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Sample records for mountain sickness implications

  1. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  2. Increased cerebral output of free radicals during hypoxia: implications for acute mountain sickness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether hypoxia causes free radical-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and impaired cerebral oxidative metabolism and whether this has any bearing on neurological symptoms ascribed to acute mountain sickness (AMS). Ten men provided internal jugular vein...

  3. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E

    2008-01-01

    (2)) and following 6 h passive exposure to hypoxia (12% O(2)). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured for determination of CA following calculation of transfer function analysis and rate of regulation (RoR). Nine subjects......We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  4. Cerebral blood flow in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Wright, Anne; Lassen, N A

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured using the radioactive xenon technique and were related to the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). In 12 subjects, ascending from 150 to 3,475 m, CBF was 24% increased at 24 h [45.1 to 55.9 initial slope index (ISI) units] and 4% increased...

  5. The genetic basis of chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Roy; Zhou, Dan; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G

    2014-11-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a disease that affects many high-altitude dwellers, particularly in the Andean Mountains in South America. The hallmark symptom of CMS is polycythemia, which causes increased risk of pulmonary hypertension and stroke (among other symptoms). A prevailing hypothesis in high-altitude medicine is that CMS results from a population-specific "maladaptation" to the hypoxic conditions at high altitude. In contrast, the prevalence of CMS is very low in other high-altitude populations (e.g., Tibetans and Ethiopians), which are seemingly well adapted to hypoxia. In recent years, concurrent with the advent of genomic technologies, several studies have investigated the genetic basis of adaptation to altitude. These studies have identified several candidate genes that may underlie the adaptation, or maladaptation. Interestingly, some of these genes are targeted by known drugs, raising the possibility of new treatments for CMS and other ischemic diseases. We review recent discoveries, alongside the methodologies used to obtain them, and outline some of the challenges remaining in the field. ©2014 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  6. Acute Mountain Sickness and Hemoconcentration in Next Generation Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the threat astronauts face from acute mountain sickness (AMS). It includes information about the symptoms of AMS, the potential threat to astronauts, and future efforts to mitigate the AMS threat.

  7. Acute mountain sickness: controversies and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Peter; Bailey, Damian M; Berger, Marc M; Knauth, Michael; Baumgartner, Ralf W

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the impact of recent publications on pathophysiologic concepts and on practical aspects of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Magnetic resonance imaging studies do not provide evidence of total brain volume increase nor edema within the first 6 to 10 h of exposure to hypoxia despite symptoms of AMS. After 16 to 32 h at about 4500 m, brain volume increases by 0.8% to 2.7%, but morphological changes do not clearly correlate with symptoms of AMS, and lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure was unchanged from normoxic values in individuals with AMS. These data do not support the prevailing hypothesis that AMS is caused by cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure. Direct measurement of increased oxygen radicals in hypoxia and a first study reducing AMS when lowering oxygen radicals by antioxidants suggest that oxidative stress is involved in the pathophysiology of AMS. Placebo-controlled trials demonstrate that theophylline significantly attenuates periodic breathing without improving arterial oxygen saturation during sleep. Its effects on AMS are marginal and clearly inferior to acetazolamide. A most recent large trial with Ginkgo biloba clearly showed that this drug does not prevent AMS in a low-risk setting in which acetazolamide in a low dose of 2 x 125 mg was effective. Therefore, acetazolamide remains the drug of choice for prevention and the recommended dose remains 2 x 250 mg daily until a lower dose has been tested in a high-risk setting and larger clinical trials with antioxidants have been performed.

  8. Chronic Mountain Sickness-Phobrang Type

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    C. S. Nath

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available Clinical0 features of 27 cases of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS from the Himalayas are reported. They are compared with 75 native highlanders (NH. All CMS patients were immigrants to high altitude. Mean duration of stay at high altitude was seven years. Mean values for haematocrit and haemoglobin were 80% and 23 G% respectively for the CMS group and 40% and 17.9 G% respectively for the native highlande group. Mean QRS axis in the former was +118 and in the latter +76. Incidence and quantum of protienuria were significantly higher in the CMS group. Cardiac catheteri -sation studies done in eight CMS cases showed elevated Pulmonary Artery (PA pressures even after a mean of 14.2 days at sea level. The disease which has four diagnostic elements-hypoxemia and polycythemia, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular enlargement and nephropathy with dense proteinuria-is a variant of 'Monge's Disease' and a name CMS Phobrang Type is suggested, along with a new approach to clinical classification which may help in diagnosis before cor pulmonale sets in. Limited therapeutic trials conducted at highaltitude seem to indicate that yogic deep breathing exercises, low-dose aspirin and diamox may be beneficial in the prevention and therapy of CMS Phobrang Type at high  altitude.

  9. Speech motor control and acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cymerman, Allen; Lieberman, Philip; Hochstadt, Jesse; Rock, Paul B.; Butterfield, Gail E.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An objective method that accurately quantifies the severity of Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) symptoms is needed to enable more reliable evaluation of altitude acclimatization and testing of potentially beneficial interventions. HYPOTHESIS: Changes in human articulation, as quantified by timed variations in acoustic waveforms of specific spoken words (voice onset time; VOT), are correlated with the severity of AMS. METHODS: Fifteen volunteers were exposed to a simulated altitude of 4300 m (446 mm Hg) in a hypobaric chamber for 48 h. Speech motor control was determined from digitally recorded and analyzed timing patterns of 30 different monosyllabic words characterized as voiced and unvoiced, and as labial, alveolar, or velar. The Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ) was used to assess AMS. RESULTS: Significant AMS symptoms occurred after 4 h, peaked at 16 h, and returned toward baseline after 48 h. Labial VOTs were shorter after 4 and 39 h of exposure; velar VOTs were altered only after 4 h; and there were no changes in alveolar VOTs. The duration of vowel sounds was increased after 4 h of exposure and returned to normal thereafter. Only 1 of 15 subjects did not increase vowel time after 4 h of exposure. The 39-h labial (p = 0.009) and velar (p = 0.037) voiced-unvoiced timed separations consonants and the symptoms of AMS were significantly correlated. CONCLUSIONS: Two objective measures of speech production were affected by exposure to 4300 m altitude and correlated with AMS severity. Alterations in speech production may represent an objective measure of AMS and central vulnerability to hypoxia.

  10. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  11. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H

    1988-01-01

    of the respiratory alkalosis normally seen at high altitude. Symptoms of acute mountain sickness were rapidly relieved. In three subjects cerebral blood flow increased by 17-39%, so that oxygen delivery to the brain would have been considerably improved. This study confirms earlier suggestions of the beneficial...... effect of CO2 inhalation at high altitude....

  12. How can acute mountain sickness be quantified at moderate altitude?

    OpenAIRE

    Roeggla, G; Roeggla, M; Podolsky, A.; Wagner, A; Laggner, A N

    1996-01-01

    Reports of acute mountain sickness (AMS) at moderate altitude show a wide variability, possibly because of different investigation methods. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of investigation methods on AMS incidence. Hackett's established AMS score (a structured interview and physical examination), the new Lake Louise AMS score (a self-reported questionnaire) and oxygen saturation were determined in 99 alpinists after ascent to 2.94 km altitude. AMS incidence was 8% in Hacket...

  13. Acute mountain sickness in Iranian pilgrims around to Damavand

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    Halabchi F "

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine the incidence and risk factors of acute mountain sickness (A - AMS in pilgrims. Although it is well known that western trekkers suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS in other mountains, not much is documented about the incidence of AMS in the Damavand Mountains, Iranian population that go to high altitude and its related contributing factors. Materials and Methods: The design was a cross sectional study. During six weeks (in summer 2000 a population of 459 pilgrims was studied. The period of the study was six weeks in summer AMS symptoms, were assessed by an extensively used standard questionnaier (Lake Louise, applied at 2900 m, after than arrive at 4200 m above sea level, and during descent from summit Damavand (at 4200 m at Damavand in Iran Alborz Mountain. Results: The overall incidence of A.M.S. was 60.8 percent. Climbers had 13-71 years and 67.8 percent of the study population was men. Men did not differ significantly higher rate of AMS from women. The incidence being increased in those who residence at an altitude below 600 m, climbed fast, amateur climbers, a previous AMS experience or high altitude illness, a history of AMS at ascent to Damavand and ascent time at night (6pm-6am. It was weakly dependent to rate of ascent (from 2800 m up 4200 m less that 4 hours and sleep in 4200 m. The incidence of AMS was unrelated to sex, age, body mass index (BMI, height, weight, smoking, to the load carried and knapsack and spent more than 15 hours in shelter (at 4200 m. So it was independent of rate of ascent in the higher altitude (from 4200 m to 5671 m, speed of descent and family history of AMS. Conclusions: Data show a strong relation between experiences mountaineer, history of AMS, ascent time at night and the incidence of acute mountain sickness in 459 climbers studied at high altitudes that didn’t report previously.

  14. Excessive erythrocytosis, chronic mountain sickness, and serum cobalt levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Pando, Jacqueline; Tapia, Rosario; Swenson, Erik R; Prchal, Josef; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Hurtado, Abdias; Johnson, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    In a subset of high-altitude dwellers, the appropriate erythrocytotic response becomes excessive and can result in chronic mountain sickness. We studied men with (study group) and without excessive erythrocytosis (packed-cell volume >65%) living in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m), and compared them with controls living in Lima, Peru (at sea-level). Toxic serum cobalt concentrations were detected in 11 of 21 (52%) study participants with excessive erythrocytosis, but were undetectable in high altitude or sea-level controls. In the mining community of Cerro de Pasco, cobalt toxicity might be an important contributor to excessive erythrocytosis.

  15. General introduction to altitude adaptation and mountain sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartsch, P.; Saltin, B.

    2008-01-01

    ascent (average ascent rate 300 m/day above 2000 m a.s.l.), primarily in order to sleep and feel well, and minimize the risk of mountain sickness. A new classification of altitude levels based on the effects on performance and well-being is proposed and an overview given over the various modalities using...... at altitudes between 2500 and 3000 m a.s.l. Pulmonary edema is rarely seen below 3000 m a.s.l. and brain edema is not seen below 4000 m a.s.l. It is possible to travel to altitudes of 2500-3000 m a.s.l., wait for 2 days, and then gradually start to train. At higher altitudes, one should consider a staged...

  16. Prediction of Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0034 TITLE: Prediction of Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert Roach...Acute Mountain Sickness using a Blood-Based Test 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER: 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0034 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...from a sample taken at sea level could be used to successfully predict in 9 out of 10 individuals who went on to develop acute mountain sickness or

  17. Cerebral Edema in Chronic Mountain Sickness: a New Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Haihua; Wang, Duoyao; Zhao, Xipeng; Wu, Youshen; Yin, Guixiu; Meng, Li; Wang, Fangfang; Ma, Lan; Hackett, Peter; Ge, Ri-Li

    2017-01-01

    We observed patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in our clinic who developed progressive neurological deterioration (encephalopathy) and we wished to investigate this. We studied nine such CMS patients, and compared them to 21 CMS patients without encephalopathy, and to 15 healthy control subjects without CMS. All 45 subjects lived permanently at 3200–4000 m. Measurements at 2260 m included CMS symptom score, multi-slice CT, perfusion CT, pulse oximetry (SpO2%), and hemoglobin concentration (Hb). One patient had MRI imaging but not CT; 5 had CSF pressure measurements. CMS subjects had lower SpO2, higher Hb, higher brain blood density, lower mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), and significant cerebral circulatory delay compared to controls. The nine CMS subjects with neurological deterioration showed diffuse cerebral edema on imaging and more deranged cerebral hemodynamics. CSF pressure was elevated in those with edema. We conclude that cerebral edema, a previously unrecognized complication, may develop in CMS patients and cause encephalopathy. Contributing factors appear to be exaggerated polycythemia and hypoxemia, and lower and sluggish CBF compared to CMS patients without cerebral edema; but what triggers this complication is unknown. Recognition and treatment of this serious complication will help reduce morbidity and mortality from CMS. PMID:28233815

  18. Hypoventilation in chronic mountain sickness: a mechanism to preserve energy.

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    Zubieta-Calleja, G R; Paulev, P-E; Zubieta-Calleja, L; Zubieta-Calleja, N; Zubieta-Castillo, G

    2006-09-01

    Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) patients have repeatedly been found to hypoventilate. Low saturation in CMS is attributed to hypoventilation. Although this observation seems logical, a further understanding of the exact mechanism of hypoxia is mandatory. An exercise study using the Bruce Protocol in CMS (n = 13) compared to normals N (n = 17), measuring ventilation (VE), pulse (P), and saturation by pulse oximetry (SaO(2)) was performed. Ventilation at rest while standing, prior to exercise in a treadmill was indeed lower in CMS (8.37 l/min compared with 9.54 l/min in N). However, during exercise, stage one through four, ventilation and cardiac frequency both remained higher than in N. In spite of this, SaO(2) gradually decreased. Although CMS subjects increased ventilation and heart rate more than N, saturation was not sustained, suggesting respiratory insufficiency. The degree of veno-arterial shunting of blood is obviously higher in the CMS patients both at rest and during exercise as judged from the SaO(2) values. The higher shunt fraction is due probably to a larger degree of trapped air in the lungs with uneven ventilation of the CMS patients. One can infer that hypoventilation at rest is an energy saving mechanism of the pneumo-dynamic and hemo-dynamic pumps. Increased ventilation would achieve an unnecessary high SaO(2) at rest (low metabolism). This is particularly true during sleep.

  19. Survey of acute mountain sickness on Mauna Kea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onopa, Janet; Haley, Amanda; Yeow, Mei Ean

    2007-01-01

    Although thousands of people ascend 4205 m to visit the summit of Mauna Kea each year, there has been no information on the rate of altitude illness triggered by such visits. Two surveys were used: one for tourists driving up to the summit and the other for summit astronomy workers staying at lodging facilities at intermediate altitude. The surveys included the standardized Lake Louise Self-report Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) Questionnaire that, when scored, gave the Lake Louise Symptoms Score (LLSS). Thirty percent of surveyed day visitors and 69% of surveyed professional astronomy staff had AMS, defined as a LLSS score of 3 or greater, with headache. Nine participants reported "disorientation/confusion" or greater consciousness changes. A majority of astronomy professionals reported fatigue, disturbed sleep, reduced activity, and mental status changes. Few took any AMS medications. The incidence of AMS in visitors to Mauna Kea's summit warrants increased education and increased availability of supplemental oxygen at the summit. The absence of reported serious altitude illness in the community is probably due to the rapid descent available on Mauna Kea, with prompt reversibility of adverse effects.

  20. RESPIRATORY STUDIES IN CHRONIC MOUNTAIN SICKNESS:THE PERUVIAN EXPERIENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiola León-Velarde

    2005-01-01

    @@ Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS) is a multifactorial disease caused by a limited capacity to achieve complete adaptation to life under chronic hypoxic conditions. It is accompanied by excessive erythrocitosis (levels of erythrocytes above the normal value set for each altitude), and in advances cases also by pulmonary hypertension. The hypoxemia, caused by central or peripheral respiratory disorders and/or associated to diverse risk factors, produces the excessive erythrocytosis. The most common symptoms are headaches, dizziness, breathlessness, sleep disturbances, tinnitus, physical and mental fatigue, anorexia, and bone and muscle pain. The most common signs are an intermittent or permanent cyanosis, hyperemia and venous dilatation in hands or feet (Monge-M et al., 1928; Winslow and Monge-C, 1987). Aging, respiratory diseases, sleep, menopause, and overweight has proved to be additional risk factors in the development of CMS (Kryger et al., 1978; León-Velarde et al., 1993; Sime et al., 1975; León-Velarde et al., 1997; León-Velarde et al., 2001; Monge-C et al., 1992; Normand et al., 1992)

  1. Network analysis reveals distinct clinical syndromes underlying acute mountain sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Hall

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a common problem among visitors at high altitude, and may progress to life-threatening pulmonary and cerebral oedema in a minority of cases. International consensus defines AMS as a constellation of subjective, non-specific symptoms. Specifically, headache, sleep disturbance, fatigue and dizziness are given equal diagnostic weighting. Different pathophysiological mechanisms are now thought to underlie headache and sleep disturbance during acute exposure to high altitude. Hence, these symptoms may not belong together as a single syndrome. Using a novel visual analogue scale (VAS, we sought to undertake a systematic exploration of the symptomatology of AMS using an unbiased, data-driven approach originally designed for analysis of gene expression. Symptom scores were collected from 292 subjects during 1110 subject-days at altitudes between 3650 m and 5200 m on Apex expeditions to Bolivia and Kilimanjaro. Three distinct patterns of symptoms were consistently identified. Although fatigue is a ubiquitous finding, sleep disturbance and headache are each commonly reported without the other. The commonest pattern of symptoms was sleep disturbance and fatigue, with little or no headache. In subjects reporting severe headache, 40% did not report sleep disturbance. Sleep disturbance correlates poorly with other symptoms of AMS (Mean Spearman correlation 0.25. These results challenge the accepted paradigm that AMS is a single disease process and describe at least two distinct syndromes following acute ascent to high altitude. This approach to analysing symptom patterns has potential utility in other clinical syndromes.

  2. Ataxia, acute mountain sickness, and high altitude cerebral edema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Tianyi; Ma Siqing; Bian Huiping; Zhang Minming

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that ataxia is common and often one of the most reliable warning signs of high altitude cerebral edema(HACE).The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of ataxia in acute mountain sickness (AMS) and HACE among mountain rescuers on the quake areas,and in approaching the relation between AMS and HACE.After the earthquake on April 14,2010,approximately 24080 lowland rescuers were rapidly transported from sea level or lowlands to the mountainous rescue sites at 3750 ~ 4568 m,and extremely hardly worked for an emergency treatment after arrival.Assessments of acute altitude illness on the quake areas were using the Lake Louise Scoring System.73 % of the rescuers were found to be developed AMS.The incidence of high altitude pulmonary edema(HAPE) and HACE was 0.73 % and 0.26 %,respectively,on the second to third day at altitude.Ataxia sign was measured by simple tests of coordination including a modified Romberg test.The clinical features of 62 patients with HACE were analyzed.It was found that the most frequent,serious neurological symptoms and signs were altered mental status(50/62,80.6 %)and truncal ataxia (47/62,75.8 %).Mental status change was rated slightly higher than ataxia,but ataxia occurred earlier than mental status change and other symptoms.The earliest sign of ataxia was a vague unsteadiness of gait,which may be present alone in association with or without AMS.Advanced ataxia was correlated with the AMS scores,but mild ataxia did not correlate with AMS scores at altitudes of 3750~4568 m.Of them,14 patients were further examined by computerized tomographic scanning of the brain and cerebral magnetic resonance imagines were examined in another 15 cases.These imaging studies indicated that the presence of the cerebral edema was in 97 % of cases who were clinically diagnosed as HACE (28/29).Ataxia seems to be a reliable sign of advanced AMS or HACE,so does altered mental status.

  3. Relationship between autonomic nervous system function and acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Min; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Qin Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in acute mountain sickness (AMS) during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level residents rapidly ascended to Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) by airplane from Chengdu plain (560 m altitude). ANS function was tested in plain and day 2-4 in Tibet by heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT). AMS was evaluated by clinic symptomatic scores. All subjects were divided into non-AMS group (57, scores(4). Results: Compared with non-AMS group, AMS group had higher standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), low-frequency (LF) power, and normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) power in plain (P50 ms(PNN50), rMSSD (P<0.01) and SDNN, LF, total power (TP) (P<0.05). Although no significant differences in the increase of SP and DP during CPT were found between 2 groups in plain, the SP increase during CPT of AMS group was less than non-AMS group (P<0.05) at 3 675 m altitude. AMS symptomatic scores was not only positively correlated with SDNN,rMSSD, LF/HF in plain (P<0.05), but also negatively correlated with Hfnu in plain (P<0.05). Conclusion: During the initial high altitude exposure, ANS modulation is generally blunted, but the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced, and this characteristic change of ANS function is positively correlated with the development of AMS.

  4. Is restless legs syndrome associated with chronic mountain sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra-Escobar, Darwin; Mendiola-Yamasato, Andrea; Risco-Rocca, Jorge; Mariños-Velarde, Alejandro; Juárez-Belaunde, Alan; Anculle-Arauco, Victor; Rivera-Chira, María

    2015-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) and chronic mountain sickness (CMS) share physiological traits. Our objective was to explore a possible association between RLS and CMS. We carried a cross-sectional study with male subjects living between 4100 and 4300 m above sea level. Participants underwent a clinical interview, physical examination, electrocardiographic (EKG) recording, and spirometry. We classified subjects into CMS, Limbo, and healthy high-altitude dwellers (hHAD), according to their Quinghai score and hematocrit levels. We applied the "Paradigm of questions for epidemiological studies of RLS," The International Restless Leg Syndrome Study Group Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between variables. Seventy-eight male subjects were included. Forty subjects were hHAD, 23 were CMS patients, and 15 participants were considered as Limbo. CMS and Limbo subjects had a higher frequency of RLS (p <0.05). Limbo subjects had the highest severity score for RLS. There were no differences in age, body mass index (BMI), or tobacco use between RLS patients and non-sufferers. In the multivariate analysis, CMS was not associated with RLS diagnosis. Oxygen saturation (p = 0.019), poor sleep quality (p <0.01), and Quinghai score of ≥6 (p = 0.026) were independently associated with RLS diagnosis. Our results did not show a direct association between RLS and CMS; however, RLS was associated with reduced oxygen saturation. Hence, RLS could represent an early clinical manifestation of hypoxia, or, in CMS natural history, an early sign of maladaptation to high altitude. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive Models of Acute Mountain Sickness after Rapid Ascent to Various Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    severity but not prevalence of AMS. Key Words: HYPOXIA , HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA , MIXED MODELS, ALTITUDE, ALTITUDE SICKNESS, UNACCLIMATIZED LOWLANDERS W hen...Beidleman BA, Muza SR, Fulco CS, et al. Intermittent altitude exposures reduce acute mountain sickness at 4300 m. Clin Sci. 2004;106(3):321–8. 4. Beidleman...Wood H, Yang HH, et al. The body weight loss during acute exposure to high-altitude hypoxia in sea level residents. Acta Physiologica Sinica

  6. SNPs, linkage disequilibrium, and chronic mountain sickness in Tibetan Chinese

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    Buroker NE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Norman E Buroker,1 Xue-Han Ning,1,2,† Zhao-Nian Zhou,3 Kui Li,4 Wei-Jun Cen,4 Xiu-Feng Wu,3 Wei-Zhong Zhu,5 C Ronald Scott,1 Shi-Han Chen1 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, 2Division of Cardiology, Seattle Children’s Hospital Research Foundation, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Laboratory of Hypoxia Physiology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; 4Lhasa People Hospital, Lhasa, Tibet; 5Center for Cardiovascular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA †Xue-Han Ning passed away on April 20, 2015 Abstract: Chronic mountain sickness (CMS is estimated at 1.2% in Tibetans living at the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. Eighteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from nine nuclear genes that have an association with CMS in Tibetans have been analyzed by using pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD. The SNPs included are the angiotensin-converting enzyme (rs4340, the angiotensinogen (rs699, and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1 (rs5186 from the renin–angiotensin system. A low-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein B (rs693 SNP was also included. From the hypoxia-inducible factor oxygen signaling pathway, the endothetal Per-Arnt-Sim domain protein 1 (EPAS1 and the egl nine homolog 1 (ENGL1 (rs480902 SNPs were included in the study. SNPs from the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway included are the v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 (rs4590656 and rs2291409, the endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase 3 (rs1007311 and rs1799983, and the (VEGFA (rs699947, rs34357231, rs79469752, rs13207351, rs28357093, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs3025039. An increase in LD occurred in 40 pairwise comparisons, whereas a decrease in LD was found in 55 pairwise comparisons between the controls and CMS patients. These changes were found to occur within and between signaling pathways, which suggests that there is an interaction between SNP

  7. Genetic Variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as Predictors of Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Amy M.; Petousi, Nayia; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Robbins, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Cole, Amy M., Nayia Petousi, Gianpiero L. Cavalleri, and Peter A. Robbins Genetic variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as predictors of chronic mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol 15:497–499, 2014.—Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a serious illness that affects life-long high-altitude residents. A recent study analyzed whole genome sequence data from residents of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) in an effort to identify the genetic basis of CMS and reported SENP1 (rs7963934) and ANP32D (rs72644851) to show ...

  8. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A Is Associated with Chronic Mountain Sickness in the Andean Population

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Jose R.; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Ju Preciado, Hugo F.; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Espinoza, Jose R., Giancarlo Alvarez, Fabiola León-Velarde, Hugo F. Ju Preciado, Jose-Luis Macarlupu, Maria Rivera-Ch, Jorge Rodriguez, Judith Favier, Anne-Paule Gimenez-Roqueplo, and Jean-Paul Richalet. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in Andean population. High Alt Med Biol. 15:146–154, 2014.—A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene—vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)—was carried out in a Peruvian population l...

  9. ALMA to Help Solving Acute Mountain Sickness Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    , family and social isolation, commuting, intermittent high altitude exposure and other environmental challenges such as low temperatures. "An adequate acclimatisation to 2500m altitude requires around two weeks, and we can thus speculate that going to 5000m would require more than one month to achieve complete acclimatisation," said Professor Juan Silva Urra, from the University of Antofagasta. However, short and long term effects of regular commuting between sea level and high altitude have scarcely been studied in biomedical terms. Scientifically based guidelines for appropriate preventive handling and care under these conditions are lacking and the new study will help bridging this gap. Among the studies to be done, some involve continuous monitoring of the human body through portable devices, including measurements of hormone levels and application of psychometric tests. All measurements at 5000m will be carried out on a voluntary basis, under strict safety protocols, with the presence of a doctor from the investigation team, paramedic personnel form ALMA and an ambulance. The symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness are headache, sicknesses, gastrointestinal inconveniences, fatigue and insomnia that, depending on their intensities, decrease the capacity to carry out the most routine activities. The valuable data collected will enhance our knowledge of human physiology in extreme environments, generating recommendations that will improve wellbeing and health not only in high-altitude observatories, but also in mining and Antarctic personnel. "We are pleased that ALMA is contributing to other disciplines, like medicine, even before the antennas begin to explore the universe," said Felix Mirabel, ESO's representative in Chile. "This outstanding long-term research that will provide crucial information of human physiology to experts worldwide, has been made possible thanks to the combined effort of Chilean and European universities, in collaboration with ALMA". The Atacama

  10. Hematological indices, mountain sickness and MRI brain abnormalities in professional and amateur mountain climbers after altitude exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, Nicolás; Diaz, Lizeth; Dávila, Jorge; Medrano, Jaime

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to correlate the presence of brain abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with changes in hematological variables and the presence of mountain sickness in 21 mountain climbers involved in two different expeditions to high mountains, Everest and Aconcagua, without supplementary oxygen and recommended acclimatization for this kind of activities. The climbers underwent medical examination, hematological studies, electrocardiogram and MRI of the cerebrum. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate the changes in hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, iron and ferritin. Mountain sickness was correlated with the age of the climbers and the altitude ascended, final hemoglobin and final mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. There were no differences related to conditions of professional or amateur climbers and the changes of those hematological variables, as seen with the nominal regression. We found more brain damage on MRI in amateur than professional climbers. Amateur climbers are more susceptible to suffer acute mountain sickness and permanent cerebral damage than professional climbers after high altitude exposure.

  11. Acetazolamide or dexamethasone use versus placebo to prevent acute mountain sickness on Mount Rainier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, A J; Meyer, E F; Larson, E B

    1991-03-01

    Eighteen climbers actively ascended Mount Rainier (elevation 4,392 m) twice during a randomized, double-blind, concurrent, placebo-controlled, crossover trial comparing the use of acetazolamide, 250 mg, dexamethasone, 4 mg, and placebo every 8 hours as prophylaxis for acute mountain sickness. Each subject was randomly assigned to receive placebo during one ascent and one of the active medications during the other ascent. Assessment of acute mountain sickness was performed using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire and a clinical interview. At the summit or high point attained above base camp, the use of dexamethasone significantly reduced the incidence of acute mountain sickness and the severity of symptoms. Cerebral and respiratory symptom severity scores for subjects receiving dexamethasone (0.26 +/- 0.16 and 0.20 +/- 0.19, respectively) were significantly lower than similar scores for both acetazolamide (0.80 +/- 0.80 and 1.20 +/- 1.05; P = 0.25) and placebo (1.11 +/- 1.02 and 1.45 +/- 1.27; P = .025). Neither the use of dexamethasone nor that of acetazolamide measurably affected other physical or mental aspects. Compared with placebo, dexamethasone appears to be effective for prophylaxis of symptoms associated with acute mountain sickness accompanying rapid ascent. The precise role of dexamethasone for the prophylaxis of acute mountain sickness is not known, but it can be considered for persons without contraindications who are intolerant of acetazolamide, for whom acetazolamide is ineffective, or who must make forced, rapid ascent to high altitude for a short period of time with a guaranteed retreat route.

  12. Identifying risk factors that contribute to acute mountain sickness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in their own right without preceding AMS and may have an entirely different pathophysiology. ... Methods. Extreme Everest 2013 was an observational cohort study of human responses to ..... Mehta SR, Chawla A, Kashyap AS. Acute mountain ...

  13. Strategies for the prevention of acute mountain sickness and treatment for large groups making a rapid ascent in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yongjun; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi

    2013-10-30

    Approximately 26.8% of China's land area has an elevation of 3000 m above sea level or higher. Because of recent demands for economic development and new construction in highland areas, many people have relocated from the plains to high plateau regions and have to face the possibility of contracting acute mountain sickness. Therefore, prevention and treatment strategies are necessary to reduce the incidence of acute mountain sickness in people who rapidly ascend to plateau areas. This paper describes the Chinese experience when large numbers of people moved to the plateau and the steps that were taken to deal with this illness. These steps included implementing basic prevention measures, increasing medical awareness among populations ascending to high altitudes, and installing standardized medical management systems to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness before, during, and after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness can be reduced by improving prevention and treatment and by implementing the recommendations described in this manuscript.

  14. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulati...

  15. Acute mountain sickness, antacids, and ventilation during rapid, active ascent of Mount Rainier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, R C; Larson, E B; Hornbein, T F; Houston, C S; Bartlett, S; Hardesty, J; Johnson, D; Perkins, M

    1983-05-01

    A double-blind randomized study of 45 climbers on Mt. Rainier was conducted to test the effectiveness of antacids in preventing acute mountain sickness. All 45 climbed to 3353 m, and 31 continued to the summit. Ten climbers listed acute mountain sickness as the reason for not attaining the summit. Of symptoms monitored throughout the climb, neither headache, nausea, dizziness, pounding heart, nor shortness of breath differed in severity between antacid-treated and placebo-treated groups. In both groups vital capacity decreased significantly with ascent (p less than 0.05), while peak flow (p less than 0.005) and minute ventilation (p less than 0.001) increased significantly. The 7 climbers with the most severe AMS symptom scores above 4000 m had significantly lower peak flow at sea level prior to ascent compared with the other 25 climbers who completed sea level tests (p less than 0.005). The results of this study fail to document efficacy for antacid use for the prevention of acute mountain sickness.

  16. The first documented description of mountain sickness: the Andean or Pariacaca story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, D L

    1983-06-01

    We describe here for the first time the actual route that Acosta took when he described mountain sickness so vividly in the sixteenth century. We have shown that when Acosta mentioned Pariacaca as the geographical site where he experienced high altitude sickness, this referred not only to the modern peak of Pariachaca, but to the snow covered mountains by this Cerro, and the Central Maritime Andean Range in Peru. In addition, the name Pariacaca also referred to a tambo or inn located on the plateau or Puno of Pariacaca. The location of this route has been obtained by locating primary descriptions on maps from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. Using twentieth century maps, we have been able to identify the described sites along the road and the trail which still exists by them. In addition, using detailed topographical maps, an altitude profile of the trail was obtained. The maximum altitude on this trail or old road reached 4800 m (15750 ft), about the same elevation as the summit of Mt. Blanc, the highest mountain in western Europe.

  17. The Effects of Propranolol on Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS) and Well- Being at 4300 Meters Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    Company, 1984. 11. Sampson JB , Cymerman A, Burse EL, Maher JT, Rock PB. Procedures for the measurement of acute mountain sickness. Aviat. Space...Environ. Med. 1983;54:1063-73. 12. Sampson JB , Kobrick JL. The environmental symptoms questionnaire: Revisions and new field data. Aviat. Space Environ. Med...0 L LU 0 0 I- . U V- -J X < LULLI fe A 0-0 z LU CL >_ LU Q . m W4-q 0 00 0. _m - n* +HI H+- H 4; . C66c; 6 6 vicie 0 h J02 00~- 0 0 M 0n*o-ir q- 00D DC

  18. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Villafuerte, Francisco C.; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS pa...

  19. Altitude mountain sickness among tourist populations: a review and pathophysiology supporting management with hyperbaric oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Gleen J; Al-Waili, N; Passano, D V; Ramos, J; Chavarri, J; Beale, J; Allen, M W; Lee, B Y; Urteaga, G; Salom, K

    2011-01-01

    In the mountain climbing community, conventional prevention of altitude mountain sickness (AMS) relies primarily on a formal acclimatization period. AMS symptoms during mountaineering climbs are managed with medication, oxygen and minor recompression (1524-2438 m altitude) using a portable chamber, such as the Gamow Bag. This is not always an acceptable therapy alternative in a predominantly elderly tourist population. The primary problem with reduced pressure at high altitude is hypoxaemia, which causes increased sympathetic activity, induces pulmonary venous constriction, while increasing pulmonary blood flow and regional perfusion. Rapid assents to altitude contribute to an increased incidence of decompression sickness (DCS). The treatment of choice for DCS is hyperbaric oxygenation, thus, treatment of high-altitude induced hypoxaemia using hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO(2)) is logical. Life Support Technologies group and the Center for Investigation of Altitude Medicine (CIMA, in Cusco, Peru) propose a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach to AMS management. This approach encompasses traditional and advanced medical interventions including the use of a clinical HBO(2) chamber capable of recompression to three times greater than sea level pressure (3 atmosphere absolute (ATA)). The system uses a series of AMS hyperbaric treatment profiles that LST has previously developed to the US military and NASA, and that take greater advantage of vasoconstrictive effects of oxygen under true hyperbaric conditions of 1.25 ATA. These profiles virtually eliminate AMS rebound after the initial treatment often seen in conventional AMS treatment, where the patient is either treated at altitude, or does not recompress back to sea level or greater pressure (1.25 ATA), but returns directly to the same altitude where AMS symptoms first manifested.

  20. Transcerebral exchange kinetics of nitrite and calcitonin gene-related peptide in acute mountain sickness: evidence against trigeminovascular activation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-altitude headache is the primary symptom associated with acute mountain sickness, which may be caused by nitric oxide-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of inspiratory hypoxia on the transcerebral exc...

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is associated with chronic mountain sickness in the Andean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Jose R; Alvarez, Giancarlo; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Preciado, Hugo F Ju; Macarlupu, Jose-Luis; Rivera-Ch, Maria; Rodriguez, Jorge; Favier, Judith; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2014-06-01

    A study of chronic mountain sickness (CMS) with a candidate gene--vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)--was carried out in a Peruvian population living at high altitude in Cerro de Pasco (4380 m). The study was performed by genotyping of 11 tag SNPs encompassing 2.2 kb of region of VEGFA gene in patients with a diagnosis of CMS (n = 131; 49.1 ± 12.7 years old) and unrelated healthy controls (n = 84; 47.2 ± 13.4 years old). The VEGFA tag SNP rs3025033 was found associated with CMS (p Cerro de Pasco population and HapMap3 population (Fst > 0.36, p < 0.01), suggesting selection is operating on the VEGF gene. Our results suggest that VEGFA is associated with CMS in long-term residents at high altitude in the Peruvian Andes.

  2. Acute Mountain Sickness, Hypoxia, Hypobaria and Exercise Duration each Affect Heart Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPasquale, D M; Strangman, G E; Harris, N S; Muza, S R

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we quantified the changes in post-exercise resting heart rate (HRrst) associated with acute mountain sickness (AMS), and compared the effects of hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) on HRrst. We also examined the modulating roles of exercise duration and exposure time on HRrst. Each subject participated in 2 of 6 conditions: normobaric normoxia (NN), NH, or HH (4 400 m altitude equivalent) combined with either 10 or 60 min of moderate cycling at the beginning of an 8-h exposure. AMS was associated with a 2 bpm higher HRrst than when not sick, after taking into account the ambient environment, exercise duration, and SpO2. In addition, HRrst was elevated in both NH and HH compared to NN with HRrst being 50% higher in HH than in NH. Participating in long duration exercise led to elevated resting HRs (0.8-1.4 bpm higher) compared with short exercise, while short exercise caused a progressive increase in HRrst over the exposure period in both NH and HH (0.77-1.2 bpm/h of exposure). This data suggests that AMS, NH, HH, exercise duration, time of exposure, and SpO2 have independent effects on HRrst. It further suggests that hypobaria exerts its own effect on HRrst in hypoxia. Thus NH and HH may not be interchangeable environments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A Signature of Circulating microRNAs Predicts the Susceptibility of Acute Mountain Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao; Huang, He; Wu, Gang; Xu, Gang; Sun, Bing-Da; Zhang, Er-Long; Chen, Jian; Gao, Yu-Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common disabling condition in individuals experiencing high altitudes, which may progress to life-threatening high altitude cerebral edema. Today, no established biomarkers are available for prediction the susceptibility of AMS. MicroRNAs emerge as promising sensitive and specific biomarkers for a variety of diseases. Thus, we sought to identify circulating microRNAs suitable for prediction the susceptible of AMS before exposure to high altitude. Methods: We enrolled 109 healthy man adults and collected blood samples before their exposure to high altitude. Then we took them to an elevation of 3648 m for 5 days. Circulating microRNAs expression was measured by microarray and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). AMS was defined as Lake Louise score ≥3 and headache using Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness Scoring System. Results: A total of 31 microRNAs were differentially expressed between AMS and Non-AMS groups, 15 up-regulated and 16 down-regulated. Up-regulation of miR-369-3p, miR-449b-3p, miR-136-3p, and miR-4791 in patients with AMS compared with Non-AMS individuals were quantitatively confirmed using qRT-PCR (all, P < 0.001). With multiple logistic regression analysis, a unique signature encompassing miR-369-3p, miR-449b-3p, and miR-136-3p discriminate AMS from Non-AMS (area under the curve 0.986, 95%CI 0.970–1.000, P < 0.001, LR+: 14.21, LR–: 0.08). This signature yielded a 92.68% sensitivity and a 93.48% specificity for AMS vs. Non-AMS. Conclusion: The study here, for the first time, describes a signature of three circulating microRNAs as a robust biomarker to predict the susceptibility of AMS before exposure to high altitude. PMID:28228730

  4. Diabetic ketoacidosis and acute mountain sickness: case report and review of treatment options in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven C M

    2015-06-01

    A 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of well-controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus and no microvascular complications traveled from near sea level to an altitude of 3000 m within 6 hours. At altitude, his blood glucose levels began to rise, necessitating increased insulin delivery. Typical symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) developed, and he became increasingly hyperglycemic and unwell. Upon presentation to an emergency clinic, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was diagnosed and was managed with insulin, intravenous fluids with potassium, and acetazolamide orally. No other potential causes for diabetic ketoacidosis were identified. Hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis resolved with treatment as expected, but an increased insulin requirement was noted for the next 48 hours, until returning to expected levels when acetazolamide was discontinued. This case describes an episode of mild diabetic ketoacidosis potentially precipitated by moderate to severe acute mountain sickness, and an apparent hyperglycemic effect of acetazolamide. Individuals with type 1 diabetes traveling to altitude and their physicians should be vigilant for this complication and should be aware of the effects of conventional first-line therapies for acute mountain sickness on insulin requirement, glycemic control, and preexisting microvascular diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of exercise and hypoxia on heart rate variability and acute mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairer, K; Wille, M; Grander, W; Burtscher, M

    2013-08-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common condition among non-acclimatized individuals ascending to high altitude. Exercise, a characteristic feature of hiking and mountaineering, has been suggested to exacerbate AMS prevalence and to cause modifications of the autonomic nervous system. A reduction of the heart rate variability (HRV) is a common finding during acute hypoxia, however characteristics of HRV during exercise in subjects suffering from AMS are unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute normobaric hypoxia (FiO2=11.0% ≙ 5 500 m) at rest (PHE) and during exercise (AHE) on the cardiac autonomic function and the development of AMS in 20 healthy, male individuals. HRV recordings were performed during normoxia and after 2, 4, 6 and 8 h in hypoxia during PHE and AHE, respectively. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise Score. During PHE 50% of participants developed AMS and 70% during AHE (p=0.22). The analysis of HRV data showed a significant reduction of total power (TP), high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) components and an increase of the LF:HF ratio during PHE, however without further modification during AHE. Exercise did not increase AMS prevalence or severity, but increased "non-gastrointestinal" symptoms including headache, fatigue and dizziness. HRV indices were not related to the overall incidence of AMS or the development of "non-gastrointestinal" symptoms but we detected significant correlations between gastrointestinal complaints and HRV components. Thus, we suggest that the cardiac autonomic modulation during acute normobaric hypoxia does not play an important role in the development of AMS, but seems to be related to gastrointestinal complaints at high altitude. However, the influence of moderate exercise on HRV and AMS is minor, only "non-GI" symptoms seem to be exacerbated when exercise is applied. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Novel drugs in the management of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikri G

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gaurav Sikri, Anirban Bhattacharya Department of Physiology, Armed Forces Medical College, Wanowarie, Pune, IndiaWe read with great interest the review article titled “Wilderness medicine at high altitude: recent developments in the field” by Shah et al.1 The authors have comprehensively summarized the recent advances in the field of high altitude medicine relevant to sports and travel medicine. However, Shah et al have described potential drugs for management of high-altitude illnesses, such as acute mountain sickness (AMS, high altitude cerebral edema, and high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE as one group under the section “Novel drug treatment for AMS”. The pathophysiologies of these two sets of diseases (AMS/high altitude cerebral edema as one and HAPE as another set are different2 and hence it would have been nice to have had the novel drugs described separately to elucidate the therapeutic approach for the two different classes of diseases.View original paper by Shah et al.

  7. MRI evidence: acute mountain sickness is not associated with cerebral edema formation during simulated high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairer, Klemens; Göbel, Markus; Defrancesco, Michaela; Wille, Maria; Messner, Hubert; Loizides, Alexander; Schocke, Michael; Burtscher, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common condition among non-acclimatized individuals ascending to high altitude. However, the underlying mechanisms causing the symptoms of AMS are still unknown. It has been suggested that AMS is a mild form of high-altitude cerebral edema both sharing a common pathophysiological mechanism. We hypothesized that brain swelling and consequently AMS development is more pronounced when subjects exercise in hypoxia compared to resting conditions. Twenty males were studied before and after an eight hour passive (PHE) and active (plus exercise) hypoxic exposure (AHE) (F(i)O(2) = 11.0%, P(i)O(2)∼80 mmHg). Cerebral edema formation was investigated with a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner and analyzed by voxel based morphometry (VBM), AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise Score. During PHE and AHE AMS was diagnosed in 50% and 70% of participants, respectively (p>0.05). While PHE slightly increased gray and white matter volume and the apparent diffusion coefficient, these changes were clearly more pronounced during AHE but were unrelated to AMS. In conclusion, our findings indicate that rest and especially exercise in normobaric hypoxia are associated with accumulation of water in the extracellular space, however independent of AMS development. Thus, it is suggested that AMS and HACE do not share a common pathophysiological mechanism.

  8. Influence of Acute Normobaric Hypoxia on Hemostasis in Volunteers with and without Acute Mountain Sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Schaber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a 12-hour exposure in a normobaric hypoxic chamber would induce changes in the hemostatic system and a procoagulant state in volunteers suffering from acute mountain sickness (AMS and healthy controls. Materials and Methods. 37 healthy participants were passively exposed to 12.6% FiO2 (simulated altitude hypoxia of 4,500 m. AMS development was investigated by the Lake Louise Score (LLS. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, and platelet count were measured and specific methods (i.e., thromboelastometry and a thrombin generation test were used. Results. AMS prevalence was 62.2% (LLS cut off of 3. For the whole group, paired sample t-tests showed significant increase in the maximal concentration of generated thrombin. ROTEM measurements revealed a significant shortening of coagulation time and an increase of maximal clot firmness (InTEM test. A significant increase in maximum clot firmness could be shown (FibTEM test. Conclusions. All significant changes in coagulation parameters after exposure remained within normal reference ranges. No differences with regard to measured parameters of the hemostatic system between AMS-positive and -negative subjects were observed. Therefore, the hypothesis of the acute activation of coagulation by hypoxia can be rejected.

  9. Genetic variation in SENP1 and ANP32D as predictors of chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Amy M; Petousi, Nayia; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Robbins, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is a serious illness that affects life-long high-altitude residents. A recent study analyzed whole genome sequence data from residents of Cerro de Pasco (Peru) in an effort to identify the genetic basis of CMS and reported SENP1 (rs7963934) and ANP32D (rs72644851) to show signatures consistent with natural selection and protective against CMS (Zhou et al. 2013 ). We set out to replicate these observations in two Andean cohorts from Cerro de Pasco, consisting of 84 CMS cases and 91 healthy controls in total. We report evidence of association for rs7963934 (SENP1) in the combined cohorts (meta-analysis p=8.8x10(-4) OR 2.91, CI 1.56-5.5, I=0). The direction of effect was the same as in the original publication. We did not observe any significant correlation between rs72644851 (ANP32D) and the CMS phenotype, within or across cohorts (meta-analysis p=0.204, OR 1.37, CI 0.84-2.241, I=0). Our results provide independent evidence in support of a role for SENP1 in CMS in individuals of Quechua ancestry and suggest the SENP1 and ANP32D signatures of selection are in tight linkage disequilibrium (LD).

  10. The role of menopause in the development of chronic mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Velarde, F; Ramos, M A; Hernández, J A; De Idiáquez, D; Muñoz, L S; Gaffo, A; Córdova, S; Durand, D; Monge, C

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of menopause in the appearance of the physiopathological sequence that leads to chronic mountain sickness (CMS) in a high-altitude female population. The females studied are 30-54 yr old (n = 152) and have permanent residence in Cerro de Pasco (Pasco, Peru; 4,300 m). The sample was divided into postmenopausal and premenopausal groups for comparison. Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2), excessive erythrocytosis [EE, measured by the level of hematocrit (Het)], peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), and a score that represents the main signs and symptoms of CMS (CMSscore) were measured. Postmenopausal women had higher Het (50.2 +/- 4.04 vs. 47.4 +/- 4.13%, P 56%) was found to be 8.8%. Forty-five percent of the postmenopausal subjects presented a high CMSscore (> 21), whereas only 22% of the premenopausal subjects presented this high value (P < 0.02). We can therefore conclude that menopause may represent a contributing factor for the development of CMS.

  11. Whole-Genome Sequencing Uncovers the Genetic Basis of Chronic Mountain Sickness in Andean Highlanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dan; Udpa, Nitin; Ronen, Roy; Stobdan, Tsering; Liang, Junbin; Appenzeller, Otto; Zhao, Huiwen W.; Yin, Yi; Du, Yuanping; Guo, Lixia; Cao, Rui; Wang, Yu; Jin, Xin; Huang, Chen; Jia, Wenlong; Cao, Dandan; Guo, Guangwu; Gamboa, Jorge L.; Villafuerte, Francisco; Callacondo, David; Xue, Jin; Liu, Siqi; Frazer, Kelly A.; Li, Yingrui; Bafna, Vineet; Haddad, Gabriel G.

    2013-01-01

    The hypoxic conditions at high altitudes present a challenge for survival, causing pressure for adaptation. Interestingly, many high-altitude denizens (particularly in the Andes) are maladapted, with a condition known as chronic mountain sickness (CMS) or Monge disease. To decode the genetic basis of this disease, we sequenced and compared the whole genomes of 20 Andean subjects (10 with CMS and 10 without). We discovered 11 regions genome-wide with significant differences in haplotype frequencies consistent with selective sweeps. In these regions, two genes (an erythropoiesis regulator, SENP1, and an oncogene, ANP32D) had a higher transcriptional response to hypoxia in individuals with CMS relative to those without. We further found that downregulating the orthologs of these genes in flies dramatically enhanced survival rates under hypoxia, demonstrating that suppression of SENP1 and ANP32D plays an essential role in hypoxia tolerance. Our study provides an unbiased framework to identify and validate the genetic basis of adaptation to high altitudes and identifies potentially targetable mechanisms for CMS treatment. PMID:23954164

  12. Incidence of acute mountain sickness in UK Military Personnel on Mount Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlerigg, Antonia; Woods, D R; Mellor, A J

    2016-12-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common problem of trekkers to high altitude. The UK military train at high altitude through adventurous training (AT) or as exercising troops. The ascent of Point Lenana at 4985 m on Mount Kenya is frequently attempted on AT. This study sought to establish the incidence of AMS within this population, to aid future planning for military activities at altitude. A voluntary questionnaire was distributed to all British Army Training Unit Kenya based expeditions attempting to ascend Mount Kenya during the period from February to April 2014. The questionnaire included twice daily Lake Louise and Borg (perceived exertion scale) self-scoring. All expeditions were planned around a 5-day schedule, which included reserve time for acclimatisation, illness and inclement weather. Data were collected on 47 participants, 70% of whom reached the summit of Point Lenana. 62% (29/47) self-reported AMS (defined as Lake Louise score (LLS) ≥3) on at least one occasion during the ascent, and 34% (10/29) suffered severe AMS (LLS ≥6). Those who attempted the climb within 2 weeks of arrival in Kenya had a higher incidence of AMS (12/15 (80%) vs 17/32 (53%), p=0.077). Participants recording a high Borg score were significantly more likely to develop AMS (16/18 vs 9/21, p=0.003). This represents the first informative dataset for Mount Kenya ascents and altitude. The incidence of AMS during AT on Mount Kenya using this ascent profile is high. Adapting the current ascent profile, planning the ascent after time in country and reducing perceived exertion during the trek may reduce the incidence of AMS. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor is decreased during sleep in Andean highlanders with Chronic Mountain Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Corante, Noemí; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Figueroa-Mujíca, Rómulo; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Mercado, Andy; Macarlupú, José Luis; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2016-07-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the main sign of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS), a highly prevalent syndrome in Andean highlanders. Low pulse O2 saturation (SpO2) during sleep and serum androgens have been suggested to contribute to EE in CMS patients. However, whether these factors have a significant impact on the erythropoietin (Epo) system leading to EE is still unclear. We have recently shown that morning soluble Epo receptor (sEpoR), an endogenous Epo antagonist, is decreased in CMS patients suggesting increased Epo availability (increased Epo/sEpoR). The present study aimed to characterize the nocturnal concentration profile of sEpoR and Epo and their relationship with SpO2, Hct, and serum testosterone in healthy highlanders (HH) and CMS patients. Epo and sEpoR concentrations were evaluated every 4 h (6 PM to 6 AM) and nighttime SpO2 was continuously monitored (10 PM to 6 AM) in 39 male participants (CMS, n = 23; HH, n = 16) aged 21-65 yr from Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4,340 m). CMS patients showed higher serum Epo concentrations throughout the night and lower sEpoR from 10 PM to 6 AM. Consequently, Epo/sEpoR was significantly higher in the CMS group at every time point. Mean sleep-time SpO2 was lower in CMS patients compared with HH, while the percentage of sleep time spent with SpO2 < 80% was higher. Multiple-regression analysis showed mean sleep-time SpO2 and Epo/sEpoR as significant predictors of hematocrit corrected for potential confounders (age, body mass index, and testosterone). Testosterone levels were associated neither with Hct nor with erythropoietic factors. In conclusion, our results show sustained erythropoietic stimulus driven by the Epo system in CMS patients, further enhanced by a continuous exposure to accentuated nocturnal hypoxemia.

  14. Effect of Intravenous Iron Supplementation on Acute Mountain Sickness: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Study.

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    Ren, Xuewen; Zhang, Qiuying; Wang, Hao; Man, Chunyan; Hong, Heng; Chen, Li; Li, Tanshi; Ye, Ping

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of intravenous iron supplementation in the prevention of AMS. This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Forty-one (n=41) healthy Chinese low-altitude inhabitants living in Beijing, China (altitude of about 50 meters) were randomly assigned into intravenous iron supplementation (ISS group; n=21) and placebo (CON group; n=20) groups. Participants in the ISS group received iron sucrose supplement (200 mg) before flying to Lhasa, China (altitude of 4300 meters). Acute mountain sickness (AMS) severity was assessed with the Lake Louise scoring (LLS) system within 5 days after landing on the plateau (at high altitude). Routine check-ups, clinical biochemistry, and blood tests were performed before departure and 24 h after arrival. A total of 38 participants completed the study (ISS group: n=19; CON group: n=19). The rate of subjects with AMS (LLS>3) was lower in the ISS group compared with the CON group, but no significant differences were obtained (P>0.05). There were no differences in patients' baseline characteristics. The physiological indices were similar in both groups except for serum iron concentrations (19.44±10.02 vs. 85.10±26.78 μmol/L) and transferrin saturation rates (28.20±12.14 vs. 68.34±33.12%), which were significantly higher in the ISS group (Piron supplementation has no significant protective effect on AMS in healthy Chinese low-altitude inhabitants.

