Sample records for mountain range central

  1. Effect of Aspect on Climate Variation in Mountain Ranges of Shen-nongjia Massif, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi


    The aim of this study was to better understand the mechanisms of regional climate variation in mountain ranges with con-trasting aspects as mediated by changes in global climate. It may help predict trends of vegetation variations in native ecosystems in natural reserves. As measures of climate response, temperature and precipitation data from the north, east, and south-facing mountain ranges of Shennongjia Massif in the coldest and hottest months (January and July), different seasons (spring, summer, autumn, and win-ter) and each year were analyzed from a long-term dataset (1960 to 2003) to tested variations characteristics, temporal and spatial quan-titative relationships of climates. The results showed that the average seasonal temperatures and precipitation in the north, east, and south aspects of the mountain ranges changed at different rates. The average seasonal temperatures change rate ranges in the north, east, and south-facing mountain ranges were from –0.0210℃ /yr to 0.0143℃ /yr,–0.0166℃ /yr to 0.0311℃ /yr, and –0.0290℃ /yr to 0.0084℃ /yr, respectively,and seasonal precipitation variation magnitude were from –1.4940 mm/yr to 0.6217 mm/yr, –1.6833 mm/yr to 2.6182 mm/yr, and –0.8567 mm/yr to 1.4077 mm/yr, respectively. The climates variation trend among the three mountain ranges were different in magnitude and direction, showing a complicated change of the climates in mountain ranges and some inconsistency with general trends in global climate change. The climate variations were significantly different and positively correlated cross mountain ranges, revealing that aspects significantly affected on climate variations and these variations resulted from a larger air circulation sys-tem, which were sensitive to global climate change. We conclude that location and terrain of aspect are the main factors affecting dif-ferences in climate variation among the mountain ranges with contrasting aspects.

  2. Neogene paleoelevation of intermontane basins in a narrow, compressional mountain range, southern Central Andes of Argentina (United States)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Giambiagi, Laura B.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Mahoney, J. Brian; Strecker, Manfred R.


    The topographic growth of mountain ranges at convergent margins results from the complex interaction between the motion of lithospheric plates, crustal shortening, rock uplift and exhumation. Constraints on the timing and magnitude of elevation change gleaned from isotopic archives preserved in sedimentary sequences provide insight into how these processes interact over different timescales to create topography and potentially decipher the impact of topography on atmospheric circulation and superposed exhumation. This study uses stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different stratigraphic sections spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range today, to examine the middle to late Miocene history of elevation change in the central Andes thrust belt, which is located immediately to the south of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau, the world's second largest orogenic plateau. Paleoelevations are calculated using previously published local isotope-elevation gradients observed in modern rainfall and carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Calculated Neogene basin paleoelevations are between 1 km and 1.9 km for basins that today are located between 1500 and 3400 m elevation. Considering the modern elevation and δ18O values of precipitation at the sampling sites, three of the intermontane basins experienced surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. The timing of elevation change cannot be linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening. Paradoxically, the maximum inferred surface uplift in the core of the range is greatest where the crust is thinnest. The spatial pattern of surface uplift is best explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  3. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid


    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  4. Statistical tables and charts showing geochemical variation in the Mesoproterozoic Big Creek, Apple Creek, and Gunsight formations, Lemhi group, Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Taggart, Joseph E.


    The principal purpose of this report is to provide a reference archive for results of a statistical analysis of geochemical data for metasedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic age of the Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho. Descriptions of geochemical data sets, statistical methods, rationale for interpretations, and references to the literature are provided. Three methods of analysis are used: R-mode factor analysis of major oxide and trace element data for identifying petrochemical processes, analysis of variance for effects of rock type and stratigraphic position on chemical composition, and major-oxide ratio plots for comparison with the chemical composition of common clastic sedimentary rocks.

  5. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections through and These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses' ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain

  6. Long-range atmospheric transport of volatile monocarboxylic acids with Asian dust over a high mountain snow site, central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mochizuki


    Full Text Available To understand the long-range transport of monocarboxylic acids from the Asian continent to the Japanese islands, we collected snowpack samples from a pit sequence (depth ca. 6 m at the Murodo-Daira snowfield near the summit of Mt. Tateyama, central Japan, in 2009 and 2011. Snow samples (n = 16 were analyzed for normal (C1–C10, branched chain (iC4–iC6, aromatic (benzoic and toluic acid isomers, and hydroxyl (glycolic and lactic monocarboxylic acids, together with inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Acetic acid (C2 was found to be a dominant species (average 125 ng g−1, followed by formic acid (C1 (85.7 ng g−1 and isopentanoic acid (iC5 (20.0 ng g−1. We found a strong correlation (r =  0.88 between formic plus acetic acids and non-sea-salt Ca2+ that is a proxy of Asian dust. Contributions of total monocarboxylic acids to DOC in 2009 (21.2 ± 11.6 % were higher than that in 2011 (3.75 ± 2.62 %, being consistent with higher intensity of Asian dust in 2009 than in 2011. Formic plus acetic acids also showed a positive correlation (r =  0.90 with benzoic acid that is a tracer of automobile exhaust, indicating that monocarboxylic acids and their precursors are largely emitted from anthropogenic sources in China and/or secondarily produced in the atmosphere by photochemical processing. In addition, the ratio of formic plus acetic acids to nss–Ca2+ (0.27 was significantly higher than those (0.00036–0.0018 obtained for reference dust materials of Chinese loess deposits from the Tengger and Gobi deserts. This result suggests that volatile and semi-volatile organic acids are adsorbed on the alkaline dust particles during long-range atmospheric transport. Entrainment of organic acids by dusts is supported by a good correlation (r = 0.87 between formic plus acetic acids and pH of melt snow samples. Our study suggests that Asian alkaline dusts may be a carrier of volatile monocarboxylic

  7. Silvicultural systems and cutting methods for ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range of the central Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander


    Guidelines are provided to help forest managers and silviculturists develop even- and/or uneven-aged cutting practices needed to convert old-growth and mixed ponderosa pine forests in the Front Range into managed stands for a variety of resource needs. Guidelines consider stand conditions, and insect and disease susceptibility. Cutting practices are designed to...

  8. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek


    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  9. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama


    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  10. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan (United States)


    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  11. Environmental geochemistry at Red Mountain, an unmined volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit in the Bonnifield district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska (United States)

    Eppinger, R.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Dusel-Bacon, C.; Giles, S.A.; Gough, L.P.; Hammarstrom, J.M.; Hubbard, B.E.


    The unmined, pyrite-rich Red Mountain (Dry Creek) deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal and exceedingly high rate earth element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. The volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. Oxidative dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist. Water samples with the lowest pH (many below 3.5), highest specific conductance (commonly >2500 ??S/cm) and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, Zn and, particularly, the REEs are found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH, lower specific conductance (370 to 830 ??S/cm), lower metal concentrations and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not, and probably never have, supported significant aquatic life. ?? 2007 AAG/ Geological Society of London.

  12. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.


    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  13. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.


    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  14. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range (United States)

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.


    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  15. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.


    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  16. Mountain building in the central Andes (United States)

    Kono, Masaru; Fukao, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Akihiko


    The Central Andes is the middle part of the Andean chain between about 13°S and 27°S, characterized by the parallel running high mountain chains (the Western and Eastern Cordilleras) at the edges of high plateaus with a height of about 4000 m and a width of 200 to 450 km (the Altiplano-Puna). From the examination of geophysical and geological data in this area, including earthquakes, deformation, gravity anomaly, volcanism, uplift history, and plate motion, we conclude that the continued plate subduction with domination of compressive stress over the entire arc system is the main cause of the tectonic style of the Central Andes. We propose that the present cycle of mountain building has continued in the Cenozoic with the most active phase since the Miocene, and that the present subduction angle (30°) is not typical in that period but that subduction with more shallowly dipping oceanic lithosphere has prevailed at least since the Miocene, because of the young and buoyant slab involved. This situation is responsible for the production of a broad zone of partial melt in the mantle above the descending slab. Addition of volcanic materials was not restricted to the western edge (where active volcanoes of the Western Cordillera exist) but extended to the western and central portion of the Altiplano-Puna. The western half of the Central Andes is essentially isostatic because the heat transferred with the volcanic activities softened the crust there. In the eastern edge, the thermal effect is small, and the crust is strongly pushed by the westward moving South American plate. This caused the shortening of crustal blocks due to reverse faulting and folding in the Eastern Cordillera and Amazonian foreland. The magmatism and crustal accretion are dominant at the western end of the mountain system and decrease eastward, while the compression and consequent crustal shortening are strongest at the eastern end and wane toward west. These two processes are superposed between

  17. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimjan Tayjanov


    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  18. Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.


    The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

  19. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland (United States)

    Slattery, Deirdre


    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  20. Instrumentation for on-line mountain range displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Asselt, W.K.; Ahrens, L.A.


    A method to obtain and process 'mountain range' displays of beam signals is described. A custom-made trigger generator and a digital oscilloscope are used for the data acquisition and the graphical interface package LabVIEW is used to process the data. High resolution displays of wall monitor signals updating every AGS cycle have proven very powerful as a beam diagnostic

  1. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days ... various road management activities and for better .... −0.8. 1.5. 0.0. Pir Panjal range (HP). 1989–90 to 2002–03. 14. Snow day. 2.2. −4.1 ..... ed days,. S. = snow day,. N. S. = no-snow day and. P. C. = per cent correct).

  2. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India (United States)


    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  3. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suandhi


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  4. New approach to resolve the amount of Quaternary uplift and associated denudation of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Sueoka


    Full Text Available Low-temperature thermochronology is a widely used tool for revealing denudation histories of mountain ranges. Although this technique has been applied mainly to continental orogens, such as the European Alps, Himalayas, and Andes, recent technological development of low-temperature thermochronology has made it applicable to a wider variety of mountain ranges with various sizes and tectonic histories. The Japanese Islands comprise young and active island arcs, where an early stage of mountain range formation is observed. Numerous attempts have been made to constrain the uplift and denudation histories of the mountains in the Japanese Islands using geologic, geomorphologic, or geodetic methods. However, the number of thermochronometric attempts has been limited primarily due to the small amount of total denudation since the initiation of the uplift. In this review paper, we introduce the tectonic and geomorphic settings of the mountain ranges in the Japanese Islands, and discuss previous attempts to estimate uplift or denudation of the Japanese mountains using methods other than thermochronology. Furthermore, we discuss problems of the thermochronometric applications in revealing denudation histories of the Japanese mountains. Finally, we present a case study of the Kiso Range in central Japan and discuss the current effectiveness and applicability of low-temperature thermochronology to the Japanese mountainous areas.

  5. Global patterns of protection of elevational gradients in mountain ranges. (United States)

    Elsen, Paul R; Monahan, William B; Merenlender, Adina M


    Protected areas (PAs) that span elevational gradients enhance protection for taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. We quantified the global protection of elevational gradients by analyzing the elevational distributions of 44,155 PAs in 1,010 mountain ranges using the highest resolution digital elevation models available. We show that, on average, mountain ranges in Africa and Asia have the lowest elevational protection, ranges in Europe and South America have intermediate elevational protection, and ranges in North America and Oceania have the highest elevational protection. We use the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11 to assess the proportion of elevational gradients meeting the 17% suggested minimum target and examine how different protection categories contribute to elevational protection. When considering only strict PAs [International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories I-IV, n = 24,706], nearly 40% of ranges do not contain any PAs, roughly half fail to meet the 17% target at any elevation, and ∼75% fail to meet the target throughout ≥50% of the elevational gradient. Observed elevational protection is well below optimal, and frequently below a null model of elevational protection. Including less stringent PAs (IUCN categories V-VI and nondesignated PAs, n = 19,449) significantly enhances elevational protection for most continents, but several highly biodiverse ranges require new or expanded PAs to increase elevational protection. Ensuring conservation outcomes for PAs with lower IUCN designations as well as strategically placing PAs to better represent and connect elevational gradients will enhance ecological representation and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Estimating evapotranspiration in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico


    Ballinas, Mónica; Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Barradas, Víctor L


    The global, regional and local hydrological cycle is strongly linked to vegetation distribution. The hydrological cycle is composed by precipitation, infiltration, runoff, transpiration and evaporation. Evaporation is influenced by high temperatures, high winds and low relative humidity. This work is focused on the study of evapotranspiration (ET) as the main variable of water loss in the water balance in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico. ET was estimated using the Penman-Monte...

  7. Skeletal and dental pathology of free-ranging mountain gorillas. (United States)

    Lovell, N C


    The mountain gorillas of the central Virungas have been the subject of field study for the last 30 years; however, our understanding of morbidity and mortality in these apes is limited. This paper describes pathological conditions of the skeleton and dentition of these animals and evaluates lesions in relation to behavioral and environmental data. The skeletal remains of 31 mountain gorillas from the Karisoke Research Center were examined for enamel wear, carious lesions, abscesses, periodontal disease, antemortem tooth loss, trauma, inflammation, arthritis, neoplasia, and developmental anomalies. Two infants, three juveniles, 13 adult males, and 13 adult females form the sample. Enamel wear in the permanent posterior dentition is moderate. Six periapical abscesses were seen; three are associated with antemortem tooth breakage. No carious lesions were observed. Pronounced calculus buildup and alveolar resorption are the most notable pathological conditions of the dentition and affect all adult animals. The primary affliction of the skeleton is arthritis, which affects 14 animals. Vertebral degenerative disease predominates, but there is also temporomandibular joint involvement. Fractures occur at seven locations in the postcranium. In addition, there are five cranial injuries, including a fractured sagittal crest, and a penetrating wound to the vault, which is believed to result from a bite. Also thought to result from a bite is a case of cranial osteomyelitis. The only other inflammatory responses are two cases of idiopathic periostitis and one idiopathic lytic lesion. Button osteomas affect two animals and are the only neoplastic conditions observed. Two animals are afflicted by developmental abnormalities: one animal by idiopathic vertebral fusion and the other by spinal scoliosis.

