medium. This decrease in protein degradation in the presence of serum is associated with an increase in the percentage of B that are hatching (P 3 H-leucine in their proteins than did Day 4 embryos remaining in culture (P<0.02), while Day 4 embryos in a Day 3 uterus retained the same amount of radioactivity as did Day 4 embryos in culture. This differential effect of uterine environment was also seen when Day 4 embryos were transferred to recipients. More fetuses developed to term when the recipient was in Day 3 of PSP (50.8%) than when the recipient was in Day 4 PSP (25.9%, P<0.001), regardless of the age of the recipient. Age of the recipient does affect the percentage of transferred embryos developing to term. Thus, protein degradation may vary with the stage of embryo development and the conditions to which the embryos are exposed. However, even low levels of incorporated tritiated leucine can have lethal effects on the embryos and compromise the validity of the protein half-lives determined

  8. Noninvasive embryo assessment technique based on buoyancy and its association with embryo survival after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Cara; Penrose, Lindsay; Ahmad, Khaliq; Prien, Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Embryo cryopreservation offers many benefits by allowing genetic preservation, genetic screening, cost reduction, global embryo transport and single embryo transfer. However, freezing of embryos decreases embryo viability, as intracellular ice crystal formation often damages embryos. Success rates of frozen embryo transfer are expected to be 15-20% less than fresh embryo transfer. We have developed a noninvasive embryo assessment technique (NEAT) which enables us to predict embryo viability based on buoyancy. The purpose of this research was twofold. First was to determine if a NEAT, through a specific gravity device can detect embryo survival of cryopreservation. Second, it was to relate embryo buoyancy to embryo viability for establishing pregnancies in sheep. Blastocysts descent times were measured on one-hundred sixty-nine mice blastocysts before cryopreservation, according to standard protocol and post-thawing blastocysts descent times were measured again. There was a significant difference in blastocyst post-thaw descent times with NEAT in those blastocysts which demonstrated viability from those that did not (P embryos. Further studies on a larger scale commercial setting will evaluate the efficacy of NEAT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Chronic ethanol exposure inhibits distraction osteogenesis in a mouse model: Role of the TNF signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Elizabeth C.; Aronson, James; Liu, Lichu; Liu, Zhendong; Perrien, Daniel S.; Skinner, Robert A.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J.J.; Lumpkin, Charles K.

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an inflammatory cytokine that modulates osteoblastogenesis. In addition, the demonstrated inhibitory effects of chronic ethanol exposure on direct bone formation in rats are hypothetically mediated by TNF-α signaling. The effects in mice are unreported. Therefore, we hypothesized that in mice (1) administration of a soluble TNF receptor 1 derivative (sTNF-R1) would protect direct bone formation during chronic ethanol exposure, and (2) administration of recombinant mouse TNF-α (rmTNF-α) to ethanol naive mice would inhibit direct bone formation. We utilized a unique model of limb lengthening (distraction osteogenesis, DO) combined with liquid diets to measure chronic ethanol's effects on direct bone formation. Chronic ethanol exposure resulted in increased marrow TNF, IL-1, and CYP 2E1 RNA levels in ethanol-treated vs. control mice, while no significant weight differences were noted. Systemic administration of sTNF-R1 during DO (8.0 mg/kg/2 days) to chronic ethanol-exposed mice resulted in enhanced direct bone formation as measured radiologically and histologically. Systemic rmTNF-α (10 μg/kg/day) administration decreased direct bone formation measures, while no significant weight differences were noted. We conclude that chronic ethanol-associated inhibition of direct bone formation is mediated to a significant extent by the TNF signaling axis in a mouse model

  10. Polycomb enables primitive endoderm lineage priming in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illingworth, Robert S; Hölzenspies, Jurriaan J; Roske, Fabian V

    2016-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), like the blastocyst from which they are derived, contain precursors of the epiblast (Epi) and primitive endoderm (PrEn) lineages. While transient in vivo, these precursor populations readily interconvert in vitro. We show that altered transcription is the driver...... polycomb with dynamic changes in transcription and stalled lineage commitment, allowing cells to explore alternative choices prior to a definitive decision....

  11. Conserved and Divergent Features of Human and Mouse Kidney Organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Nils O; McMahon, Jill A; Guo, Jinjin; Tran, Tracy; Guo, Qiuyu; Rutledge, Elisabeth; Parvez, Riana K; Saribekyan, Gohar; Schuler, Robert E; Liao, Christopher; Kim, Albert D; Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Ruffins, Seth W; Thornton, Matthew E; Basking, Laurence; Grubbs, Brendan; Kesselman, Carl; McMahon, Andrew P

    2018-03-01

    Human kidney function is underpinned by approximately 1,000,000 nephrons, although the number varies substantially, and low nephron number is linked to disease. Human kidney development initiates around 4 weeks of gestation and ends around 34-37 weeks of gestation. Over this period, a reiterative inductive process establishes the nephron complement. Studies have provided insightful anatomic descriptions of human kidney development, but the limited histologic views are not readily accessible to a broad audience. In this first paper in a series providing comprehensive insight into human kidney formation, we examined human kidney development in 135 anonymously donated human kidney specimens. We documented kidney development at a macroscopic and cellular level through histologic analysis, RNA in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence studies, and transcriptional profiling, contrasting human development (4-23 weeks) with mouse development at selected stages (embryonic day 15.5 and postnatal day 2). The high-resolution histologic interactive atlas of human kidney organogenesis generated can be viewed at the GUDMAP database (www.gudmap.org) together with three-dimensional reconstructions of key components of the data herein. At the anatomic level, human and mouse kidney development differ in timing, scale, and global features such as lobe formation and progenitor niche organization. The data also highlight differences in molecular and cellular features, including the expression and cellular distribution of anchor gene markers used to identify key cell types in mouse kidney studies. These data will facilitate and inform in vitro efforts to generate human kidney structures and comparative functional analyses across mammalian species. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. EPR detection of free radicals in UV-irradiated skin: mouse versus human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, B.A.; Buettner, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation produces free radicals in Skh-1 mouse skin, contributing to photoaging and carcinogenesis. If a mouse model is a general indicator of free radical processes in human skin photobiology, then radical production observed in mouse and human skin should be directly comparative. In this work we show that UV radiation (λ > 300 nm, 14 μW/cm 2 UVB; 3.5 mW/cm 2 UVA) increases the ascorbate free radical (Asc) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal in both Skh-1 mouse skin (45%) and human facial skin biopsies (340%). Visible light (λ > 400 nm; 0.23 mW/cm 2 UVA) also increased the Ascsignal in human skin samples (45%) but did not increase baseline mouse Asc, indicating that human skin is more susceptible to free radical formation and that a chromophore for visible light may be present. Using EPR spin-trapping techniques, UV radiation produced spin adducts consistent with trapping lipid alkyl radicals in mouse skin (α-[4-pyridyl 1-oxide]-N-tert-butyl nitrone/alkyl radical adduct; a N = 15.56 G and a H 2.70 G) and lipid alkoxyl radicals in human skin (5,5-dimethylpyrroline -1-oxide/alkoxyl radical adduct; a N = 14.54 G and a H = 16.0 G). Topical application of the iron chelator Desferal to human skin significantly decreases these radicals (∼50%), indicating a role for iron in lipid peroxidation. (Author)

  13. Obesity-induced oocyte mitochondrial defects are partially prevented and rescued by supplementation with co-enzyme Q10 in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, C.E.; Boudoures, A.; Zhang, W.; Drury, A.; Moley, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does supplementation with co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) improve the oocyte mitochondrial abnormalities associated with obesity in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER In an obese mouse model, CoQ10 improves the mitochondrial function of oocytes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Obesity impairs oocyte quality. Oocytes from mice fed a high-fat/high-sugar (HF/HS) diet have abnormalities in mitochondrial distribution and function and in meiotic progression. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Mice were randomly assigned to a normal, chow diet or an isocaloric HF/HS diet for 12 weeks. After 6 weeks on the diet, half of the mice receiving a normal diet and half of the mice receiving a HF/HS diet were randomly assigned to receive CoQ10 supplementation injections for the remaining 6 weeks. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Dietary intervention was initiated on C57Bl6 female mice at 4 weeks of age, CoQ10 versus vehicle injections were assigned at 10 weeks, and assays were conducted at 16 weeks of age. Mice were super-ovulated, and oocytes were collected and stained to assess mitochondrial distribution, quantify reactive oxygen species (ROS), assess meiotic spindle formation, and measure metabolites. In vitro fertilization was performed, and blastocyst embryos were transferred into control mice. Oocyte number, fertilization rate, blastulation rate and implantation rate were compared between the four cohorts. Bivariate statistics were performed appropriately. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE HF/HS mice weighed significantly more than normal diet mice (29 versus 22 g, P< 0.001). CoQ10 supplementation did not influence weight. Levels of ATP, citrate, and phosphocreatine were lower and ROS levels were higher in HF/HS mice than in controls (P< 0.001). CoQ10 supplementation significantly increased the levels of metabolites and decreased ROS levels in oocytes from normal diet mice but not in oocytes from HF/HS mice. However, CoQ10 completely prevented the mitochondrial distribution abnormalities

  14. Mouse adhalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, L; Vachon, P H; Kuang, W

    1997-01-01

    . To analyze the biological roles of adhalin, we cloned the mouse adhalin cDNA, raised peptide-specific antibodies to its cytoplasmic domain, and examined its expression and localization in vivo and in vitro. The mouse adhalin sequence was 80% identical to that of human, rabbit, and hamster. Adhalin...... was specifically expressed in striated muscle cells and their immediate precursors, and absent in many other cell types. Adhalin expression in embryonic mouse muscle was coincident with primary myogenesis. Its expression was found to be up-regulated at mRNA and protein levels during myogenic differentiation...

  15. Leucemia inhibitory factor; investigating the time-dependent effect on viability of vitrified bovine embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocyigit, A; Cevik, M

    2017-12-01

    Leucemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is involved in various reproductive processes, including sperm development, regulation of ovulation, as well as blastocyst formation, hatching and implantation in embryos. Moreover, LIF has also been shown significantly to enhance the blastocyst formation rates of bovine embryos, a finding that remains controversial. Our purpose was to investigate time-dependent effect of LIF on bovine embryo culture, especially in terms of addition timing. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in five different groups. In this study, 100 ng/ml LIF was added to the culture medium were as follows; control: SOF alone, group A: at day 0 (fertilization day), group B: at day 4 post-insemination (p.i.), group C: at day 4 to 7 (p.i. before vitrification) and group D: at day 8 (p.i. after thawing). Addition of LIF to the culture medium at day 4 significantly increased the percentage of blastocyst rate when compared day 0, day 4 at 6/7 and control group (41.8% versus 24.3%, 19.7%, 34.6%). In conclusion, the addition of LIF only on day 4 (p.i.) to the culture medium was found to be beneficial for bovine embryonic development based on several measures, including blastocysts rate, re-expansion rate and cellular cryotolerance after vitrification. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Corneal Biofilms: From Planktonic to Microcolony Formation in an Experimental Keratitis Infection with Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, Padmanabhan; Beuerman, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Microbial biofilms commonly comprise part of the infectious scenario, complicating the therapeutic approach. The purpose of this study was to determine in a mouse model of corneal infection if mature biofilms formed and to visualize the stages of biofilm formation. A bacterial keratitis model was established using Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 (1 × 10(8) CFU/ml) to infect the cornea of C57BL/6 black mouse. Eyes were examined post-infection (PI) on days 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7, and imaged by slit lamp microscopy, and light, confocal, and electron microscopy to identify the stages of biofilm formation and the time of appearance. On PI day 1, Gram staining showed rod-shaped bacteria adherent on the corneal surface. On PI days 2 and 3, bacteria were seen within webs of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and glycocalyx secretion, imaged by confocal microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated microcolonies of active infectious cells bound with thick fibrous material. Transmission electron microscopy substantiated the formation of classical biofilm architecture with P. aeruginosa densely packed within the extracellular polymeric substances on PI days 5 and 7. Direct visual evidence showed that biofilms routinely developed on the biotic surface of the mouse cornea. The mouse model can be used to develop new approaches to deal therapeutically with biofilms in corneal infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss of Serglycin Promotes Primary Tumor Growth and Vessel Functionality in the RIP1-Tag2 Mouse Model for Spontaneous Insulinoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hamilton

    Full Text Available The serglycin proteoglycan is mainly expressed by hematopoietic cells where the major function is to retain the content of storage granules and vesicles. In recent years, expression of serglycin has also been found in different forms of human malignancies and a high serglycin expression level has been correlated with a more migratory and invasive phenotype in the case of breast cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Serglycin has also been implicated in the development of the tumor vasculature in multiple myeloma and hepatocellular carcinoma where reduced expression of serglycin was correlated with a less extensive vasculature. To further investigate the contribution of serglycin to tumor development, we have used the immunocompetent RIP1-Tag2 mouse model of spontaneous insulinoma formation crossed into serglycin deficient mice. For the first time we show that serglycin-deficiency affects orthotopic primary tumor growth and tumor vascular functionality of late stage carcinomas. RIP1-Tag2 mice that lack serglycin develop larger tumors with a higher proliferative activity but unaltered apoptosis compared to normal RIP1-Tag2 mice. The absence of serglycin also enhances the tumor vessel functionality, which is better perfused than in tumors from serglycin wild type mice. The presence of the pro-angiogenic modulators vascular endothelial growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were decreased in the serglycin deficient mice which suggests a less pro-angiogenic environment in the tumors of these animals. Taken together, we conclude that serglycin affects multiple aspects of spontaneous tumor formation, which strengthens the theory that serglycin acts as an important mediator in the formation and progression of tumors.

  18. The cellular cancer resistance of the SR/CR mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Janne; Hau, Jann; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2012-01-01

    The SR/CR mouse phenotype, first described in 1999 in BALB/c and later bred into C57BL/6 mice, is resistant to cancer formation following high doses of cancer cells administered intraperitoneally. The tumor cell targeting and destruction mechanisms have not been identified. By fluorescence-activa...... controls. Importantly, this differentially regulated immune response of SR/CR mice could not be found in response to challenge with the lymphoma cell line EL-4....

  19. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.

  20. Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dominik Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved to adapt a commercial 3(rd generation OCT system to obtain and quantify high-resolution morphological sections of the mouse retina which so far required in vitro histology. OCT and histology were compared in models with developmental defects, light damage, and inherited retinal degenerations. In conditional knockout mice deficient in retinal retinoblastoma protein Rb, the gradient of Cre expression from center to periphery, leading to a gradual reduction of retinal thickness, was clearly visible and well topographically quantifiable. In Nrl knockout mice, the layer involvement in the formation of rosette-like structures was similarly clear as in histology. OCT examination of focal light damage, well demarcated by the autofluorescence pattern, revealed a practically complete loss of photoreceptors with preservation of inner retinal layers, but also more subtle changes like edema formation. In Crb1 knockout mice (a model for Leber's congenital amaurosis, retinal vessels slipping through the outer nuclear layer towards the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE due to the lack of adhesion in the subapical region of the photoreceptor inner segments could be well identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that with the OCT we were able to detect and analyze a wide range of mouse retinal pathology, and the results compared well to histological sections. In addition, the technique allows to follow individual animals over time, thereby reducing the numbers of study animals needed, and to assess dynamic processes like edema formation. The results clearly indicate that OCT has the potential to revolutionize the future design of respective short- and long-term studies, as well as the preclinical

  1. Collagen metabolism and basement membrane formation in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells: Induction of assembly on fibrillar type I collagen substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, G.; van der Schueren, B.; van den Berghe, H.; Nusgens, B.; Van Cauwenberge, D.; Lapiere, C.

    1987-01-01

    Collagen metabolism was compared in cultures of mouse mammary epithelial cells maintained on plastic or fibrillar type I collagen gel substrata. The accumulation of dialysable and non-dialysable [ 3 H]hydroxyproline and the identification of the collagens produced suggest no difference between substrata in the allover rates of collagen synthesis and degradation. The proportion of the [ 3 H]collagen which accumulates in the monolayers of cultures on collagen, however, markedly exceeds that of cultures on plastic. Cultures on collagen deposit a sheet-like layer of extracellular matrix materials on the surface of the collagen fibers. Transformed cells on collagen produce and accumulate more [ 3 H]collage, yet are less effective in basement membrane formation than normal cells, indicting that the accumulation of collagen alone and the effect of interstitial collagen thereupon do not suffice. Thus, exogenous fibrillar collagen appears to enhance, but is not sufficient for proper assembly of collagenous basement membrane components near the basal epithelial cell surface

  2. Non-homologous chromosome synapsis during mouse meiosis : consequences for male fertility and survival of progeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.H.F.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the mouse, heterozygosity for several reciprocal and Robertsonian translocations is associated with impairment of chromosome synapsis and suppression of crossover formation in segments near the points of exchange during prophase of meiosis. This thesis describes the analysis of the consequences

  3. Constitutive activation of Gli2 impairs bone formation in postnatal growing mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Sang Joeng

    Full Text Available Indian hedgehog (Ihh signaling is indispensable for osteoblast differentiation during endochondral bone development in the mouse embryo. We have previously shown that the Gli2 transcription activator critically mediates Ihh function in osteoblastogenesis. To explore the possibility that activation of Hedgehog (Hh signaling may enhance bone formation, we generated mice that expressed a constitutively active form of Gli2 in the Osx-lineage cells. Unexpectedly, these mice exhibited severe osteopenia due to a marked decrease in osteoblast number and function, although bone resorption was not affected. Quantitative analyses of the molecular markers indicated that osteoblast differentiation was impaired in the mutant mouse. However, the osteoblast-lineage cells isolated from these mice exhibited more robust osteoblast differentiation than normal in vitro. Similarly, pharmacological stimulation of Hh signaling enhanced osteoblast differentiation from Osx-expressing cells isolated from the wild-type mouse. Thus, even though Hh signaling directly promotes osteoblast differentiation in vitro, constitutive activation of this pathway impairs bone formation in vivo, perhaps through an indirect mechanism.

  4. Acyl Chain Preference in Foam Cell Formation from Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuko; Hama, Kotaro; Tsukahara, Makoto; Izumi-Tsuzuki, Ryosuke; Nagai, Toru; Ohe-Yamada, Mihoko; Inoue, Keizo; Yokoyama, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis by synthesizing and accumulating cholesteryl ester (CE) in lipid droplets. However, in analyzing lipid metabolism in foam cell formation, studies have focused on the sterol group, and little research has been done on the acyl chains. Therefore, we adapted a model system using liposomes containing particular acyl chains and examined the effect of various acyl chains on foam cell formation. Of the phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes tested containing PS, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol, we found that unsaturated (C18:1), but not saturated (C16:0 and C18:0), PS liposomes induced lipid droplet formation, indicating that foam cell formation depends on the nature of the acyl chain of the PS liposomes. Experiments on the uptake and accumulation of cholesterol from liposomes by adding [ 14 C]cholesterol suggested that foam cell formation could be induced only when cholesterol was converted to CE in the case of C18:1 PS liposomes. Both microscopic observations and metabolic analysis suggest that cholesterol incorporated into either C16:0 or C18:0 PS liposomes may stay intact after being taken in by endosomes. The [ 14 C]C18:1 fatty acyl chain in the C18:1 PS liposome was used to synthesize CE and triacylglycerol (TG). Interestingly, the [ 14 C]C16:0 in the C18:1 PS liposome was metabolized to sphingomyelin rather than being incorporated into either CE or TG, which could be because of enzymatic acyl chain selectivity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the acyl chain preference of macrophages could have some impact on their progression to foam cells.