  15. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: Its Response to Hypoxia and Association with Acute Mountain Sickness

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    Adrian Mellor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS is a common clinical challenge at high altitude (HA. A point-of-care biochemical marker for AMS could have widespread utility. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL rises in response to renal injury, inflammation and oxidative stress. We investigated whether NGAL rises with HA and if this rise was related to AMS, hypoxia or exercise. NGAL was assayed in a cohort (n=22 undertaking 6 hours exercise at near sea-level (SL; a cohort (n=14 during 3 hours of normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 11.6% and on two trekking expeditions (n=52 to over 5000 m. NGAL did not change with exercise at SL or following normobaric hypoxia. During the trekking expeditions NGAL levels (ng/ml, mean ± sd, range rose significantly (P<0.001 from 68 ± 14 (60–102 at 1300 m to 183 ± 107 (65–519; 143 ± 66 (60–315 and 150 ± 71 (60–357 at 3400 m, 4270 m and 5150 m respectively. At 5150 m there was a significant difference in NGAL between those with severe AMS (n=7, mild AMS (n=16 or no AMS (n=23: 201 ± 34 versus 171 ± 19 versus 124 ± 12 respectively (P=0.009 for severe versus no AMS; P=0.026 for mild versus no AMS. In summary, NGAL rises in response to prolonged hypobaric hypoxia and demonstrates a relationship to the presence and severity of AMS.

  16. Decreased plasma soluble erythropoietin receptor in high-altitude excessive erythrocytosis and Chronic Mountain Sickness.

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    Villafuerte, Francisco C; Macarlupú, José Luis; Anza-Ramírez, Cecilia; Corrales-Melgar, Daniela; Vizcardo-Galindo, Gustavo; Corante, Noemí; León-Velarde, Fabiola

    2014-12-01

    Excessive erythrocytosis (EE) is the hallmark of chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a prevalent syndrome in high-altitude Andean populations. Although hypoxemia represents its underlying stimulus, why some individuals develop EE despite having altitude-normal blood erythropoietin (Epo) concentration is still unclear. A soluble form of the Epo receptor (sEpoR) has been identified in human blood and competes directly for Epo with its membrane counterpart (mEpoR). Thus, reduced levels of circulating sEpoR could lead to higher Epo availability and ultimately to EE. We characterized the relationship between Epo and sEpoR, with hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in healthy highlanders and CMS patients at 4,340 m in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Our results show that EE patients show decreased plasma sEpoR levels and can be subdivided into two subgroups of normal and high plasma Epo concentration for the altitude of residence, with hemoglobin concentration rising exponentially with an increasing Epo-to-sEpoR ratio (Epo/sEpoR). Also, we showed that the latter varies as an inverse exponential function of arterial pulse O2 saturation. Our findings suggests that EE is strongly associated with higher Epo/sEpoR values, leading to elevated plasma Epo availability to bind mEpoR, and thereby a stronger stimulus for augmented erythropoiesis. Differences in the altitude normal and high Epo CMS patients with a progressively higher Epo/sEpoR supports the hypothesis of the existence of two genetically different subgroups suffering from EE and possibly different degrees of adaptation to chronic high-altitude hypoxia.

  17. Ventilation, autonomic function, sleep and erythropoietin. Chronic mountain sickness of Andean natives.

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    Bernardi, Luciano; Roach, Robert C; Keyl, Cornelius; Spicuzza, Lucia; Passino, Claudio; Bonfichi, Maurizio; Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge; Malcovati, Luca; Schneider, Annette; Casiraghi, Nadia; Mori, Antonio; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola

    2003-01-01

    Polycythemia is one of the key factors involved in the chronic mountain sickness syndrome, a condition frequent in Andean natives but whose causes still remain unclear. In theory, polycythemia may be secondary to abnormalities in ventilation, occurring during day or night (e.g. due to sleep abnormalities) stimulating excessive erythropoietin (Epo) production, or else it may result from either autogenous production, or from co-factors like cobalt. To assess the importance of these points, we studied subjects with or without polycythemia, born and living in Cerro de Pasco (Peru, 4330m asl, CP) and evaluated the relationship between Epo and respiratory variables both in CP and sea level. We also assessed the relationship between sleep abnormalities and the circadian rhythm of Epo. Polycythemic subjects showed higher Epo in all conditions, lower SaO2 and hypoxic ventilatory response, higher physiological dead space and higher CO2, suggesting ventilatory inefficiency. Epo levels could be highly modified by the level of oxygenation, and were related to similar directional changes in SaO2. Cobalt levels were normal in all subjects and correlated poorly with hematologic variables. The diurnal variations in Epo were grossly abnormal in polycythemic subjects, with complete loss of the circadian rhythm. These abnormalities correlated with the levels of hypoxemia during the night, but not with sleep abnormalities, which were only minor even in polycythemic subjects. The increased Epo production is mainly related to a greater ventilatory inefficiency, and not to altered sensitivity to hypoxia, cobalt or sleep abnormalities. Improving oxygenation can represent a possible therapeutic option for this syndrome.

  18. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men.

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    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16-21 g/dl and the second with Hb >or=21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 +/- 55.91 microg/dl vs. 328.14 +/- 53.23 ng/dl, means +/- SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.65 +/- 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 +/- 14.60 microg/dl vs. 148.95 +/- 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  19. Relationship between oxygen delivery and its compensatory factors and acute mountain sickness

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    Ming LI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the changes in oxygen delivery (DO2 to the body and brain and its compensatory factors to acute hypoxia and their relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS. Methods  One hundred and forty-seven participants were recruited from Chinese young men who had lived in plain all along arrived in Tibet by flight. All of them were asked to complete an AMS questionnaire within 48h after arrival. The resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, cardiac output (CO, oxygen saturation (SaO2, stroke volume (SV and blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAv were measured one week before departure from the plain and within 48h after arrival in Tibet. AMS was diagnosed according to Louis Lake Score System (LLS, and the results were then statistically analyzed. Results  AMS was diagnosed in eighty-six subjects (58.5%. After exposure to hypoxia, SaO2 was decreased by 10% and was negatively correlated with AMS score. Systemic DO2, CO and HR were increased by 19%, 32.5% and 31.7%, respectively, and were positively correlated with AMS, while the SV remained unchanged. MCAv accelerated by 10%, and that of AMS subjects was higher than of non-AMS ones. The cerebral DO2 (DO2C was maintained because the MCAv matched with SaO2 changes. The middle cerebral artery resistance units (RMCA decreased obviously with an increase in MBP, and RMCA in AMS subjects was lower than that in non-AMS ones. HR and MCAv, the key compensation factors of DO2, were used as the objective evaluation indices, in collaboration of HR≥85 beat/min and MCAv≥66cm/s, could be a better means to evaluate AMS, with a positive predictive value of 82.4% and specificity of 90.2%. Conclusions  DO2 and its compensatory factors may play a key role in the regulation response to acclimatize to acute hypoxia. Among them, HR and MCAv may relate to the mechanism of AMS development, and indirectly reflect the compensation level to oxygen debt, implying that HR and MCAv are

  20. High serum testosterone levels are associated with excessive erythrocytosis of chronic mountain sickness in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F.; Gasco, Manuel; Tapia, Vilma; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE) secondary to hypoventilation. Erythropoietin (Epo) and testosterone regulate erythrocyte production. Low thyroid hormone levels are also associated to hypoventilation. Hence, these hormones can play a role in etiopathogeny of EE. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of sexual and thyroid hormones and Epo in residents from Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, and the response to human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation (hCG). Three groups, one at low altitude and two at high altitude [1 with hemoglobin values >16–21 g/dl and the second with Hb ≥21 g/dl (EE)], were studied. hCG was administered intramuscularly in a single dose (1,000 IU), and blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after injection. High-altitude natives present similar levels of gonadotropins and thyroid hormones but lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) levels (P < 0.01) and greater Epo (P < 0.01), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (P < 0.01), and testosterone levels (P < 0.01) than those at 150 m. Serum testosterone levels (524.13 ± 55.91 μg/dl vs. 328.14 ± 53.23 ng/dl, means ± SE; P < 0.05) and testosterone/DHEAS ratios are higher (7.98 ± 1.1 vs. 3.65 ± 1.1; P < 0.01) and DHEAS levels lower in the EE group (83.85 ± 14.60 μg/dl vs. 148.95 ± 19.11 ug/dl; P < 0.05), whereas Epo was not further affected. Testosterone levels were highest and DHEAS levels lowest in the EE group at all times after hCG stimulation. In conclusion, high androgen activity could be involved in the etiopathogeny of CMS. This evidence provides an opportunity to develop new therapeutic strategies. PMID:19318512

  1. Prevalence of Chronic Mountain Sickness in high altitude districts of Himachal Pradesh

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    Inderjeet Singh Sahota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS is a maladaptation condition that can affect people who reside permanently at high altitude (HA. It is characterized by polycythemia, hypoxemia and dyspnea and can be fatal. Over 140 million people live permanently at HA around the world. Unfortunately, research into CMS is lacking and accurate data on the prevalence of this condition do not exist for many regions around the world. In this study, we sought to examine prevalence rates of CMS in the Indian Himalayas, focusing on the Northern State of Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 83 individuals (69 males in eight towns across the HA districts of Sirmaur, Kinnaur and Lahaul and Spiti in Himachal Pradesh, India. Altitudes ranged from 2350 to 4150 m. We used an adapted Qinghai CMS scoring system to diagnose CMS. Information related to subject demographics, medical history, socioeconomic status, and geography were collected to identify risk factors for CMS. Physiologic recordings of oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate were made through pulse oximetry. Results: Overall CMS prevalence was 6.17% and mean altitude was 3281 m. At altitudes above 3000 m CMS prevalence rose to 13.73%. All cases of CMS were mild and there was a significant positive correlation between CMS scores and altitude (R = 0.784, P = 0.0213. Mean SpO 2 was 90.7 ± 0.4% and mean pulse rate was 80.3 ± 1.3 bpm. SpO 2 significantly correlated with altitude (R = −0.929, P < 0.001. In our study, age, gender, and tobacco use were not independent risk factors for CMS. Individuals with CMS lived at higher altitudes than their non-CMS counterparts (3736.00 ± 113.30 m vs. 3279.80 ± 69.50 m, respectively; P = 0.017. Conclusion: CMS prevalence in HA towns of the Indian Himalayas of Himachal Pradesh is 6.17% and 13.73% for towns above 3000 m. Further research is required to determine the prevalence of CMS in other regions of the world and to determine risk factors

  2. Analysis of variance in acute mountain sickness among young men from different regions of China

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    Yu WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS among young men from different regions when arriving in Tibet, and explore the medical geographic differences of high altitude adaptability of people from different regions. Methods Cluster sampling survey of AMS incidence was performed among the young men from different regions when arriving in high altitude area, by using the AMS symptoms scoring method, and the military standards were employed as reference, for classifying and scoring. For distinguishing the differences of geographic environment, the systematic cluster analysis of natural geographical factors of their native places was performed and verified by nonparametric tests. The one-way ANOVA was used to analyze the differences of AMS symptom scores among young men from different regions. Results The native places of the studied subjects were divided into 5 regions by cluster analysis, and the geographic factors among the 5 regions were found to be significantly different (P<0.01. It was found that there were significant differences in the AMS incidence among people came from different regions (P<0.05. Specifically, the AMS incidence was significantly higher (P<0.05 in people from region 2 than in people from region 3, 4 and 5. In terms of main symptoms of AMS, the incidence of headache in people from region 2 was 82.8%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from regions 3, 4 and 5; the incidence of nausea and vomiting was 37.9%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 3; the incidence of fatigue and drowsiness was 724.% and 27.6%, and it was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. The incidence of vertigo in people from region 1 and 3 was significantly different (P<0.05 from that of those coming from region 5. Conclusions The significant geographic differences of AMS incidence are found to exist among

  3. Population level determinants of acute mountain sickness among young men: a retrospective study

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    You Haiyan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many visitors, including military troops, who enter highland regions from low altitude areas may suffer from acute mountain sickness (AMS, which negatively impacts workable man-hours and increases healthcare costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population level risk factors and build a multivariate model, which might be applicable to reduce the effects of AMS on Chinese young men traveling to this region. Methods Chinese highland military medical records were used to obtain data of young men (n = 3727 who entered the Tibet plateau between the years of 2006-2009. The relationship between AMS and travel profile, demographic characteristics, and health behaviors were evaluated by logistic regression. Univariate logistic models estimated the crude odds ratio. The variables that showed significance in the univariate model were included in a multivariate model to derive adjusted odds ratios and build the final model. Data corresponding to odd and even years (2 subsets were analyzed separately and used in a simple cross-validation. Results Univariate analysis indicated that travel profile, prophylactic use, ethnicity, and province of birth were all associated with AMS in both subsets. In multivariate analysis, young men who traveled from lower altitude (600-800 m vs. 1300-1500 m, adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.32-1.44 to higher altitudes (4100-4300 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 3.94-4.12; 3600-3700 m vs. 2900-3100 m, AOR = 2.71-2.74 by air or rapid land transport for emergency mission deployment (emergency land deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.08-2.11; normal air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.00-2.20; emergency air deployment vs. normal land deployment, AOR = 2.40-3.34 during the cold season (cold vs. warm, AOR = 1.25-1.28 are at great risk for developing AMS. Non-Tibetan male soldiers (Tibetan vs. Han, AOR = 0.03-0.08, born and raised in lower provinces (eastern vs. northwestern, AOR = 1

  4. Tsetse Control and Gambian Sleeping Sickness; Implications for Control Strategy.

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    Inaki Tirados

    Full Text Available Gambian sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis, HAT outbreaks are brought under control by case detection and treatment although it is recognised that this typically only reaches about 75% of the population. Vector control is capable of completely interrupting HAT transmission but is not used because it is considered too expensive and difficult to organise in resource-poor settings. We conducted a full scale field trial of a refined vector control technology to determine its utility in control of Gambian HAT.The major vector of Gambian HAT is the tsetse fly Glossina fuscipes which lives in the humid zone immediately adjacent to water bodies. From a series of preliminary trials we determined the number of tiny targets required to reduce G. fuscipes populations by more than 90%. Using these data for model calibration we predicted we needed a target density of 20 per linear km of river in riverine savannah to achieve >90% tsetse control. We then carried out a full scale, 500 km2 field trial covering two HAT foci in Northern Uganda to determine the efficacy of tiny targets (overall target density 5.7/km2. In 12 months, tsetse populations declined by more than 90%. As a guide we used a published HAT transmission model and calculated that a 72% reduction in tsetse population is required to stop transmission in those settings.The Ugandan census suggests population density in the HAT foci is approximately 500 per km2. The estimated cost for a single round of active case detection (excluding treatment, covering 80% of the population, is US$433,333 (WHO figures. One year of vector control organised within the country, which can completely stop HAT transmission, would cost US$42,700. The case for adding this method of vector control to case detection and treatment is strong. We outline how such a component could be organised.

  5. A review of African horse sickness and its implications for Ireland

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    Thompson Geoffrey M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract African horse sickness is an economically highly important non-contagious but infectious Orbivirus disease that is transmitted by various species of Culicoides midges. The equids most severely affected by the virus are horses, ponies, and European donkeys; mules are somewhat less susceptible, and African donkeys and zebra are refractory to the devastating consequences of infection. In recent years, Bluetongue virus, an Orbivirus similar to African horse sickness, which also utilises Culicoides spp. as its vector, has drastically increased its range into previously unaffected regions in northern Europe, utilising indigenous vector species, and causing widespread economic damage to the agricultural sector. Considering these events, the current review outlines the history of African horse sickness, including information concerning virus structure, transmission, viraemia, overwintering ability, and the potential implications that an outbreak would have for Ireland. While the current risk for the introduction of African horse sickness to Ireland is considered at worst ‘very low’, it is important to note that prior to the 2006 outbreak of Bluetongue in northern Europe, both diseases were considered to be of equal risk to the United Kingdom (‘medium-risk’. It is therefore likely that any outbreak of this disease would have serious socio-economic consequences for Ireland due to the high density of vulnerable equids and the prevalence of Culicoides species, potentially capable of vectoring the virus.

  6. Intravenous iron supplementation may protect against acute mountain sickness: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Talbot, Nick P; Smith, Thomas G; Privat, Catherine; Nickol, Annabel H; Rivera-Ch, Maria; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Dorrington, Keith L; Robbins, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a common and disabling condition that occurs in healthy individuals ascending to high altitude. Based on the ability of iron to influence cellular oxygen sensing pathways, we hypothesized that iron supplementation would protect against AMS. To examine this hypothesis, 24 healthy sea-level residents were randomized to receive either intravenous iron(III)-hydroxide sucrose (200 mg) or saline placebo, before ascending rapidly to Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4340 m). The Lake Louise scoring system was used to assess incidence and severity of AMS at sea level and on the first full day at altitude. No significant difference in absolute AMS score was detected between the two groups either at baseline or at high altitude. However, the mean increase in AMS score was 65% smaller in the iron group than in the saline group (pvolunteers.

  7. Risk determinants of acute mountain sickness in trekkers in the Nepali Himalaya: a 24-year follow-up.

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    McDevitt, Marion; McIntosh, Scott E; Rodway, George; Peelay, Jitsupa; Adams, Doug L; Kayser, Bengt

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to altitude may lead to acute mountain sickness (AMS) in nonacclimatized individuals. We surveyed AMS prevalence and potential risk factors in trekkers crossing a 5400-m pass in Nepal and compared the results with those of 2 similar studies conducted 12 and 24 years earlier. In April 2010, 500 surveys were distributed to English-speaking trekkers at 3500 m on their way to 5400 m, of which 332 (66%) surveys were returned complete. Acute mountain sickness was quantified with the Lake Louise Scoring System (LLSS, cutoff ≥3 and ≥5) and the Environmental Statistical Questionnaire III AMS-C score (ESQ-III, cutoff ≥0.7). We surveyed demographics, body mass index (BMI), smoking habit, rate of ascent, awareness of AMS, and acetazolamide use. Prevalence of AMS was 22%, 23%, and 48% (ESQ-III ≥0.7, LLSS ≥5, and LLSS ≥3, respectively) lower when compared with earlier studies. Risk factors for AMS were younger age, female sex, higher BMI, and smoking habit. Forty-two percent had elementary knowledge about the risk and prevention of AMS. Forty-four percent used acetazolamide. Trekkers took longer to climb from 3500 to 5400 m than in earlier studies. Prevalence of AMS continued to decline over a period of 24 years, likely as a result of slower ascent and increased use of acetazolamide. The AMS risk factors of younger age, female sex, and high BMI are consistent with prior studies. Awareness of risk and prevention of AMS remains low, indicating an opportunity to better educate trekkers and potentially further reduce AMS prevalence. Copyright © 2014 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment for Acute Mountain Sickness at 4240 m in the Nepal Himalaya

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    Johnson, Claire C.; Poudyal, Prasanta; Regmi, Nirajan; Walmsley, Megan A.; Basnyat, Buddha

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Johnson, Pamela L., Claire C. Johnson, Prasanta Poudyal, Nirajan N. Regmi, Megan A. Walmsley, and Buddha Basnyat. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment for acute mountain sickness at 4240 m in the Nepal Himalaya. High Alt Med Biol 14:230–233, 2013.—Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is very common at altitudes above 2500 m. There are few treatment options in the field where electricity availability is limited, and medical assistance or oxygen is unavailable or difficult to access. Positive airway pressure has been used to treat AMS at 3800 m. We hypothesized that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) could be used under field conditions powered by small rechargeable batteries. Methods Part 1. 5 subjects trekked to 3500 m from 2800 m in one day and slept there for one night, ascending in the late afternoon to 3840 m, where they slept using CPAP 6–7 cm via mask. The next morning they descended to 3500 m, spent the day there, ascended in late afternoon to 3840 m, and slept the night without CPAP. Continuous overnight oximetry was recorded and the Lake Louise questionnaire for AMS administered both mornings. Methods Part 2. 14 trekkers with symptoms of AMS were recruited at 4240 m. All took acetazolamide. The Lake Louise questionnaire was administered, oximetry recorded, and CPAP 6–7 cm was applied for 10–15 min. CPAP was used overnight and oximetry recorded continuously. In the morning the Lake Louise questionnaire was administered, and oximetry recorded for 10–15 min. The equipment used in both parts was heated, humidified Respironics RemStar® machines powered by Novuscell™ rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Oximetry was recorded using Embletta™ PDS. Results Part 1. CPAP improved overnight Sao2 and eliminated AMS symptoms in the one subject who developed AMS. CPAP was used for 7–9 h and the machines operated for >8 h using the battery. Results Part 2. CPAP use improved Sao2 when used for 10–15

  9. Differences Between the "Chinese AMS Score" and the Lake Louise Score in the Diagnosis of Acute Mountain Sickness.

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    Wu, Jialin; Gu, Haoran; Luo, Yongjun

    2016-05-01

    The Chinese AMS score (CAS) is used in clinical medicine and research to diagnosis acute mountain sickness (AMS). However, the Lake Louise Score (LLS) is the well-accepted standard for diagnosing AMS. The difference between the CAS and LLS questionnaires is that the CAS considers more nonspecific symptoms. The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in AMS prevalence according to the LLS and CAS criteria. We surveyed 58 males who traveled from Chongqing (300 m) to Lhasa (3658 m) via the Qinghai-Tibet train. Cases of AMS were diagnosed using LLS and CAS questionnaires in a few railway stations at different evaluation areas along the road. We subsequently evaluated discrepancies in values related to the prevalence of AMS determined using the 2 types of questionnaires (CAS and LLS). The prevalence of CAS-diagnosed AMS indicated that the percentage of AMS cases among the 58 young men was 29.3% in Golmud, 60.3% in Tanggula, 63.8% in Lhasa, 22.4% on the first day after arrival in Lhasa, 27.6% on the second day, 24.1% on the third day, and 12.1% on the fourth day. The prevalence of LLS-diagnosed AMS in Golmud was 10.3%, 38% in Lhasa, and 6.9% on day 1, the prevalence in each station was lower than that as assessed by the CAS. Our experimental data indicate that AMS diagnoses ascertained using the CAS indicate a higher AMS prevalence than those ascertained using the LLS. Through statistical analysis, the CAS seems capable of effectively diagnosing AMS as validated by LLS (sensitivity 61.8%, specificity 92.7%).

  10. Quantification of optic disc edema during exposure to high altitude shows no correlation to acute mountain sickness.

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    Gabriel Willmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS. This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3® was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m. Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c scores; oxygen saturation (SpO₂ and heart rate (HR were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05 and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO₂ or HR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO₂ and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS.

  11. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmann, Gabriel; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 m). Slitlamp biomicroscopy was used for clinical optic disc evaluation; AMS was assessed with Lake Louise (LL) and AMS-cerebral (AMS-c) scores; oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored. These parameters were used to correlate with changes at the ONH. After the first night spent at high altitude, incidence of AMS was 55% and presence of clinical optic disc edema (ODE) 79%. Key stereometric parameters of the HRT3® used to describe ODE (mean retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness, RNFL cross sectional area, optic disc rim volume and maximum contour elevation) changed significantly at high altitude compared to baseline (p<0.05) and were consistent with clinically described ODE. All changes were reversible in all participants after descent. There was no significant correlation between parameters of ODE and AMS, SpO2 or HR. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to high altitude leads to reversible ODE in the majority of healthy subjects. However, these changes did not correlate with AMS or basic physiologic parameters such as SpO2 and HR. For the first time, a quantitative approach has been used to assess these changes during acute, non-acclimatized high altitude exposure. In conclusion, ODE presents a reaction of the body to high altitude exposure unrelated to AMS. PMID:22069483

  12. SENP1, but not fetal hemoglobin, differentiates Andean highlanders with chronic mountain sickness from healthy individuals among Andean highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Matthew M; Callacondo, David; Rojas-Camayo, Jose; Quesada-Olarte, Jose; Wang, Xunde; Uchida, Naoya; Maric, Irina; Remaley, Alan T; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Villafuerte, Francisco C; Tisdale, John F

    2016-06-01

    Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) results from chronic hypoxia. It is unclear why certain highlanders develop CMS. We hypothesized that modest increases in fetal hemoglobin (HbF) are associated with lower CMS severity. In this cross-sectional study, we found that HbF levels were normal (median = 0.4%) in all 153 adult Andean natives in Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Compared with healthy adults, the borderline elevated hemoglobin group frequently had symptoms (headaches, tinnitus, cyanosis, dilatation of veins) of CMS. Although the mean hemoglobin level differed between the healthy (17.1 g/dL) and CMS (22.3 g/dL) groups, mean plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels were similar (healthy, 17.7 mIU/mL; CMS, 12.02 mIU/mL). Sanger sequencing determined that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in endothelial PAS domain 1 (EPAS1) and egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1), associated with lower hemoglobin in Tibetans, were not identified in Andeans. Sanger sequencing of sentrin-specific protease 1 (SENP1) and acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family, member D (ANP32D), in healthy and CMS individuals revealed that non-G/G genotypes were associated with higher CMS scores. No JAK2 V617F mutation was detected in CMS individuals. Thus, HbF and other classic erythropoietic parameters did not differ between healthy and CMS individuals. However, the non-G/G genotypes of SENP1 appeared to differentiate individuals with CMS from healthy Andean highlanders.

  13. Variants of the Low Oxygen Sensors EGLN1 and HIF-1AN Associated with Acute Mountain Sickness

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    Enhao Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Two low oxygen sensors, Egl nine homolog 1 (EGLN1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α inhibitor (HIF-1AN, play pivotal roles in the regulation of HIF-1α, and high altitude adaption may be involved in the pathology of acute mountain sickness (AMS. Here, we aimed to analyze single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the untranslated regions of the EGLN1 and HIF-1AN genes and SNPs chosen from a genome-wide adaptation study of the Han Chinese population. To assess the association between EGLN1 and HIF-1AN SNPs and AMS in a Han Chinese population, a case–control study was performed including 190 patients and 190 controls. In total, thirteen SNPs were genotyped using the MassARRAY® MALDI-TOF system. Multiple genetic models were tested; The Akaike’s information criterion (AIC and Bayesian information criterion (BIC values indicated that the dominant model may serve as the best-fit model for rs12406290 and rs2153364 of significant difference. However, these data were not significant after Bonferroni correction. No significant association was noted between AMS and rs12757362, rs1339894, rs1361384, rs2009873, rs2739513 or rs2486729 before and after Bonferroni correction. Further haplotype analyses indicated the presence of two blocks in EGLN1; one block consists of rs12406290-rs2153364, located upstream of the EGLN1 gene. Carriers of the “GG” haplotype of rs12406290-rs2153364 exhibited an increased risk of AMS after adjustments for age and smoking status. However, no significant association was observed among HIF-1AN 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR polymorphisms, haplotype and AMS. Our study indicates that variants in the EGLN1 5'-UTR influence the susceptibility to AMS in a Han Chinese population.

  14. Diagnosis and prediction of the occurrence of acute mountain sickness measuring oxygen saturation--independent of absolute altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Basic, Daniel; Burtscher, Martin; Gothe, Raffaella Matteucci; Siebert, Uwe; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Commercialization of trekking tourism enables untrained persons to participate in trekking tours. Because hypoxia is one of the main purported triggers for acute mountain sickness (AMS), pulse oximetry, which measures arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2), is discussed to be a possible and useful tool for the diagnosis of AMS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible associations between SPO2 values and the occurrence of AMS. In 204 trekkers, SPO2 values (pulse oximetry) were measured and the Lake Louise Self-assessment Score (LLS) was administered over the first 7 days of their trekking tours. During treks at altitudes of 2500-5500 m in Nepal, India, Africa, and South America, 100 participants suffered from mild AMS, 3 participants suffered from severe AMS, and 9 participants reported both mild and severe AMS. The lowest mean SPO2 was 85.5 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 83.9-86.1 %) on day 5. SPO2 and LLS exhibited a weak to moderate negative correlation for all days of the study (ρ ranging from -0.142 to -0.370). Calculation of time-shifted associations of 24 and 48 h resulted in the disappearance of most associations. Susceptibility to headaches (odds ratio (OR) 2.9-7.2) and a history of AMS (OR 2.2-3.1) were determined to be potential risk factors for the development of AMS. Since there is no strong altitude-independent association between AMS and SPO2 during the first week of high-altitude adaptation, the implementation of pulse oximetry during trekking in order to detect and predict AMS remains questionable.

  15. Age as a risk factor for acute mountain sickness upon rapid ascent to 3,700 m among young adult Chinese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang XG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xu-gang Tang,1 Ji-hang Zhang,1 Jun Qin,1 Xu-bin Gao,1 Qian-ning Li,2 Jie Yu,1 Xiao-han Ding,1 Lan Huang1 1Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Neurology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between age and acute mountain sickness (AMS when subjects are exposed suddenly to high altitude.Methods: A total of 856 young adult men were recruited. Before and after acute altitude exposure, the Athens Insomnia Scale score (AISS was used to evaluate the subjective sleep quality of subjects. AMS was assessed using the Lake Louise scoring system. Heart rate (HR and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 were measured.Results: Results showed that, at 500 m, AISS and insomnia prevalence were higher in older individuals. After acute exposure to altitude, the HR, AISS, and insomnia prevalence increased sharply, and the increase in older individuals was more marked. The opposite trend was observed for SaO2. At 3,700 m, the prevalence of AMS increased with age, as did severe AMS, and AMS symptoms (except gastrointestinal symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age was a risk factor for AMS (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.13, P<0.05, as well as AISS (adjusted OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.28–1.51, P<0.001.Conclusion: The present study is the first to demonstrate that older age is an independent risk factor for AMS upon rapid ascent to high altitude among young adult Chinese men, and pre-existing poor subjective sleep quality may be a contributor to increased AMS prevalence in older subjects. Keywords: acute mountain sickness, age, Athens Insomnia Scale, rapid ascent, sleep

  16. Immunogenicity of plant-produced African horse sickness virus-like particles: implications for a novel vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Susan J; Meyers, Ann E; Guthrie, Alan J; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2017-06-26

    African horse sickness (AHS) is a debilitating and often fatal viral disease affecting horses in much of Africa, caused by the dsRNA orbivirus African horse sickness virus (AHSV). Vaccination remains the single most effective weapon in combatting AHS, as there is no treatment for the disease apart from good animal husbandry. However, the only commercially available vaccine is a live-attenuated version of the virus (LAV). The threat of outbreaks of the disease outside its endemic region and the fact that the LAV is not licensed for use elsewhere in the world, have spurred attempts to develop an alternative safer, yet cost-effective recombinant vaccine. Here, we report the plant-based production of a virus-like particle (VLP) AHSV serotype five candidate vaccine by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression of all four capsid proteins in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant expression vector system. The production process is fast and simple, scalable, economically viable, and most importantly, guinea pig antiserum raised against the vaccine was shown to neutralize live virus in cell-based assays. To our knowledge, this is the first report of AHSV VLPs produced in plants, which has important implications for the containment of, and fight against the spread of, this deadly disease. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Epidemiology Survey of Tourists' Sicknesses in Huangshan Mountain Scenic Spot%黄山山岳型景区游客发病流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘海波; 方婷婷; 张牧城; 刘剑; 董学军; 赵芒; 汪晓春; 汪建设; 程利萍; 王莉; 汪秀桃

    2011-01-01

    Objective To probe into the types, characteristics and regular patterns of sickness among tourists who were sightseeing in Huangshan mountain scenic spot, therefore to better facilitate in establishing medical emergency plan and ensure a safe sightseeing.Methods Data of tourists who suffered sickness and received treatment while visiting Huangshan Mountain from January 1,2005 to December 31,2009 were analyzed.Results The top five morbidities among group of children,group of adult and group of aged were as follows respectively: upper respiratory tract infection ,acute gastroenteritis, head trauma, bronchial asthma, wasp sting; upper respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, sprain of lower extremity, head trauma and monkey scratches or bite;and upper respiratory tract infection, acute gastroenteritis, acute coronary syndromes, high blood pressure and head trauma.Among each age group, the top two morbidities were the same, there were higher number of traumatic patients in group of children and group of adult, whereas, an apparent increase of cardiovascular diseases and sudden death incidents were observed among group of aged.Conclusion It was proved that the morbidities of tourists to certain degree had correlation with the environment in mountainous area.Therefore, to strengthen the publication of knowledge over prevention of the most seen and frequently encountered diseases in mountainous area combined with enhancing tourism related infrastructure construction will bear far-reaching significance as to ensure a safe and health sight-seeing.%目的 探讨黄山山岳型风景区内游客发病的病种、特点及规律,以有利于制定旅游急救预案,保障旅游安全.方法 对2005年1月1日-2009年12月31日在景区内发病就诊的游客患者,进行统计、归类、分析.结果 少儿组、成人组、老年组发病率前5位分别为:上呼吸道感染、急性胃肠炎、头外伤、支气管哮喘、蜂螫伤;上呼吸道感染、急性

  18. Twice-daily assessment of trekkers on Kilimanjaro's Machame route to evaluate the incidence and time-course of acute mountain sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joel

    2012-12-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) in high altitude trekkers is common, often trek-limiting, and occasionally fatal. The incidence of AMS can be modified by prudent ascent profile and route selection. It is not known whether the 6-day Machame route may enhance acclimatization on Kilimanjaro (5895 m) by 'sleeping low' on the third day. This report presents real time twice-daily AMS data from 28 healthy adult trekkers on the Machame route. The incidences of AMS and severe AMS were: 0% and 0% (day 1); 11% and 4% (day 2); 25% and 4% (day 3); 25% and 0% (day 4); 86% and 61% (summit day 5); and 7% and 0% (day 6), respectively. High altitude cerebral edema occurred in 4 of 28 trekkers (14%). On summit day, the median Lake Louise Symptom Score (LLSS) was 8 (range 2 to 15). Twice-daily measurements of AMS symptoms provide detailed insight into the time-course and evolution of AMS during ascent on Kilimanjaro. The 6-day Machame route may delay the onset but does not ultimately protect against AMS. The extremely high incidence and severity of AMS on summit day is of major concern to trekkers, portering staff, expedition medical staff, and leaders.

  19. Effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on symptoms of acute mountain sickness and basic physiological responses in a group of male adolescents during ascent to Mount Everest Base Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennis, Philip J; Mitchell, Kay; Gilbert-Kawai, Edward; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Wade, Angie; Feelisch, Martin; Grocott, Michael P; Martin, Daniel S

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation. The exercise test consisted of a standardised 2-min stepping protocol and measurements were taken in the last 10 s. Participants in the intervention arm of the study consumed 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice daily, containing approximately 10 mmol of nitrate, while those in the control arm consumed 140 ml of concentrated blackcurrant cordial with negligible nitrate content. Drinks were taken for the first seven days at high altitude (days 2-8), in two equal doses; one with breakfast, and one with the evening meal. Mixed modelling revealed no significant between-groups difference in the incidence of AMS (Odds Ratio - nitrate vs.

  20. A pilot study on the prevalence of acute mountain sickness at the sikh pilgrimage of hemkund sahib in the Indian Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet S Sahota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemkund Sahib is a popular pilgrimage located at 4,330 m in the Garhwal range of the Indian Himalayas. Many travelers to the region have observed pilgrims exhibiting Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS-like symptoms. However, no systematic study on its prevalence at Hemkund has been conducted. Materials and Methods: We surveyed 25 adults. AMS rates were determined using a standard Lake Louise Score (LLS. Responses to questions related to awareness of AMS, the perceived difficulty of the trek, and physiological data including arterial oxygen saturation (SpO 2 and pulse rate, amongst others, were collected. Results: Overall prevalence of AMS was 28% (mild AMS 20%, severe AMS 8%. Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE was 3.9/10. Water consumption for the 4-5 hour trek to Hemkund was only 0.9 L and 20% of pilgrims consumed no water at all. Nine pilgrims claimed to be aware of AMS although only one had taken prophylactic medication. SpO 2 was 82.2 ± 1.2% and pulse rate was 106.5 ± 2.9 bpm (mean ± SEM. There were no differences in non-LLS-related parameters when pilgrims were subdivided by presence or absence of AMS. Conclusion: This pilot study has, for the first time, documented the prevalence of AMS amongst pilgrims to Hemkund Sahib in the Indian Himalayas.

  1. Analysis of High-altitude Syndrome and the Underlying Gene Polymorphisms Associated with Acute Mountain Sickness after a Rapid Ascent to High-altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Zeng, Ying; Chen, Guozhu; Bian, Shizhu; Qiu, Youzhu; Liu, Xi; Xu, Baida; Song, Pan; Zhang, Jihang; Qin, Jun; Huang, Lan

    2016-12-01

    To investigated the objective indicators and potential genotypes for acute mountain sickness (AMS). 176 male subjects were evaluated for symptoms scores and physiological parameters at 3700 m. EPAS1 gene polymorphisms were explored and verified effects of potential genotypes on pulmonary function by inhaled budesonide. The incidence of AMS was 53.98% (95/176). The individuals who suffered from headache with anxiety and greater changes in heart rate (HR), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and mean flow velocity of basilar artery (Vm-BA), all of which were likely to develop AMS. The rs4953348 polymorphism of EPAS1 gene had a significant correlation with the SaO2 level and AMS, and a significant difference in the AG and GG genotype distribution between the AMS and non-AMS groups. The spirometric parameters were significantly lower, but HR (P = 0.036) and Vm-BA (P = 0.042) significantly higher in the AMS subjects with the G allele than those with the A allele. In summary, changes in HR (≥82 beats/min), FVC (≤4.2 Lt) and Vm-BA (≥43 cm/s) levels may serve as predictors for diagnosing AMS accompanied by high-altitude syndrome. The A allele of rs4953348 is a protective factor for AMS through HR and Vm-BA compensation, while the G allele may contribute to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in AMS.

  2. Survey on Trypanosoma spp. infection of dogs in Gabon and its epidemiological implications for sleeping sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watier-Grillot, S; Herder, S; Marié, J-L; Bourry, O; Cuny, G; Davoust, B

    2016-05-01

    This survey screened native dogs (Canis familiaris) in Gabon (Africa) for trypanosome infection. A total of 376 apparently healthy dogs, divided into two populations, were examined. The first group included 252 semi-domesticated dogs inhabiting 16 villages of the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, a rural inland area in northeast Gabon, and the second group 124 dogs belonging to protection companies or families from Libreville (n = 113) and Port-Gentil (n = 11), in the coastal area of Gabon. Both study areas include active or former foci of sleeping sickness in Gabon. Molecular testing (polymerase chain reaction) was performed on blood samples from dogs in both groups. All dogs were negative for T. congolense ("savanna type" and "forest type"). Eighteen dogs (4.7%), however, tested positive for T. brucei s.l.: 3% (8/252) were from the Ogooué-Ivindo Province, and 8% (10/124) from the coastal area. These animals may be potential reservoirs of the parasite T. brucei gambiense, responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. This hypothesis, as well as the role of the dog as a sentinel of human infection by T. brucei gambiense, should be investigated in further studies.

  3. Who are more at risk for acute mountain sickness: a prospective study in Qinghai-Tibet railroad construction workers on Mt.Tanggula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tian-yi; DING Shou-quan; LIU Jin-liang; JIA Jian-hou; CHAI Zuo-chun; DAI Rui-chen

    2012-01-01

    Background It is important to determine the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among workers at altitudes between 3500 m and 5000 m on Mt.Tanggula during the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet railroad.This study explored the risk factors predisposing workers to developing AMS and attempted to develop more effective ways of preventing and treating AMS.Methods A total of 11 182 workers were surveyed by completing twice daily a Lake Louise questionnaire,and a score ≥3 indicated AMS.The contributing risk factors were assessed for at least 2 months for the duration of the study in the years from 2001 to 2003.A risk model was developed by multiple Logistic regression.Standard statistical methods were used to analyze data.Results AMS occurred in 56% of workers working at high altitudes on Mt.Tanggula.The incidence of AMS increased with increasing altitude.Rapid ascent to an altitude above 3500 m,sea-level or lowland newcomers,young people under 25 years of age,heavy physical exertion,obese person,and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 80% were independent AMS risk factors.No significant association was found between AMS and sex or taking Rhodiola.Medical education contributed to an early diagnosis of AMS.Conclusions This study used the Lake Louise scoring system suggesting that it is a well-validated standard for field evaluation of AMS and for making an early diagnosis.These studies have described many variables regarding risk factors for the development of AMS.Risk factors which can be modified should be attended to,and the physicians should carry out check-ups and tests to identify subjects who are more at risk.Prevention consists in continuous gradual ascent,medical education,and prompt descent to avoid progression in patients with serious AMS.It is most important to effectively control the risk factors of AMS.

  4. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  5. Employer, insurance, and health system response to long-term sick leave in the public sector: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijbel, Bodil; Josephson, Malin; Jensen, Irene; Vingård, Eva

    2005-06-01

    This study has been conducted to describe the situation of long-term sick-listed persons employed in the public sector regarding the medical reasons of their sick leave, the duration of their problems, the duration of the actual sick leave, rehabilitation support, rehabilitation measures, and the persons expectations of the future. Response rate of a postal questionnaire, where 484 women and 51 men on long-term sick leave answered, was 69%. The study-group consisted of 90% women with a median age of 50 years. The most common reasons for sick listing were long-lasting musculoskeletal problems, especially neck/shoulder pain, low back pain and osteoarthritis or other joint problems and mental problems, especially depression and burn-out syndromes. Forty-seven procent of the men and 57% of the women had been on the sick list for more than a year. Only half of them had been subjected to the legally required rehabilitation investigation of the employer This half got access to rehabilitation programs and/or vocational rehabilitation to a greater extent than those who not had been subjected to rehabilitation investigation. Less than half had been in contact with the workplace-connected rehabilitation actors, the Occupational Health Service or the Trade Union. In spite of this the sick-listed persons had a positive view of their future return to work. For long-term sick-listed persons in the public sector, there is a great potential for improvements of the rehabilitation at the workplace arena, in the involvement and cooperation between the already existing rehabilitation actors, in order to promote return to work.

  6. Ejercicio y la detección del mal agudo de montaña grave Exercise and the detection of severe acute mountain sickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Garófoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El mal agudo de montaña (MAM es un conjunto de síntomas inespecíficos padecidos por sujetos que ascienden rápidamente desde baja a alta altura sin adecuada aclimatación. Usualmente es autolimitado, pero las formas graves (edema pulmonar y cerebral pueden causar la muerte. La hipoxemia exagerada en reposo está relacionada con el desarrollo de MAM pero su valor predictivo es limitado. Dado que el ejercicio en altura se acompaña de mayor hipoxemia y síntomas, postulamos el valor predictivo de un simple test de ejercicio para pronosticar MAM grave. Se estudió el valor predictivo de la saturación de oxígeno en reposo y ejercicio submáximo a 2.700 m y 4 300 m en 63 sujetos que ascendían al cerro Aconcagua (6 962 m. Se consideró desaturación de oxígeno con ejercicio a una disminución = 5% respecto al reposo. Se utilizó la escala de Lake-Louise para establecer la presencia de MAM grave. Seis sujetos presentaron MAM grave (9.5% y requirieron evacuación. La saturación de oxígeno en reposo a 2.700 m no fue significativa para clasificar sujetos que luego desarrollaron MAM grave. Por el contrario, la asociación de desaturación durante el ejercicio a 2.700 m más la saturación inapropiada en reposo a 4.300 m fue significativa para clasificar a los sujetos que desarrollaron MAM grave con un valor predictivo positivo de 80% y un valor predictivo negativo del 97%. Nuestros resultados son relevantes para el montañismo y sugieren la adición de un simple test de ejercicio en la predicción del MAM grave.Acute mountain sickness (AMS is a group of non-specific symptoms, seen in subjects that ascend from low to high altitude too quickly, without allowing sufficient time to acclimatize. Usually it is self-limiting, but the severe forms (pulmonary and cerebral edema can be fatal. Exaggerated hypoxemia at rest is related to later development of AMS but its predictive value is limited. Since exercise at altitude induces greater hypoxemia and

  7. Serum sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the problem should be stopped. Avoid using that medicine or antiserum in the future. ... Call your provider if you received medicine or antiserum in the last 4 weeks and have symptoms of serum sickness.

  8. 构建急性高原病易感者预测模型的方法学研究%Methodological research on building prediction model of susceptible population of acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑然; 周世伟

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There are some people in population susceptible to acute mountain sickness. Therefore, it is important to analyse, assess and integrate certain research results to build prediction system and mathematics model in order to predict those susceptible people when army goes to tableland.DATA SOURCES: Computer was used to search databases such as Medline, PubMed and PML to find articles regarding prediction of people susceptible to acute mountain sickness from January 1970 to December 2002 with the search words "acute mountain sickness, susceptible population,prediction" . The language was limited to English. At the same time, Chinese Journal Full-text Database, Chinainfo and CBMdisc were searched to find articles from January 1970 to August 2004 by the Chinese language of "acute mountain sickness, susceptible population and prediction". The research targets are susceptible people to acute mountain sickness. At last,trace-back method was used to supplement some literature and monographs.DATA SELECTION: After systematically analyzed and concluded the literature information and screened researches without conducting experiment, full text of the rest literature was searched and used as selective criteria if it could be used as prediction indicator of susceptible people to acute mountain sickness.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally there were 19 prediction indicators generalized. After conducting systemic analysis, Delphi method and analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to the indicators, 13 were selected while the other 6 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The indicators were classified according to nervous-humoral regulation ability, oxygen capture ability of respiratory system,anti-anoxia ability of central nervous system, mental health and health service ability. Based on these, system analysis, Delphi method and AHP method were used to screen prediction indicators, establish indictor system, confirm the weighted indicators and weighted indicator system as well as standardize the

  9. Saturated Zone Plumes in Volcanic Rock: Implications for Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Kelkar; R. Roback; B. Robinson; G. Srinivasan; C. Jones; P. Reimus

    2006-02-14

    This paper presents a literature survey of the occurrences of radionuclide plumes in saturated, fractured rocks. Three sites, Idaho National laboratory, Hanford, and Oak Ridge are discussed in detail. Results of a modeling study are also presented showing that the length to width ratio of a plume starting within the repository footprint at the Yucca Mountain Project site, decreases from about 20:1 for the base case to about 4:1 for a higher value of transverse dispersivity, indicating enhanced lateral spreading of the plume. Due to the definition of regulatory requirements, this lateral spreading does not directly impact breakthrough curves at the 18 km compliance boundary, however it increases the potential that a plume will encounter reducing conditions, thus significantly retarding the transport of sorbing radionuclides.

  10. The effective intensity of Coriolis, cross-coupling stimulation is gravitoinertial force dependent - Implications for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the severity of the Coriolis-induced motion sickness was investigated in ten individuals subjected to high and low G-force phases of parabolic flight maneuvers using constant level Coriolis, cross-coupled angular acceleration stimulation. Using seven levels of severity in the diagnosis of motion sickness, it was found that the subjects were less susceptible at 0 G than at +2 Gz, and that the perceived intensity and provocativeness of Coriolis stimulation decreased in 0 G and increased in +2 Gz relative to the +1 Gz baseline values. The changes in the apparent intensity of Coriolis stimulation occur virtually immediately when the background gravitatioinertial force level is varied. These findings explain why the Skylab astronauts were refractory to motion sickness during Coriolis stimulation in-flight.

  11. Establishment of An Animal Model for Acute Mountain Sickness with A Decompression Chamber%低压氧舱模拟急性高原缺氧动物模型建立的初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧萍; 吴金华; 高荣敏; 李琳; 樊鹏程; 景临林; 贾正平

    2013-01-01

    目的 模拟高原低压低氧环境建立小鼠急性缺氧模型,探讨不同缺氧时间对小鼠缺氧损伤程度的影响.方法 采用国产低压低氧动物实验舱模拟海拔6000m高原缺氧环境,观察6h、12 h、24h、36 h、2d、3d、5d、7d不同缺氧时间小鼠组织病理学变化情况,并测定血浆LD、LDH和4种ATP酶的变化规律.结果 LD、LDH、T-AOC和ATP酶随缺氧时间的延长而呈波浪式变化,6h后可见组织形态发生明显改变,LD显著升高,T-AOC显著下降,12 h后LDH显著升高,ATP酶显著下降,说明在此条件下缺氧6~12h即可复制出急性高原病动物模型.结论 该模型为下一步研究急性高原病发病机制提供了有利条件,在高原病防治研究中具有重要意义.%Objective To establish an animal model of acute mountain sickness using a decompression chamber and to investigate the effect of different hypoxic durations on the injury degree of experimental mice.Methods Rats were housed in a decompression chamber and exposed to simulated high altitude of 6000 m for 6 h,12 h,24 h,36 h,2 d,3 d,5 d and 7 d respectively.Pathological changes,the serum LD content,LDH activity and ATPase activity were examined respectively.Results The serum LD content,LDH activity and ATPase activity changed with time in a wave-like manner.Pathological changes of heart tissues were observed after 6 h.The LD content was increased while T-AOC was decreased significantly.After 12 h,the LDH activity was increased while AT-Pase activity was decreased.Conclusion An animal model of acute mountain sickness can be established within 6 to 12 h,which facilitates the mechanism study and prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness.

  12. 非甾体类抗炎药物对急性高原病的预防效果%Observation of the effect of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug to prevent acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊才; 王引虎; 冯英凯; 刘友生; 崔建华; 李丽; 高江峰; 王琰

    2011-01-01

    目的 验证非甾体类抗炎药物盐酸苄达明对急性高原病的预防效果.方法 将急进5 200 m高原的118例健康青年官兵随机分为安慰剂组(n=20)、复方红景天组(n=33)、复方党参组(n=33)、盐酸苄达明组(n=33),自海拔1 400 m,历时5 d进入5 200 m高原.从出发前5 d开始分别服用盐酸苄达明片、复方红景天胶囊、复方党参胶囊和安慰剂胶囊,定期测试其血氧饱和度(SaO2)和心率(HR),并以军用卫生标准GJB1098-91随访记录受试者急性高原反应症状,然后分度评分;进入高原后第7天进行高原习服基础生理指标测定,进行药效评价.结果 盐酸苄达明对全程试验期内受试者高原缺氧所致头痛和呕吐的预防效果显著优于安慰剂,且对头痛症状的预防效果优于复方红景天与复方党参.盐酸苄达明组受试者急性高原反应GJB评分,进入海拔5 200 m高原第3、5天SaO2、心率,高原习服基础生理指标等均显著优于安慰剂组.结论 非甾体类抗炎药物盐酸苄达明防治急性高原病效果显著.%Objective To test and verify the effects of benzyamine hydrochloride, a non steroid anti inflammatory drug, to prevent acute mountain sickness. Methods Totally 118 cases of healthy young soldiers were randomly divided into four groups respectively treated by placebo(n=20) ,compound rhodiola(n=33) ,compound codonopsis capsules(n=33) ,benzyamine hydrochloride(n=33) starting 5 days before departure and quickly approached into the altitude 5 200 m from 1 400 m in 5 days. Blood oxygen saturation(SaO2 ) and heart rate(HR) were regularly tested and acute mountain sickness symptoms of subjects were follow up recorded and scored according to the military standard GJB1098 91;Basic high altitude acclimatization physiological parameters were determined and evaluated from seventh day after reaching the plateau. Results The effect of benzyamine hydrochloride to prevent head ache and vomiting due to high altitude was

  13. Intermittent Oxygen Inhalation with Proper Frequency Improves Overall Health Conditions and Alleviates Symptoms in a Population at High Risk of Chronic Mountain Sickness with Severe Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Feng; Wei-Hao Xu; Yu-Qi Gao; Fu-Yu Liu; Peng Li; Shan-Jun Zheng; Lu-Yue Gai

    2016-01-01

    Background:Oxygen inhalation therapy is essential for the treatment of patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS),but the efficacy of oxygen inhalation for populations at high risk of CMS remains unknown.This research investigated whether oxygen inhalation therapy benefits populations at high risk of CMS.Methods:A total of 296 local residents living at an altitude of 3658 m were included;of which these were 25 diagnosed cases of CMS,8 cases dropped out of the study,and 263 cases were included in the analysis.The subjects were divided into high-risk (180 ≤ hemoglobin (Hb) <210 g/L,n =161) and low-risk (Hb <180 g/L,n =102) groups,and the cases in each group were divided into severe symptom (CMS score ≥6) and mild symptom (CMS score 0-5) subgroups.Severe symptomatic population of either high-or low-risk CMS was randomly assigned to no oxygen intake group (A group) or oxygen intake 7 times/week group (D group);mild symptomatic population of either high-or low-risk CMS was randomly assigned to no oxygen intake group (A group),oxygen intake 2 times/week group (B group),and 4 times/week group (C group).The courses for oxygen intake were all 30 days.The CMS symptoms,sleep quality,physiological biomarkers,biochemical markers,etc.,were recorded on the day before oxygen intake,on the 15th and 30th days of oxygen intake,and on the 15th day after terminating oxygen intake therapy.Results:A total of 263 residents were finally included in the analysis.Among these high-altitude residents,CMS symptom scores decreased for oxygen inhalation methods B,C,and D at 15 and 30 days after oxygen intake and 15 days after termination,including dyspnea,palpitation,and headache index,compared to those before oxygen intake (B group:Z =5.604,5.092,5.741;C group:Z =4.155,4.068,4.809;D group:Z =6.021,6.196,5.331,at the 3 time points respectively;all P < 0.05/3 vs.before intake).However,dyspnea/palpitation (A group:Z =5.003,5.428,5.493,both P < 0.05/3 vs.before intake) and headache (A

  14. Variations in gravitoinertial force level affect the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex - Implications of the etiology of space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, J. R.; Graybiel, A.