  8. Mountains (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson


    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  9. Erosion of an ancient mountain range, the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.


    Analysis of 10Be and 26Al in bedrock (n=10), colluvium (n=5 including grain size splits), and alluvial sediments (n=59 including grain size splits), coupled with field observations and GIS analysis, suggest that erosion rates in the Great Smoky Mountains are controlled by subsurface bedrock erosion and diffusive slope processes. The results indicate rapid alluvial transport, minimal alluvial storage, and suggest that most of the cosmogenic nuclide inventory in sediments is accumulated while they are eroding from bedrock and traveling down hill slopes. Spatially homogeneous erosion rates of 25 - 30 mm Ky-1 are calculated throughout the Great Smoky Mountains using measured concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz separated from alluvial sediment. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in sediments collected from headwater tributaries that have no upstream samples (n=18) are consistent with an average erosion rate of 28 ?? 8 mm Ky-1, similar to that of the outlet rivers (n=16, 24 ?? 6 mm Ky-1), which carry most of the sediment out of the mountain range. Grain-size-specific analysis of 6 alluvial sediment samples shows higher nuclide concentrations in smaller grain sizes than in larger ones. The difference in concentrations arises from the large elevation distribution of the source of the smaller grains compared with the narrow and relatively low source elevation of the large grains. Large sandstone clasts disaggregate into sand-size grains rapidly during weathering and downslope transport; thus, only clasts from the lower parts of slopes reach the streams. 26Al/10Be ratios do not suggest significant burial periods for our samples. However, alluvial samples have lower 26Al/10Be ratios than bedrock and colluvial samples, a trend consistent with a longer integrated cosmic ray exposure history that includes periods of burial during down-slope transport. The results confirm some of the basic ideas embedded in Davis' geographic cycle model, such as the reduction of relief

  10. Precambrian crustal history of the Nimrod Group, central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodge, J.W.; Fanning, C.M.


    High-grade metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Nimrod Group represent crystalline basement to the central Transantarctic Mountains. Despite metamorphism and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny, they preserve a deep record of Precambrian geologic history in this sector of the East Antarctic shield. A review of available U-Pb geochronometric data reveals multiple geologic events spanning 2.5 b.y. of Archean to Early Paleozoic time, including: (1) juvenile Archean crust production by magmatism between 3150 and 3000 Ma; (2) crustal stabilisation and metamorphism between 2955 and 2900 Ma; (3) ultra-metamorphism or anatexis at c. 2500 Ma; (4) deep-crustal metamorphism and magmatism between 1720 and 1730 Ma, redefining the Nimrod Orogeny; (5) post-1700 Ma sedimentation; and (6) basement reactivation involving high-grade metamorphism, magmatism, and penetrative deformation during the Ross Orogeny between 540 and 515 Ma. A strong regional metamorphic and deformational Ross overprint, dated by U-Pb and Ar thermochronology, had pronounced thermomechanical effects on the basement assemblage, yet rocks of the Nimrod Group retain robust evidence of their Precambrian ancestry. The zircon U-Pb record therefore demonstrates that primary crustal lithosphere of the East Antarctic shield extends to the central Transantarctic Mountains, and that it has undergone multiple episodes of reactivation culminating in the Ross Orogeny. (author). 48 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  11. Growth and erosion of mountain ranges at the northeastern margin of Tibet (United States)

    Hetzel, Ralf; Palumbo, Luigi; Giese, Jörg; Guo, Jianming


    fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet. Terra Nova 16, 157-162. [2] Hetzel et al. (2002). Low slip rates and long-term preservation of geomorphic features in Central Asia. Nature 417, 428-432. [3] Hetzel et al. (2004). Late Pleistocene/Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, Tectonics 23, TC6006, doi:10.1029/2004TC001653. [4] Goethals et al. (2009). Determining the impact of faulting on the rate of erosion in a low-relief landscape: A case study using in situ produced 21Ne on active normal faults in the Bishop Tuff, California. Geomorphology 103, 401-413. [5] Palumbo et al. (2009). Deciphering the rate of mountain growth during topographic presteady state: an example from the NE margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics 28, TC4017, doi:10.1029/2009TC002455. [6] Palumbo et al. (in press). Topographic and lithologic control on catchment-wide denudation rates derived from cosmogenic 10Be in two mountain ranges at the margin of NE Tibet. Geomorphology, doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.11.019. [7] Meyer et al. (in press). Determining the growth rate of topographic relief using in situ-produced 10Be: A case study in the Black Forest, Germany. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. [8] Densmore et al. (2009). Spatial variations in catchment-averaged denudation rates from normal fault footwalls. Geology 37, 1139-1142.

  12. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in central Asian mountains. (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Wen, Zhi-Bin; Fritsch, Peter W; Sanderson, Stewart C


    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried out in order to confirm its taxonomic status and reconstruct its evolutionary history. We employed BEAST Bayesian inference for dating, and S-DIVA and BBM for ancestral area reconstruction, to study its spatiotemporal evolution. Our results show that Calophacais monophyletic and nested within Caragana. The divergence time of Calophaca is estimated at ca. 8.0 Ma, most likely driven by global cooling and aridification, influenced by rapid uplift of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau margins. According to ancestral area reconstructions, the genus most likely originated in the Pamir Mountains, a global biodiversity hotspot and hypothesized Tertiary refugium of many Central Asian plant lineages. Dispersals from this location are inferred to the western Tianshan Mountains, then northward to the Tarbagatai Range, eastward to East Asia, and westward to the Caucasus, Russia, and Europe. The spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca provides a case contributing to an understanding of the flora and biodiversity of the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions.

  13. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  14. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti


    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  15. A mass-wasting dominated Quaternary mountain range, the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Hogg, Alan; Song, Sheng-Rong; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen


    Fluvial bedrock incision, which creates topographic relief and controls hillslope development, has been considered the key medium linking denudation and tectonic uplift of unglaciated mountains. This article, however, shows a different scenario from the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. This range, with the steepness inherited from pre-orogenic volcanoes, has been subject to mass wasting even before its emergence above sea level no earlier than Middle Pleistocene. Numerous terraced alluvial fans/fan deltas record the ancient mass movements of the range, including rock avalanches. Multiple radiocarbon dates sequences not clearly related to the known climate-change events, and are believed to have been triggered mainly by severe rainfall events, large earthquakes, or their combinations. The resulting fluctuation of sediment yield has episodically changed river behavior, forming river terraces in catchments >1 km2. Alluvial terraces are typically exhibited close to the source ridges of mass movements, and strath terraces along the downstream parts of rivers. Both were created when enormous sediment supply had exceeded or matched the prevailing river transport capacity. This process, along with the protection by giant boulders from mass movement, disturbed the long-term incision trend of rivers in response to tectonic uplift. As a result, the observed Holocene bedrock incision at most sites has not kept pace with the tectonic uplift. The spatial contrast in mass-wasting histories further accounts for the great diversity of the terrace sequences, even in areas with similar tectonic and base-level conditions.

  16. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva


    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  17. Winter Precipitation Efficiency of Mountain Ranges in the Colorado Rockies Under Climate Change (United States)

    Eidhammer, Trude; Grubišić, Vanda; Rasmussen, Roy; Ikdea, Kyoko


    Orographic precipitation depends on the environmental conditions and the barrier shape. In this study we examine the sensitivity of the precipitation efficiency (i.e., drying ratio (DR)), defined as the ratio of precipitation to incoming water flux, to mountain shape, temperature, stability, and horizontal velocity of the incoming air mass. Furthermore, we explore how the DR of Colorado mountain ranges might change under warmer and moister conditions in the future. For given environmental conditions, we find the DR to be primarily dependent on the upwind slope for mountain ranges wider than about 70 km and on both the slope and width for narrower ranges. Temperature is found to exert an influence on the DR for all Colorado mountain ranges, with DR decreasing with increasing temperature, under both the current and future climate conditions. The decrease of DR with temperature under warmer climate was found to be stronger for wider mountains than the narrower ones. We attribute this asymmetry to the sensitivity of DR to reduced horizontal velocity under warmer conditions. Specifically, while DR for wider mountains shows no sensitivity to changes in horizontal velocity, the DR for narrow ranges increases as the horizontal velocity decreases and more time is provided for precipitation to form. Thus, for narrower ranges, the horizontal velocity appears to offset the temperature effect slightly. The percentagewise decrease of DR for all examined mountain ranges is about 4%K-1. In comparison, the increase in precipitation is about 6%K-1 while the vapor flux increase is about 9%K-1.

  18. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman


    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  19. Post-Eocene tectonics of the Central Taurus Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergün AKAY


    Full Text Available In post-Eocene time, the Central Taurus mountains have been subjected to four episodes of compression in probably Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene, Langhian, Upper Tortonian, and Upper Pliocene to recent times. In the Upper Eocene — Lower Oligocene compressional period, Ecemiş, and Beyşehir conjugate faults which have both vertical and lateral components have been formed after an N - S compression. In the Langhian compression period, the Lycian nappes were emplaced from the NW to SE and this tectonic movement has also effected the Antalya and the Adana Miocene basins. In the Upper Tortonian compression period, firstly a WSW-ENE compression has resulted in the formation of Aksu thrust, Kırkkavak oblique reverse fault, Köprüçay syncline, Beşkonak anticline, Radyoring anticline, Taşağıl syncline and Kargı reverse faults. In this period a later phase of N — S compression has formed Çakallar folds, Gökçeler normal fault, the smooth anticline in Mut Karaman and the syncline in Ulukışla. In the latest compressional period from Upper Pliocene to recent, first on E — W compression which can be recognized by some mesoscopic faults has been developed and later a N — S compression resulted in the formation of the active faults on Ecemiş and Gökçeler faults, and the Antalya bay graben.

  20. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers. (United States)

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike


    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  1. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig


    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  2. Luminescence characteristics of quartz from Hsuehshan Range (Central Taiwan) and implications for thermochronometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Tzu-Shuan; Jain, Mayank; Guralnik, Benny


    The mountain building processes in Taiwan are currently among the most rapid in the world. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of this orogen are still poorly resolved within the .... Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) from quartz is an emerging thermochronometer that could potentially provide valuable low-temperature markers on a ~0.1 Ma timescale. Here we study four meta-sandstone samples from the Hsuehshan Range in central Taiwan. We characterize the OSL from these samples...

  3. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. (United States)

    Remis, M J


    The ranging and grouping patterns of a gorilla group were studied during 27 months from 1990-1992 at the Bai Hokou study site, Central African Republic. The study group ranged far daily (average = 2.3 km/day) and had a large home range (22.9 km2), relative to mountain gorillas, and ranging patterns differed between years. During 1990-1992, the bimale study group foraged less cohesively and had more flexible grouping patterns than mountain gorillas. The study group sometimes split into two distinct foraging subgroups, each led by a silverback, and these subgroups occasionally slept apart (mean = 950 m apart). Lowland gorillas rely on many of the same fruit resources as sympatric chimpanzees, and under certain demographic situations gorillas, like sympatric chimpanzees, may adapt their foraging group size to reduce intragroup feeding competition. However, the fiber content of the lowland gorilla diet likely relaxes constraints on foraging party size and facilitates group cohesion relative to chimpanzees.

  4. Biodiversity of the Hercynian mountains of central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeník, Jan


    Full Text Available The vegetation of temperate Central Europe north of the Alps is mainly of low diversity broadleaf and conifer forest. The occurrence of three azonal habitat types: mires with their numerous microhabitats, the georelief of the karst and its deeply-cut river valleys, and ecological islands with a distinct vegetation near the tree-line of the middle-mountains causes local areas of high diversity. These high species diversity spots are the result of an interplay between physical, biotic and historical factors. A model of an anemo-orographic system with its underlying factors is described to explain the high plant and animal diversity in the corries (glacial cirques of the Hercynian mountains.

    [fr] La végétation de l'Europe Centrale tempérée au nord des Alpes nous montre surtout des forêts à de feuillues et de conifères à faible diversité. Cependant, la présence de trois types d'habitats azonaux peut produire une haute diversité au niveau local: zones humides avec leur nombreux microhabitats, reliefs karstiques et leur profonds défilés fluviaux, et enfin des îles écologiques avec une végétation particulière situées près de la limite supérieure des arbres (treeline. Ces secteurs riches en espèces peuvent s'expliquer par l'interaction des facteurs physiques, biotiques et historiques. Dans ce domaine nous proposons un système anémo-orographique avec ses facteurs inféodés qui pourrait expliquer la haute diversité animale et végétale dans les cirques glaciaires des montagnes hercyniennes. [es]Al N de los Alpes, la vegetación de la Europa Central templada está constituida fundamentalmente por bosques de baja diversidad, bien sean de hoja ancha o de coníferas. No obstante, la presencia de tres tipos de hábitats azonales aumenta la diversidad: charcos con sus numerosos microhábitats, el relieve kárstico con sus desfiladeros y las islas ecológicas con vegetación diversa cerca del límite superior del bosque en

  5. Seasonal habitat use and movements of woodland caribou in the Omineca Mountains, north central British Columbia, 1991-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari D. Wood


    Full Text Available From 1991 to 1993, 30 woodland caribou were captured and fitted with radio-collars west of the Williston Reservoir in north central B.C. Monthly radio-telemetry location flights revealed that caribou in the Northern Area, characterized by a complex of mountain ranges, moved greater distances to calving areas than did those in the South, where only one major mountain range exists. In the year of record heavy snowfall for the area, all collared caribou wintered on windswept alpine slopes, while during the below average snowfall year, many caribou remained in forested habitats. In winter, caribou were found to forage on terrestrial lichens in both lowland lodgepole pine flats and on windswept alpine slopes, and on arboreal lichens in upper elevation Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir forests. There are at least 600-700 caribou in the Omineca Mountains.