  5. Local administration of a hedgehog agonist accelerates fracture healing in a mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Miki; Hojo, Hironori; Kitaura, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Yujiro; Aini, Hailati; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Chung, Ung-il; Ohba, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    Bone fracture healing is processed through multiple biological stages including the transition from cartilaginous callus to bony callus formation. Because of its specific, temporal and indispensable functions demonstrated by mouse genetic studies, Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is one of the most potent signaling pathways involved in these processes, but the effect of Hh-signaling activation by small compounds on the repair process had not yet been addressed. Here we examined therapeutic effects of local and one shot-administration of the Hh agonist known as smoothened agonist (SAG) on bone fracture healing in a mouse model. A quantitative analysis with three-dimensional micro-computed tomography showed that SAG administration increased the size of both the cartilaginous callus and bony callus at 14 days after the surgery. A histological analysis showed that SAG administration increased the number of cells expressing a proliferation marker and a chondrocyte marker in cartilaginous callus as well as the cells expressing an osteoblast marker in bony callus. These results indicate that the SAG administration resulted in an enhancement of callus formation during bone fracture healing, which is at least in part mediated by an increase in chondrocyte proliferation in cartilaginous callus and the promotion of bone formation in bony callus. Therapeutic strategies with a SAG-mediated protocol may thus be useful for the treatment of bone fractures. - Highlights: • Local administration of a Hh agonist accelerates callus formation. • The Hh agonist administration promotes chondrocyte proliferation in the soft callus. • The Hh agonist administration increases osteoblast formation in the hard callus.

  6. Interaction of X-irradiated mouse cells in heterokaryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmanova, J.; Spurna, V.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of heterokaryon formation and the ability of DNA synthesis in the system of mouse X-irradiated L fibroblasts and non-irradiated or irradiated LS/BL lymphosarcoma cells were studied. The frequency of heterokaryons after fusion of one or both irradiated parental cells was 3 to 6 times higher than in the non-irradiated cell cultures. In these heterokaryons we found 1.5 to 3 times more nuclei of irradiated L cells capable of DNA synthesis than in the population of non-fused irradiated cells. (author)

  7. Abnormal early cleavage events predict early embryo demise: sperm oxidative stress and early abnormal cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie; Barker, Christopher M; Pera, Renee Reijo; Meyers, Stuart

    2014-10-13

    Human embryos resulting from abnormal early cleavage can result in aneuploidy and failure to develop normally to the blastocyst stage. The nature of paternal influence on early embryo development has not been directly demonstrated although many studies have suggested effects from spermatozoal chromatin packaging, DNA damage, centriolar and mitotic spindle integrity, and plasma membrane integrity. The goal of this study was to determine whether early developmental events were affected by oxidative damage to the fertilizing sperm. Survival analysis was used to compare patterns of blastocyst formation based on P2 duration. Kaplan-Meier survival curves demonstrate that relatively few embryos with short (P2 times reached blastocysts, and the two curves diverged beginning on day 4, with nearly all of the embryos with longer P2 times reaching blastocysts by day 6 (p < .01). We determined that duration of the 2nd to 3rd mitoses were sensitive periods in the presence of spermatozoal oxidative stress. Embryos that displayed either too long or too short cytokineses demonstrated an increased failure to reach blastocyst stage and therefore survive for further development. Although paternal-derived gene expression occurs later in development, this study suggests a specific role in early mitosis that is highly influenced by paternal factors.

  8. HSPC117 deficiency in cloned embryos causes placental abnormality and fetal death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yingying; Hai, Tang; Liu, Zichuan; Zhou, Shuya; Lv, Zhuo; Ding, Chenhui; Liu, Lei; Niu, Yuyu; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Tong, Man; Wang, Liu; Jouneau, Alice; Zhang, Xun; Ji, Weizhi; Zhou, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been successfully used in many species to produce live cloned offspring, albeit with low efficiency. The low frequency of successful development has usually been ascribed to incomplete or inappropriate reprogramming of the transferred nuclear genome. Elucidating the genetic differences between normal fertilized and cloned embryos is key to understand the low efficiency of SCNT. Here, we show that expression of HSPC117, which encodes a hypothetical protein of unknown function, was absent or very low in cloned mouse blastocysts. To investigate the role of HSPC117 in embryo development, we knocked-down this gene in normal fertilized embryos using RNA interference. We assessed the post-implantation survival of HSPC117 knock-down embryos at 3 stages: E9 (prior to placenta formation); E12 (after the placenta was fully functional) and E19 (post-natal). Our results show that, although siRNA-treated in vivo fertilized/produced (IVP) embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage and implanted without any difference from control embryos, the knock-down embryos showed substantial fetal death, accompanied by placental blood clotting, at E12. Furthermore, comparison of HSPC117 expression in placentas of nuclear transfer (NT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and IVP embryos confirmed that HSPC117 deficiency correlates well with failures in embryo development: all NT embryos with a fetus, as well as IVP and ICSI embryos, had normal placental HSPC117 expression while those NT embryos showing reduced or no expression of HSPC117 failed to form a fetus. In conclusion, we show that HSPC117 is an important gene for post-implantation development of embryos, and that HSPC117 deficiency leads to fetal abnormalities after implantation, especially following placental formation. We suggest that defects in HSPC117 expression may be an important contributing factor to loss of cloned NT embryos in vivo.

  9. Genotoxicity of 3-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone in MutaMouse and lung epithelial cells derived from MutaMouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Volker M; Gingerich, John; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Phillips, David H; Douglas, George R; White, Paul A

    2008-11-01

    FE1 lung epithelial cells derived from MutaMouse are a new model system to provide in vitro mutagenicity data with the potential to predict the outcome of an in vivo MutaMouse test. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust and urban air pollution. We investigated the mutagenicity and DNA binding of 3-NBA and its main metabolite 3-aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA) in vitro and in vivo in the MutaMouse assay. Mice were treated with 3-NBA or 3-ABA (0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight/day) by gavage for 28 days and 28 days later lacZ mutant frequency (MF) was determined in liver, lung and bone marrow. For both compounds, dose-related increases in MF were seen in liver and bone marrow, but not in lung; mutagenic activity was approximately 2-fold lower for 3-ABA than for 3-NBA. With 3-NBA, highest DNA adduct levels (measured by (32)P-post-labelling) were found in liver (approximately 230 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides) with levels 20- to 40-fold lower in bone marrow and lung. With 3-ABA, DNA adduct levels were again highest in the liver, but approximately 4-fold lower than for 3-NBA. FE1 cells were exposed to up to 10 microg/ml 3-NBA or 3-ABA for 6 h with or without exogenous activation (S9) and harvested after 3 days. For 3-NBA, there was a dose-related increase in MF both with and without S9 mix, which was >10 times higher than observed in vivo. At the highest concentration of 3-ABA (10 microg/ml), we found only around a 2-fold increase in MF relative to controls. DNA adduct formation in FE1 cells was dose-dependent for both compounds, but 10- to 20-fold higher for 3-NBA compared to 3-ABA. Collectively, our data indicate that MutaMouse FE1 cells are well suited for cost-effective testing of suspected mutagens with different metabolic activation pathways as a guide for subsequent in vivo MutaMouse testing.

  10. Nuclei pulposi formation from the embryonic notochord occurs normally in GDF-5-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Jennifer A; Harfe, Brian D

    2011-11-15

    The transition of the mouse embryonic notochord into nuclei pulposi was determined ("fate mapped") in vivo in growth and differentiating factor-5 (GDF-5)-null mice using the Shhcre and R26R alleles. To determine whether abnormal nuclei pulposi formation from the embryonic notochord was responsible for defects present in adult nuclei pulposi of Gdf-5-null mice. The development, maintenance, and degeneration of the intervertebral disc are not understood. Previously, we demonstrated that all cells in the adult nucleus pulposus of normal mice are derived from the embryonic notochord. Gdf-5-null mice have been reported to contain intervertebral discs in which the nucleus pulposus is abnormal. It is currently unclear if disc defects in Gdf-5-null mice arise during the formation of nuclei pulposi from the notochord during embryogenesis or result from progressive postnatal degeneration of nuclei pulposi. Gdf-5 messenger RNA expression was examined in the discs of wild-type embryos by RNA in situ hybridization to determine when and where this gene was expressed. To examine nucleus pulposus formation in Gdf-5-null mice, intervertebral discs in which embryonic notochord cells were marked were analyzed in newborn and 24-week-old mice. Our Gdf-5 messenger RNA in situ experiments determined that this gene is localized to the annulus fibrosus and not the nucleus pulposus in mouse embryos. Notochord fate-mapping experiments revealed that notochord cells in Gdf-5-null mice correctly form nuclei pulposi. Our data suggest that the defects reported in the nucleus pulposus of adult Gdf-5-null mice do not result from abnormal patterning of the embryonic notochord. The use of mouse alleles to mark cells that produce all cell types that reside in the adult nucleus pulposus will allow for a detailed examination of disc formation in other mouse mutants that have been reported to contain disc defects.

  11. The effect of herbicide BASTA 15 on the development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, D; Bystriansky, J; Burkuš, J; Rehák, P; Legáth, J; Koppel, J

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of maternal poisoning by BASTA-15 on developmental capacities and quality of preimplantation embryos in a mouse model. During in vivo tests, fertilized mice were fed with various doses of BASTA-15 for several days. During in vitro tests, isolated embryos were cultured in a medium with the addition of herbicide or its main compound glufosinate ammonium. Stereomicroscopic evaluation of embryonic pools obtained from treated dams showed that BASTA-15 at dose 58 μl/kg bw negatively affected their ability to reach the blastocyst stage. Moreover, as shown by morphological evaluation, based on cell counting and cell death assay, even the application of herbicide at the lowest dose (approx. 1/100 LD50) had a negative effect on obtained embryo quality. In vitro tests proved the direct ability of BASTA-15 to negatively affect embryo growth and quality. On the other hand, the addition of glufosinate ammonium at equivalent concentrations (from 0.015 to 15 μg/ml) had almost no damaging effect on embryos. It was harmful only at very high doses. Results show that maternal intoxication with BASTA-15 might affect the development of preimplantation embryos and suggest that the responsibility for this effect lies probably not solely with glufosinate ammonium, but in combination with the herbicide's secondary compounds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of glycine and alanine supplementation on development of cattle embryos cultured in CR1aa medium with or without cumulus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kr. BREDBACKA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of alanine (1 mM and glycine (10 mM supplementation on bovine embryo development in vitro was investigated. Presumptive bovine zygotes, produced by in vitro maturation and insemination of oocytes, were cultured for 144 h in CR1aa medium in the absence (Experiments 1 and 2 or presence of cumulus cells (Experiment 3. In Experiment 1, the proportion of morulae and blastocysts of cleaved embryos in glycine-supplemented medium was not different from that of the control medium (34% in both mediaglycine-enriched medium (69.5 vs. 53.3, P = 0.016. In Experiment 2, addition of alanine did not improve the formation of morulae and blastocysts (13% vs. 21% in control medium, and the mean cell numbers in morulae and blastocysts were lower than those in the control group (34.3 vs. 68.7, P = 0.007. In the presence of cumulus cells, the combined supplementation of glycine and alanine increased the proportion of morulae and blastocysts over that in the control medium (31% vs. 14%, P = 0.003.;

  13. Composition of single-step media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Baumann, Nikola A; Oglesbee, Devin

    2017-04-01

    To determine compositions of commercial single-step culture media and test with a murine model whether differences in composition are biologically relevant. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Inbred female mice were superovulated and mated with outbred male mice. Amino acid, organic acid, and ions content were determined for single-step culture media: CSC, Global, G-TL, and 1-Step. To determine whether differences in composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were cultured for 96 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in a time-lapse incubator. Compositions of four culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 30 amino acids, organic acids, and ions. Blastocysts at 96 hours of culture and cell cycle timings were calculated, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the more than 30 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium varied in concentrations. Mouse embryos were differentially affected by oxygen in G-TL and 1-Step. Four single-step culture media have compositions that vary notably in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids. Blastocyst development was affected by culture media and its interaction with oxygen concentration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dicer Is Required for Normal Cerebellar Development and to Restrain Medulloblastoma Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederique Zindy

    Full Text Available Dicer, a ribonuclease III enzyme, is required for the maturation of microRNAs. To assess its role in cerebellar and medulloblastoma development, we genetically deleted Dicer in Nestin-positive neural progenitors and in mice lacking one copy for the Sonic Hedgehog receptor, Patched 1. We found that conditional loss of Dicer in mouse neural progenitors induced massive Trp53-independent apoptosis in all proliferative zones of the brain and decreased proliferation of cerebellar granule progenitors at embryonic day 15.5 leading to abnormal cerebellar development and perinatal lethality. Loss of one copy of Dicer significantly accelerated the formation of mouse medulloblastoma of the Sonic Hedgehog subgroup in Patched1-heterozygous mice. We conclude that Dicer is required for proper cerebellar development, and to restrain medulloblastoma formation.

  15. Photoeffects of near ultraviolet light upon a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposed to mouse skin microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirano, W.B.

    1991-01-01

    Near ultraviolet (UV) light has been reported to both enhance and inhibit the tumor incidence in mice dermally exposed to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures. Near UV light interacts with PAHs producing a variety of oxygenated products such as phenols, endoperoxides and quinones. However, little is known about BaP products formed from near UV irradiation of BaP-exposed mouse skin. Therefore, 14 C-BaP was incubated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) induced C 3 H/HeJ and DBA/2J mouse skin microsomes with or without a 365 nm light source. The results indicated that the concurrent 365 nm light irradiation of induced mouse skin microsomes and BaP greatly enhanced the total conversion of BaP to its products, approximately 3-fold for the C 3 H/HeJ and approximately 7-fold for the DBA/2J mouse microsomes, compared to the induced mouse skin microsomes and BaP alone. HPLC analyses of organic extracts indicated a more than additive enhancement of the formation of most of the individual cochromatographed BaP metabolites due to the combined interaction of 365 nm light with BaP and skin microsomes. Similar interactions were observed using benz(a)anthracene (BaA) in this system. These data show that near UV light alters the metabolic profile of PAHs produced by mouse skin microsomes

  16. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taru Sharma, G., E-mail: gts553@gmail.com [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India); Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G. [Reproductive Physiology Laboratory, Division of Physiology and Climatology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243 122, Bareilly, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-03

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it

  17. Collagen-IV supported embryoid bodies formation and differentiation from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taru Sharma, G.; Dubey, Pawan K.; Verma, Om Prakash; Pratheesh, M.D.; Nath, Amar; Sai Kumar, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: EBs formation, characterization and expression of germinal layers marker genes of in vivo developed teratoma using four different types of extracellular matrices. Highlights: ► Collagen-IV matrix is found cytocompatible for EBs formation and differentiation. ► Established 3D microenvironment for ES cells development and differentiation into three germ layers. ► Collagen-IV may be useful as promising candidate for ES cells based therapeutic applications. -- Abstract: Embryoid bodies (EBs) are used as in vitro model to study early extraembryonic tissue formation and differentiation. In this study, a novel method using three dimensional extracellular matrices for in vitro generation of EBs from buffalo embryonic stem (ES) cells and its differentiation potential by teratoma formation was successfully established. In vitro derived inner cell masses (ICMs) of hatched buffalo blastocyst were cultured on buffalo fetal fibroblast feeder layer for primary cell colony formation. For generation of EBs, pluripotent ES cells were seeded onto four different types of extracellular matrices viz; collagen-IV, laminin, fibronectin and matrigel using undifferentiating ES cell culture medium. After 5 days of culture, ESCs gradually grew into aggregates and formed simple EBs having circular structures. Twenty-six days later, they formed cystic EBs over collagen matrix with higher EBs formation and greater proliferation rate as compared to other extracellular matrices. Studies involving histological observations, fluorescence microscopy and RT-PCR analysis of the in vivo developed teratoma revealed that presence of all the three germ layer derivatives viz. ectoderm (NCAM), mesoderm (Flk-1) and endoderm (AFP). In conclusion, the method described here demonstrates a simple and cost-effective way of generating EBs from buffalo ES cells. Collagen-IV matrix was found cytocompatible as it supported buffalo EBs formation, their subsequent differentiation could prove to

  18. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mokhber Maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods: In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml, 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO, or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631 were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII oocytes after IVM (n=240 were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results: Supplementation of IVM media with 10 μg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05 increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 μg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 μg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential

  19. BIX-01294 increases pig cloning efficiency by improving epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Hongyong; Yao, Jing; Qin, Guosong; Wang, Feng; Wang, Xianlong; Luo, Ailing; Zheng, Qiantao; Cao, Chunwei; Zhao, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that faulty epigenetic reprogramming leads to the abnormal development of cloned embryos and results in the low success rates observed in all mammals produced through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The aberrant methylation status of H3K9me and H3K9me2 has been reported in cloned mouse embryos. To explore the role of H3K9me2 and H3K9me in the porcine somatic cell nuclear reprogramming, BIX-01294, known as a specific inhibitor of G9A (histone-lysine methyltransferase of H3K9), was used to treat the nuclear-transferred (NT) oocytes for 14-16 h after activation. The results showed that the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos was significantly enhanced both in vitro (blastocyst rate 16.4% vs 23.2%, Pcloning rate 1.59% vs 2.96%) after 50 nm BIX-01294 treatment. BIX-01294 treatment significantly decreased the levels of H3K9me2 and H3K9me at the 2- and 4-cell stages, which are associated with embryo genetic activation, and increased the transcriptional expression of the pluripotency genes SOX2, NANOG and OCT4 in cloned blastocysts. Furthermore, the histone acetylation levels of H3K9, H4K8 and H4K12 in cloned embryos were decreased after BIX-01294 treatment. However, co-treatment of activated NT oocytes with BIX-01294 and Scriptaid rescued donor nuclear chromatin from decreased histone acetylation of H4K8 that resulted from exposure to BIX-01294 only and consequently improved the preimplantation development of SCNT embryos (blastocyst formation rates of 23.7% vs 21.5%). These results indicated that treatment with BIX-01294 enhanced the developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos through improvements in epigenetic reprogramming and gene expression. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  20. Critical role of mast cell chymase in mouse abdominal aortic aneurysm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, J; Zhang, J; Lindholt, Jes S.