    1981-01-01

    Recordings of horizontal nystagmus were obtained on 16 male subjects exposed to repeated patterns of horizontal angular acceleration, constant velocity rotation, and sudden-stop deceleration in the laboratory and in the free-fall and high-force periods of parabolic flight. Nystagmus intensity was a clear function of gravitoinertial force level: slow phase velocity and beat frequency increased during exposure to high force levels and decreased in free-fall compared to values obtained at 1 G. These findings indicate that the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex decreases in free-fall. This fact likely accounts for the disorientation and dizziness sometimes experienced by astronauts when moving their heads in the early phases of orbital flight and again after splashdown. The implications of the present findings, both for the etiology and for the treatment of space motion sickness, are discussed.

  15. Endogenous RGS proteins modulate SA and AV nodal functions in isolated heart: implications for sick sinus syndrome and AV block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Huang, Xinyan; Piao, Lin; Lopatin, Anatoli N; Neubig, Richard R

    2007-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors play a pivotal role in regulating cardiac automaticity. Their function is controlled by regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins acting as GTPase-activating proteins for Galpha subunits to suppress Galpha(i) and Galpha(q) signaling. Using knock-in mice in which Galpha(i2)-RGS binding and negative regulation are disrupted by a genomic Galpha(i2)G184S (GS) point mutation, we recently (Fu Y, Huang X, Zhong H, Mortensen RM, D'Alecy LG, Neubig RR. Circ Res 98: 659-666, 2006) showed that endogenous RGS proteins suppress muscarinic receptor-mediated bradycardia. To determine whether this was due to direct regulation of cardiac pacemakers or to alterations in the central nervous system or vascular responses, we examined isolated, perfused hearts. Isoproterenol-stimulated beating rates of heterozygote (+/GS) and homozygote (GS/GS) hearts were significantly more sensitive to inhibition by carbachol than were those of wild type (+/+). Even greater effects were seen in the absence of isoproterenol; the potency of muscarinic-mediated bradycardia was enhanced fivefold in GS/GS and twofold in +/GS hearts compared with +/+. A(1)-adenosine receptor-mediated bradycardia was unaffected. In addition to effects on the sinoatrial node, +/GS and GS/GS hearts show significantly increased carbachol-induced third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Atrial pacing studies demonstrated an increased PR interval and AV effective refractory period in GS/GS hearts compared with +/+. Thus loss of the inhibitory action of endogenous RGS proteins on Galpha(i2) potentiates muscarinic inhibition of cardiac automaticity and conduction. The severe carbachol-induced sinus bradycardia in Galpha(i2)G184S mice suggests a possible role for alterations of Galpha(i2) or RGS proteins in sick sinus syndrome and pathological AV block.

  16. Processing of vestibular inputs by the medullary lateral tegmental field of conscious cats: implications for generation of motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew A; Moy, Jennifer D; DeMayo, William M; Puterbaugh, Sonya R; Miller, Daniel J; Catanzaro, Michael F; Yates, Bill J

    2013-03-01

    The dorsolateral reticular formation of the caudal medulla, the lateral tegmental field (LTF), participates in generating vomiting. LTF neurons exhibited complex responses to vestibular stimulation in decerebrate cats, indicating that they received converging inputs from a variety of labyrinthine receptors. Such a convergence pattern of vestibular inputs is appropriate for a brain region that participates in generating motion sickness. Since responses of brainstem neurons to vestibular stimulation can differ between decerebrate and conscious animals, the current study examined the effects of whole-body rotations in vertical planes on the activity of LTF neurons in conscious felines. Wobble stimuli, fixed-amplitude tilts, the direction of which moves around the animal at a constant speed, were used to determine the response vector orientation, and also to ascertain whether neurons had spatial-temporal convergence (STC) behavior (which is due to the convergence of vestibular inputs with different spatial and temporal properties). The proportion of LTF neurons with STC behavior in conscious animals (25 %) was similar to that in decerebrate cats. Far fewer neurons in other regions of the feline brainstem had STC behavior, confirming findings that many LTF neurons receive converging inputs from a variety of labyrinthine receptors. However, responses to vertical plane vestibular stimulation were considerably different in decerebrate and conscious felines for LTF neurons lacking STC behavior. In decerebrate cats, most LTF neurons had graviceptive responses to rotations, similar to those of otolith organ afferents. However, in conscious animals, the response properties were similar to those of semicircular canal afferents. These differences show that higher centers of the brain that are removed during decerebration regulate the labyrinthine inputs relayed to the LTF, either by gating connections in the brainstem or by conveying vestibular inputs directly to the region.

  17. Genetic diversity and population structure of Trypanosoma brucei in Uganda: implications for the epidemiology of sleeping sickness and Nagana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echodu, Richard; Sistrom, Mark; Bateta, Rosemary; Murilla, Grace; Okedi, Loyce; Aksoy, Serap; Enyioha, Chineme; Enyaru, John; Opiyo, Elizabeth; Gibson, Wendy; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-02-01

    While Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is in decline on the continent of Africa, the disease still remains a major health problem in Uganda. There are recurrent sporadic outbreaks in the traditionally endemic areas in south-east Uganda, and continued spread to new unaffected areas in central Uganda. We evaluated the evolutionary dynamics underpinning the origin of new foci and the impact of host species on parasite genetic diversity in Uganda. We genotyped 269 Trypanosoma brucei isolates collected from different regions in Uganda and southwestern Kenya at 17 microsatellite loci, and checked for the presence of the SRA gene that confers human infectivity to T. b. rhodesiense. Both Bayesian clustering methods and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components partition Trypanosoma brucei isolates obtained from Uganda and southwestern Kenya into three distinct genetic clusters. Clusters 1 and 3 include isolates from central and southern Uganda, while cluster 2 contains mostly isolates from southwestern Kenya. These three clusters are not sorted by subspecies designation (T. b. brucei vs T. b. rhodesiense), host or date of collection. The analyses also show evidence of genetic admixture among the three genetic clusters and long-range dispersal, suggesting recent and possibly on-going gene flow between them. Our results show that the expansion of the disease to the new foci in central Uganda occurred from the northward spread of T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr). They also confirm the emergence of the human infective strains (Tbr) from non-infective T. b. brucei (Tbb) strains of different genetic backgrounds, and the importance of cattle as Tbr reservoir, as confounders that shape the epidemiology of sleeping sickness in the region.

  18. Genetic diversity and population structure of Trypanosoma brucei in Uganda: implications for the epidemiology of sleeping sickness and Nagana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Echodu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT is in decline on the continent of Africa, the disease still remains a major health problem in Uganda. There are recurrent sporadic outbreaks in the traditionally endemic areas in south-east Uganda, and continued spread to new unaffected areas in central Uganda. We evaluated the evolutionary dynamics underpinning the origin of new foci and the impact of host species on parasite genetic diversity in Uganda. We genotyped 269 Trypanosoma brucei isolates collected from different regions in Uganda and southwestern Kenya at 17 microsatellite loci, and checked for the presence of the SRA gene that confers human infectivity to T. b. rhodesiense.Both Bayesian clustering methods and Discriminant Analysis of Principal Components partition Trypanosoma brucei isolates obtained from Uganda and southwestern Kenya into three distinct genetic clusters. Clusters 1 and 3 include isolates from central and southern Uganda, while cluster 2 contains mostly isolates from southwestern Kenya. These three clusters are not sorted by subspecies designation (T. b. brucei vs T. b. rhodesiense, host or date of collection. The analyses also show evidence of genetic admixture among the three genetic clusters and long-range dispersal, suggesting recent and possibly on-going gene flow between them.Our results show that the expansion of the disease to the new foci in central Uganda occurred from the northward spread of T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr. They also confirm the emergence of the human infective strains (Tbr from non-infective T. b. brucei (Tbb strains of different genetic backgrounds, and the importance of cattle as Tbr reservoir, as confounders that shape the epidemiology of sleeping sickness in the region.

  19. Beneath it all: bedrock geology of the Catskill Mountains and implications of its weathering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ver Straeten, Charles A

    2013-09-01

    The Devonian-age bedrock of the Catskill Mountains has been the focus of many studies. This paper reviews the character and composition of the rocks of the Catskills, and examines weathering (rock decay) processes and their implications in the Catskills. Rocks of the Catskills and closest foothills consist of siliciclastic rocks (sandstones, mudrocks, conglomerates) with minimal, locally dispersed carbonate rocks. The former are dominated by quartz, metamorphic and sedimentary rock fragments, and clay minerals. Other minor sediment components include cements, authigenic and heavy minerals, and fossil organic matter. Physical, chemical, and biological weathering of the Catskill bedrock since uplift of the Appalachian region, combined with glaciation, have dissected a plateau of nearly horizontally layered rocks into a series of ridges, valleys, and peaks. The varied weathering processes, in conjunction with many factors (natural and anthropogenic), fragment the rocks, forming sediment and releasing various elements and compounds. These may have positive, neutral, or negative implications for the region's soils, waters, ecology, and human usage. A new generation of studies and analyses of the Catskill bedrock is needed to help answer a broad set of questions and problems across various fields of interest.

  20. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  1. High Concentrations of Ozone Air Pollution on Mount Everest: Health Implications for Sherpa Communities and Mountaineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, John L; Moore, G W Kent; Koutrakis, Petros; Wolfson, Jack M; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Semple, John L., G.W. Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M. Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, and Paolo Bonasoni. High concentrations of ozone air pollution on Mount Everest: health implications for Sherpa communities and mountaineers. High Alt Med Biol. 17:365-369, 2016.-Introduction: Populations in remote mountain regions are increasingly vulnerable to multiple climate mechanisms that influence levels of air pollution. Few studies have reported on climate-sensitive health outcomes unique to high altitude ecosystems. In this study, we report on the discovery of high-surface ozone concentrations and the potential impact on health outcomes on Mount Everest and the high Himalaya. Surface ozone measurements were collected during ascending transects in the Mount Everest region of Nepal with passive nitrite-coated Ogawa filter samplers to obtain 8-hour personal exposures (2860-5364 m asl). In addition, the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid, a GAW-WMO Global Station sited in the Khumbu Valley (5079 m asl), collected ozone mixing ratios with photometric gas analyzer. Surface ozone measurements increased with altitude with concentrations that exceed 100 ppb (8-hour exposure). Highest values were during the spring season and the result of diverse contributions: hemispheric background values, the descent of ozone-rich stratospheric air, and the transport of tropospheric pollutants occurring at different spatial scales. Multiple climate factors, including descending stratospheric ozone and imported anthropogenic air masses from the Indo-Gangetic Plain, contribute to ambient ozone exposure levels in the vicinity of Mount Everest that are similar to if not higher than those reported in industrialized cities.

  2. Morning sickness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morning sickness usually begins during the first month of pregnancy and continues until the 14th to 16th week. ... have nausea and vomiting through their entire pregnancy. Morning sickness is very common and does not hurt the ...

  3. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  4. Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography Manifestations of Brain and Cerebral Hemodynamics in Chronic Mountain Sickness%慢性高原病脑部MSCT表现与血流动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王铎尧; 鲍海华; 赵希鹏; 李文方

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察慢性高原病(chronic mountain sickness,CMS)患者脑部多层螺旋CT(MSCT)改变.方法 研究对象共27例,其中12例为临床确诊的CMS,其余15例为正常健康志愿者.采用Philips Brilliance 16层螺旋CT对27例研究对象行脑部CT平扫加灌注扫描.结果 (1) CMS患者8例CT平扫表现为脑肿胀,脑沟裂变浅,脑室系统变小.12例患者颅内血管密度均有不同程度的增高,尤其以上矢状窦和大脑中动脉为著.通过测量分析上矢状窦CT值和双侧大脑中动脉CT值与血红蛋白(Hb)含量分析,CMS组上矢状窦CT值和双侧大脑中动脉CT值高于正常组 ( t=4.551,P<0.01和t=2.898,P<0.01 ).CMS组Hb含量与上矢状窦及大脑中动脉血管密度CT值均呈正相关(r=0.758,P<0.01 及r=0.740,P<0.01).(2) CMS患者脑灰质脑血流量(CBF)值较正常对照组减小,P<0.01,并且TTP和MTT明显延长,P<0.05和P<0.01;脑白质MTT值明显延长,P<0.01.结论 MSCT对研究CMS脑部形态学和血液动力学方面均具有重要意义.%Objective To obscrve MSCT appearances of brain in chronic mountain sickness(CMS). Methods 27 subjects were collected involved in this study , including 12 patients with CMS and 15 normal adults as control. Plain CT scan and perfusion CT imaging were performed in all subjects. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) , cerebral blood volume ( CBV) , time to pcak enhancement( TTP) and mean transit time ( MTT) were measured within the specific regions of interest (ROI) of the brain,and quantitative analysis was performed. Results (1) Thcre were 8 cases in CMS group with diffuse cerebral edema, small schizencephaly and shrinking ventricular system. The density of blood vessel in the brain was differcntly enhanccment (12 cases). There was an obvious correlation be tween the density of cerebral vesscls ( bilateral middle cerebral artery and supcrior sagittal sinus) and the hemoglobin level. The CT values of bilateral middle cerebral artery and superior sagittal sinus were

  5. Pathophysiological and diagnostic implications of cardiac biomarkers and antidiuretic hormone release in distinguishing immersion pulmonary edema from decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, Pierre; Coulange, Mathieu; Beneton, Frederic; Gempp, Emmanuel; Le Pennetier, Olivier; Algoud, Maxime; Dubourg, Lorene; Naibo, Pierre; Marlinge, Marion; Michelet, Pierre; Vairo, Donato; Kipson, Nathalie; Kerbaul, François; Jammes, Yves; Jones, Ian M; Steinberg, Jean-Guillaume; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Régis; Boussuges, Alain; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is a misdiagnosed environmental illness caused by water immersion, cold, and exertion. IPE occurs typically during SCUBA diving, snorkeling, and swimming. IPE is sometimes associated with myocardial injury and/or loss of consciousness in water, which may be fatal. IPE is thought to involve hemodynamic and cardiovascular disturbances, but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear, which makes IPE prevention difficult. This observational study aimed to document IPE pathogenesis and improve diagnostic reliability, including distinguishing in some conditions IPE from decompression sickness (DCS), another diving-related disorder.Thirty-one patients (19 IPE, 12 DCS) treated at the Hyperbaric Medicine Department (Ste-Anne hospital, Toulon, France; July 2013-June 2014) were recruited into the study. Ten healthy divers were recruited as controls. We tested: (i) copeptin, a surrogate marker for antidiuretic hormone and a stress marker; (ii) ischemia-modified albumin, an ischemia/hypoxia marker; (iii) brain-natriuretic peptide (BNP), a marker of heart failure, and (iv) ultrasensitive-cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), a marker of myocardial ischemia.We found that copeptin and cardiac biomarkers were higher in IPE versus DCS and controls: (i) copeptin: 68% of IPE patients had a high level versus 25% of DCS patients (P < 0.05) (mean ± standard-deviation: IPE: 53 ± 61 pmol/L; DCS: 15 ± 17; controls: 6 ± 3; IPE versus DCS or controls: P < 0.05); (ii) ischemia-modified albumin: 68% of IPE patients had a high level versus 16% of DCS patients (P < 0.05) (IPE: 123 ± 25 arbitrary-units; DCS: 84 ± 25; controls: 94 ± 7; IPE versus DCS or controls: P < 0.05); (iii) BNP: 53% of IPE patients had a high level, DCS patients having normal values (P < 0.05) (IPE: 383 ± 394 ng/L; DCS: 37 ± 28; controls: 19 ± 15; IPE versus DCS or controls: P < 0.01); (iv) cTnI: 63% of IPE patients had a high

  6. 高原脐贴软膏贴脐预防急性高原反应的效果观察%Umbilical therapy with altiplano navel balm in prevention of acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江晓霁; 朱丹平; 万萍; 方勇飞; 王志中; 潘柏良; 王勇; 王福领; 王海; 张晓霞; 戚旬伟; 侯晓军

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察高原脐贴软膏贴脐对急性高原反应(acute mountain sickness,AMS)的预防效果.方法 将62例健康青年男性汽车兵按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组(n=31).自海拔1 392 m,历时5d急进到海拔4 617 m的高原.出发前1d开始,分别予受试者高原脐贴软膏、安慰剂软膏贴脐,膏药每天一换,连续5d.在出发后定期测定受试者心率(HR)、血压(BP)和血氧饱和度(SaO2),并以军用卫生标准GJB1098-91《急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则》制订的《高原临床症状自测问卷表》及《高原急性胃肠应激反应自测评分表》随访记录受试者AMS症状和胃肠道症状;用《不良事件报告表》随访记录受试者的不良反应.结果 急进高原后,观察组胃肠应激反应症状评分和发生率均低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组第1天的AMS发生率低于对照组(P<0.05),第3、5天的AMS症状评分和发生率均低于对照组(P<0.01);观察组第1天的血压和第5天的心率低于对照组(P<0.05),第5天的SaO2高于对照组(P<0.05);试验期间无不良反应发生.结论 高原脐贴软膏贴脐对急性高原反应有明显的预防效果.%Objective To observe the effect of umbilical therapy with altiplano navel balm, an ointment based on a traditional Chinese prescription "Xiaochaihu Decoction" , against acute mountain sickness (AMS). Methods Sixty-two young fit male automotive soldiers, were randomly divided into 2 groups, who were respectively treated by altiplano navel balm (treatment group, n = 31) and placebo ( control group, n = 31). The altiplano navel balm or placebo (one piece per day, for 5 consecutive days) was given to stick umbilical region in the 2 groups respectively in 1 d before departure. Then, they began to move from the altitude 1 392 m and arrived at the altitude 4 617 m on the fifth day. Since departure, their heart rate (HR) , blood pressure (BP) and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were

  7. Effect of baicalin capsules on acute mountain sickness in healthy young males at acute high altitude exposure%黄芩苷与红景天胶囊对急性高原病预防作用比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段炜; 孙书红; 惠增骞; 高钊; 胡建库; 金峰; 陈虹

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨黄芩苷胶囊对急性高原病( acute mountain sickness ,AMS)的预防作用。方法采用随机对照的研究方法,80名急进高原健康男性青年随机分为3组,黄芩苷组(n=32)、红景天组(n=24)和安慰剂组(n=24)。3组在进入高原前2 d、进入高原后连续3 d分别服用黄芩苷胶囊(0.5 g,2次/d)、红景天胶囊(0.76 g,2次/d)和安慰剂(2粒,2次/d)。检测急进高原前(海拔397 m)和急进高原后(3658 m)受试者氧饱和度、心率、收缩压、舒张压,彩色多普勒超声测量肺动脉收缩压(pulmonary artery systolic pressure,PASP)和平均肺动脉压(mean pulmonary arterial pressure,MPAP),统计急进高原后各组的AMS发病率。结果急进高原后安慰剂组、黄芩苷组和红景天组的AMS发病率分别为58.3%(14/24)、25.0%(8/32)和29.2%(7/24),与安慰剂组比较,黄芩苷组及红景天组AMS发病率明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。与急进高原前比较,各组受试者急进高原后心率、血压及肺动脉压均升高,氧饱和度降低(P<0.05);与安慰剂组比较,黄芩苷组血压及心率明显降低(P<0.05),红景天组急进高原后氧饱和度升高、肺动脉压降低(P<0.05)。结论黄芩苷组可能通过降低血压及心率预防AMS的发生,红景天胶囊可能通过升高氧饱和度,降低PASP、MPAP预防AMS的发生。%Objective To investigate the effect of baicalin capsules for acute mountain sickness ( AMS) prevention with rapid airlift ascent to high altitude .Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 80 healthy young men with baicalin capsules (0.5 g bid, n=32), rhodiola capsules (0.76 g bid, n=24), or placebo (n=24), for 2 days prior to airlift ascent (397 m) and for the first 3 days at high altitude (3658 m).AMS, oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR

  8. 民族地区旅游县241例急性高原病回顾性分析%A retrospective study of 241 cases with acute mountain sickness in a tourism County of minority region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐平; 曹灵红; 章成

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the epidemiologic features of acute mountain sickness in a tourism County of minority region at an average altitude above 3000 meters. Methods A retrospective study was performed on a total of 241 patients with acute mountain sickness seen in the emergency department of Songpan County’s people's hospital of in the year of 2013, and the following information were collected for the study: gender composition, age structure, predisposing, clinical manifestations, time distribution, and the outcome. Results Among the 241 patients, the following factors were observed:agenda:119 male and 122 female, age:40.62±17.77 years old;the predisposing factors of AMS included upper respiratory symptoms (14.11%), diarrhea (4.98%), smoking (18.67%), asthma (1.66%), mental factors (5.81%) and migraine (0.82%);and accompanying symptoms included dizziness (24.90%), difficulty sleeping (37.34%), fatigue (42.32%) and gastrointestinal symptoms (14.12%). No peak time was found in a weekly distribution (P>0.05). In accordance with circadian distribution, the occurrence of AMS peaked at 17:21 (P<0.05). In terms of the monthly distribution, the occurrence of AMS was peaked at June 25th (P<0.05). The outcome of AMS was mainly under the observation, with 0%of mortality. Conclusion Understanding epidemiological characteristics of AMS, the measures of the prevention combining with treatment, enhancing education of AMS for the floating population of all ages, and improving the capability of the hospital in the region are considered being effective in reducing acute mountain sickness.%目的:研究一个平均海拔约3000米的民族地区旅游县的急性高原病的流行病学特征。方法回顾性分析2013年所有流动人口到松潘县人民医院急诊科就诊的急性高原病患者,描述性别年龄构成,分析急性高原病的诱因、临床表现及时间分布特点并描述转归。结果急性高原病患者共241例,其中男性119例,女性122

  9. The uplifting process of the Bogda Mountain during the Cenozoic and its tectonic implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG ZongXiu; LI Tao; ZHANG Jin; LIU YongQing; MA ZongJin

    2008-01-01

    Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China The Tianshan Mountains have undergone its initial orogeny, extension adjusting and re-orogeny since the Late Paleozoic. The re-orogeny and uplifting process of the orogeny in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic are two of most important events in the geological evolution of Euro-Asian continent, which resulted in the formation of the present range-and-basin pattern in topography of the Tianshan Mountains and its adjacent areas. Thermochronology results by the method of fission-track dating of apatite suggest three obvious uplifting stages of the Bogad Mountain Chain re-orogeny during the Cenozoic, i.e. 5.6-19 Ma, 20-30 Ma, and 42-47 Ma. The strongest uplifting stage of the mountain is the second one at 20-30 Ma, when the mountain uplifted as a whole, and the beginning of re-orogeny was no less than 65Ma. Furthermore, our studies also show that the uplifting types of the mountain are variable in the different time periods, including uplifting of mountain as a whole and differential uplifting. The apparently diversified uplifting processes of the mountain chain are characterized by the migration (or transformation) of the uplifting direction of the mountain from west to east and from north to south, and the main process of mountain extending is from north to south.

  10. Implication of mountain shading and topographic scaling on energy for snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Spiteri, R.

    2011-12-01

    In many parts of the world, snowmelt energetics are dominated by incoming solar radiation. This is the case in the Canadian Rockies, where sunny winters result in high insolation. Solar irradiance on the snow surface is affected by the atmosphere, the slope and aspect of the immediate topography, and shading from surrounding terrain. Errors in estimating solar irradiation are cumulative over a season and can lead to large errors in snowmelt predictions. Adaptive triangular meshes, a type of unstructured triangular mesh that can adapt to fine-scale processes during model runtime, are more efficient in their use of DEM data than fixed grids when producing solar irradiance maps. An experimental design to calculate the effect of changes in DEM resolution on adaptive mesh irradiation calculations and implication for snowmelt is presented. As part of this experiment, the accuracy of these techniques is compared to measurements of mountain shadows and solar irradiance collected in Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta. Time-lapse digital cameras and networks of radiometers provide datasets for diagnosis of model accuracy. Further improvements in computational efficiency are achieved by taking advantage of parallel processing using graphical processing units (GPUs) is also discussed.

  11. From application to implication in medical anthropology: political, historical and narrative interpretations of the world of sickness and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Mônica de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews some of the current writing on medical anthropology, and is guided by political orientation/implication in the choice of its study targets, its analysis and its construction of solutions for the problems investigated. Starting from the narratives of anthropologists, it goes on to show the historical and socio-political bases characteristic of the subject in their countries of origin or migration. Within a general overview of the three principal contemporary trends - critical medical anthropology, the anthropology of suffering and the anthropology of biopower - the focus is on theoretical and thematic choices to meet the demand for "politicization" of the anthropological debate in the field of health, on the basis of which an "implied" medical anthropology is advocated.

  12. EPAS1基因多态性与急性高原病关联性研究%Relationships between EPAS1 gene polymorphisms and acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾颖; 覃军; 高旭滨; 余洁; 陈国柱; 董俊清; 郑双锦; 黄岚

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨中国平原汉族人群中EPAS1基因多态性同急性高原病(acute mountain sickness,AMS)易感性的关系.方法 采取病例对照研究方法,根据AMS路易斯湖评分系统(LLS)对受试者进行AMS的判定.采用聚合酶链反应-连接酶检测反应方法(PCR-LDR)测定80例AMS患者和86例健康对照组人群EPAS1基因位点rs2044456、rs4953348的基因多态性.结果 AMS组及对照组中基因位点rs2044456、rs4953348均检测出AA、AG、GG基因型,rs2044456位点基因型及等位基因频率组间差异无统计学意义;rs4953348位点AG基因型频率与GG基因型频率相比,组间差异具有统计学意义(OR=0.453,95%CI 0.226~0.908,P=0.026);AMS组A等位基因频数显著低于对照组(25.0%vs 35.5%,OR=0.607,95%CI 0.377~0.975,P=0.039).分别比较各位点不同基因型心率及血氧饱和度水平,发现该两个位点不同基因型携带者高原血氧饱和度具有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 位点rs4953348基因多态性与mAMS易感性相关,携带AG基因型的人群患AMS的风险性可能较携带GG基因型人群低,而A等位基因则可能是mAMS的保护性因素;各位点不同基因型均同血氧饱和度有较强关联性(P<0.05).%Objective To investigate the relationships between single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNP) of the EPAS1 gene and the susceptibility of acute mountain sickness (AMS) among Han population in China. Methods A case-control association study was conducted. Eighty male Chinese patients with AMS , defined according to the Lake Louise acute moun -tain sickness scoring system (LLS) ,were compared with 86 Chinese men free of symptoms of AMS. The polymerase chain reaction4igase detection reaction (PCR4DR) technique was used to detect the SNPs of rs 2044456 and rs4953348 in EP-AS1 gene. Results Genotypes of the SNP rs2044456 ,rs4953348 AA,AG and GG were detected in both AMS and control groups. The genotype and allele frequencies of the rs 2044456 showed no significant

  13. Faunal characteristics of the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico: implications for biodiversity analysis and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamonde R. Cook; Curtis H. Flather; Kenneth R. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    To define the faunal context within which local and regional resource management decisions are made, conservation of biological diversity requires an understanding of regional species occurrence patterns. Our study focused on the Southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico and included the San Juan, the Sangre de Cristo, and the Jemez Mountains. Across this region, we...

  14. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. RESULTS: We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1...... previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces....

  15. 三磷酸腺苷二钠对慢性高原病大鼠肝脏保护作用%Protective effect of trinosin on the liver of chronic mountain sickness rat model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏克尔江·苏来曼; 高振; 迪丽努尔·买买提依明; 单莲莲; 张向阳; 艾尼娃尔·艾克木

    2015-01-01

    为研究三磷酸腺苷二钠对慢性高原病(chronic mountain sickness,CMS)大鼠肝脏的保护作用,取60只SD大鼠,对其中50例进行慢性高原病造模后,随机分为高原模型组、硝苯地平对照组、三磷酸腺苷二钠低剂量组、三磷酸腺苷二钠中剂量组、三磷酸腺苷二钠高剂量组,每组10只;剩余10只平原环境饲养为正常对照组;造模30 d后,根据大鼠体重进行干预.连续灌胃15d后,测定肺动脉压(pulmonary artery pressure,PAP)、同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine,Hcy)、白介素-6(interleukin-6,IL-6)、C-反应蛋白(C-reactionprotein,CRP)、超氧化物歧化酶(superoxide dismutase,SOD)、丙二醛(malondialdehyde,MDA)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase,GSH-PX)、谷丙转氨酶(alanine aminotransferase,ALT)、谷草转氨酶(aspartate transaminase,AST)等指标.结果发现,与正常对照组比较,高原模型组和硝苯地平对照组大鼠体内的Hcy,IL-6,CRP,MDA,ALT和AST水平升高,SOD和GSH-PX水平降低,PAP升高,提示高原低氧对大鼠的肝脏造成损害.与高原模型组比较,三磷酸腺苷二钠高剂量组大鼠体内的Hcy,IL-6,CRP,MDA,ALT和AST水平降低(P<0.05),SOD和GSH-PX水平升高(P<0.05).故而认为高剂量的三磷酸腺苷二钠对CMS大鼠肝脏有保护作用.

  16. 心理行为因素对急进高原救灾官兵急性高原反应状况的影响%Study on acute mountain sickness and the psychological factors in the relief force during the initial phase of acute plateau exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高存友; 甘景梨; 赵兰民; 王丽杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解急进高原抗震救灾官兵的急性高原反应状况,并探讨其心理行为相关影响因素,为进一步研究预防措施提供参考依据.方法 整群随机抽取玉树抗震救灾某部162名官兵为研究对象,根据军标GJB1098-9急性高原反应的诊断和处理原则判断官兵的急性高原反应状况,采用一般情况调查表、症状自评量表(SCL-90)和生活事件量表(LES)调查相关因素.结果 救灾官兵急性高原反应的检出率为65.4%,其中轻度17.3%、中度31.5%、重度16.7%.临床表现中以气短、心慌、头昏、口唇发绀和头痛等症状最为多见,在救灾官兵中出现比率分别为83.6%、79.1%、73.1%、61.2%和58.2%.急性高原反应总计分与年龄、婚姻、心理创伤史,LES负性事件,SCL-90总分及其躯体化、强迫、抑郁、焦虑、敌对、恐怖、偏执、食欲睡眠等因子呈显著正相关(r值为0.188~0.619,P<0.01或0.05),与兴趣爱好、社会支持呈显著负相关(r值分别为-0.254,-0.285,P<0.01).多元逐步回归分析显示SCL-90的躯体化因子,兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素进入回归方程.结论 大部分救灾官兵存在明显的急性高原反应,躯体化症状、兴趣爱好、婚姻、社会支持和年龄等因素对官兵的急性高原反应状况影响较大.%Objective To investigate the acute mountain sickness of servicemen during"4.14"Yushu earhquake relief work,and analyze the related factors of the sickness at the initial phase of acute plateau exposure.Methods 162 servicemen were sampled randomly and clusteringly from Yushu relief force during.the inidal phase of acute plateau exposure.According to the"Diagnosis and treatment principles of the acute mountain sickness",the prevalence of the acute mountain sickness was judged among the servicemen.The scales of general status invested score(GSIS),the self-rating symptom scale(SCL-90)and the life event scale(LES)were used to investigate the

  17. Preliminary Model of Acute Mountain Sickness Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    variance, the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were utilized in selecting the final model using the... information and completed an Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ). The ESQ assessed AMS severity using the validated AMS-Cerebral (AMS-C) factor...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  18. Incidence of chronic mountain sickness in soldiers garrisoned at 5,000 m above sea level%海拔5000m以上驻防官兵慢性高原病患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王引虎; 阳盛洪; 冯英凯; 张东; 杨海军; 高亮

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence of chronic mountain sickness( CMS )in soldiers garrisoned in Karakorum Mountains at the altitude of over 5,000 m,and to provide evidence for making preventative measures. Methods According to Qing Hai diagnostic standards of CMS, 223 soldiers garrisoned in Karakorum Mountains for 1 year received health examination. The examination results were compared with the results investigated in 2005. Results Among the 223 soldiers,45 ones were diagnosed CMS,and the incidence was 20. 2% . The CMS incidence of 5,380 m group,5,200 m group and 5,100 m group was 29. 6% ,35. 2% and 30. 8% , respectively,and they were significantly higher than those of 4,300 m group( 4. 1% )and 3 ,700 m group( 7. 4% )( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01 ). The hemoglobin content of 5,380 m group,5,200 m group and 5,100 m group was( 196. 7 ± 21. 0 )g/L,( 200. 0 ± 18. 1 )g/L and( 197. 6 ± 17. 1 )g/L,respectively, and they were also significantly higher than those of 4,300 m group( 180. 1 ± 15. 2 )g/L and 3 ,700 m group( 183. 6 ± 17. 2 )g/L( P <0. 01 ). Compared with the investigated results 5 years ago, the incidence of CMS decreased significantly in this research,in which the rate of 5,380 m group decreased from 85.7% to 29. 6% and 4,300 m group decreased from 43. 5% to 4. 1% ( P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion Compared with 5 years ago, the general health of soldiers garrisoned in Karakorum Mountains improved significantly. However,the research on healthy protection of soldiers at the altitude above 5,000 m should be paid great attention.%目的 了解喀喇昆仑山海拔5000 m以上驻防官兵慢性高原病(CMS)发病情况,为制定针对性防治措施提供依据.方法 依据CMS青海标准,对喀喇昆仑山驻防1年的223名官兵进行健康检查,并与2005年的调查结果 进行比较分析.结果 223名官兵中,45人患有CMS,患病率为20.2%.其中海拔5380 m组、5200 m组、5100 m组CMS患病率分别为29.6%、35.2%、30.8%,显著高于海拔4300 m组(4

  19. Reassessing rainfall in the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Local and global ecohydrological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.; Scholl, Martha A.; Gonzalez, Grizelle; Torres-Sanchez, Angel J.

    2017-01-01

    Mountains receive a greater proportion of precipitation than other environments, and thus make a disproportionate contribution to the world’s water supply. The Luquillo Mountains receive the highest rainfall on the island of Puerto Rico and serve as a critical source of water to surrounding communities. The area’s role as a long-term research site has generated numerous hydrological, ecological, and geological investigations that have been included in regional and global overviews that compare tropical forests to other ecosystems. Most of the forest- and watershed-wide estimates of precipitation (and evapotranspiration, as inferred by a water balance) have assumed that precipitation increases consistently with elevation. However, in this new analysis of all known current and historical rain gages in the region, we find that similar to other mountainous islands in the trade wind latitudes, leeward (western) watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains receive lower mean annual precipitation than windward (eastern) watersheds. Previous studies in the Luquillo Mountains have therefore overestimated precipitation in leeward watersheds by up to 40%. The Icacos watershed, however, despite being located at elevations 200–400 m below the tallest peaks and to the lee of the first major orographic barrier, receives some of the highest precipitation. Such lee-side enhancement has been observed in other island mountains of similar height and width, and may be caused by several mechanisms. Thus, the long-reported discrepancy of unrealistically low rates of evapotranspiration in the Icacos watershed is likely caused by previous underestimation of precipitation, perhaps by as much as 20%. Rainfall/runoff ratios in several previous studies suggested either runoff excess or runoff deficiency in Luquillo watersheds, but this analysis suggests that in fact they are similar to other tropical watersheds. Because the Luquillo Mountains often serve as a wet tropical archetype in global

  20. Pre- and Post-Hurricane Fruit Availability: Implications for Puerto Rican Parrots in the Luquillo Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JR WUNDERLE

    1999-01-01

    Fruit availability on 25 plant species, consumed or potentially consumed by the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata), was studied to document the seasonal and annual variation in fruit production in the Luquillo Mountains. In the 33 months before Hurricane Hugo, an annual cycle in the number of species with ripe fruit was evident, with a peak in October-February and a...

  1. Implications of environmental program planning for siting a nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Charles R.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to conduct site characterization studies at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine if the location is a suitable site for a nuclear waste repository. In lieu of traditional environmental review in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the DOE is relying on an environmental assessment (EA) mandated by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 as the cornerstone of its environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Because of statutory restrictions, the EA is not based on comprehensive baseline information. Neither does it address fundamentals of environmental analysis such as ecological integrity and assessment of cumulative impacts. Consequently, the present environmental program for Yucca Mountain reflects decisions made without complete information and integrated environmental review. The shortcomings of the program risk compromising the natural integrity of Yucca Mountain and invalidating future assessment of the ability of a nuclear waste repository located at the site to protect the environment. Significant improvements are needed in the repository siting program before it can serve as a model of how society can evaluate the long-term environmental consequences of advanced technologies, as has been suggested.

  2. Small mammal communities and habitat selection in Northern Rocky Mountain bunchgrass: Implications for exotic plant invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega; Kevin S. McKelvey; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture and development have dramatically reduced the range of native bunchgrass habitats in the Northern Rocky Mountains, and the invasion of exotic plants threatens to greatly alter the remaining pristine prairie. Small mammals play many important roles in ecosystem functions, but little is known about small mammal community composition and structure in native...

  3. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  4. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Directory Resources Resources for Travelers Adventure Travel Animal Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold ... motion sickness. Adding distractions—controlling breathing, listening to music, or using aromatherapy scents such as mint or ...

  5. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  6. Sick of Taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    I estimate a price elasticity of sickness absence. Sick leave is an intensive margin of labor supply where individuals are free to adjust. I exploit variation in tax rates over two decades, which provide thousands of differential incentives across time and space, to estimate the price...... responsiveness. High taxes provide an incentive to take more sick leave, as less after tax income is lost when taxes are high. The panel data, which is representative of the Swedish population, allow for extensive controls including unobserved individual characteristics. I find a substantial price elasticity...... of sick leave, -0.7, with respect to the net of tax rate. Though large relative to traditional labor supply elasticities, Swedes are half as price elastic as bike messengers, and just as elastic as stadium vendors on the margin which they can adjust freely....

  7. Abandoned mines, mountain sports, and climate variability: Implications for the Colorado tourism economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew; McKnight, Diane; Wyatt, Lane

    Until recently, the allure of the mountains in the American West was primarily extractive, for commodities like timber, water, and precious metals [Baron et. al., 2000]. Now, the effective marketing and management of the regions “white gold” by the ski industry has stimulated significant recreation-related growth and development in the last several decades. Under an uncertain climatic future, however, these burgeoning industries, and the communities that have grown up in relation to them, are facing water quality constraints inherited from historical mining practices, causing mountain water to become a limited resource more valuable than the precious metals of the past. Further, the current lack of proven, in-situ approaches for addressing distributed, mining waste pollution of fresh water complicates potential remediation efforts.

  8. Cl-rich minerals in Archean granulite facies ironstones from the Beartooth Mountains, Montana, USA: Implications for fluids involved in granulite metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of Cl-rich minerals in granulite facies rocks are discussed. Results from ironstones of the Beartooth Mountains, Montana are discussed. It is suggested that CO2-brine immiscibility might be applicable to granulite facies conditions, and if so, then aqueous brines might be preferentially adsorbed onto mineral surfaces relative to CO2.

  9. Tourism Impacts of Three Mile Island and Other Adverse Events: Implications for Lincoln County and Other Rural Counties Bisected by Radioactive Wastes Intended for Yucca Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelberger, Jeffery J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes key research implications of Three Mile Island and other major hazard events as related to tourism. Examines how the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will impact tourism in southern Nevada and other visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors. (AIM)

  10. Increasing Hydrologic Drought Severity in Northwestern U.S. Mountain Rivers: Causal Influences and Implications for Drought Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Charles; Kormos, Patrick; Wenger, Seth; Berghuijs, Wouter

    2017-04-01

    One of the expected consequences of a warming climate in the snow covered mountains of the western U.S. is an earlier snowmelt runoff pulse, leading to longer recession times through a dry summer and, consequently, lower summer low-flows. Given the historical decline in snowpacks and advancing timing of streamflows in the region, we tested for trends in low flows in free-flowing rivers in the region since the late 1940s, and further examined the degree to which the low flows have been affected by temperature-driven trends in snowmelt timing versus trends driven by precipitation changes that have also been observed in the region. We found statistically significant declines in monthly mean flows in late summer as well as in 7Q10, the annual weekly minimum flow with a 10-year return interval (after correcting for autocorrelation in time series and testing for field significance). We further examined the relative contribution of temperature driven timing changes versus precipitation trends affecting low flows. While temperature effects are observable, precipitation declines have outweighed the effects of earlier snowmelt on low flows on all rivers so far. The finding is given more weight by contrasting the geography of snowpack sensitivity with basins where drought has become more severe. Given that the region has experienced about 1°C in warming and a 20% decline in mountain precipitation over that period, it is not a surprising finding. An important implication is that water supply and water quality managers cannot interpret historical trends in low-flows as direct analogs for continuing low flow declines related to warming, rather there is a need to explicitly consider uncertainty in future precipitation and local snowpack sensitivity to warming. Related implications relative to drought impacts on forests are discussed.

  11. Modeling the Geochemistry of Red Mountain Creek, Colorado, With Implications for Premining conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, R. L.; Kimball, B. A.; Walton-Day, K.; Verplanck, P. L.

    2004-12-01

    In August of 2002, a synoptic water-quality study was conducted on Red Mountain Creek, an acid mine drainage stream in southwestern Colorado. Data from the study were used to calibrate OTEQ, a reactive solute transport model for streams and small rivers. OTEQ is formed by coupling the OTIS solute transport model with a chemical equilibrium submodel. The submodel is based on MINTEQ, a model that calculates the distribution of aqueous species under chemical equilibrium. The coupled model considers a variety of processes including advection, dispersion, transient storage, transport and deposition of water-borne solid phases, acid/base reactions, complexation, precipitation/dissolution, and sorption. Application of OTEQ to the low-flow dataset from Red Mountain Creek suggests that surface-water sources account for observed changes in stream geochemistry and that most solutes are transported conservatively throughout the study reach. Mass balance calculations and simulation results indicate that four mining-related sources account for 83, 70, and 69 percent of the observed metal loading for aluminum, arsenic, and zinc, respectively. A hypothetical estimate of premining water quality is obtained by performing an additional simulation in which the the four mining-related sources are replaced with a source that represents natural background. Simulation results suggest improved water quality under premining conditions, with increased pH, lower metal concentrations, and non-conservative transport. Despite this hypothetical improvement, dissolved metal concentrations remain elevated and pH remains below 5.0. This finding supports the idea that Red Mountain Creek was acidic and metal-rich prior to mining.

  12. Conservation implications of deforestation across an elevational gradient in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Jaclyn; Burgess, Neil David; Lovett, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Deforestation is a major threat to the conservation of biodiversity, especially within global centers of endemism for plants and animals. Elevation, the major environmental gradient in mountain regions of the world, produces a rapid turnover of species, where some species may exist only in narrow...... habitat in their elevational range. When elevational range is considered, 98 (80%) of these endemic forest trees should have their level of extinction threat elevated on the IUCN Red List. Conservation efforts in montane hotspots need to consider the extent of habitat changes both within and across...

  13. Discovery of Enclaves from Cenozoic Pulu Volcanic Rocks in West Kunlun Mountains and Its Geological Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present the occurrence and mineral components of the enclaves firstly discovered in the Cenozoic Pulu volcanic rocks in west Kunlun Mountains, and propose that the enclave is accumulated by fractional crystallization within high-level magma chamber. In addition, the chemical compositions of its primary magma are calculated. The calculated compositions are similar to those of the Kangxiwa volcanic rocks that belong to the same volcanic belt in the Pulu volcanic region, suggesting their origin from the same source region. However, the temperatures and oxygen fugacity of magmas at high-level magma chamber decreased along with fractional crystallization.

  14. On the hydrological properties of mountain soils, from measurement to the geotechnical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barontini Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at contributing with a hydrological perspective to the geotechnical investigation in mountain environments, particularly focusing on landslides triggered by perched water tables, we present some findings of a longlasting experimental and theoretical investigation of mountain—soils hydrology. After recalling a theoretical framework suitable to describe the hydrology of shallow, sloping and heterogeneous soils, we discuss some relevant difficulties concerning the measurement of the hydrological properties of heterogeneous and non mature soils, and we finally focus on the role played by the soil heterogeneity in the perched water tables onset.

  15. Variation in fire regimes of the rocky mountains: Implications for avian communities and fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, V.A.; Powell, H.D.W.; Kotliar, N.B.; Newlon, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    Information about avian responses to fire in the U.S. Rocky Mountains is based solely on studies of crown fires. However, fire management in this region is based primarily on studies of low-elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests maintained largely by frequent understory fires. In contrast to both of these trends, most Rocky Mountain forests are subject to mixed severity fire regimes. As a result, our knowledge of bird responses to fire in the region is incomplete and skewed toward ponderosa pine forests. Research in recent large wildfires across the Rocky Mountains indicates that large burns support diverse avifauna. In the absence of controlled studies of bird responses to fire, we compared reproductive success for six cavity-nesting species using results from studies in burned and unburned habitats. Birds in ponderosa pine forests burned by stand-replacement fire tended to have higher nest success than individuals of the same species in unburned habitats, but unburned areas are needed to serve species dependent upon live woody vegetation, especially foliage gleaners. Over the last century, fire suppression, livestock grazing, and logging altered the structure and composition of many low-elevation forests, leading to larger and more severe burns. In higher elevation forests, changes have been less marked. Traditional low-severity prescribed fire is not likely to replicate historical conditions in these mixed or high-severity fire regimes, which include many mixed coniferous forests and all lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and spruce-fir (Picea-Abies) forests. We suggest four research priorities: (1) the effects of fire severity and patch size on species' responses to fire, (2) the possibility that postfire forests are ephemeral sources for some bird species, (3) the effect of salvage logging prescriptions on bird communities, and (4) experiments that illustrate bird responses to prescribed fire and other forest restoration methods. This research is

  16. Dental fluorosis in the Blue Mountains and Hawkesbury, New South Wales, Australia: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ikreet S; Dennison, Peter J; Evans, R Wendell

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the adjustment of the fluoride concentration to 1 ppm in the drinking water supplied to the Blue Mountains, New South Wales, Australia in 1993 was associated with fluorosis incidence. In 2003, children attending schools in the Blue Mountains and a control region (fluoridated in 1967) that had been randomly selected at baseline in 1992 were examined for dental fluorosis (maxillary central incisors only) using Dean's index. A fluoride history for each child was obtained by questionnaire. Associations between fluorosis and 58 potential explanatory variables were explored. The response rate was 63%. A total of 1138 children aged from 7 to 11 years with erupted permanent central incisors were examined for dental fluorosis. Fluorosis prevalence was the same in both regions. The Community Index of Dental Fluorosis values were slightly different, but were both above 0.6, indicative of public health concern. For the group as a whole, we concluded that: (a) fluorosis prevalence (0.39) in both regions was similar; and (b) the higher-than-expected prevalence and severity of fluorosis was due mainly to two factors: (a) the higher-than-optimal fluoride level in drinking water; and (b) swallowing of fluoride toothpaste in early childhood. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Detrital mineral chronology of the Uinta Mountain Group: Implications for the Grenville flood in southwestern Laurentia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, P.A.; Foster, D.A.; Mogk, D.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Kamenov, George D.; Vogl, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that large quantities of Grenville-age detritus dominate Neo-proterozoic to Cambrian arenites in southwest Laurentia (southwestern United States). U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons and 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group also indicate significant Mesoproterozoic detritus mixed with a variably abundant Archean component. Zircons with ages representative of the Paleoproterozoic basement in the eastern Uinta Mountains or the younger Paleoproterozoic rocks of the adjacent Yavapai-Mazatzal terranes were not observed. A limited range of initial ??Hf (???90% between -3 and +3) for Mesoproterozoic zircons suggests derivation from a source region (or regions) characterized by mixing between juvenile and reworked older crust during Grenville orogenesis. The enriched Grenville-age basement proposed to underlie much of southeastern North America may be this source based on similarities of Hf isotopic data from Mesoproterozoic zircons in Mississippi River sand and available paleocurrent data. If so, then disruption of this supply in the Cambrian may be related to Iapetan rifting and, perhaps, the separation of the Precordillera terrane from Laurentia. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  18. Sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjandra Y. Aditama

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Sick building syndrome describes a number of mostly unspesific complaints of some occupants of the building. The exact pathophysiological mechanism remains elusive. It is a multi factorial event which may include physical, chemical, biological as well as psycological factors. In many cases it is due to insufficient maintenance of the HVAC (heating, ventilation, air conditioning system in the building. Sign and symptoms can be uncomfortable and even disabling, which may include mucus membrane irritation, neurotoxic symptoms, asthma like symptoms, skin complaints, gastrointestinal symptoms and other related symptoms. There are various investigation methods to diagnose sick building syndrome, and on site assessment of the building is extremely useful. Prevention through a proactive air quality monitoring program is far more desirable than dealing with an actual sick building. Indoor air and the sick building symdrome serves as a paradigm of modern occupational and environmental medicine. (Med J Indones 2002; 11:124-31Keywords: indoor air pollution, sick building syndrome, building related illness

  19. Geomorphic Implications of Fire and Slope Aspect in the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, E. P.; Meyer, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Following a fire, extensive erosion may occur on hillslopes due to reduced infiltration and increased runoff as well as a decrease in vegetative anchoring and surface roughness. This increased erosion and subsequent sedimentation on alluvial fans at the base of the hillslope may be the primary process of geomorphic change in fire-prone mountains in the Western US. Insolation differences on north and south facing slopes may also be another potential influence on geomorphic change due to soil moisture and vegetation differences, which may affect the spatial distribution of erosion as well as sediment transport processes. Due to the long recovery period of forest stands in fire-prone areas, it is important to understand the natural variability of erosion for the purposes of forest and river ecology and management as well as mass movement-flooding hazard. The 2002 Lakes Fire area in the Jemez Mountains, NM, provides a natural study area with incision of alluvial fans after the Lakes Fire exposing the internal structure of these fans. The study area displays steeper, drier ponderosa pine dominated south-facing slopes and less steep, moister Douglas-fir dominated north-facing slopes, which suggests that slope aspect may influence fire regime and post-fire erosion in the Jemez Mountains. In order to determine the importance of fire and aspect on erosion and sedimentation, over 15 sections within alluvial fans with both north and south aspect were studied. Debris flow, hyperconcentrated flow and stream flow make up the majority of sediment transport processes in this area. Therefore, deposits formed by these processes were described, and evidence for fire-related sedimentation was assessed. Additionally, the relative importance of sediment transport types in relation to north versus south slope aspects was examined. Finally, charcoal fragments within deposits from north and south aspects were analyzed in terms of their abundance and angularity in order to aid in estimating

  20. Fatty acids in mountain gorilla diets: implications for primate nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Whitney B; Petzinger, Christina; Power, Michael L; Hyeroba, David; Rothman, Jessica M

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the fatty acid composition of foods eaten by wild primates. A total of 18 staple foods that comprise 97% of the annual dietary intake of the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei) were analyzed for fatty acid concentrations. Fruits and herbaceous leaves comprise the majority of the diet, with fruits generally having a higher mean percentage of fat (of dry matter; DM), as measured by ether extract (EE), than herbaceous leaves (13.0% ± SD 13.0% vs. 2.3 ± SD 0.8%). The mean daily EE intake by gorillas was 3.1% (DM). Fat provided ≈14% of the total dietary energy intake, and ≈22% of the dietary non-protein energy intake. Saturated fatty acids accounted for 32.4% of the total fatty acids in the diet, while monounsaturated fatty acids accounted for 12.5% and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) accounted for 54.6%. Both of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA, n-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3), were found in all of the 17 staple foods containing crude fat and were among the three most predominant fatty acids in the diet: LA (C18:2n-6) (30.3%), palmitic acid (C16:0) (23.9%), and ALA (C18:3n-3) (21.2%). Herbaceous leaves had higher concentrations of ALA, while fruit was higher in LA. Fruits provided high amounts of fatty acids, especially LA, in proportion to their intake due to the higher fat concentrations; despite being low in fat, herbaceous leaves provided sufficient ALA due to the high intake of these foods. As expected, we found that wild mountain gorillas consume a diet lower in EE, than modern humans. The ratio of LA:ALA was 1.44, closer to agricultural paleolithic diets than to modern human diets. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The variations of aluminium species in mountainous forest soils and its implications to soil acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradová, Monika; Tejnecký, Václav; Borůvka, Luboš; Němeček, Karel; Ash, Christopher; Šebek, Ondřej; Svoboda, Miroslav; Zenáhlíková, Jitka; Drábek, Ondřej

    2015-11-01

    Aluminium (Al) speciation is a characteristic that can be used as a tool for describing the soil acidification process. The question that was answered is how tree species (beech vs spruce) and type of soil horizon affect Al speciation. Our hypotesis is that spruce and beech forest vegetation are able to modify the chemical characteristics of organic horizon, hence the content of Al species. Moreover, these characteristics are seasonally dependent. To answer these questions, a detailed chromatographic speciation of Al in forest soils under contrasting tree species was performed. The Jizera Mountains area (Czech Republic) was chosen as a representative mountainous soil ecosystem. A basic forestry survey was performed on the investigated area. Soil and precipitation samples (throughfall, stemflow) were collected under both beech and spruce stands at monthly intervals from April to November during the years 2008-2011. Total aluminium content and Al speciation, pH, and dissolved organic carbon were determined in aqueous soil extracts and in precipitation samples. We found that the most important factors affecting the chemistry of soils, hence content of the Al species, are soil horizons and vegetation cover. pH strongly affects the amount of Al species under both forests. Fermentation (F) and humified (H) organic horizons contain a higher content of water extractable Al and Al(3+) compared to organo-mineral (A) and mineral horizons (B). With increasing soil profile depth, the amount of water extractable Al, Al(3+) and moisture decreases. The prevailing water-extractable species of Al in all studied soils and profiles under both spruce and beech forests were organically bound monovalent Al species. Distinct seasonal variations in organic and mineral soil horizons were found under both spruce and beech forests. Maximum concentrations of water-extractable Al and Al(3+) were determined in the summer, and the lowest in spring.