  6. Uranium metallogenic geological conditions in the south central section of da hinggan mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Liu Qing


    The south central section of Da Hinggan Mountains, where the Zha Lantun prospecting zones of volcanic type uranium ore, is a high density concentrated distribution area of uranium and polymetallic mineral. This article elaborated uranium metallogenic geological conditions in the south central section of Da Hinggan Mountain, from the tectonic conditions, the source of uranium, the heat source, the space for ore-forming, hydrothermal alteration, the mineralization, and ect. This area has a good prospecting foreground and potentiality. (authors)

  7. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James


    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  8. Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images (United States)

    Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian


    The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

  9. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range. (United States)

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N


    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Glacial erosion, rock, and peak uplift within the central Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.A.; Baxter, A.K.


    About 1500 m of peak elevation can be ascribed to the isostatic response of valley incision within the central Transantarctic Mountains. This estimate, based on a 3D analysis of topography, and on rock uplift history, represents c. 33% of the maximum peak elevation within the Transantarctic Mountains. Input to the calculation includes a previoulsy published estimate for the variation of flexural rigidity across the western margin of East Antarctica, and a lithospheric free-edge at the Transantarctic Mountains Front. The rebound response is a complex function of lithospheric rigidity, wavelength or erosion, and lithospheric boundary conditions. We also calculate a maximum 4000 m of total rebound due to both valley incision and erosion of mountain tops. This represents 60% of the maximum rock uplift inferred for the mountain front on the bases of fission track data and flexure analysis. (author). 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range of centraleastern Brazil: floristic relationships and geoclimatic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Bünger


    Full Text Available Although biological surveys and taxonomic revisions provide key information to ecological and evolutionary studies, there is a clear lack of floristic and phytogeographic studies of the mountainous regions of Brazil, which harbor some of the most threatened plant ecosystems on the planet. Myrtaceae has been reported to be one of the most important families in the upland areas of Brazil, as well as in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we investigated the floristic composition of Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range and adjacent highlands of central-eastern Brazil, testing the following hypotheses: floristic similarity increases with geographic proximity; and species distribution is affected by geoclimatic variables. We performed statistical analyses using a database containing records of 199 species in 19 areas and of their respective geoclimatic variables. We also performed ordination analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, the first and second axes of which explained 69% and 78% of the variation, respectively. The NMDS analysis demonstrated that variations in the Myrtaceae flora are highly sensitive to geoclimatic variables and geographic proximity. The NMDS ordination also showed a predominantly south-north gradient, as did the cluster analysis. This gradient was highly correlated with variations in rainfall and temperature, which are also associated with the three domains that coincide with the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

  12. Status of fisher in the northern Idaho panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges (United States)

    Michael Lucid; L. Robinson; S. Cushman; L. Allen; M. Schwartz; K. Pilgrim


    The Multi-species Baseline Initiative (MBI) is a collaborative of organizations which is conducting a comprehensive inventory for fisher (Martes pennanti) and other wildlife species across the Idaho Panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges. From 2010-2012, MBI partners established 112 forest carnivore bait stations to collect photographs and DNA from 22 wildlife species...

  13. Habitat-effectiveness index for elk on Blue Mountain Winter Ranges. (United States)

    Jack Ward Thomas; Donavin A. Leckenby; Mark Henjum; Richard J. Pedersen; Larry D. Bryant


    An elk-habitat evaluation procedure for winter ranges in the Blue Mountains of eastern Oregon and Washington is described. The index is based on an interaction of size and spacing of cover and forage areas, roads open to traffic per unit of area, cover quality, and quantity and quality of forage.

  14. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao


    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Palaeoenvironmental contribution to the study of trashumance in the Gredos Mountain Range (Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Sáez


    Full Text Available The Avilan sector of the Gredos Mountain Range represents one of the Iberian Peninsula’s most valuable cultural landscapes. From Prehistory to the present, the importance of trashumance in this region has played a key role in shaping its ecosystyems. Using pollen analysis to examine historical transformations in the region’s ecology, both those engendered by human activity and those relating to palaeoclimatic dynamics, this paper examines the diachronic evolution of the vegetation of the Serranillos Mountain Pass during the Late Holocene.

  16. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains (United States)

    Ulker, Riza


    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  17. Interpretive geophysical fault map across the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.


    Geophysical data collected along 29 traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada reveal anomalies associated with known fault sand indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. Geophysical interpretations indicate that Midway Valley is characterized by several known and previously unknown faults, that the existence of the Yucca Wash fault is equivocal, and that the central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous low-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect numerous small-scale faults. Gravity and magnetic data also reveal several large-amplitude anomalies that reflect larger-scale faulting along the margins of the central block

  18. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena


    /ha. The SOC stock in mountainous pasture was 20.7 (± 6.5 tones/ha, while in spruce plantation created on previous pasture it was 13.5 (±2.7 tones/ha. Our finding showed that forest conversions effect in central Stara Planina Mountain is expressed by decrease in SOC stock related with losses of carbon from the upper mineral soil decades after creation of coniferous plantations. Nevertheless the relatively large organic carbon storage in forest litter in the spruce plantations compensated C lost from mineral soil after the land-use change. The overall carbon stock both in forest litter and soil under plantations ranged from 56 tones/ha (pine to 77 tones/ha (spruce, while under natural beech forest and pasture the values were 70 and 81 tones/ha respectively. But in terms of stability C sequestrated in mineral soil is more desirable than C sequestrated in forest floor which are more vulnerable to decomposition following disturbances. The application of silvicultural activities in coniferous plantations created by conversion of forest lands or grasslands in the region of central Balkan is desirable to improve the carbon sequestration in soils.

  19. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran. (United States)

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig


    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  20. Persistence of evapotranspiration impacts from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in lodgepole pine forests, south-central Rocky Mountains, USA (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Williams, Christopher


    The current extent and high severity (percent tree mortality) of mountain pine beetle outbreaks across western North America have been attributed to regional climate change, specifically warmer summer and winter temperatures and drier summers. These outbreaks are widespread and have potentially persistent impacts on forest evapotranspiration. The few data-driven studies have largely been restricted by the temporal availability of remote sensing products. This study utilized multiple mountain pine beetle outbreak location datasets, both current and historical, within lodgepole pine stands in the south-central Rocky Mountains. The full seasonal evapotranspiration impact of outbreak events for decades after outbreak (0 to 60 years) and the role of outbreak severity in determining that impact were quantified. We found a 30% reduction in evapotranspiration peaking at 14-20 years post-outbreak during the spring snowmelt period, when water was not limited, but a minimal reduction in evapotranspiration during the remainder of the growing season (June - August). We also found a significant increase in evapotranspiration, relative to non-attacked stands, in intermediate aged stands (20-40 years post-disturbance) corresponding with a peak in LAI and therefore transpiration. During the snow-cover months evapotranspiration initially increased with needle fall and snag fall and corresponding increases in albedo and shortwave transmission to the surface. We found that changes in evapotranspiration during all seasons dissipated by 60 years post-attack. MODIS evapotranspiration values responded most strongly to mountain pine beetle driven changes in net radiation or available energy, and vegetation cover (e.g. LAI, fPAR and EVI). It also appears that the post-attack response of evapotranspiration may be sensitive to precipitation patterns and thus the consequences of a disturbance event may depend on the directionality of climate change conditions.

  1. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan


    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  2. Management of spruce-fir in even-aged stands in the central Rocky Mountains (United States)

    Robert R. Alexander; Carleton B. Edminster


    Potential production of Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir in the central Rocky Mountains is simulated for combinations of stand density, site quality, ages, and thinning schedules. Such estimates are needed to project future development of stands managed in different ways for various uses.

  3. Magnetic investigations along selected high-resolution seismic traverses in the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Sikora, R.F.; Roberts, C.W.; Morin, R.L.; Halvorson, P.F.


    Ground magnetic data collected along several traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are interpreted. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Magnetic data and models along traverses across the central block of Yucca Mountain reveal anomalies associated with known faults and indicate a number of possible concealed faults beneath the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain. The central part of the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain is characterized by numerous small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting. Magnetic modeling of the terrain along the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain indicates that terrain induced magnetic anomalies of about 100 to 150 nT are present along some profiles where steep terrain exists above the magnetometer

  4. Structural Discordance Between Neogene Detachments and Frontal Sevier Thrusts, Central Mormon Mountains, Southern Nevada (United States)

    Wernicke, Brian; Walker, J. Douglas; Beaufait, Mark S.


    Detailed geologic mapping in the Mormon Mountains of southern Nevada provides significant insight into processes of extensional tectonics developed within older compressional orogens. A newly discovered, WSW-directed low-angle normal fault, the Mormon Peak detachment, juxtaposes the highest levels of the frontal most part of the east-vergent, Mesozoic Sevier thrust belt with autochthonous crystalline basement. Palinspastic analysis suggests that the detachment initially dipped 20-25° to the west and cut discordantly across thrust faults. Nearly complete lateral removal of the hanging wall from the area has exposed a 5 km thick longitudinal cross-section through the thrust belt in the footwall, while highly attenuated remnants of the hanging wall (nowhere more than a few hundred meters thick) structurally veneer the range. The present arched configuration of the detachment resulted in part from progressive "domino-style" rotation of a few degrees while it was active, but is largely due to rotation on younger, structurally lower, basement-penetrating normal faults that initiated at high-angle. The geometry and kinematics of normal faulting in the Mormon Mountains suggest that pre-existing thrust planes are not required for the initiation of low-angle normal faults, and even where closely overlapped by extensional tectonism, need not function as a primary control of detachment geometry. Caution must thus be exercised in interpreting low-angle normal faults of uncertain tectonic heritage such as those seen in the COCORP west-central Utah and BIRP's MOIST deep-reflection profiles. Although thrust fault reactivation has reasonably been shown to be the origin of a very few low-angle normal faults, our results indicate that it may not be as fundamental a component of orogenic architecture as it is now widely perceived to be. We conclude that while in many instances thrust fault reactivation may be both a plausible and attractive hypothesis, it may never be assumed.

  5. A middle Pleistocene through middle Miocene moraine sequence in the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica (United States)

    Balter, A.; Bromley, G. R.; Balco, G.; Thomas, H.; Jackson, M. S.


    Ice-free areas at high elevation in the central Transantarctic Mountains preserve extensive moraine sequences and drift deposits that comprise a geologic record of former East Antarctic Ice Sheet thickness and extent. We are applying cosmogenic-nuclide exposure dating to determine the ages of these moraine sequences at Roberts Massif and Otway Massif, at the heads of the Shackleton and Beardmore Glaciers, respectively. Moraines at these sites are for the most part openwork boulder belts characteristic of deposition by cold-based ice, which is consistent with present climate and glaciological conditions. To develop our chronology, we collected samples from 30 distinct ice-marginal landforms and have so far measured >100 3He, 10Be, and 21Ne exposure ages. Apparent exposure ages range from 1-14 Ma, which shows that these landforms record glacial events between the middle Pleistocene and middle Miocene. These data show that the thickness of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet in this region was similar to or thicker than present for long periods between the middle Miocene and today. The time range represented by these moraine sequences indicates that they may also provide direct geologic evidence for East Antarctic Ice Sheet behavior during past periods of warmer-than-present climate, specifically the Miocene and Pliocene. As the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is the largest ice sheet on earth, understanding its sensitivity to warm-climate conditions is critical for projections of ice sheet behavior and sea-level rise in future warm climates.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. (United States)

    Wuthijaree, K; Lambertz, C; Gauly, M


    1. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2015 to July 2016 in South Tyrol, Northern Italy to examine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in free-range laying hens under mountain farming production conditions. 2. A total of 280 laying hens from 14 free-range mountain farms (4 organic, 10 conventional) were randomly collected at the end of the laying period. Faecal samples were taken to analyse faecal egg counts (FEC) and faecal oocyst counts (FOC). The gastrointestinal tracts were removed post mortem and examined for the presence of helminths. 3. In faeces, FEC values averaged 258 eggs per g of faeces, which were dominated by Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Mean FOC was 80 oocysts/g. In the gastrointestinal tract, at least one nematode species was found in 99.3% of the examined hens. H. gallinarum was the most prevalent nematode (95.7%), followed by Capillaria spp. (66.8%) and A. galli (63.6%). Thirty per cent of the chickens were infected with cestodes (tapeworms). Correlation coefficients between worm counts of H. gallinarum, Capillaria spp. and A. galli ranged from 0.41 to 0.51. 5. The helminth prevalence did not differ between conventional and organic farms, whereas total worm burden was higher in organic compared with conventional farms (318.9 vs. 112.0). Prevalence and infection intensity did not differ between farms that used anthelmintic treatments and those that did not. 6. In conclusion, free-range laying hens under the studied mountain farming conditions are at high risk of nematode infection, especially in organic systems. The vast majority of hens are subclinical infected with at least one helminth species.

  7. Oroclinal Bending and Mountain Uplift in the Central Andes (United States)

    Mpodozis, C.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.


    The large paleomagnetic database now available for the Central Andes permits a good understanding of the overall spatial and temporal variations of rotations. Mesozoic to Early Paleogene rocks along the forearc of northern Chile (23°-28°S) record significant clockwise rotations (>25°) [Arriagada et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001923]. Along the forearc of southern Peru, counterclockwise rotations recorded within flat lying red-beds (Moquegua Formation) increase from about -30° at 17.5°S to - 45° at15.5°S and decrease through time from the late Eocene to the late Oligocene-early Miocene [Roperch et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001882]. Recently published thermo-chronological studies show evidence for strong exhumation within Bolivian Eastern Cordillera and the Puna plateau starting in the Eocene while structural studies indicate that the majority of crustal shortening in the Eastern Cordillera occurred during the Eocene-Oligocene, although the final stages of deformation may have continued through the Early Miocene. Rotations in the Peruvian and north Chilean forearc thus occurred at the same time than deformation and exhumation/uplift within the Eastern Cordillera. In contrast Neogene forearc rocks in southern Peru and northern Chile do not show evidences of rotation but low magnitude (10°) counterclockwise rotations are usually found in mid to late Miocene rocks from the northern Altiplano. These Neogene rotations are concomitant with shortening in the Sub-Andean zone and sinistral strike-slip faulting along the eastern edge of the northern Altiplano. We interpret the rotation pattern along the southern Peru and north Chile forearc as a result of strong late Eocene- late Oligocene oroclinal bending of the Central Andes associated with shortening gradients along the Eastern Cordillera associated both with the Abancay deflection and the Arica bend. The amount and spatial distribution of pre-Neogene shortening needed to account for

  8. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.