    2009-01-01

    Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown.......Mast cell chymase may participate in the pathogenesis of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), yet a direct contribution of this serine protease to AAA formation remains unknown....

  1. Metabolism of choline in brain of the aged CBF-1 mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, M.; Kindel, G.; Karczmar, A.G.; Rosenberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the changes that occur in the cholinergic central nervous system with aging, we have compared acetylcholine (Ach) formation in brain cortex slice preparations from 2-year-old aged CBF-1 mouse brains and compared the findings with those in 2-4-month-old young adult mouse brain slices. Incorporation of exogenous radioactively labelled choline (31 nM [ 3 H] choline) into acetyl choline in incubated brain slices was linear with time for 90 min. Percentage of total choline label distributed into Ach remained constant from 5 min after starting the incubation to 90 min. In contrast, distribution of label into intracellular free choline (Ch) and phosphorylcholine (Pch) changed continuously over this period suggesting that the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in brain cortex is different from that for Pch synthesis. Incorporation of radioactivity into Ach was not influenced by administration of 10 microM eserine, showing that the increment of radioactivity in Ach reflects rate of Ach formation, independently from degradation by acetylcholine esterases. Under our experimental conditions, slices from cortices of aged 24-month-old mouse brain showed a significantly greater (27%) incorporation of radioactivity into intracellular Ach than those from young, 2-4-month-old, brain cortices. Inhibitors of Ach release, 1 mM ATP or GABA, had no effect. Since concentration of radioactive precursor in the incubation medium was very low (31 nM), the Ch pool for Ach synthesis in slices was labelled without measurably changing the size of the endogenous pool. These data suggest a compensatory acceleration of Ach synthesis or else a smaller precursor pool specific for Ach synthesis into which labelled Ch migrated in aged brain

  2. The Mouse Genome Database (MGD): facilitating mouse as a model for human biology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Bult, Carol J; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2015-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD, http://www.informatics.jax.org) serves the international biomedical research community as the central resource for integrated genomic, genetic and biological data on the laboratory mouse. To facilitate use of mouse as a model in translational studies, MGD maintains a core of high-quality curated data and integrates experimentally and computationally generated data sets. MGD maintains a unified catalog of genes and genome features, including functional RNAs, QTL and phenotypic loci. MGD curates and provides functional and phenotype annotations for mouse genes using the Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology. MGD integrates phenotype data and associates mouse genotypes to human diseases, providing critical mouse-human relationships and access to repositories holding mouse models. MGD is the authoritative source of nomenclature for genes, genome features, alleles and strains following guidelines of the International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice. A new addition to MGD, the Human-Mouse: Disease Connection, allows users to explore gene-phenotype-disease relationships between human and mouse. MGD has also updated search paradigms for phenotypic allele attributes, incorporated incidental mutation data, added a module for display and exploration of genes and microRNA interactions and adopted the JBrowse genome browser. MGD resources are freely available to the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Optimization of the virtual mouse HeadMouse to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merce TEIXIDO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the optimization of a virtual mouse called HeadMouse in order to foster its classroom use by children with physical disabilities. HeadMouse is an absolute virtual mouse that converts head movements in cursor displacement and facial gestures in click actions. The virtual mouse combines different image processing algorithms: face detection, pattern matching and optical flow in order to emulate the behaviour of a conventional computer mouse. The original implementation of HeadMouse requires large computational power and this paper proposes specific optimizations in order to enable its use by children with disabilities in standard low cost classroom computers.

  4. Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianying; Kumada, Tatsuro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Iwata, Satomi; Kaneko, Takeshi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Yoshida, Sachiko; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-04-01

    Although focal cortical malformations are considered neuronal migration disorders, their formation mechanisms remain unknown. We addressed how the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic system affects the GABAergic and glutamatergic neuronal migration underlying such malformations. A focal freeze-lesion (FFL) of the postnatal day zero (P0) glutamic acid decarboxylase-green fluorescent protein knock-in mouse neocortex produced a 3- or 4-layered microgyrus at P7. GABAergic interneurons accumulated around the necrosis including the superficial region during microgyrus formation at P4, whereas E17.5-born, Cux1-positive pyramidal neurons outlined the GABAergic neurons and were absent from the superficial layer, forming cell-dense areas in layer 2 of the P7 microgyrus. GABA imaging showed that an extracellular GABA level temporally increased in the GABAergic neuron-positive area, including the necrotic center, at P4. The expression of the Cl(-) transporter KCC2 was downregulated in the microgyrus-forming GABAergic and E17.5-born glutamatergic neurons at P4; these cells may need a high intracellular Cl(-) concentration to induce depolarizing GABA effects. Bicuculline decreased the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in these microgyrus-forming cells. Thus, neonatal FFL causes specific neuronal accumulation, preceded by an increase in ambient GABA during microgyrus formation. This GABA increase induces GABAA receptor-mediated Ca(2+) oscillation in KCC2-downregulated microgyrus-forming cells, as seen in migrating cells during early neocortical development.

  5. Autophagy Primes Neutrophils for Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation during Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Young; Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Youn, Young-Jin; Kim, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Yeong; Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, So-Hee; Ahn, Won-Gyun; Kim, Shin; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Park, Yong Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Ko, Yousang; Lee, Suh-Young; Koh, Younsuck; Park, Myung Jae; Song, Dong-Keun; Hong, Chang-Won

    2017-09-01

    Neutrophils are key effectors in the host's immune response to sepsis. Excessive stimulation or dysregulated neutrophil functions are believed to be responsible for sepsis pathogenesis. However, the mechanisms regulating functional plasticity of neutrophils during sepsis have not been fully determined. We investigated the role of autophagy in neutrophil functions during sepsis in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Neutrophils were isolated from patients with sepsis and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The levels of reactive oxygen species generation, neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and granule release, and the autophagic status were evaluated. The effect of neutrophil autophagy augmentation was further evaluated in a mouse model of sepsis. Neutrophils isolated from patients who survived sepsis showed an increase in autophagy induction, and were primed for NET formation in response to subsequent PMA stimulation. In contrast, neutrophils isolated from patients who did not survive sepsis showed dysregulated autophagy and a decreased response to PMA stimulation. The induction of autophagy primed healthy neutrophils for NET formation and vice versa. In a mouse model of sepsis, the augmentation of autophagy improved survival via a NET-dependent mechanism. These results indicate that neutrophil autophagy primes neutrophils for increased NET formation, which is important for proper neutrophil effector functions during sepsis. Our study provides important insights into the role of autophagy in neutrophils during sepsis.

  6. Influence of irradiation (Co{sub 6}0) in pre-implant rabbits embryos: effect on blastocyst diameters and embryos smaller than 2 mm; Influencia da radiacao ionizante (bomba de cobalto) em embrioes de coelha na fase de pre-implantacao: efeito no diametro das blastulas e embrioes com menos de 2mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Approbato, Mario S.; Oliveira Moura, Katia K.V. de; Souza Florencio, Rodopiano de; Cunha Junior, Carlos; Garcia, Ricardo; Faria, Renato S.; Benedetti, Leonardo N.; Goulart, Flamarion B.

    1995-06-01

    We studied the effect of ionizing irradiation on 12 New Zealand rabbits (65 embryos), in three different times: at match time (zero hour), two days after and four days after, with two different irradiation doses, 5 c Gy and 10 c Gy. Six rabbits (36 blastocysts) were used as controls. The matching instant was the zero hour. Exactly six days after ({+-} 60 minutes) the embryos of each rabbit was picked up by flushing the uterus with culture media. The embryos were fixed in methanol for 48 hours, and colored with acid Mayer hematoxylin. The following embryos parameters were studied: diameter growth; percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm. We observed that only the irradiation time influenced the blastocysts diameter (no irradiation dose). There was no relation between percentage of embryos smaller than 2 mm and the irradiation. (author). 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Day 4 good morula embryo transfer provided compatible live birth rate with day 5 blastocyst embryo in fresh IVF/ET cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ryh-Sheng; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Li, Sheng-Hsiang; Lin, Ming-Huei

    2018-02-01

    Embryo transfers during cleavage stage (day 2 or day 3) and blastocyst stages (day 5 or day 6) are common in current daily practice in fresh IVF/ET cycles. Data regarding transferring day 4 embryos, morula/compact stage, is still restricted and the grading system is also inconsistent, as between IVF clinics. This study provided a new detailed classification system for morula/compact stage embryos and compared successes rates between day 4 and day 5 ET. This was a retrospective study. A review of medical records from January 1st, 2013, to December 31st 2015, performed for all conventional insemination and ICSI cycles with a GnRH-antagonist protocol at the Infertility Division of MacKay Memorial Hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. There were 427 cycles included in our study, 107 in study group (day 4 MET) and 320 in control group (day 5 BET). Pregnancy rates and live birth rate were compatible, as between morula embryo transfer (MET) and blastocyst embryo transfer (BET). The implantation rate (36.3% vs. 39.6%, respectively, p = 0.500), clinical pregnancy rate (49.5% vs. 51.9%, respectively, p = 0.737), and live birth rate (42.1% vs. 45.6%, respectively, p = 0.574) were statistically insignificant between groups. The term birth rate was statistically higher in the MET group than in the BET group (95.7% vs. 79.5%, respectively, p = 0.006). When the clinical outcomes between day 4 good MET and day 5 good BET were compared, the results were compatible. The implantation rate (48.8% vs. 41.1%, respectively, p = 0.335), clinical pregnancy rate (55.0% vs. 53.2%, respectively, p = 0.867), and live birth rate (47.5% vs. 47.1%, respectively, p = 1.000) showed no significant difference. The term birth rate was also higher in day 4 good MET group than in day 5 good BET group (100% vs. 78.3%, respectively, p = 0.025). In this study, we performed day 4 MET avoid BET on Sunday. The grading system we provided was more detailed for embryo selection and it was easier to

  8. The Robertsonian phenomenon in the house mouse: mutation, meiosis and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagna, Silvia; Page, Jesus; Fernandez-Donoso, Raul; Zuccotti, Maurizio; Searle, Jeremy B

    2014-12-01

    Many different chromosomal races with reduced chromosome number due to the presence of Robertsonian fusion metacentrics have been described in western Europe and northern Africa, within the distribution area of the western house mouse Mus musculus domesticus. This subspecies of house mouse has become the ideal model for studies to elucidate the processes of chromosome mutation and fixation that lead to the formation of chromosomal races and for studies on the impact of chromosome heterozygosities on reproductive isolation and speciation. In this review, we briefly describe the history of the discovery of the first and subsequent metacentric races in house mice; then, we focus on the molecular composition of the centromeric regions involved in chromosome fusion to examine the molecular characteristics that may explain the great variability of the karyotype that house mice show. The influence that metacentrics exert on the nuclear architecture of the male meiocytes and the consequences on meiotic progression are described to illustrate the impact that chromosomal heterozygosities exert on fertility of house mice-of relevance to reproductive isolation and speciation. The evolutionary significance of the Robertsonian phenomenon in the house mouse is discussed in the final section of this review.

  9. Bone marrow-derived osteoblast progenitor cells in circulating blood contribute to ectopic bone formation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuru, Satoru; Tamai, Katsuto; Yamazaki, Takehiko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Kaneda, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the existence of osteoblastic cells in the circulation, but the origin and role of these cells in vivo are not clear. Here, we examined how these cells contribute to osteogenesis in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced model of ectopic bone formation. Following lethal dose-irradiation and subsequent green fluorescent protein-transgenic bone marrow cell-transplantation (GFP-BMT) in mice, a BMP-2-containing collagen pellet was implanted into muscle. Three weeks later, a significant number of GFP-positive osteoblastic cells were present in the newly generated ectopic bone. Moreover, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) from the BMP-2-implanted mouse were then shown to include osteoblast progenitor cells (OPCs) in culture. Passive transfer of the PBMNCs isolated from the BMP-2-implanted GFP-mouse to the BMP-2-implanted nude mouse led to GFP-positive osteoblast accumulation in the ectopic bone. These data provide new insight into the mechanism of ectopic bone formation involving bone marrow-derived OPCs in circulating blood

  10. Composition of commercial media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Krisher, Rebecca L; Herrick, Jason R; Baumann, Nikola A; Matern, Dietrich; Moyer, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    To determine the composition of commercially available culture media and test whether differences in composition are biologically relevant in a murine model. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Cryopreserved hybrid mouse one-cell embryos were used in experiments. Amino acid, organic acid, ions, and metal content were determined for two different lots of media from Cook, In Vitro Care, Origio, Sage, Vitrolife, Irvine CSC, and Global. To determine whether differences in the composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were thawed and cultured for 120 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in the presence or absence of protein in an EmbryoScope time-lapse incubator. The compositions of seven culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 39 individual amino acids, organic acids, ions, and elements. Blastocyst rates and cell cycle timings were calculated at 96 hours of culture, and the experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the 39 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium were present in variable concentrations, likely reflecting differences in the interpretation of animal studies. Essential trace elements, such as copper and zinc, were not detected. Mouse embryos failed to develop in one culture medium and were differentially affected by oxygen in two other media. Culture media composition varies widely, with differences in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids especially notable. Blastocyst development was culture media dependent and showed an interaction with oxygen concentration and presence of protein. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic Dissection of Trabecular Bone Structure with Mouse Intersubspecific Consomic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Kataoka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Trabecular bone structure has an important influence on bone strength, but little is known about its genetic regulation. To elucidate the genetic factor(s regulating trabecular bone structure, we compared the trabecular bone structures of two genetically remote mouse strains, C57BL/6J and Japanese wild mouse-derived MSM/Ms. Phenotyping by X-ray micro-CT revealed that MSM/Ms has structurally more fragile trabecular bone than C57BL/6J. Toward identification of genetic determinants for the difference in fragility of trabecular bone between the two mouse strains, we employed phenotype screening of consomic mouse strains in which each C57BL/6J chromosome is substituted by its counterpart from MSM/Ms. The results showed that many chromosomes affect trabecular bone structure, and that the consomic strain B6-Chr15MSM, carrying MSM/Ms-derived chromosome 15 (Chr15, has the lowest values for the parameters BV/TV, Tb.N, and Conn.D, and the highest values for the parameters Tb.Sp and SMI. Subsequent phenotyping of subconsomic strains for Chr15 mapped four novel trabecular bone structure-related QTL (Tbsq1-4 on mouse Chr15. These results collectively indicate that genetic regulation of trabecular bone structure is highly complex, and that even in the single Chr15, the combined action of the four Tbsqs controls the fragility of trabecular bone. Given that Tbsq4 is syntenic to human Chr 12q12-13.3, where several bone-related SNPs are assigned, further study of Tbsq4 should facilitate our understanding of the genetic regulation of bone formation in humans.

  12. The impact of histones linked to sperm chromatin on embryo development and ART outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Labrune, E; Lornage, J; Soignon, G; Giscard d'Estaing, S; Guérin, J-F; Benchaib, M

    2018-03-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the proportion of sperm chromatin linked to remaining histone and assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcome. A prospective cohort study was performed on couples undergoing ART process at the Department of Reproduction Medicine (HFME, Bron, France). The histone-to-protamine ratio (HPR) was measured using the method described by Wykes & Krawetz (2003) J Biol Chem 278, 29471. The correlations with sperm DFI, blastocyst formation, pregnancy rate, and delivery rate were investigated. A total of 291 ART cycles were included (42 c-IVF and 249 ICSI procedures): 3870 oocytes were punctured and 2211 embryos were obtained, among which 507 were transferred and 336 frozen. The mean HPR was 18.9%. A significant negative correlation was found between HPR and DFI (r = -0.12, p ART procedure (c-IVF or ICSI), the same kind of relationship between HPR and ART parameters was observed. Regardless of the type of ART procedure used, when the HPR was within the range [6%; 26%], the blastocyst formation rate was higher: 87.8% vs. 71.2% (HPR26%; p 26%; however, the differences were not statistically significant. The procedure described in this study seems to be a reliable evaluation of the HPR. The HPR parameter seems to be correlated to embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage, but its involvement in clinical pregnancy/delivery could not be confirmed. HPR should be further investigated for confirming the relationship with blastocyst formation. After this, the next step will be to investigate the etiologies of HPR alterations for improving the sperm nucleus quality for increasing the chance of pregnancy. © 2018 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  13. Derivation of novel human ground state naive pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafni, Ohad; Weinberger, Leehee; Mansour, Abed AlFatah; Manor, Yair S; Chomsky, Elad; Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Kalma, Yael; Viukov, Sergey; Maza, Itay; Zviran, Asaf; Rais, Yoach; Shipony, Zohar; Mukamel, Zohar; Krupalnik, Vladislav; Zerbib, Mirie; Geula, Shay; Caspi, Inbal; Schneir, Dan; Shwartz, Tamar; Gilad, Shlomit; Amann-Zalcenstein, Daniela; Benjamin, Sima; Amit, Ido; Tanay, Amos; Massarwa, Rada; Novershtern, Noa; Hanna, Jacob H

    2013-12-12

    Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and can be preserved in vitro in a naive inner-cell-mass-like configuration by providing exogenous stimulation with leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and small molecule inhibition of ERK1/ERK2 and GSK3β signalling (termed 2i/LIF conditions). Hallmarks of naive pluripotency include driving Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1) transcription by its distal enhancer, retaining a pre-inactivation X chromosome state, and global reduction in DNA methylation and in H3K27me3 repressive chromatin mark deposition on developmental regulatory gene promoters. Upon withdrawal of 2i/LIF, naive mouse ES cells can drift towards a primed pluripotent state resembling that of the post-implantation epiblast. Although human ES cells share several molecular features with naive mouse ES cells, they also share a variety of epigenetic properties with primed murine epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). These include predominant use of the proximal enhancer element to maintain OCT4 expression, pronounced tendency for X chromosome inactivation in most female human ES cells, increase in DNA methylation and prominent deposition of H3K27me3 and bivalent domain acquisition on lineage regulatory genes. The feasibility of establishing human ground state naive pluripotency in vitro with equivalent molecular and functional features to those characterized in mouse ES cells remains to be defined. Here we establish defined conditions that facilitate the derivation of genetically unmodified human naive pluripotent stem cells from already established primed human ES cells, from somatic cells through induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell reprogramming or directly from blastocysts. The novel naive pluripotent cells validated herein retain molecular characteristics and functional properties that are highly similar to mouse naive ES cells, and distinct from conventional primed human pluripotent cells. This includes competence in the generation

  14. Interspecific in vitro assay for the chimera-forming ability of human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Hideki; Kato-Itoh, Megumi; Umino, Ayumi; Sato, Hideyuki; Hamanaka, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2015-09-15