  2. [Serum sickness in diphtheria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozianova, Zh I; Chepilko, K I

    1999-01-01

    As many as 2247 patients with different clinical forms of diphtheria were examined. Antidiphtheric serum (ADS) was administered in 1556 children, the dosage being determined by condition of the patient. Serum sickness developed at day 7 to 9 in 24 (1.5%); 10 patients were found to run a mild course, 14--moderately severe. 6 patients had allergic reactions: 3--to antibiotic (penicillin), urticaria type, 1--to pertussoid-tetanic anatoxin, 2 had pollinosis-type reaction. Thus, serum sickness has practical value, which fact requires a detailed allergic history together with skin tests to be performed before the administration of ADS.

  3. Social inequalities in "sickness"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    -employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude......In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies...

  4. Aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in southern Appalachian Mountain streams: implications for trout food resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric D. Romaniszyn; John J. Jr. Hutchens; J. Bruce Wallance

    2007-01-01

    We characterised aquatic and terrestrial invertebrate drift in six south-western North Carolina streams and their implications for trout production. Streams of this region typically have low standing stock and production of trout because of low benthic productivity. However, little is known about the contribution of terrestrial invertebrates entering drift, the factors...

  5. Rapid ice-rock avalanches versus gradual glacial processes? Implications for the natural hazard potential in the Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturrizaga, Lasafam

    2016-04-01

    that complex geomorphological processes, consisting of a glacier advance and followed by glacier lake outbursts and ice avalanches, contributed to the formation of the hummocky debris landforms. The Kit-ke-Jerav and Yishkuk Glaciers in the upper Chapursan Valley seem to have experienced extraordinary fluctuations in historical and recent times. The new findings on past processes forming large-scaled debris accumulations have wider implications for the recent hazard potential of settlements located in glaciated high mountain regions, especially in seismic active regions.

  6. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van der Geest; S. Vandamme

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to sick

  7. The nitrate export in subtropical mountainous catchment: implication for land use change impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Huang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activity is the dominant factor affecting water quality and nitrate export, which causes eutrophication and episodic acidification in downstream water bodies (e.g., reservoirs, lakes, and coastal zones. However, in subtropical mountainous areas such environmental impact due to the land use change was rarely documented. In this study, we investigated 16 sub-catchments during 2007 and 2008 in the Chi-Chia-Wan catchment where is the sole habitat for the endemic species, Formosan landlocked salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus.

    The results revealed that the NO3-N concentration in pristine catchments varied from 0.144 to 0.151 mg/L without significant seasonal variation. This concentration was comparable with other forestry catchments around the world. However, the annual nitrate export was around 375.3–677.1 kg/km2/yr, much higher than other catchments due to the greater amount of rainfall. This is an important baseline for comparisons with other climate areas. As for the impact of agricultural activities, the catchments with some human disturbance, ~5.2% of the catchment area, might yield 5947.2 kg N/km2/yr – over 10-times higher than that of pristine catchment. Such high export caused by such a low level of disturbance might indicate that subtropical mountainous area is highly sensitive to agricultural activities. As for the land-use effect on nitrate yield, the forestry land might yield 488.5 ± 325.1 kg/km2/yr and the vegetable farm could yield 298 465.4 ± 3347.2 kg/km2/yr – 1000-times greater than the forestry. The estimated nitrate yields for land use classes were a crucial basis and useful for the land manager to assess the possible impacts (e.g., non-point source pollution evaluation and the recovery of land expropriation.

  8. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  9. Precise Timing of Caledonian Structural Deformation Chronology and Its Implications in Southeast Qilian Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Guangming; Lei Dongning

    2007-01-01

    The middle Qilian orogenic belt and Lajishan orogenic belt, both of which were formed in the Caledonian, strike NW-SE direction across southeast Qilian Mountains and their basement consists of pre-Caledonian metamorphic rocks with lozenge-shaped ductile shear zones in the crystalline basement. The blunt angle between the conjugated ductile shear zones ranges from 104° to 114°, indicating approximate 210° of the maximum principal stress. The plateau ages of muscovite 40Ar/39Ar obtained from the mylonitized rocks in the ductile shear zones of Jinshaxia-Hualong-Keque massif within the middle Qilian massif are (405.1±2.4) Ma and (418.3±2.8) Ma, respectively. The chronology data confirm the formation of ductile shear zones in the Caledonian basement metamorphic rocks during the Caledonian orogeny. Furthermore, on the basis of basement rock study, precise timing for the dosing of the Late Paleozoic volcanic basin (or island-arc basin) and Lajishan ocean basin is determined. This provides us a new insight into the closing of ocean basin in the structural evolution of orogenic belt.

  10. Biogenic iron mineralization at Iron Mountain, CA with implications for detection with the Mars Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Alpers, Charles N.; Campbell, Kate M.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    (Introduction) Microbe-mineral interactions and biosignature preservation in oxidized sulfidic ore bodies (gossans) are prime candidates for astrobiological study. Such oxidized iron systems have been proposed as analogs for some Martian environments. Recent studies identified microbial fossils preserved as mineral-coated filaments. This study documents microbially-mediated mineral biosignatures in hydrous ferric oxide (HFO) and ferric oxyhydroxysulfates (FOHS) in three environments at Iron Mountain, CA. We investigated microbial community preservation via HFO and FOHS precipitation and the formation of filamentous mineral biosignatures. These environments included 1) actively precipitating (1000's yrs), naturally weathered HFO from in situ gossan, and 3) remobilized iron deposits, which contained lithified clastics and zones of HFO precipitate. We used published biogenicity criteria as guidelines to characterize the biogenicity of mineral filaments. These criteria included A) an actively precipitating environment where microbes are known to be coated in minerals, B) presence of extant microbial communities with carbon signatures, C) structures observable as a part of the host rock, and D) biological morphology, including cellular lumina, multiple member population, numerous taxa, variable and 3-D preservation, biological size ranges, uniform diameter, and evidence of flexibility. This study explores the relevance and detection of these biosignatures to possible Martian biosignatures. Similar filamentous biosignatures are resolvable by the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, and may be identifiable as biogenic if present on Mars.

  11. Analysis of nitrogen saturation potential in Rocky Mountain tundra and forest: implications for aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Ojima, Dennis S.; Holland, Elisabeth A.; Parton, William J.

    1994-01-01

    We employed grass and forest versions of the CENTURY model under a range of N deposition values (0.02–1.60 g N m−2 y−1) to explore the possibility that high observed lake and stream N was due to terrestrial N saturation of alpine tundra and subalpine forest in Loch Vale Watershed, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado. Model results suggest that N is limiting to subalpine forest productivity, but that excess leachate from alpine tundra is sufficient to account for the current observed stream N. Tundra leachate, combined with N leached from exposed rock surfaces, produce high N loads in aquatic ecosystems above treeline in the Colorado Front Range. A combination of terrestrial leaching, large N inputs from snowmelt, high watershed gradients, rapid hydrologic flushing and lake turnover times, and possibly other nutrient limitations of aquatic organisms constrain high elevation lakes and streams from assimilating even small increases in atmospheric N. CENTURY model simulations further suggest that, while increased N deposition will worsen the situation, nitrogen saturation is an ongoing phenomenon.

  12. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions of eclogites from the Dabie Mountains and geodynamic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑永飞; 傅斌; 龚冰; 肖益林; 葛宁洁; 李曙光

    1997-01-01

    Heterogeneous δ18O values as low as - 2.6‰ to + 7.0‰ are observed for ultrahigh pressure eclog-ites from the Dabie Mountains in East China. Oxygen isotope equilibrium has been approached between the eclogite minerals, suggesting that the rocks would have acquired the unusual δ18O values prior to ultrahigh pressure metamor-phism by interaction with 18O-depleted fluid. δD values of bydroxyl-bearing are between -51‰ and - 83‰, precluding the possibility of paleoseawater involvement. The only likely fluid is ancient meteoric water that exchanged oxygen isotopes with the eclogite precursor (a kind of basaltic rocks) formerly resident on the continental crust. This suggests a crystal recycling process in the suture zone of plate subduction. Because silicate minerals undergo rapid oxygen isotope exchange at mantle pressures, preservation of the isotopic signature of meteoric water in the eclogites indicates limited crust-mantle interaction and thus a short residence time (<20 Ma) when the plate containi

  13. Implication of Groundwater Resources Utilization in Mountainous Region for Slopeland Disaster Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chao; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, groundwater resources from mountainous regions have been considered as an alternative water resource in Taiwan. According to previous research outcomes (Hsu, 2011), such a groundwater resource is capable of providing stable and high quality water resources. Additionally, another advantage of using the water resources is attributed to the contribution of slopeland disaster prevention. While pumping groundwater as water resources in hilly areas (e.g., at landslide-prone sites), pore-water pressures can be dropped, which can result in stabilizing landslide-prone slopes. However, the benefit to slope stability by using groundwater resources needs to be quantified. The purpose of this study is to investigate groundwater potential of a deep-seated landslide site first, and then to evaluate variations of slope stability by changing well pumping rate conditions. In this paper, the Baolong landslide site located at the Jiasian district of Kaohsiung city in Southern Taiwan has been selected as a case study. Hydrogeological investigation for the landslide site was conducted to clarify the complexity of field characteristics and to establish a precise conceptual model for simulation. The investigation content includes surficial geology investigation, borehole drilling (6 drilling boreholes and 350 meters drilling length in total), 45 m pumping well construction, borehole hydrogeological tests (borehole televiewer, caliper, borehole electrical logging, sonic logging, flowmeter measurement, pumping test, and double packer test), and laboratory tests from rock core samples (physical properties test of soil and rocks, triaxial permeability test of soil, porosity determination test using helium, and gas permeability test). Based on the aforementioned investigation results, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the Baolong landslide site was constructed, and a 2D slope stability model coupled with transient seepage flow model was used for numerical simulation to

  14. Isotopic and morphological investigations of a Bison bonasus skull, Bihor Mountains, Romania: paleoenvironmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Guja, Ovidiu; Pelc, Andrzej; Piotrowska, Natalia; Vasile, Ştefan

    2015-04-01

    In this study we investigated morphologically and geochemically a skull from an open pit situated on a karst plateau area in the Bihor Mountains. The study presents the first raiocarbon dating and stable isotope composition of bison skeletal remains from the Romanian Carpathians. Due to the wiggles in calibration curve, the result of radiocarbondetermination yielded two relevant maxima of the probability distribution of calendar age. Even when analyzing the 95.4% range, two maxima can be distinguished, although both are quite narrow: one is around AD 1550 and the second around AD 1645. These ages indicate that the investigated bison died during the Little Ice Age (LIA), approximately 200 years before the last ones were hunted to extinction in the Carpathians. Stable isotope composition of carbon from bison tooth enamel suggests that the bison diet consisted exclusively of C3 grasses, compatible with a high altitude habitat and low mobility. Calculated mean annual temperature (MAT) temperature using carbon stable isotope composition of enamel is is lower than the present one measured for the same area. Oxygen isotope composition of enamel indicates that the bison drank from stagnant water sources, such as lakes or puddles formed from rain water. This further suggests low mobility of the bison as well, as the presence of such small stagnant water sources is characteristic even today for the karst Plateau area. Calculated oxygen isotope compositions of rain and drinking water at the time the bison lived indicate a lower relative humidity, around 60-70% at the level of LIA, which is lower than today's humidity of 80%.

  15. Controls on Valley Width in Mountainous Landscapes: The Role of Landsliding and Implications for Salmonid Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C. L.; Roering, J. J.; Eaton, L. S.; Burnett, K.

    2012-12-01

    A fundamental yet unresolved question in fluvial geomorphology is what controls the width of valleys in mountainous terrain. Establishing a predictive relation for valley width is critical for realizing linkages between aquatic ecology and geomorphology because the most productive riverine habitats often occur in low gradient streams with broad floodplains. Working in the Oregon Coast Range, we used 1m resolution airborne lidar to explore controls on valley width and couple these findings with previously published models of salmon habitat potential. We defined how valley floor width varies with drainage area in a catchment that exhibits relatively uniform ridge-and-valley topography sculpted primarily by shallow landslides and debris flows. Above drainage areas of 0.1 km2, valley width increases as a power-law function of drainage area with an exponent of ~0.6. As a result, valley width increases more rapidly downstream than channel width (exponent ~0.4), as defined by local hydraulic geometry. At low drainage areas, valley width is relatively constant, reflecting the signature of debris flows. We used this 'baseline' valley width-drainage area function to determine how ancient deep-seated landslides in a nearby catchment influence valley width. Anomalously wide valleys tend to occur upstream of and adjacent to large landslides while downstream valley segments are narrower than predicted from our baseline relation. According to coho salmon habitat potential models, broad valley segments associated with deep-seated landsliding resulted in a greater proportion of the channel network hosting productive habitat. Because large landslides in this area are structurally controlled, our findings suggest a strong link between geologic properties and aquatic habitat realized by geomorphic processes.

  16. Rehabilitation of a debris-flow prone mountain stream in southwestern China - Strategies, effects and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-an; Huang, He Qing; Wang, Zhaoyin; Brierley, Gary; Zhang, Kang

    2012-01-01

    SummaryRehabilitation of Shengou Creek, a small, steep mountain stream in southwestern China that is prone to debris flows, started more than 30 years ago through an integrated program of engineering applications (check dams and guiding dikes), biological measures (reforestation), and social measures (reducing human disturbance). Small and medium-sized check dams and guiding dikes were constructed on key upper and middle sections of the creek to stabilize hillslopes and channel bed. Meanwhile, Leucaena leucocephala, a drought-tolerant, fast-growing, and highly adaptive plant species, was introduced to promote vegetation recovery in the watershed. The collective community structure of tree, shrub, and herb assemblages in the artificial L. leucocephala forest, which developed after 7 years, enhanced soil structure and drastically reduced soil erosion on hillslopes. Cultivation of steep land was strictly controlled in the basin, and some inhabitants were encouraged to move from upstream areas to downstream towns to reduce disturbance. These integrated measures reduced sediment supply from both hillslopes and upstream channels, preventing sediment-related hazards. The development of natural streambed resistance structures (mainly step-pool systems) and luxuriant riparian vegetation aided channel stability, diversity of stream habitat, and ecological maintenance in the creek. These findings are compared with Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, two adjacent non-rehabilitated debris-flow streams which have climate and geomorphologic conditions similar to Shengou Creek. Habitat diversity indices, taxa richness, biodiversity, and bio-community indices are much higher in Shengou Creek relative to Jiangjia and Xiaobaini Ravines, attesting to the effectiveness of rehabilitation measures.

  17. Female sickness absenteeism in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indulski, J A; Szubert, Z

    1996-01-01

    It is observed that the working activity period has recently been decreasing in Poland; this applies to both the male and female populations. Since women constitute 48% of all workers employed in the national economy, this tendency may pose an important problem for the community and public health. The main information source for the absenteeism analysis are medical certificates which in Poland obligatorily document every instance of a sick-leave from work, irrespective of the length of sickness. A 15% random sample of all sickness certificates constitutes a database for the monitoring system of sickness absence. The lost time rate is the main parameter analysed by the system. In 1994 the rate of female sickness absence in Poland amounted to 25.1 days per one employee. In Poland the main causes of female sickness absence are: respiratory diseases--18% of all sickness absence (in the 16-19 age group--49%), and disorders of female genital tract and complications of pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium (17% of all sickness absence and 48% in the 20-29 age group). The most important chronic diseases that substantially contribute to the level of sickness absence include: musculoskeletal diseases (15%), diseases of the circulatory system (15%) and the nervous system and sense organs (11%). Over the period of 1990-1994 the highest rate of the female sickness absence related to gynecological diseases and pregnancy complications (mean annual increase--22%), and the musculoskeletal diseases (mean annual increase--10%).

  18. Interleukin-10 modulates the synthesis of inflammatory mediators in the sensory circumventricular organs: implications for the regulation of fever and sickness behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harden Lois M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whereas the role played by interleukin (IL-10 in modulating fever and sickness behavior has been linked to it targeting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the circulation, liver and spleen, it is not known whether it could directly target the local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the sensory circumventricular organs (CVOs situated within the brain, but outside the blood–brain barrier. Using inactivation of IL-10, we, therefore, investigated whether IL-10 could modulate the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the sensory CVOs, in particular the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT and area postrema (AP. Findings Primary OVLT and AP microcultures were established from topographically excised rat pup brain tissue. The microcultures were pretreated with either IL-10 antibodies (AB (10 μl/350 μl medium or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS (10 μl/350 μl medium before being incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS (100 μg/ml or PBS in complete medium for 6 h. Supernatants were removed from the microcultures after 6 h of incubation with LPS and used for the determination of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Pre-treating the OVLT and AP microcultures with IL-10 antibodies significantly enhanced the LPS-induced increase in TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant obtained from the microcultures. Conclusions Our results show for the first time that the LPS-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cells cultured from the AP and OVLT can be modulated in the presence of IL-10 antibodies. Thus, we have identified that the sensory CVOs may have a key role to play in both the initiation and modulation of neuroinflammation.

  19. Sick as a Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    当形容一个人病得很重时,英语中有这样的说法:Sick as a dog,为什么人们会用"狗"来表示"生病"的意思呢?原来,英语中dog一词有时含有贬义,比如:俚语going to the dogs,表示"糟糕透顶";dog in the manger,表示"犬占马槽、自私自利"的意思。

  20. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  1. Sickness and love: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Vandamme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Love is a neglected topic in anthropology, for good reasons: it has always resisted scientific definition and analysis. By associating love with sickness seven authors attempt to capture various meanings and experiences of love. Two broad concepts arise: love as sickness and love in response to

  2. Cinerama sickness and postural instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Ledegang, W.D.; Lubeck, A.J.A.; Stins, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness symptoms and increased postural instability induced by motion pictures have been reported in a laboratory, but not in a real cinema. We, therefore, carried out an observational study recording sickness severity and postural instability in 19 subjects before, immediately and 45 min af

  3. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  4. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  5. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region,Northern Qiangtang depression:Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The vitric tuff from the base of these strata gives a SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age of 216 ± 4.5 Ma, which represents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain, as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  6. Chronology and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks in Woruo Mountain region, Northern Qiangtang depression: Implications to the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; FU XiuGen; CHEN WenXi; WANG ZhengJiang; TAN FuWen; CHEN Ming; ZHUO JieWen

    2008-01-01

    A suite of sedimentary-volcaniclastic rocks intercalated with the volcanic rocks unconformably overlies the Triassic Xiaochaka Formation in the Woruo Mountain region, Qiangtang Basin, northern Tibet. The sents the age of the Late Triassic volcanic-sedimentary events in the Woruo Mountain region, and is consistent with that of the formation of the volcanic rocks from the Nadi Kangri Formation in the Nadigangri-Shishui River zone. There is a striking similarity in geochemical signatures of the volcanic rocks from the Woruo Mountain region and its adjacent Nadigangri-Shishui River zone, indicating that all the volcanic rocks from the Qiangtang region might have the same magmatic source and similar tectonic setting during the Late Triassic. The proper recognition of the Late Triassic large-scale volcanic eruption and volcanic-sedimentary events has important implications for the interpretation of the Late Triassic biotic extinction, climatic changes and regressive events in the eastern Tethyan domain,as well as the understanding of the initiation and nature, and sedimentary features of the Qiangtang Basin during the Late Triassic-Jurassic.

  7. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  8. Sick boat syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowiecki Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic micro-organisms are likely to attack passengers of cruise ships and other vessels or travel between continents as a peculiar type of a “stowaway”. The epidemiological tests conducted since 1987 with regard to watercraft led to the coining of a term known as the Sick Boat Syndrome (SBS. The main illnesses encountered on watercraft include gastrointestinal diseases (foodborne and Legionellosis. Additionally, the ventilation and airconditioning systems of old commercial ships (the so-called Tramps constitute a real technical challenge. Conditioned air (with removed undesired odour and micro-organisms should constitute ca. 25% of circulating air. In practice this situation is not typical for vessels of this class. Unclean air poses a real hazard for the crew.

  9. IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Nikulina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate changes in hereditary burden of sick sinus syndrome (SSS in families of patients with SSS and assess heart rate variability (HRV in patients with SSS.Results. 33 families of patients with SSS were examined. Clinical study, ECG-Holter monitoring, atropine test, transesophageal left atrial stimulation, echocardiography, veloergometry were fulfilled in all probands and their relatives in 1990 and 2005-2006. Cardiorhythmography was done in patients with SSS only in 2005-2006.Results. Increase in hereditary burden with SSS from 31 to 35% is registered during 15 years. Significant growth of patients with SSS was observed among daughters (from 50 to 71%, nephews (from 33 to 50% and nieces (from 0 to 20%. HRV analysis shows prevalence of sympathetic system activity in patients with SSS.Conclusion. Growth of hereditary burden with SSS especially among female relatives is shown. HRV analysis can be used for SSS diagnostics.

  10. Social inequalities in 'sickness'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wel, Kjetil A. van der; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine educational inequalities in the risk of non-employment among people with illnesses and how they vary between European countries with different welfare state characteristics. In doing so, the paper adds to the growing literature on welfare states and social...... from Eurostat and OECD that include spending on active labour market policies, benefit generosity, income inequality, and employment protection. Using multilevel techniques we find that comprehensive welfare states have lower absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness, as well as more...... inequalities in health by studying the often overlooked ‘sickness’-dimension of health, namely employment behaviour among people with illnesses. We use European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) data from 2005 covering 26 European countries linked to country characteristics derived...

  11. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  12. Source Parameters for Moderate Earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains with Implications for the Depth Extent of Seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A; Brazier, R; Nyblade, A; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2009-02-23

    Six earthquakes within the Zagros Mountains with magnitudes between 4.9 and 5.7 have been studied to determine their source parameters. These events were selected for study because they were reported in open catalogs to have lower crustal or upper mantle source depths and because they occurred within an area of the Zagros Mountains where crustal velocity structure has been constrained by previous studies. Moment tensor inversion of regional broadband waveforms have been combined with forward modeling of depth phases on short period teleseismic waveforms to constrain source depths and moment tensors. Our results show that all six events nucleated within the upper crust (<11 km depth) and have thrust mechanisms. This finding supports other studies that call into question the existence of lower crustal or mantle events beneath the Zagros Mountains.

  13. Bacteriotherapy of acute radiation sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mal' tsev, V.N.; Korshunov, V.M.; Strel' nikov, V.A.; Ikonnikova, T.B.; Kissina, E.V.; Lyannaya, A.M.; Goncharova, G.I.; Pinegin, B.V.

    1979-04-01

    Acute sickness is associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; there is a radical decrease in number of microorganisms of lactic fermentation (bifidobacterium, lactobacillus) and an increase in E. coli proteus, enterococcus, and clostridium. Extensive use is made of live microorganisms in the treatment of various diseases associated with intestinal dysbacteriosis; in the case of acute radiation sickness, yeast, colibacterin, and E. coli have been used. In a number of cases, such therapy increased survival and life expectancy of irradiated animals. In this study, microorganisms of lactic fermentation (lactobacillus, bifidobacterium) and colibacterin were used for treatment of acute radiation sickness.

  14. Mesozoic basin-fill records in south foot of the Dabie Mountains: Implication for Dabie Orogenic attributes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李忠; 李任伟; 孙枢; 张雯华

    2003-01-01

    Five evolutional phases are found from Mesozoic basin-fill sequences in the northern Jianghan basin, the south foot of the Dabie Mountains: (i) Early Triassic to the early period of Late Triassic showing continental shelf marine and paralic deposits; (ii) the middle-late period of Late Triassic indicating the uplift and erosion in compressional tectonic setting; (iii) the late period of Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic showing peneplain terrestrial and fluvial clastic deposits interlayered with coal-seams; (iv) Late-Jurassic to Early-Cretaceous characterized by cycle fills of acidic volcanic rocks interstratified with pyroclastic rocks in intracontinental extension tectonic regime; (v) a lot of coarse clastic deposits similar to molasses occur in Late-Cretaceous mainly. Based on the compositions of detrital sandstones and conglomerates, combined with the analysis of sedimentary facies, it is indicated that most clasts sourced from the Yangtze continent from phase one to phase three, whose provenances are attributed to "recycled orogenic belt" types. On the other hand, detrital assemblages of the fifth phase deposits are mainly related with pre- Mesozoic metamorphic rocks of the Dabie Mountains, subjected to "arc orogenic belt" provenance types. In the Mesozoic basins of the south foot of the Dabie Mountains, it is proved that there are no direct depositional records corresponding to "Late Triassic syn-collisional orogenesis". Molasse depositional records of Upper Cretaceous distinctly reflect post-collisional orogenesis of the Dabie Mountains (intracontinental orogenesis) and intensive exhumation in extensional tectonic regime. This paper further discusses the inconsistent relations existing between basin-fill records at the south and north feet of the Dabie Mountains and the uplift models of the Dabie Mountains published, and indicates their key problems.

  15. Common Mental Disorders in Longterm-Sickness Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    Common Mental Disorders (CMD) such as depression, anxiety, and somatoform disorders impose heavy burdens on individuals and on society in the form of sickness absence. CMD are frequently undetected in primary care which postpone the initiation of proper treatment. This seriously worsens return...... provided, in a randomized controlled design, a psychiatric examination giving feedback to the individuals, primary care, and rehabilitation officers with regard to treatment and rehabilitation. Half of individuals who just had passed eight weeks of continuous sickness absence had a mental disorder of which...... the half was unrecognized. RTW was improved for individuals with an unrecognized CMD and sick-listed from full-time work. A screening instrument was developed and the implications of screening are discussed. The book is of interest for primary care and RTW rehabilitation officers....

  16. Loess in Kunlun Mountains and its implications on desert development and Tibetan Plateau uplift in west China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Xiaomin(方小敏); Lü; Lianqing(吕连清); YANG; Shengli(杨胜利); LI; Jijun(李吉均); AN; Zhisheng(安芷生); JIANG; Pingan(蒋平安); CHEN; Xiuling(陈秀玲)

    2002-01-01

    Loess on the northern slope of Kunlun Mountains is the synchronous deposition of the Taklimakan Desert. The paleomagnetism and climatic records of an over 80 m loess-paleosol sequence on the highest river terrace at the foot of Kunlun Mountains show that the loess formed at ~ 880 ka B.P., suggesting a roughly synchronous occurrence of the present-like air circulation and extremely dry climate and the initial desert. The uplift of the Tibetan-Pamir Plateau and Tian-shan Mountains may initiate these events. The rise of the plateau and adjacent mountains caused the drying and desertification of China inland and Tarim Basin, which was dramatically enhanced at ~ 500 ka B.P., leading the desert to expand to its present scale. Global change just overprints this drying trend. Local climate response to global change both in long-term evolution and glacial-interglacial cycles manifests that the stronger the westerlies, the more the precipitation. But the heat-moisture pattern seems still similar to that in the Asian monsoon region.

  17. Ozone trends in Great Smoky Mountains National Park over the past two decades: Implications for plants and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourly ozone data from five sampling locations in Great Smoky Mountains National Park and one low elevation location adjacent to the Park in NC were analyzed over the period 1989 to 2012 for diurnal and season trends. Sampling locations spanned an elevational range from 564 m at...

  18. The cost of sickness: on the effect of the duration of sick leave on post-sick leave earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald

    2010-05-01

    Studies analysing the effect of the duration of sick leave on subsequent labour market outcomes do not consider the potential endogenous relationship between duration and labour market outcomes. This paper deals with this shortcoming by using a consistent estimator attained through Instrumental Variables methods for estimating the effect of the duration of a sick leave spell on post-sick leave earnings. I use Danish administrative data and a major 2001 reform of the sick leave system as the instrument for duration. I find that the duration of a sick leave spell has both short and long term effects on post-sick leave earnings.

  19. Leptin, a neuroendocrine mediator of immune responses, inflammation, and sickness behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E; French, Susannah S

    2012-08-01

    Effective immune responses are coordinated by interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. Mounting immune, inflammatory, and sickness responses requires substantial energetic investments, and as such, an organism may need to balance energy allocation to these processes with the energetic demands of other competing physiological systems. The metabolic hormone leptin appears to be mediating trade-offs between the immune system and other physiological systems through its actions on immune cells and the brain. Here we review the evidence in both mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates that suggests leptin is involved in regulating immune responses, inflammation, and sickness behaviors. Leptin has also been implicated in the regulation of seasonal immune responses, including sickness; however, the precise physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we discuss recent data in support of leptin as a mediator of seasonal sickness responses and provide a theoretical model that outlines how seasonal cues, leptin, and proinflammatory cytokines may interact to coordinate seasonal immune and sickness responses.

  20. Neogene magnetostratigraphy and rock magnetic study of the Kashi Depression, NW China: Implications to neotectonics in the SW Tianshan Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingqing; Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.; Deng, Tao; Liu, Chengying

    2016-03-01

    The southwest Tianshan Mountains of China are bordered by the Tarim foreland and comprise an actively deforming segment of the India-Asia collisional system. We report a detailed magnetostratigraphic study of the Dashankou section in the Kashi Depression of the Tarim Basin to improve the understanding of the history of sedimentation, denudation, and mountain building in this region. The preferred correlation of the succession with the geomagnetic polarity timescale defines a depositional history between 12.4 and 3.0 Ma with a substantial increase in sedimentation rates identified at ~6.7 Ma corresponding to a pulse of rapid uplift in the southwest Tianshan Mountains. Although climatic changes may have modulated the record during Neogene times, they do not appear to have had an important influence on sediment accumulation rates between 7.0 and 2.6 Ma. Magnetic fabrics identify the influence of a regional stress field imparted by ongoing India-Asia collision in the lower part of the succession contrasting with predominantly sedimentary fabrics in the higher part of the succession. A major clastic influx with a maximum age estimate of ~3.6 Ma comprises the Xiyu conglomerates, and integration with other magnetostratigraphic investigations around the Tianshan demonstrates unambiguously that depositional onset of this coarse clastic episode is diachronous. Hence, the Xiyu Formation cannot be considered as a chronostratigraphic marker related to any specific tectonic or climatic event.

  1. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  2. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Tveito, Torill Helene

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  3. African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Philip Scott; Hamblin, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) causes a non-contagious, infectious insect-borne disease of equids and is endemic in many areas of sub-Saharan Africa and possibly Yemen in the Arabian Peninsula. However, periodically the virus makes excursions beyond its endemic areas and has at times extended as far as India and Pakistan in the east and Spain and Portugal in the west. The vectors are certain species of Culicoides biting midge the most important of which is the Afro-Asiatic species C. imicola. This paper describes the effects that AHSV has on its equid hosts, aspects of its epidemiology, and present and future prospects for control. The distribution of AHSV seems to be governed by a number of factors including the efficiency of control measures, the presence or absence of a long term vertebrate reservoir and, most importantly, the prevalence and seasonal incidence of the major vector which is controlled by climate. However, with the advent of climate-change the major vector, C. imicola, has now significantly extended its range northwards to include much of Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece and has even been recorded from southern Switzerland. Furthermore, in many of these new locations the insect is present and active throughout the entire year. With the related bluetongue virus, which utilises the same vector species of Culicoides this has, since 1998, precipitated the worst outbreaks of bluetongue disease ever recorded with the virus extending further north in Europe than ever before and apparently becoming endemic in that continent. The prospects for similar changes in the epidemiology and distribution of AHSV are discussed.

  4. Sick sinus syndrome: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semelka, Michael; Gera, Jerome; Usman, Saif

    2013-05-15

    Sick sinus syndrome refers to a collection of disorders marked by the heart's inability to perform its pacemaking function. Predominantly affecting older adults, sick sinus syndrome comprises various arrhythmias, including bradyarrhythmias with or without accompanying tachyarrhythmias. At least 50 percent of patients with sick sinus syndrome develop alternating bradycardia and tachycardia, also known as tachy-brady syndrome. Sick sinus syndrome results from intrinsic causes, or may be exacerbated or mimicked by extrinsic factors. Intrinsic causes include degenerative fibrosis, ion channel dysfunction, and remodeling of the sinoatrial node. Extrinsic factors can be pharmacologic, metabolic, or autonomic. Signs and symptoms are often subtle early on and become more obvious as the disease progresses. They are commonly related to end-organ hypoperfusion. Cerebral hypoperfusion is most common, with syncope or near-fainting occurring in about one-half of patients. Diagnosis may be challenging, and is ultimately made by electrocardiographic identification of the arrhythmia in conjunction with the presence of symptoms. If electrocardiography does not yield a diagnosis, inpatient telemetry monitoring, outpatient Holter monitoring, event monitoring, or loop monitoring may be used. Electrophysiologic studies also may be used but are not routinely needed. Treatment of sick sinus syndrome includes removing extrinsic factors, when possible, and pacemaker placement. Pacemakers do not reduce mortality, but they can decrease symptoms and improve quality of life.

  5. Indian Ocean-MORB-type isotopic signature of Yushigou ophiolite in North Qilian Mountains and its implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Qingye; ZHAO Zhidan; ZHANG Hongfei; ZHANG Benren; CHEN Yuelong

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the disputed issue concerning the tectonic affinity of the ancient ocean mantle of North Qilian Mountains (NQM), geochemical and Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic compositions of pillow basalts of the Yushigou Ophiolite (YSGO) suite from NQM have been analyzed systematically. The pillow basalts exhibit tholeiitic characteristics, with flat chondrite-normalized REE patterns ((La/Yb)N = 0.98―1.27). They display no Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf negative anomalies, and show MORB features in 2Nb-Zr/4-Y and Ti/100-Zr-Y×3 tectonic discrimination diagrams. These results indicate that the Yushigou ophiolite is most likely to be formed in a mid-ocean ridge or mature back-arc basin. Their isotopic data show a relatively broad and enriched 87Sr/86Sr (0.70509―0.70700), restricted 143Nd/144Nd (0.512955―0.512978). Pb isotopes are in the range of 206Pb/204Pb (18.054―20.562), 207Pb/204Pb (15.537―15.743) and 208Pb/204Pb (38.068―38.530). These isotopic data imply that the basalts originated from the depleted mantle (DMM), with the involvement of enriched mantle components (mainly EMII). Geochemical comparisons between the basalts in YSGO and the MORB-type basalts of ophiolite suites occurring in the known ancient Tethyan tectonic domain indicate that the ancient oceanic mantle represented by YSGO suite forming in early Paleozoic in the North Qilian Moutains is very similar to the Tethyan mantle in both trace elements and isotopic compositions. The North Qilian Mountains should be a part of the Tethyan tectonic domain in early Paleozoic. This further implies that the Tethyan tectonic domain can be deduced to early Paleozoic in the study area, which will be helpful to discussing the tectonic affinity and evolution of the North Qilian Mountains.

  6. Sub-daily variability of suspended sediment fluxes in small mountainous catchments - implications for community-based river monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Burgos, A.; Navratil, O.

    2010-10-01

    Accurate estimates of suspended sediment yields depend on effective monitoring strategies. In mountainous environments undergoing intense seasonal precipitation, the implementation of such monitoring programs relies primarily on a rigorous study of the temporal variability of fine sediment transport. This investigation focuses on seasonal and short-term sediment variability in a subhumid region of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Intensive hydrosedimentary monitoring was conducted during one year on four contrasting catchments (3 to 630 km2). Analyses revealed significant temporal variability in suspended sediment export over various time scales, with between 63 and 97% of the annual load exported in as little as 2% of the time. Statistical techniques were used to evaluate the sampling frequency required to get reliable annual sediment yield estimates at the four sites. A bi-daily sampling would be required at the outlet of the 630-km2 catchment, whereas in the three smaller catchments (3-12 km2), the achievement of accurate estimates would inevitably require hourly monitoring. At the larger catchment scale, analysis of the sub-daily variability of fine sediment fluxes showed that the frequency of sampling could be lowered by up to 100% (i.e. from bi-daily to daily) if considering a specific and regular sampling time in the day. In contrast, conducting a similar sampling strategy at the three smaller catchments could lead to serious misinterpretation (i.e. up to 1000% error). Our findings emphasise the importance of an analysis of the sub-daily variability of sediment fluxes in mountainous catchments. Characterising this variability may offer useful insights for improving the effectiveness of community-based monitoring strategies in rural areas of developing countries. In regions where historical records based on discrete sampling are available, it may also help assessing the quality of past flux estimates. Finally, the study confirms the global necessity of acquiring

  7. Sub-daily variability of suspended sediment fluxes in small mountainous catchments &ndash implications for community-based river monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvert, C.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Burgos, A.; Navratil, O.

    2011-03-01

    Accurate estimates of suspended sediment yields depend on effective monitoring strategies. In mountainous environments undergoing intense seasonal precipitation, the implementation of such monitoring programs relies primarily on a rigorous study of the temporal variability of fine sediment transport. This investigation focuses on seasonal and short-term variability in suspended sediment flux in a subhumid region of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Intensive monitoring was conducted during one year in four contrasting catchments (3 to 630 km2). Analyses revealed significant temporal variability in suspended sediment export over various time scales, with between 63 and 97% of the annual load exported in as little as 2% of the time. Statistical techniques were used to evaluate the sampling frequency required to get reliable estimates of annual sediment yield at the four sites. A bi-daily sampling scheme would be required at the outlet of the 630 km2 catchment, whereas in the three smaller catchments (3-12 km2), accurate estimates would inevitably require hourly monitoring. At the larger catchment scale, analysis of the sub-daily variability of fine sediment fluxes showed that the frequency of sampling could be lowered by up to 100% (i.e. from bi-daily to daily) if a specific and regular sampling time in the day was considered. In contrast, conducting a similar sampling strategy at the three smaller catchments could lead to serious misinterpretation (i.e. up to 1000% error). Our findings emphasise the importance of an analysis of the sub-daily variability of sediment fluxes in mountainous catchments. Characterising this variability may offer useful insights for improving the effectiveness of community-based monitoring strategies in rural areas of developing countries. In regions where historical records based on discrete sampling are available, it may also help assessing the quality of past flux estimates. Finally, the study confirms the global necessity of acquiring more

  8. Sub-daily variability of suspended sediment fluxes in small mountainous catchments – implications for community-based river monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Navratil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of suspended sediment yields depend on effective monitoring strategies. In mountainous environments undergoing intense seasonal precipitation, the implementation of such monitoring programs relies primarily on a rigorous study of the temporal variability of fine sediment transport. This investigation focuses on seasonal and short-term sediment variability in a subhumid region of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Intensive hydrosedimentary monitoring was conducted during one year on four contrasting catchments (3 to 630 km2. Analyses revealed significant temporal variability in suspended sediment export over various time scales, with between 63 and 97% of the annual load exported in as little as 2% of the time. Statistical techniques were used to evaluate the sampling frequency required to get reliable annual sediment yield estimates at the four sites. A bi-daily sampling would be required at the outlet of the 630-km2 catchment, whereas in the three smaller catchments (3–12 km2, the achievement of accurate estimates would inevitably require hourly monitoring. At the larger catchment scale, analysis of the sub-daily variability of fine sediment fluxes showed that the frequency of sampling could be lowered by up to 100% (i.e. from bi-daily to daily if considering a specific and regular sampling time in the day. In contrast, conducting a similar sampling strategy at the three smaller catchments could lead to serious misinterpretation (i.e. up to 1000% error. Our findings emphasise the importance of an analysis of the sub-daily variability of sediment fluxes in mountainous catchments. Characterising this variability may offer useful insights for improving the effectiveness of community-based monitoring strategies in rural areas of developing countries. In regions where historical records based on discrete sampling are available, it may also help assessing the quality of past flux estimates. Finally, the study confirms the global

  9. Hyperventilation in a motion sickness desensitization program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Bles, W.; Nooij, S.A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: In motion sickness desensitization programs, the motion sickness provocative stimulus is often a forward bending of the trunk on a rotating chair, inducing Coriolis effects. Since respiratory relaxation techniques are applied successfully in these courses, we investigated whether these

  10. Bat guano deposit Holocene datings in the south Carpathian mountains (Romania). Tectonic implications; Datations d`un depot de guano holocene dans les Carpates meridionales (Roumanie). Implications tectoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonnel, J.P. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France); Olive, Ph. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Centre de recherches geodynamiques; Decu, V.G. [Institut de Speleologie ``Emile-Racovitza``, Bucarest (Romania); Klein, D. [Universite de Franche-Comte, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1999-03-01

    Two {sup 14}C datings in a 2.5 m thick bat guano deposit indicate the Boreal period for the beginning of the deposit. The bat colony of the cave of Adam (Pestera lui Adam, Baile Herculane, south Carpathian Mountains) is one of the oldest permanent bat colonies in Europe, probably established just after the last Ice Age. Evidence of palaeo-seismic activity inside the guano deposit allow a chronology of regional seismic events during the Holocene Period to be drawn up. (authors) 11 refs.

  11. Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Kin-Ming Tsui

    Full Text Available Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships.

  12. Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Farfan, Lina; Roe, Amanda D; Rice, Adrianne V; Cooke, Janice E K; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC) and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships.

  13. The Person in a State of Sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur; Hjörleifsson, Stefán

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we discuss the ideas of Eric J. Cassell about the patient-professional relationship. We argue that his approach combines in an interesting way features from the literature on patient autonomy and paternalistic practices. We suggest that these seemingly paternalistic features of practicing medicine, which are widely either ignored or condemned in bioethical discussion, are of vital significance in medical practice. In the first sections of the article, we describe the main features of Cassell's understanding of the sick person and his version of personalized medicine. We pay particular attention to his notion of information control and compare his ideas about conversation with patients to Hans-Georg Gadamer's analysis of patient-professional dialogue. In the latter part of the article, we explore through a couple of examples the implications these ideas have for medical practice.

  14. Static stress changes due to the 1998 and 2004 Krn Mountain (Slovenia earthquakes and implications for future seismicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ganas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the Coulomb (static stress pattern following the two moderate magnitude earthquakes in NW Slovenia during 1998 and 2004. These earthquakes ruptured patches of the NW-SE striking Ravne fault that crosses the Krn Mountain. The objective is to investigate the seismicity patterns for this area of Slovenia given that future earthquakes may be triggered as a result of stress changes along neighbouring faults. Our findings include: a stress levels have increased along the active Ravne fault for all models discussed b stress levels have decreased along the active, NW-SE striking Idrija fault and c stress levels throughout the crust have increased along the E-W direction but have decreased in the N-S direction (stress shadow effect. We also mapped a better correlation of the off-fault aftershock locations with stress maps incorporating the regional stress field.

  15. Unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog, Chihuahua, Mexico -- Implications for radionuclide mobility at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, D.A.; Murphy, W.M.

    1999-07-01

    Chemical and U-Th isotopic data on unsaturated zone waters from the Nopal I natural analog reveal effects of water-rock interaction and help constrain models of radionuclide release and transport at the site and, by analogy, at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geochemical reaction-path modeling indicates that, under oxidizing conditions, dissolution of uraninite (spent fuel analog) by these waters will lead to eventual schoepite precipitation regardless of initial silica concentration provided that groundwater is not continuously replenished. Thus, less soluble uranyl silicates may not dominate the initial alteration assemblage and keep dissolved U concentrations low. Uranium-series activity ratios are consistent with models of U transport at the site and display varying degrees of leaching versus recoil mobilization. Thorium concentrations may reflect the importance of colloidal transport of low-solubility radionuclides in the unsaturated zone.

  16. StaMPS Improvement for Deformation Analysis in Mountainous Regions: Implications for the Damavand Volcano and Mosha Fault in Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Vajedian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR capability to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal decorrelation, geometric decorrelation and atmospheric artefacts. Multitemporal InSAR methods such as Persistent Scatterer (PS-InSAR and Small Baseline Subset (SBAS have been developed to deal with various aspects of decorrelation and atmospheric problems affecting InSAR observations. Nevertheless, the applicability of both PS-InSAR and SBAS in mountainous regions is still challenging. Correct phase unwrapping in both methods is hampered due to geometric decorrelation in particular when using C-band SAR data for deformation analysis. In this paper, we build upon the SBAS method implemented in StaMPS software and improved the technique, here called ISBAS, to assess tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz Mountains in Iran using both Envisat and ALOS SAR data. We modify several aspects within the chain of the processing including: filtering prior to phase unwrapping, topographic correction within three-dimensional phase unwrapping, reducing the atmospheric noise with the help of additional GPS data, and removing the ramp caused by ionosphere turbulence and/or orbit errors to better estimate crustal deformation in this tectonically active region. Topographic correction is done within the three-dimensional unwrapping in order to improve the phase unwrapping process, which is in contrast to previous methods in which DEM error is estimated before/after phase unwrapping. Our experiments show that our improved SBAS approach is able to better characterize the tectonic and volcanic deformation in the center of the Alborz region than the classical SBAS. In particular, Damavand volcano shows an average uplift rate of about 3 mm/year in the year 2003–2010. The Mosha fault illustrates left-lateral motion that could be explained with a fault that is locked up to 17–18 km depths and slips with 2–4 mm

  17. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  18. Parenthood, gender and sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastekaasa, A

    2000-06-01

    It is well documented that women have generally higher morbidity rates than men. In line with this women are also more absent from work due to sickness. This paper considers one popular explanation of the morbidity difference in general and of the difference in sickness absence in particular, viz. that women to a greater extent than men are exposed to the 'double burden' of combining paid work with family obligations. We discuss theories of role overload and role conflict, which both assume that the combination of multiple roles may have negative health effects, as well theories of role enhancement, which assume positive health effects of multiple roles. Using two large Norwegian data sets, the relationship between the number of and the age of children on the one hand and sickness absence on the other is examined separately for men and women and for a number of theoretically interesting subpopulations of women defined in terms of marital status (also taking account of unmarried cohabitation), level of education, and working hours. Generally speaking the association between children and sickness absence is weak, particularly for married people of both genders. To the extent that married persons with children are more absent than married persons without children, this is largely due to respiratory conditions. The relationship between children and sickness absence is somewhat stronger for single, never married mothers, but not for single mothers who have been previously married or for women living in unmarried cohabitation. The findings thus provide little support for either role overload/conflict or role enhancement theories. The possibility that these effects are both present and counterbalancing each other or that they are confounded with uncontrolled selection effects can not, however, be ruled out.

  19. U-Pb Ages of Secondary Silica at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Implications for the Paleohydrology of the Unsaturated Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.A. Neymark; Y. Amelin; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman

    2001-08-20

    U, Th, and Pb isotopes were analyzed in layers of opal and chalcedony from individual millimeter- to centimeter-thick calcite and silica coatings at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA, a site that is being evaluated for a potential high-level nuclear waste repository. These calcite and silica coatings on fractures and in lithophysal cavities in Miocene-age tuffs in the unsaturated zone (UZ) precipitated from descending water and record a long history of percolation through the UZ. Opal and chalcedony have high concentrations of U (10 to 780 ppm) and low concentrations of common Pb as indicated by large values of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb (up to 53,806), thus making them suitable for U-Pb age determinations. Interpretations of U-Pb isotopes in opal samples at Yucca Mountain are complicated by the incorporation of excess {sup 234}U at the time of mineral formation, resulting in reverse discordance of U-Pb ages. However, the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U ages are much less affected by deviation from initial secular equilibrium and provide reliable ages of most silica deposits between 0.6 and 9.8 Ma. For chalcedony subsamples showing normal age discordance, these ages may represent minimum times of deposition. Typically, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U ages are consistent with the microstratigraphy in the mineral coating samples, such that the youngest ages are for subsamples from outer layers, intermediate ages are from inner layers, and oldest ages are from innermost layers. {sup 234}U and {sup 230}Th in most silica layers deeper in the coatings are in secular equilibrium with {sup 238}U, which is consistent with their old age and closed system behavior during the past 0.5 m.y. U-Pb ages for subsamples of silica layers from different microstratigraphic positions in individual calcite and silica coating samples collected from lithophysal cavities in the welded part of the Topopah Spring Tuff yield slow long-term average depositional rates of 1 to 5 mm/m.y. These data imply that the deeper

  20. Sensitivity analysis and implications for surface processes from a hydrological modelling approach in the Gunt catchment, high Pamir Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, E.; Knoche, M.; Gloaguen, R.; Andermann, C.; Krause, P.

    2015-07-01

    A clear understanding of the hydrology is required to capture surface processes and potential inherent hazards in orogens. Complex climatic interactions control hydrological processes in high mountains that in their turn regulate the erosive forces shaping the relief. To unravel the hydrological cycle of a glaciated watershed (Gunt River) considered representative of the Pamir Mountains' hydrologic regime, we developed a remote-sensing-based approach. At the boundary between two distinct climatic zones dominated by the Westerlies and Indian summer monsoon, the Pamir Mountains are poorly instrumented and only a few in situ meteorological and hydrological data are available. We adapted a suitable conceptual distributed hydrological model (J2000g). Interpolations of the few available in situ data are inadequate due to strong, relief-induced, spatial heterogeneities. Instead of these we use raster data, preferably from remote sensing sources depending on availability and validation. We evaluate remote-sensing-based precipitation and temperature products. MODIS MOD11 surface temperatures show good agreement with in situ data, perform better than other products, and represent a good proxy for air temperatures. For precipitation we tested remote sensing products as well as the HAR10 climate model data and the interpolation-based APHRODITE data set. All products show substantial differences both in intensity and seasonal distribution with in situ data. Despite low resolutions, the data sets are able to sustain high model efficiencies (NSE ≥ 0.85). In contrast to neighbouring regions in the Himalayas or the Hindu Kush, discharge is dominantly the product of snow and glacier melt, and thus temperature is the essential controlling factor. Eighty percent of annual precipitation is provided as snow in winter and spring contrasting peak discharges during summer. Hence, precipitation and discharge are negatively correlated and display complex hysteresis effects that allow for

  1. Simulator sickness and its measurement with Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin P. Biernacki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common methods for studying the simulator sickness issue is the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ (Kennedy et al., 1993. Despite the undoubted popularity of the SSQ, this questionnaire has not as yet been standardized and translated, which could allow us to use it in Poland for research purposes. The aim of our article is to introduce the SSQ to Polish readers, both researchers and practitioners. In the first part of this paper, the studies using the SSQ are discussed, whereas the second part consists of the description of the SSQ test procedure and the calculation method of sample results. Med Pr 2016;67(4:545–555

  2. Mesozoic high-K granitic rocks from the eastern Dabie Mountains, Central China and their geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Chunjing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Anhui Province, Regional Geology Annals of Anhui Province, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987.[2]Xu, S. T., Liu, Y. C., Jiang, L. L. et al., Tectonic Regime and Evolution of Dabie Mountains, Beijing: Science Press, 1994, 175.[3]Chen, T. Y., Niu, B. G., Liu, Z. G. et al., Geochronology of Yanshanian magmatism and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Dabie Mountains and their geological significance, Acta Geologica Sinica, 1991, 4: 329-336.[4]Chen, J. F., Xie, Z., Liu, S. S. et al., Cooling age of Dabie orogen, China, determined by 40Ar-39Ar and fission track tech-niques, Science in China, Ser. B, 1995, 38: 749-757.[5]Xue, F., Rowley, D. B., Tucker, R. D. et al., U-Pb zircon ages of granitoid rocks in the north Dabie complex, eastern Dabie Shan, China, J. Geol., 1997, 105: 744-753.[6]Ma, C. Q., Li, Z. C., Ehlers, C. et al., A post-collisional magmatic plumbing system: Mesozoic granitoid plutons from the Dabieshan high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic zone, east-central China, Lithos., 1998, 45: 431-456.[7]Chapell, B. W., White, A. J. R., Two contrasting granite types, Pacific Geology, 1974, 8: 173-174.[8]Peccerillo, A., Taylor, S. R., Geochemistry of Eocene calcalkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, northern Tur-key, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 1976, 58: 63-81.[9]Batchelor, R. A., Bowden, P., Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters, Chem. Geol., 1985, 48: 43-55.[10]Faure, G., Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd edition, New York, Santa Barbara, London, Sydney, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1986, 217-239.[11]Xie, Z., Chen, J. F., Zhou, T. X. et al., Nd isotopic compositions of metamorphic and granitic rocks from Dabie and their geological significance, Acta Petrologica Sinica , 1996, 12: 401-408.[12]Hacker, B. R., Wang, Q. C., Ar/Ar geochronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in central China

  3. Seismic Hazard Implications of a Vanished Punjab Mountain Rammed 100 km Beneath the Southeast End of the Kashmir Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, C. R.; Bali, B. S.; Bilham, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    An active normal fault parallel-to, and midway between, the Zanskar and Pir Pinjal ranges at the SE end of the Kashmir Valley (33.56N, 75.51E) raises the intriguing question of why a normal fault should exist in a region of prevailing Himalayan compression. We believe the normal fault is caused by a prominent bulge on the Indian plate. The fault is approximately 5 km long and has a surface scarp of approximately 4 m, tapering to zero to the WNW and ESE. Its recent origin is indicated by its offset of glacial moraines and stream channels with the subsequent formation of several poorly developed uphill-facing colluvial wedges, and a conspicuous 40 m x 60 m Alpine sag pond (Oldham, 1988). The fault dips steeply to the SW and its limited offset suggests that it was possibly formed in a single earthquake with Mw less than 6.0. The fault lies approximately 70 km northeast of a prominent salient in the Himalayan frontal thrusts west of the town of Jammu, and is one of several similar faults spaced roughly 5 km apart in a north-south line. The tensile surface stress implied by normal faulting is suggestive of north-south convex flexure of the region, possibly caused by the passage of a bulge on the Indian plate beneath SE Kashmir. We suggest that the Jammu salient and these normal faults record the passage of a mountain or range of mountains on the Indian plate beneath the divide separating the Chenab and Jhelum river drainages. The passage of the range is presumably responsible for the current location of the river divide and for the high passes that close the SE end of the Kashmir valley. Assuming that the crest of the range has passed 100 km beneath the Himalaya places the date of its initial collision with the frontal thrusts at 6 Mya. We anticipate that subduction of this range has resulted in significantly higher friction of the décollement here, influencing the style of Himalayan thrust faulting, and perhaps controlling the along-strike initiation or termination of

  4. Reply to Comment on ``Abandoned Mines, Mountain Sports, and Climate Variability: Implications for the Colorado Tourism Economy''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Andrew; McKnight, Diane; Wyatt, Lane

    2004-02-01

    Our article focused on the complex interactions among climate variability, hydrology, chemical weathering reactions, and stream ecology that influence water resource availability for recreation in watersheds of the Colorado Rocky Mountains. In responding to our article, our colleagues at Hydrosphere Resource Consultants provide additional detailed information about snow-making approaches at ski resorts. However, they make other assertions that warrant comment and clarification. We disagree with the statement that the ski industry may not be the appropriate tourism sector for illustrating the impacts of climate variations. The success of the ski industry hinges on a variety of climate-related variables (for example, temperature, precipitation quantity, precipitation as snow versus rain) that are expected to change in an uncertain climatic future. A new study launched by the United Nations Environment Programme provides a wide-ranging, international evaluation of the climate change and vulnerability of winter sports issue. Contrary to Hydrosphere Resource Consultants' assertion, we did not suggest that the droughts of 1977 and 2002 were similar or that they have had similar impacts on the Colorado ski industry. As they noted, the timing of the 2002 drought resulted in significant impacts to summer tourist activities, through decreased stream flows and increased fire danger. Rather, we utilized the 1977 event to illustrate that drought occurs frequently in Colorado and has affected the ski industry in the past.