    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here

  9. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains. (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Won, Yong-Jin; Simons, Andrew M


    The Taebaek Mountains in Korea serve as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in 2 distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are 5 rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) Rivers since the Late Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (Late Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong Rivers, but also between the Osip and Han Rivers. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Rb/Sr ages of metamorphites of the Herbert Mountains, Shackleton Range, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, J.; Pilot, J.; Schlichting, M.


    Results of Rb/Sr-age determinations from six mica schists, sampled in the upper part of the Shackleton metamorphic complex (Herbert Mountains, Shackleton Range, Antarctica) are reported. A three point isochrone gives an age of 470 +- 36 mio. yrs., a two point isochrone an age of 1414 +- 185 mio yrs. The first age marks a thermo-magmatic activation of early paleozoic age, the second one is interpretated as the age of regional metamorphism from the upper parts of the Shackleton metamorphic complex. The results are discussed under consideration of former age determinations. (author)

  11. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy


    Mountainous parts of the Yakama Nation lands in south-central Washington are mostly covered by basaltic lava flows and cinder cones that make up the Simcoe Mountains volcanic field. The accompanying geologic map of the central part of the volcanic field has been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on behalf of the Water Resources Program of the Yakama Nation. The volcanic terrain stretches continuously from Mount Adams eastward as far as Satus Pass and Mill Creek Guard Station. Most of the many hills and buttes are volcanic cones where cinders and spatter piled up around erupting vents while lava flows spread downslope. All of these small volcanoes are now extinct, and, even during their active lifetimes, most of them erupted for no more than a few years. On the Yakama Nation lands, the only large long-lived volcano capable of erupting again in the future is Mount Adams, on the western boundary.

  12. Tourist phenomenon in Geoagiu Spa region within the Central Metaliferi Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dombay Ştefan


    Full Text Available The Central Metaliferi Mountains, situated in south-central side of the Apuseni Mountains, have a variety of natural and anthropic touristic potential, but, unfortunately, less known and not enough exploited. After conducting a survey in Geoagiu Spa we specifically recommend the following: increased number of one day tours, which are the main tourist destination in the region, many tours for visiting the major centers of cultural - historical monuments related to our past history, granting economic incentives for organizer of youth groups to attract the youth, diversification of tourist routes with thematic actions: curiosities of nature, environment, organizing sports events with different timetable covering all seasons and all series, attracting local and foreign investors by providing tax incentives and financial programs introducing touristic resort in the international circuit. .

  13. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.


    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  14. Postobductional extension along and within the Frontal Range of the Eastern Oman Mountains (United States)

    Mattern, Frank; Scharf, Andreas


    The Oman Mountains formed by late Cretaceous obduction of the Tethys-derived Semail Ophiolite. This study concerns the postobductional extension on the northern flank of the mountain belt. Nine sites at the northern margins of the Jabal Akhdar/Nakhl and Saih Hatat domes of the Eastern Oman ("Hajar") Mountains were investigated. The northern margins are marked by a system of major interconnected extensional faults, the "Frontal Range Fault". While the vertical displacements along the Saih Hatat and westerly located Jabal Nakhl domes measure 2.25-6.25 km, 0.5-4.5 km and 4-7 km, respectively, it amounts to 1-5 km along the Jabal Akhdar Dome. Extension had started during the late Cretaceous, towards the end of ophiolite emplacement. Two stages of extension can be ascertained (late Cretaceous to early Eocene and probably Oligocene) at the eastern part of the Frontal Range Fault System (Wadi Kabir and Fanja Graben faults of similar strike). Along the intervening and differently striking fault segments at Sad and Sunub the same two stages of deformation are deduced. The first stage is characterized again by extension. The second stage is marked by dextral motion, including local transtension. Probable Oligocene extension affected the Batinah Coast Fault while it also affected the Wadi Kabir Fault and the Fanja Graben. It is unclear whether the western portion of the Frontal Range Fault also went through two stages of deformation. Bedding-parallel ductile and brittle deformation is a common phenomenon. Hot springs and listwaenite are associated with dextral releasing bends within the fault system, as well as a basalt intrusion of probable Oligocene age. A structural transect through the Frontal Range along the superbly exposed Wadi Bani Kharous (Jabal Akhdar Dome) revealed that extension affected the Frontal Range at least 2.5 km south of the Frontal Range Fault. Also here, bedding-parallel shearing is important, but not exclusive. A late Cretaceous thrust was

  15. Tertiary volcanic rocks and uranium in the Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains, Juab County, Utah (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.


    The Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains have a history of volcanism, faulting, and mineralization that began about 42 m.y. (million years) ago. Volcanic activity and mineralization in the area can be divided into three stages according to the time-related occurrence of rock types, trace-element associations, and chemical composition of mineral deposits. Compositions of volcanic rocks changed abruptly from rhyodacite-quartz latite (42-39 m.y. ago) to rhyolite (38-32 m.y. ago) to alkali rhyolite (21 and 6-7 m.y. ago); these stages correspond to periods of chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, no mineralization(?), and lithophile metal mineralization, respectively. Angular unconformities record episodes of cauldron collapse and block faulting between the stages of volcanic activity and mineralization. The youngest angular unconformity formed between 21 and 7 m.y. ago during basin-and-range faulting. Early rhyodacite-quartz latite volcanism from composite volcanoes and fissures produced flows, breccias, and ash-flow tuff of the Drum Mountains Rhyodacite and Mt. Laird Tuff. Eruption of the Mt. Laird Tuff about 39 m.y. ago from an area north of Joy townsite was accompanied by collapse of the Thomas caldera. Part of the roof of the magma chamber did not collapse, or the magma was resurgent, as is indicated by porphyry dikes and plugs in the Drum Mountains. Chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, resulting in deposits of copper, gold, and manganese, accompanied early volcanism. Te middle stage of volcanic activity was characterized by explosive eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and collapse of the Dugway Valley cauldron. Eruption of the Joy Tuff 38 m.y. ago was accompanied by subsidence of this cauldron and was followed by collapse and sliding of Paleozoic rocks from the west wall of the cauldron. Landslides in The Dell were covered by the Dell Tuff, erupted 32 m.y. ago from an unknown source to the east. An ash flow of the Needles Range

  16. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  17. Changes in the high-mountain vegetation of the Central Iberian Peninsula as a probable sign of global warming. (United States)

    Sanz-Elorza, Mario; Dana, Elías D; González, Alberto; Sobrino, Eduardo


    Aerial images of the high summits of the Spanish Central Range reveal significant changes in vegetation over the period 1957 to 1991. These changes include the replacement of high-mountain grassland communities dominated by Festuca aragonensis, typical of the Cryoro-Mediterranean belt, by shrub patches of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina and Cytisus oromediterraneus from lower altitudes (Oro-Mediterranean belt). Climatic data indicate a shift towards warmer conditions in this mountainous region since the 1940s, with the shift being particularly marked from 1960. Changes include significantly higher minimum and maximum temperatures, fewer days with snow cover and a redistribution of monthly rainfall. Total yearly precipitation showed no significant variation. There were no marked changes in land use during the time frame considered, although there were minor changes in grazing species in the 19th century. It is hypothesized that the advance of woody species into higher altitudes is probably related to climate change, which could have acted in conjunction with discrete variations in landscape management. The pronounced changes observed in the plant communities of the area reflect the susceptibility of high-mountain Mediterranean species to environmental change.

  18. P-T data from central Bhutan imply distributed extensional shear at the Black Mountain "klippe" (United States)

    Corrie, S. L.; Kohn, M. J.; Long, S. P.; McQuarrie, N.; Tobgay, T.


    The Southern Tibetan Detachment system (STDS) occurs along the entire length of the Himalayan orogen, and extensionally emplaces low-grade to unmetamorphosed Tethyan Himalayan (TH) rocks over highly metamorphosed Greater Himalayan sequence (GH) rocks. The base of TH remnants preserved in northern Bhutan all have top-to-the-north shear sense indicators (C'-type shear bands, asymmetric folds, and boudinaged leucogranite dikes) that are interpreted to reflect a discrete shear zone. In contrast, the GH-TH contact in the southernmost TH remnant (the Black Mountain region, central Bhutan) has been interpreted as depositional. A depositional contact limits the magnitude of displacement along the early STDS to 10's of km. If the GH-TH contact in the Black Mountain region is instead a discrete shear zone, as observed farther north, displacement on the STDS could be as high as 100's of km. To discriminate between these two interpretations, we determined peak metamorphic P-T conditions through the GH and TH sections, reasoning that a discrete shear zone would produce a distinct jump in metamorphic temperature, pressure or both. Thin section-scale kinematic indicators reveal pervasive top-to-the-north shear from 2-3 km structurally above the Main Central thrust (MCT) through the rest of the 11 km thick GH and TH sections. P-T conditions were determined from immediately above the MCT to 4 km above the GH-TH contact, with 19 samples from the GH, 6 from the overlying Chekha Fm (TH), and 9 from the overlying Maneting Fm (TH). We applied standard Fe-Mg exchange thermometers and Ca net-transfer barometers involving garnet. P-T conditions range from 700 °C and 11 kbar in migmatitic GHS to 600 °C and 8 kbar at the GH-Chekha contact, and 500 °C and 5 kbar at the top of the Maneting. We found no jumps in either temperature or pressure at any level, but a steeper than lithostatic pressure gradient, which we interpret to result from distributed extensional shear. The average thermal

  19. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel


    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in

  20. Assessing the Priority Area of Mountainous Tourism Using Geospatial Approach in Kendal Regency, Central Java (United States)

    Riwayatiningsih; Purnaweni, Hartuti


    Kendal is one of 35 regencies in Central Java which has diverse topographies, from low land, hilly, to mountainous areas. Mountainous area of Kendal with numerous unique and distinct natural environments, supported by various unique and distinct culture of its community can be used for tourism activities. Kendal has natural and sociocultural resources for developing tourism that must be considered by the local government. Therefore, nature based tourism resources assessment is important in order to determine the appropriate area in the planning of sustainable tourism destination. The objectives of this study are to assess and prioritize the potential area of mountainous tourism object in Kendal using geospatial approach based on criteria attractiveness, accessibility and amenity of the tourism object. Those criteria are modification of ADO-ODTWA guidelines and condition of the study location. There are 16 locations of tourism object that will be assessed. The result will be processed using ArcMap 10.3. The result will show the most potential tourism object that could become priority for mountainous tourism development in Kendal.

  1. The Demogeographic Crisis in Racha, Georgia: Depopulation in the Central Caucasus Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kohler


    Full Text Available Many rural mountain areas across the world are facing depopulation due to outmigration and negative natural population growth. This study examines depopulation in the mountains of Georgia based on the example of Oni municipality in the Racha region on the southern slopes of the Central (Greater Caucasus. Depopulation in Oni, as in other Georgian mountain areas, has been driven by the socioeconomic and political disruption associated with the ongoing transition from a planned to a market economy after the demise of the Soviet Union. Based on official Georgian statistics for the period from 1989 to 2014/2016, the study documents a 50% loss of population over this period. While data on migration are lacking, the natural growth rate dropped from about −5‰ to −14‰, due to a combined decrease in the number of women of childbearing age (20–49 years of age and in the number of births by women in this age group. Aging is reaching drastic levels, especially in rural communities, with 37% of the population in 2015 aged 65 and older. Settlements at higher altitudes are increasingly deserted. Investment in recreational economies based on local potentials such as hot springs, mountain tourism, and local (labeled products, coupled with the establishment of protected areas as “working landscapes,” could help create local employment and reverse current negative population dynamics.

  2. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona (United States)

    Willey, David W.; van Riper, Charles


    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  3. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni


    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  4. Strain histories from the eastern Central Range of Taiwan: A record of advection through a collisional orogen (United States)

    Mondro, Claire A.; Fisher, Donald; Yeh, En-Chao


    In the eastern Central Range of Taiwan there is a regional variation in the orientation of maximum finite stretch across the slate belt, with down-dip maximum stretch found in the western Central Range and along-strike maximum stretch in the eastern Central Range. Incremental strain histories from syntectonic fibers in pyrite pressure shadows indicate a progressive change in extension direction from down dip to along strike during deformation, there is a corresponding temporal variation in stretching direction shown in samples from the eastern edge of the Central Range, a pattern that mimics the regional west-to-east spatial variation. These observed temporal and spatial strain distributions are used to evaluate the kinematics associated with slaty cleavage development during advection through the Taiwan orogenic system. The subduction zone beneath the island of Taiwan is influenced by two types of obliquity that have the potential to generate the observed along-strike stretching. First, the plate motion vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate is slightly oblique to the regional strike of the mountain range, which could result in partitioning of strike slip shearing into the interior of the collision. Second, the north-south Luzon volcanic arc on the Philippine Sea Plate is obliquely oriented relative to the northeast-southwest edge of the Eurasian continental margin, which could result in lateral extrusion of the ductile core of the range. Incremental strain histories in cleavage-parallel samples represent a time-for-space equivalence where the stretching direction is fixed relative to the position within the mountain belt architecture (e.g., the topographic divide), and temporal variations in the eastern central Range reflect lateral advection through the strain field in response to accretionary and erosional fluxes. Incremental strain histories in cleavage perpendicular samples show both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of

  5. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark


    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  6. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W


    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  7. Historic Frequency and Severity of Fire in Whitebark Pine Forests of the Cascade Mountain Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Murray


    Full Text Available Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. is a foundation species of high elevation forest ecosystems in the Cascade Mountain Range of Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We examined fire evidence on 55 fire history sites located in the Cascade Range. To estimate dates of historic fires we analyzed 57 partial cross-sections from fire-scarred trees plus 700 increment cores. The resulting 101 fire events indicate fire has been a widespread component of Cascadian whitebark pine stands. Results are site specific and vary considerably. Whitebark pine stands appear to burn in a variety of severities and frequencies. Sites where fire intervals were detected ranged from 9 to 314 years, with a median of 49 years, and averaging 67 years. Fire intervals shortened significantly with higher latitudes. In assessing the most recent fire event at each site, overall, 56 percent burned as stand replacing events. In the 20th century, the number of fires diminished significantly. Due to conservation imperatives, re-introducing fire should be undertaken with extreme care to avoid substantial mortality of this endangered species.