    Functional assay limitations are an emerging issue in characterizing human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). With rodent PSCs, chimera formation using pre-implantation embryos is the gold-standard assay of pluripotency (competence of progeny to differentiate into all three germ layers). In human PSCs (hPSCs), however, this can only be monitored via teratoma formation or in vitro differentiation, as ethical concerns preclude generation of human-human or human-animal chimeras. To circumvent this issue, we developed a functional assay utilizing interspecific blastocyst injection and in vitro culture (interspecies in vitro chimera assay) that enables the development and observation of embryos up to headfold stage. The assay uses mouse pre-implantation embryos and rat, monkey and human PSCs to create interspecies chimeras cultured in vitro to the early egg-cylinder stage. Intra- and interspecific chimera assays with rodent PSC lines were performed to confirm the consistency of results in vitro and in vivo. The behavior of chimeras developed in vitro appeared to recapitulate that of chimeras developed in vivo; that is, PSC-derived cells survived and were integrated into the epiblast of egg-cylinder-stage embryos. This indicates that the interspecific in vitro chimera assay is useful in evaluating the chimera-forming ability of rodent PSCs. However, when human induced PSCs (both conventional and naïve-like types) were injected into mouse embryos and cultured, some human cells survived but were segregated; unlike epiblast-stage rodent PSCs, they never integrated into the epiblast of egg-cylinder-stage embryos. These data suggest that the mouse-human interspecies in vitro chimera assay does not accurately reflect the early developmental potential/process of hPSCs. The use of evolutionarily more closely related species as host embryos might be necessary to evaluate the developmental potency of hPSCs. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Formation of nucleoli in interspecies nuclear transfer embryos derived from bovine, porcine, and rabbit oocytes and nuclear donor cells of various species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutina, Irina; Zakhartchenko, Valeri; Fulka, Helena; Colleoni, Silvia; Wolf, Eckhard; Fulka, Josef; Lazzari, Giovanna; Galli, Cesare

    2011-04-01

    The most successful development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) embryos has been achieved in closely related species. The analyses of embryonic gene activity in iSCNT embryos of different species combinations have revealed the existence of significant aberrations in expression of housekeeping genes and genes dependent on the major embryonic genome activation (EGA). However, there are many studies with successful blastocyst (BL) development of iSCNT embryos derived from donor cells and oocytes of animal species with distant taxonomical relations (inter-family/inter-class) that should indicate proper EGA at least in terms of RNA polymerase I activation, nucleoli formation, and activation of genes engaged in morula and BL formation. We investigated the ability of bovine, porcine, and rabbit oocytes to activate embryonic nucleoli formation in the nuclei of somatic cells of different mammalian species. In iSCNT embryos, nucleoli precursor bodies originate from the oocyte, while most proteins engaged in the formation of mature nucleoli should be transcribed from genes de novo in the donor nucleus at the time of EGA. Thus, the success of nucleoli formation depends on species compatibility of many components of this complex process. We demonstrate that the time and cell stage of nucleoli formation are under the control of recipient ooplasm. Oocytes of the studied species possess different abilities to support nucleoli formation. Formation of nucleoli, which is a complex but small part of the whole process of EGA, is essential but not absolutely sufficient for the development of iSCNT embryos to the morula and BL stages.

  16. The seasonal and ovarian status effects on in vitro production of domestic cat embryos between Equator and Tropic of Capricorn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian R. Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available From the Tropic of Capricorn to Equator, the seasonality of domestic cat is known to be absent, i.e., these animals are considered non-seasonal breeders at these regions. We hypothesized that this particularity might have some influence on in vitro embryo production. The aim of this experiment was to determine the percentage of cleavage and morulae and blastocyst formation produced from oocytes recovered from queen ovaries of three distinct status - follicular, luteal or inactive - during two different reproductive seasons experienced by cats in southeast of Brazil (22°53'09" S and 48°26'42" W - non breeding season (NBS, comprehending January to March; and breeding season (BS, August to October. Thirty queens were neutered. Ovaries were classified according to their status and were sliced in PBS for cumulus oocyte complex (COC releasing. Grade I COC were washed three times in H-MEM supplemented with BSA, glutamine, sodium pyruvate, cysteine, streptomycin and penicillin. Oocytes were incubated in groups of 20-30 in 400µL of DMEM supplemented with FSH, LH, estradiol, IGF-I and basic fibroblast growth factor under mineral oil for 30 or 36 hours at 38°C in humidified environment of 5% de O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2. COC were fertilized in Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with BSA, cysteine, pyruvate and streptomycin/penicillin (culture medium with fresh semen selected through swim up technique. Eighteen hours later, the presumptive zygotes were denuded, the percentage of cleavage was determined and every 10 zygotes were transferred to 100mL drops of culture medium for culture during three days. After 72 hours of culture the percentage of morulae formation was evaluated and these structures were transferred to drops of the same culture medium. At the eighth day of culture blastocyst formation was analyzed. During NBS, from a total of 272 (inactive, 162 (luteal and 134 (follicular fertilized oocytes, the percentage of cleaved zygotes, morulae and

  17. Development of mPMab-1, a Mouse-Rat Chimeric Antibody Against Mouse Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Ichii, Osamu; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is used as a lymphatic endothelial marker. We previously established clone PMab-1 of rat IgG 2a as a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse PDPN. PMab-1 is also very sensitive in immunohistochemical analysis; however, rat mAbs seem to be unfavorable for pathologists because anti-mouse IgG and anti-rabbit IgG are usually used as secondary antibodies in commercially available kits for immunohistochemical analysis. In this study, we develop a mouse-rat chimeric antibody, mPMab-1 of mouse IgG 2a , which was derived from rat PMab-1 mAb. Immunohistochemical analysis shows that mPMab-1 detects podocytes of the kidney, lymphatic endothelial cells of the colon, and type I alveolar cells of the lung. Importantly, mPMab-1 is more sensitive than PMab-1. This conversion strategy from rat mAb to mouse mAb could be applicable to other mAbs.

  18. Enhancement of lymphocyte proliferation by mouse glandular kallikrein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Z Q; Murakami, K; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1992-03-01

    Mouse glandular kallikrein (mGK) strongly enhanced the spontaneous and mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes. Both blast formation and 3H-TdR incorporation were dose-dependently enhanced at the same time many cells were killed. The enhancing activity was independent of EGF, because EGF-binding proteins (mGK-9 in mGK-6,9 mixture and mGK-13), renal kallikrein (mGK-6) and human kallikrein all displayed the same enhancement. A serine proteinase inhibitor, diisopropyl fluorophosphate, could block the enhancement by mGK. The new function suggests that mGK is important in the immune system as a regulatory molecule.

  19. Gaze beats mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Julio C.; San Agustin, Javier; Hansen, John Paulin

    2008-01-01

    Facial EMG for selection is fast, easy and, combined with gaze pointing, it can provide completely hands-free interaction. In this pilot study, 5 participants performed a simple point-and-select task using mouse or gaze for pointing and a mouse button or a facial-EMG switch for selection. Gaze...

  20. Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed - besides normal specification of the organizer region - a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Enamelin is critical for ameloblast integrity and enamel ultrastructure formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C-C Hu

    Full Text Available Mutations in the human enamelin gene cause autosomal dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in which the affected enamel is thin or absent. Study of enamelin knockout NLS-lacZ knockin mice revealed that mineralization along the distal membrane of ameloblast is deficient, resulting in no true enamel formation. To determine the function of enamelin during enamel formation, we characterized the developing teeth of the Enam-/- mice, generated amelogenin-driven enamelin transgenic mouse models, and then introduced enamelin transgenes into the Enam-/- mice to rescue enamel defects. Mice at specific stages of development were subjected to morphologic and structural analysis using β-galactosidase staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Enamelin expression was ameloblast-specific. In the absence of enamelin, ameloblasts pathology became evident at the onset of the secretory stage. Although the aggregated ameloblasts generated matrix-containing amelogenin, they were not able to create a well-defined enamel space or produce normal enamel crystals. When enamelin is present at half of the normal quantity, enamel was thinner with enamel rods not as tightly arranged as in wild type suggesting that a specific quantity of enamelin is critical for normal enamel formation. Enamelin dosage effect was further demonstrated in transgenic mouse lines over expressing enamelin. Introducing enamelin transgene at various expression levels into the Enam-/- background did not fully recover enamel formation while a medium expresser in the Enam+/- background did. Too much or too little enamelin abolishes the production of enamel crystals and prism structure. Enamelin is essential for ameloblast integrity and enamel formation.

  2. Enamelin Is Critical for Ameloblast Integrity and Enamel Ultrastructure Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jan C.-C.; Hu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yuhe; Smith, Charles E.; Lertlam, Rangsiyakorn; Wright, John Timothy; Suggs, Cynthia; McKee, Marc D.; Beniash, Elia; Kabir, M. Enamul; Simmer, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the human enamelin gene cause autosomal dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta in which the affected enamel is thin or absent. Study of enamelin knockout NLS-lacZ knockin mice revealed that mineralization along the distal membrane of ameloblast is deficient, resulting in no true enamel formation. To determine the function of enamelin during enamel formation, we characterized the developing teeth of the Enam−/− mice, generated amelogenin-driven enamelin transgenic mouse models, and then introduced enamelin transgenes into the Enam−/− mice to rescue enamel defects. Mice at specific stages of development were subjected to morphologic and structural analysis using β-galactosidase staining, immunohistochemistry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Enamelin expression was ameloblast-specific. In the absence of enamelin, ameloblasts pathology became evident at the onset of the secretory stage. Although the aggregated ameloblasts generated matrix-containing amelogenin, they were not able to create a well-defined enamel space or produce normal enamel crystals. When enamelin is present at half of the normal quantity, enamel was thinner with enamel rods not as tightly arranged as in wild type suggesting that a specific quantity of enamelin is critical for normal enamel formation. Enamelin dosage effect was further demonstrated in transgenic mouse lines over expressing enamelin. Introducing enamelin transgene at various expression levels into the Enam−/− background did not fully recover enamel formation while a medium expresser in the Enam+/− background did. Too much or too little enamelin abolishes the production of enamel crystals and prism structure. Enamelin is essential for ameloblast integrity and enamel formation. PMID:24603688

  3. Localization of sarcomeric proteins during myofibril assembly in cultured mouse primary skeletal myotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jennifer; Barro, Marietta V.; Makarenkova, Helen P.; Sanger, Joseph W.; Sanger, Jean M.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand how muscle forms normally in order to understand muscle diseases that result in abnormal muscle formation. Although the structure of myofibrils is well understood, the process through which the myofibril components form organized contractile units is not clear. Based on the staining of muscle proteins in avian embryonic cardiomyocytes, we previously proposed that myofibrils formation occurred in steps that began with premyofibrils followed by nascent myofibrils and ending with mature myofibrils. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the premyofibril model of myofibrillogenesis developed from studies developed from studies in avian cardiomyocytes was supported by our current studies of myofibril assembly in mouse skeletal muscle. Emphasis was on establishing how the key sarcomeric proteins, F-actin, non-muscle myosin II, muscle myosin II, and α-actinin were organized in the three stages of myofibril assembly. The results also test previous reports that non-muscle myosins II A and B are components of the Z-Bands of mature myofibrils, data that are inconsistent with the premyofibril model. We have also determined that in mouse muscle cells, telethonin is a late assembling protein that is present only in the Z-Bands of mature myofibrils. This result of using specific telethonin antibodies supports the approach of using YFP-tagged proteins to determine where and when these YFP-sarcomeric fusion proteins are localized. The data presented in this study on cultures of primary mouse skeletal myocytes are consistent with the premyofibril model of myofibrillogenesis previously proposed for both avian cardiac and skeletal muscle cells. PMID:25125171

  4. A unique regulatory phase of DNA methylation in the early mammalian embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Zachary D.; Chan, Michelle M.; Mikkelsen, Tarjei S.; Gu, Hongcang; Gnirke, Andreas; Regev, Aviv; Meissner, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Summary DNA methylation is highly dynamic during mammalian embryogenesis. It is broadly accepted that the paternal genome is actively depleted of 5-methyl cytosine at fertilization, followed by passive loss that reaches a minimum at the blastocyst stage. However, this model is based on limited data, and to date no base-resolution maps exist to support and refine it. Here, we generated genome-scale DNA methylation maps in mouse gametes and through post-implantation embryogenesis. We find that ...

  5. SMC5/6 is required for the formation of segregation-competent bivalent chromosomes during meiosis I in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Grace; Sun, Fengyun; O'Brien, Marilyn; Eppig, John J; Handel, Mary Ann; Jordan, Philip W

    2017-05-01

    SMC complexes include three major classes: cohesin, condensin and SMC5/6. However, the localization pattern and genetic requirements for the SMC5/6 complex during mammalian oogenesis have not previously been examined. In mouse oocytes, the SMC5/6 complex is enriched at the pericentromeric heterochromatin, and also localizes along chromosome arms during meiosis. The infertility phenotypes of females with a Zp3-Cre -driven conditional knockout (cKO) of Smc5 demonstrated that maternally expressed SMC5 protein is essential for early embryogenesis. Interestingly, protein levels of SMC5/6 complex components in oocytes decline as wild-type females age. When SMC5/6 complexes were completely absent in oocytes during meiotic resumption, homologous chromosomes failed to segregate accurately during meiosis I. Despite what appears to be an inability to resolve concatenation between chromosomes during meiosis, localization of topoisomerase IIα to bivalents was not affected; however, localization of condensin along the chromosome axes was perturbed. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the SMC5/6 complex is essential for the formation of segregation-competent bivalents during meiosis I, and findings suggest that age-dependent depletion of the SMC5/6 complex in oocytes could contribute to increased incidence of oocyte aneuploidy and spontaneous abortion in aging females. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Osteoclast TGF-β Receptor Signaling Induces Wnt1 Secretion and Couples Bone Resorption to Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weivoda, Megan M; Ruan, Ming; Pederson, Larry; Hachfeld, Christine; Davey, Rachel A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Khosla, Sundeep; Oursler, Merry Jo

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblast-mediated bone formation is coupled to osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. These processes become uncoupled with age, leading to increased risk for debilitating fractures. Therefore, understanding how osteoblasts are recruited to sites of resorption is vital to treating age-related bone loss. Osteoclasts release and activate TGF-β from the bone matrix. Here we show that osteoclastspecific inhibition of TGF-β receptor signaling in mice results in osteopenia due to reduced osteoblast numbers with no significant impact on osteoclast numbers or activity. TGF-β induced osteoclast expression of Wnt1, a protein crucial to normal bone formation, and this response was blocked by impaired TGF-β receptor signaling. Osteoclasts in aged murine bones had lower TGF-β signaling and Wnt1 expression in vivo. Ex vivo stimulation of osteoclasts derived from young or old mouse bone marrow macrophages showed no difference in TGF-β–induced Wnt1 expression. However, young osteoclasts expressed reduced Wnt1 when cultured on aged mouse bone chips compared to young mouse bone chips, consistent with decreased skeletal TGF-β availability with age. Therefore, osteoclast responses to TGF-β are essential for coupling bone resorption to bone formation, and modulating this pathway may provide opportunities to treat age-related bone loss. PMID:26108893

  7. Fast effects of glucocorticoids on memory-related network oscillations in the mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, E K; Krupka, N; Bähner, F; Both, M; Draguhn, A

    2008-05-01

    Transient or lasting increases in glucocorticoids accompany deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory formation. Recent data indicate that the formation and consolidation of declarative and spatial memory are mechanistically related to different patterns of hippocampal network oscillations. These include gamma oscillations during memory acquisition and the faster ripple oscillations (approximately 200 Hz) during subsequent memory consolidation. We therefore analysed the effects of acutely applied glucocorticoids on network activity in mouse hippocampal slices. Evoked field population spikes and paired-pulse responses were largely unaltered by corticosterone or cortisol, respectively, despite a slight increase in maximal population spike amplitude by 10 microm corticosterone. Several characteristics of sharp waves and superimposed ripple oscillations were affected by glucocorticoids, most prominently the frequency of spontaneously occurring sharp waves. At 0.1 microm, corticosterone increased this frequency, whereas maximal (10 microm) concentrations led to a reduction. In addition, gamma oscillations became slightly faster and less regular in the presence of high doses of corticosteroids. The present study describes acute effects of glucocorticoids on sharp wave-ripple complexes and gamma oscillations in mouse hippocampal slices, revealing a potential background for memory deficits in the presence of elevated levels of these hormones.

  8. Mouse homologue of yeast Prp19 interacts with mouse SUG1, the regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Cho, Si Young; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Yeast Prp19 has been shown to involve in pre-mRNA splicing and DNA repair as well as being an ubiquitin ligase. Mammalian homologue of yeast Prp19 also plays on similar functional activities in cells. In the present study, we isolated mouse SUG1 (mSUG1) as binding partner of mouse Prp19 (mPrp19) by the yeast two-hybrid system. We confirmed the interaction of mPrp9 with mSUG1 by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay. The N-terminus of mPrp19 including U-box domain was associated with the C-terminus of mSUG1. Although, mSUG1 is a regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome, mPrp19 was not degraded in the proteasome-dependent pathway. Interestingly, GFP-mPrp19 fusion protein was co-localized with mSUG1 protein in cytoplasm as the formation of the speckle-like structures in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, the activity of proteasome was increased in cells transfected with mPrp19. Taken together, these results suggest that mPrp19 involves the regulation of protein turnover and may transport its substrates to 26S proteasome through mSUG1 protein

  9. An interplay between extracellular signalling and the dynamics of the exit from pluripotency drives cell fate decisions in mouse ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Turner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic Stem cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the mammalian blastocyst retain the capability to differentiate into any adult cell type and are able to self-renew indefinitely under appropriate culture conditions. Despite the large amount of knowledge that we have accumulated to date about the regulation and control of self-renewal, efficient directed differentiation into specific tissues remains elusive. In this work, we have analysed in a systematic manner the interaction between the dynamics of loss of pluripotency and Activin/Nodal, BMP4 and Wnt signalling in fate assignment during the early stages of differentiation of mouse ES cells in culture. During the initial period of differentiation, cells exit from pluripotency and enter an Epi-like state. Following this transient stage, and under the influence of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling, cells face a fate choice between differentiating into neuroectoderm and contributing to Primitive Streak fates. We find that Wnt signalling does not suppress neural development as previously thought and that it aids both fates in a context dependent manner. Our results suggest that as cells exit pluripotency they are endowed with a primary neuroectodermal fate and that the potency to become endomesodermal rises with time. We suggest that this situation translates into a “race for fates” in which the neuroectodermal fate has an advantage.

  10. Ras Signaling Regulates Stem Cells and Amelogenesis in the Mouse Incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Goodwin, A F; Tian, H; Jheon, A H; Klein, O D

    2017-11-01

    The role of Ras signaling during tooth development is poorly understood. Ras proteins-which are activated by many upstream pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase cascades-signal through multiple effectors, such as the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K pathways. Here, we utilized the mouse incisor as a model to study how the MAPK and PI3K pathways regulate dental epithelial stem cells and amelogenesis. The rodent incisor-which grows continuously throughout the life of the animal due to the presence of epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells-provides a model for the study of ectodermal organ renewal and regeneration. Utilizing models of Ras dysregulation as well as inhibitors of the MAPK and PI3K pathways, we found that MAPK and PI3K regulate dental epithelial stem cell activity, transit-amplifying cell proliferation, and enamel formation in the mouse incisor.