  5. Deconvolving the process-origin of sediments on volcanic mountains and implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction: Mt Ruapehu area, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Martin; Winkler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Glaciation on the central North Island of New Zealand is limited to the volcanoes of Tongariro National Park, including Mt Ruapehu, the largest and most active andesitic stratovolcano on the North Island. At 2797 m asl, Mt Ruapehu represents the only peak in the North Island to currently intercept the permanent snowline, with small cirque glaciers descending to an altitude of ~2300 m. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), small ice-caps existed on Mt Ruapehu and the Tongariro Massif (15 km to the NNE of Ruapehu), with a series of small (cirque glaciers, consists mainly of incorporated fluvial material. Following deposition, reworking is mainly by proglacial streams, debris flows and lahars. Within the vicinity of glaciers, the dominant facies appear to be: (i) bouldery gravel with angular clasts on steep slopes surrounding glaciers, (ii) silty-sandy boulder gravel, with mainly subangular clasts, forming lateral moraines, (iii) boulder/cobble gravel with mainly subrounded clasts and associated laminated sediments representing fluvially-reworked material; and (iv) debris-avalanche deposits including fragmental rock clasts with an unsorted inter-clast matrix. As some of these deposits appear to include unambiguous indicators of glacial transport, interpretation of unconsolidated debris ridges on volcanic mountains should not necessarily exclude the contribution of glacial processes.

  6. Distribution patterns of long-lived individuals of relict plants around Fanjingshan Mountain in China: Implications for in situ conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao, H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The mountain areas in south-central China are widely recognized as refugia of relict plants during the late Neogene and Quaternary periods. In this paper, we try to explore the distribution patterns of natural habitats and to exactly locate the refugia of relict species around Fanjingshan Mountain using dendrological data of long-lived individuals (≥ 100 years old. Six typical relict plants were found around the mountain, i.e. Cyclocarya paliurus, Ginkgo biloba, Liriodendron chinense, Pinus massoniana, Podocarpus macrophyllus, and Taxus chinensis. The long-lived individuals were divided into three classes according to their ages: Class-I (≥ 500 years, Class-II (300–499 years, and Class-III (100–299 years. Our results showed that the south-west region to the mountain was the main distribution area of Class-I trees of G. biloba and T. chinensis, most of which occurring in the same small village (Yangliu Village of Yinjiang County. The north-east region harboured all the six relict species. Floristic analyses also indicated these two regions were very similar in tree growth as measured by DBH (diameter at breast height of 1.3 m. Thus, these two areas would have provided long-term suitable habitats for relict species. The south-west region, especially the small village Yangliu, should be given highest priority for in situ conservation of relict species and other rare and endangered plants. Attention should also be paid to the north-east region for its very high species diversity of relict species.Las áreas montañosas de la región centro-sur de China están ampliamente reconocidas por su papel como refugio de plantas relictas durante la última etapa del Neógeno y el Cuaternario. En el presente trabajo se intentan explorar los patrones de distribución de los hábitats naturales y la localización exacta de los refugios para especies vegetales relictas en los alrededores de la montaña Fanjinshan, mediante el empleo de datos dendrol

  7. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horacio, Fabrega

    2011-01-01

    Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno) medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  8. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrega Jr Horacio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  9. Sickness and healing and the evolutionary foundations of mind and minding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Fabrega Jr

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease represents a principal tentacle of natural selection and a staple theme of evolutionary medicine. However, it is through a small portal of entry and a very long lineage that disease as sickness entered behavioural spaces and human consciousness. This has a long evolutionary history. Anyone interested in the origins of medicine and psychiatry as social institution has to start with analysis of how mind and body were conceptualised and played out behaviourally following the pongid/hominin split and thereafter. The early evolution of medicine provides a template for clarifying elemental characteristics of mind and minding. Sickness and healing in chimpanzees represents an early manifestation of (ethno medicine, termed a behavioural tradition, which is found played out in routines of helping, caring, and healing as well as other social behaviours. Chimpanzees seem to know they are sick since they resort to self-medication when exhibiting signs and symptoms of disease. Also, they help those exhibiting physical and cognitive disability. Among hominins, awareness of consequences and implications of sickness and coping with them represented an important feature of human consciousness and a major factor in the origins of vaunted human abilities involving language, cognition, and culture as we know them. A philosophical examination of the early evolution of sickness and healing provides a window into an understanding of evolving human capacities such as self-awareness, awareness and implications of suffering, theory of mind, altruism, conceptual grasp of sickness and healing and morality.

  10. Sick, the spectroscopic inference crank

    CERN Document Server

    Casey, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives which remain severely under-utilised. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analysing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this Article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbour estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimised point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalise on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-di...

  11. Post-seismic erosional characteristics of the Chiufenershan landslide : Implications for erosion process of tectonically active mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yu-Chang; Lu, Chiao-Yin; Chang, Kou-Jen; Chen, Rou-Fei

    2010-05-01

    The island of Taiwan is resulted from the collision between the Philippine sea plate and the Eurasian plate. The subtropical climate and averaging four typhoons annually, combined with frequent earthquakes, influence much of the Taiwan region. Due to the factors above, not only the active orogeny of Taiwan causes the high uplift rate at about 4 mm/yr, but also drive amazing erosion rate of about 3~6 mm/yr. Previous study indicated approximately 1.9% of global suspended sediment is derived from the small island of Taiwan, which is only about 0.024% of Earth's subaerial surface. Furthermore, modern erosion rates are strongly influenced by large earthquakes and typhoons, and the sediment fluxes after the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi earthquake of Taiwan are much higher than those before the earthquake. Here we study the Chiufenerhshan landslide, which is one of the large landslides triggered by the Chi-Chi earthquake in the central Taiwan. The avalanche transported a mass of sedimentary rock about 60 m thick and 1.5 km long. Based on the high-resolution topographic data sets from LiDAR or photogrammetry at various years and rain fall data, we have reached the following conclusions: In the period of 8.5 years after the Chi-Chi earthquake, almost 4.2% of the landslide deposits were transported out of the landslide system. Comparing with the mean annual erosion rate of 3~6 mm/yr in Taiwan, the sediment brought out of Chiufenerhshan landslide area is 89.4 mm/yr, a significant amount contributed by the landslide. The mean sediment discharge from this small system is as large as 0.064% of the sediment discharge from the whole Taiwan annually; while the area is only about 0.005% of Taiwan's subaerial surface. Thus, the landslide process has contributed much more to the surface erosion of the Taiwan mountain than other erosion processes.

  12. Precipitation variability in High Mountain Asia from multiple datasets and implication for water balance analysis in large lake basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Huang, Bo; Ke, Linghong; Ye, Qinghua

    2016-10-01

    For the period 1979-2011, eight gridded monthly precipitation datasets, including GPCP, CMAP-1/2, TRMM, PREC/L, APHRODITE, NCEP-2 and ERA-Interim, are inter-compared with each other and station observations over High Mountain Asia (HMA). The precipitation variability from the first six gauge-based or merged analysis datasets agree better with each other than with the two reanalysis data. The long-term trend analysis of GPCP, CMAP-1, PREC/L and APHRODITE precipitation datasets consistently reveals moderate increases in the inner and northeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) and northwest Xinjiang, and obvious decreases in the southeast TP. However, in the Himalayas and Karakorum, there are large discrepancies among different datasets, where GPCP and APHRODITE precipitation datasets show significant decreases along the Himalayas while other datasets show strong spatial heterogeneity or slight variations. The larger uncertainties in the rugged area may be largely attributed to scarce station observations, as well as the stronger snow-induced scattering by microwave measurement. To assess which precipitation datasets tend to be more suitable for hydrologic analysis in HMA, we further investigate the accuracy of precipitation estimates at basin scale by comparing with gauge-based observations, and examine the coherences of annual lake water budgets and precipitation variability over four large closed lake catchments. The results indicate that two reanalysis precipitation datasets show evidently weaker correlations with station observations; the other six datasets perform better in indicating inter-annual variations of lake water budgets. It suggests that these merged analysis precipitation datasets, especially for GPCP, CMAP-1/2 and PREC/L, have the potential in examining regional water balances of the inner basins in HMA.

  13. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHANGE IN FUNCTION OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND ACUTE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS AFTER URGENT ENTERING INTO HIGH ALTITUDE%急进高原自主神经功能变化与急性高原反应的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田开新; 覃军; 黄岚; 隆敏; 喻杨; 于世勇

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究急进高原前、后心血管自主神经(autonomic nervous system,ANS)功能变化及其与急性高原反应(acute mountain sickness,AMS)之间关系, 揭示ANS在AMS发病中的作用,探求预防AMS的可能途径.方法 对99名健康男性青年在海拔450 m平原和空运急进3 700 m高原后2~4 d内进行心率变异性(heart rate variability,HRV)和冷加压试验(cold pressor test,CPT)检测; 在急进高原后1~ 5 d接受AMS发病情况调查.结果 急进高原后第1天AMS发病率92%,其中, 中重度AMS占10%、轻度占36%、基本无反应占54%.LF/HFn随AMS程度减轻而减少,HFn随AMS 程度加重而增加.中重度、轻度、基本无AMS反应组平原时收缩压(SBP)分别为(123.42± 7.14) mmHg、 (120.6±11.22) mmHg、 (122.58±10.92) mmHg, 均显著高于无反应组( 111.31±9.48) mmHg, (P<0.05); 中重度AMS组在平原CPT后心率(H R)变化幅度[(7.57±8.22)b/min]显著低于基本无反应组[(25.47±19.26)b/min,(P<0.05)].急进高原后,中重度、轻度、基本无AMS反应组CPT后SBP变化幅度分别为(8.14±4.95)mmHg、(9.56±7.77)mmHg、(9.97±6.80)mmHg,均显著低于无反应组[(17.00±12.75)mmHg,(P<0.05)];HR变化幅度分别为 (11.13±6.08)b/min、 (10±7.5)b/min、 (12.25±8.14)b/min, 均显著低于无反应组([19.71±9.35)b/min,P<0.05].AMS症状积分与平原时LF/HF正相关(r=0.437,P<0.01),与平原时CPT后HR变化幅度呈负相关(r=-0.35,P=0.01).结论 平原交感神经活动较高者其A NS的应激调节能力相对较小,对AMS易感性较高.改善ANS功能可能有助于预防AMS.

  15. Correlative Study of Acute Mountain Sickness,Cognition and Mental Health of Military Personnel in Highland Training%高原外训军人心理健康、认知因素与急性高山病的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔昆; 张鹏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨高原外训军人心理健康、认知因素与急性高山病的相关性。方法:采用基本信息问卷、Lake Louise急性高山病评分量表(AMS)、症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对191名急进高原进行高原适应性训练的军人施以团体测验。结果:研究样本SCL-90的躯体化因子显著高于全国正常成人常模(t=5.019,P<0.001)。 AMS症状阳性组与阴性两组样本在文化程度(t=2.385,P<0.05)、社会支持中的倾诉方式(t=2.542,P<0.05)、求助方式(t=2.133,P<0.05)、对AMS的认知(t=2.423,P<0.05)、SCL-90总分(t=-4.936,P<0.001)及各因子分均有显著差异。 SCL-90总分、对AMS应对策略的认知对预测AMS症状总分有一定的预测作用。结论:高原外训军人心理健康水平、认知因素对AMS有显著的影响,运用合理的心理干预技术,可降低AMS的发生率,增强高原作战部队的战斗力。%Objective:To investigate the relationship between acute mountain sickness,cognition and mental health of military personnel in highland training.Methods:191 military personnel in high altitude area were assessed with the Lake Louise score,SCL-90,SAS,SDS and cognitive assessment to environ-ment and service.Results:Somatization score of military personnel in highland training was higher than the norm(t=5.019,P<0.001).Between the positive symptom group and the negative symptom group, the total score and every factor scores of scl-90,scores of social support,cognition of AMS,cultural level were statistically significant difference(P<0.05).SCL-90 score,cognition about how to cope with AMS had significant influences on the total score of AMS.Conclusion:Cognition and mental health have signif-icant influences on AMS of military personnel in highland training.In the highland training period, it is very necessary to

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites of captive and free-roaming primates at the Afi Mountain Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria and their zoonotic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaya, A W; Udendeye, U J

    2011-07-01

    A study on the gastrointestinal parasites among free-living and captive primates at the Afi Mountain, Primate Conservation Area in Calabar, Nigeria was undertaken for the first time to ascertain their zoonotic implications. Faecal samples were subjected to direct smear, floatation, quantitative estimation of helminth eggs (epg) and oocysts (opg), larval isolation and identification by modified Baerman's technique and oocyst sporulation for specie identification. Out of the 108 primates examined, 75(69.44%) were found to be shedding the ova and oocysts of several gastrointestinal parasites of which, the mona monkeys (Cercopethicus mona) 16(80%) followed by the white collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) 7 (77.78) had the highest (p parasites such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Balantidium coli, Enterobius vermicularis, Entamoeba histolytica, Strongyloides stercoralis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana, Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostosoma duodenale and Cryptosporidium species. Similarly, the drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus), Sclater's white-nosed monkey (Cercopethicus erythrotis sclateri), white-collared mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus) and others, had Ascaris lumbricoides or Ancylostoma duodenale. All captive primates were more infected than those under free-roam. The young (parasites of zoonotic importance.

  17. Sedimentary environments of the Cenozoic sedimentary debris found in the moraines of the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica and its climatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Aimin; LIU Xiaohan; LEE Jong Ik; LI Xiaoli; HUANG Feixin

    2004-01-01

    During the field work of the 1998~1999's and 1999~2000's Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHNARE) in the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica, some Cenozoic sedimentary debris are found in two terminal moraine banks over the blue ice near Harding Mount in the center of this region. All the debris are of characteristics of glaciogenic diamicton and belong to the products of the glacial movements of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. In this paper, the authors make a detailed study on the sedimentary environments of the sedimentary debris through petrologic, sedimentological, mineralogical, and geo-chemical methods. Characteristics of their sedimentary textures and structures, grain size distributions, quartz grains' surface textures and features, together with their geo-chemical compositions all show that these sedimentary rocks are a kind of subglacial lodgement tills which are deposited in the ice sheet frontal area by reactions of glacial movements and glaciogenic melt water. Their palaeoenvironmental implications in revealing the retreat history of East Antarctic Ice Sheet are discussed. The authors draw the conclusion from current study that the glacial frontal of the East Antarctica Ice Sheet might have been retreated to this area during the Pliocene Epoch, which represents a warm climate event accompanied by a large-scale ice sheet retreat in Antarctica at that time.

  18. Stability of return to work after a coordinated and tailored intervention for sickness absence compensation beneficiaries with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Marie H. T.; D. Nielsen, Maj Britt; Pedersen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Mental health problems (MHPs) are increasingly common as reasons for long-term sickness absence. However, the knowledge of how to promote a stable return to work (RTW) after sickness absence due to MHPs is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a multidisciplinary......) and of conventional case management (n = 80) for 2 years to compare their risk of recurrent sickness absence and unemployment after RTW, their cumulative sickness absence and their labour market status after 2 years. RESULTS: We found no statistically significant intervention effect in terms of the risk of recurrent...... showed no benefits in terms of improved stability of RTW, reduced sickness absence or improved labour market status after 2 years when compared to conventional case management. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION: Evidence for effective return-to-work (RTW) interventions for people with mental health...

  19. Biomechanical effects of trees in a mountain temperate forest: implications for biogeomorphology, soil science, and forest dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šamonil, Pavel; Daněk, Pavel; Senecká, Anna; Adam, Dušan; Phillips, Jonathan D.

    2017-04-01

    Biomechanical effects of trees in forest soils represent a potentially significant factor in hillslope processes, pedocomplexity, and forest dynamics. However, these processes have been only rarely studied so far. Within this study we aim (i) to elaborate a detailed and widely applicable methodology of quantification of the main biomechanical effects of trees in soil, (ii) to reveal actual (minimal) frequencies, areas and volumes related to these effects in a mountain temperate old-growth forest. The research took place in the Boubín Primeval Forest in the Czech Republic. The fir-spruce-beech forest reserve belongs among the oldest protected areas in Europe. The reserve occupies NE slopes of an average inclination of about 14˚ on gneiss at an altitude of 930-1110 m a.s.l. We evaluated effects of all standing or lying trees of diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 10 cm in an area of 10.2 ha. In total, 4000 trees were studied from viewpoint of following features: treethrow, root mound, bioprotective function of standing as well as lying tree, baumstein, root baumstein, infilling stump, hole after trunk fall, stemwash, trunkwash. Any biomechanical phenomena were recorded in 59% of standing and 51% of lying dead trees (excluding the pervasive soil displacement by thickening trunk and roots and the converse infilling of the space freed during their decay with surrounding soil). Approximately one tenth of the trees expressed simultaneously opposing phenomena such as blocking of slope processes and their intensification. Different tree species and DBH categories exhibited significantly different structure of biomechanical effects in soil. Bioprotective function represented the most frequent process. However, concerning area and volume of affected soil, treethrows were an even more important phenomenon. Total area influenced by the studied biomechanical effects of current generation of trees was 343 m2ha-1. Additional 774 m2ha-1 were occupied by older treethrow pit

  20. MOUNTAINS UNITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Dovbenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Schools in the Ukrainian Carpathian mountain region work in specific conditions. They have original traditions, a special nature of learning and work. Indeed, because of a remote location mountain village school becomes the center for a cultural and spiritual life. Of course, it is related to a present social and economic situation in the country and a slow progress of society. Therefore, we need to look at mountain school with a broader angle, help it in comprehensive development of an individual and ensure an availability of quality education for children living in mountainous areas. Here we should talk about learning as well as laying the foundations for a life success. The international research project Mountain School. Status. Problems. Prospects for Development. Is established to help solve these problems. Precarpathian National University is an active member of the project.

  1. Animal models in motion sickness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunton, Nancy G.

    1990-01-01

    Practical information on candidate animal models for motion sickness research and on methods used to elicit and detect motion sickness in these models is provided. Four good potential models for use in motion sickness experiments include the dog, cat, squirrel monkey, and rat. It is concluded that the appropriate use of the animal models, combined with exploitation of state-of-the-art biomedical techniques, should generate a great step forward in the understanding of motion sickness mechanisms and in the development of efficient and effective approaches to its prevention and treatment in humans.

  2. R/S Analyses of Some Geochemical Indexes for Tianshuihai Lake Core in West Kunlun Mountain and Their Environmental Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚云; 李世杰; 等

    2000-01-01

    With the decrease of gloal temperature,glacial epoch came over the earth and global climate fluctuated over a great range since the beginning of Quatenary .Paleoclimotologists of various countries have focussed attention to the periodic characteristics and dynamics of climation flucturation in the past many years(Berger,1977;Imbrie and Hays,1984:ding zhongli et al.,1990;Yu zhiwei et al.,1992:Liu Youmei et al.,1996),Although some of the workers have paid their attention to the nonlinear characteristics of the global Quaternary environmental evolution(Nicolis and Nicolis,1984,Lu Houyuan et al.,1993)_,it is worth while to do this kind of work in some special areas in the world,for example the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.Using R/S analysis,the authors calculated the Hurst indexes H of some geochemical proxies,including organic carbon,FeO,Fe2O3 and FeO/Fe2O3,from the Tianshuihai Lake core in West Kunlun Mountain of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,The proxies satisfy the Hurst law with Honrg.carbon=0.735,HFe2O3=0.757,HFeO=0.848and HFeO/Fe2O3=0./646,All the indexs are greater than 0.5,meaning that from 240 to 15ka B.P.,there were some long-run dependencies-persistence in the climatic and environmental evolution around the Tianshuihai Lake area.This is in accordance with the climate there from 240 to 15ka B.P.(Yu Suhua et al.,1996),The paleo-climate and paleo-environment evolution around the Tianshuihai Lake area is of persistence as well as of fluctuation and is a combination of these two components,There are some differences between the four Hurst indexes,Which Probably resulted from the differnet intensitites of Persistence of the four proxies,organic carbon.FeO,Fe2O3 and FeO/Fe2O3,or from the change of drainage system around the Tianshuihai Lake area from opemness to closeness(Li Bingyuan et al.,1991;Sun Honglie,1996:Shi Yafeng et al.1998_).The Qinghai-Tibet plateau was the starter and sensor of the climatic and environmental variation of the surrounding areas(Yao Tandong et al

  3. SICK: THE SPECTROSCOPIC INFERENCE CRANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Andrew R., E-mail: arc@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambdridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    There exists an inordinate amount of spectral data in both public and private astronomical archives that remain severely under-utilized. The lack of reliable open-source tools for analyzing large volumes of spectra contributes to this situation, which is poised to worsen as large surveys successively release orders of magnitude more spectra. In this article I introduce sick, the spectroscopic inference crank, a flexible and fast Bayesian tool for inferring astrophysical parameters from spectra. sick is agnostic to the wavelength coverage, resolving power, or general data format, allowing any user to easily construct a generative model for their data, regardless of its source. sick can be used to provide a nearest-neighbor estimate of model parameters, a numerically optimized point estimate, or full Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the posterior probability distributions. This generality empowers any astronomer to capitalize on the plethora of published synthetic and observed spectra, and make precise inferences for a host of astrophysical (and nuisance) quantities. Model intensities can be reliably approximated from existing grids of synthetic or observed spectra using linear multi-dimensional interpolation, or a Cannon-based model. Additional phenomena that transform the data (e.g., redshift, rotational broadening, continuum, spectral resolution) are incorporated as free parameters and can be marginalized away. Outlier pixels (e.g., cosmic rays or poorly modeled regimes) can be treated with a Gaussian mixture model, and a noise model is included to account for systematically underestimated variance. Combining these phenomena into a scalar-justified, quantitative model permits precise inferences with credible uncertainties on noisy data. I describe the common model features, the implementation details, and the default behavior, which is balanced to be suitable for most astronomical applications. Using a forward model on low-resolution, high signal

  4. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods

  5. Motion Sickness Induced by Optokinetic Drums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.; Bles, W.

    2004-01-01

    Motion sickness is not only elicited by certain kinds of self-motion, but also by motion of a visual scene. In case of the latter, optokinetic drums are often used and a visual-vestibular conflict is assumed to cause the sickness. When the rotation axis is Earth vertical however, different studies s

  6. Job demands, health perception and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; de Graaf, J.H.; van Zandbergen, J.W.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Investigation of the relations between job demands, health and sickness absence is required to design a strategy for the prevention of absence and disability. Aim To study the relationships between (physical and psychological) job demands, health perception and sickness absence. Methods P

  7. GENETIC PREDICTORS OF IDIOPATHIC SICK SINUS SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Chernova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Published data demonstrating genetic determination of sick sinus syndrome is presented. The definition of this pathology is presented; the main symptoms are described, as well as genes that influence the development of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome, their polymorphisms and role in disorders of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Predicting motion sickness during parabolic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are large individual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness. Attempts to predict who will become motion sick have had limited success. In the present study, we examined gender differences in resting levels of salivary amylase and total protein, cardiac interbeat intervals (R-R intervals), and a sympathovagal index and evaluated their potential to correctly classify individuals into two motion sickness severity groups. METHODS: Sixteen subjects (10 men and 6 women) flew four sets of 10 parabolas aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Saliva samples for amylase and total protein were collected preflight on the day of the flight and motion sickness symptoms were recorded during each parabola. Cardiovascular parameters were collected in the supine position 1-5 days before the flight. RESULTS: There were no significant gender differences in sickness severity or any of the other variables mentioned above. Discriminant analysis using salivary amylase, R-R intervals and the sympathovagal index produced a significant Wilks' lambda coefficient of 0.36, p=0.006. The analysis correctly classified 87% of the subjects into the none-mild sickness or the moderate-severe sickness group. CONCLUSIONS: The linear combination of resting levels of salivary amylase, high-frequency R-R interval levels, and a sympathovagal index may be useful in predicting motion sickness severity.

  9. Girl Babies Make Mothers Sick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨哲

    2000-01-01

    已经或是将要做母亲的女性阅读此文一定兴味盎然。本文告诉我们: …women suffering from extreme morning sickness during the first three months of pregnancy are more likely to be carrying a daughter than a son. 这个结论不是凭空想象出来的,其调查的对象人数多达百万,令人吃惊: Askling and his team compared more than a million births in Sweden with records of women admitted to hospital for extreme morning sickness. 更令人吃惊的是,除了现代的调查之外,研究人员还引用了古希腊名医希波克拉底的观点: …female fetuses gave the mother a pale face, whereas a mother carrying a male fetus has a healthier tone(气色)to her skin.】

  10. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  11. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernova A.A.

    2013-03-01

    consistent with that of the genotypes of the above genes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients. The allelic variants of the above genes were not found to be associated with ompensated sick sinus syndrome. Conclusion. The genetic predictors of idiopathic sick sinus syndrome are heterozygous genotypes 44 GA and 4a/4b genes Cx 40 and NOS3 as well as homozygous genotypes in rare allele DD and GG genes ADRA2B and SCN5A. Polymorphic allelic variant 2161C > T (Arg721Trp of MYH6 gene was not revealed in the examined cohort of Krasnoyarsk population. The distribution of the genotypes of the investigated genes in latent sick sinus syndrome patients was found to be consistent with that of the genotypes in the general population of primary sick sinus syndrome patients.

  12. Archives, libraries and museums: containers often sick, sometimes seriously sick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Nicolucci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As far as the feeling of quietness and peace that they often convey, archives, museums and libraries also hide dangers that you may not imagine, either for visitors or especially for the members of the staff. Indeed the poor microclimatic conditions – often the consequences of materials and construction or building technologies that appear definitely obsolete – often arouse suspicion and worry among the staff. Wrong Thermo hygrometric parameters, the presence of volatile organic elements, mineral fibers, biocides, radon gas, aerial dispersive molecules, are among others some of the chemical physical polluters of major influence that may contribute to giving life to the so-called Sick Building Syndrome. But such spaces also bear biological polluters that can provoke pathologies of various types and importance, among which the feared Illness of Legionnaire. The presence of electromagnetic fields, but above all wrong lighting and wrong ergonomic working positions represent some risk factors for members of staff and visitors.

  13. First molecular identification of the vertebrate hosts of Culicoides imicola in Europe and a review of its blood-feeding patterns worldwide: implications for the transmission of bluetongue disease and African horse sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-DE LA Puente, J; Navarro, J; Ferraguti, M; Soriguer, R; Figuerola, J

    2017-07-27

    Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that affect wildlife, livestock and, occasionally, humans. Culicoides imicola (Kieffer, 1913) is considered to be the main vector of the pathogens that cause bluetongue disease (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in southern Europe. The study of blood-feeding patterns in Culicoides is an essential step towards understanding the epidemiology of these pathogens. Molecular tools that increase the accuracy and sensitivity of traditional methods have been developed to identify the hosts of potential insect vectors. However, to the present group's knowledge, molecular studies that identify the hosts of C. imicola in Europe are lacking. The present study genetically characterizes the barcoding region of C. imicola trapped on farms in southern Spain and identifies its vertebrate hosts in the area. The report also reviews available information on the blood-feeding patterns of C. imicola worldwide. Culicoides imicola from Spain feed on blood of six mammals that include species known to be hosts of the BT and AHS viruses. This study provides evidence of the importance of livestock as sources of bloodmeals for C. imicola and the relevance of this species in the transmission of BT and AHS viruses in Europe. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  14. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  15. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  16. Successful Female Mountaineers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANSIYIN

    2004-01-01

    The Third Mountaineering Meet took place from September 26 to October 8, 2003. It was sponsored by the Tibet Association for Mountaineers and undertaken by the Tibet Mountaineering Team and the Tibet Mountaineering School.

  17. P6 acupressure reduces morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundee, J W; Sourial, F B; Ghaly, R G; Bell, P F

    1988-08-01

    A prospective study was designed to test the efficacy of pressure at the P6 (Neiguan) acupuncture point, in preventing morning sickness. Three groups of patients in early pregnancy recorded the severity and frequency of sickness over a period of 4 consecutive days following daily pressure at P6 point, pressure at a point near the right elbow and with no treatment. Troublesome sickness was significantly less in both the genuine (23/119) and dummy (41/112) pressure groups as compared with the control series (67/119). When the data are adversely 'weighted' to compensate for the lower incidence of fully completed returns in the active treatment groups, only the P6 group show a significant reduction in sickness. No side effects occurred in either group and while anticipation of benefit may offer a partial explanation for the findings, pressure at the Neiguan point appears to have a specific therapeutic effect.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: sick sinus syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the structure of myosin, which can affect cardiac muscle contraction and increase the likelihood of developing an abnormal heartbeat. More commonly, sick sinus syndrome is caused by other ... such as muscular dystrophy, abnormal inflammation, or a shortage of oxygen ( ...

  19. Motion sickness, stress and the endocannabinoid system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Choukèr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A substantial number of individuals are at risk for the development of motion sickness induced nausea and vomiting (N&V during road, air or sea travel. Motion sickness can be extremely stressful but the neurobiologic mechanisms leading to motion sickness are not clear. The endocannabinoid system (ECS represents an important neuromodulator of stress and N&V. Inhibitory effects of the ECS on N&V are mediated by endocannabinoid-receptor activation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the activity of the ECS in human volunteers (n = 21 during parabolic flight maneuvers (PFs. During PFs, microgravity conditions (<10(-2 g are generated for approximately 22 s which results in a profound kinetic stimulus. Blood endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG were measured from blood samples taken in-flight before start of the parabolic maneuvers, after 10, 20, and 30 parabolas, in-flight after termination of PFs and 24 h later. Volunteers who developed acute motion sickness (n = 7 showed significantly higher stress scores but lower endocannabinoid levels during PFs. After 20 parabolas, blood anandamide levels had dropped significantly in volunteers with motion sickness (from 0.39+/-0.40 to 0.22+/-0.25 ng/ml but increased in participants without the condition (from 0.43+/-0.23 to 0.60+/-0.38 ng/ml resulting in significantly higher anandamide levels in participants without motion sickness (p = 0.02. 2-AG levels in individuals with motion sickness were low and almost unchanged throughout the experiment but showed a robust increase in participants without motion sickness. Cannabinoid-receptor 1 (CB1 but not cannabinoid-receptor 2 (CB2 mRNA expression in leucocytes 4 h after the experiment was significantly lower in volunteers with motion sickness than in participants without N&V. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that stress and motion sickness in humans are associated with impaired endocannabinoid

  20. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...

  1. Changbai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Changbai Mountains are located within the boundaries of Antu County, Fusong County and Changbai County of Jilin City of Jilin Province. They cover a total area of more than 200,000 hectares and is one of the largest nature preserves in China. There are abundant species of living things, such as Dongbei Tiger, sika, sable and

  2. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  3. Return-to-Work Self-Efficacy and Actual Return to Work Among Long-Term Sick-Listed Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker, D; Zijlstra-Vlasveld, M C; Brouwers, E P M; van Lomwel, A G C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M

    2015-06-01

    Considering the costs incurred by sickness absence and the implications for the workers' quality of life, a fast return to work (RTW) is important. Self-efficacy (SE) seems to be an important predictor of RTW for employees with mental health problems. The predictive value of return-to-work self-efficacy (RTW-SE) has not been examined in employees on long-term sickness absence due to any cause. The aim of this study is to investigate whether RTW-SE is a predictor of time to RTW in long-term sick-listed employees with all-cause sickness absence. Furthermore, the relative contribution of RTW-SE in predicting RTW will be examined compared to health-related, job-related and personal factors. In a longitudinal study, sick-listed employees who were currently on sick leave for more than 4 weeks filled out a self-report questionnaire. Demographics, health-related, personal, and job-related factors, and RTW-SE were measured. Employees were followed for 2 years to determine the duration until full RTW. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with time to RTW. Data were collected from 493 sick-listed employees. RTW-SE was a significant predictor of RTW. In a multivariate model, low RTW-SE, the thought of not being able to work while having symptoms (illness behaviour) and having chronic medical conditions were predictors of a longer duration until RTW. When guiding long-term sick-listed employees, it is important to focus on factors such as SE and illness behaviour, instead of just focusing on the symptoms of the sick-listed employee.

  4. European EVA decompression sickness risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Lorenz; Wenzel, Jürgen; Skoog, A. I.; Luck, S.; Svensson, Bengt

    For the first manned flight of Hermes there will be a capability of performing EVA. The European EVA Space Suit will be an anthropomorphic system with an internal pressure of 500 hPa of pure oxygen. The pressure reduction from the Hermes cabin pressure of 1013 hPa will induce a risk for Decompression Sickness (DCS) for the EVA crewmember if no adequate protective procedures are implemented. Specific decompression procedures have to be developed. From a critical review of the literature and by using knowledge gained from research conducted in the past in the fields of diving and aerospace medicine safe protective procedures are proposed for the European EVA scenario. An R factor of 1.2 and a tissue half-time ( t1/2) of 360 minutes in a single-tissue model have been identified as appropriate operational values. On the basis of an acceptable risk level of approximately 1%, oxygen prebreathing times are proposed for (a) direct pressure reduction from 1013 hPa to a suit pressure of 500 hPa, and (b) staged decompression using a 700 hPa intermediate stage in the spacecraft cabin. In addition, factors which influence individual susceptibility to DCS are identified. Recommendations are also given in the areas of crew selection and medical monitoring requirements together with therapeutic measures that can be implemented in the Hermes scenario. A method for demonstration of the validity of proposed risks and procedures is proposed.

  5. Prognosis for a sick planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Global warming is the most important science issue of the 21st century, challenging the very structure of our global society. The study of past climate has shown that the current global climate system is extremely sensitive to human-induced climate change. The burning of fossil fuels since the beginning of the industrial revolution has already caused changes with clear evidence for a 0.75 degrees C rise in global temperatures and 22 cm rise in sea level during the 20th century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change synthesis report (2007) predicts that global temperatures by 2100 could rise by between 1.1 degrees C and 6.4 degrees C. Sea level could rise by between 28 cm and 79 cm, more if the melting of the polar ice caps accelerates. In addition, weather patterns will become less predictable and the occurrence of extreme climate events, such as storms, floods, heat waves and droughts, will increase. The potential effects of global warming on human society are devastating. We do, however, already have many of the technological solutions to cure our sick planet.

  6. Differences of granitic weathering at the northern and southern feet of Dabie Mountains, Central China: Implication for tectonic and climatic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Haijin(续海金); MA; Changqian(马昌前); LIU; Fan(刘凡); YANG; Kunguang(杨坤光)

    2003-01-01

    Two weathering profiles of Yanshanian granites on the southern and northern feet of the Dabie Mountains were investigated. The results showed that, on the southern foot of the Dabie Mountains, the weathering profile of the Sikongshan biotite monzonitic granite was eroded with remarkable loss of alkila, calcium and silicon, and richness of aluminium during hydrolysis process and in acidic mediums. Feldspar and biotite, major rock-forming minerals, were altered to illite→(vermiculite→1.4 nm transition minerals) →kaolinite→halloysite. However, on the northern foot of the Dabie Mountains, the Hepeng biotite orthogranite weathering profile was stable, without silicon depletion, but with remarkably enriched iron and noncrystalline during oxidizing process and in feebly acidic-neutral mediums. The major rock-forming minerals such as feldspar and biotite in the Hepeng weathering profile were weathered to smectites and halloysite→noncrystalline. The above results reveal that weathering differences of the granites between southern and northern feet of the Dabie Mountains may be related to climatic environments and tectonic movements. The southern foot, in hot and rainy environments, was uplifted by tectonics and was intensively leached. The soils in the southern slope were under acidic conditions. In contrast, the northern foot was slightly leached in hot and droughty environments, and the soils were under feebly acidic-neutral conditions.

  7. Magnetostratigraphy of the late Cenozoic Laojunmiao anticline in the northern Qilian Mountains and its implications for the northern Tibetan Plateau uplift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Xiaomin; ZHAO; Zhijun; LI; Jijun; YAN; Maodu; PAN; Ba

    2005-01-01

    Cenozoic sediments in the foreland basin--Jiuquan Basin in west Hexi Corridor recorded tectonic uplift information of the Qilian Mountains. High resolution paleomagnetic dating of the Laojunmiao (LJM) section across the central LJM anticline in the southern Jiuquan Basin reveals ages of the Getanggou Member, Niugetao Member in the Shulehe Formation, the Yumen Conglomerate, Jiuquan Conglomerate and Gobi Formation at >13-8.3 Ma, 8.3-4.9 Ma, 3.66-0.93 Ma, 0.84-0.14 Ma and 0.14-0 Ma, respectively. Sedimentary evolution study suggests that the Qilian Mountains should begin to rise gradually since ~8-6.6 Ma, accompanied by sedimentary environments changing from lacustrine mudstones-sandstones to alluvial conglomerates. Rapid uplift of the Qilian Mountains began at ~3.66 Ma, followed by a series of stepwise or intermittent intensive uplifts at about <1.8-1.23 Ma, 0.93-0.84 Ma and 0.14 Ma, which finally resulted in the present high Qilian Mountains.

  8. Controlling sickness absence: a study of changes in the Danish sickness absence legislation since 1973

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Andersen, John Sahl; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To outline the principles underlying changes overtime in entitlement to sickness absence benefit in Denmark. METHODS: The Danish sickness benefit scheme during the past 30 years has been studied based on a comprehensive review of the Sickness Benefit Act from 1973, and all later...... amendments to the act. RESULTS: Entitlement to sickness benefit in Denmark has undergone considerable changes during the past 30 years. The guiding principles of the reforms have been financial savings in combination with an assumption that human behaviour can be controlled through bureaucratic...... administration with focus on monitoring and evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The Sickness Benefit Act was initially based on a broad concept of disease but the implementation underwent major changes. In the 1970s and 1980s entitlement to benefit depended very much on medical diagnosis. This practice changed and today...

  9. Geochronology and geochemistry of gneissic metagranites in eastern Dabie Mountains:Implications for the Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gneissic metagranites with Neoproterozoic protolith ages are widely exposed along the eastern margin of the Dabie ultra-high-pressure(UHP) metamorphic belt.In this paper,five representative plutons,including Huangzhen,Daba,Shima,Shuanghe,and Sanzusi,were selected for a detailed chronological and geochemical study aiming to identify the nature of the protoliths and to reveal their implications for the Neoproterozoic tectono-magmatic evolution along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block.These gneissic metagranites consist mainly of quartz,albite(oligoclase) and K-feldspar,and minor amphibole and biotite,as well as some metamorphic minerals due to the UHP metamorphism,such as phengite,epidote and minor kyanite and garnet.Mafic alkaline minerals(e.g.,aegirine or aegirine-augite) have been observed in some of these plutons.Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating results indicate that the protoliths of the gneissic metagranites have been generated in Mid-Neoproterozoic(770-780 Ma),and suffered both ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in Early Mesozoic and subsequently high-pressure eclogite-facies recrystallization at about 215 Ma.Although the gneissic metagranites generally have high SiO2 contents(70.23%-77.23%) and show metaluminous-weakly peraluminous signatures(ASI=0.90-1.05),there are still some geochemical variances between different plutons.Compared with the Sanzusi pluton,the metagranites from the Huangzhen,Daba,Shima,and Shuanghe have high K2O+Na2O contents(7.76%-9.45%),FeOtotal/(FeOtotal+MgO) ratios(0.82-0.96),HFSEs and Ga concentrations with an average 104×Ga/Al ratio up to 3.07.Combined with the features that the four plutons commonly contain aegirine-augite and have high zircon saturation temperatures(816-918°C),it is suggested that their proto-liths belong to peralkaline A-type granites.The Sanzusi pluton generally contains biotite and epidote generated from metamorphic reaction of amphibole,and is chemically enriched in calcium and depleted in potassium with

  10. Multiple low-temperature thermochronology constraints on exhumation of the Tatra Mountains: New implication for the complex evolution of the Western Carpathians in the Cenozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anczkiewicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Danišík, Martin; Środoń, Jan

    2015-11-01

    The tectonothermal evolution of the highest mountain range in the Carpathian arc—the Tatra Mountains— is investigated by zircon and apatite fission track and zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) dating methods in order to unravel the disputed exhumation and geodynamic processes in the Western Carpathians. Our data in combination with geological evidences reveal a complex Cenozoic history, with four major tectonothermal events: (i) a very low grade metamorphism of the crystalline basement at temperatures >240°C due to tectonic burial during the Eo-Alpine collision in the Late Cretaceous (~80 Ma); (ii) exhumation and cooling of the basement to temperatures 150°C after burial to 5-9 km depths by the Paleogene fore-arc basin; (iv) final exhumation of the segmented basement blocks during Oligocene-Miocene (32-11 Ma) owing to lateral extrusion of the North Pannonian plate and its collision with the European foreland. The spatial pattern of thermochronological data suggests asymmetric exhumation of the Tatra Mountains, beginning in the northwest at ~30-20 Ma with low cooling rates (~1-5°C/Ma) and propagating toward the major fault bounding the range in the south, where the youngest cooling ages (16-9 Ma) and fastest cooling rates (~10-20°C/Ma) are found. Our data prove that the Tatra Mountains shared Cenozoic evolution of other crystalline core mountains in the Western Carpathians. However, the Miocene ZHe ages suggest that the Tatra Mountains were buried to the greatest depths in the Paleogene-Early Miocene and experienced the greatest amount of Miocene exhumation.

  11. The association between pelvic girdle pain and sick leave during pregnancy; a retrospective study of a Norwegian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Stefan; Kjaermann, Inger; Andersen, Knut; Økland, Inger; Larsen, Jan Petter; Brønnick, Kolbjørn

    2015-10-05

    , which decreases sick leave. We recommend these issues to be further examined in a prospective longitudinal study since it may have important implications for sick leave frequency during pregnancy.

  12. Implication of histamine H1 receptors in vestibular nucleus and motion sickness%前庭核H1受体在运动病发生中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立桂; 王恩彤; 陈伟; 龚维熙

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of histamine H1 receptors (H1 R) in vestibular nucleus of rat' s brainstem and the underlying role of H1R in motion sickness (MS).Methods Total of 24 healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups,6 rats in each group.A:MS(-)/Drug(-) control group,in which the rats were not exposed to motion stimulus and no anti-motion sickness drug promethazine taking; B:MS(+)/Drug(-) group,only exposed to motion stimulus; C:MS(-)/Drug(+) group,that applied with promethazine but not exposed to motion stimulus; D:MS(+)/Drug (+) group,applied with promethazine (0.25 mg for each rat) 30 minutes before exposing to motion stimulus.MS was induced by a complex motion stimulus and the conditioned taste aversion was used as the behavioral indicator of MS in rats,measuring the intaked volume of 0.15% sodium saccharin solution (SSS) for each rat 45 minutes after motion stimulus.H1 R in the vestibular nucleus of brainstem was examined by immunofluorescence staining.The expression of H1 R proteins in hrainstem tissue at vestibular nucleus level was detected by Western blot.The effects of motion stimulus and anti-MS drug promethazine on the expressions of H1R were evaluated.Results The mean intake of SSS in B group was significantly less than that in A group (F=346.82,P<0.01),which demondtrated that MS was induced by this motion stimulus in the rats.The mean intaked SSS volume (14.8 ml) in C group was similar to that in A group (P>0.05),indicating no significant effect of promethazine on intaking SSS.The mean intaked SSS volume in D group was more than that in B group (P<0.01),but less than that in A group or C group (P<0.01),which indicated that the inhibited intaking of SSS in motion-stimulated rats was improved partially by promethazine.Immunofluorescence staining showed the positive expression of H1R in the vestibular nucleus of brainstem in rats and the expression was enhanced by motion stimulus,but was not

  13. Transverse tectonic structural elements across Himalayan mountain front, eastern Arunachal Himalaya, India: Implication of superposed landform development on analysis of neotectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakuni, S. S.; Luirei, Khayingshing; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Imsong, Watinaro

    2017-04-01

    Structural and morphotectonic signatures in conjunction with the geomorphic indices are synthesised to trace the role of transverse tectonic features in shaping the landforms developed along the frontal part of the eastern Arunachal sub-Himalaya. Mountain front sinuosity (Smf) index values close to one are indicative of the active nature of the mountain front all along the eastern Arunachal Himalaya, which can be directly attributed to the regional uplift along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). However, the mountain front is significantly sinusoidal around junctions between HFT/MBT (Main Boundary Thrust) and active transverse faults. The high values of stream length gradient (SL) and stream steepness (Ks) indices together with field evidence of fault scarps, offset of terraces, and deflection of streams are markers of neotectonic uplift along the thrusts and transverse faults. This reactivation of transverse faults has given rise to extensional basins leading to widening of the river courses, providing favourable sites for deposition of recent sediments. Tectonic interactions of these transverse faults with the Himalayan longitudinal thrusts (MBT/HFT) have segmented the mountain front marked with varying sinuosity. The net result is that a variety of tectonic landforms recognized along the mountain front can be tracked to the complex interactions among the transverse and longitudinal tectonic elements. Some distinctive examples are: in the eastern extremity of NE Himalaya across the Dibang River valley, the NW-SE trending mountain front is attenuated by the active Mishmi Thrust that has thrust the Mishmi crystalline complex directly over the alluvium of the Brahmaputra plains. The junction of the folded HFT and Mishmi Thrust shows a zone of brecciated and pulverized rocks along which transverse axial planar fracture cleavages exhibit neotectonic activities in a transverse fault zone coinciding with the Dibang River course. Similarly, the transverse faults cut the

  14. Coriolis effects and motion sickness modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bles, W

    1998-11-15

    Coriolis effects are notorious in relation to disorientation and motion sickness in aircrew. A review is provided of experimental data on these Coriolis effects, including the modulatory effects of adding visual or somatosensory rotatory motion information. A vector analysis of the consequences of head movements during somatosensory, visual and/or vestibular rotatory motion stimulation revealed that the more the sensed angular velocity vector after the head movements is aligned with the gravitoinertial force vector, the less nauseating effects are experienced. It is demonstrated that this is a special case of the subjective vertical conflict theory on motion sickness that assumes that motion sickness may be provoked if a discrepancy is detected between the subjective vertical and the sensed vertical as determined on the basis of incoming sensory information.

  15. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient......’s particular circumstances in deciding whether that patient is legitimately sick. The doctor is thus a gatekeeper of legitimacy. This article presents results from a qualitative interview study conducted in Denmark with GPs concerning their approach to patients with MUS. We employ a symbolic interaction...... approach that pays special attention to the external validation of the sick role, making GPs’ accounts of such patients particularly relevant. One of the article’s main findings is that GPs’ criteria for judging the legitimacy of claims by those patients that present with MUS are influenced by the extent...

  16. ROLE OF INTRAFAMILIAL INFECTION OF SICKLY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Abramova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 143 children and 376 of their family members were examined for the study of intrafamilial infection. The study revealed that in the families of the studied sickly children (SC 100% of mothers, 83,3% of fathers, 100% of siblings and 100% of nannies were infected. Herpes viruses: EBV (55,8%, CMV (50,8%, HHV VI (21,7% in combination with intracellular pathogens (Chlamydia and Mycoplasma were prevalent in the sickly children. Examination of the family members revealed presence of the same pathogens. Control group differed significantly and reliably from the group of sickly children. There were not many infected children, no acute forms of diseases; monoinfection predominated. 

  17. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  18. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  19. A compound power-law model for volcanic eruptions: Implications for risk assessment of volcanism at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Chih-Hsiang [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

    1994-10-17

    Much of the ongoing debate on the use of nuclear power plants in U.S.A. centers on the safe disposal of the radioactive waste. Congress, aware of the importance of the waste issue, passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, requiring the federal government to develop a geologic repository for the permanent disposal of high level radioactive wastes from civilian nuclear power plants. The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in 1983 to identify potential sites. When OCRWM had selected three potential sites to study, Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which directed the DOE to characterize only one of those sites, Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. For a site to be acceptable, theses studies must demonstrate that the site could comply with regulations and guidelines established by the federal agencies that will be responsible for licensing, regulating, and managing the waste facility. Advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Recent volcanism in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain is readily recognized as an important factor in determining future public and environmental safety because of the possibility of direct disruption of a repository site by volcanism. In particular, basaltic volcanism is regarded as direct and unequivocal evidence of deep-seated geologic instability. In this paper, statistical analysis of volcanic hazard assessment at the Yucca Mountain site is discussed, taking into account some significant geological factors raised by experts. Three types of models are considered in the data analysis. The first model assumes that both past and future volcanic activities follow a homogeneous Poisson process (HPP).

  20. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  1. Geomorphic assessment of late Quaternary volcanism in the Yucca Mountain area, southern Nevada: Implications for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, S. G.; McFadden, L. D.; Renault, C. E.; Crowe, B. M.

    1990-06-01

    Volcanic hazard studies for high-level radioactive waste isolation in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, require a detailed understanding of Quaternary volcanism to forecast rates of volcanic processes. Recent studies of the Quaternary Cima volcanic field in southern California have demonstrated that K-Ar dates of volcanic landforms are consistent with their geomorphic and pedologic properties. The systematic change of these properties with time may be used to provide age estimates of undated or questionably dated volcanic features. The reliability off radiometric age determinations of the youngest volcanic center, Lathrop Wells, near the proposed Yucca Mountain site in Nevada has been problematic. In this study, a comparison of morphometric, pedogenic, and stratigraphic data establishes that correlation of geomorphic and soil properties between the Cima volcanic field and the Yucca Mountain area is valid. Comparison of the Lathrop Wells cinder cone to a 15-20 ka cinder cone in California shows that their geomorphic-pedogenic properties are similar and implies that the two cones are of similar age. We conclude that previous determinations of ca. 0.27 Ma for the latest volcanic activity at Lathrop Wells, approximately 20 km from the proposed repository, may be in error by as much as an order of magnitude and that the most recent volcanic activity is no older than 20 ka.

  2. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a ... New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases ...

  3. Home care services for sick children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castor, Charlotte; Hallström, Inger; Hansson, Eva Helena

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore healthcare professionals' conceptions of caring for sick children in home care services. BACKGROUND: Families often prefer home care to hospital care, and the number of home care services for children is increasing. Caring for children at home has been recognised...... professionals to be part of the re-organising and implementation processes might facilitate the home care services for sick children. Enough time and good teamwork must be emphasised. Early referrals, continuous cooperation with paediatric clinics complemented with individualised support when a child...