  8. Impacts of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pine beetle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, A.L.; Taylor, S.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, BC (Canada). Pacific Forestry Centre; Regniere, J. [Canadian Forest Service, Quebec, PQ (Canada). Laurentian Forestry Centre; Logan, J.A.; Bentz, B.J. [United States Dept. of Agriculture, Logan, UT (United States). Logan Forestry Sciences Laboratory; Powell, J.A. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics


    The elevational and latitudinal range of mountain pine beetle (MPB) has been limited by climatic conditions that are currently unfavorable for brood development. This study examined the impact of climatic conditions on the establishment and persistence of MPB using a spatially explicit, climate-driven simulation tool. Historic weather records were also used to create maps of past habitats for MPB in British Columbia. Map overlays were then created to determine if MPB has expanded its range due to changes in the province's climate. The distribution of climatically suitable habitats was examined in 10-year increments. Results of the study showed an increase in benign habitats. MPB populations have expanded into new areas as a result of changes in climate. Additional range expansion for MPB was then assessed using a global circulation model along with a conservative forcing scenario that forecast a doubling of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by 2050. Weather conditions were then combined with a climatic suitability model in order to examine areas of climatically suitable habitats. It was concluded that continued eastward expansion by MPB is probable. 44 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado (United States)

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.


    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  10. Origin, development, and impact of mountain laurel thickets on the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose


    Throughout forests of the northern hemisphere, some species of ericaceous shrubs can form persistent understories that interfere with forest regeneration processes. In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) may interfere in the regeneration of mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) forests. To...

  11. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. from the Itremo and Andringitra mountains of central eastern Madagascar (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae). (United States)

    Manuel, Michaël; Ramahandrison, Andriamirado T


    Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Itremo mountain range and from the Andringitra massif in central eastern Madagascar. The new species is the second one of the genus Canthyporus Zimmermann, 1919 to be recorded from Madagascar, the other being C. pauliani Guignot, 1951, so far endemic to the northern massif of Tsaratanana. The habitus and male and female reproductive structures of the new species are illustrated. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. differs from C. pauliani notably by larger size, less parallel-sided and more evenly convex habitus, paler pronotum, more weakly impressed body surface reticulation, and a different shape of the median lobe of aedeagus. Differences with similar C. hottentottus-group species from mainland Africa are also discussed. Data on habitat preferences of C. reebae sp. nov. and a distribution map of Malagasy Canthyporus are presented and discussed.

  12. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bassi

    Full Text Available Wolves (Canis lupus in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010 collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species' current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts.

  13. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles


    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  14. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park (United States)

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.


    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  15. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling. (United States)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe


    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  16. Historical range of variation assessment for wetland and riparian ecosystems, U.S. Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (United States)

    Edward Gage; David J. Cooper


    This document provides an overview of historical range of variation concepts and explores their application to wetland and riparian ecosystems in the US Forest Service Rocky Mountain Region (Region 2), which includes National Forests and National Grasslands occurring in the states of Colorado, Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, and South Dakota. For each of five ecosystem...

  17. Severity of a mountain pine beetle outbreak across a range of stand conditions in Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, United States (United States)

    Anthony G. Vorster; Paul H. Evangelista; Thomas J. Stohlgren; Sunil Kumar; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Antony S. Cheng; Kelly Elder


    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks had unprecedented effects on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) in western North America. We used data from 165 forest inventory plots to analyze stand conditions that regulate lodgepole pine mortality across a wide range of stand structure and species composition at the Fraser...

  18. Rb-Sr ages of Precambrian sediments from the Ovruch mountain range, northwestern Ukraine (U.S.S.R.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhov, I.M.; Varshavskaya, E.S.; Kutyavin, E.P.; Clauer, N.; Drannik, A.S.


    A mineralogical and Rb-Sr geochronological study of Precambrian sediments and metasediments from the Ovruch mountain range (northwestern Ukraine) shows two distinct events: a slight metamorphism of the Belokorovichi Formation 1575 +- 30 Ma ago which precedes the deposition of the Zbranki Formation at 1389 +- 71 Ma (lambda 87 Rb = 1.42 x 10 -11 y -1 ). (Auth.)

  19. Impact of Front Range sources on reactive nitrogen concentrations and deposition in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine B. Benedict


    Full Text Available Human influenced atmospheric reactive nitrogen (RN is impacting ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO. Due to ROMO’s protected status as a Class 1 area, these changes are concerning, and improving our understanding of the contributions of different types of RN and their sources is important for reducing impacts in ROMO. In July–August 2014 the most comprehensive measurements (to date of RN were made in ROMO during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ. Measurements included peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, C1–C5 alkyl nitrates, and high-time resolution NOx, NOy, and ammonia. A limited set of measurements was extended through October. Co-located measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds provide information on source types impacting ROMO. Specifically, we use ethane as a tracer of oil and gas operations and tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4 as an urban tracer to investigate their relationship with RN species and transport patterns. Results of this analysis suggest elevated RN concentrations are associated with emissions from oil and gas operations, which are frequently co-located with agricultural production and livestock feeding areas in the region, and from urban areas. There also are periods where RN at ROMO is impacted by long-range transport. We present an atmospheric RN budget and a nitrogen deposition budget with dry and wet components. Total deposition for the period (7/1–9/30 was estimated at 1.58 kg N/ha, with 87% from wet deposition during this period of above average precipitation. Ammonium wet deposition was the dominant contributor to total nitrogen deposition followed by nitrate wet deposition and total dry deposition. Ammonia was estimated to be the largest contributor to dry deposition followed by nitric acid and PAN (other species included alkyl nitrates, ammonium and nitrate. All three species are challenging to measure routinely, especially at high time resolution.

  20. Chemical constituents of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L. fruit in populations of central Alborz Mountains in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kuhkheil


    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Hippophae rhamnoides L. known as sea buckthorn is a deciduous medicinal shrub belonging to Elaeagnaceae family. In this study, the most important chemical constituents of sea buckthornwere evaluated in wild populations of central Alborz Mountains in Iran during the growth season of 2014 and 2015. Methods: Phytochemical analysis of fruit pulp and seed oil traits was performed using different methods of chromatography such as spectrophotometry, HPLC and GC. Results: Based on the results of combined analysis of variance, significant (p≤0.01 difference ranges between populations were found in respect to fruit dry weight (21.32 to 32.03%, total phenolic compounds (20.78 to 34.60 mg/g, extractable tannin (1.99 to 5.74 mg/g, glucose (38.14 to 110.70 mg/g, total carotenoids (0.80 to 1.17 mg/g, lycopene (0.13 to 0.20 mg/g, β-carotene (0.18 to 0.26 mg/g, total flavonoids (0.98 to 2.80 mg/g, total soluble solids (TSS (11.85 to 31.50%, vitamin C (1.47 to 8.96 mg/g, seed oil content (4.51 to 7.91%, and two major unsaturated fatty acids including linoleic acid (28.71 to 37.44% and linolenic acid (21.52 to 28.28%. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA revealed most important traits with the highest correlation factor such as vitamin C, carbohydrates, TSS, fruit dry weight (FDW, and tannin for the first component. Conclusion: content of vitamin C was the main variable in chemical constituents for effective detection of original wild populations of central Alborz Mountains. Accordingly, sea buckthorn populations were divided into four main clusters and groups with high diversity based on their chemical compositions.

  1. Influence of spatial resolution on precipitation simulations for the central Andes Mountains (United States)

    Trachte, Katja; Bendix, Jörg


    The climate of South America is highly influenced by the north-south oriented Andes Mountains. Their complex structure causes modifications of large-scale atmospheric circulations resulting in various mesoscale phenomena as well as a high variability in the local conditions. Due to their height and length the terrain generates distinctly climate conditions between the western and the eastern slopes. While in the tropical regions along the western flanks the conditions are cold and arid, the eastern slopes are dominated by warm-moist and rainy air coming from the Amazon basin. Below 35° S the situation reverses with rather semiarid conditions in the eastern part and temperate rainy climate along southern Chile. Generally, global circulation models (GCMs) describe the state of the global climate and its changes, but are disabled to capture regional or even local features due to their coarse resolution. This is particularly true in heterogeneous regions such as the Andes Mountains, where local driving features, e. g. local circulation systems, highly varies on small scales and thus, lead to a high variability of rainfall distributions. An appropriate technique to overcome this problem and to gain regional and local scale rainfall information is the dynamical downscaling of the global data using a regional climate model (RCM). The poster presents results of the evaluation of the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over South America with special focus on the central Andes Mountains of Ecuador. A sensitivity study regarding the cumulus parametrization, microphysics, boundary layer processes and the radiation budget is conducted. With 17 simulations consisting of 16 parametrization scheme combinations and 1 default run a suitable model set-up for climate research in this region is supposed to be evaluated. The simulations were conducted in a two-way nested mode i) to examine the best physics scheme combination for the target and ii) to

  2. Crustal structure under the central High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) from geological and gravity data (United States)

    Ayarza, P.; Alvarez-Lobato, F.; Teixell, A.; Arboleya, M. L.; Tesón, E.; Julivert, M.; Charroud, M.


    Seismic wide angle and receiver function results together with geological data have been used as constraints to build a gravity-based crustal model of the central High Atlas of Morocco. Integration of a newly acquired set of gravity values with public data allowed us to undertake 2-2.5D gravity modelling along two profiles that cross the entire mountain chain. Modelling suggests moderate crustal thickening, and a general state of Airy isostatic undercompensation. Localized thickening appears restricted to the vicinity of a north-dipping crustal-scale thrust fault, that offsets the Moho discontinuity and defines a small crustal root which accounts for the minimum Bouguer gravity anomaly values. Gravity modelling indicates that this root has a northeasterly strike, slightly oblique to the ENE general orientation of the High Atlas belt. A consequence of the obliquity between the High Atlas borders and its internal and deep structure is the lack of correlation between Bouguer gravity anomaly values and topography. Active buckling affecting the crust, a highly elevated asthenosphere, or a combination of both are addressed as side mechanisms that help to maintain the high elevations of the Atlas mountains.

  3. Heavy Metals in Spring and Bottled Drinking Waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy). (United States)

    Annibaldi, Anna; Illuminati, Silvia; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe


    Heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, lead, and copper) in spring, tap, and bottled waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (central Italy) were investigated using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry from 2004 to 2011. The mean (±SD) concentrations detected (1.3 ± 0.4 ng L -1 cadmium, 14 ± 6 ng L -1 lead, and 0.16 ± 0.10 μg L -1 copper) were below the limits stipulated by Italian and European legislation for drinking and natural mineral water. In the three studied areas of the park (Mount Bove north, Mount Bove south, and springs of River Nera) with very few exceptions, both mineral waters bottled in the area and aqueduct waters from public fountains had approximately the same metal concentrations as did the spring waters from which they were derived. Conversely, substantially higher metal concentrations were found at some sites in private houses, which may be due to release of metals from old metal pipes. At the time of this study, waters of Sibylline Mountains National Park were of good quality, and no influence of the bottling process on heavy metal concentrations was found.

  4. Ecological wisdom of Hindu-Javanese community settlement in Cetho Hamlet, Lawu Mountains, Central Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Ikhsan, Fauzan Ali; Setioko, Bambang; Suprapti, Atiek


    Dwelling culture of Java community has a long history. In Javanese community point of view, Javanese culture is not a homogeneous entity. There is a diversity characteristic of a regional nature of Javanese culture, which is caused by differences in the natural environment on the island of Java. Dwelling Culture settled in the mountains is a variant form of Javanese culture that has its own uniqueness. This study aimed to describe the local values of the rural settlement structure of in Lawu mountains with Hindu-Javanese culture background. This study used a qualitative approach with case study strategy. The locus of research is in the Cetho hamlet on the slopes of Mount Lawu Karanganyar, Central Java. The results showed that local values in the neighborhoods of Cetho hamlet is based on the Memayu Hayuning Bawana philosophy. These concepts are abstracted into various aspects of settlements in Cetho hamlet such as aspects of dwelling house setting, water management, and ritual activities related to environmental management. Memayu Hayuning Bawana philosophy becomes a cultural space coloring the ecological action of the population of Cetho hamlet. The comprehensive motivation of ecological action ultimately leads to one final goal, namely the desire to maintain a harmonic atmosphere with the surroundings.

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation inferred from streamflow observations across the Sierra Nevada mountain range (United States)

    Henn, Brian; Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri; Newman, Andrew J.; Hughes, Mimi; McGurk, Bruce; Lundquist, Jessica D.


