Sistemática, filogenia e distribuição geográfica das espécies sul-americanas de Centris (Paracentris Cameron, 1903 e de Centris (Penthemisia Moure, 1950, incluindo uma análise filogenética do "grupo Centris" sensu Ayala, 1998 (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Centridini
Fernando César Vieira Zanella
C. buchholzi. The following South American species were recognized under Centris (Paracentris: Centris burgdorfi Friese, 1901; C. caelebs Friese, 1900; C. cordillerana Roig-Alsina, 2000; C. euphenax Cockerell, 1913; C. flavohirta Friese, 1900; C. garleppi (Schrottky, 1913; C. klugii Friese, 1900; C. lyngbyei Jensen-Haarup, 1908; C. mourei Roig-Alsina, 2000; C. neffi Moure, 2000; C. nigerrima (Spinola, 1851; C. toroi sp. nov.; C. tricolor Friese, 1900; C. unifasciata (Schrottky, 1913, and C. vogeli Roig-Alsina, 2000. The relationships among the subgenera of the "Centris group" were: (Xanthemisia (Penthemisia (Centris s. str. - Paracentris. Centris xanthomelaena Moure & Castro 2001, an endemic species of the Caatinga and previously considered a C. (Paracentris, came out as the sister group of C. (Centris s. str. A new species of C. (Paracentris from Chile is described: Centris toroi sp. nov. Lectotypus designations and redescriptions are presented for Centris burgdorfi, C. caelebs, C. lyngbyei, C. tricolor, C. autrani Vachal, 1904 and C. smithii Friese, 1900. New synonyms proposed: C. buchholzi Herbst, 1918 = Centris wilmattae Cockerell, 1926 syn. nov.; C. caelebs Friese, 1900 = Paracentris fulvohirta Cameron, 1903. The female of C. vogeli Roig-Alsina, 2000 and the male of C. xanthomelaena are described.
Anatoliy F. Kovshar
whistling thrush (Myophonus caeruleus turcestanicus, paradise flycatcher (Terpsiphone paradisi leucogaster and several species of highland finches, including Eurasian crimson-winged finch (Rhodopechys sanguinea, white-winged snowfinch (Montifringilla nivalis alpicola and Brandt's mountain finch (Leucosticte brandti; reptiles – Ophisaurus apodus, Elape dione and Coluber rhodorhachis. 18 Vertebrate and 26 invertebrate species are listed in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. In the 90 years of its existence a huge research was carried out and the scientific staff of field biologists, botanists and zoologists were prepared (N.K. Karmysheva, V.V. Shevchenko, F.D. Shaposhnikov, V.D. Utekhin, A.F. Kovshar, A.A. Ivaschenko, B.M. Gubin, Yu.A. Grachyov, etc.. At the same time dozens of expeditions were working on this territory from several scientific institutions – institutes of botany and zoology (Alma-Ata, Tashkent, Leningrad, Kiev, botanical gardens (Moscow, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, All-Union Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (Moscow, All-Union Institute of Pharmacology (Moscow, Institute of Plant Protection (Alma-Ata, Zoological Museum of Moscow State University (Moscow, Palaeontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of USSR and many others. As a result from the material collected on the territory of the nature reserve, more than 900 scientific works were published, including 11 issues of Proceedings of the nature reserve, published since 1948 till 2016.