  4. Genetic aspects of sick sinus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chernova A.A.; Nikulina S.Yu.; Tret’yakova S.S.; Voyevoda M.I.; Maksimov V.N.; Chernov V.N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To study the association between polymorphic allelic variants of the alpha-2В-adrenoreceptor gene (ADRA2B), endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3), connexin protein gene 40 (Cx40), cardiac myosin heavy chain gene (MYH6), and voltage-gated sodium channels gene (SCN5A) and development of the idiopathic sick sinus syndrome. Methods. 14 probands with primary symptoms of sick sinus syndrome and their 110 relatives of the I–III degree kinship were examined. At the Berzon City Clinical H...

  5. Trends in sickness absence in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kristina; Bihrmann, Kristine; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    a linear regression analysis to analyze time trends in sickness absence based on datasets from the Danish Employers Confederation, the State Employer's Authority, the Labour Force Survey, and Statistics Denmark. RESULTS: The findings from the Confederation of Danish Employers, the State Employer......'s Authority, and the Labor Force Survey indicated a stable and largely unaltered pattern of sickness absence during the last 20 years. Findings from Statistics Denmark showed an increase in the cumulative incidence proportion from 6.6 to 7.5% among employed people between 2000 and 2007. CONCLUSION: Our data...

  6. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  7. The effects on sick leave of changes in the sickness insurance system

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus; Persson, Mats

    2001-01-01

    In order to get a more complete picture of how labor supply is affected by economic incentives, the effects on absenteeism and not just on contracted hours should be taken into account. In particular, the effects on absenteeism due to sick leave can be considerable. In this paper we examine whether the level of sick leave compensation affects sick leave behavior. Using time-series data for Sweden spanning a long period (1955-99) with numerous changes of the compensation level, we generally fi...

  8. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting sick leave. 630.401 Section 630.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.401 Granting sick leave. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) through (e) of...

  9. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an application—written, oral,...

  10. Job satisfaction and sickness absence : a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. Aim To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. Methods A sample of workers

  11. Job satisfaction and sickness absence : a questionnaire survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Koopmans, P.C.; Notenbomer, A.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background When dissatisfaction with work precedes sickness absence, screening for satisfaction levels might usefully detect workers at risk of sickness absence. Aim To investigate whether job satisfaction was associated with subsequent sickness absence days or episodes. Methods A sample of workers

  12. The Pathophysiology of Decompression Sickness and the Effects of Doppler Detectable Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-18

    recent past. Before the work of the French physiologist Paul Bert in 1893, it was generally believed that decompression sickness or "Caisson Workers...platelet clumping has also recently been implicated ( Philp , 1974). Hemoconcentration has I also been suggested as an important factor in altitude...emboli (Barthelemy, 1963; Philp , et al., 1967; Crockett, et al., 1968). In spite of the other hypotheses proposed, the "bubble hypothesis" is believed

  13. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  14. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  15. An evaluation of high-resolution regional climate model simulations of snow cover and albedo over the Rocky Mountains, with implications for the simulated snow-albedo feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, Justin R.; Letcher, Theodore W.; Skiles, S. McKenzie

    2016-08-01

    The snow-albedo feedback (SAF) strongly influences climate over midlatitude mountainous regions. However, over these regions the skill of regional climate models (RCMs) at simulating properties such as snow cover and surface albedo is poorly characterized. These properties are evaluated in a pair of 7 year long high-resolution RCM simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting model over the central Rocky Mountains. Key differences between the simulations include the computational domain (regional versus continental) and land surface model used (Noah versus Noah-MP). Simulations are evaluated against high-resolution satellite estimates of snow cover and albedo from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. Both simulations generally reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial variability of snow cover and also exhibit important biases. One simulation substantially overpredicts subpixel fractional snow cover over snowy pixels (by up to 0.4) causing large positive biases in surface albedo, likely due in part to inadequate representation of canopy effects. The other simulation exhibits a negative bias in areal snow extent (as much as 19% of the analysis domain). Surface measurements reveal large positive biases in snow albedo (exceeding 0.2) during late spring caused by neglecting radiative effects of impurities deposited onto snow. Semi-idealized climate change experiments show substantially different magnitudes of SAF-enhanced warming in the two simulations that can be tied to the differences in snow cover in their control climates. More confident projections of regional climate change over mountains will require further work to evaluate and improve representation of snow cover and albedo in RCMs.

  16. Tectonic and regional metamorphic implications of the discovery of Middle Ordovician conodonts in cover rocks east of the Green Mountain massif, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, N.M.; Harris, A.G.; Walsh, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    Middle Ordovician (late Arenigian - early Caradocian) conodonts were recovered from a dolostone lens in carbonaceous schist 30 m below the base of the Pinney Hollow Formation in the Eastern Cover sequence near West Bridgewater, Vermont. These are the first reported fossils from the metamorphic cover sequence rocks east of the Green Mountain, Berkshire, and Housatonic massifs of western New England. The conodonts are recrystallized, coated with graphitic matter, thermally altered to a color alteration index (CAI) of at least 5, and tectonically deformed. The faunule is nearly monospecific, consisting of abundant Periodon aculeatus Hadding? and rare Protopanderodus. The preponderance of Periodon and the absence of warm, shallow-water species characteristic of the North American Midcontinent Conodont Province suggest a slope or basin depositional setting. The conodont-bearing carbonaceous schist is traceable 3 km southeast to the Plymouth area, where it had been designated the uppermost member of the Plymouth Formation, previously regarded as Early Cambrian in age. The age and structural position of the carbonaceous schist above dolostones of the Plymouth Formation but below the Pinney Hollow Formation (upper Proterozoic and Lower Cambrian?) suggest that this unit may be correlative or time transgressive with the Ira Formation, which underlies the Taconic allochthons in the Vermont Valley. Such a correlation supports the concept of placing the western limit of the root zone of the Taconic allochthons beneath the Pinney Hollow Formation. An approximate absolute age assignment for the conodont-bearing rock is between 470 and 454 Ma. This suggests that dynamothermal metamorphism during the Taconian orogeny on the east flank of the Green Mountains was younger than early Caradocian, which is in accord with the middle Caradocian age of the Ira Formation west of the Green Mountain massif.

  17. Sickness absence due to depressive symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P. C.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Groothoff, J. W.

    Objective There is no information on the duration of absence of depressed Dutch workers. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of sickness absence due to depressive symptoms in the working population. Methods In this observational study of 15% of the Dutch working population, all

  18. Serum sickness-like reaction with clarithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad Adnan; Nasir, Junaid; Ikram, Umaira; Genese, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    Serum sickness-like reaction is a rare immunological condition which may develop following exposure to certain drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, among many others. It is described classically as a type III hypersensitivity response to heterologous proteins. Its true mechanism is still unclear. We present a case of serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin, a commonly prescribed drug for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The patient had been taking this drug for 3 days when she experienced generalized body aches, rash, arthralgia, and shortness of breath, prompting presentation to the emergency department. Laboratory studies showed decreased C4 and total complement with a slightly elevated sedimentation rate. After exclusion of other possible causes, the diagnosis of serum sickness-like reaction was made. The patient responded well to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, antihistamines, and a short, tapering dose of steroids. To our knowledge, serum sickness-like reaction to clarithromycin has never been reported previously. This case emphasizes the need for increased clinical awareness of such an adverse outcome to clarithromycin use.

  19. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M

    2003-09-01

    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  20. [The sick individual as a concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo López, Luis Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We start from the premise, shared by some current philosophical movements and by the author, which states that philosophy is not contemplation, or reflection, or introspection or communication. Philosophy is the art of shaping, inventing and creating concepts. It is an explicit way of introducing new differences in life, a different reading level, a specific jargon, which may imply revealing the flip side of the coin, or a dissimilar view of the side facing us. The philosopher is the friend of the concept, he holds it in his power, which means, basically and in all honesty, that philosophy is the discipline of creating concepts. Let us remember the brilliant idea of the Russian director Tarkovsky, who announced his greatest ambition as an artist: "To capture time". At the same time, we must recall one of the sayings of this director: "Every film I have directed and I intend to direct is always tied to characters who have something to overcome". The healthy individual lives in a specific time, with precise coordinates, aware that his life consists only of living that time. That is, living as defined by Josep María Esquirol: "Then we could also see that the best way of living the present is not to run after the fleeing time, but to see and live the opportunity that appears before us". One of the many circumstances that can intercept the way we see and live the opportunity that appears before us is sickness, one of those inescapable experiences we have not been taught how to pay an adequate attention to, and the meaning of which can, in a way, go unnoticed. As "time" goes by, the circumstance that we consider to be the basis on which existence is founded, sickness can appear, thus introducing a new dimension in the time of the healthy individual. For this reason we, as doctors and professionals, know that sickness "is tied to characters who have something to overcome". In view of the fact that a sickness invades a healthy individual and transforms him into a sick one

  1. The Negotiation of the Sick Role

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2012-01-01

    In encounters between general practitioners (GPs) and patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS), the negotiation of the sick role is a social process. In this process, GPs not only use traditional biomedical diagnostic tools but also rely on their own opinions and evaluations of a patient...

  2. Preliminary study on the spore-pollen assemblages found in the Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in Grove Mountains, east Antarctica and its climatic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Aimin; Liu Xiaohan; Wang Weiming; Li Xiaoli; Yu Liangjun; Huang Feixin

    2005-01-01

    Glaciogene sedimentary rocks have been found in modem tills of the Grove Mountains, east Antarctica during the 1998 - 1999 Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHNARE). Based on the lithilogic and sedimentary features,these sedimentary rocks are correlated with Cenozoic sedimentary strata of the Pagodroma Group in the neighboring Prince Charles Mountains and the Sorsdal Formation in VestFold Hills. Sedimentary clasts contain sparsely Late Tertiary spores and pollens, including: Toroisporis (Lygodiaceae), Osmunda , Granulatisporites (Pteridaceae?), Polypodiaceae, Podocarpus, Araucariaceae, Artemisia, Rhus, Nothofagidites,Proteacidites ( Proteaceae ) , Quercus , Fraxinoipollenites (Oleaceae) , Oleoidearumpollenites(Oleaceae), Operculumpollis, and Tricolpopollenites. Most of the pollen and spores contained in these samples originate from local sources according to the conditions of their preservations as well as correlations with the microfossil assemblages found in the neighboring areas. The majority of the pollen assemblages, as represented by Podocarpus and Nothofagus, belong to the Weddellian biogeocenose, however some exotic components from the old sedimentary basement rocks may have been included during erosion of the proximal ice sheet. If the source areas of glaciogenic sedimentary rocks that bear the pollen and spores are assumed to be local, or in the up glacier areas, the pollen assemblages in these samples might represent an inland flora during a warmer period of the ice-sheet evolutionary history. The finding of the Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae in the pollen assemblages implies that they may belong to late Tertiary (most probably Pliocene). The absence of diatoms in the samples analyzed may indicate that there are no Cenozoic marine strata in the interior of the east Antarctica beyond the Grove Mountains. The significances of the finding of the Nothofagus in these pollen assemblages are discussed on the basis of current knowledge about the age

  3. [Duration of maternity leave and sick leave during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophøj, A; Sabroe, S

    1999-09-06

    The aim of the project was to describe the reasons for sick leave during pregnancy. This article presents data on a subgroup of women on sick leave. The purpose of this reanalysis was to examine whether women with short maternity leave had longer sick leave during pregnancy. Pregnant women in a Danish County applying for sick leave in a year were consecutively included in the study. Data were obtained by questionnaires during 1991-1992. Women with rights to a longer maternity leave, obtained through collective bargaining, were mainly employed in occupational groups related to the public sector and were on sick leave significantly longer, than women with short maternity leave, obtained only through legislation. The diagnoses differed among the two groups. Data suggest unequal possibilities for obtaining pregnancy related sick leave, as women with longer predelivery leave and a more secure employment situation had significantly longer sick leave than other women.

  4. Paleoseismic investigations in the Santa Cruz mountains, California: Implications for recurrence of large-magnitude earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. P.; Pantosti, D.; Okumura, K.; Powers, T. J.; Hamilton, J. C.

    1998-08-01

    Trenching, microgeomorphic mapping, and tree ring analysis provide information on timing of paleoearthquakes and behavior of the San Andreas fault in the Santa Cruz mountains. At the Grizzly Flat site alluvial units dated at 1640-1659 A.D., 1679-1894 A.D., 1668-1893 A.D., and the present ground surface are displaced by a single event. This was the 1906 surface rupture. Combined trench dates and tree ring analysis suggest that the penultimate event occurred in the mid-1600 s, possibly in an interval as narrow as 1632-1659 A.D. There is no direct evidence in the trenches for the 1838 or 1865 earthquakes, which have been proposed as occurring on this part of the fault zone. In a minimum time of about 340 years only one large surface faulting event (1906) occurred at Grizzly Flat, in contrast to previous recurrence estimates of 95-110 years for the Santa Cruz mountains segment. Comparison with dates of the penultimate San Andreas earthquake at sites north of San Francisco suggests that the San Andreas fault between Point Arena and the Santa Cruz mountains may have failed either as a sequence of closely timed earthquakes on adjacent segments or as a single long rupture similar in length to the 1906 rupture around the mid-1600 s. The 1906 coseismic geodetic slip and the late Holocene geologic slip rate on the San Francisco peninsula and southward are about 50-70% and 70% of their values north of San Francisco, respectively. The slip gradient along the 1906 rupture section of the San Andreas reflects partitioning of plate boundary slip onto the San Gregorio, Sargent, and other faults south of the Golden Gate. If a mid-1600 s event ruptured the same section of the fault that failed in 1906, it supports the concept that long strike-slip faults can contain master rupture segments that repeat in both length and slip distribution. Recognition of a persistent slip rate gradient along the northern San Andreas fault and the concept of a master segment remove the requirement that

  5. Changes in sickness absenteeism following the introduction of a qualifying day for sickness benefit--findings from Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: In 1993, a qualifying day without sickness benefit was introduced to the Swedish sickness benefit system. The aim of the present study is to investigate sickness absenteeism before and after the introduction of the qualifying day, in the light of conditions inside and outside working life....... METHODS: The study was based on 1,952 female and 2,229 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by sickness incidence one year before and one year after the introduction of the qualifying day (sick-leave events/person days at risk). Information about explanatory factors was collected...... lifting at work more often showed an increase in incidence compared to men without heavy lifting, and the same tendency was found for women. CONCLUSION: The reduction in sickness incidence following the introduction of the qualifying day was fairly independent of different work-related and non-work...

  6. Remeasurement of permanent vegetation plots in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, USA, and the implications of climatic changes on vegetation. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becking, R. W.; Olson, J. S.

    1978-03-01

    This report summarizes field work over two summers (1976 and 1977) to relocate, monument and reinventory permanent vegetation plots in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. These plots were first established by the senior author and R.H. Whittaker in 1959-62. The inventory results are discussed in terms of vegetation changes in high-altitudinal forest ecosystems, in particular the spruce-fir forests, and the factors, climate shift and biotic and abiotic agents, bringing about vegetation change. A second aspect of the report summarizes experience and offers recommendations for establishment of permanent vegetation plots for the purpose of providing a monitoring tool with which to measure long-term ecological change.

  7. Generation and fate of glacial sediments in the central Transantarctic Mountains based on radiogenic isotopes and implications for reconstructing past ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, G. Lang; Licht, Kathy J.

    2016-10-01

    The Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of glacial tills from the Byrd and Nimrod Glaciers in the central Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) in East Antarctica were obtained to assess the sources of detritus transported by these ice masses. Tills from lateral moraines along the entire extent of both glaciers have isotopic compositions consistent with their derivation predominately from erosion of adjacent bedrock. Fine- (<63μ) and coarser-grained (0.5 mm-2 mm) sediment from these tills have identical isotopic characteristics, indicating that fine-grained detritus is the product of further comminution of coarser sediments. Comparison of present-day till isotopic data to existing data from fine-grained LGM tills in the central Ross Sea confirm that these were deposited from East Antarctic ice that expanded through the TAM and indicates that the LGM sediments are mixtures of detritus eroded along the entire path of ice transiting the TAM. If specific lithologies were preferentially eroded as ice passed through the TAM, it is not clearly evident in the Ross Sea till isotopic compositions. Our data do demonstrate, however, that glacial tills generated from erosion of inboard regions of the mountain belt yield sediment with a larger component of 560 Ma to 600 Ma detrital zircons and lower average εNd(0) values (<-5) than that produced further downstream. As a result, past retreat of ice grounding-lines up the narrow valleys of the TAM resulting in active erosion of inboard region should recognizable in glacial sediments deposited in the Ross Sea and so provide a means to identify times when the East Antarctic ice sheet was smaller than today. This study highlights both the value and necessity of utilizing multiple provenance methods in evaluating glacial erosion and transport when reconstructing past ice sheet dynamics.

  8. Anatomy, taphonomy, and phylogenetic implications of a new specimen of Eolambia caroljonesa (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Andrew T.; Gates, Terry A.; Zanno, Lindsay E.; Makovicky, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Eolambia caroljonesa is the most abundant dinosaur in the lower Cenomanian Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of Utah, and one of the most completely known non-hadrosaurid iguanodontians from North America. In addition to the large holotype and paratype partial skulls, copious remains of skeletally immature individuals, including three bonebeds, have been referred to E. caroljonesa. Nevertheless, aspects of the postcranial anatomy of this taxon, particularly the pelvic girdle, have remained ambiguous due to the lack of associated postcranial material of larger, more mature individuals. Methodology/Principal findings Here we describe a recently discovered associated partial postcranial skeleton of a large Eolambia caroljonesa. This specimen, FMNH PR 3847, provides new anatomical data regarding the vertebral column and pelvic girdle, supplementing previous diagnoses and descriptions of E. caroljonesa. A new phylogenetic analysis incorporating information from FMNH PR 3847 places E. caroljonesa as a basal hadrosauromorph closely related to Protohadros byrdi from the Cenomanian Woodbine Formation of Texas. Histological analysis of FMNH PR 3847 reveals that it represents a subadult individual eight to nine years of age. Taphonomic analysis indicates that FMNH PR 3847 was preserved in a crevasse splay deposit, along with an unusual abundance of small crocodylomorph material. Conclusions/Significance FMNH PR 3847 provides a wealth of new morphological data, adding to the anatomical and systematic characterization of Eolambia caroljonesa, and histological data, revealing new information on growth history in a basal hadrosauromorph. Taphonomic characterization of FMNH PR 3847 and associated vertebrate material will allow comparison with other vertebrate localities in the Mussentuchit Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation. PMID:28489871

  9. Study on experimental motion sickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Toriyabe, I; Takei, Y; Kanzaki, J

    1994-05-01

    To clarify the characteristics of motion sickness in children we investigated autonomic nervous symptoms and instability evoked by walking while wearing horizontally reversing goggles in 90 children aged 4 to 15 years. Kindergarten children had hardly any autonomic nervous symptoms except headache; however, they often fell, could not stand up or move, and exhibited a to-and-fro deviation gait. Although the frequency and severity of sickness gradually increased during growth, the severity of gait disorder became milder as age increased. On the basis of these findings it seems likely that functions which perceive disorder of spatial orientation and action are immature in young children, and once spatial orientation is impaired, instability becomes very severe, since inadequate control is not stopped by an alarm function against disorientation.

  10. [Genetic predictors of sick sinus node syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, A A; Nikulina, S Iu; Tret'iakova, S S

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the role of heredity in development of the sick sinus node syndrome (SSNS). We have examined 14 probands and 110 their relatives from families with idiopathic SSNS and established the role in development of hereditary SSNS of polymorphisms of the following genes: -2-adrenoreceptor, enzyme endothelial NO synthase, protein connexin 40, voltage dependent cardiac sodium channels, cardiac myosin heavy chains. We also revealed associations of clinical variants of idiopathic SSNS with genotypes of the studied genes.

  11. Sick sinus syndrome: a family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogińska, Natalia; Bieganowska, Katarzyna

    2014-02-01

    A case of related individuals affected by sick sinus syndrome is presented in this study. The clinical and electrocardiographic signs of sinus node dysfunction and the most common causes of this disease are presented. Subsequently, the article includes descriptions of sinus node disease in three related children as well as details of the disease in their relatives. A literature review of the genetics of familial sinus node dysfunction concludes the study.

  12. Childhood serum sickness: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Y K; Shyur, S D; Wu, C Y; Wang, C Y

    2001-09-01

    Childhood serum sickness is a rare allergic disease that follows the administration of a foreign antigenic material, most commonly caused by injecting a protein or haptenic drug. The disease is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by deposits of circulating immune complexes in small vessels, which leads to complement activation and subsequent inflammation. The clinical features are fever, cutaneous eruptions, lymphadenopathy, arthralgias, albuminuria, and nephritis. Serum sickness is an acute self-limited disease. We report a 3-year-old child who presented with fever and a rash; an invasive bacterial infection was strongly suspected. He was therefore given penicillin and gentamicin and responded well. At day 4 after admission, he developed a serum sickness reaction and showed symptoms of arthralgias, generalized edema, purpura, and gross hematuria. The white blood cell count was 12 190/mm3 with 7% eosinophils. Urinalysis revealed red blood cell above 100 per high power field, white blood cell 10 to 15 per high power field, and proteinuria. The antibiotics were discontinued and hydrocortisone (20 mg/kg/d), diphenhydramine HCl (4 mg/kg/d), aspirin (66 mg/kg/d) was administered, plus 1 dose of epinephrine (0.01 mL/kg) administered intramuscularly. On day 7, the 3rd day after withholding antibiotics, his condition dramatically improved. The clinical symptoms resolved progressively and his urinalysis returned to normal.

  13. A Countermeasure for Space Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests

  14. Surface faulting and paleoseismic history of the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area, west-central Nevada, and implications for modern tectonics of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.W.; DePolo, C.M.; Ramelli, A.R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake (Ms 7.2) was one of the largest historical events in the Walker Lane region of western Nevada, and it produced a complicated strike-slip rupture pattern on multiple Quaternary faults distributed through three valleys. Primary, right-lateral surface ruptures occurred on north-striking faults in Monte Cristo Valley; small-scale lateral and normal offsets occurred in Stewart Valley; and secondary, normal faulting occurred on north-northeast-striking faults in the Gabbs Valley epicentral region. A reexamination of the surface ruptures provides new displacement and fault-zone data: maximum cumulative offset is estimated to be 2.7 m, and newly recognized faults extend the maximum width and end-to-end length of the rupture zone to 17 and 75 km, respectively. A detailed Quaternary allostratigraphic chronology based on regional alluvialgeomorphic relationships, tephrochronology, and radiocarbon dating provides a framework for interpreting the paleoseismic history of the fault zone. A late Wisconsinan alluvial-fan and piedmont unit containing a 32-36 ka tephra layer is a key stratigraphic datum for paleoseismic measurements. Exploratory trenching and radiocarbon dating of tectonic stratigraphy provide the first estimates for timing of late Quaternary faulting along the Cedar Mountain fault zone. Three trenches display evidence for six faulting events, including that in 1932, during the past 32-36 ka. Radiocarbon dating of organic soils interstratified with tectonically ponded silts establishes best-fit ages of the pre-1932 events at 4, 5,12,15, and 18 ka, each with ??2 ka uncertainties. On the basis of an estimated cumulative net slip of 6-12 m for the six faulting events, minimum and maximum late Quaternary slip rates are 0.2 and 0.7 mm/yr, respectively, and the preferred rate is 0.4-0.5 mm/yr. The average recurrence (interseismic) interval is 3600 yr. The relatively uniform thickness of the ponded deposits suggests that similar

  15. Petrography and geochemistry of modern river sediments in an equatorial environment (Rwenzori Mountains and Albertine rift, Uganda) - Implications for weathering and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sandra; Hornung, Jens; Hinderer, Matthias; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    In hot-humid equatorial climate chemical weathering may be so strong that provenance signatures may be largely lost and even detritus derived from crystalline basement rocks reduced to quartzose sand. We tested this hypothesis in western Uganda, where stable plateau areas contrast with the active tectonic setting of the Albertine Rift (western branch of the East African Rift System, EARS), culminating in the strongly exhumed fault block of the > 5000 m high Rwenzori Mountains. In this setting, sediments derived from similar types of basement rocks including gneiss, schist, amphibolite, metasediments and granites can be traced from rapidly eroding high-altitude areas to low-altitude areas undergoing prolonged weathering. Sand and mud carried by 51 rivers overall in these two contrasting landscapes were sampled to study how and to what extent detrital modes are modified by the selective loss of unstable detrital minerals. Sediments generated in the high-relief Rwenzori Mountains show abundant feldspar (up to 32%) and rock fragments (up to 52%), which together with low SiO2/Al2O3 ratio and composition close to the Upper Continental Crust (UCC standard) reflect erosion in weathering-limited conditions. In the central Rwenzoris, low Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratios, weak negative Eu anomaly, lower LaN/YbN values, and heavy-mineral assemblages with hornblende and epidote reflect the lithology of source rocks in the Buganda-Toro-Greenstone Belt. In contrast, sediments produced on the low-relief plateau have quartz content up to 98% and higher SiO2/Al2O3 ratio. Systematic loss of mobile elements is indicated by high chemical weathering indices CIA, PIA and WIP. However, provenance from metamorphic basement rocks is still indicated by heavy-mineral assemblages dominated by epidote and amphibole, whereas provenance from granitic rocks is revealed by high Th/Sc and Zr/Sc ratio, negative Eu anomaly and higher LaN/YbN values. We conclude that first-cycle sediments generated in high

  16. European mountain biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy, Jennifer

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, originally prepared as a discussion document for the ESF Exploratory Workshop «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop», provides an overview of current mountain biodiversity research in Europe. It discusses (a biogeographical trends, (b the general properties of biodiversity, (c environmental factors and the regulation of biodiversity with respect to ecosystem function, (d the results of research on mountain freshwater ecosystems, and (e climate change and air pollution dominated environmental interactions.- The section on biogeographical trends highlights the importance of altitude and latitude on biodiversity. The implications of the existence of different scales over the different levels of biodiversity and across organism groups are emphasised as an inherent complex property of biodiversity. The discussion on ecosystem function and the regulation of biodiversity covers the role of environmental factors, productivity, perturbation, species migration and dispersal, and species interactions in the maintenance of biodiversity. Regional and long-term temporal patterns are also discussed. A section on the relatively overlooked topic of mountain freshwater ecosystems is presented before the final topic on the implications of recent climate change and air pollution for mountain biodiversity.

    [fr] Ce document a été préparé à l'origine comme une base de discussion pour «ESF Exploratory Workshop» intitulé «Trends in European Mountain Biodiversity - Research Planning Workshop»; il apporte une vue d'ensemble sur les recherches actuelles portant sur la biodiversité des montagnes en Europe. On y discute les (a traits biogéographiques, (b les caractéristiques générales- de la biodiversité, (c les facteurs environnementaux et la régulation de la biodiversité par rapport à la fonction des écosystèmes, (d les résultats des études sur les écosystèmes aquatiques des montagnes et (e les

  17. Students experience self-esteem improvement during mountaineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahaeloo-Horeh, Saeid; Assari, Shervin

    2008-01-01

    Despite ample evidence in the literature of the correlation between sports participation in general and self-esteem, there is a dearth of information regarding the probable impact of specific sporting activities on self-concept. We, therefore, sought to assess the effect of mountaineering on self-esteem and its correlates in university students. This longitudinal study recruited 54 students (male 26%, female 74%) from different universities in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. The students participated in a mountaineering program in Mt. Damavand in July 2006. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), SF-36, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were completed by all the participants before and after this activity. Their demographic data and mountaineering experience were also collected. Mean RSES after climbing was significantly higher than before the experience (24.78 +/- 2.4 vs. 23.67 +/- 3.3; P = .002). Self-esteem was correlated with bodily pain, and its improvement was correlated with mental health and depression (P Self-esteem and its improvement were not significantly correlated with age, sex, marital status, prior personal and family history of mountaineering, past history of mountain sickness, and reaching the summit (P > .05). This study showed that participation in a single mountaineering program improved students' sense of self-esteem. We suggest that taking up this activity might have benefits for students with depression.

  18. Serum levels of eleven steroid hormones following motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalla, G K; Doerr, H G; Bidlingmaier, F; Sippel, W G; von Restorff, W

    1985-10-01

    In order to grade motion sickness objectively, the following 11 adrenal hormones were investigated in subjects with different motion sickness susceptibility: Aldosterone, corticosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone, progesterone, 17-OH-progesterone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, cortisone, testosterone, androstendione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Motion sickness was induced by the coriolis effect on a rotary chair. Both severe kinetosis after short rotation time and mild motion sickness after 30 min of rotation occurred together with small hormonal changes. Androstendione and 11-deoxycortisol appear to be sensitive indicators of motion sickness if the rotation time is taken into consideration. A significant increase of all hormones except progesterone, cortisone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was observed when pronounced malaise had come after a long rotation stress (24.6 min). The changes in plasma aldosterone concentration appeared to correlate with time only. The present study demonstrates that hormonal analysis can be helpful in estimating the degree of motion sickness.

  19. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  20. Severe serum sickness reaction to oral and intramuscular penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brychan M; Kotti, George H; Shah, Anand D; Conger, Nicholas G

    2006-05-01

    Serum sickness is a type III hypersensitivity reaction mediated by immune complex deposition with subsequent complement activation, small-vessel vasculitis, and tissue inflammation. Although the overall incidence of serum sickness is declining because of decreased use of heterologous sera and improved vaccinations, rare sporadic cases of serum sickness from nonprotein drugs such as penicillins continue to occur. Drug-induced serum sickness is usually self-limited, with symptoms lasting only 1-2 weeks before resolving. We report an unusual case of a severe and prolonged serum sickness reaction that occurred after exposure to an intramuscular penicillin depot injection (probable relationship by Naranjo score) and discuss how pharmacokinetics may have played a role. Clinicians should be familiar with serum sickness reactions particularly as they relate to long-acting penicillin preparations. Accurate diagnosis in conjunction with cessation of drug exposure and prompt initiation of antiinflammatory treatment with corticosteroids can produce complete recovery

  1. Rizatriptan reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness in migraineurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Joseph M; Marcus, Dawn A; Balaban, Carey D

    2011-02-01

    A previous pilot study suggested that rizatriptan reduces motion sickness induced by complex vestibular stimulation. In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study we measured motion sickness in response to a complex vestibular stimulus following pretreatment with either rizatriptan or a placebo. Subjects included 25 migraineurs with or without migraine-related dizziness (23 females) aged 21-45 years (31.0 ± 7.8 years). Motion sickness was induced by off-vertical axis rotation in darkness, which stimulates both the semicircular canals and otolith organs of the vestibular apparatus. Results indicated that of the 15 subjects who experienced vestibular-induced motion sickness when pretreated with placebo, 13 showed a decrease in motion sickness following pretreatment with rizatriptan as compared to pretreatment with placebo (P rizatriptan, reduces vestibular-induced motion sickness by influencing serotonergic vestibular-autonomic projections.

  2. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  3. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  4. Serum sickness-like illness associated with ciprofloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, T G

    1990-05-01

    Serum sickness is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction initially reported in children receiving horse serum. Drugs such as penicillins, cephalosporins, and sulfonamides are now noted to be the most common etiologic agents of serum sickness-like reactions. This case report describes a serum sickness-like reaction temporally related to ciprofloxacin, a previously unreported adverse effect of this drug or any of the other quinolones.

  5. Vertical Heterophoria and Susceptibility to Visually-induced Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Danielle N.; Bedell, Harold E.

    2013-01-01

    Motion sickness is reported to be a common symptom in patients with vertical heterophoria. The goal of this study was to assess the relationship between vertical phoria and susceptibility to motion sickness in a non-clinical sample of 43 subjects. Vertical phoria was measured with a Maddox rod after 30 s of occlusion. To evaluate susceptibility to motion sickness, subjects read text while sitting inside a rotating optokinetic drum for 10 min. Subjects rated their level of motion sickness at 1 min intervals during drum rotation and the magnitude of 13 motion-sickness symptoms after drum rotation ended. The magnitude of vertical phoria ranged from 0 to 2.13 prism diopters (pd) with a mean of 0.46 pd and correlated significantly with both the maximum rating of motion sickness during drum rotation and the summed symptom score following rotation. A vertical phoria of 0.75 pd discriminated best between subjects with low vs. high summed motion-sickness-symptom scores (p vertical phorias vertical phorias > 0.75 pd reduced motion-sickness symptoms in 2 of the 4 subjects tested. The results confirm an association between vertical phoria and motion sickness, but suggest the relationship may not be causal. PMID:22390327

  6. Transport of Radon Gas into a Tunnel at Yucca Mountain-Estimating Large-Scale Fractured Tuff Hydraulic Properties and Implications for the Operation of the Ventilation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Unger; S. Finsterle; G. Bodvarsson

    2003-06-06

    Radon gas concentrations have been monitored as part of the operation of a tunnel (the Exploratory Studies Facility-ESF) at Yucca Mountain to ensure worker safety. The objective of this study was to examine the potential use of the radon data to estimate large-scale formation properties of fractured tuffs. This objective was examined by developing a numerical model, based upon the characteristics of the ESF and the Topopah Spring welded (TSw) tuff unit, capable of predicting radon concentrations for prescribed ventilation conditions. The model was used to address two specific issues. First, it was used to estimate the permeability and porosity of the fractures in the TSw at the length scale of the ESF and extending tens of meters into the TSw, which surrounds the ESF. Second, the model was used to understand the mechanism leading to radon concentrations exceeding a specified level within the ESF. The mechanism controlling radon concentrations in the ESF is a function of atmospheric barometric fluctuations being propagated down the ESF along with ventilated air flow and the slight suction induced by the ventilation exhaust fans at the South Portal of the ESF. These pressure fluctuations are dampened in the TSw fracture continuum according to its permeability and porosity. Consequently, as the barometric pressure in the ESF drops rapidly, formation gases from the TSw are pulled into the ESF, resulting in an increase in radon concentrations. Model calibration to both radon concentrations measured in the ESF and gas-phase pressure fluctuations in the TSw yielded concurrent estimates of TSw fracture permeability and porosity of l x 10{sup -11} m{sup 2} and 0.00034, respectively. The calibrated model was then used as a design tool to predict the effect of adjusting the current ventilation-system operation strategy for reducing the probability of radon gas concentrations exceeding a specified level.

  7. Transport of airborne Picea schrenkiana pollen on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains (Xinjiang, China) and its implication for paleoenvironmental reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanfang; Yan, Shun; Behling, Hermann; Mu, Guijin

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of airborne pollen transportation is crucial for the reconstruction of the paleoenvironment. Under favorable conditions, a considerable amount of long-distance-transported pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin. In extreme arid regions, in most cases, such situations occur and increase the difficulty to interpret fossil pollen records. In this study, three sets of Cour airborne pollen trap were installed on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains to collect airborne Picea schrenkiana (spruce) pollen grains from July 2001 to July 2006. The results indicate that Picea pollen disperses extensively and transports widely in the lower atmosphere far away from spruce forest. The airborne Picea pollen dispersal period is mainly concentrated between mid-May and July. In desert area, weekly Picea pollen began to increase and peaked suddenly in concentration. Also, annual pollen indices do not decline even when the distance increased was probably related to the strong wind may pick up the deposited pollen grains from the topsoil into the air stream, leading to an increase of pollen concentration in the air that is irrelevant to the normal and natural course of pollen transport and deposition. This, in turn, may lead to erroneous interpretations of the pollen data in the arid region. This study provided insight into the shift in the Picea pollen season regarding climate change in arid areas. It is recorded that the pollen pollination period starts earlier and the duration became longer. The results also showed that the temperature of May and June was positively correlated with the Picea pollen production. Furthermore, the transport of airborne Picea pollen data is useful for interpreting fossil pollen records from extreme arid regions.

  8. Variation in food availability mediate the impact of density on cannibalism, growth, and survival in larval yellow spotted mountain newts (Neurergus microspilotus): Implications for captive breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaissi, Somaye; Sharifi, Mozafar

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we examined cannibalistic behavior, growth, metamorphosis, and survival in larval and post-metamorph endangered yellow spotted mountain newts Neurergus microspilotus hatched and reared in a captive breeding facility. We designed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, crossing two levels of food with two levels of density including high food/high density, high food/low density, low food/high density, and low food/low density. The level of cannibalistic behavior (including the loss of fore and hind limbs, missing toes, tail, gills, body damage, and whole body consumption) changed as the larvae grew, from a low level during the first 4 weeks, peaking from weeks 7 to 12, and then dropped during weeks 14-52. Both food level and density had a significant effect on cannibalism. The highest frequency of cannibalism was recorded for larvae reared in the low food/high density and lowest in high food/low density treatments. Growth, percent of larval metamorphosed, and survival were all highest in the high food/low density and lowest in low food/high density treatment. Food level had a significant effect on growth, metamorphosis, and survival. However, the two levels of density did not influence growth and metamorphosis but showed a significant effect on survival. Similarly, combined effects of food level and density showed significant effects on growth, metamorphosis, and survival over time. Information obtained from current experiment could improve productivity of captive breeding facilities to ensure the release of adequate numbers of individuals for reintroduction programs. Zoo Biol. 35:513-521, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Zoo Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sick sinus syndrome secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Beton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hypercalcemia on the heart and the resulting alternations of the electrocardiogram have been well established. However, there are only limited number of reports in the literature on primary hyperparathyroidism leading to clinically significant arrhythmias. We present a patient who was diagnosed with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome in the setting of moderate hyper-calcemia secondary to primary hyperparathyroidism in this case report. After the surgical opera-tion for primary hyperparathyroidism, serum calcium level returned to normal range and patient’s complaints and arrhytmic findings recovered. The patient was asymptomatic for the following 13 years.

  10. Seasonal variations of cave conditions and drip water stable isotopes from a monitoring study of Raccoon Mountain Caverns, Tennessee, and its implications in interpreting speleothem record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, C. L.; Gordon, R. D.; Feng, W.; Allard, J.

    2015-12-01

    A two-year monitoring study at Raccoon Mountain Caverns near Chattanooga, Tennessee was carried out in an attempt to establish quantitative relationships between climate signals and drip water stable isotopes for interpreting speleothem paleoclimate records from the cave. Eight field trips were made from Jan. 2014 to Jun. 2015, during which cave meteorological conditions (RH, temperature and cave air CO2 concentration) and drip rate were measured for 5 sites inside the cave. 63 cave drip and pool water samples were collected and analyzed for oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions (δ18O and δD values). Cave air temperature varied throughout the study period, the temporal variations ranged at different sites from 2 to 8.4 °C (the greatest variation was observed at sites that are closer to the entrance or surface). These are significantly less than outside temperatures range of 24 °C, but more than observed in other monitored caves. Elevated cave-air CO2 concentration (3200 ppm) and slow drip rate during the summer indicated slowed or stalled growth of calcite. The overall range of δ18O values were -7.1‰ to -4.5‰. A δD vs δ18O diagram yields a slope of 6.1, which falls within the normal range of 6-8 for local Meteoric Water Line. The value is slightly above Global Meteoric Water Line, indicating lack of evaporative effect. Throughout the study period, the δ18O values varied from 0.6 ‰ at some sites to 1.9‰ at others. The largest changes were likely due to the close proximity of collection sites to the surface precipitation. Spatially, for samples collected at each cave trip, different sites displayed variations of δ18O values from 0‰ to 1.7‰. The difference could be attributed to different type of drip sites with varying types of flow paths rainwater takes to the drip sites. The significant seasonal shift of drip water δ18O values and growth conditions indicate importance of consideration of seasonality in interpreting speleothem δ18O record

  11. Nd isotopic variation of Paleozoic-Mesozoic granitoids from the Da Hinggan Mountains and adjacent areas, NE Asia: Implications for the architecture and growth of continental crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qidi; Wang, Tao; Guo, Lei; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Hou, Zengqian

    2017-02-01

    There is a long-standing controversy regarding the tectonic division, composition and structure of the continental crust in the Da Hinggan Mountains and adjacent areas, which are mainly part of the southeastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This paper approaches these issues via neodymium isotopic mapping of Paleozoic-Mesozoic (480 to 100 Ma) granitoids. On the basis of 943 published and 8 new whole-rock Nd isotopic data, the study area can be divided into four Nd isotopic provinces (I, II, III and IV). Province I (the youngest crust, Nd model ages (TDM) = 0.8-0.2 Ga) is a remarkable region of Phanerozoic crustal growth, which may reflect a major zone for closures of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Province II (slightly juvenile crust, TDM = 1.0-0.8 Ga), the largest Nd isotopic province in the southeastern CAOB, is considered to reflect the recycling of the initial crustal material produced during the early stage (Early Neoproterozoic) evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Province III (slightly old crust, TDM = 1.6-1.1 Ga) is characterized by ancient crustal blocks, such as the central Mongolian, Erguna, Dariganga and Hutag Uul-Xilinhot blocks, which represent micro-continents and Precambrian basements in the southeastern CAOB. Several parts of Province III are located along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), which is interpreted as a destroyed cratonic margin during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. Province IV (the oldest crust, TDM = 2.9-1.6 Ga) mainly occurs within the NCC and reflects its typical Precambrian nature. These mapping results indicate that the boundary between Provinces II and III (the northern margin of the NCC) along the Solonker-Xar Moron Fault can be regarded as the lithospheric boundary between the CAOB and NCC. Provinces I and II account for 20% and 44% of the area of the southeastern CAOB, respectively, and therefore the ratio of continental growth is 64% from the Neoproterozoic to the Mesozoic, which is typical for this part of the

  12. The role of the parasympathetic nervous system in visually induced motion sickness: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Al Omran, Yasser; Aziz, Qasim; Andrews, Paul L

    2014-08-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) has been implicated in the development of visually induced motion sickness. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of visually induced motion sickness on validated parameters of PNS tone. Methods followed PRISMA recommendations. Controlled trials reporting validated measures of PNS tone in visually induced motion sickness in healthy adults were included. One reviewer performed the screening of articles and data extraction, and two reviewers independently performed methodological evaluation. Data were synthesised using standardised mean differences (SMDs) for all relevant outcomes using a random-effects model. Publication bias was assessed via funnel plots and Egger's test. The search strategy identified seven citations comprising 237 healthy individuals. The mean quality score was 4/10 (range 3-7). There was no difference between baseline PNS tone between individuals who developed visually induced motion sickness and those that did not. Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS)-sensitive individuals had a reduction in PNS tone, following exposure to the stimulus (mean weighted SMD = -0.45, 95% confidence interval -0.64 to -0.27, Z = -4.8, p < 0.0001). There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. These data suggest that baseline PNS parameters do not provide a useful measure of predicting the probability of developing visually induced motion sickness. However, a fall in PNS tone, as indicated by cardiac activity, is characteristic in sensitive individuals. Further work is needed to characterise these responses in clinical populations, in conjunction with improvements and standardisation in study design.

  13. Trends of Sickness Certifications in Primary Health Care in Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz A’Rashdy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sickness certification (SC is common practice in primary health care with proven implications on the health system. To assess the rate of sickness certifications in the Bowsher province and describe related demographic, occupational and medical factors. Methods: Our retrospective, cross-sectional study retrieved data for all consultations, with patients aged six to 65 years old, which ended with SC. The data from four primary health care centers in the Bowsher provice were collected during 2011 using the electronic medical record system. Collected data included patient demographics, occupation, date issued, duration of sickness certification, recorded vital signs, and clinical diagnosis. Suitable rates were calculated as percentages and important differences were compared using the chi-square test. Results: The total number of consultation visits for the targeted population was 189,275. Of these 26,096 consultations resulted in SC to a total of 15,758 patients. The overall rate of SC was 13.8 per 100 consultation-years (confidence interval (CI: 13.6–14. SC rates in males were significantly higher than females (17 and 11 per 100 consultations/year, respectively. Patients aged 19–29 years old had the highest rate of SC (18.6/100 consultations/year. School students aged six to 18 years made up 28% of patients, and 24% and 22% of patients were working in the private and public sectors, respectively. No vital signs record was found for 30% of SC visits. The highest rate of SC was in October (17% and the lowest was in August (9%. Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent diagnoses (31% resulting in certifications. The rate of SC issued for Omanis and non-Omanis was 14 and 9 per 100 consultations per year, respectively. Conclusion: Sickness certification is a burden on primary health care in the studied health centers with approximately one in seven consultations ending with SC issued. More investigations are needed to

  14. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental dist

  15. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  16. Return to work following sickness absence due to infectious mononucleosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bakhtali, R.; Katan, A.A.; Groothoff, J.W.; Roelen, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis among adults is notorious because of the prolonged incapacitating fatigue it causes. AIMS: To investigate the duration of sickness absence and return to work following infectious mononucleosis. METHODS: Episodes of sickness absence due to infec

  17. Parametric hazard rate models for long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Petra C.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    In research on the time to onset of sickness absence and the duration of sickness absence episodes, Cox proportional hazard models are in common use. However, parametric models are to be preferred when time in itself is considered as independent variable. This study compares parametric hazard rate m

  18. Identifying workers at risk of sickness absence by questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, Corne A. M.; van der Pol, Tjepke R.; Koopmans, Petra C.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2006-01-01

    Background Sickness absence is an important economic problem, because of high costs and lost productivity. Determining factors associated with increased risk of sickness absence may lead to the development of preventive measures. Aims To determine whether self-report questionnaires can identify thos

  19. Is Sickness Presenteeism a Risk Factor for Depression?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Hogh, Annie; Rugulies, Reiner Ernst

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To examine the prospective association between sickness presenteeism (SP), that is, working while ill, and the onset of depression. METHODS:: We carried out a two-wave (2006 to 2008) questionnaire-based study among 1271 employees from 60 Danish workplaces. Sickness presenteeism...

  20. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... different leave systems under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, 7 calendar days of sick leave are... leave system to which he or she can transfer only a part of his or her sick leave is entitled to a... employee returns to the leave system under which it was earned on or after December 2, 1994. (f)...

  1. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal leave system. (b) An...) A formal leave system is one which is provided by law or regulation or operates under written rules... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section...

  2. Nuancing the relationship between motion sickness and postural stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    The most cited theory on motion sickness is the conflict theory by Reason and Brand (1975) [1], stating that motion sickness occurs due to a conflict between the senses and stored patterns of motion. In addition, there seems to be evidence for another theory stating that postural instability is a ne

  3. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  4. Does muscle strength predict future musculoskeletal disorders and sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, A; Sell, L; Hansen, J V

    2012-01-01

    High muscle strength is considered relevant for preventing musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence. However, prospective studies on the association between muscle strength and future musculoskeletal disorders and long-term sickness absence are few and show contrasting results....

  5. Parametric hazard rate models for long-term sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Petra C.; Roelen, Corne A. M.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    In research on the time to onset of sickness absence and the duration of sickness absence episodes, Cox proportional hazard models are in common use. However, parametric models are to be preferred when time in itself is considered as independent variable. This study compares parametric hazard rate m

  6. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers duri

  7. Recurrence of sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, P.C.; Bultmann, U.; Roelen, C.A.; Hoedeman, R.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Common mental disorders (CMDs) are an important cause of work disability. Although CMDs are known to have high recurrence rates, little is known about the recurrence of sickness absence due to CMDs. This study examines the recurrence risk of sickness absence due to CMDs. METHODS: A cohort o

  8. SICK SINUS SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. K. Kazakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a clinical case of 2 patients with heart arrhythmias of the sick sinus syndrome type, who were implanted electriccardiac pacemakers in the acute period of cerebrovascular accidents. There were no cardiac complaints in the clinical manifestation, however, a comprehensive assessment confirmed the diagnosis of sick sinus syndrome.

  9. Locality and habitus: the origins of sickness absence practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Nakari, R; Ahonen, H; Vahtera, J; Pentti, J

    2000-01-01

    This article aims to understanding the differences observed in the sickness absence practices of three municipal work organisations. Sickness absence figures were contextualised with a two-level analysis. The working communities were studied with the material collected for the study from documents, interviews, and a postal questionnaire survey on psychosocial working conditions. At the locality level the quality and quantity of economic, social, and cultural capitals were assessed. On the basis of this material, community diagnoses of the three localities are presented. The relationship of the way of life and being ill in the locality to the sickness absences among the employees of the municipality is discussed using the concepts of 'field', 'habitus', 'practice' and 'capital' as presented by Bourdieu. Sickness absence practices seem to be connected to the relative dominance of social classes in the locality. We conclude that the sickness absence practice of the municipal working community is an expression of the sickness absence habitus which is deeply rooted in the social history of the locality and in the health-related behaviour of the residents. In being not too structuralistic and not too relativistic, Bourdieu's theory helps us to understand the reality of the sickness absences; they can only be influenced marginally and temporarily by simple intervention measures in the work-places. More lasting changes in the level of sickness absences would require profound changes in the working community and-ultimately-in the whole locality.

  10. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental

  11. Predictors of sickness absence in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cohort study was to investigate associations between parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), assisted reproductive therapy (ART), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise and the risk of sickness absence in pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy...... weeks. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected from 1996 until 2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were...... calculated by Cox regression, using time of first episode of sickness absence as the primary outcome. RESULTS: Multiparity 1.26 (95% CI 1.10-1.45), overweight 1.13 (95% CI 1.08-1.18), obesity 1.23 (95% CI 1.15-1.31), ART 1.10 (95% CI 1.01-1.20), and TTP >12 months 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13) were associated...

  12. Morning sickness: impact on offspring salt preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1995-12-01

    These studies examined the relationship between salt preference of adult offspring and their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness during pregnancy. College students who could provide information about their mothers' symptoms of morning sickness completed a survey about their dietary salt intake (study 1; n = 169) or rated and consumed ten snack foods (study 2; n = 66). In study 1 a salt-use score was calculated based on responses to the Salt Intake Questionnaire; offspring of women with moderate or severe vomiting reported a significantly higher level of salt use (p < 0.01) than those whose mothers report little or no symptoms. In study 2 saltiness and pleasantness ratings of high-salt foods, intake of those foods and total sodium intake were the focus of analysis. Offspring of women reporting moderate or severe vomiting showed a significantly greater preference for the snack food subjects rated as saltiest than those whose mothers reported no or mild vomiting. They also ate more of that food and consumed more total sodium during the test session. Effects were stronger in Caucasian than Asian subjects. These studies suggest that moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy can be associated with significantly higher salt intake in offspring. Thus, a gestational event may be an important determinant of salt intake and preference in adulthood.

  13. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  14. Sr-Isotope Composition of Feldspar: Implication for age and Evolution of Gabbros from Uralian-Alaskan Type Complexes in the Ural Mountains, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruegmann, G. E.; Krause, J.; Pushkarev, E.

    2006-12-01

    Compared to whole-rock or bulk mineral analyses single mineral composition could reveal disequilibrium features between crystals or within individual crystals which provide important information on magma chamber processes. We applied a LA-ICPMS technique to determine Sr isotopes in plagioclase and K-feldspar of gabbroic rocks from the Nizhnii Tagil and Kytlym complexes in the Ural Mountains in Russia. These complexes are Uralian-Alaskan-type zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes, consisting of dunite, clinopyroxenite and gabbro bodies. The rock association is considered to represent a cumulate sequence of a single parental melt feeding a magma chamber system. The instruments used were a NU Plasma MC-ICPMS and a solid-state 193 and 213 nm Nd:YAG laser ablation system from New Wave. The data of the present study includes up to five spot analyses (100-120 μm spot size) of each mineral in a thin section. Baselines for analyses were measured on-peak for 20 s while flushing the sample chamber with He. About 300 to 500 isotope ratios were measured during the ablation time of 80-100 s. Raw data were exported to an external data reduction spreadsheet and corrected for interferences (Kr, Rb) and mass bias using 87Sr/^{88}Sr=0.1194. During the time of analyses we measured the Sr isotope composition of an in-house marine carbonate reference material. Its 87Sr/86Sr of 0.70923±6 (2SD) agrees within error limits with our TIMS measurements. The gabbros have porphyric textures with clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel. Two gabbro types can be distinguished based on additional matrix minerals. One type of gabbro is silica saturated, contains plagioclase (An57-88) and in places orthopyroxene as matrix phases. The second gabbro type is silica undersaturated and contains in the matrix plagioclase (An29-56) and pseudoleucite, a fine grained intergrowth of nepheline and K-feldspar (Or30-81). In this gabbro plagioclase has generally higher Sr

  15. Desensitization protocol for rituximab-induced serum sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajt, Merritt L; Petrov, Andrej A

    2014-01-01

    Rituximab, a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, is used to treat rheumatologic and hematologic diseases. Serum sickness, a Type III delayed hypersensitivity reaction, has been reported with rituximab treatment. Traditionally, drug desensitization has been used to treat Type I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. We report the first case of successful drug desensitization to rituximab in a patient with medication-induced serum sickness. In our case, a 37-year-old woman with Sjogren's syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma developed serum sickness 72 hours following rituximab infusion for gastric mucosal associated lymphoma tissue (MALT). Her MALT progressed after stopping rituximab. She underwent a rapid 12-step intravenous rituximab desensitization without recurrence of serum sickness. Following the completion of 4 rituximab desensitizations, she had gastric MALT remission. She received 25 maintenance rituximab doses using this desensitization protocol quarterly without complications. This is the first report documenting rituximab desensitization for the treatment of delayed drug reactions like serum sickness.