    Given uncertainty in precipitation gauge-based gridded datasets over complex terrain, we use multiple streamflow observations as an additional source of information about precipitation, in order to identify spatial and temporal differences between a gridded precipitation dataset and precipitation inferred from streamflow. We test whether gridded datasets capture across-crest and regional spatial patterns of variability, as well as year-to-year variability and trends in precipitation, in comparison to precipitation inferred from streamflow. We use a Bayesian model calibration routine with multiple lumped hydrologic model structures to infer the most likely basin-mean, water-year total precipitation for 56 basins with long-term (>30 year) streamflow records in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California. We compare basin-mean precipitation derived from this approach with basin-mean precipitation from a precipitation gauge-based, 1/16° gridded dataset that has been used to simulate and evaluate trends in Western United States streamflow and snowpack over the 20th century. We find that the long-term average spatial patterns differ: in particular, there is less precipitation in the gridded dataset in higher-elevation basins whose aspect faces prevailing cool-season winds, as compared to precipitation inferred from streamflow. In a few years and basins, there is less gridded precipitation than there is observed streamflow. Lower-elevation, southern, and east-of-crest basins show better agreement between gridded and inferred precipitation. Implied actual evapotranspiration (calculated as precipitation minus streamflow) then also varies between the streamflow-based estimates and the gridded dataset. Absolute uncertainty in precipitation inferred from streamflow is substantial, but the signal of basin-to-basin and year-to-year differences are likely more robust. The findings suggest that considering streamflow when spatially distributing precipitation in complex terrain

  6. Inbreeding in Gredos mountain range (Spain): contribution of multiple consanguinity and intervalley variation. (United States)

    Fuster, V; Jiménez, A M; Colantonio, S E


    The present paper examines consanguineous marriages occurring between 1874 and 1975 in three valleys (Tormes, Alberche, and Tiétar) in the Sierra de Gredos mountain range, Avila province, Spain. Information was obtained from parish registers of 42 localities, corresponding to a total of 41,696 weddings. Consanguineous marriages were defined as those up to the third degree of consanguinity (second cousins). From 1874 to 1975 the percentage of related mates was 4.45% and the inbreeding coefficient was 0.0011868 (for 1874 to 1917 corresponding figures up to the fourth degree were 16.44% and 0.00 19085, respectively). In order to ascertain the characteristics and evolution of mating patterns in Gredos, the contribution of each degree of kinship was analyzed as a whole and then for each valley separately. Regarding total consanguineous marriages in Gredos, there is a low frequency of uncle-niece matings (0.21%) and a first-second cousin mating ratio (C22/C33) of 0.23 (up to the third degree of consanguinity). Before 1918 multiple matings (i.e., those involving more than a single relationship) accounted for 19.16% of consanguineous marriages (up to the fourth degree). The observed frequencies of multiple consanguineous marriages was, on average, about twice that expected at random, and the proportion of such marriages to total inbreeding was 34.65%. The temporal change of the Gredos inbreeding pattern was characterized by a recent decrease; the highest inbreeding levels correspond to the period from 1915 to 1944. Finally, intervalley differences (maximum inbreeding coefficient in the Tormes, minimum in the Tiétar) are interpreted considering the geography, population size, and population mobility for each valley

  7. Luminescence characteristics of quartz from Hsuehshan Range (Central Taiwan) and implications for thermochronometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Tzu-Shuan; Jain, Mayank; Guralnik, Benny; Murray, Andrew S.; Chen, Yue-Gau


    The mountain building processes in Taiwan are currently among the most rapid in the world. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of this orogen are still poorly resolved within the <0.5 Ma timescale, reflecting methodological gaps in addressing young and rapid bedrock cooling by erosion. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) from quartz is an emerging thermochronometer that could potentially provide valuable low-temperature markers on a ∼0.1 Ma timescale. Here we study four meta-sandstone samples from the Hsuehshan Range in central Taiwan. We characterize the OSL from these samples in terms of feldspar contamination, saturation dose, signal components, and thermal stability. We conclude that the OSL is dominated by the fast component, and is therefore amenable to dose measurement using the SAR protocol. Based on the luminescence characteristics and ambient dose rate, we suggest that these samples may be valuable for evaluating recent cooling rates exceeding 360 ± 100 °C/Ma, in places where the alternative thermal scenarios (instantaneous cooling or prolonged isothermal storage) may be ruled out by external geological constraints. - Highlights: • Bedrock quartz with well-behaved luminescence characteristics are found in Taiwan. • Kinetic parameters for samples in this study are confirmed as typical quartz. • Quartz OSL-thermochronometer may work for cooling rate exceeding 360 ± 100 °C/Ma.

  8. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico. (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L


    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  9. New Structural Interpretation of the Central Confusion Range, Western Utah, Based On Balanced Cross Sections (United States)

    Yezerski, D.; Greene, D. C.


    The Confusion Range is a topographically low mountain range in the Basin and Range of west-central Utah, located east of and in the hanging wall of the Snake Range core complex. Previous workers have used a gravity sliding model to interpret the Confusion Range as a large structural trough or synclinorium (e.g. Hose, 1977). Based on existing mapping (Hose, 1965; Hintze, 1974) and new field data, we use balanced and restored cross sections to reinterpret the structure of the Confusion Range as an east-vergent fold-and-thrust belt formed during the Sevier Orogeny. The Confusion Range consists of Cambro-Ordovician through Triassic strata, with predominantly thick-bedded, competent carbonate rocks in the lower Paleozoic (lPz) section and incompetent shales and thin-bedded carbonates in the upper Paleozoic (uPz) section. The contrasting mechanical behavior of these stratigraphic sections results in faulted folds within uPz carbonates above detachments in shale-rich units, deforming in response to ramp-flat thrust faulting of the underlying lPz units. East of the axis of the Conger Mountain (Mtn) syncline, we attribute the increase in structural elevation of lPz rocks to a subsurface thrust sheet consisting of lPz strata that advanced eastward via a high-angle ramp from a lower detachment in the Kanosh Shale to an upper detachment in the Pilot Shale. The doubling of lPz strata that resulted continues through the eastern Confusion Range where a series of small-displacement thrust faults comprising the Kings Canyon thrust system gently tilt strata to the west. In the Conger Range, west of the Conger Mtn syncline, our analysis focuses on reinterpreting the geometrically unlikely folding depicted in previous cross sections as more admissible, fault-cored, asymmetric, detached folding. In our interpretation, resistance created by a steeply-dipping thrust ramp in the lPz section west of Conger Mtn resulted in folding of uPz strata into an east-vergent anticline. Continued east

  10. Non-tectonic exposure Rates along Bedrock Fault Scarps in an active Mountain Belt of the central Apennines (United States)

    Kastelic, Vanja; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Carafa, Michele M. C.; Basili, Roberto


    The central Apennines (Italy) are a mountain chain affected by post-collisional active extension along NW-SE striking normal faults and well-documented regional-scale uplift. Moderate to strong earthquakes along the seismogenically active extensional faults are frequent in this area, thus a good knowledge on the characteristics of the hosting faults is necessary for realistic seismic hazard models. The studied bedrock fault surfaces are generally located at various heights on mountain fronts above the local base level of glacio-fluvial valleys and intermountain fluvio-lacustrine basins and are laterally confined to the extent of related mountain fronts. In order to investigate the exposure of the bedrock fault scarps from under their slope-deposit cover, a process that has often been exclusively attributed to co-seismic earthquake slip and used as proxy for tectonic slip rates and earthquake recurrence estimations, we have set up a measurement experiment along various such structures. In this experiment we measure the relative position of chosen markers on the bedrock surface and the material found directly at the contact with its hanging wall. We present the results of monitoring the contact between the exposed fault surfaces and slope deposits at 23 measurement points on 12 different faults over 3.4 year-long observation period. We detected either downward or upward movements of the slope deposit with respect to the fault surface between consecutive measurements. During the entire observation period all points, except one, registered a net downward movement in the 2.9 - 25.6 mm/yr range, resulting in the progressive exposure of the fault surface. During the monitoring period no major earthquakes occurred in the region, demonstrating the measured exposure process is disconnected from seismic activity. We do however observe a positive correlation between the higher exposure in respect to higher average temperatures. Our results indicate that the fault surface

  11. Sustainable yield of the Colle Quartara carbonate aquifer in the Southern Lepini Mountains (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Conte


    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to contribute to the groundwater resource sustainable management of a carbonate aquifer in a test area of the Lepini Mountains (Central Italy. This aquifer constitutes a major exploited groundwater body of central Apennines. At regional scale, the hydrogeological features of the Lepini hydrostructure are well known. The present study focuses on a portion of the Lepini Mountains where important tapping-works for drinking water supply are in activity (about 1.2 m3/s. New investigations were carried out including: meteo-climatic analysis, spring discharge and hydrometric time series processing, pumping test result interpretation. In addition, a detailed lithostratigraphical and structural survey of a portion of the Lepini hydrostructure at 1:10,000 scale was performed also examining the dense network of discontinuities affecting the carbonate aquifer. Extensional Plio-Pleistocene tectonic activity displaced the carbonate rock sequence under the Pontina Plain, where the carbonate aquifer is confined. The investigation results have allowed the reconstruction of the hydrogeological conceptual model of the studied portion of carbonate massif. Given the scale of the study and the results of the investigation, the carbonate aquifer can be treated as an equivalent porous medium, and the simplified numerical model of the aquifer was constructed with the code MODFLOW-2005. The numerical model, still now under continuous implementation, produced first results on the current withdrawal sustainability, allowing evaluation of possible alternative exploitation scenarios of the carbonate aquifer also considering the probably not significant flow exchanges with the Pontina Plain aquifer.

  12. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.


    The Red Mountain volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit exhibits well-constrained examples of acid-generating, metal-leaching, metal-precipitation, and self-mitigation (via co-precipitation, dilution, and neutralization) processes that occur in an undisturbed natural setting, a rare occurrence in North America. The unmined pyrite-rich deposit displays a remarkable environmental footprint of natural acid generation, high metal concentrations, and exceedingly high rare-earth-element (REE) concentrations in surface waters. Dissolution of pyrite and associated secondary reactions under near-surface, oxidizing conditions are the primary causes for the acid generation and metal leaching. The deposit is hosted in Devonian to Mississippian felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Mystic Creek Member of the Totatlanika Schist.

  13. Pilea nguruensis (Urticaceea), a new species from the Eastern Arc Mountains, central Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Darbyshire, Iain; Wilmot-Dear, C. Melanie


    A new and distinctive species, Pilea nguruensis Friis & I. Darbysh. (Urticaceae), is described based on material collected in 2006 from moist montane forest in the Nguru South Forest Reserve, Nguru Mountains, central Tanzania, and its conservation status is assessed. The paper supplements a revis...

  14. High diversity and morphological convergence among melanised fungi from rock formations in the Central Mountain System of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruibal, C.; Platas, G.; Bills, G.F.


    Melanised fungi were isolated from rock surfaces in the Central Mountain System of Spain. Two hundred sixty six isolates were recovered from four geologically and topographically distinct sites. Microsatellite-primed PCR techniques were used to group isolates into genotypes assumed to represent

  15. Distribution of uranium 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in the ecological cycle in mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Z.; Horsic, E.; Kljajic, R.; Bauman, A.


    The distribution of uranium, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po in the uncultivated mountain regions of Central Yugoslavia was investigated. Samples of beef (meat and bones), milk, cheese, grass and podsolic soil were analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of these radionuclides in this ecologically unpolluted environment was no different from cultivated regions in other parts of the world. (UK)

  16. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin (United States)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François


    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  17. Dynamics of Phosphorus export from small forested catchments in low mountain ranges in Germany (United States)

    Julich, Stefan; Julich, Dorit; Benning, Raphael; Feger, Karl-Heinz


    Phosphorus (P) plays an important role in the nutrition of forest ecosystem. The transport of P in forest soils predominantly occurs along preferential water flow pathways bypassing large parts of the soil matrix. Therefore, rapid flow processes by preferential flow and/or during storm events may lead to significant P losses from forest soils. However only little knowledge about the dynamics, magnitude and driving processes of P exports into surface water exist. In this contribution, we present the results of two studies where two small forested catchments have been monitored for a period around 3 years. Both catchments are situated in low mountain ranges in Saxony (catchment size 21 ha) and Thuringia (catchment size 5 ha) representing medium P contents in the topsoil of 1142 mg kg-1 and 834 mg kg-1 respectively. During the regular sampling (monthly to weekly sampling frequency), the mean Total-P concentrations of 23 μg L-1(Thuringian Site) and 8 μg L-1(Saxonian Site) have been measured. However, during single storm events Total-P concentrations increased considerably with maximum concentrations of 134 μg L-1(Thuringian Site) and 203 μg L-1(Saxonian Site). Our findings indicate that during storm events, especially after longer dry periods, significant amounts of phosphorus can be exported from forest ecosystems. Comparison of discharge-concentration patterns of Total-P, Nitrogen and DOC, as well as dye tracer experiments, suggest that preferential flow along biopores and stone surfaces, and the interface between mineral soil and litter layer are main pathways of export from forests. For the site in Saxony we calculated mean annual export rates of 32.8 to 33.5 g ha-1 a-1 based on the weekly sampling with different load calculation methods (flow weighted methods up to linear regression models). If the events are included into the annual load calculation the mean annual export fluxes increase from 47.8 to 58.6 g ha-1 a-1 based on the different load calculation

  18. Assessing wildfire exposure in the Wildland-Urban Interface area of the mountains of central Argentina. (United States)

    Argañaraz, J P; Radeloff, V C; Bar-Massada, A; Gavier-Pizarro, G I; Scavuzzo, C M; Bellis, L M


    Wildfires are a major threat to people and property in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) communities worldwide, but while the patterns of the WUI in North America, Europe and Oceania have been studied before, this is not the case in Latin America. Our goals were to a) map WUI areas in central Argentina, and b) assess wildfire exposure for WUI communities in relation to historic fires, with special emphasis on large fires and estimated burn probability based on an empirical model. We mapped the WUI in the mountains of central Argentina (810,000 ha), after digitizing the location of 276,700 buildings and deriving vegetation maps from satellite imagery. The areas where houses and wildland vegetation intermingle were classified as Intermix WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km 2 and wildland vegetation cover > 50%), and the areas where wildland vegetation abuts settlements were classified as Interface WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km 2 , wildland vegetation cover planning aimed at reducing wildfire risk in WUI communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Field occurrences and petrology of eclogites from the Dabie Mountains, Anhui, central China (United States)

    Wang, X.; Jing, Y.; Liou, J. G.; Pan, G.; Liang, W.; Xia, M.; Maruyama, S.