  11. Assessment of plasminogen synthesis in vitro by mouse tumor cells using a competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasminogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblin, R.O.; Bell, T.E.; Young, P.L.

    1978-01-01

    A sensitive, specific competition radioimmunoassay for mouse plasmin(ogen) has been developed in order to determine whether mouse tumor cells can synthesize plasminogen in vitro. The rabbit anti-BALB/c mouse plasminogen antibodies used in the assay react with the plasminogen present in serum from BALB/c, C3H, AKR and C57BL/6 mice, and also recognized mouse plasmin. The competition radiommunoassay can detect as little as 50 ng of mouse plasminogen. No competition was observed with preparations of fetal calf, human and rabbit plasminogens. A variety of virus-transformed and mouse tumor cell lines were all found to contain less than 100 ng mouse plasminogen/mg of cell extract protein. Thus, if the plasminogen activator/plasmin system is important in the growth or movement of this group of tumor cells, the cells will be dependent upon the circulatory system of the host for their plasminogen supply. (Auth.)

  12. Genetic effects on mammalian development during and after implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, R A; Spindle, A I

    1976-05-01

    The effects of gene expression on early mouse embryo differentiation were investigated by measuring the developmental rate of embryos homozygous for the yellow allele (A/sup y/) of the agouti locus and by determining the growth response of normal embryos treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (Brd U). The earliest effect of A/sup y/ homozygosity observed in cultured embryos was a delay in cleavage from the 2-cell to the 4-cell stage. Although A/sup y//A/sup y/ embryos were capable of some post-blastocyst development in vitro if the zona pellucida was removed, their inner cell masses disappeared during attachment and trophoblast outgrowth. The period of gene expression that is responsible for the abnormal development of A/sup y//A/sup y/ embryos may thus be between the 2-cell stage and implantation. It is therefore suggested that gene expression necessary for in vitro hatching, attachment, trophoblast outgrowth and inner cell mass development occurs between the morula and late blastocyst stages.

  13. The Mouse Tumor Biology Database: A Comprehensive Resource for Mouse Models of Human Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Debra M; Begley, Dale A; Sundberg, John P; Richardson, Joel E; Neuhauser, Steven B; Bult, Carol J

    2017-11-01

    Research using laboratory mice has led to fundamental insights into the molecular genetic processes that govern cancer initiation, progression, and treatment response. Although thousands of scientific articles have been published about mouse models of human cancer, collating information and data for a specific model is hampered by the fact that many authors do not adhere to existing annotation standards when describing models. The interpretation of experimental results in mouse models can also be confounded when researchers do not factor in the effect of genetic background on tumor biology. The Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB) database is an expertly curated, comprehensive compendium of mouse models of human cancer. Through the enforcement of nomenclature and related annotation standards, MTB supports aggregation of data about a cancer model from diverse sources and assessment of how genetic background of a mouse strain influences the biological properties of a specific tumor type and model utility. Cancer Res; 77(21); e67-70. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and arterial neointima formation associated with acid sphingomyelinase during hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saisudha Koka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to be activated by atherogenic factors, whereby endothelial injury and consequent atherosclerotic lesions are triggered in the arterial wall. However, the mechanisms activating and regulating NLRP3 inflammasomes remain poorly understood. The present study tested whether acid sphingomyelinase (ASM and ceramide associated membrane raft (MR signaling platforms contribute to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and atherosclerotic lesions during hypercholesterolemia. We found that 7-ketocholesterol (7-Keto or cholesterol crystal (ChC markedly increased the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes in mouse carotid arterial endothelial cells (CAECs, as shown by increased colocalization of NLRP3 with ASC or caspase-1, enhanced caspase-1 activity and elevated IL-1β levels, which were markedly attenuated by mouse Asm siRNA, ASM inhibitor- amitriptyline, and deletion of mouse Asm gene. In CAECs with NLRP3 inflammasome formation, membrane raft (MR clustering with NADPH oxidase subunits was found remarkably increased as shown by CTXB (MR marker and gp91phox aggregation indicating the formation of MR redox signaling platforms. This MR clustering was blocked by MR disruptor (MCD, ROS scavenger (Tempol and TXNIP inhibitor (verapamil, accompanied by attenuation of 7-Keto or ChC-induced increase in caspase-1 activity. In animal experiments, Western diet fed mice with partially ligated left carotid artery (PLCA were found to have significantly increased neointimal formation, which was associated with increased NLRP3 inflammasome formation and IL-1β production in the intima of Asm+/+ mice but not in Asm-/- mice. These results suggest that Asm gene and ceramide associated MR clustering are essential to endothelial inflammasome activation and dysfunction in the carotid arteries, ultimately determining the extent of atherosclerotic lesions.

  15. Noninvasive monitoring of placenta-specific transgene expression by bioluminescence imaging.

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    Xiujun Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental dysfunction underlies numerous complications of pregnancy. A major obstacle to understanding the roles of potential mediators of placental pathology has been the absence of suitable methods for tissue-specific gene manipulation and sensitive assays for studying gene functions in the placentas of intact animals. We describe a sensitive and noninvasive method of repetitively tracking placenta-specific gene expression throughout pregnancy using lentivirus-mediated transduction of optical reporter genes in mouse blastocysts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zona-free blastocysts were incubated with lentivirus expressing firefly luciferase (Fluc and Tomato fluorescent fusion protein for trophectoderm-specific infection and transplanted into day 3 pseudopregnant recipients (GD3. Animals were examined for Fluc expression by live bioluminescence imaging (BLI at different points during pregnancy, and the placentas were examined for tomato expression in different cell types on GD18. In another set of experiments, blastocysts with maximum photon fluxes in the range of 2.0E+4 to 6.0E+4 p/s/cm(2/sr were transferred. Fluc expression was detectable in all surrogate dams by day 5 of pregnancy by live imaging, and the signal increased dramatically thereafter each day until GD12, reaching a peak at GD16 and maintaining that level through GD18. All of the placentas, but none of the fetuses, analyzed on GD18 by BLI showed different degrees of Fluc expression. However, only placentas of dams transferred with selected blastocysts showed uniform photon distribution with no significant variability of photon intensity among placentas of the same litter. Tomato expression in the placentas was limited to only trophoblast cell lineages. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results, for the first time, demonstrate the feasibility of selecting lentivirally-transduced blastocysts for uniform gene expression in all placentas of the same litter and early

  16. Construction of RNAi lentiviral vector targeting mouse Islet-1 gene

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    Shen-shen ZHI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To construct and select RNAi lentiviral vectors that can silence mouse Islet-1 gene effectively.Methods Three groups of RNAi-target of mouse Islet-1 gene were designed,and corresponding shRNA oligo(sh1,sh2 and sh3 were synthesized,and then they were respectively inserted to the PLVTHM vector that had been digested by endonuclease.Agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing were used to select and indentify the positive clones.The positive clones were extracted and then mixed with E.coli to amplify positive clones.The amplified clones were then infected into 293T along with the other 3 helper plasmids to produce lentiviral vector.After the construction of the lentiviral vector,plaque formation test was performed to determine the titer of lentiviral vector.The lentiviral vectors were then infected into C3H10T1/2 cells.The transfect efficiency of the lentiviral vectors was determined with flow cytometry with detection of green fluorescent protein(GFP.Q-PCR was employed to detect the RNAi efficiency of the lentiviral vectors.Results Agarose gel electrophoresis analysis showed that the clones with right gene at the target size were successfully established;gene sequencing showed that the right DNA fragments had been inserted;plaque formation test showed that the titer of the virus solution was 3.87×108TU/ml;the transfect efficiency of the lentiviral vector infected into C3H10T1/2 cells was 90.36%.All the 3 groups of shRNA targets(sh1,sh2 and sh3 showed an inhibitory effect on Islet-1 gene,and the sh1 showed the highest inhibitory effect(76.8%,as compared with that of normal cells(P < 0.05.Conclusion The RNAi lentiviral vector that can effectively silence the mouse Islet-1 gene has been constructed successfully,which may lay a foundation for further investigation of Islet-1 gene.

  17. Oxidative stress in mouse sperm impairs embryo development, fetal growth and alters adiposity and glucose regulation in female offspring.

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    Michelle Lane

    Full Text Available Paternal health cues are able to program the health of the next generation however the mechanism for this transmission is unknown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are increased in many paternal pathologies, some of which program offspring health, and are known to induce DNA damage and alter the methylation pattern of chromatin. We therefore investigated whether a chemically induced increase of ROS in sperm impairs embryo, pregnancy and offspring health. Mouse sperm was exposed to 1500 µM of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, which induced oxidative damage, however did not affect sperm motility or the ability to bind and fertilize an oocyte. Sperm treated with H2O2 delayed on-time development of subsequent embryos, decreased the ratio of inner cell mass cells (ICM in the resulting blastocyst and reduced implantation rates. Crown-rump length at day 18 of gestation was also reduced in offspring produced by H2O2 treated sperm. Female offspring from H2O2 treated sperm were smaller, became glucose intolerant and accumulated increased levels of adipose tissue compared to control female offspring. Interestingly male offspring phenotype was less severe with increases in fat depots only seen at 4 weeks of age, which was restored to that of control offspring later in life, demonstrating sex-specific impacts on offspring. This study implicates elevated sperm ROS concentrations, which are common to many paternal health pathologies, as a mediator of programming offspring for metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  18. Quantitative analysis of neuronal mosaic formation in the mouse neocortex and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznikov, K.Yu.; Nazarevskaya, G.D.; Deryabin, V.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors obtain mathematical confirmation of the nonrandomness of mosaic formation of neuronal groups in the cerebral cortex, characterize this process quantitatively, and compare its scale with the formation of the modular organization of the cortex. Mice were used in the experiments and were injected with 3 H-thymidine while pregnant. Mapping in the neocortex was carried out on frontal semithin brain sections from mice receiving 3 H-thymidine from E15 through E17, whereas mapping in the hippocampus was carried out on paraffin and semithin frontal brain sections from animals receiving the isotope from E13 through E17

  19. Burn mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calum, Henrik; Høiby, Niels; Moser, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third-degree b......Severe thermal injury induces immunosuppression, involving all parts of the immune system, especially when large fractions of the total body surface area are affected. An animal model was established to characterize the burn-induced immunosuppression. In our novel mouse model a 6 % third...... with infected burn wound compared with the burn wound only group. The burn mouse model resembles the clinical situation and provides an opportunity to examine or develop new strategies like new antibiotics and immune therapy, in handling burn wound victims much....

  20. Phosphorylation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 Regulates Dendritic Spine Development of Cortical Neuron in the Mouse Hippocampus

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    Xiaohua Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper density and morphology of dendritic spines are important for higher brain functions such as learning and memory. However, our knowledge about molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and maintenance of dendritic spines is limited. We recently reported that cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 is required for the development and maintenance of dendritic spines of cortical neurons in the mouse brain. Previous in vitro studies have suggested the involvement of Cdk5 substrates in the formation of dendritic spines; however, their role in spine development has not been tested in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that Cdk5 phosphorylates collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2 in the dendritic spines of cultured hippocampal neurons and in vivo in the mouse brain. When we eliminated CRMP2 phosphorylation in CRMP2KI/KI mice, the densities of dendritic spines significantly decreased in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the mouse brain. These results indicate that phosphorylation of CRMP2 by Cdk5 is important for dendritic spine development in cortical neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

  1. A Transgenic Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Xinrui; Ray, Pritha; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Tong, Ricky; Gong, Yongquan; Sathirachinda, Ataya; Wu, Joseph C.; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse with a stably integrated reporter gene(s) can be a valuable resource for obtaining uniformly labeled stem cells, tissues, and organs for various applications. We have generated a transgenic mouse model that ubiquitously expresses a tri-fusion reporter gene (fluc2-tdTomato-ttk) driven by a constitutive chicken β-actin promoter. This "Tri-Modality Reporter Mouse" system allows one to isolate most cells from this donor mouse and image them for bioluminescent (fluc2), fluorescent...

  2. In vitro fertilization and embryo culture strongly impact the placental transcriptome in the mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Fauque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART are increasingly used in humans; however, their impact is now questioned. At blastocyst stage, the trophectoderm is directly in contact with an artificial medium environment, which can impact placental development. This study was designed to carry out an in-depth analysis of the placental transcriptome after ART in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blastocysts were transferred either (1 after in vivo fertilization and development (control group or (2 after in vitro fertilization and embryo culture. Placentas were then analyzed at E10.5. Six percent of transcripts were altered at the two-fold threshold in placentas of manipulated embryos, 2/3 of transcripts being down-regulated. Strikingly, the X-chromosome harbors 11% of altered genes, 2/3 being induced. Imprinted genes were modified similarly to the X. Promoter composition analysis indicates that FOXA transcription factors may be involved in the transcriptional deregulations. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, our study shows that in vitro fertilization associated with embryo culture strongly modify the placental expression profile, long after embryo manipulations, meaning that the stress of artificial environment is memorized after implantation. Expression of X and imprinted genes is also greatly modulated probably to adapt to adverse conditions. Our results highlight the importance of studying human placentas from ART.

  3. Formation of 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene-DNA adducts from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiovanni, J.; Nebzydoski, A.P.; Decina, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts from [ 3 H]-7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene (7-OHM-12-MBA) and [ 3 H]-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the epidermis of Sencar mice was analyzed. Comparison of Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic profiles of DNA samples isolated from mice treated with DMBA or 7-OHM-12-MBA suggested that the DMBA-treated animals contained DNA adduct(s) derived from the further metabolism of 7-OHM-12-MBA. Further analysis of DNA samples from DMBA-treated mice by high-pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of 5 DNA adducts which were chromatographically indistinguishable from the DNA adducts formed in 7-OHM-12-MBA-treated mice. Epidermal homogenates were utilized to catalyze the covalent binding of [ 3 H]DMBA and [ 3 H]-7-OHM-12-MBA to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Under conditions of limiting concentrations of [ 3 H]DMBA, the majority of the DNA adducts formed chromatographed in regions where 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adducts eluted. A major DMBA-DNA adduct formed in this in vitro system eluted with the same retention time as did the major 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adduct formed in mouse skin in vivo. These results when coupled with the in vivo data suggest that 7-OHM-12-MBA is an intermediate for at least some of the binding of DMBA to epidermal DNA in Sencar mice

  4. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC expression in mouse lung infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Radzioch Danuta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads in the mouse lung leads to chronic lung infection in susceptible mouse strains. As the infection generates a strong inflammatory response with some lung edema, we tested if it could modulate the expression of genes involved in lung liquid clearance, such as the α, β and γ subunits of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC and the catalytic subunit of Na+-K+-ATPase. Methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa entrapped in agar beads were instilled in the lung of resistant (BalB/c and susceptible (DBA/2, C57BL/6 and A/J mouse strains. The mRNA expression of ENaC and Na+-K+-ATPase subunits was tested in the lung by Northern blot following a 3 hours to 14 days infection. Results The infection of the different mouse strains evoked regulation of α and β ENaC mRNA. Following Pseudomonas instillation, the expression of αENaC mRNA decreased to a median of 43% on days 3 and 7 after infection and was still decreased to a median of 45% 14 days after infection (p 1Na+-K+-ATPase mRNA, the catalytic subunit of the sodium pump, was recorded. The distinctive expression profiles of the three subunits were not different, between the susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Conclusions These results show that Pseudomonas infection, by modulating ENaC subunit expression, could influence edema formation and clearance in infected lungs.

  5. Effect of oxygen concentration on human embryo development evaluated by time-lapse monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Hindkjær, Johnny Juhl; Kirkegaard, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    -points for each cell division and blastocyst stages were registered until 120 hours after oocyte retrieval. Only 2PN embryos completing the first cleavage were evaluated. The groups were compared using one-way ANOVA or Kruskall-Wallis test. Estimates are reported as medians with 95% confidence intervals. Time......Introduction: Data from a number of studies indicate -but not unequivocally- that culture of embryos in 5% O2 compared to 20% O2 improves blastocyst formation in humans and various animal species and may yield better pregnancy rates in IVF. The detrimental effects of atmospheric oxygen were...... was to evaluate the influence of oxygen tension on human pre-implantation development using time-lapse monitoring. Materials and methods: Human embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage in a time-lapse incubator (EmbryoScope™) in 20% O2 (group 1), 20% O2 for 24 hours followed by culture in 5% O2 (group 2...

  6. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

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    Koon-Ja Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab,we investigated the structure changes of stroma andbasement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 NNaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumabwas delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl by subconjunctivalinjections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 daysafter injury, basement membrane regeneration was observedby transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelialbasement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes,and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in thealkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membraneand hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundlesresulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired bybevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumabcan play an important role in wound healing in thecornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basementmembrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation.[BMB Reports 2013; 46(4: 195-200

  7. Generation and characterization of PDGFRα-GFPCreERT2 knock-In mouse line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroyuki; Era, Takumi

    2015-05-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor play an important role in embryogenesis. PDGF receptor α (PDGFRα) is expressed specifically in the embryonic day 7.5 (E7.5) mesoderm and in the E9.5 neural crest among other tissues. PDGFRα-expressing cells and their descendants are involved in the formation of various tissues. To trace PDGFRα-expressing cells in vivo, we generated a knock-in mouse line that expressed a fusion protein of green fluorescent protein (GFP), Cre recombinase (Cre), and mutated estrogen receptor ligand-binding domain (ERT2) under the control of the PDGFRα promoter. In these mice, Cre activity in PDGFRα-expressing cells could be induced by tamoxifen treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the knock-in mouse line generated here could be useful for studying PDGFRα-expressing cells and their descendants in vivo at various stages of development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction

  9. Oct3/4 directly regulates expression of E2F3a in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Dai; Ueda, Atsushi; Akagi, Tadayuki; Yokota, Takashi; Koide, Hiroshi, E-mail: hkoide@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2015-04-10

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a characteristic cell cycle with truncated G1 and G2 phases. Recent findings that suppression of Oct3/4 expression results in a reduced proliferation rate of ES cells suggest the involvement of Oct3/4 in the regulation of ES cell growth, although the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we identified E2F3a as a direct target gene of Oct3/4 in ES cells. Oct3/4 directly bound to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene and positively regulated expression of E2F3a in mouse ES cells. Suppression of E2F3a activity by E2F6 overexpression led to the reduced proliferation in ES cells, which was relieved by co-expression of E2F3a. Furthermore, cell growth retardation caused by loss of Oct3/4 was rescued by E2F3a expression. These results suggest that Oct3/4 upregulates E2F3a expression to promote ES cell growth. - Highlights: • Oct3/4 positively regulates E2F3a expression in ES cells. • Oct3/4 binds to the promoter region of the E2F3a gene. • Overexpression of E2F6, an inhibitor of E2F3a, reduces ES cell growth. • E2F3a recovers growth retardation of ES cells caused by Oct3/4 reduction.