  16. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  17. African Horse Sickness Virus: History, Transmission, and Current Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Simon; Mellor, Philip S; Fall, Assane G; Garros, Claire; Venter, Gert J

    2017-01-31

    African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a lethal arbovirus of equids that is transmitted between hosts primarily by biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHSV affects draft, thoroughbred, and companion horses and donkeys in Africa, Asia, and Europe. In this review, we examine the impact of AHSV critically and discuss entomological studies that have been conducted to improve understanding of its epidemiology and control. The transmission of AHSV remains a major research focus and we critically review studies that have implicated both Culicoides and other blood-feeding arthropods in this process. We explore AHSV both as an epidemic pathogen and within its endemic range as a barrier to development, an area of interest that has been underrepresented in studies of the virus to date. By discussing AHSV transmission in the African republics of South Africa and Senegal, we provide a more balanced view of the virus as a threat to equids in a diverse range of settings, thus leading to a discussion of key areas in which our knowledge of transmission could be improved. The use of entomological data to detect, predict and control AHSV is also examined, including reference to existing studies carried out during unprecedented outbreaks of bluetongue virus in Europe, an arbovirus of wild and domestic ruminants also transmitted by Culicoides.

  18. Physiological adaptability of members of Chinese National Earthquake Disaster Emergency Rescue Team (CNEDERT) in altitude of Yushu area of Qinghai province and prevention of acute mountain sickness%急进高原救援队员血氧饱和度、心率、血红蛋白动态监测与防范高原反应风险的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦小杰; 方涛; 樊毫军; 侯世科

    2010-01-01

    Objective As members of CNEDERT, we were trusted to take the mission of medical rescue in April of this year in Yushu area of Qinghai province. As soon as we heard of the news of earthquake with shock of 7.1 on Richter scale happened on 14th April 2010, our team of 32 members from the General Hospital of Armed Police Force rapidly rushed to get there at 19 o'clock on 14th April. It is a cold plateau with 4000 meters in average above sea level. Of course, they would face many difficult problems and some of them could not be figured out in advance. It was really a new and big challenge. First of all, we had to bear the very low barometric pressure,threatening lives of team members. In order to fulfill the mission of medical rescue, and to prevent the acute mountain sickness (AMS) ,we monitored the physiological changes of every member. Method A total of 32 members aged from 27 - 42 years old with average age of (33.26 + 12.54) years, 6 male and 6 female, gathered at Peking, 50 meters above sea level, 6 hours ahead of getting to Yushu and received physical examination with measurements of SaO2, HR, Hb and breath holding test. The team worked in Yushu area for 13 days and returned back to Peking on 27th April at 13 o'clock. The measurements of SaO2, HR and He were kept on from 14th April to 4th May, 21 days in total. The occurrence of AMS was surveyed by questionnaire from 18 to 48 hours after arrival,and the AMSA was diagnosed and scored according to the Lake Louise consensus on the definition and quantification of altitude illness. When the score was equal or above 3, it was considered to be AMS. Our work activities included searching the victims under the collapsed building, carrying out treatment and operation as soon as possible in the mobile hospital, doing medical round visiting, public health and disease prevention, work of joint rescue of multiple professions and psychological counseling. Results Of them 26 (81.25%) members suffered from AMS of various

  19. DETECTION AND REMEDIES FOR INDUSTRIAL SICKNESS IN SMALL INDUSTRIAL UNITS OF BANGLADESH: A STUDY ON SICK INDUSTRIAL UNITS OF INDUSTRIAL ESTATES IN SYLHET DIVISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Small industrial units are the seedbed on industrial development in underdeveloped economy for its less capital involvement and more employment generation capability. But this sector cannot contribute expectedly for infection to sickness that ultimately prevents the entrepreneurial bases of economy. Sickness can be occurred in the inception period, in operation and /or in macro environment.There are various techniques to prevent sickness and to make the treatment of occurred sickness. In this study, the researchers selected 13 sick units of BSCIC industrial units and collected the information regarding the causes, stages and measures to prevent sickness. It is found that 07 are born to sick due to improper capital budgeting, 06 are made sick for managerial problems and no units are bound to be sick for environmental problems.

  20. Overcoming neonatal sickness: Sex-specific effects of sickness on physiology and social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Kristyn E; Demas, Gregory E

    2017-10-01

    Early-life environmental stressors, including sickness, have the potential to disrupt development in ways that could severely impact fitness. Despite what is known about the effects of sickness on reproduction, the precise physiological mechanisms have not yet been determined. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of a neonatal immune challenge on adult reproductive physiology and opposite-sex social behavior. Male and female Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) pups were administered lipopolysaccharide ([LPS]; a cell wall component of gram-negative bacteria) or saline injections on postnatal days 3 and 5 and body mass, food intake, and measures of reproductive maturity were taken throughout development. In adulthood, hamsters were placed in staged mating pairs with reproductively mature individuals of the opposite sex, during which a series of behaviors were scored. We found that although males and females showed no change in food intake, body mass, or reproductive behaviors, LPS-treated females had abnormal estrous cycles and smaller ovaries. Females also showed increased investigation of and increased aggression towards males in a reproductive context. In contrast, LPS-treated males showed no change in any physiological measures, nor did they show any changes in behavior. The present findings demonstrate that females may be more robustly affected by neonatal sickness than males and that these effects could have potential impacts on reproductive success. Collectively, the results of this study can be used to expand upon what is already known about sickness and reproduction, specifically the importance of social behaviors involved in pre-copulation and information necessary to choose the appropriate mate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. "Children get sick all the time"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Bjertrup, Pia Juul; Samuelsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Burkina Faso, the government has implemented various health sector reforms in order to overcome financial and geographical barriers to citizens' access to primary healthcare throughout the country. Despite these efforts, morbidity and mortality rates among children remain high...... facilities. Focusing on mothers as the primary caregivers, we follow their pathways from the onset of symptoms through their various attempts of providing treatment for their sick children. The overall objective is to discuss the interconnectedness of various factors, inside and outside of the primary health...... care services. Due to their accumulated vulnerabilities, mothers shift pragmatically from one treatment to another. However, the sporadic nature of their treatment-seeking hinders them in obtaining long-term solutions and the result is recurrent child illnesses and relapses over long periods of time...

  2. Motion sickness history, food neophobia, and sensation seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Thomas R; Willet, Kathleen A; Muth, Eric R

    2006-06-01

    Motion sickness is believed to be caused by conflicting sensory signals, a situation that mimics the effects of ingesting certain toxins. Thus, one might suspect that individuals who have experienced a relatively high frequency of motion sickness may be particularly vigilant about avoiding anything that produces nausea, induding potentially nauseating toxins. Consequently, they may be more resistant to trying new foods, i.e., be more food neophobic, since unfamiliar foods can have unexpected adverse effects due to toxins or allergens. Likewise, many highly stimulating experiences can trigger motion sickness, so individuals who are more susceptible may be more prone to avoid such experiences, i.e., be less sensation seeking. Finally, it was expected that food neophobia would be more frequent in individuals low on sensation seeking tendencies. Self-reported motion sickness history in 308 adults (M= 18.8 yr.; SD = 1.6) was correlated with scores on the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking and the Food Neophobia Scale. As predicted, greater history of motion sickness was associated with lower Sensation Seeking scores. Food Neophobia was not correlated with motion sickness history but, as expected, was negatively correlated (r = -.42) with scores on Sensation Seeking. Further research is recommended that measures actual sensitivity to motion sickness.

  3. Mountain Plover [ds109

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  4. Sickness absence in Poland after socio-economic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Szubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the analysis was to determine the magnitude and causes of the sickness-related temporary incapacity for work in Poland, and to identify changes in sickness absence and its differences by the type of economic activity and region. Material and Methods: This analysis is based on the 2006-2012 data on sickness absence compiled from medical certificates of temporary incapacity for work and published by the Social Insurance Institution (Zakład Ubezpieczeń Społecznych. The sickness absence is described in terms of the number of sick leave days relative to the number of the employed or insured people. Results: In 2012, the number of days of disability per one employed was 14.5 (12.1 men, 17.4 women, representing 3.98% of the time lost due to illness. The main causes of absence were: complications of pregnancy and mother's diseases during pregnancy (33% of the sick leave days in women, injury and poisoning (men: 24%; women: 8%, diseases of the musculoskeletal system (men: 17%; woman: 11%. The highest level of sickness absence was noted in the łódzkie, śląskie and warmińsko-mazurskie provinces (38-19% higher than nationwide and in the administrative and support sectors (22.2 days per 1 employee, when analyzed by sectors of the national economy. Conclusions: The high increase in sickness absence over the recent 7 years due to cancer, mental and muscloskeletal disorders may be an important risk factor for early assessment of permanent incapacity for work. Another major problem is female sickness absence due to pregnancy complications and mother's diseases during pregnancy. Med Pr 2014;65(1:73–84

  5. Space motion sickness: The sensory motor controls and cardiovascular correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souvestre, Philippe A.; Blaber, Andrew P.; Landrock, Clinton K.

    impacts on core regulatory sensory motor and cognitive mechanisms. Static postural analysis provides specific central neurophysiological markers that can reliably identify PDS occurrence among classic peripheral musculoskeletal and spinal data [C. Landrock, P.A. Souvestre, Static postural analysis: a methodology to assess gravity related sensory motor controls' status for astronauts, 2006-01-2298, 36th SAE-ICES]. Many astronauts experience PFOI and recent research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation caused by microgravity. HRV measurements have been used to determine if some pre-flight autonomic indicators relating to PFOI may exist by differentiating parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. ResultsThis review suggests a new approach to SMS mitigation based on specific neurophysiological assessment criteria. While SMS may not be a "unique diagnosis", it should be treated as result, or symptom of, the condition space adaptation syndrome (SAS), which can be shown to be a unique diagnosis. This methodology can identify and measure brain functional status in specific areas during pre-flight and post-flight examinations. This could provide further understanding on why, how and when SMS and PFOI might occur in Astronauts, and lead to criteria that predict susceptibility to SMS. An additional test component is presented that relates to using static central sensory-motor data towards understanding SMS and OI occurrence. Recent investigations indicate relationship between HRV autonomic indicators with Motion Sickness [B. Cheung, K. Hoffer, R. Heskin, A. Smith, Physiological and behavioral responses to an exposure to pitch illusion in the simulator, Aviation Space, 2004; Y. Yokota, M. Aoki, K. Mizuta, Y. Ito, N. Isu, Motion sickness susceptibility associated with visually induced postural instability and cardiac autonomic responses in healthy subjects, Acta Oto-laryngological, 2005]. It is found that astronauts with lower sympatho-vagal balance and higher

  6. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.403 Section 630.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant sick leave only when the need for sick leave is supported by administratively...

  7. Motion Sickness: A Study of Its Effects on Human Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D- 2 0 TO STEC TEo VN;FB 1 0 1988...ENG/87D-20 MOTION SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Pierre J. Gaudreault Captain, USAF AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-20 Approved for public...SICKNESS: A STUDY OF ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology

  8. Pharmacological and neurophysiological aspects of space/motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucot, James B.; Crampton, George H.

    1991-01-01

    A motorized motion testing device modeled after a Ferris wheel was constructed to perform motion sickness tests on cats. Details of the testing are presented, and some of the topics covered include the following: xylazine-induced emesis; analysis of the constituents of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during motion sickness; evaluation of serotonin-1A (5-HT sub 1A) agonists; other 5HT receptors; antimuscarinic mechanisms; and antihistaminergic mechanisms. The ability of the following drugs to reduce motion sickness in the cats was examined: amphetamines, adenosinergic drugs, opioid antagonists, peptides, cannabinoids, cognitive enhancers (nootropics), dextromethorphan/sigma ligands, scopolamine, and diphenhydramine.

  9. Heart failure accompanied by sick euthyroid syndrome and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psirropoulos, D; Lefkos, N; Boudonas, G; Efthimiadis, A; Vogas, V; Keskilidis, C; Tsapas, G

    2002-05-01

    Sick euthyroid syndrome is defined as the decrease of serum free triiodothyronine with normal free L-thyroxin and thyrotropin. Its appearance in patients with chronic heart failure is an indicator of severity. Exercise training through a wide variety of mechanisms reverses sick euthyroid syndrome (normalization of free triiodothyronine levels) and improves the ability to exercise. There is a connection during exercise among dyspnea, hyperventilation, fatigue, catecholamines, a decrease in the number and function of beta-blocker receptors, and elevation of serum free triiodothyronine. It is not known whether sick euthyroid syndrome contributes to the development of heart failure or is only an attendant syndrome.

  10. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation and unfavourable work factors. RESULTS: A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern increased the RR of being granted a disability pension; the RR was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.00-4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.33-5.12). Inversely, the long-term sick leave...

  11. Partner relationships and long-term sick leave among female workers: consequences and impact on dimensions of health and return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellve, Lotta; Ahlborg, Tone

    2012-12-01

    Few efforts have been made to prospectively identify resources and obstacles outside work that may predict regained work ability and return to work when workers are on sick leave. This study investigates the association between partner relationships and sick leave. Our research questions were as follows: (i) What is the influence of sick leave, pain, stress and domestic strain on the quality of the dyadic partner relationship?, and (ii) What is the influence of the partner and social relationship on pain, stress, work ability, self-rated health and return to work? A cohort of female workers (n = 225) on long-term sick leave (>60 days), all in a partner relationship, at 6-month intervals completed a questionnaire based on the Quality of Dyadic Relationship (QDR) instrument, the Interview Schedule of Social Interaction (ISSI), the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Univariate and multivariate analyses of baseline and prospective data were performed. The results showed that decreased partner relationship quality was related to having major responsibility for household work despite being on sick leave, having pain and having decreased social integration. Among younger individuals on sick leave, a reduction in the quality of the partner relationship was shown already at the first (6-month) follow-up, while among middle-aged women, such a reduction was seen only at the 12-month follow-up. No dimensions of partner relationship quality at baseline were related to dimensions of return to work, either as a resource or as an obstacle. Consequently, our results show that a good relationship does not keep the woman from returning to work. Having main responsibility for household work, which implies domestic strain while on sick leave, predicts lower partner relationship quality. The practical implications are that healthcare professionals treating women on sick leave should emphasize the importance of keeping a social network as

  12. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  13. Mountain chickadee (Poecile gambeli)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, D. Archibald; Grundel, Ralph; Dahlsten, Donald L.; Poole, Alan; Gill, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The Mountain Chickadee (Poecile gambeli), a small, cavity-nesting songbird, is one of the most common birds of montane and coniferous forest from southern Arizona and Baja California north to British Columbia and the Yukon territory. This publication describes the life history of the Mountain Chickadee.

  14. Psychosocial work conditions associated with sickness absence among hospital employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suadicani, P; Olesen, K; Bonde, J P;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningfulness of the job, collaboration among colleagues, trustworthiness of the closest superior and bullying have previously been shown to be major covariates of intention to quit the job. AIMS: To test if these elements of the psychosocial work environment are also the most...... essential covariates of sickness absence. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees which sought information on elements of the psychosocial work environment, general health status, life style, age, gender and profession. Data on sickness absence were obtained from the employer...... high sickness absence and 29 psychosocial work elements were analysed, adjusting for relevant confounders. Following multiple logistic regression analysis, three elements had an independent statistically significant association with high sickness absence: no exposure to bullying (odds ratio (95...

  15. Diclectin for morning sickness: Long-term neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon

    2011-02-01

    Question A pregnant patient recently asked me whether using Diclectin for morning sickness might affect the development of her child. Answer Our recent large study does show such a trend, although the differences are not necessarily clinically significant.

  16. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  17. Sickness absence and psychosocial work conditions : a multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C.A.; Weites, S.H.; Koopmans, P.C.; van der Klink, J.J.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Psychosocial work conditions, particularly psychological job demands, are inconsistently associated with sickness absence rates. This might be the result of investigating the psychosocial work environment at the individual level, reflecting personal perceptions rather than actual demands.

  18. Job demands, job resources, and behavior in times of sickness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Daniel; Winter, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The concept of presenteeism, that is, employees coming to work despite being sick, has recently received more attention in the literature. Presenteeism not only threatens employees' health but also substantially drains productivity and drives considerable costs. When they are sick......, employees have the choice of whether to go to work or to stay at home. Therefore, determinants of (sickness) absenteeism and presenteeism should be examined simultaneously. Nursing homes are faced with a particularly high prevalence of both absenteeism and presenteeism and are therefore a relevant object...... of investigation. PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to analyze the effect of job demands and job resources on absenteeism, presenteeism, and the tendency to choose one behavior (being absent or being present in times of sickness) rather than the other over the last 12 months. To do so, we identify the determinants...

  19. Development and validation of a prediction model for long-term sickness absence based on occupational health survey variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelen, Corné; Thorsen, Sannie; Heymans, Martijn; Twisk, Jos; Bültmann, Ute; Bjørner, Jakob

    2016-11-10

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a prediction model for identifying employees at increased risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), by using variables commonly measured in occupational health surveys. Based on the literature, 15 predictor variables were retrieved from the DAnish National working Environment Survey (DANES) and included in a model predicting incident LTSA (≥4 consecutive weeks) during 1-year follow-up in a sample of 4000 DANES participants. The 15-predictor model was reduced by backward stepwise statistical techniques and then validated in a sample of 2524 DANES participants, not included in the development sample. Identification of employees at increased LTSA risk was investigated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis; the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) reflected discrimination between employees with and without LTSA during follow-up. The 15-predictor model was reduced to a 9-predictor model including age, gender, education, self-rated health, mental health, prior LTSA, work ability, emotional job demands, and recognition by the management. Discrimination by the 9-predictor model was significant (AUC = 0.68; 95% CI 0.61-0.76), but not practically useful. A prediction model based on occupational health survey variables identified employees with an increased LTSA risk, but should be further developed into a practically useful tool to predict the risk of LTSA in the general working population. Implications for rehabilitation Long-term sickness absence risk predictions would enable healthcare providers to refer high-risk employees to rehabilitation programs aimed at preventing or reducing work disability. A prediction model based on health survey variables discriminates between employees at high and low risk of long-term sickness absence, but discrimination was not practically useful. Health survey variables provide insufficient information to determine long-term sickness absence risk profiles. There is a need for

  20. Should I get screened for sleeping sickness? A qualitative study in Kasai province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mpanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Control of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness in the Democratic Republic of Congo is based on mass population active screening by mobile teams. Although generally considered a successful strategy, the community participation rates in these screening activities and ensuing treatment remain low in the Kasai-Oriental province. A better understanding of the reasons behind this observation is necessary to improve regional control activities. METHODS: Thirteen focus group discussions were held in five health zones of the Kasai-Oriental province to gain insights in the regional perceptions regarding sleeping sickness and the national control programme's activities. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sleeping sickness is well known among the population and is considered a serious and life-threatening disease. The disease is acknowledged to have severe implications for the individual (e.g., persistence of manic periods and trembling hands, even after treatment, at the family level (e.g., income loss, conflicts, separations and for communities (e.g., disruption of community life and activities. Several important barriers to screening and treatment were identified. Fear of drug toxicity, lack of confidentiality during screening procedures, financial barriers and a lack of communication between the mobile teams and local communities were described. Additionally, a number of regionally accepted prohibitions related to sleeping sickness treatment were described that were found to be a strong impediment to disease screening and treatment. These prohibitions, which do not seem to have a rational basis, have far-reaching socio-economic repercussions and severely restrict the participation in day-to-day life. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A mobile screening calendar more adapted to the local conditions with more respect for privacy, the use of less toxic drugs, and a better understanding of the origin as well as better communication about the prohibitions

  1. Returning long-term Sick-Listed to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    to dismiss sick-listed employees. This paper assesses the effect of these two policy aspects simultaneously. In contrast to previous studies, we distinguish between returning to work with the old employer and a new employer. We conclude that the Danish policy through its lax job protection legislation...... facilitates a flexible labour market, but an important drawback seems to be that many sick-listed employees loose their labour market attachment....

  2. Is Physics Sick? [In Praise of Classical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghassib, Hisham

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that theoretical physics is more akin to an organism than to a rigid structure.It is in this sense that the epithet, "sick", applies to it. It is argued that classical physics is a model of a healthy science, and the degree of sickness of modern physics is measured accordingly. The malady is located in the relationship between mathematics and physical meaning in physical theory.

  3. A Model for the Analysis of Sick Leave in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    David Edgerton; Curt Wells

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to model individual behavior in the face of changes in the set of rules that govern the social welfare system in Sweden. To this end, the Swedish sickness insurance provides an excellent study object, since the system has often been changed during the past decade. The question of employee compensation for sick leave is one the more widely discussed aspects of Swedish social welfare legislation, and it is therefore of interest to examine how individuals...

  4. Focus Group Study Exploring Factors Related to Frequent Sickness Absence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Notenbomer

    Full Text Available Research investigating frequent sickness absence (3 or more episodes per year is scarce and qualitative research from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves is lacking. The aim of the current study is to explore awareness, determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence from the perspective of frequent absentees themselves.We performed a qualitative study of 3 focus group discussions involving a total of 15 frequent absentees. Focus group discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Results were analyzed with the Graneheim method using the Job Demands Resources (JD-R model as theoretical framework.Many participants were not aware of their frequent sickness absence and the risk of future long-term sickness absence. As determinants, participants mentioned job demands, job resources, home demands, poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Managing these factors and improving communication (skills were regarded as solutions to reduce frequent sickness absence.The JD-R model provided a framework for determinants of and solutions to frequent sickness absence. Additional determinants were poor health, chronic illness, unhealthy lifestyles, and diminished feeling of responsibility to attend work in cases of low job resources. Frequent sickness absence should be regarded as a signal that something is wrong. Managers, supervisors, and occupational health care providers should advise and support frequent absentees to accommodate job demands, increase both job and personal resources, and improve health rather than express disapproval of frequent sickness absence and apply pressure regarding work attendance.

  5. A Study of Motion Sickness: Mathematical Modeling and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    levels of motion sick- ness experienced by a test subject during the course of an experiment (21:97; 25:59; 27:84). In 1987, Drylie, Fix, and Gaudreault ...pro- cedures. Drylie and Gaudreault reported additional conclusions concerning motion sickness trends (11; 17). Fix developed a new equation for...and Gaudreault also noted low frequency EEG signals in the 0.1 Hz range (17:28). However, only one of their subjects had EEG signals with an amplitude

  6. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. OBJECTIVE: To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental distraction. METHODS: Eighteen blindfolded subjects were exposed to 20 minutes of off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR). Vibration was added by means of a head rest. Effects of OVAR and vibration were test...

  7. Human heart rate variability relation is unchanged during motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, T. J.; Berger, R. D.; Oman, C. M.; Cohen, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a study of 18 human subjects, we applied a new technique, estimation of the transfer function between instantaneous lung volume (ILV) and instantaneous heart rate (HR), to assess autonomic activity during motion sickness. Two control recordings of ILV and electrocardiogram (ECG) were made prior to the development of motion sickness. During the first, subjects were seated motionless, and during the second they were seated rotating sinusoidally about an earth vertical axis. Subjects then wore prism goggles that reverse the left-right visual field and performed manual tasks until they developed moderate motion sickness. Finally, ILV and ECG were recorded while subjects maintained a relatively constant level of sickness by intermittent eye closure during rotation with the goggles. Based on analyses of ILV to HR transfer functions from the three conditions, we were unable to demonstrate a change in autonomic control of heart rate due to rotation alone or due to motion sickness. These findings do not support the notion that moderate motion sickness is manifested as a generalized autonomic response.

  8. A New Measure of Decompression Sickness in the Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Buzzacott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we assessed the reliability of a tilting-board grip score as a measure of decompression sickness in rats. In experiments using a hyperbaric compression/decompression protocol, rats were observed for signs of decompression sickness and their grip strength measured on a tilting particle board hinged to a metal frame. Angles at which rats lost grip were converted to gravitational vectors. Decreased mean grip scores following decompression were fitted to a logistic regression model with strain, age, and weight. Decrease in grip score was significantly associated with observed decompression sickness (P=0.0036. The log odds ratio for decompression sickness = 1.40 (decrease in grip score. In rats with no decrease in mean grip score there was a 50% probability of decompression sickness (pDCS. This increased steadily with decreases in mean grip score. A decrease of 0.3 had a 60% pDCS, a decrease of 0.6 had a 70% pDCS, and a decrease of 2.1 had a 95% pDCS. The tilting board grip score is a reliable measure of the probability of decompression sickness.

  9. [Analysis of sick leaves due to mental and behavioral problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Gonzalo H; Alvarado, Sergio O; Kaufman, Jay S

    2012-02-01

    In Chile, the number of sick leaves due to mental health problems has systematically increased in recent years. To perform an analysis of sick leaves due to mental problems managed by the Fondo Nacional de Salud (FONASA) during 2008. Analysis of all sick leaves awarded during 2008 for mental or behavioral problems, that were managed at FONASA. A negative binomial regression, was performed to predict the effects of different variables on the total duration of sick leaves. A total of 546,477 sick leaves were awarded to 198,752 individuals (2.27 per subject). The mean duration of each leave was 15.6 days. Summing all leaves, the lapse off work was 98 ± 96 days (median 65 days). Women had longer leaves than men. The type of medical leave, occupation, working for private or public institutions, economic activity and diagnosis were significantly associated with duration of time off work. Sick leaves for mental problems are prolonged and related to gender and socioeconomic variables.

  10. Does self-efficacy predict return-to-work after sickness absence? A prospective study among 930 employees with sickness absence for three weeks or more

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B;

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare levels of self-efficacy among the general working population and employees with sickness absence from work, and to examine if general self-efficacy measured before occurrence of sickness absence predicted subsequent onset of sickness absence and Return-to-Work. METHODS: The study...

  11. Effect of Hypohydration and Altitude Exposure on Aerobic Exercise Performance and Acute Mountain Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    diagnostic of AMS. At the completion of the PDA-based questionnaire, the volunteer’s resting arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) was measured ( Dolphin ...ventral forearm (opposite arm of the blood pressure cuff, forearm kept at heart level) using laser -Doppler flowmetry. The flow probe (sam- pling at 780 nm

  12. Infant salt preference and mother's morning sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, S R; Bernstein, I L

    1998-06-01

    Evidence for an association between early pregnancy sickness and offspring salt (NaCl) preference has been obtained from studying offspring as young adults. To determine whether effects on NaCl preference are expressed in infancy, the present study examined 16-week-old infants whose mothers reported either little or no vomiting (N = 15) or frequent moderate to severe vomiting (N = 14) during the first 14 weeks of their pregnancy. The infants' oral-motor facial reactions to each solution and their relative intakes of distilled water and 0.1m and 0.2m NaCl were used as measures of preference. Infants of mothers who reported no or mild symptoms had a significantly lower relative intake of salt solutions than infants whose mothers reported moderate to severe symptoms (p < 0.01). The former infants also showed a greater number of aversive facial responses when given 0.2m NaCl (p < 0.05). Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that maternal dehydration, induced by moderate to severe vomiting during pregnancy, can lead to enhanced salt preference in offspring. They also provide a potential explanation for some of the variability encountered when human infants are tested for their salt preference.

  13. Sick building syndrome. III. Stachybotrys chartarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, M; Gershwin, M E

    2000-04-01

    Increasingly, physicians are being asked to evaluate patients with putative environmentally associated illnesses. These can include a variety of problems, including infectious illnesses (Legionnaire's disease), chemical exposure in the workplace, and sick building syndromes. The latter has been an issue particularly in asthma because of the association of mold and increased bronchial responsiveness. Recently, attention has been focused on the mold Stachybotrys in human disease. Stachybotrys was first identified more than 60 years ago following an epidemic of stomatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, pancytopenia, neurologic disorders, and death in horses. Since then, Stachybotrys has been identified in several outbreaks of disease in animals. It has also attracted attention as a possible agent in idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage in infants. Stachybotrys is a relatively uncommon fungus but has been isolated from a variety of sources, including contaminated grains, tobacco, indoor air, insulator foams, and water-damaged buildings with high humidity. This fungus is particularly important because it is one of a series of fungi that produces trichothecenes mycotoxins; these mycotoxins are biologically active and can produce a variety of physiological and pathologic changes in humans and animals, including modulation of inflammation and altered alveolar surfactant phospholipid concentrations. The presence of Stachybotrys in a building does not necessarily imply a cause-and-effect relationship with illness, but should alert physicians and healthcare professionals to do more vigorous environmental testing. Guidelines are presented herein for intervention measures in the maintenance of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems.

  14. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    Previous studies find that part-time sick-listing it is an effective instrument for reducing sick leave durations for employees with musculoskeletal disorders and for sick-listed employees in general. This paper provides new evidence by studying whether the Danish part-time sick leave programme...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick...... the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...

  15. Sustainability and Mountain Tourism: The Millennial’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bonadonna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from several studies illustrates the different points of view through which sustainability and mountains have been studied over the years. Nowadays, interest in Millennials is increasing but no research has compared Millennials and sustainability in the mountain context. This study aims at defining sustainability with reference to Millennial perception of both winter and summer mountain sports. By analysing data gathered from a sample of 2292 Millennials (Piedmont area, the authors confirm their high degree of sensitivity towards sustainable issues and, above all, discover that there are differences in the sustainable perception Millennials have of both mountain winter and summer sports. More specifically, Millennial perception is deeply influenced by the place where they are used to living―mountains or cities―and by their gender. From a managerial point of view, results have direct implications on the administrators of mountain institutions who can implement appropriate initiatives in order to correctly sensitise Millennials towards mountain sports. Moreover, from a theoretical perspective, the study opens a new scenario on two important topics linked to sustainability, namely Millennials and mountain sports.

  16. Testosterone treatment diminishes sickness behavior in male songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Noah T; Hays, Quentin R; Bentley, George E; Wingfield, John C

    2009-06-01

    Males of many vertebrate species are typically more prone to disease and infection than female conspecifics, and this sexual difference is partially influenced by the immunosuppressive properties of testosterone (T) in males. T-induced immunosuppression has traditionally been viewed as a pleiotropic handicap, rather than an adaptation. Recently, it has been hypothesized that suppression of sickness behavior, or the symptoms of infection, may have adaptive value if sickness interferes with the expression of T-mediated behaviors important for male reproductive success. We conduct a classic hormone replacement experiment to examine if T suppresses sickness behavior in a seasonally-breeding songbird, Gambel's white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii). Triggered experimentally by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sickness behavior includes decreased activity, anorexia, and weight loss. Gonadectomized (GDX) males that were treated with silastic implants filled with T exhibited suppression of behavioral and physiological responses to LPS compared to GDX and sham-GDX controls given empty implants. Sickness responses of control groups were statistically indistinguishable. T-implanted birds had significantly higher plasma T than control groups and levels were within the range associated with aggressive interactions during male-to-male contests. These findings imply that suppression of sickness behavior could occur when T is elevated to socially-modulated levels. Alternatively, it is possible that this suppressive effect is mediated through a stress-induced mechanism, as corticosterone levels were elevated in T-implanted subjects compared to controls. We propose that males wounded and infected during contests may gain a brief selective advantage by suppressing sickness responses that would otherwise impair competitive performance. The cost of immunosuppression would be manifested in males through an increased susceptibility to disease, which is presumably

  17. Rocky Mountain Arsenal Timeline

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document details all of the major events having occurred at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal from it's establishment on May 2, 1942 up through the document's release...

  18. Landforms of High Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A. McDougall

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Landforms of High Mountains. By Alexander Stahr and Ewald Langenscheidt. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer, 2015. viii + 158 pp. US$ 129.99. Also available as an e-book. ISBN 978-3-642-53714-1.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  20. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  2. Sickness presenteeism in Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Johansen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sickness presenteeism (SP refers to the practice of going to work despite illness. This article describes the distribution of SP in Norway and Sweden. It also discusses relations between SP and various work characteristics and personal factors in the two countries. Methods: More than 2500 Norwegian and Swedish workers between 20 and 60 years of age answered a postal questionnaire. The Norwegian and Swedish samples are weighed and representative with regard to both variables of regional background and demography, but the response rate was low. The distribution of SP is measured by frequency (episodes in the previous year and by length (total days of SP in the previous year. This study employed binary and multinomial logistic regression to detect which factors influence the frequency of SP. Results: Fifty-five per cent of the respondents in Norway and Sweden practised SP in the previous year. The frequency of SP episodes is similar in the two countries. Further, respondents with low/medium income, physical work, and managerial responsibilities report SP more often in both countries. Non-western immigrants, the less educated, and those employed by others are overrepresented with SP in Norway. Neither gender nor age had any particular influence. Discussion: In accordance with previous studies, this study among Norwegian and Swedish workers suggests that some SP during a working year may be more common than no SP. Our analyses of determinants of SP present some previously undocumented differences. Divisions between sedentary versus physical work and management versus non-management were important for SP in Norway and Sweden. Moreover, non-western immigrants are overrepresented with SP in Norway, but this pattern does not prevail in Sweden. Some possible causes for non-western immigrants to report more SP are suggested in the article, but we need more research to follow up on the missing correlation between ethnic background and SP in

  3. The probability and severity of decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, Laurens E; Weber, Paul W; Hada, Ethan A; Vann, Richard D; Denoble, Petar J

    2017-01-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS), which is caused by inert gas bubbles in tissues, is an injury of concern for scuba divers, compressed air workers, astronauts, and aviators. Case reports for 3322 air and N2-O2 dives, resulting in 190 DCS events, were retrospectively analyzed and the outcomes were scored as (1) serious neurological, (2) cardiopulmonary, (3) mild neurological, (4) pain, (5) lymphatic or skin, and (6) constitutional or nonspecific manifestations. Following standard U.S. Navy medical definitions, the data were grouped into mild-Type I (manifestations 4-6)-and serious-Type II (manifestations 1-3). Additionally, we considered an alternative grouping of mild-Type A (manifestations 3-6)-and serious-Type B (manifestations 1 and 2). The current U.S. Navy guidance allows for a 2% probability of mild DCS and a 0.1% probability of serious DCS. We developed a hierarchical trinomial (3-state) probabilistic DCS model that simultaneously predicts the probability of mild and serious DCS given a dive exposure. Both the Type I/II and Type A/B discriminations of mild and serious DCS resulted in a highly significant (p probability of 'mild' DCS resulted in a longer allowable bottom time for the same 2% limit. However, for the 0.1% serious DCS limit, we found a vastly decreased allowable bottom dive time for all dive depths. If the Type A/B scoring was assigned to outcome severity, the no decompression limits (NDL) for air dives were still controlled by the acceptable serious DCS risk limit rather than the acceptable mild DCS risk limit. However, in this case, longer NDL limits were allowed than with the Type I/II scoring. The trinomial model mild and serious probabilities agree reasonably well with the current air NDL only with the Type A/B scoring and when 0.2% risk of serious DCS is allowed.

  4. Decompression sickness following breath-hold diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, J D; Gams, E; Kallweit, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Despite convincing evidence of a relationship between breath-hold diving and decompression sickness (DCS), the causal connection is only slowly being accepted. Only the more recent textbooks have acknowledged the risks of repetitive breath-hold diving. We compare four groups of breath-hold divers: (1) Japanese and Korean amas and other divers from the Pacific area, (2) instructors at naval training facilities, (3) spear fishers, and (4) free-dive athletes. While the number of amas is likely decreasing, and Scandinavian Navy training facilities recorded only a few accidents, the number of spear fishers suffering accidents is on the rise, in particular during championships or using scooters. Finally, national and international associations (e.g., International Association of Free Drives [IAFD] or Association Internationale pour Le Developpment De L'Apnee [AIDA]) promote free-diving championships including deep diving categories such as constant weight, variable weight, and no limit. A number of free-diving athletes, training for or participating in competitions, are increasingly accident prone as the world record is presently set at a depth of 171 m. This review presents data found after searching Medline and ISI Web of Science and using appropriate Internet search engines (e.g., Google). We report some 90 cases in which DCS occurred after repetitive breath-hold dives. Even today, the risk of suffering from DCS after repetitive breath-hold diving is often not acknowledged. We strongly suggest that breath-hold divers and their advisors and physicians be made aware of the possibility of DCS and of the appropriate therapeutic measures to be taken when DCS is suspected. Because the risk of suffering from DCS increases depending on depth, bottom time, rate of ascent, and duration of surface intervals, some approaches to assess the risks are presented. Regrettably, none of these approaches is widely accepted. We propose therefore the development of easily manageable

  5. Decompression sickness ('the bends') in sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Párraga, D; Crespo-Picazo, J L; de Quirós, Y Bernaldo; Cervera, V; Martí-Bonmati, L; Díaz-Delgado, J; Arbelo, M; Moore, M J; Jepson, P D; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-10-16

    Decompression sickness (DCS), as clinically diagnosed by reversal of symptoms with recompression, has never been reported in aquatic breath-hold diving vertebrates despite the occurrence of tissue gas tensions sufficient for bubble formation and injury in terrestrial animals. Similarly to diving mammals, sea turtles manage gas exchange and decompression through anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations. In the former group, DCS-like lesions have been observed on necropsies following behavioral disturbance such as high-powered acoustic sources (e.g. active sonar) and in bycaught animals. In sea turtles, in spite of abundant literature on diving physiology and bycatch interference, this is the first report of DCS-like symptoms and lesions. We diagnosed a clinico-pathological condition consistent with DCS in 29 gas-embolized loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta from a sample of 67. Fifty-nine were recovered alive and 8 had recently died following bycatch in trawls and gillnets of local fisheries from the east coast of Spain. Gas embolization and distribution in vital organs were evaluated through conventional radiography, computed tomography, and ultrasound. Additionally, positive response following repressurization was clinically observed in 2 live affected turtles. Gas embolism was also observed postmortem in carcasses and tissues as described in cetaceans and human divers. Compositional gas analysis of intravascular bubbles was consistent with DCS. Definitive diagnosis of DCS in sea turtles opens a new era for research in sea turtle diving physiology, conservation, and bycatch impact mitigation, as well as for comparative studies in other air-breathing marine vertebrates and human divers.

  6. Delayed recompression for decompression sickness: retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hadanny

    Full Text Available Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS occur soon after surfacing, with 98% within 24 hours. Recompression using hyperbaric chamber should be administrated as soon as feasible in order to decrease bubble size and avoid further tissue injury. Unfortunately, there may be a significant time delay from surfacing to recompression. The time beyond which hyperbaric treatment is non effective is unclear. The aims of the study were first to evaluate the effect of delayed hyperbaric treatment, initiated more than 48 h after surfacing for DCS and second, to evaluate the different treatment protocols.From January 2000 to February 2014, 76 divers had delayed hyperbaric treatment (≥48 h for DCS in the Sagol center for Hyperbaric medicine and Research, Assaf-Harofeh Medical Center, Israel. Data were collected from their medical records and compared to data of 128 patients treated earlier than 48 h after surfacing at the same hyperbaric institute.There was no significant difference, as to any of the baseline characteristics, between the delayed and early treatment groups. With respect to treatment results, at the delayed treatment divers, complete recovery was achieved in 76% of the divers, partial recovery in 17.1% and no improvement in 6.6%. Similar results were achieved when treatment started early, where 78% of the divers had complete recovery, 15.6% partial recovery and 6.2% no recovery. Delayed hyperbaric treatment using US Navy Table 6 protocol trended toward a better clinical outcome yet not statistically significant (OR=2.786, CI95%[0.896-8.66], p=0.07 compared to standard hyperbaric oxygen therapy of 90 minutes at 2 ATA, irrespective of the symptoms severity at presentation.Late recompression for DCS, 48 hours or more after surfacing, has clinical value and when applied can achieve complete recovery in 76% of the divers. It seems that the preferred hyperbaric treatment protocol should be based on US Navy Table 6.

  7. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1992-01-01

    The overall objective of this proposal is to understand the relationship between human orientation control and motion sickness susceptibility. Three areas related to orientation control will be investigated. These three areas are (1) reflexes associated with the control of eye movements and posture, (2) the perception of body rotation and position with respect to gravity, and (3) the strategies used to resolve sensory conflict situations which arise when different sensory systems provide orientation cues which are not consistent with one another or with previous experience. Of particular interest is the possibility that a subject may be able to ignore an inaccurate sensory modality in favor of one or more other sensory modalities which do provide accurate orientation reference information. We refer to this process as sensory selection. This proposal will attempt to quantify subjects' sensory selection abilities and determine if this ability confers some immunity to the development of motion sickness symptoms. Measurements of reflexes, motion perception, sensory selection abilities, and motion sickness susceptibility will concentrate on pitch and roll motions since these seem most relevant to the space motion sickness problem. Vestibulo-ocular (VOR) and oculomotor reflexes will be measured using a unique two-axis rotation device developed in our laboratory over the last seven years. Posture control reflexes will be measured using a movable posture platform capable of independently altering proprioceptive and visual orientation cues. Motion perception will be quantified using closed loop feedback technique developed by Zacharias and Young (Exp Brain Res, 1981). This technique requires a subject to null out motions induced by the experimenter while being exposed to various confounding sensory orientation cues. A subject's sensory selection abilities will be measured by the magnitude and timing of his reactions to changes in sensory environments. Motion sickness

  8. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  9. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS.

  10. Less sickness with more motion and/or mental distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jelte E

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness may reduce passenger comfort and crew performance. Countermeasures are dominated by medication with specific and often undesirable side effects. To shown that sickness due to motion can be reduced by adding an inherent non-sickening vibration and by mental distraction. Eighteen blindfolded subjects were exposed to 20 minutes of off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR). Vibration was added by means of a head rest. Effects of OVAR and vibration were tested separately and in combination, while the subjects were performing an audio letter memorising task. This task was absent to test the effect of mental distraction. Effects were quantified by rating subjective misery and objective task performance. Sixteen subjects completed the experiment and showed in mutual comparable conditions that head vibration reduced the amount of sickness by 25%, the mental distraction did so by 19%, and the combined effect resulted in a reduction of 39%. Their task performance decreased with increasing sickness. Sickness due to low-frequency motion can be reduced by adding a high-frequency vibration and by mental distraction. The effect of vibration can be understood by assuming an internal model used by the central nervous system to optimise the control of body motion.

  11. Structural Model for the Effects of Perceived Indoor Work Environment on Sick Building Syndrome and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nor Hazana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sick Building syndrome (SBS and stress have a prevalent influence on organizational productivity and competitiveness. Unhealthy employees not only tend to have high medical leaves but also low productivity due to ailments and discomforts. Studies that investigate the effects of indoor work environment on Sick Building Syndrome (SBS have yielded mixed results while their effect on stress has not been empirically established. Furthermore, studies that simultaneously investigate both SBS and stress are almost non-existent. Thus, this study aimed to study the effects of perceived indoor work environment on SBS and stress and the link between SBS and stress. A cross-sectional survey participated by 598 employees from various industries was conducted from September to October 2015. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM to assess both the measurement model and the path structure. The results suggest that indoor work environment has significant yet the weak effect on SBS while it has no effect on stress. However, SBS has a strong significant relationship with stress. The implication of this study on the importance of conducive indoor work environment is discussed with suggestions for future studies.

  12. Toward mountains without permanent snow and ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huss, M.; Bookhagen, B.; Huggel, C.; Jacobsen, D.; Bradley, R. S.; Clague, J. J.; Vuille, M.; Buytaert, W.; Cayan, D. R.; Greenwood, G.; Mark, B. G.; Milner, A. M.; Weingartner, R.; Winder, M.

    2017-05-01

    The cryosphere in mountain regions is rapidly declining, a trend that is expected to accelerate over the next several decades due to anthropogenic climate change. A cascade of effects will result, extending from mountains to lowlands with associated impacts on human livelihood, economy, and ecosystems. With rising air temperatures and increased radiative forcing, glaciers will become smaller and, in some cases, disappear, the area of frozen ground will diminish, the ratio of snow to rainfall will decrease, and the timing and magnitude of both maximum and minimum streamflow will change. These changes will affect erosion rates, sediment, and nutrient flux, and the biogeochemistry of rivers and proglacial lakes, all of which influence water quality, aquatic habitat, and biotic communities. Changes in the length of the growing season will allow low-elevation plants and animals to expand their ranges upward. Slope failures due to thawing alpine permafrost, and outburst floods from glacier- and moraine-dammed lakes will threaten downstream populations. Societies even well beyond the mountains depend on meltwater from glaciers and snow for drinking water supplies, irrigation, mining, hydropower, agriculture, and recreation. Here, we review and, where possible, quantify the impacts of anticipated climate change on the alpine cryosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere, and consider the implications for adaptation to a future of mountains without permanent snow and ice.

  13. Acupressure therapy for morning sickness. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, E

    1989-01-01

    A prospective, controlled clinical trial examined the efficacy of acupressure therapy for morning sickness, using a two group, random assignment, crossover design. Subjects in Group 1 (N = 8) used acupressure wristbands for five days, followed by five days without therapy. Subjects in Group 2 (N = 8) had no therapy for five days, followed by five days use of wristbands. The Multiple Affect Adjective Checklist and Sickness Impact Profile were used, and extent of nausea was assessed at baseline, day five, and day ten. Use of acupressure wristbands relieved morning sickness for 12 of 16 subjects (chi 2 = 5.31 with Yates' correction factor, df = 1, p less than .025). Acupressure therapy resulted in statistically significant (p less than .05) reductions in anxiety, depression, behavioral dysfunction, and nausea. Limitations of the study and suggestions for future research are presented.

  14. Analyzing sickness absence with statistical models for survival data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang; Andersen, Per Kragh; Smith-Hansen, Lars;

    2007-01-01

    absence data deal with events occurring over time, the use of statistical models for survival data has been reviewed, and the use of frailty models has been proposed for the analysis of such data. METHODS: Three methods for analyzing data on sickness absences were compared using a simulation study...... involving the following: (i) Poisson regression using a single outcome variable (number of sickness absences), (ii) analysis of time to first event using the Cox proportional hazards model, and (iii) frailty models, which are random effects proportional hazards models. Data from a study of the relation...... between the psychosocial work environment and sickness absence were used to illustrate the results. RESULTS: Standard methods were found to underestimate true effect sizes by approximately one-tenth [method i] and one-third [method ii] and to have lower statistical power than frailty models. CONCLUSIONS...

  15. Psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: The study estimates the incidence of psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA; more than eight weeks of continuous sickness absence) over one year. The study is the first accounting for everybody on LSA by linking a psychiatric assessment for all persons on LSA to public...... registers. METHODS: In a Danish population of 120,000 inhabitants all 2,414 incident persons on LSA within one year were posted a questionnaire, of whom 1,121 (46.4%) responded. In a two phase design the 1,121 sick-listed persons were screened for psychiatric disorders. Phase 2 consisted of 844 people...... examined persons in Phase 2 showed by binomial tests the following frequencies: any psychiatric disorder 57%, any depression 42%, and any anxiety 18%. In Phase 1, representative for everyone on LSA, the frequencies were 48% for any psychiatric disorder, 35% for any depression, 15% for any anxiety, and 7...

  16. Green tobacco sickness in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Robert H; Spiller, Henry A

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is cultivated in more than 100 countries, and in 2004, some 5.73 million metric tons dry weight of tobacco were grown worldwide. The top five tobacco producers forecast for 2004 are China (2.01 million metric tons; 35.1%), Brazil (757 thousand metric tons; 13.2%), India (598 thousand metric tons; 10.4%), United States (358 thousand metric tons; 6.2%), and Malawi (138 thousand metric tons; 2.4%). Together, these five countries account for two-thirds of worldwide tobacco production. Tobacco farming presents several hazards to those who cultivate and harvest the plant. Although some of these hazards, such as pesticide exposure and musculoskeletal trauma, are faced by workers in other types of agricultural production, tobacco production presents some unique hazards, most notably acute nicotine poisoning, a condition also known as green tobacco sickness (GTS). GTS is an occupational poisoning that can affect workers who cultivate and harvest tobacco. It occurs when workers absorb nicotine through the skin as they come into contact with leaves of the mature tobacco plant. GTS is characterized largely by nausea, vomiting, headache, muscle weakness, and dizziness. Historically, children have played a role in agricultural production in the United States, and they continue to do so today. This includes tobacco farming. The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks, a set of injury prevention guidelines prepared by the National Children's Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety, lists GTS as one of several hazards children face when working on tobacco farms. Children 17 years of age and younger who work on U.S. tobacco farms come from three main groups: members of farm families, migrant youth laborers (primarily Latinos), and other hired local children. All three groups are at risk for GTS. Beyond the U.S., tobacco production using child labor is an emerging topic of concern in developing nations. An international

  17. Physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors relative to sickness absence: a study based on Sweden Post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, M; Floderus, B; Diderichsen, F

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sicknes......: Certain physical, psychosocial, and organisational factors were important determinants of incidence of sickness, independently of each other. Some of the associations were sex specific.......OBJECTIVE: To analyse incidence of sickness for women and men relative to potential aetiological factors at work-physical, psychosocial, and organisational. METHODS: The study group comprised 1557 female and 1913 male employees of Sweden Post. Sickness absence was measured by incidence of sickness...... (sick leave events and person-days at risk). Information on explanatory factors was obtained by a postal questionnaire, and incidence of sickness was based on administrative files of the company. RESULTS: Complaints about heavy lifting and monotonous movements were associated with increased risk of high...

  18. Early modern green sickness and pre-Freudian hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleiner, Winfried

    2009-01-01

    In early modern medicine, both green sickness (or chlorosis) and hysteria were understood to be gendered diseases, diseases of women. Green sickness, a disease of young women, was considered so serious that John Graunt, the father of English statistics, thought that in his time dozens of women died of it in London every year. One of the symptoms of hysteria was that women fell unconscious. The force of etymology and medical tradition was so strong that in one instance the gender of the patient seems to have been changed by the recorder to make the case fit medical theory.

  19. Morning sickness: a mechanism for protecting mother and embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, S M; Sherman, P W

    2000-06-01

    Approximately two-thirds of women experience nausea or vomiting during the first trimester of pregnancy. These symptoms are commonly known as morning sickness. Hook (1976) and Profet (1988) hypothesized that morning sickness protects the embryo by causing pregnant women to physically expel and subsequently avoid foods that contain teratogenic and abortifacient chemicals, especially toxic chemicals in strong-tasting vegetables, caffeinated beverages and alcohol. We examined this hypothesis by comprehensively reviewing the relevant medical, psychological and anthropological literature. In its support, (i) symptoms peak when embryonic organogenesis is most susceptible to chemical disruption (weeks 6-18), (ii) women who experience morning sickness are significantly less likely to miscarry than women who do not (9 of 9 studies), (iii) women who vomit suffer fewer miscarriages than those who experience nausea alone, and (iv) many pregnant women have aversions to alcoholic and nonalcoholic (mostly caffeinated) beverages and strong-tasting vegetables, especially during the first trimester. Surprisingly, however, the greatest aversions are to meats, fish, poultry, and eggs. A cross-cultural analysis using the Human Relations Area Files revealed 20 traditional societies in which morning sickness has been observed and seven in which it has never been observed. The latter were significantly less likely to have animal products as dietary staples and significantly more likely to have only plants (primarily corn) as staples than the 20 societies in which morning sickness occurred. Animal products may be dangerous to pregnant women and their embryos because they often contain parasites and pathogens, especially when stored at room temperatures in warm climates. Avoiding foodborne microorganisms is particularly important to pregnant women because they are immunosuppressed, presumably to reduce the chances of rejecting tissues of their own offspring (Haig 1993). As a result

  20. “Children get sick all the time”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lise Rosendal; Juul Bjertrup, Pia; Samuelsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    and the utilization of public healthcare services low. This study explores the relationship between mothers’ intentions to use public health services in cases of child sickness, their social strategies and cultural practices to act on these intentions and the actual services provided at the primary health care...... facilities. Focusing on mothers as the primary caregivers, we follow their pathways from the onset of symptoms through their various attempts of providing treatment for their sick children. The overall objective is to discuss the interconnectedness of various factors, inside and outside of the primary health...

  1. Certificated sickness absence in industrial employees threatened with redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, N; Nethercott, S

    1988-05-28

    The proposition that workers take less sick leave when threatened by redundancy was examined in a longitudinal, controlled study using information from case records in a general practice. The hypothesis was only partly supported--certificated sickness absence dropped only in employees under the age of 40. Workers fearing job loss reported more illness, and their periods of absence were significantly longer, especially for men and for workers who had previously consulted their general practitioner infrequently. This study provides further evidence that the fear of mass redundancy is stressful to workers so threatened and costly to a society experiencing rising unemployment.

  2. Mountain saved. is a mountain earned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, K.

    The Anaconda Copper Company boasted that the smokestack on its Washee smelter mill was the world's tallest. It also was probably the world's deadliest. Mysterious livestock deaths began occurring in 1906. They seemed to concentrate in the path of the prevailing westerly winds, carrying the Washee's smelter smoke plume toward Mt. Haggin. As evidence mounted that the deaths were connected to particulate fallout from the smelter (largely oxides of zinc, arsenic, lead, and copper), there were rumblings of lawsuits against Anaconda. The company felt threatened, but did not possess the technology to cure the situation. To protect itself, Anaconda purchased all the lands that were affected by fallout from the smelter smokestack. The result was the formation of the 154,000-acre Mt. Haggin Ranch. Today, the Anaconda Copper Company uses sophisticated pollution abatement equipment, and it is possible to see the healing that has taken place in recent years. The ranch includes rugged mountain peaks and ridges, high mountain valleys, and rolling foothills. A fisherman's paradise, the area also contains 20 mountain lakes, numerous ponds, and over 60 miles of trout streams. The Conservancy has been working to save Mt. Haggin since 1969. Negotiations have involved not only the fee owner--Mt. Haggin Livestock, Inc.--but also parties holding grazing and timber contracts, a variety of public agencies, and the Anaconda Company, which still holds some rights over the portion of the property not yet purchased by the Conservancy. The Conservancy assists in preserving lands like Mt. Haggin by handling the financial and legal aspects of land purchases. The Conservancy is allocating property to two ultimate recipients: the U.S. Forest Service and the montana Department of Fish and Game.