    Four distinct types of eclogites are recognized according to their field occurrences and mineral parageneses in a gneiss terrane of the Dabie Mountains, a collision zone between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons in central China. Some eclogites contain coesite and its quartz pseudomorphs enclosed in garnet and omphacite. Type I eclogites occur as layers in serpentinites and contain garnet, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, phengite, rutile, and coesite pseudomorph. Type II eclogites occur as lenticular bodies inside serpentinites and contain garnet, clinopyroxene, quartz, rutile, and edenitic hornblende. Type III eclogites occur as blocks of 2 cm to 20 m in size in a matrix of hornblende gneiss and biotite gneiss, and Type IV eclogites occur as thin layers interbedded with amphibolites. P- T estimates for these different eclogites indicate that they were formed under different physical conditions. All the eclogites were affected by later regional metamorphism for which the P- T conditions are estimated. This paper provides an introduction to the abundant eclogites from central China which have not been reported previously in Western literature. Specifically, the mode of field occurrence, petrography, mineral chemistry and formation conditions of the four types of eclogites are described. The paper is thus designed to establish a petrological framework for future detailed studies of the eclogites and their country rocks in an ancient zone of collision.

  20. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe. (United States)

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta


    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlations and Areal Distribution of the Table Mountain Formation, Stanislaus Group; Central Sierra Nevada, California (United States)

    Torrez, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Putirka, K. D.; Pluhar, C. J.; Sharma, R. K.


    Late Cenozoic evolution of the western Cordillera is a matter of ongoing debate in geologic studies. Volcanic deposits within, and adjacent to the Sierra Nevada have played a significant role in many of these debates. With local faulting coincident with eruption of members of the Stanislaus Group at ca. 38°N, the composition and correlation of these volcanics can greatly aid our understanding of Sierra Nevada tectonics. At the crest of the central Sierra Nevada, 23 trachyandesite lava flows of the Table Mountain Formation, dated at ~10 Ma, cap Sonora Peak. These 23 flows compose the thickest and most complete known stratigraphic section of the Table Mountain Formation in the region. Located ~12 km east of Sonora Peak are 16 flows of trachyandesite at Grouse Meadow. We have collected a detailed set of geochemical and paleomagnetic data for flows of these two sections at Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadows in an attempt to correlate volcanic, paleomagnetic and structural events related to uplift and extension in the Sierra Nevada and the Walker Lane. Correlation of individual flows is possible based on: stratigraphic order, temporal gaps in deposition as determined by paleomagnetic remanence direction and nonconformities, and flow geochemistry. These correlations allow us to infer source localities, flow directions, and temporal changes in flow routes. The large number of flows present at Grouse Meadow provides an additional data set from which to correlate various localities in the region to those units not represented at Sonora Peak. Several flows which occur in the upper portions of the Sonora Peak and Grouse Meadow stratigraphic sections do not correlate between these localities. The causes of stratigraphic discontinuity potentially represent: tectonic isolation across the Sierran Crest, topographic isolation by the emplacement of younger flows, or the combination of the two. Additional to the correlation of individual flows at these localities, this study shows a

  2. Climatic modulation of seismicity in the Alpine-Himalayan mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Peresan, A.; Zuccolo, E.


    The influence of strain field variations associated with seasonal and longer term climatic phenomena on earthquake occurrence is investigated. Two regions (Himalaya and Alps), characterized by present day mountain building and relevant glaciers retreat, as well as by sufficiently long earthquake catalogues, are suitable for the analysis. Secular variations of permanent glaciers dimensions, which are naturally grossly correlated with long-term average surface atmosphere temperature changes, as well as seasonal snow load, cause crustal deformations that modulate seismicity. (author)

  3. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng


    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–287.6 μg m−3 and 17.2–235.7 μg m−3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  4. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea (United States)

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.


    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  5. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (United States)

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang


    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  6. The stability test of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vulcanic rock of merapi mountain in central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husna; Rauf, Nurlela; Bijaksana, Satria


    An assessment has been done on magnetic properties of the rock from the area around the top of Merapi Mountain. The research conducted In form of stability test of Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM), Which 16 specimens that used in that test were taken from Pasar Bubar, Kali Gendol and Kali Gendong Alternating Field Demagnetization Methods applied on measurement of intensity and direction of NRM and demagnetization process. The result shown that the rock from Pasar Bubar had mean intensity of 2255486 mA/meter with a range of declination 32.80 -650 and inclination -37.40 -3.90, Kali Gendol had mean intensity of 2469.387 mA/meter with range of declination of 356.10-110 and inclination of -490 --0.10, and Kali Gendong had mean Intensity of 4139.062 mA/meter with range of declination of 62.10 -12540 and inclination of -0.80 -3520. The stability test is determined from intensity curve, stereo net Plot. Zijderveld diagram and Maximum Angular Deviation (MAD) According the result, the specimen from kali gendol were the most stable and qualifield for further used on paleomagnetic study

  7. Bridging Glaciological and Hydrological Trends in the Pamir Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Knoche


    Full Text Available With respect to meteorological changes and glacier evolution, the southern Pamir Mountains are a transition zone between the Pamirs, Hindu Kush and Karakoram, which are water towers of Central Asia. In this study, we compare runoff and climate trends in multiple time periods with glacial changes reported in the literature. Recent glacier evolution in the Southern Pamirs and its contribution to river runoff are studied in detail. Uncertainties of estimating glacier retreat contribution to runoff are addressed. Runoff trends in the Pamir-Hindu Kush-Karakoram region appear to be a strong proxy for glacier evolution because they exhibit the same spatial pattern as glacial change. There is an anomaly in the North-West Pamirs and Northern Karakoram, showing decreasing runoff trends. In the opposite way, there is a glacier and hydrological change experienced in the Southern Pamirs and Hindu Kush. The prevailing hypothesis for the Karakoram Anomaly, decreasing summer temperatures along with increasing precipitation rates, seems to be valid for the North-Western Pamirs, as well. In the Southern Pamirs, temperature trends have been rising since 1950. Here, the unique water cycle of exclusively winter precipitation does not protect glaciers from accelerated retreat. Snow cover is preset to melt within the seasonal water cycle, due to much lower precipitation amounts falling on glaciers. Therefore, a probable increase in westerly precipitation in both regions causes glacier mass gain in the Northern Pamirs and rising river flows in the Southern Pamirs.

  8. Dendrogeomorphic analysis of flash floods in a small ungauged mountain catchment (Central Spain) (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Díez-Herrero, Andrés; Stoffel, Markus; Bollschweiler, Michelle; Bodoque, José M.; Ballesteros, Juan A.


    Flash floods represent one of the most significant natural hazards with serious death tolls and economic damage at a worldwide level in general and in Mediterranean mountain catchments in particular. In these environments, systematic data is often lacking and analyses have to be based on alternative approaches such as dendrogeomorphology. In this study, we focus on the identification of flash floods based on growth disturbances (GD) observed in 98 heavily affected Mediterranean pine trees ( Pinus pinaster Ait.) located in or next to the torrential channel of the Pelayo River in the Spanish Central System. Flash floods are quite common in this catchment and are triggered by heavy storms, with high discharge and debris transport rates favoured by high stream gradients. Comparison of the anomalies in tree morphology and the position of the trees in the channel showed that the intensity of the disturbance clearly depends on geomorphology. The dating of past flash flood events was based on the number and intensity of GD observed in the tree-ring series and on the spatial distribution of affected trees along the torrent, thus allowing seven flash flood events during the last 50 years to be dated, namely in 1963, 1966, 1973, 1976, 1996, 2000, and 2005.

  9. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona (United States)

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.


    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  10. Analysis of Knickzones over a Coastal Mountain Range of the Korean Peninsula Implies Intensive Uplifts during the Opening of the East Sea (United States)

    Byun, J.; Paik, K.


    The Korean Peninsula jutting out from the Eurasia Continent is bordered to the east by the East Sea (or Sea of Japan), a back-arc sea behind the Japan Islands Arc. Along the eastern margin of the peninsula, a coastal mountain range over 800 km long including peaks reaching up to ca 2,500 m develops with great escarpments facing the East Sea. Compared to the substantial studies related to drifting of the Japanese Islands from the peninsula and consequent the opening of the East Sea as back-arc basin (23 12 Ma), the development of the coastal mountain range assumed to be associated with the East Sea opening is poorly understood. In particular, no consensus has been made regarding the timing of the coastal mountain range: Continuous uplift from the Early Tertiary over the Pliocene versus intensive uplift during the Early Miocene near ca 22 Ma. Addressing this problem could help reveal the relation between the formation of the coastal mountain range and the East Sea opening. In this study, to figure out the timing of the formation of the coastal mountain range, we extracted quantitatively the knickzones in a drainage basin over the coastal mountain range and attempted to analyze the spatial distribution of potential transient knickzones which were induced by the development of the coastal mountain range and then would migrate upstream. According to our analysis, all the identified knickzones (n=19) are revealed as steady-state responses to 1) different lithologies, 2) coarse bed material inputs from tributaries, and 3) more resistant rock patch or local faults. Non-existence of the potential transient knickzones suggests that the transient knickzones due to the coastal mountain range building had already propagated up to each watershed boundary. Sequent analysis on the time spent for knickzone migration up to the boundary reveals that the time when the coastal mountain range had formed back to at least 6 8 Ma. Therefore, it becomes evident that the development of the

  11. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp


    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (paradox of the Tibesti crater paleolakes (Central Sahara, North Chad). Abstract #64322 AGU-Fall-Meeting-2015.

  12. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif


    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  13. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain) (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.


    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  14. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Abstract. Kavousi K, Nejadsattari T, Asri Y, Ejtehadi H, Khavari-Nejad RA. 2016. Floristic changes at Khersan Glacier Territory, Alamkuh Mountain, Central Alborz, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 17: 11-15. Extensive investigation in subnival-nival area around Khersan glacier moraine introduced 71 vascular plant species. From this list 43 species have been listed in Noroozi (2001 in “ subnival-nival vascular plant species of Iran : a unique high mountain flora and its threat from climate warming ” and the others are new for subnival- nival area of Iran. Among this plant list 31 species had introduced with Kotschy (1861a,b, Bornmuller (1904, Melchior (1937, Klein (1982, european researchers and the other is named for the first time from Khersan glacier territory. Many species such as Astragalus macrosemius, Pseudocamelina kleinii, Crepis multicaulis subsp. congesta, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana and Draba melanopus due to glacier condition have very sensitive habitat, vulnerable and only gathered from restrict area with conservation value. Vegetation change happened in many nival and subnival area with upward movement in the same habitat and movement from lower altitude at alpine towards summit in subnival and nival. Carex oreophila, Campanula stevenii, Bromus barchystachyus, Oxytropis immersa, Erigeron uniflorus,Trachydium pauciradiatum, Scorzonera radicosa and some other species are surprisingly movement to subnival area and many nival and subnival species such as Didymophysa aucheri, Didymophysa fedtschenkoana, Dracocephalum aucheri and Arabis caucasica have come significantly upward in nival. The movement is different in all side of Khersan glacier moraine in north, south and the east (beside moraine tongue slops and limited with presence of soil natural generation and other ecological remarks. Limitation for soil generation starts at different altitude in northern, southern and eastern slopes of Khersan glacier valley. This study examined

  15. A measurement of the experience preferences of central Appalachian mountain bicyclists (United States)

    Roy Ramthun; Jefferson D. Armistead


    As the sport of mountain biking has grown in popularity, many localities have begun to develop facilities and promote cycling based tourism. Unfortunately, these promotional efforts often occur with little knowledge of the characteristics and preferences of mountain bikers. This study was an initial effort to collect descriptive data on the riding, travel and spending...

  16. Channel heads in mountain catchments subject to human impact - The Skrzyczne range in Southern Poland (United States)

    Wrońska-Wałach, Dominika; Żelazny, Mirosław; Małek, Stanisław; Krakowian, Katarzyna; Dąbek, Natalia


    Channel heads in mountain catchments are increasingly influenced by human activity. The disturbance of mountain headwater areas in moderate latitudes by the clearing of trees and the associated logging, road building and hydrotechnical constructions contribute to changes in the water cycle and consequently may induce a change in channel head development. Here we examine channel heads in the Beskid Śląski Mts., one of the areas most affected by ecological disaster in the Polish Flysch Carpathians. An ecological disaster associated with the decline of spruce trees in the 1980s and 1990s caused a substantial decrease (of about 50%) in the land area occupied by spruce forest in the Beskid Śląski Mts. As a result, headwater areas were subject to multidirectional changes in the environment. The purpose of this paper is to determine the detailed characteristics of channel heads currently developing in the analyzed headwater areas, as well as to identify independent factors that affect the evolution of channel heads. Geomorphological mapping was conducted in 2012 in the vicinity of springs in the study area. One-way ANOVA was used to determine the significance of differences between mean values calculated for groups identified based on: i) geomorphologic processes (hollows with rock veneer - h, spring niches - sn, gullies - g), ii) location vs. transformation of channel heads (forested areas vs., deforested areas with road constructions). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the structure and general patterns associated with relationships between the parameters of a channel head and its contribution area, as well as to identify and interpret new (orthogonal) spaces defined using distinct factors. As far as we know, this kind of approach has been never applied before. A total of 80 channel heads surrounding 104 springs were surveyed close to the main ridge in the study area. A total of 14 morphometric parameters were taken into account in this study

  17. Influence of elevation and forest type on community assemblage and species distribution of shrews in the central and southern Appalachian mountains (United States)

    W. Mark Ford; Timothy S. McCay; Michael A. Menzel; W. David Webster; Cathryn H. Greenberg; John F. Pagels; Joseph F. Merritt; Joseph F. Merritt


    We analyzed shrew community data from 398,832 pitfall trapnights at 303 sites across the upper Piedmont, Blue Ridge, northern Ridge and Valley, southern Ridge and Valley, Cumberland Plateau and Allegheny Mountains and Plateau sections of the central and southern Appalachian Mountains from Alabama to Pennsylvania. The objectives of our research were to describe regional...