  10. Fe(III Is Essential for Porcine Embryonic Development via Mitochondrial Function Maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available Iron is an important trace element involved in several biological processes. The role of iron in porcine early embryonic development remains unknown. In the present study, we depleted iron (III, Fe3+ with deferoxamine (DFM, a specific Fe3+ chelator, in cultured porcine parthenotes and monitored embryonic development, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, and ATP production. Results showed biphasic function of Fe3+ in porcine embryo development. 0.5 μM DFM obviously increased blastocyst formation (57.49 ± 2.18% vs. control, 43.99 ± 1.72%, P < 0.05 via reduced (P < 0.05 production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, further increased mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production in blastocysts (P < 0.05. 0.5 μM DFM decreased mRNA expression of Caspase 3 (Casp3 and increased Bcl-xL. However, results showed a significant reduction in blastocyst formation in the presence of 5.0 μM DFM compared with the control group (DFM, 21.62 ± 3.92% vs. control, 43.99 ± 1.73%, P < 0.05. Fe3+ depletion reduced the total (DFM, 21.10 ± 8.78 vs. control, 44.09 ± 13.65, P < 0.05 and increased apoptotic cell number (DFM, 11.10 ± 5.24 vs. control, 2.64 ± 1.43, P < 0.05 in the blastocyst. An obvious reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP level after 5.0 μM DFM treatment was observed. Co-localization between mitochondria and cytochrome c was reduced after high concentration of DFM treatment. In conclusion, Fe3+ is essential for porcine embryonic development via mitochondrial function maintenance, but redundant Fe3+ impairs the function of mitochondria.

  11. Generation of an inducible colon-specific Cre enzyme mouse line for colon cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Paul W; Kretzschmar, Kai; Begthel, Harry; van den Born, Maaike; Korving, Jeroen; Morsink, Folkert; Farin, Henner; van Es, Johan H; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Clevers, Hans

    2016-10-18

    Current mouse models for colorectal cancer often differ significantly from human colon cancer, being largely restricted to the small intestine. Here, we aim to develop a colon-specific inducible mouse model that can faithfully recapitulate human colon cancer initiation and progression. Carbonic anhydrase I (Car1) is a gene expressed uniquely in colonic epithelial cells. We generated a colon-specific inducible Car1 CreER knock-in (KI) mouse with broad Cre activity in epithelial cells of the proximal colon and cecum. Deletion of the tumor suppressor gene Apc using the Car1 CreER KI caused tumor formation in the cecum but did not yield adenomas in the proximal colon. Mutation of both Apc and Kras yielded microadenomas in both the cecum and the proximal colon, which progressed to macroadenomas with significant morbidity. Aggressive carcinomas with some invasion into lymph nodes developed upon combined induction of oncogenic mutations of Apc, Kras, p53, and Smad4 Importantly, no adenomas were observed in the small intestine. Additionally, we observed tumors from differentiated Car1-expressing cells with Apc/Kras mutations, suggesting that a top-down model of intestinal tumorigenesis can occur with multiple mutations. Our results establish the Car1 CreER KI as a valuable mouse model to study colon-specific tumorigenesis and metastasis as well as cancer-cell-of-origin questions.

  12. Cytogenetic comparison of the responses of mouse and human peripheral blood lymphocytes to 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kligerman, A.D.; Halperin, E.C.; Erexson, G.L.; Honore, G.; Westbrook-Collins, B.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the chromosome damaging effects of 60 Co gamma radiation on mouse and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Either whole blood or isolated and pelleted mononuclear leucocytes (MNLs) were irradiated with a 60 Co unit to yield exposures of 1, 2, 3, or 4 Gy. In addition, mice were whole-body irradiated in vivo with the same doses so that an in vitro-in vivo comparison could be made. The results indicate that mouse PBLs irradiated in whole blood, whether in vivo or in vitro, respond similarly to 60 Co gamma rays as measured by dicentric chromosome formation. In addition, mouse and human PBLs showed a similar radiosensitivity, but because the mouse PBL data were best fitted to an exponential function and the human PBL data to a quadratic function, direct comparisons were difficult to make. Pelleted MNLs from mice were much less sensitive to the clastogenic effects of gamma radiation than whole blood. This is believed to be due to hypoxic conditions that developed during irradiation and transport. Human PBLs did not show a marked difference whether irradiated in whole blood or as pelleted MNLs in tissue culture medium

  13. Senescent mouse cells fail to overtly regulate the HIRA histone chaperone and do not form robust Senescence Associated Heterochromatin Foci

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    Enders Greg H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular senescence is a permanent growth arrest that occurs in response to cellular stressors, such as telomere shortening or activation of oncogenes. Although the process of senescence growth arrest is somewhat conserved between mouse and human cells, there are some critical differences in the molecular pathways of senescence between these two species. Recent studies in human fibroblasts have defined a cell signaling pathway that is initiated by repression of a specific Wnt ligand, Wnt2. This, in turn, activates a histone chaperone HIRA, and culminates in formation of specialized punctate domains of facultative heterochromatin, called Senescence-Associated Heterochromatin Foci (SAHF, that are enriched in the histone variant, macroH2A. SAHF are thought to repress expression of proliferation-promoting genes, thereby contributing to senescence-associated proliferation arrest. We asked whether this Wnt2-HIRA-SAHF pathway is conserved in mouse fibroblasts. Results We show that mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs and mouse skin fibroblasts, do not form robust punctate SAHF in response to an activated Ras oncogene or shortened telomeres. However, senescent MEFs do exhibit elevated levels of macroH2A staining throughout the nucleus as a whole. Consistent with their failure to fully activate the SAHF assembly pathway, the Wnt2-HIRA signaling axis is not overtly regulated between proliferating and senescent mouse cells. Conclusions In addition to the previously defined differences between mouse and human cells in the mechanisms and phenotypes associated with senescence, we conclude that senescent mouse and human fibroblasts also differ at the level of chromatin and the signaling pathways used to regulate chromatin. These differences between human and mouse senescence may contribute to the increased propensity of mouse fibroblasts (and perhaps other mouse cell types to become immortalized and transformed, compared to human cells.

  14. The Role of IL-1 signaling in a mouse model of Kawasaki Disease-associated Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Daiko; Kurashima, Yosuke; Crother, Timothy R.; Rivas, Magali Noval; Lee, Youngho; Chen, Shuang; Fury, Wen; Bai, Yu; Wagner, Shawn; Li, Debiao; Lehman, Thomas; Fishbein, Michael C.; Hoffmann, Hal; Shah, Prediman K.; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common cause of acquired cardiac disease in US children. In addition to coronary artery abnormalities and aneurysms, it can be associated with systemic arterial aneurysms. We evaluated the development of systemic arterial dilatation and aneurysms, including abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced KD vasculitis mouse model. Methods and Results We discovered that in addition to aortitis, coronary arteritis and myocarditis, the LCWE-induced KD mouse model is also associated with abdominal aorta dilatation and AAA, as well as renal and iliac artery aneurysms. AAA induced in KD mice was exclusively infrarenal, both fusiform and saccular, with intimal proliferation, myofibroblastic proliferation, break in the elastin layer, vascular smooth muscle cell loss, and inflammatory cell accumulation in the media and adventitia. Il1r−/−, Il1a−/−, and Il1a−/− mice were protected from KD associated AAA. Infiltrating CD11c+ macrophages produced active caspase-1 and caspase-1 or NLRP3 deficiency inhibited AAA formation. Treatment with IL-1R antagonist (Anakinra), anti-IL-1α, or anti-IL-1β mAb blocked LCWE-induced AAA formation. Conclusions Similar to clinical KD, the LCWE-induced KD vasculitis mouse model can also be accompanied by AAA formation. Both IL-1α and IL-1β play a key role, and that use of an IL-1R blocking agent that inhibits both pathways may be a promising therapeutic target not only for KD coronary arteritis, but also for the other systemic arterial aneurysms including AAA that maybe seen in severe cases of KD. The LCWE-induced vasculitis model may also represent an alternative model for AAA disease. PMID:26941015

  15. Effects of epidermal growth factor on bone formation and resorption in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, P.J.; Hott, M.; Perheentupa, J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) on bone formation and resorption were examined in male mice. EGF administration (2-200 ng.g-1.day-1 ip for 7 days) induced a dose-dependent rise in plasma EGF levels that remained within physiological range. Histomorphometric analysis of caudal vertebrae showed that EGF (20 and 200 ng.g-1.day-1) reduced the endosteal matrix and mineral appositional rates after 5 days of treatment as measured by double [3H]proline labeling and double tetracycline labeling, respectively. This effect was transitory and was not observed after 7 days of EGF administration. EGF administered for 7 days induced a dose-dependent increase in the periosteal osteoblastic and tetracycline double-labeled surfaces. At high dosage (200 ng.g-1.day-1) EGF administration increased the osteoclastic surface and the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts, although plasma calcium remained normal. The results show that EGF administration at physiological doses induces distinct effects on endosteal and periosteal bone formation and that the effects are dependent on EGF dosage and duration of treatment. This study indicates that EGF at physiological dosage stimulates periosteal bone formation and increases endosteal bone resorption in the growing mouse

  16. Histogenesis of mouse sarcomas induced by implantation of polyvinyl chloride film in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojzhess, T.G.; Prigozhina, E.L.

    1976-01-01

    Sarcomas were induced in CBA/CBA-T6T6 mouse radiation chimeras by implantation of polyvinyl chloride film subcutaneously 13 months after irradiation and injection of donor's bone marrow. Of the 12 tumors studied 11 had the recipient's karyotype and one the donor's. The formation of connective-tissue cells from bone-marrow precursors thus, evidently does not play an essential role in the histogenesis of sarcomas induced by plastics

  17. Naked Mole Rat Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Contribution to Interspecific Chimera

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    Sang-Goo Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Naked mole rats (NMRs are exceptionally long-lived, cancer-resistant rodents. Identifying the defining characteristics of these traits may shed light on aging and cancer mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from NMR fibroblasts and their contribution to mouse-NMR chimeric embryos. Efficient reprogramming could be observed under N2B27+2i conditions. The iPSCs displayed a characteristic morphology, expressed pluripotent markers, formed embryoid bodies, and showed typical differentiation patterns. Interestingly, NMR embryonic fibroblasts and the derived iPSCs had propensity for a tetraploid karyotype and were resistant to forming teratomas, but within mouse blastocysts they contributed to both interspecific placenta and fetus. Gene expression patterns of NMR iPSCs were more similar to those of human than mouse iPSCs. Overall, we uncovered unique features of NMR iPSCs and report a mouse-NMR chimeric model. The iPSCs and associated cell culture systems can be used for a variety of biological and biomedical applications.

  18. Effect of sclerostin antibody treatment in a mouse model of severe osteogenesis imperfecta.

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    Roschger, Andreas; Roschger, Paul; Keplingter, Petra; Klaushofer, Klaus; Abdullah, Sami; Kneissel, Michaela; Rauch, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable bone fragility disorder that is usually caused by mutations affecting collagen type I production in osteoblasts. Stimulation of bone formation through sclerostin antibody treatment (Sost-ab) has shown promising results in mouse models of relatively mild OI. We assessed the effect of once-weekly intravenous Sost-ab injections for 4weeks in male Col1a1(Jrt)/+mice, a model of severe dominant OI, starting either at 4weeks (growing mice) or at 20weeks (adult mice) of age. Sost-ab had no effect on weight or femur length. In OI mice, no significant treatment-associated differences in serum markers of bone formation (alkaline phosphatase activity, procollagen type I N-propeptide) or resorption (C-telopeptide of collagen type I) were found. Micro-CT analyses at the femur showed that Sost-ab treatment was associated with higher trabecular bone volume and higher cortical thickness in wild type mice at both ages and in growing OI mice, but not in adult OI mice. Three-point bending tests of the femur showed that in wild type but not in OI mice, Sost-ab was associated with higher ultimate load and work to failure. Quantitative backscattered electron imaging of the femur did not show any effect of Sost-ab on CaPeak (the most frequently occurring calcium concentration in the bone mineral density distribution), regardless of genotype, age or measurement location. Thus, Sost-ab had a larger effect in wild type than in Col1a1(Jrt)/+mice. Previous studies had found marked improvements of Sost-ab on bone mass and strength in an OI mouse model with a milder phenotype. Our data therefore suggest that Sost-ab is less effective in a more severely affected OI mouse model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of vitrification on embryo development and subsequently postnatal health using a mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Khalif, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Animal models have shown that vitrification impairs ultrastructure and developmental potential of the oocyte, embryo survival rate, pregnancy rate and results in low birth weight of offspring but any long term effects on offspring are still unknown. In this study, embryos were vitrified at the 8-cell stage and kept in LN2. The first experiment investigated the effect of vitrification on numbers of surviving cells (comparing vitrified and non-vitrified embryos). The blastocysts developed from ...

  20. Behavioral and omics analyses study on potential involvement of dipeptide balenine through supplementation in diet of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8

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    Nobuhiro Wada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates effects of dipeptide balenine, as a major component of whale meat extract (hereafter, WME, supplementation on senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8, an Alzheimer's disease (AD model at level of learning and memory formation and brain expression profiles genome-wide in brain. Mice fed experimental balenine (+WME supplemented diet for 26 weeks were subjected to four behavioral tests – open field, Y-maze, novel object recognition, and water-filled multiple T-maze – to examine effects on learning and memory. Brain transcriptome of SAMP8 mice-fed the WME diet over control low-safflower oil (LSO diet-fed mice was delineated on a 4 × 44 K mouse whole genome DNA microarray chip. Results revealed the WME diet not only induced improvements in the learning and memory formation but also positively modulated changes in the brain of the SAMP8 mouse; the gene inventories are publically available for analysis by the scientific community. Interestingly, the SAMP8 mouse model presented many genetic characteristics of AD, and numerous novel molecules (Slc2a5, Treh, Fbp1, Aldob, Ppp1r1a, DNase1, Agxt2l1, Cyp2e1, Acsm1, Acsm2, and Pah were revealed over the SAMR1 (senescence-accelerated mouse resistant 1 mouse, to be oppositely regulated/recovered under the balenine (+WME supplemented diet regime by DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses. Our present study demonstrates an experimental strategy to understand the effects of dipeptide balenine, prominetly contained in meat diet, on SAMP8, providing new insight into whole brain transcriptome changes genome-wide. The gene expression data has been deposited into the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO: GSE76459. The data will be a valuable resource in examining the effects of natural products, and which could also serve as a human model for further functional analysis and investigation.

  1. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model

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    Chen Xi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+ signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128. Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity when compared to wild type (WT MSNs. In previous studies we also observed abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling in neurons from spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2 and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3 mouse models and demonstrated that treatment with dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and clinically relevant Ca2+ signaling stabilizer, was neuroprotective in experiments with these mouse models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential beneficial effects of dantrolene in experiments with YAC128 HD mouse model. Results The application of caffeine and glutamate resulted in increased Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in YAC128 MSN cultures when compared to WT MSN cultures. Pre-treatment with dantrolene protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate excitotoxicty, with an effective concentration of 100 nM and above. Feeding dantrolene (5 mg/kg twice a week to YAC128 mice between 2 months and 11.5 months of age resulted in significantly improved performance in the beam-walking and gait-walking assays. Neuropathological analysis revealed that long-term dantrolene feeding to YAC128 mice significantly reduced the loss of NeuN-positive striatal neurons and reduced formation of Httexp nuclear aggregates. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that deranged Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in HD pathology. Our data also implicate the RyanRs as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HD and demonstrate that Ryan

  2. Dantrolene is neuroprotective in Huntington's disease transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Wu, Jun; Lvovskaya, Svetlana; Herndon, Emily; Supnet, Charlene; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2011-11-25

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the Huntingtin protein which results in the selective degeneration of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Our group has previously demonstrated that calcium (Ca2+) signaling is abnormal in MSNs from the yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of HD (YAC128). Moreover, we demonstrated that deranged intracellular Ca2+ signaling sensitizes YAC128 MSNs to glutamate-induced excitotoxicity when compared to wild type (WT) MSNs. In previous studies we also observed abnormal neuronal Ca2+ signaling in neurons from spinocerebellar ataxia 2 (SCA2) and spinocerebellar ataxia 3 (SCA3) mouse models and demonstrated that treatment with dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist and clinically relevant Ca2+ signaling stabilizer, was neuroprotective in experiments with these mouse models. The aim of the current study was to evaluate potential beneficial effects of dantrolene in experiments with YAC128 HD mouse model. The application of caffeine and glutamate resulted in increased Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in YAC128 MSN cultures when compared to WT MSN cultures. Pre-treatment with dantrolene protected YAC128 MSNs from glutamate excitotoxicty, with an effective concentration of 100 nM and above. Feeding dantrolene (5 mg/kg) twice a week to YAC128 mice between 2 months and 11.5 months of age resulted in significantly improved performance in the beam-walking and gait-walking assays. Neuropathological analysis revealed that long-term dantrolene feeding to YAC128 mice significantly reduced the loss of NeuN-positive striatal neurons and reduced formation of Httexp nuclear aggregates. Our results support the hypothesis that deranged Ca2+ signaling plays an important role in HD pathology. Our data also implicate the RyanRs as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of HD and demonstrate that RyanR inhibitors and Ca2+ signaling stabilizers such as

  3. Accelerating repaired basement membrane after bevacizumab treatment on alkali-burned mouse cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Koon-Ja; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    To understand the corneal regeneration induced by bevacizumab, we investigated the structure changes of stroma and basement membrane regeneration. A Stick soaked in 0.5 N NaOH onto the mouse cornea and 2.5 mg/ml of bevacizumab was delivered into an alkali-burned cornea (2 μl) by subconjunctival injections at 1 hour and 4 days after injury. At 7 days after injury, basement membrane regeneration was observed by transmission electron microscope. Uneven and thin epithelial basement membrane, light density of hemidesmosomes, and edematous collagen fibril bundles are shown in the alkali-burned cornea. Injured epithelial basement membrane and hemidesmosomes and edematous collagen fibril bundles resulting from alkali-burned mouse cornea was repaired by bevacizumab treatment. This study demonstrates that bevacizumab can play an important role in wound healing in the cornea by accelerating the reestablishment of basement membrane integrity that leads to barriers for scar formation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(4): 195-200] PMID:23615260

  4. MS_HistoneDB, a manually curated resource for proteomic analysis of human and mouse histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kennani, Sara; Adrait, Annie; Shaytan, Alexey K; Khochbin, Saadi; Bruley, Christophe; Panchenko, Anna R; Landsman, David; Pflieger, Delphine; Govin, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Histones and histone variants are essential components of the nuclear chromatin. While mass spectrometry has opened a large window to their characterization and functional studies, their identification from proteomic data remains challenging. Indeed, the current interpretation of mass spectrometry data relies on public databases which are either not exhaustive (Swiss-Prot) or contain many redundant entries (UniProtKB or NCBI). Currently, no protein database is ideally suited for the analysis of histones and the complex array of mammalian histone variants. We propose two proteomics-oriented manually curated databases for mouse and human histone variants. We manually curated >1700 gene, transcript and protein entries to produce a non-redundant list of 83 mouse and 85 human histones. These entries were annotated in accordance with the current nomenclature and unified with the "HistoneDB2.0 with Variants" database. This resource is provided in a format that can be directly read by programs used for mass spectrometry data interpretation. In addition, it was used to interpret mass spectrometry data acquired on histones extracted from mouse testis. Several histone variants, which had so far only been inferred by homology or detected at the RNA level, were detected by mass spectrometry, confirming the existence of their protein form. Mouse and human histone entries were collected from different databases and subsequently curated to produce a non-redundant protein-centric resource, MS_HistoneDB. It is dedicated to the proteomic study of histones in mouse and human and will hopefully facilitate the identification and functional study of histone variants.