  3. The determinants of sick leave durations of Dutch self-employed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierdijk, Laura; van Lomwel, Gijsbert; Peppelman, Wilko

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes sickness absenteeism among self-employed in the Netherlands. Using a unique data set provided by a large Dutch private insurance company, we assess the determinants of sick leave durations. Our study suggests that several risk factors affect the sick leave durations of self-emplo

  4. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630.405 Section 630.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity....

  5. 5 CFR 630.406 - Records on the use of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records on the use of sick leave. 630.406 Section 630.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.406 Records on the use of sick leave. An agency must maintain records...

  6. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section 630.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  7. 20 CFR 323.2 - Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment or sickness insurance. 323.2 Section 323.2 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT NONGOVERNMENTAL PLANS FOR UNEMPLOYMENT OR SICKNESS INSURANCE § 323.2 Definition of nongovernmental plan for unemployment or sickness insurance. A...

  8. Job satisfaction and short-term sickness absence among Dutch workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notenbomer, A; Roelen, CAM; Groothoff, JW

    Background Sickness absence is a considerable economic and social problem. Short-term sickness absence is known to be associated with behavioural attitudes. The correlation between sickness absence and job satisfaction has been studied infrequently and with contradictory results. Aims This study

  9. Care for Sick Children as a Proxy for Gender Equality in the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Rickard; Nermo, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Swedish parents are entitled to government paid benefits to take care of sick children. In this paper we show that the gender distribution of paid care for sick children is a good proxy for the gender division of household work. Using two examples we show that registry data on care for sick children is a useful data source for studies on gender…

  10. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  11. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  12. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  13. "Sick sinus syndrome in dermatomyositis"--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badui, E

    1987-11-01

    A forty-five-year-old woman with a history of dermatomyositis for the past fifteen years developed sick sinus syndrome during an exacerbation of her illness. This association has not been previously described in the literature, as far as the author can determine.

  14. What bothers the sick-listed employee with severe MUPS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, R.; Blankenstein, A. H.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to explore what employees with severe medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) experience as causes of distress with regard to employees with mild or no MUPS. Methods: This study is an additional analysis of a cross-sectional study in which 486 sick-listed emplo

  15. Respiratory impact on motion sickness induced by linear motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mert, A.; Klöpping-Ketelaars, I.; Bles, W.

    2009-01-01

    Motion sickness incidence (MSI) for vertical sinusoidal motion reaches a maximum at 0.167 Hz. Normal breathing frequency is close to this frequency. There is some evidence for synchronization of breathing with this stimulus frequency. If this enforced breathing takes place over a larger frequency ra

  16. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  17. Occupational rewards relate to sickness absence frequency but not duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelen, C. A. M.; Koopmans, P. C.; Groothoff, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Work stress is an important problem that shifted sickness absence research to the psychosocial work environment at the expense of physical or chemical hazards. Most studies investigated the psychosocial work environment using the Demand-Control model. However, this model does not consider coping sty

  18. Multidimensional intervention and sickness absence in assistant nursing students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Annemarie Lyng; Strøyer, Jesper; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain if a multid......BACKGROUND: When handling patients, nursing assistant (NA) students and nurse students are frequently exposed to risk factors for low back pain (LBP) including sudden loads and twisting and bending of the spine. Furthermore, LBP is a major cause of sickness absence. AIMS: To ascertain...... if a multidimensional prevention programme combining physical training, patient transfer technique and stress management prevents sickness absence and LBP in NA students. METHODS: The study was a 14-month cluster randomized controlled study. The participants were NA students from 37 randomly selected classes located...... at two schools of health and social care in Copenhagen, Denmark. The participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire regarding sickness absence, LBP and psychosocial factors on commencement and after completion of the study. RESULTS: Of 766 female NA students, 668 (87%) completed the baseline...

  19. Sickness absenteeism at an all-time low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Hesselink, J.

    2011-01-01

    Absenteeism in the Netherlands rose steadily in the 1960s and 70s, driven by legislation that made it attractive for employees to take long-term sick leave. Changes in laws on absenteeism and disability seem to have been a driving force behind the fall in rates since the early 1980s and employers ha

  20. The association between commuter cycling and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Simons, M.; Garre, F.G.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association between commuter cycling and all-cause sickness absence, and the possible dose-response relationship between absenteeism and the distance, frequency and speed of commuter cycling. Method: Cross-sectional data about cycling in 1236 Dutch employees were collected us

  1. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Faber (Elske)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are involve

  2. The role of work group in individual sickness absence behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Väänänen, Ari; Tordera, Nuria; Kivimäki, Mika; Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Linna, Anne; Vahtera, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of our two-year follow-up study was to examine the effect of the social components of the work group, such as group absence norms and cohesion, on sickness absence behavior among individuals with varying attitudes toward work attendance. The social components were measured using a questionnaire survey and data on sickness absence behavior were collected from the employers' records. The study population consisted of 19,306 Finnish municipal employees working in 1,847 groups (78% women). Multilevel Poisson regression modeling was applied. The direct effects of work group characteristics on sickness absence were mostly insignificant. In contrast, both of the social components of a work group had an indirect impact: The more tolerant the group absence norms (at both individual- and cross-level) and the lower the group cohesion (at the individual level), the more the absence behavior of an individual was influenced by his or her attitude toward work attendance. We conclude that work group moderates the extent to which individuals with a liberal attitude toward work attendance actually engage in sickness absence behavior.

  3. Management of Sick Leave due to Musculoskeletal Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Faber (Elske)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMusculoskeletal disorders are a common problem that may lead to func-Ational limitations and (work) disability. It is not clear yet how improvement in Apain or functional limitations is related to return to work after an episode of sick Aleave. Furthermore, several physicians are

  4. Undetected common mental disorders in long-term sickness absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3) th...... diagnosis 21%, depression 14%, anxiety 4%, and somatoform disorder 6%. Conclusions. Undetected CMD may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment and complicate the rehabilitation and return to work.......Background. Undetected Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) amongst people on sick leave complicate rehabilitation and return to work because appropriate treatments are not initiated. Aims. The aim of this study is to estimate (1) the frequencies of CMD, (2) the predictors of undetected CMD, and (3......) the rate of return to work among sick listed individuals without a psychiatric disorder, who are registered on long-term sickness absence (LSA). Methods. A total of 2,414 incident individuals on LSA with a response rate of 46.4%, were identified for a two-phase study. The subsample of this study involved...

  5. Development of a neural net paradigm that predicts simulator sickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A disease exists that affects pilots and aircrew members who use Navy Operational Flight Training Systems. This malady, commonly referred to as simulator sickness and whose symptomatology closely aligns with that of motion sickness, can compromise the use of these systems because of a reduced utilization factor, negative transfer of training, and reduction in combat readiness. A report is submitted that develops an artificial neural network (ANN) and behavioral model that predicts the onset and level of simulator sickness in the pilots and aircrews who sue these systems. It is proposed that the paradigm could be implemented in real time as a biofeedback monitor to reduce the risk to users of these systems. The model captures the neurophysiological impact of use (human-machine interaction) by developing a structure that maps the associative and nonassociative behavioral patterns (learned expectations) and vestibular (otolith and semicircular canals of the inner ear) and tactile interaction, derived from system acceleration profiles, onto an abstract space that predicts simulator sickness for a given training flight.

  6. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro;

    2008-01-01

    spring (-17% under Alfi and -4.8% under B1 for 2085). On the contrary, non-Mediterranean European mountains will not experience a reduction of annual and spring precipitation. Implications of predicted climate change for both human and physical features are coupled in an integrated framework to gain...

  7. Interrupting White Mountain Apache Language Shift: An Insider's View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette

    1999-01-01

    A White Mountain Apache (WMA) doctoral student collaborating with a non-Indian linguist on a grammar book project discusses the status of the WMA language; causes of WMA language shift; aspects of insider-outsider collaboration; implications for revitalization and maintenance of indigenous languages; and the responsibilities of individuals,…

  8. ARISK PHENOMENA IN THE SILVANIA MOUNTAINS, INTUITIVE AND GENETIC REFLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMELIA BOGDAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Risk phenomena in the Silvania Mountains, intuitive and genetic reflexes. In the contemporary period, the scientific research under the auspices of the global development has experienced a real quantitative and qualitative revolution. Theoretically and methodologically, the widespread promotion of the “concept of discontinuity” in terms of content, significances, manifestation, implications is observed, which has become a new imperative of the nowadays geography. The phenomena of discontinuity happen as real “paroxysmal, rhythm and intensity ruptures“ in relation to the normal occurrence defined either through the average value, determined on statistical basis as hydrological, meteorological, climatic phenomena or in discrete forms, when the phenomena occur in a veiled manner and they are perceptible only through their effects, respectively the environmental reflexes. Among the notions used with reference to extreme evolutionary discontinuities, we quote: the hazard, the disaster, the calamity and the risk to which was added a series of related notions: stability, sensitivity, resilience, fragility and vulnerability. The Silvania Mountains, a representative territorial unit within Silvania Land, with a fascinating and controversial geological origin, a real petrographic synthesis with uncovered crystalline stone, brought to the surface due to erosion under the layers of Neogene sediments, as a last remaining of a grandiose Hercynian chain with a varied orientation SW-NE of which were part the Massif Central –France, the east side, the Vosges Mountains, the Black Forest Mountains, the Harz Mountains and Bohemia. In this range of mountains, we also mention the Silvania Hercynian Mountains, respectively Plopiș and Meseș Mountains.This mountainous elevation level has an important role within the landscape as "geographical discontinuity factor” on one hand, between the Someșan Plateau and the Silvania piedmontan hills (Meseș Mountains

  9. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  10. Xiuhua Mountain Museum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    XIUHUA Mountain Museum,a building nestled amongthe hills,is the first private museum of the Tujiaethnicity.Its name is an amalgamation of the names ofthe couple who run it,Gong Daoxiu and her husband ChenChuhua.According to Chen,the reason that he put his wife’s

  11. General practitioners' management of the long-term sick role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Angela; Porter, Sam; O'Halloran, Peter

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we use qualitative research techniques to examine the role of general practitioners in the management of the long-term sickness absence. In order to uncover the perspectives of all the main agents affected by the actions of general practitioners, a case study approach focussing on one particular employment sector, the public health service, is adopted. The role of family physicians is viewed from the perspectives of health service managers, occupational health physicians, employees/patients, and general practitioners. Our argument is theoretically framed by Talcott Parsons's model of the medical contribution to the sick role, along with subsequent conceptualisations of the social role and position of physicians. Sixty one semi-structured interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted in three Health and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland between 2010 and 2012. There was a consensus among respondents that general practitioners put far more weight on the preferences and needs of their patients than they did on the requirements of employing organisations. This was explained by respondents in terms of the propinquity and longevity of relationships between doctors and their patients, and by the ideology of holistic care and patient advocacy that general practitioners viewed as providing the foundations of their approach to patients. The approach of general practitioners was viewed negatively by managers and occupational health physicians, and more positively by general practitioners and patients. However, there is some evidence that general practitioners would be prepared to forfeit their role as validators of sick leave. Given the imperatives of both state and capital to reduce the financial burden of long-term sickness, this preparedness puts into doubt the continued role of general practitioners as gatekeepers to legitimate long-term sickness absence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Sperm count and seminal biochemistry of high altitude inhabitants and patients with chronic altitude sickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hjarles, M A

    1989-04-01

    Semen analysis has been studied in 9 healthy adult males from sea level (150 m), age 19-32 years old and 15 healthy males from high altitude (NA), 9 from Cerro de Pasco (4,300 m) and 6 from Morococha (4,540 m), ages 19-45 years old. Five patients with chronic mountain sickness (MMC), whose ages ranged from 23 to 52 years old were also studied. The volume and motility were similar in NA and MMC, however both were below than in sea level subjects, but still in the normal range; the number of spermatozoa per 1 ml was lower at sea level than in NA and MMC, although the total number was higher at sea level due to the higher semen volume. Fructose at sea level was 356 +/- 53 mg/100 ml (mean +/- S.E.) which is similar to NA 237 +/- 45 whereas a MMC was significantly lower, 142 +/- 60. Citric acid was lower at sea level than in NA and MMC. Na, K and Cl, were similar among the three groups. The lower concentration of fructose in MMC parallels the decreased testicular function already found in these groups. However it is worthy to point out that the fertility is preserved in all the groups. The normal reproductive function in MMC is against the concept that this process occurs as a consequence of environmental disadaptation.

  13. Thermal and barometric constraints on the intrusive and unroofing history of the Black Mountains: Implications for timing, initial dip, and kinematics of detachment faulting in the Death Valley Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Daniel K.; Snow, J. Kent; Lux, Daniel R.

    1992-06-01

    Unroofing of the Black Mountains, Death Valley, California, has resulted in the exposure of 1.7 Ga crystalline basement, late Precambrian amphibolite facies metasedimentary rocks, and a Tertiary magmatic complex. The 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, obtained from samples collected across the entire length of the range (>55 km), combined with geobarometric results from synextensional intrusions, provide time-depth constraints on the Miocene intrusive history and extensional unroofing of the Black Mountains. Data from the southeastern Black Mountains and adjacent Greenwater Range suggest unroofing from shallow depths between 9 and 10 Ma. To the northwest in the crystalline core of the range, biotite plateau ages from ˜13 to 6.8 Ma from rocks making up the Death Valley turtlebacks indicate a midcrustal residence (with temperatures >300°C) prior to extensional unroofing. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages from both Precambrian basement and Tertiary plutons reveal a diachronous cooling pattern of decreasing ages toward the northwest, subparallel to the regional extension direction. Diachronous cooling was accompanied by dike intrusion which also decreases in age toward the northwest. The cooling age pattern and geobarometric constraints in crystalline rocks of the Black Mountains suggest denudation of 10-15 km along a northwest directed detachment system, consistent with regional reconstructions of Tertiary extension and with unroofing of a northwest deepening crustal section. Mica cooling ages that deviate from the northwest younging trend are consistent with northwestward transport of rocks initially at shallower crustal levels onto deeper levels along splays of the detachment. The well-known Amargosa chaos and perhaps the Badwater turtleback are examples of this "splaying" process. Considering the current distance of the structurally deepest samples away from moderately to steeply east tilted Tertiary strata in the southeastern Black Mountains, these data indicate an average initial

  14. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  15. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  16. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental di

  17. Allometric scaling of decompression sickness risk in terrestrial mammals; cardiac output explains risk of decompression sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    A probabilistic model was used to predict decompression sickness (DCS) outcome in pig (70 and 20 kg), hamster (100 g), rat (220 g) and mouse (20 g) following air saturation dives. The data set included 179 pig, 200 hamster, 360 rat, and 224 mouse exposures to saturation pressures ranging from 1.9–15.2 ATA and with varying decompression rates (0.9–156 ATA • min‑1). Single exponential kinetics described the tissue partial pressures (Ptiss) of N2: Ptiss =  ∫(Pamb – Ptiss) • τ‑1 dt, where Pamb is ambient N2 pressure and τ is a time constant. The probability of DCS [P(DCS)] was predicted from the risk function: P(DCS) = 1‑e‑r, where r = ∫(PtissN2 ‑ Thr ‑ Pamb) • Pamb–1 dt, and Thr is a threshold parameter. An equation that scaled τ with body mass included a constant (c) and an allometric scaling parameter (n), and the best model included n, Thr, and two c. The final model provided accurate predictions for 58 out of 61 dive profiles for pig, hamster, rat, and mouse. Thus, body mass helped improve the prediction of DCS risk in four mammalian species over a body mass range covering 3 orders of magnitude.

  18. The effect of part-time sick leave for employees with mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    the employee is able to work regular hours. We use combined survey and register data about 226 long-term sick-listed employees with mental disorders and 638 employees with physical disorders. Our analyses show that part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working...... hours for employees with physical disorders. In contrast, we find that part-time sick-listing does not reduce durations for employees with mental disorders. The analyses also illustrate the importance of adjusting for unobserved differences between part-time sick-listed and full-time sick......-listed. Without such adjustment part-time sick-listing significantly reduces the duration until returning to regular working hours. When we adjust for unobserved characteristics this effect decreases, and for sick-listed employees with mental disorders the effect vanishes entirely. The lack of an effect...

  19. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  20. Exposure to exhaled air from a sick occupant in a two-bed hospital room with mixing ventilation: effect of distance from sick occupant and air change rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Georgiev, Emanuil

    2011-01-01

    an exposed patient lying in the second bed. The doctor stood 0.55 m or 1.1 m facing the sick patient. The breathing mode of the “sick patient” was: exhalation mouth/inhalation nose. Tracer gas (R-134a) was mixed with the exhaled air. Important finding of this study is that airflow distribution...

  1. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop di

  2. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop

  3. Doppler bubble detection and decompression sickness: a prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C G; Hunt, W S; Johanson, D C; Flynn, E T; Weathersby, P K

    1985-09-01

    Decompression sickness in human beings exposed to high ambient pressure is thought to follow from gas bubble formation and growth in the body during return to low pressure. Detection of Doppler-shifted ultrasonic reflections in major blood vessels has been promoted as a noninvasive and sensitive indicator of the imminence of decompression sickness. We have conducted a double-blind, prospective clinical trial of Doppler ultrasonic bubble detection in simulated diving using 83 men, of whom 8 were stricken and treated for the clinical disease. Diagnosis based only on the Doppler signals had no correlation with clinical diagnosis. Bubble scores were only slightly higher in the stricken group. The Doppler technique does not appear to be of diagnostic value in the absence of other clinical information.

  4. Mechanisms of selective attention and space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mismatch theory of space motion sickness asserts that the central and peripheral autonomic sequelae of discordant sensory input arise from central integrative processes falling to reconcile patterns of incoming sensory information with existing memory. Stated differently, perceived novelty reaches a stress level as integrative mechanisms fail to return a sense of control to the individual in the new environment. Based on evidence summarized here, the severity of the neural mismatch may be dependent upon the relative amount of attention selectively afforded to each sensory input competing for control of behavior. Components of the limbic system may play important roles in match-mismatch operations, be therapeutically modulated by antimotion sickness drugs, and be optimally positioned to control autonomic output.

  5. Azorín, Sick and Writer, before Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Escartín Gual

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the relationship of Azorin with medicine from a different approach which often takes the critical who interpreted the presence of the disease in his work as a metaphor for the crisis of the crisis of the end of the century. Our work examines scientific and real terms, as the suffering experienced by the author himself, who projected his pathology to fictional characters, we investigated, in addition to exposing the characteristics of disease and its therapeutic and his interest in all kinds of medical literature, ancient and recent. In summary, the article reviews the illness and doctors as a constant in Martínez Ruiz’s literature, resulting in newspaper articles («Medicine», «The Doctor», youth and maturity novels (Diary of a sick, 1901, The sick, 1943 or essays (Doctors, 1966.

  6. African horse sickness in naturally infected, immunised horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, C T; Quan, M; Joone, C; Lourens, C W; MacLachlan, N J; Guthrie, A J

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether subclinical cases, together with clinical cases, of African horse sickness (AHS) occur in immunised horses in field conditions, whole blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures recorded weekly from 50 Nooitgedacht ponies resident in open camps at the Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, during 2008-2010. The samples were tested for the presence of African horse sickness virus (AHSV) RNA by a recently developed real-time RT-PCR. It was shown that 16% of immunised horses in an AHS endemic area were infected with AHSV over a 2 year period, with half of these (8%) being subclinically infected. The potential impact of such cases on the epidemiology of AHS warrants further investigation.

  7. Pregnancy in sick sinus syndrome with pacemaker - two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N; Sharmin, F

    2013-04-01

    Sick sinus syndrome is a generalized abnormality of cardiac impulse formation that may be caused by extrinsic causes or by intrinsic disease of the sinus node making it unable to perform pace making function. It can be manifested for the first time in pregnancy. First case was diagnosed as sick sinus syndrome at 8 weeks of gestation having Mobitz type I heart block (Wenckebach block), and needed temporary pacemaker during caesarean section. Second case was diagnosed at 24 weeks of gestation having complete heart block and needed permanent pacemaker at 38 weeks of gestation due to exaggeration of the symptoms. Both the cases were dealt successfully by caesarean section under general anesthesia in close collaboration with cardiologists and anesthesiologists.

  8. Bayesian approach to decompression sickness model parameter estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howle, L E; Weber, P W; Nichols, J M

    2017-03-01

    We examine both maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches for estimating probabilistic decompression sickness model parameters. Maximum likelihood estimation treats parameters as fixed values and determines the best estimate through repeated trials, whereas the Bayesian approach treats parameters as random variables and determines the parameter probability distributions. We would ultimately like to know the probability that a parameter lies in a certain range rather than simply make statements about the repeatability of our estimator. Although both represent powerful methods of inference, for models with complex or multi-peaked likelihoods, maximum likelihood parameter estimates can prove more difficult to interpret than the estimates of the parameter distributions provided by the Bayesian approach. For models of decompression sickness, we show that while these two estimation methods are complementary, the credible intervals generated by the Bayesian approach are more naturally suited to quantifying uncertainty in the model parameters.

  9. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-04-23

    Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence.

  10. EEG-based learning system for online motion sickness level estimation in a dynamic vehicle environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Teng; Tsai, Shu-Fang; Ko, Li-Wei

    2013-10-01

    Motion sickness is a common experience for many people. Several previous researches indicated that motion sickness has a negative effect on driving performance and sometimes leads to serious traffic accidents because of a decline in a person's ability to maintain self-control. This safety issue has motivated us to find a way to prevent vehicle accidents. Our target was to determine a set of valid motion sickness indicators that would predict the occurrence of a person's motion sickness as soon as possible. A successful method for the early detection of motion sickness will help us to construct a cognitive monitoring system. Such a monitoring system can alert people before they become sick and prevent them from being distracted by various motion sickness symptoms while driving or riding in a car. In our past researches, we investigated the physiological changes that occur during the transition of a passenger's cognitive state using electroencephalography (EEG) power spectrum analysis, and we found that the EEG power responses in the left and right motors, parietal, lateral occipital, and occipital midline brain areas were more highly correlated to subjective sickness levels than other brain areas. In this paper, we propose the use of a self-organizing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) to estimate a driver's/passenger's sickness level based on EEG features that have been extracted online from five motion sickness-related brain areas, while either in real or virtual vehicle environments. The results show that our proposed learning system is capable of extracting a set of valid motion sickness indicators that originated from EEG dynamics, and through SONFIN, a neuro-fuzzy prediction model, we successfully translated the set of motion sickness indicators into motion sickness levels. The overall performance of this proposed EEG-based learning system can achieve an average prediction accuracy of ~82%.

  11. Culicoides species composition and environmental factors influencing African horse sickness distribution at three sites in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, Danica; Piketh, Stuart; Labuschagne, Karien; Venter, Gert; Greyling, Telane; Mienie, Charlotte; de Waal, Tania; van Hamburg, Huib

    2016-11-01

    African horse sickness (AHS) is one of the most lethal infectious, non-contagious, vector-borne disease of equids. The causative agent, African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted via Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). AHS is endemic to Namibia but detailed studies of Culicoides communities and influencing environmental parameters are limited. This study aims to determine the Culicoides species composition at three different sites and to assess environmental parameters influencing the geographical distribution of AHS in Namibia. Weekly collections of Culicoides were made during the AHS peak season from January to May for 2013 and 2014 using the Onderstepoort 220V UV-light trap. Out of 397 collections made, 124 collections (3287 Culicoides) were analysed for AHSV presence with RT-qPCR. A total of 295 collections were analysed for total Culicoides (all collected Culicoides individuals) and in 75% of these collections the Culicoides were identified to species level. C. imicola was the dominant species with proportional representation of 29.9%. C. subschultzei, C. exspectator and C. ravus each contribute more than 10% to the species composition. The lowest number of Culicoides was collected at Aus 9980, a total of 21819 at Windhoek and the highest number at Okahandja 47343. AHSV was present at all three sites during 2013 but only in Windhoek and Okahandja during 2014. Multivariate analyses of data from the two year survey indicate the environmental parameters in order of importance for the distribution of AHS in Namibia as precipitation>temperature>clay>relative humidity>NDVI. The implication of these findings is that any precipitation event increases Culicoides numbers significantly. Together with these results the high number of species found of which little is known regarding their vector competence, add to the complexity of the distribution of AHS in Namibia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Motion Sickness Prevention by Stroboscopic Environment during Simulated Military Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-20

    known, most of these drugs fall into three classes: antidopaminergics, anticholinergics, and antihistamines ( Drug Facts and Comparisons, 1999...vomiting 2 center also is directly stimulated by motion and by high levels of acetylcholine. Therefore, most drugs that are used to prevent or...Brendley, K. W., Marti, J., & DiZio, P. 2003. Motion Coupled Visual Environment (MOCOVE): Drug -Free Alleviations of Motion Sickness. U.S

  13. Health Seeking Behavior among Mothers of Sick Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, P D

    2015-01-01

    Infant and under-five mortality rate in Nepal are 46 and 54 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. These mortality indicates, one in every 22 Nepalese children dies before reaching age 1, and one in every 19 does not survive to his or her fifth birthday. Delay in seeking appropriate care and not seeking any care contributes to the large number of child deaths. Existing interventions could prevent many deaths among children if they are presented at health facility and timely care. A descriptive research was carried out in Lele VDC, ward no.7, Lalitpur. The objective of this study was to find out health seeking behavior among mothers of sick children. Non probability, purposive sampling method was used. Sample size was 102 mothers who had sick children from 0 to 59 months. A set of semi structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The mean age of the respondent was 25.8 years and child was 29 months. Respondents' children who suffered with pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition were 64(62.7%),29(28%), 9(8.8%) respectively. Majority 84(81.4%) mothers had sought treatment and among them 58(69%) sought treatment from health facility whereas 26(31%) sought treatment from traditional healer. There was significant relationship between education of the mother(p=0.05), sex of the child (p=0.004), type of sickness of children (p=0.001) of the mother and health seeking behaviour of mothers. However occupation of the mothers for seeking treatment (p=0.66) and treatment seeking at first (p=0.82) were not significant. So there was no relationship between occupation of the mothers and health seeking behaviour. Majority of the mothers sought treatment from health facility, yet around one fourth went at traditional healers. Education of the mother, sex of the child, sickness of child and mother's awareness are the factors affecting health seeking behavior of the mothers.

  14. African horse sickness: a description of outbreaks in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Scacchia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available African horse sickness is a vector-transmitted viral disease that affects equidae. The authors report cases of disease that occurred in Namibia between 2006 and 2008. These were recorded by staff of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’ and the Central Veterinary Laboratory in Windhoek. All cases described were confirmed by laboratory testing. This study received the support of Namibian state and private veterinarians and horse breeders.

  15. Returning long-term Sick-Listed to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders

    The Danish policy towards work-disabled persons seems to comprise contradictory forces. On the one hand, the state seeks to enhance labour market integration of work-disabled persons through vocational rehabilitation. On the other hand, lax job protection legislation makes it easy for employers...... facilitates a flexible labour market, but an important drawback seems to be that many sick-listed employees loose their labour market attachment....

  16. The effect on length of sickness absence by recognition of undetected psychiatric disorder in long-term sickness absence. A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Hans Jørgen; Bech, Per

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The burden caused by psychiatric disorders on the individual and society has resulted in more studies examining interventions aimed at reducing sickness absence. AIMS: To examine if detection of undetected psychiatric disorders in long-term sickness absence (LSA) would improve the rate...... of return to work. METHODS: Over one year all 2,414 incident persons on LSA in a well-defined population were within one week after eight weeks of continuous sickness absence posted the Common Mental Disorders Screening Questionnaire (CMD-SQ) to screen for mental disorders. In a randomized controlled trial...... to work. RESULTS: The rate of return to work was non-significantly lower for the intervention group than for the control group, except for persons without a psychiatric sick-leave diagnosis who were sick-listed from full time work, who showed a significantly higher rate of return to work...

  17. TREATMENT FOR ACUTE PHARYNGITIS AND TONSILLOPHARYNGITIS AMONG SICKLY CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Samsygina

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the sickly children, pharyngitis and tonsillopharyngitis are quite often accompanied by pain and scratch in a throat, which is anguished for a child themselves and causes parents to worry. In the therapy for the indicated pathology, a certain place is held by a local antibiotic fusafungine. In the article, the author studies the effects of fusafungine on tonsillitis/tonsillopharyngitis and pharyngitis, running with pain in a throat, among the sickly children aged between 3 and 15. The research was carried on in 42 centers of different Russian regions and became a part of the multicentered research according to «Chibis» program. 2,609 children were examined, 1,907 of who Received fusafungine and 702 children did not. Among 78,1% of the children, the authors noted the phenomena of pharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis and acute tonsillopharyngitis. As the research showed the symptoms of rhinopharyngitis and tonsillopharync gitis were reliably arrested much faster, when applying fusafungine, thus, the clinical effects mostly emerged after 4th–5th day of the therapy. The acquired data allowed one to recommend the inclusion of fusafungine into the therapy for acute rhinopharyngitis, pharyngitis and tonsillopharyngitis among the sickly children.Key words: rhinopharyngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillopharyngitis, fusafungine, children, treatment.

  18. Absence from work and the medical sickness certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoni, F; Salesi, M; Sarra, M V; Ricci, S

    2013-03-01

    Internet and dematerialization have greatly facilitated the medical profession. Contractual physicians and national health service doctors now have efficient tools for the electronic management of their routine administrative workload. A recent innovation is the medical sickness certificate issued by primary care providers and national health service physicians. Following postponements and uncertainties, procedures for the electronic completion and online transmission of the sickness certificate are now complete. The changes introduced by the so-called "Brunetta decree", however, have made its application difficult and continuous improvement to the system is needed, considering also the severe penalties imposed for violations. In the light of serious legal repercussions for health care professionals, this article examines various critical issues, highlighting the pitfalls and the network's enormous potential for ascertaining evidence of irregularities. The overheated debate on absenteeism due to illness, the diverse roles of national health physicians and self-employed doctors responsible for issuing a sickness certificate, and problems related to circumstances in which a doctor operates, are the key topics in this discussion. Computerization is an effective tool for optimizing public resources; however, it also seeks to ferret out, through the traceability of certification, abuse of medical certification, with severe penalties applied if certificates are discovered to contain misleading or untrue information.

  19. SICK BUILDING SYNDROME CASES BEHIND THE UNKNOWN SYMPTOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz OZYARAL

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, several mycological analyses made in the houses of the sick people whose sensitivity against allergens was examined in line with the people and their histories who applied to Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty Department of Pulmonery Disease. Clinically, in the blood serums of three housewives, who have complaints about respiration difficulties, specific lgG antibody against several mold, thermophylic actinomycetes and bird antigens were examined. As a result of the analysis it is found out that there is a 75% direct relation between in-house molds flora and the molds that the sick person gained sensitivity. Findings appeared in housewives who are living in houses surrounded by molds are regarded as “sick building syndrome”. In this particular work, knowledge is given about real agents that are hidden behind some general symptoms of anemnesia and examination of patients with chronic complaints. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 352-363

  20. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  1. The significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M; Ogata, M; Miura, M

    1997-01-01

    In order to clarify the significance of motion sickness in the vestibular system, we compared the findings of experimental motion sickness between different kinds of subjects, some of which were already reported. Subjects were healthy adults, healthy children between the ages of 4 and 15 years, and patients with congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss. They were asked to walk while wearing horizontally and vertically reversing goggles. Equilibrium ataxia as well as motion sickness were evoked by horizontal reversal, but not by vertical reversal in healthy subjects. Kindergarten children exhibited severe ataxia, but little nausea. The frequency of severe ataxia decreased during growth, inversely as the frequency of nausea syndrome increased. Although a patient with acquired loss became severely ataxic, a patient with congenital loss did not show any ataxia at all. The present study suggests that vestibular cues are indispensable to the ego-spatial relationship in the brain, and once the ego-spatial relationship becomes inadequate, discomfort acts as a safety device to brake uncontrollable actions. Then, perception of the outer world may automatically adjust voluntary actions by affecting motor commands. The importance of visual cues for representing an alternative framework may differ between congenital and acquired labyrinthine loss.

  2. The sick role and the role of the physician reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T

    1975-01-01

    The main substance of this paper was presented orally at a meeting of the Sick Role, organized and chaired by Andrew Twaddle. It was a commentary on four papers and the oral discussion of them. In response to these the paper first discusses the relation of the sick role to deviant behavior and the motivation to become and remain ill. The position was taken that the author never had meant to confine the category of illness to deviant behavior, though its negative valuation should not be forgotten. Nor had he confined it to cases of acute illness, omitting consideration of chronic and other types. The most important issue, however, concerned the structure of the relation between physician and patient. Though insisting that interaction between them is two-way, not one-way, the author insisted that the relation is basically asymmetrical because of the physician's expertise in health matters, gained through training and experience, and his special fiduciary responsibility for the care of the sick. In this respect the relationship is different from others such as the competitive market or the democratic association, but is comparable to the relation of teacher and student in higher education.

  3. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition.

  4. HENDUAN MOUNTAINS A Dazzling World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Indian Continent drifted northward and eventually collideawith the Euro-Asian Continent,pushing up the piece of land weknow today as the Himalayas and Henduan Mountains.Located where Qinghai,Tibet,Yunnan and Sichuan all meet.Asia,including the Nujiang,Jinshajiang and Lancanjiang.In the mountains,rivers Wave a drop of about 2,500 meters.Late last year,we drove into the mountainous area,covering adistance of some 1,000 km.

  5. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  6. Key issues for mountain areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Martin F; Jansky, Libor; Iatsenia, Andrei A

    2004-01-01

    ... and livelihood opportunities . . . ... Safdar Parvez and Stephen F. Rasmussen 86 6 Mountain tourism and the conservation of biological and cultural diversity... Wendy Brewer Lama and Nikhat Sattar 11...

  7. A Breath of Mountain Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU LINTAO

    2011-01-01

    Mountains are everywhere,and rivers flow in almost every valley.This is the Qinling Mountains,a major eastto-west range in southern Shaanxi Province,bordering Hubei and Henan provinces.Because of its huge forest coverage,the Qinling Mountains are also known as one of the lungs of China.Expectations for travelling are changing in China as the lifestyle of city dwellers has become fast-paced and demanding.That provides the Qirding Mountain area a great opportunity to develop leisure tourism.

  8. Postural instability and motion sickness in a fixed-based flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, T A; Hettinger, L J; Haas, M W; Roe, M M; Smart, L J

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the prediction that postural instability would precede the subjective symptoms of motion sickness in a fixed-base flight simulator. Participants sat in a cockpit in a video projection dome and were exposed to optical flow that oscillated in the roll axis with exposure durations typical of flight simulation. The frequencies of oscillation were those that characterize spontaneous postural sway during stance. Head motion was measured prior to and during exposure to imposed optical flow. Of 14 participants, 6 were classified as motion sick, either during or after exposure to the optical oscillation. Prior to the onset of subjective symptoms, head motion among participants who later became sick was significantly greater than among participants who did not become motion sick. We argue that the results support the postural instability theory of motion sickness. Actual or potential applications include the prevention or mitigation of motion sickness in virtual environments.

  9. Does Perceived Stress Mediate the Association Between Workplace Bullying and Long-Term Sickness Absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grynderup, Matias Brdsgaard; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if perceived stress mediated the association between workplace bullying and subsequent long-term sickness absence. METHODS: The PRISME cohort was established in 2007 and re-examined in 2009. Questionnaire data about workplace bullying and perceived stress were obtained from...... 4114 individuals. Participants were followed in registers on long-term sickness absence (≥30 consecutive days of sickness absence). RESULTS: Workplace bullying was associated with subsequent sickness absence (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.57 to 2.65) and concurrent high...... perceived stress levels (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.86 to 2.96). A high perceived stress level was also associated with subsequent sickness absence (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13 to 1.56). Perceived stress explained 13% (95% CI: 6 to 23%) of the total association between bullying and sickness absence. CONCLUSIONS...

  10. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  11. "Christ is the Mountain"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hallencreutz

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author focuses on the religious function of symbols in the encounter and interaction of Christianity and other religions. Some observations on the religious function of the symbol of the Holy Mountain in different African contexts are presented. These contexts are a traditional Kikuyu religion, b a Christian hymn from Northern Tanzania, and c the New Year's Fiest of the independent Nazaretha Church among Zulu in South Africa. The examples of how the symbol of the holy mountain is used in different religious contexts in Africa are, of course, too limited to provide a basis for far-reaching generalizations on how symbols function religiously in the encounter of Christianity and other religions. However, this kind of analysis can be applied also when studying other encounters of religions inside and outside Africa. The symbol functions both as a carrier of a new religious message and as an indigenous means to appropriate this message locally and give it adequate form in different milieus. The symbols, which most likely have the religious functions are those which are of a general nature; light, way, living water, and which some are tempted to speak of as archetypes. Yet the comparison between the Chagga-hymn to the holy mountain and Shembe's interpretation of the blessing of the New Year's Fiest on Inhlangakozi indicates, that in the encounter of Christianity and other religions it is not only the symbols as such which produce the local appropriation of the new religious message and give it adequate localized form. Not even in the encounter of Christianity and other religions the symbols function religiously without human beings as actors in the historical process.

  12. Prevalence, Predictors, and Prevention of Motion Sickness in Zero-G Parabolic Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John F; Paillard, Aurore C; Normand, Hervé; Besnard, Stéphane; Denise, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Zero-G parabolic flight reproduces the weightlessness of space for short periods. However, motion sickness may affect some fliers. The aim was to assess the extent of this problem and to find possible predictors and modifying factors. Airbus zero-G flights consist of 31 parabolas performed in blocks. Each parabola consisted of 20 s of 0 g sandwiched by 20 s of hypergravity of 1.5-1.8 g. The survey covered N = 246 person-flights (193 men, 53 women), ages (M ± SD) 36.0 ± 11.3 yr. An anonymous questionnaire included motion sickness rating (1 = OK to 6 = vomiting), Motion Sickness Susceptibility Questionnaire (MSSQ), antimotion sickness medication, prior zero-G experience, anxiety level, and other characteristics. Participants had lower MSSQ percentile scores (27.4 ± 28.0) than the population norm of 50. Motion sickness was experienced by 33% and 12% vomited. Less motion sickness was predicted by older age, greater prior zero-G flight experience, medication with scopolamine, lower MSSQ scores, but not gender or anxiety. Sickness ratings in fliers pretreated with scopolamine (1.81 ± 1.58) were lower than for nonmedicated fliers (2.93 ± 2.16), and incidence of vomiting in fliers using scopolamine treatment was reduced by half to a third. Possible confounding factors including age, sex, flight experience, and MSSQ could not account for this. Motion sickness affected one-third of zero-G fliers despite being intrinsically less motion sickness susceptible compared to the general population. Susceptible individuals probably try to avoid such a provocative environment. Risk factors for motion sickness included younger age and higher MSSQ scores. Protective factors included prior zero-G flight experience (habituation) and antimotion sickness medication.Golding JF, Paillard AC, Normand H, Besnard S, Denise P. Prevalence, predictors, and prevention of motion sickness in zero-G parabolic flights. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):3-9.

  13. MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA DEMONESTRATING SICK SINUS SYNDROME AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    S K Forouzannia; M h Abdollahi; Mirhosseini, S. J.; S H Moshtaghion; HOSSEINI, H; Jorat, M. V.; M Moeeni; M A Karimi-Zarchi

    2008-01-01

    "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma ...

  14. Does computer use pose a hazard for future long-term sickness absence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johan Hviid; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    . The hazard ratio for sickness absence with weekly increase of one hour in computer use was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.99 to 1.00). Low satisfaction with work place arrangements and female gender both doubled the risk of sickness absence.We have earlier found that computer use did not predict persistent pain in the neck...... and upper limb, and it seems that computer use neither predicts future long-term sickness absence of all causes....

  15. A pilot study of rizatriptan and visually-induced motion sickness in migraineurs

    OpenAIRE

    Furman, Joseph M.; Marcus, Dawn A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Limited evidence suggests that rizatriptan given before vestibular stimulation reduces motion sickness in persons with migraine-related dizziness. The present study was designed to test whether rizatriptan is also effective in protecting against visually-induced motion sickness and to test whether rizatriptan blocks the augmentation of motion sickness by head pain. Material and Methods: Using randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology, 10 females, 6 with migrainous ve...

  16. Sick sinus syndrome associated with hypopituitarism: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; Zhang, Qing; Lu, Jingping; Zhang, Gang; Lu, Huihe; Huang, Jianfei; Shan, Qijun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Though an association between autoimmune diseases and sick sinus syndrome has been reported, there has been no report on the association of hypopituitarism and sick sinus syndrome. Herein, we provide the first case report of hypopituitarism accompanying sick sinus syndrome in a 51-year-old woman presented to our hospital with syncope due to cardiac arrest. The patient was successfully managed by pacemaker installation and hormone replacement therapy. PMID:25332716

  17. TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF AIRBORNE PESTICIDES IN THE HABITATE OF THE MOUNTAIN YELLOW-LEGGED FROG IN THE SOUTHERN SIERRA NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne agricultural pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a possible cause for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in remote mountain locations. To determine the temporal variation of pesticide levels in the habit...

  18. Human impacts to mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  19. Work reintegration after long-term sick leave: domains of influence on co-workers' ability to be supportive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Labriola, Merete; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Larsen, Eva Ladekjær

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to identify domains of influence on co-workers' ability to be supportive of returning worker during the work reintegration (WR) process. An ethnographic study design was chosen involving fieldwork at four different workplaces, at an emergency care service, a waste disposal company and at two nursing homes. Qualitative methods for inquiry were used including participant observation, individual- and group interviews of 30 participants. Data were coded and analysed according to a grounded theory approach. Four themes were identified related to domains of influence on co-workers' ability to be supportive of returning worker during the WR process: (1) organisation of work and level of interaction; (2) disruption of work routines, (3) relationship with returning worker and (4) attitudes towards sick leave. The WR process after long-term sick leave is not only influenced by the WR's arrangements made, but also by the co-workers' responses to the process. Work arrangements not only affect the returning worker's ability to return-to-work (RTW) successfully, but also the co-workers' ability to be supportive and their ability to take active part in the process. Implications for Rehabilitation The process of WR after long-term sick leave involves interaction with co-workers. Domains of influence is in the co-workers' perspective influencing their ability to be supportive during reintegration of a returning worker. Future WR management could benefit from integrating the conditions for co-worker support. We encourage co-workers to be involved in the RTW planning, monitoring and evaluation with particular focus on how the WR arrangements are influencing their work and their ability to be supportive.

  20. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Barratt

    Full Text Available Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468 receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory < 4, cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 23, sickness response and opioid adverse event complaint. Serum fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111 than wild-type patients (69/325, with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76 when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score. This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients.

  1. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute;

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs.......Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  2. Standing body sway in women with and without morning sickness in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Chung, Hyun Chae; Hemingway, Lauren; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Morning sickness typically is attributed to hormonal changes in pregnancy. We asked whether morning sickness is associated with changes in standing postural equilibrium, as occurs in research on visually induced motion sickness. Twenty-one pregnant women (mean age=30 years, mean height=163cm; mean weight=63kg) were tested during the first trimester. Laboratory-based balance measures were collected, along with perceived postural stability, the presence of morning sickness, and the severity of subjective symptoms. We varied the distance between the feet and the visual task performed during stance. Participants were classified as either experiencing (Sick, n=12) or not experiencing (Well, n=9) morning sickness. Perceived balance stability was lower for Sick than for Well women. The positional variability of sway was reduced for the Sick group, relative to the Well group. Positional variability decreased with wider stance width, and was reduced during performance of a more demanding visual task. Stance width and visual task also influenced the temporal dynamics of sway. Effects of stance width and visual task on postural sway were similar to effects in non-pregnant adults, suggesting that sensitive tuning of posture is maintained during the first trimester. The findings suggest that women with morning sickness may attempt to stabilize their bodies by reducing overall body sway. It may be useful to recommend that women adopt wider stance early in pregnancy.

  3. Does evening work predict sickness absence among female carers of the elderly?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to predict the risk ratio of sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks due to shift work among Danish workers caring for the elderly during the evening and at night. METHODS: A sample of Danish carers of the elderly were interviewed in 2005. The response...... rate was 78%. A cohort of 5627 shift and day workers was followed for sickness absence lasting > or = 2 weeks and for sickness absence lasting > or = 8 weeks in a sickness compensation register covering all social transfer payments in Denmark. RESULTS: Among the evening workers, the rate ratio (RR...

  4. Experiences of sickness absence, marginality and Medically Unexplained Physical Symptoms - A focus group study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.L., Werner; A, Aamland; Malterud, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    with a purposive sample of 12 participants, six men and six women, aged 24-59 years. Their average duration of sickness absence was 10.5 months. Participants were invited to share stories about experiences from the process leading to the ongoing sickness absence, with a focus on the causes being medically......PURPOSE: Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) form a major cause of sickness absence. The purpose of this study was to explore factors which may influence further marginalization among patients with MUPS on long-term sickness absence. METHODS: Two focus-group discussions were conducted...

  5. MALIGNANT LYMPHOMA DEMONESTRATING SICK SINUS SYNDROME AND SUPERIOR VENA CAVA SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Forouzannia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nReports which describe sick sinus syndrome due to malignant lymphoma have been rare and only eight cases have been reported until now. This is a case of sick sinus syndrome and superior vena cava syndrome secondary to invasion of occult malignant lymphoma of the lung in a 60 years old male. There were no symptoms or signs of malignancy before the first presentation with sick sinus syndrome. Patient was treated with implantation of a permanent pacemaker. SA node involvement by lymphoma should be considered as an etiological factor when sick sinus syndrome of unknown cause is encountered.

  6. Employers' Importance for the Return to Work of Sick-Listed Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Sociologisk Institut, Københavns Universitet, Anders; V Benn, Nis; Høgelund, Jan

    Using matched survey-register panel data about 419 long-term sick-listed workers and their sick leave employer, this paper assesses how sick-listed workers react to employers’ threat of dismissal. We simultaneously estimate the duration until the sick-listed worker either separate from the pre-si...... for Applied Microeconomics, University of Copenhagen, senior researcher, Jan Høgelund, the Danish National Institute of Social Research, and research assistant Nis Vilhelm Benn, the Danish National Institute of Social Research....

  7. mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground [gbrod]: 2 CDS's (760... of codon usage for each CDS (format) Homepage mitochondrion Spermophilus musicus (Caucasian mountain ground ...

  8. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  9. Protected areas in mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  11. On diver thermal status and susceptibility to decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Wayne A

    2015-09-01

    In a recent Letter to the Editor, Clarke, et al, indicated that divers who deliberately chill themselves on a dive to reduce risk of decompression sickness (DCS) may be misinterpreting our 2007 Navy Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) report. Indeed, we did not advocate that divers should risk hypothermia on bottom to reduce risk of DCS, nor do we dispute the authors' overall admonition to avoid diving cold unnecessarily. However, Clarke, et al, imply more generally that results of our study are not applicable to recreational or technical divers because the dives we tested were atypical of dives undertaken by such divers. We wish to clarify that our study does have implications for recreational and technical divers, implications that should not be ignored. The dives we tested were not intended to be typical of dives undertaken in any actual operational context. Instead, we chose to expose divers to temperatures at the extremes of their thermal tolerance in order to ensure that effects of diver thermal status on DCS susceptibility would be found if such effects existed. Our initial test dive profile provided appreciable time both on bottom and during decompression to allow any differential thermal effects during these two dive phases to manifest, while affording a baseline risk of DCS that could be altered by thermal effects without exposing subjects to inordinately high risks of DCS. Our results strongly indicate that the optimal diver thermal conditions for mitigation of DCS risk or minimization of decompression time entail remaining cool during gas uptake phases of a dive and warm during off-gassing phases. While the dose-response characteristics of our observed thermal effects are almost certainly non-linear in both exposure temperature and duration, it is only reasonable to presume that the effects vary monotonically with these factors. We have no reason to presume that such responses and effects under less extreme conditions would be in directions opposite to

  12. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N

    2013-03-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  13. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  14. Stable isotope and noble gas constraints on the source and residence time of spring water from the Table Mountain Group Aquifer, Paarl, South Africa and implications for large scale abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Dunford, A. J.; Swana, K. A.; Palcsu, L.; Butler, M.; Clarke, C. E.

    2017-08-01

    Large scale groundwater abstraction is increasingly being used to support large urban centres especially in areas of low rainfall but presents particular challenges in the management and sustainability of the groundwater system. The Table Mountain Group (TMG) Aquifer is one of the largest and most important aquifer systems in South Africa and is currently being considered as an alternative source of potable water for the City of Cape Town, a metropolis of over four million people. The TMG aquifer is a fractured rock aquifer hosted primarily in super mature sandstones, quartzites and quartz arenites. The groundwater naturally emanates from numerous springs throughout the cape region. One set of springs were examined to assess the source and residence time of the spring water. Oxygen and hydrogen isotopes indicate that the spring water has not been subject to evaporation and in combination with Na/Cl ratios implies that recharge to the spring systems is via coastal precipitation. Although rainfall in the Cape is usually modelled on orographic rainfall, δ18O and δ2H values of some rainfall samples are strongly positive indicating a stratiform component as well. Comparing the spring water δ18O and δ2H values with that of local rainfall, indicates that the springs are likely derived from continuous bulk recharge over the immediate hinterland to the springs and not through large and/or heavy downpours. Noble gas concentrations, combined with tritium and radiocarbon activities indicate that the residence time of the TMG groundwater in this area is decadal in age with a probable maximum upper limit of ∼40 years. This residence time is probably a reflection of the slow flow rate through the fractured rock aquifer and hence indicates that the interconnectedness of the fractures is the most important factor controlling groundwater flow. The short residence time of the groundwater suggest that recharge to the springs and the Table Mountain Group Aquifer as a whole is

  15. Explaining occupational class differences in sickness absence: results from middle-aged municipal employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Rahkonen, O; Martikainen, P; Lahelma, E

    2010-09-01

    Low socioeconomic position is consistently associated with higher rates of sickness absence. We aimed to examine whether working conditions, health-related behaviours and family-related factors explain occupational class differences in medically certified sickness absence. The study included 5470 women and 1464 men employees of the City of Helsinki, surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were prospectively linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression was used to examine the occurrence of medically certified sickness absence episodes lasting 4 days or more. Medically certified sickness absence was roughly three times more common among manual workers than among managers and professionals in both women and men. Physical working conditions were the strongest explanatory factors for occupational class differences in sickness absence, followed by smoking and relative weight. Work arrangements and family-related factors had very small effects only. The effects of psychosocial working conditions were heterogeneous: job control narrowed occupational class differences in sickness absence while mental strain and job demands tended to widened them. Overall, the findings were quite similar in women and men. Physical working conditions provided strongest explanations for occupational class differences in sickness absence. Smoking and relative weight, which are well-known determinants of health, also explained part of the excess sickness absence in lower occupational classes. Applying tailored work arrangements to employees on sick leave, reducing physically heavy working conditions and promoting healthy behaviours provide potential routes to narrow occupational class differences in sickness absence.

  16. Factors associated with work-related accidents and sickness among maquiladora workers: the case of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Denman, C; Lara, F

    1995-01-01

    The health problems of maquiladora workers were explored in a sample of 497 workers of Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. The workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire containing four sections: a sociodemographic profile, occupational history, working conditions, and a health profile. Overall, 12.6 percent of the workers reported having an accident while working in the maquila, more than 40 percent of these requiring at least one day of disability, and 18.3 percent of workers reported having an episode of sickness/disease. More than 60 percent perceived health-related risks associated with working conditions. The presence of a doctor or nurse in the plant (odds ratio = 0.30), a perception of risk associated with working conditions (odds ratio = 1.85), and the plant offering information about work-related risks (odds ratio = 0.39) were among the significant predictors of work-related accidents and disease/sickness. The authors discuss the implications of these results for programs and policies to improve safety conditions in the maquiladora industry.

  17. Motion sickness susceptibility related to ACTH, ADH and TSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.; Leach, C.; Homick, J. L.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    The hypothesis that endogenous levels of certain hormones might be indicative of an individual's susceptibility to stressful motion is tested in a comparison of subjects classified as less prone to motion sickness with those of higher susceptibility. The levels of ACTH and vasopressin measured before exposure to stressful motion were twice as high in the less-suceptible group. No significant differences were noted in the levels of angiotensin, aldosterone, or TSH. The differences between the two groups were greater for a given hormone than for any of the changes induced by exposure to stressful motion.

  18. From sick role to narrative subject: An analytic memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    Questions of illness experience and identity are discussed, based on the analysis of a story told by the breast-cancer activist Audre Lorde. Displacing Parsons' conceptualization of illness as a sick role, I understand the ill person as a narrative subject, defined by discursive possibilities. Three discourses of illness are proposed: the medical institutional discourse, the discourse of illness experience, and the pink-ribbon discourse. Each has its preferred narratives. These discourses overlap and mutually affect each other. Problems with the Foucauldian conceptualization of the subject are considered, and a dialogical imagination of relations of governmentality is proposed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  20. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.