  5. Mouse SNP Miner: an annotated database of mouse functional single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Ramensky Vasily E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mapping of quantitative trait loci in rat and mouse has been extremely successful in identifying chromosomal regions associated with human disease-related phenotypes. However, identifying the specific phenotype-causing DNA sequence variations within a quantitative trait locus has been much more difficult. The recent availability of genomic sequence from several mouse inbred strains (including C57BL/6J, 129X1/SvJ, 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, and DBA/2J has made it possible to catalog DNA sequence differences within a quantitative trait locus derived from crosses between these strains. However, even for well-defined quantitative trait loci ( Description To help identify functional DNA sequence variations within quantitative trait loci we have used the Ensembl annotated genome sequence to compile a database of mouse single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, or splice site mutations (available at http://bioinfo.embl.it/SnpApplet/. For missense mutations we have used the PolyPhen and PANTHER algorithms to predict whether amino acid changes are likely to disrupt protein function. Conclusion We have developed a database of mouse SNPs predicted to cause missense, nonsense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations. Our analysis revealed that 20% and 14% of missense SNPs are likely to be deleterious according to PolyPhen and PANTHER, respectively, and 6% are considered deleterious by both algorithms. The database also provides gene expression and functional annotations from the Symatlas, Gene Ontology, and OMIM databases to further assess candidate phenotype-causing mutations. To demonstrate its utility, we show that Mouse SNP Miner successfully finds a previously identified candidate SNP in the taste receptor, Tas1r3, that underlies sucrose preference in the C57BL/6J strain. We also use Mouse SNP Miner to derive a list of candidate phenotype-causing mutations within a previously

  6. The temperature of intracellular ice formation in mouse oocytes vs. the unfrozen fraction at that temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Peter; Pinn, Irina L; Kleinhans, F W

    2007-04-01

    We have previously reported [Cryobiology 51 (2005) 29-53] that intracellular ice formation (IIF) in mouse oocytes suspended in various concentrations of glycerol and ethylene glycol (EG) occurs at temperatures where the percentage of unfrozen water is about 6% and 12%, respectively, even though the IIF temperatures varied from -14 to -41 degrees C. However, because of the way the solutions were prepared, the concentrations of salt and glycerol or EG in that unfrozen fraction at IIF were also rather tightly grouped. The experiments reported in the present paper were designed to separate the effects of the unfrozen fraction at IIF from that of the solute concentration in the unfrozen fraction. This separation makes use of two facts. One is that the concentration of solutes in the residual liquid at a given subzero temperature is fixed regardless of their concentration in the initial unfrozen solution. However, second, the fraction unfrozen at a given temperature is dependent on the initial solute concentration. Experimentally, oocytes were suspended in solutions of glycerol/buffered saline and EG/buffered saline of varying total solute concentration with the restriction that the mass ratios of glycerol and EG to salts are held constant. The oocytes were then cooled rapidly enough (20 degrees C/min) to avoid significant osmotic shrinkage, and the temperature at which IIF occurred was noted. When this is done, we find, as previously that the fraction of water remaining unfrozen at the temperature of IIF remains nearly constant at 5-8% for both glycerol and EG even though the IIF temperatures vary from -14 to -50 degrees C. But unlike the previous results, the salt and CPA concentrations in the unfrozen fraction vary by a factor of three. The present procedure for preparing the solutions produces a potentially complicating factor; namely, the cell volumes vary substantially prior to freezing: substantially greater than isotonic in some solutions; substantially smaller

  7. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β-Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation

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    Giulia Breveglieri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6 carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin αmu-globin2/βhu-globin2 and, more importantly, (d the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia.

  8. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Mouse Carrying a Functional Human β-Globin Gene with the IVSI-6 Thalassemia Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Irene; Lampronti, Ilaria; Salvatori, Francesca; Fabbri, Enrica; Zuccato, Cristina; Cosenza, Lucia C.; Montagner, Giulia; Borgatti, Monica; Altruda, Fiorella; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Carandina, Gianni; Aiello, Vincenzo; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Gambari, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mouse models that carry mutations causing thalassemia represent a suitable tool to test in vivo new mutation-specific therapeutic approaches. Transgenic mice carrying the β-globin IVSI-6 mutation (the most frequent in Middle-Eastern regions and recurrent in Italy and Greece) are, at present, not available. We report the production and characterization of a transgenic mouse line (TG-β-IVSI-6) carrying the IVSI-6 thalassemia point mutation within the human β-globin gene. In the TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse (a) the transgenic integration region is located in mouse chromosome 7; (b) the expression of the transgene is tissue specific; (c) as expected, normally spliced human β-globin mRNA is produced, giving rise to β-globin production and formation of a human-mouse tetrameric chimeric hemoglobin mu α-globin2/hu β-globin2 and, more importantly, (d) the aberrant β-globin-IVSI-6 RNAs are present in blood cells. The TG-β-IVSI-6 mouse reproduces the molecular features of IVSI-6 β-thalassemia and might be used as an in vivo model to characterize the effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting the cryptic sites responsible for the generation of aberrantly spliced β-globin RNA sequences, caused by the IVSI-6 mutation. These experiments are expected to be crucial for the development of a personalized therapy for β-thalassemia. PMID:26097845

  9. Chronic activation of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and loss of Cdkn2a cause mouse glioblastoma formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Jaime; Jun, Hyun Jung; Lessard, Julie; Ruiz, Rolando; Zhu, Haihao; Donovan, Melissa; Woolfenden, Steve; Boskovitz, Abraham; Raval, Ami; Bronson, Roderick T; Pfannl, Rolf; Whittaker, Charles A; Housman, David E; Charest, Al

    2011-12-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and loss of the tumor suppressors Ink4a/Arf. Efforts at modeling GBM using wild-type EGFR in mice have proven unsuccessful. Here, we present a unique mouse model of wild-type EGFR-driven gliomagenesis. We used a combination of somatic conditional overexpression and ligand-mediated chronic activation of EGFR in cooperation with Ink4a/Arf loss in the central nervous system of adult mice to generate tumors with the histopathologic and molecular characteristics of human GBMs. Sustained, ligand-mediated activation of EGFR was necessary for gliomagenesis, functionally substantiating the clinical observation that EGFR-positive GBMs from patients express EGFR ligands. To gain a better understanding of the clinically disappointing EGFR-targeted therapies for GBM, we investigated the molecular responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in this model. Gefitinib treatment of primary GBM cells resulted in a robust apoptotic response, partially conveyed by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling attenuation and accompanied by BIM(EL) expression. In human GBMs, loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor PTEN are a common occurrence. Elimination of PTEN expression in GBM cells posttumor formation did not confer resistance to TKI treatment, showing that PTEN status in our model is not predictive. Together, these findings offer important mechanistic insights into the genetic determinants of EGFR gliomagenesis and sensitivity to TKIs and provide a robust discovery platform to better understand the molecular events that are associated with predictive markers of TKI therapy.

  10. Two Y genes can replace the entire Y chromosome for assisted reproduction in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Stoytcheva, Zoia; Ward, Monika A

    2014-01-03

    The Y chromosome is thought to be important for male reproduction. We have previously shown that, with the use of assisted reproduction, live offspring can be obtained from mice lacking the entire Y chromosome long arm. Here, we demonstrate that live mouse progeny can also be generated by using germ cells from males with the Y chromosome contribution limited to only two genes, the testis determinant factor Sry and the spermatogonial proliferation factor Eif2s3y. Sry is believed to function primarily in sex determination during fetal life. Eif2s3y may be the only Y chromosome gene required to drive mouse spermatogenesis, allowing formation of haploid germ cells that are functional in assisted reproduction. Our findings are relevant, but not directly translatable, to human male infertility cases.

  11. ZO-1 and ZO-2 are required for extra-embryonic endoderm integrity, primitive ectoderm survival and normal cavitation in embryoid bodies derived from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic C Y Phua

    Full Text Available The Zonula Occludens proteins ZO-1 and ZO-2 are cell-cell junction-associated adaptor proteins that are essential for the structural and regulatory functions of tight junctions in epithelial cells and their absence leads to early embryonic lethality in mouse models. Here, we use the embryoid body, an in vitro peri-implantation mouse embryogenesis model, to elucidate and dissect the roles ZO-1 and ZO-2 play in epithelial morphogenesis and de novo tight junction assembly. Through the generation of individual or combined ZO-1 and ZO-2 null embryoid bodies, we show that their dual deletion prevents tight junction formation, resulting in the disorganization and compromised barrier function of embryoid body epithelial layers. The disorganization is associated with poor microvilli development, fragmented basement membrane deposition and impaired cavity formation, all of which are key epithelial tissue morphogenetic processes. Expression of Podocalyxin, which positively regulates the formation of microvilli and the apical membrane, is repressed in embryoid bodies lacking both ZO-1 and ZO-2 and this correlates with an aberrant submembranous localization of Ezrin. The null embryoid bodies thus give an insight into how the two ZO proteins influence early mouse embryogenesis and possible mechanisms underlying the embryonic lethal phenotype.

  12. Steroid metabolism in the mouse placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okker-Reitsma, G.H.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the study described in this thesis was to investigate the capacity for steroid synthesis of the mouse placenta - especially the production of progesterone, androgens and estrogens - and to determine, if possible, the relation of steroid synthesis to special cell types. In an introductory chapter the androgen production in the mouse placenta is surveyed by means of a histochemical and bioindicator study of different stages of development of the placenta. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-dehydroepiandrosterone and [ 3 H]-progesterone by mouse placental tissue in vitro is studied. The metabolism of [ 3 H]-progesterone by the mouse fetal adrenal in vitro is also studied

  13. Radiation-induced adaptive response in the intact mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Morio

    2009-01-01

    The author and coworkers have revealed that radiation adaptive response (AR) is seen also in the bone marrow of the intact mouse, of which details are described here. First, SPF ICR mice were pre-irradiated (PI) with 0-0.1 Gy of X-ray and after 2 months, subsequently irradiated (SI) with 7.75 Gy. Survival rates at 30 days after SI were about 14% in mice with PI 0-0.025 Gy whereas 40% or more in animals with PI 0.05-0.1 Gy: bone marrow death was found significantly suppressed in this effective PI dose range. The death 2 weeks after SI was found also inhibited at PI 0.3-0.5 Gy. Second, PI doses and interval between PI and SI for acquiring the radio-resistance (RR) were studied and third, the PI 0.3-0.5 Gy with SI 8.0 Gy at 9-17 days later revealed that regional PI of the head (central nervous system) was found unnecessary for RR and of abdomen (systems of hemopoiesis, immunity and digestion), essential. Fourth, strain difference of RR was shown by the fact that RR was observed only in C57BL mouse as well, but neither in BALB/c nor C3H strain. Next, at 12 days after SI 4.25-6.75 Gy (PI 0.5 Gy at 14 days before), mouse spleen cells were subjected to colony formation analysis by counting the endogenous hemopoietic stem cells, which revealed that those cells were increased to about 5 times by PI. Suppression of SI-induced hemorrhage was found in mice with PI by the decreased fecal hemoglobin content. Finally, AR was similarly studied in p53 +/+ and its knockout C57BL mice and was not found in the latter animal, indicating the participation of p53 in AR of the intact mouse. Elucidation of AR mechanisms in the intact animal seems to require somewhat different aspect from that in cells. The results were controvertible to the general concept that radiation risk is proportional to cumulative dose, suggesting that low dose radiation differs from high dose one in biological effect. (K.T.)

  14. CREB Regulates Experience-Dependent Spine Formation and Enlargement in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabella Pignataro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience modifies synaptic connectivity through processes that involve dendritic spine rearrangements in neuronal circuits. Although cAMP response element binding protein (CREB has a key function in spines changes, its role in activity-dependent rearrangements in brain regions of rodents interacting with the surrounding environment has received little attention so far. Here we studied the effects of vibrissae trimming, a widely used model of sensory deprivation-induced cortical plasticity, on processes associated with dendritic spine rearrangements in the barrel cortex of a transgenic mouse model of CREB downregulation (mCREB mice. We found that sensory deprivation through prolonged whisker trimming leads to an increased number of thin spines in the layer V of related barrel cortex (Contra in wild type but not mCREB mice. In the barrel field controlling spared whiskers (Ipsi, the same trimming protocol results in a CREB-dependent enlargement of dendritic spines. Last, we demonstrated that CREB regulates structural rearrangements of synapses that associate with dynamic changes of dendritic spines. Our findings suggest that CREB plays a key role in dendritic spine dynamics and synaptic circuits rearrangements that account for new brain connectivity in response to changes in the environment.

  15. Recombinant Helicobacter bilis Protein P167 for Mouse Serodiagnosis in a Multiplex Microbead Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Sunlian; Kendall, Lon V.; Hodzic, Emir; Wong, Scott; Lorenzana, Edward; Freet, Kimberly; Ku, Karin S.; Luciw, Paul A.; Barthold, Stephen W.; Khan, Imran H.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of mice with Helicobacter bilis is widespread in research and commercial mouse colonies. Therefore, sensitive, specific, and high-throughput assays are needed for rapid and accurate testing of mice in large numbers. This report describes a novel multiplex assay, based on fluorescent microbeads, for serodetection of H. bilis infection. The assay requires only a few microliters of serum to perform and is amenable to a high-throughput format. Individual microbead sets were conjugated t...

  16. Dialysis delivery of an adenosine A2A agonist into the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse increases pontine acetylcholine release and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christal G; Baghdoyan, Helen A; Lydic, Ralph

    2006-03-01

    In vivo microdialysis in C57BL/6J (B6) mouse was used to test the hypothesis that activating adenosine A(2A) receptors in the pontine reticular formation (PRF) increases acetylcholine (ACh) release and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Eight concentrations of the adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680; CGS) were delivered to the PRF and ACh in the PRF was quantified. ACh release was significantly increased by dialysis with 3 mum CGS and significantly decreased by dialysis with 10 and 100 microm CGS. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385; 30 nM) blocked the CGS-induced increase in ACh release. In a second series of experiments, CGS (3 microm) was delivered by dialysis to the PRF for 2 h while recording sleep and wakefulness. CGS significantly decreased time in wakefulness (-51% in h 1; -54% in h 2), increased time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (90% in h 1; 151% in h 2), and increased both time in REM sleep (331% in h 2) and the number of REM sleep episodes (488% in h 2). The enhancement of REM sleep is consistent with the interpretation that adenosine A(2A) receptors in the PRF of the B6 mouse contribute to REM sleep regulation, in part, by increasing ACh release in the PRF. A(2A) receptor activation may promote NREM sleep via GABAergic inhibition of arousal promoting neurons in the PRF.

  17. Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) Is the International Resource for Information on the Laboratory Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, MeiYee; Shaw, David R

    2018-01-01

    Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI, http://www.informatics.jax.org/ ) web resources provide free access to meticulously curated information about the laboratory mouse. MGI's primary goal is to help researchers investigate the genetic foundations of human diseases by translating information from mouse phenotypes and disease models studies to human systems. MGI provides comprehensive phenotypes for over 50,000 mutant alleles in mice and provides experimental model descriptions for over 1500 human diseases. Curated data from scientific publications are integrated with those from high-throughput phenotyping and gene expression centers. Data are standardized using defined, hierarchical vocabularies such as the Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology, Mouse Developmental Anatomy and the Gene Ontologies (GO). This chapter introduces you to Gene and Allele Detail pages and provides step-by-step instructions for simple searches and those that take advantage of the breadth of MGI data integration.

  18. Mobile Laser Indirect Ophthalmoscope: For the Induction of Choroidal Neovascularization in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Dov; Bor-Shavit, Elite; Barliya, Tilda; Dahbash, Mor; Kinrot, Opher; Gaton, Dan D; Nisgav, Yael; Livnat, Tami

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate and standardize the reliability of a mobile laser indirect ophthalmoscope in the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a mouse model. A diode laser indirect ophthalmoscope was used to induce CNV in pigmented male C57BL/6J mice. Standardization of spot size and laser intensity was determined using different aspheric lenses with increasing laser intensities applied around the optic disc. Development of CNV was evaluated 1, 5, and 14 days post laser application using fluorescein angiography (FA), histology, and choroidal flat mounts stained for the endothelial marker CD31 and FITC-dextran. Correlation between the number of laser hits to the number and size of developed CNV lesions was determined using flat mount choroid staining. The ability of intravitreally injected anti-human and anti-mouse VEGF antibodies to inhibit CNV induced by the mobile laser was evaluated. Laser parameters were standardized on 350 mW for 100 msec, using the 90 diopter lens to accomplish the highest incidence of Bruch's membrane rupture. CNV lesions' formation was validated on days 5 and 14 post laser injury, though FA showed leakage on as early as day 1. The number of laser hits was significantly correlated with the CNV area. CNV growth was successfully inhibited by both anti-human and mouse VEGF antibodies. The mobile laser indirect ophthalmoscope can serve as a feasible and a reliable alternative method for the CNV induction in a mouse model.

  19. Pulsed Dilution Method for the Recovery of Aggregated Mouse TNF-α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merat Mahmoodi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The expression of mouse tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in Escherichia coli is a favorable way to get high yield of protein; however, the formation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which is the consequence of insoluble accumulated proteins, is a major obstacle in this system. To overcome this obstacle, we used a pulsed dilution method to convert the product to its native conformation. Methods: Reducing agent and guanidine hydrochloride were used to solubilize inclusion bodies formed after TNF-(α expression. Then, the refolding procedure was performed by pulsed dilution of the denatured protein into a refolding buffer. The properly-folded protein was purified by metal affinity chromatography. Results: SDS-PAGE showed a 19.9 kDa band related to the mature TNF-(α protein. The protein was recognized by anti-mouse TNF-(α on western blots. The final concentration of the purified recombinant TNF-(α was 62.5 μg/mL. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the efficiency of this method to produce a high yield of folded mature TNF- (α.

  20. MouseMine: a new data warehouse for MGI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motenko, H; Neuhauser, S B; O'Keefe, M; Richardson, J E

    2015-08-01

    MouseMine (www.mousemine.org) is a new data warehouse for accessing mouse data from Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Based on the InterMine software framework, MouseMine supports powerful query, reporting, and analysis capabilities, the ability to save and combine results from different queries, easy integration into larger workflows, and a comprehensive Web Services layer. Through MouseMine, users can access a significant portion of MGI data in new and useful ways. Importantly, MouseMine is also a member of a growing community of online data resources based on InterMine, including those established by other model organism databases. Adopting common interfaces and collaborating on data representation standards are critical to fostering cross-species data analysis. This paper presents a general introduction to MouseMine, presents examples of its use, and discusses the potential for further integration into the MGI interface.

  1. Abnormal monocyte recruitment and collateral artery formation in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Michiel; Hoefer, Imo E.; van Royen, Niels; Hua, Jing; de Graaf, Stijn; Bode, Christoph; Buschmann, Ivo R.; Piek, Jan J.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) has been shown to be effective for the stimulation of collateral artery formation in small and large animal models. The availability of a genetic knockout mouse enables evaluation of the importance of the role of MCP-1 in the natural course of collateral

  2. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binghua Xue

    Full Text Available Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  3. Lutein facilitates physiological revascularization in a mouse model of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhongjie; Meng, Steven S; Burnim, Samuel B; Smith, Lois Eh; Lo, Amy Cy

    2017-07-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness worldwide, with vessel growth cessation and vessel loss in phase I followed by neovascularization in phase II. Ischaemia contributes to its pathogenesis, and lutein protects against ischaemia-induced retinal damages. We aimed to investigate the effects of lutein on a murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. Mouse pups were exposed to 75% oxygen for 5 days and returned to room air for another 5 days. Vascular obliteration, neovascularization and blood vessel leakage were examined. Immunohistochemistry for glial cells and microglia were performed. Compared with vehicle controls, mouse pups receiving lutein treatment displayed smaller central vaso-obliterated area and reduced blood vessel leakage. No significant difference in neovascular area was found between lutein and vehicle controls. Lutein promoted endothelial tip cell formation and maintained the astrocytic template in the avascular area in oxygen-induced retinopathy. No significant changes in Müller cell gliosis and microglial activation in the central avascular area were found in lutein-treated pups. Our observations indicated that lutein significantly promoted normal retinal vascular regrowth in the central avascular area, possibly through promoting endothelial tip cell formation and preserving astrocytic template. Our results indicated that lutein might be considered as a supplement for the treatment of proliferative retinopathy of prematurity because of its role in facilitating the revascularization of normal vasculature. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  4. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 1 α levels are paralleling olfactory memory formation in the CD1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Christiana; Sun, Yanwei; Höger, Harald; Bubna-Littitz, Hermann; Pollak, Arnold; Schmidt, Peter; Lubec, Gert

    2011-06-01

    Although olfactory discrimination has already been studied in several mouse strains, data on protein levels linked to olfactory memory are limited. Wild mouse strains Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus and CD1 laboratory outbred mice were tested in a conditioned odor preference task and trained to discriminate between two odors, Rose and Lemon, by pairing one odor with a sugar reward. Six hours following the final test, mice were sacrificed and olfactory bulbs (OB) were taken for gel-based proteomics analyses and immunoblotting. OB proteins were extracted, separated by 2-DE and quantified using specific software (Proteomweaver). Odor-trained mice showed a preference for the previously rewarded odor suggesting that conditioned odor preference occurred. In CD1 mice levels, one out of 482 protein spots was significantly increased in odor-trained mice as compared with the control group; it was in-gel digested by trypsin and chymotrypsin and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS). The spot was unambiguously identified as serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-α catalytic subunit (PP-1A) and differential levels observed in gel-based proteomic studies were verified by immunoblotting. PP-1A is a key signalling element in synaptic plasticity and memory processes and is herein shown to be paralleling olfactory discrimination representing olfactory memory. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Mevalonate Pathway Antagonist Suppresses Formation of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Ovarian Carcinoma in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kashima, Hiroyasu; Wu, Ren-Chin; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Gu, Jinghua; Xuan, Jianhua; Sokoll, Lori; Visvanathan, Kala; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2015-10-15

    Statins are among the most frequently prescribed drugs because of their efficacy and low toxicity in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recently, statins have been reported to inhibit the proliferative activity of cancer cells, especially those with TP53 mutations. Because TP53 mutations occur in almost all ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), we determined whether statins suppressed tumor growth in animal models of ovarian cancer. Two ovarian cancer mouse models were used. The first one was a genetically engineered model, mogp-TAg, in which the promoter of oviduct glycoprotein-1 was used to drive the expression of SV40 T-antigen in gynecologic tissues. These mice spontaneously developed serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), which are known as ovarian cancer precursor lesions. The second model was a xenograft tumor model in which human ovarian cancer cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice. Mice in both models were treated with lovastatin, and effects on tumor growth were monitored. The molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effects of lovastatin were also investigated. Lovastatin significantly reduced the development of STICs in mogp-TAg mice and inhibited ovarian tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of prenylation enzymes in the mevalonate pathway recapitulated the lovastatin-induced antiproliferative phenotype. Transcriptome analysis indicated that lovastatin affected the expression of genes associated with DNA replication, Rho/PLC signaling, glycolysis, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that statins have pleiotropic effects on tumor cells. The above results suggest that repurposing statin drugs for ovarian cancer may provide a promising strategy to prevent and manage this devastating disease. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Establishment of rat embryonic stem-like cells from the morula using a combination of feeder layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Asako; Sato, Eimei; Fukui, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Midori; Matsumoto, Hiromichi

    2009-08-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are characterized by pluripotency, in particular the ability to form a germline on injection into blastocysts. Despite numerous attempts, ES cell lines derived from rat embryos have not yet been established. The reason for this is unclear, although certain intrinsic biological differences among species and/or strains have been reported. Herein, using Wistar-Imamichi rats, specific characteristics of preimplantation embryos are described. At the blastocyst stage, Oct4 (also called Pou5f1) was expressed in both the inner cell mass (ICM) and the trophectoderm (TE), whereas expression of Cdx2 was localized to the TE. In contrast, at an earlier stage, expression of Oct4 was detected in all the nuclei in the morula. These stages were examined using a combination of feeder layers (rat embryonic fibroblast [REF] for primary outgrowth and SIM mouse embryo-derived thioguanine- and ouabain-resistant [STO] cells for passaging) to establish rat ES-like cell lines. The rat ES-like cell lines obtained from the morula maintained expression of Oct4 over long-term culture, whereas cell lines derived from blastocysts lost pluripotency during early passage. The morula-derived ES-like cell lines showed Oct4 expression in a long-term culture, even after cryogenic preservation, thawing and EGFP transfection. These results indicate that rat ES-like cell lines with long-term Oct4 expression can be established from the morula of Wistar-Imamichi rats using a combination of feeder layers.

  7. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jinyoung; Lee, Joohyeong; Kim, Jinyoung; Park, Junhong; Lee, Eunsong

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of post-fusion treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos. Immediately after electrofusion, SCNT oocytes were treated with MG132 and/or caffeine for 2 hr, vanadate for 0.5 hr, or vanadate for 0.5 hr followed by MG132 for 1.5 hr. Of the MG132 concentrations tested (0-5 microM), the 1 microM concentration showed a higher rate of blastocyst formation (25.9%) than 0 (14.2%), 0.5 (16.9%), and 5 microM (16.9%). Post-fusion treatment with MG132, caffeine, and both MG132 and caffeine improved blastocyst formation (22.1%, 21.4%, and 24.4%, respectively), whereas vanadate treatment inhibited blastocyst formation (6.5%) compared to the control (11.1%). When examined 2 hr after fusion and 1 hr after activation, MPF activity remained at a higher (P fusion with caffeine and/or MG132, but it was decreased by vanadate. The rate of oocytes showing premature chromosome condensation was not altered by MG132 but was decreased by vanadate treatment. In addition, formation of single pronuclei was increased by MG132 compared to control and vanadate treatment. MG132-treated embryos showed increased expression of POU5F1, DPPA2, DPPA3, DPPA5, and NDP52l1 genes compared to control embryos. Our results demonstrate that post-fusion treatment of SCNT oocytes with MG132 prevents MPF degradation and increases expression of transcription factors in SCNT embryos, which are necessary for normal development of SCNT embryos. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Impaired expression of importin/karyopherin β1 leads to post-implantation lethality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Katsutaka; Yoshinobu, Kumiko; Imaizumi, Takashi; Haruna, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Nakagata, Naomi; Araki, Masatake; Miyakawa, Taihei; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Araki, Kimi

    2006-01-01

    Importin β1 (Impβ)/karyopherin β1 (Kpnb1) mediates the nuclear import of a large variety of substrates. This study aimed to investigate the requirement for the Kpnb1 gene in mouse development, using a gene trap line, B6-CB-Ayu8108 GtgeoIMEG (Ayu8108 geo ), in which the trap vector was inserted into the promoter region of the Kpnb1 gene, but in reverse orientation of the Kpnb1 gene. Ayu8108 geo/geo homozygous embryos could develop to the blastocyst stage, but died before embryonic day 5.5, and expression of the Kpnb1 gene in homozygous blastocysts was undetectable. We also replaced the βgeo gene with Impβ cDNA through Cre-mediated recombination to rescue Impβ expression. Homozygous mice for the rescued allele Ayu8108 Impβ/Impβ were born and developed normally. These results demonstrated that the cause of post-implantation lethality of Ayu8108 geo/geo homozygous embryos was impaired expression of the Kpnb1 gene, indicating indispensable roles of Impβ1 in early development of mice

  9. VPS35 regulates developing mouse hippocampal neuronal morphogenesis by promoting retrograde trafficking of BACE1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Lei Wang

    2012-10-01

    VPS35, a major component of the retromer, plays an important role in the selective endosome-to-Golgi retrieval of membrane proteins. Dysfunction of retromer is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, but its function in developing mouse brain remains poorly understood. Here we provide evidence for VPS35 promoting dendritic growth and maturation, and axonal protein transport in developing mouse hippocampal neurons. Embryonic hippocampal CA1 neurons suppressing Vps35 expression by in utero electroporation of its micro RNAs displayed shortened apical dendrites, reduced dendritic spines, and swollen commissural axons in the neonatal stage, those deficits reflecting a defective protein transport/trafficking in developing mouse neurons. Further mechanistic studies showed that Vps35 depletion in neurons resulted in an impaired retrograde trafficking of BACE1 (β1-secretase and altered BACE1 distribution. Suppression of BACE1 expression in CA1 neurons partially rescued both dendritic and axonal deficits induced by Vps35-deficiency. These results thus demonstrate that BACE1 acts as a critical cargo of retromer in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that VPS35 plays an essential role in regulating apical dendritic maturation and in preventing axonal spheroid formation in developing hippocampal neurons.

  10. Trifluoperazine inhibits acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and hepatic reactive nitrogen formation in mice and in freshly isolated hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Banerjee

    Full Text Available The hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen (APAP occurs by initial metabolism to N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine which depletes GSH and forms APAP-protein adducts. Subsequently, the reactive nitrogen species peroxynitrite is formed from nitric oxide (NO and superoxide leading to 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins. Toxicity occurs with inhibited mitochondrial function. We previously reported that in hepatocytes the nNOS (NOS1 inhibitor NANT inhibited APAP toxicity, reactive nitrogen and oxygen species formation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this work we examined the effect of trifluoperazine (TFP, a calmodulin antagonist that inhibits calcium induced nNOS activation, on APAP hepatotoxicity and reactive nitrogen formation in murine hepatocytes and in vivo. In freshly isolated hepatocytes TFP inhibited APAP induced toxicity, reactive nitrogen formation (NO, GSNO, and 3-nitrotyrosine in protein, reactive oxygen formation (superoxide, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased ATP production, decreased oxygen consumption rate, and increased NADH accumulation. TFP did not alter APAP induced GSH depletion in the hepatocytes or the formation of APAP protein adducts which indicated that reactive metabolite formation was not inhibited. Since we previously reported that TFP inhibits the hepatotoxicity of APAP in mice without altering hepatic APAP-protein adduct formation, we examined the APAP treated mouse livers for evidence of reactive nitrogen formation. 3-Nitrotyrosine in hepatic proteins and GSNO were significantly increased in APAP treated mouse livers and decreased in the livers of mice treated with APAP plus TFP. These data are consistent with a hypothesis that APAP hepatotoxicity occurs with altered calcium metabolism, activation of nNOS leading to increased reactive nitrogen formation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Keywords: Acetaminophen, Neuronal nitric oxide, Oxidative stress, Mitochondria

  11. Clathrin heavy chain 1 is required for spindle assembly and chromosome congression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie; Wang, Lu; Zhou, Hong-Xia; Liu, Li; Lu, Angeleem; Li, Guang-Peng; Schatten, Heide; Liang, Cheng-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC) has been considered a “moonlighting protein” which acts in membrane trafficking during interphase and in stabilizing spindle fibers during mitosis. However, its roles in meiosis, especially in mammalian oocyte maturation, remain unclear. This study investigated CLTC expression and function in spindle formation and chromosome congression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Our results showed that the expression level of CLTC increased after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and peaked in the M phase. Immunostaining results showed CLTC distribution throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Appearance and disappearance of CLTC along with β-tubulin (TUBB) could be observed during spindle dynamic changes. To explore the relationship between CLTC and microtubule dynamics, oocytes at metaphase were treated with taxol or nocodazole. CLTC colocalized with TUBB at the enlarged spindle and with cytoplasmic asters after taxol treatment; it disassembled and distributed into the cytoplasm along with TUBB after nocodazole treatment. Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle formation and chromosome congression defects. Taken together, these results show that CLTC plays an important role in spindle assembly and chromosome congression through a microtubule correlation mechanism during mouse oocyte maturation.

  12. Delayed formation of chromosome aberrations in mouse pachytebne spermatocytes treated with triethylenemelamine (TEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generoso, W.M.; Krishna, M.; Sotomayor, R.E.; Cacheiro, N.L.A.

    1977-01-01

    Induction of chromosome aberrations in pachytene spermatocytes of mice by 2 mg/kg TEM was compared with induction by 400 R x rays. These doses induced comparably high dominant lethal effects in pachytene spermatocytes of mice. Cytological analysis at diakinesis-metaphase I stage showed that whereas 76.4% of the cells treated with x rays at pachytene stage had aberrations, the frequencies observed in two TEM experiments were only 0.8 and 2.2%. On the other hand, 5% of the progeny from TEM-treated pachytene spermatocytes were found to be translocation heterozygotes. This is the first report on the recovery of heritable translocations from treated spermatocytes of mice. The aberration frequencies observed for TEM in diakinesis-metaphase I were much too low to account for all the lethal mutations and heritable translocations. Thus, the formation of the bulk of aberrations induced by TEM in pachytene spermatocytes was delayed--a marked contrast to the more immediate formation of x-ray-induced aberrations. It is postulated that the formation of the bulk of TEM-induced aberrations in pachytene spermatocytes and in certain postmeiotic stages occurs sometime during spermiogenesis, and not through the operation of postfertilization pronuclear DNA synthesis

  13. A TNF-Regulated Recombinatorial Macrophage Immune Receptor Implicated in Granuloma Formation in Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streich, Roswita; Breysach, Caroline; Raddatz, Dirk; Oniga, Septimia; Peccerella, Teresa; Findeisen, Peter; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Gratchev, Alexei; Schweyer, Stefan; Saunders, Bernadette; Wessels, Johannes T.; Möbius, Wiebke; Keane, Joseph; Becker, Heinz; Ganser, Arnold; Neumaier, Michael; Kaminski, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse monocytes and macrophages. In vitro, we find that the macrophage-TCRαβ induces the release of CCL2 and modulates phagocytosis. TNF blockade suppresses macrophage-TCRαβ expression. Infection of macrophages from healthy individuals with mycobacteria triggers formation of clusters that express restricted TCR Vβ repertoires. In vivo, TCRαβ bearing macrophages abundantly accumulate at the inner host-pathogen contact zone of caseous granulomas from patients with lung tuberculosis. In chimeric mouse models, deletion of the variable macrophage-TCRαβ or TNF is associated with structurally compromised granulomas of pulmonary tuberculosis even in the presence of intact T cells. These results uncover a TNF-regulated recombinatorial immune receptor in monocytes/macrophages and demonstrate its implication in granuloma formation in tuberculosis. PMID:22114556

  14. A TNF-regulated recombinatorial macrophage immune receptor implicated in granuloma formation in tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Beham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse monocytes and macrophages. In vitro, we find that the macrophage-TCRαβ induces the release of CCL2 and modulates phagocytosis. TNF blockade suppresses macrophage-TCRαβ expression. Infection of macrophages from healthy individuals with mycobacteria triggers formation of clusters that express restricted TCR Vβ repertoires. In vivo, TCRαβ bearing macrophages abundantly accumulate at the inner host-pathogen contact zone of caseous granulomas from patients with lung tuberculosis. In chimeric mouse models, deletion of the variable macrophage-TCRαβ or TNF is associated with structurally compromised granulomas of pulmonary tuberculosis even in the presence of intact T cells. These results uncover a TNF-regulated recombinatorial immune receptor in monocytes/macrophages and demonstrate its implication in granuloma formation in tuberculosis.

  15. 9 CFR 113.33 - Mouse safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mouse safety tests. 113.33 Section 113.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.33 Mouse safety tests. One of the mouse safety tests provided in this section shall be...

  16. Decreasing maternal myostatin programs adult offspring bone strength in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Arin K; Kamp, William M; McCray, Marcus G; Carleton, Stephanie M; Karasseva, Natalia; Lenz, Kristin L; Jeong, Youngjae; Daghlas, Salah A; Yao, Xiaomei; Wang, Yong; Pfeiffer, Ferris M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Schulz, Laura C; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2016-11-22

    During fetal development, the uterine environment can have effects on offspring bone architecture and integrity that persist into adulthood; however, the biochemical and molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass. Parental myostatin deficiency (Mstn tm1Sjl/+ ) increases muscle mass in wild-type offspring, suggesting an intrauterine programming effect. Here, we hypothesized that Mstn tm1Sjl/+ dams would also confer increased bone strength. In wild-type offspring, maternal myostatin deficiency altered fetal growth and calvarial collagen content of newborn mice and conferred a lasting impact on bone geometry and biomechanical integrity of offspring at 4 mo of age, the age of peak bone mass. Second, we sought to apply maternal myostatin deficiency to a mouse model with osteog