  18. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions? (United States)

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A


    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks. © 2014

  19. Assessing and Predicting Erosion from Off Highway Vehicle Trails in Front-Range Rocky Mountain Watersheds. (United States)

    Howard, M. J.; Silins, U.; Anderson, A.


    Off highway vehicle (OHV) trails have the potential to deliver sediment to sensitive headwater streams and increased OHV use is a growing watershed management concern in many Rocky Mountain regions. Predictive tools for estimating erosion and sediment inputs are needed to support assessment and management of erosion from OHV trail networks. The objective of this study was to a) assess erodibility (K factor) and total erosion from OHV trail networks in Rocky Mountain watersheds in south-west Alberta, Canada, and to b) evaluate the applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) for predicting OHV trail erosion to support erosion management strategies. Measured erosion rates and erodibility (K) from rainfall simulation plots on OHV trails during the summers of 2014 and 2015 were compared to USLE predicted erosion from these same trails. Measured erodibility (K) from 23 rainfall simulation plots was highly variable (0.001-0.273 Mg*ha*hr/ha*MJ*mm) as was total seasonal erosion from 52 large trail sections (0.0595-43.3 Mg/ha) across trail segments of variable slope, stoniness, and trail use intensity. In particular, intensity of trail use had a large effect on both erodibility and total erosion that is not presently captured by erodibility indices (K) derived from soil characteristics. Results of this study suggest that while application of USLE for predicting erosion from OHV trail networks may be useful for initial coarse erosion assessment, a better understanding of the effect of factors such as road/trail use intensity on erodibility is needed to support use of USLE or associated erosion prediction tools for road/trail erosion management.

  20. Lithospheric controls on crustal reactivation and intraplate mountain building in the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia (United States)

    Cunningham, D.


    This talk will review the Permian-Recent tectonic history of the Gobi Corridor region which includes the actively deforming Gobi Altai-Altai, Eastern Tien Shan, Beishan and North Tibetan foreland. Since terrane amalgamation in the Permian, Gobi Corridor crust has been repeatedly reactivated by Triassic-Jurassic contraction/transpression, Late Cretaceous extension and Late Cenozoic transpression. The tectonic history of the region suggests the following basic principle for intraplate continental regions: non-cratonized continental interior terrane collages are susceptible to repeated intraplate reactivation events, driven by either post-orogenic collapse and/or compressional stresses derived from distant plate boundary convergence. Thus, important related questions are: 1) what lithospheric pre-conditions favor intraplate crustal reactivation in the Gobi Corridor (simple answer: crustal thinning, thermal weakening, strong buttressing cratons), 2) what are the controls on the kinematics of deformation and style of mountain building in the Gobi-Altai-Altai, Beishan and North Tibetan margin (simple answer: many factors, but especially angular relationship between SHmax and `crustal grain'), 3) how does knowledge of the array of Quaternary faults and the historical earthquake record influence our understanding of modern earthquake hazards in continental intraplate regions (answer: extrapolation of derived fault slip rates and recurrence interval determinations are problematic), 4) what important lessons can we learn from the Mesozoic-Cenozoic tectonic history of Central Asia that is applicable to the tectonic evolution of all intraplate continental regions (simple answer: ancient intraplate deformation events may be subtly expressed in the rock record and only revealed by low-temperature thermochronometers, preserved orogen-derived sedimentary sequences, fault zone evidence for younger brittle reactivation, and recognition of a younger class of cross-cutting tectonic

  1. From the central Jura mountains to the molasse basin (France and Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommaruga, A. [Institut de Géophysique, University of Lausanne, Bâtiment Amphipôle, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    This illustrated article discusses the geology of the area covering the Swiss Jura chain of mountains and the molasse basin which is to be found to the south-east of the mountain chain. The geological setting with the Jura Mountains and the molasse basin are described, as are the rocks to be found there. Their structures and faults are discussed in detail and their origin and formation are described. The paper presents a number of geological profiles and maps. The methods used to explore these structures are noted, which also indicated the presence of permo-carboniferous troughs in the molasse basin.

  2. From the central Jura mountains to the molasse basin (France and Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommaruga, A.


    This illustrated article discusses the geology of the area covering the Swiss Jura chain of mountains and the molasse basin which is to be found to the south-east of the mountain chain. The geological setting with the Jura Mountains and the molasse basin are described, as are the rocks to be found there. Their structures and faults are discussed in detail and their origin and formation are described. The paper presents a number of geological profiles and maps. The methods used to explore these structures are noted, which also indicated the presence of permo-carboniferous troughs in the molasse basin

  3. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization. (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna


    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  4. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer


    Full Text Available Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed.

  5. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  6. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon. (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  7. Water and chemical input via hydrometeors in central European mountains with Szrenica as an example (United States)

    Błaś, M.; Sobik, M.; Polkowska, Ż.; Cichała-Kamrowska, K.


    of precipitation (880 µMoles•l 1), with nitrates, ammonia and sulphates as major ions (27%, 26% and 11% respectively). It is due to the more polluted nature of the boundary layer than the free atmosphere, as well as fog water originating in low-level air. That is also the reason why chemical composition of low-level clouds forms an appriopriate indicator of the local and regional scale anthropogenic pollution and for larger scale comparisons of chemical components in cloudy environments. Summarizing, direct pollutant deposition via cloud droplets to vegetation is larger than via precipitation because of much higher pollutant concentration of the former. Dew and hoarfrost provide water quantities much lower to fog or rain, but is a modest supplementary source of water (approximately 0,8% when compare with precipitation). They appear especially during the anticyclonic type of weather with no wind and clear night skies, rare at summit position. TIC for dew and hoarfrost samples was a bit higher in comparison with precipitation (346 µMoles•l-1), but chemical composition quite different to others hydrometeors (chloride - 20%, sodium - 19% and calcium - 18%). It might be explained by air subsidence from the upper part of atmosphere, typical for the mountain summits in anticyclonic type of weather. Stable thermal stratification limits vertical air pollutant transport, especially of anthropogenic origin, and the thickness of the atmospheric mixing layer is visibly lessened. Hence, maritime aerosol is much more important in such circumstances. Both climate and landscape in Poland are similar to major part of central and western Europe so you can expect that relationship between different components of water flux and pollutant deposition observed at the Mt. Szrenica are applicable also to other European countries where similar natural conditions are found.

  8. Geochemistry balance for the high basin of the Medellin River, central mountain range (Antioquia, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Juan Carlos; Lopez Rendon, Jorge E; Hermelin Michel


    The solute budget in the upper Medellin - Porce river catchment (Colombia) was obtained through chemical and physical water analyses (rainfall and runoff). Samples were taken every two weeks between 04/07/00 and 16/02/01. Balance was carried out for the dissolved ion concentrations in surface waters averaging rainy and dry seasons values. We estimated that runoff contributes with 88% of the principal dissolved solids that flow out of the catchment (H 2 CO 3 , SiO 2 , Ca+2, Na+, Mg+2 K) relative mobility is Ca> Mg> SiO 2 > Na> K. The percentage of dissolved Mg in the Medellin River duplicated the world average for rivers draining plutonic and metamorphic rocks. A chemical weathering rate estimate of 138 kg/ha/yr was derived for the SiO 2 budget and of 48 kg/ha/yr for the sum of major dissolved cations

  9. Linking seasonal home range size with habitat selection and movement in a mountain ungulate. (United States)

    Viana, Duarte S; Granados, José Enrique; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús M; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Burón, Daniel; Fandos, Guillermo; Aguado, María Ángeles Párraga; Figuerola, Jordi; Soriguer, Ramón C


    Space use by animals is determined by the interplay between movement and the environment, and is thus mediated by habitat selection, biotic interactions and intrinsic factors of moving individuals. These processes ultimately determine home range size, but their relative contributions and dynamic nature remain less explored. We investigated the role of habitat selection, movement unrelated to habitat selection and intrinsic factors related to sex in driving space use and home range size in Iberian ibex, Capra pyrenaica . We used GPS collars to track ibex across the year in two different geographical areas of Sierra Nevada, Spain, and measured habitat variables related to forage and roost availability. By using integrated step selection analysis (iSSA), we show that habitat selection was important to explain space use by ibex. As a consequence, movement was constrained by habitat selection, as observed displacement rate was shorter than expected under null selection. Selection-independent movement, selection strength and resource availability were important drivers of seasonal home range size. Both displacement rate and directional persistence had a positive relationship with home range size while accounting for habitat selection, suggesting that individual characteristics and state may also affect home range size. Ibex living at higher altitudes, where resource availability shows stronger altitudinal gradients across the year, had larger home ranges. Home range size was larger in spring and autumn, when ibex ascend and descend back, and smaller in summer and winter, when resources are more stable. Therefore, home range size decreased with resource availability. Finally, males had larger home ranges than females, which might be explained by differences in body size and reproductive behaviour. Movement, selection strength, resource availability and intrinsic factors related to sex determined home range size of Iberian ibex. Our results highlight the need to integrate

  10. Simulation of heavy, long-term rainfall over low mountain ranges; Simulation von Starkniederschlaegen mit langer Andauer ueber Mittelgebirgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, M.


    A diagnostic model for the estimation of orographic precipitation during large-scale upslide motions is presented. It is based on linear theory for 3-D mountain overflow. From the simulated vertical velocities rain intensities at the ground are calculated using a model for precipitation formation. Due to the small number of free parameters and because of the simple initialisation method, e.g. with single radiosonde data, the model is used for regionalisation of precipitation from rain gauge observations as well as for deriving its statistics under dynamical constraints. For Southwest Germany and Eastern France, with the low mountain ranges of the Vosges, Black Forest and Swabian Alb, model simulations are performed for individual events with heavy rainfall. Thereby it is evaluated, how realistic rainfall patterns can be obtained with a combination of model simulations and measurement data. Mean rainfall distributions are derived from simulations of all extreme events with 24-h totals over 60 mm at selected rain gauge stations between 1971 and 2000. Furthermore the calculation of rain sums for different return periods is performed using extreme value statistics. So it is possible to quantify the hazard potential of heavy rainfall, which may cause flooding or landslides, in high spatial resolution (2.5 x 2.5 km). (orig.)

  11. The ophiolitic North Fork terrane in the Salmon River region, central Klamath Mountains, California (United States)

    Ando, C.J.; Irwin, W.P.; Jones, D.L.; Saleeby, J.B.


    The North Fork terrane is an assemblage of ophiolitic and other oceanic volcanic and sedimentary rocks that has been internally imbricated and folded. The ophiolitic rocks form a north-trending belt through the central part of the region and consist of a disrupted sequence of homogeneous gabbro, diabase, massive to pillowed basalt, and interleaved tectonitic harzburgite. U-Pb zircon age data on a plagiogranite pod from the gabbroic unit indicate that at least this part of the igneous sequence is late Paleozoic in age.The ophiolitic belt is flanked on either side by mafic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, limestone, bedded chert, and argillite. Most of the chert is Triassic, including much of Late Triassic age, but chert with uncertain stratigraphic relations at one locality is Permian. The strata flanking the east side of the ophiolitic belt face eastward, and depositional contacts between units are for the most part preserved. The strata on the west side of the ophiolitic belt are more highly disrupted than those on the east side, contain chert-argillite melange, and have unproven stratigraphic relation to either the ophiolitic rocks or the eastern strata.Rocks of the North Fork terrane do not show widespread evidence of penetrative deformation at elevated temperatures, except an early tectonitic fabric in the harzburgite. Slip-fiber foliation in serpentinite, phacoidal foliation in chert and mafic rocks, scaly foliation in argillite, and mesoscopic folds in bedded chert are consistent with an interpretation of large-scale anti-formal folding of the terrane about a north-south hinge found along the ophiolitic belt, but other structural interpretations are tenable. The age of folding of North Fork rocks is constrained by the involvement of Triassic and younger cherts and crosscutting Late Jurassic plutons. Deformation in the North Fork terrane must have spanned a short period of time because the terrane is bounded structurally above and below by Middle or Late

  12. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav


    Roč. 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 1-19 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * rescaled range * modified rescaled range * bootstrapping Subject RIV: AH - Economics dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices.pdf

  13. An evaluation of seven methods for controlling mountain laurel thickets in the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose


    In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) thickets in mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) stands can lead to hazardous fuel situations, forest regeneration problems, and possible forest health concerns. Therefore, land managers need techniques to control mountain laurel thickets and limit...

  14. Subpixel Snow-covered Area Including Differentiated Grain Size from AVIRIS Data Over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A. A.


    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area in alpine regions used multiple snow endmembers due to the sensitivity of snow spectral reflectance to grain size. We will present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction and approximate grain size or melt state. The root mean squared error will provide a spectrum-wide assessment of the mixture model's goodness-of-fit. Analysis will compare snow-covered area and snow-cover depletion in the 2016 year, and annual variation from the 2015 year. Field data were also acquired on three days concurrent with the 2016 flights in the Sagehen Experimental Forest and will support ground validation of the airborne data set.

  15. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins (United States)

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.


    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic

  16. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina Ribeiro


    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  17. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico (United States)

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio


    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  18. Fire and water: volcanology, geomorphology, and hydrogeology of the Cascade Range, central Oregon (United States)

    Katharine V. Cashman; Natalia I. Deligne; Marshall W. Gannett; Gordon E. Grant; Anne. Jefferson


    This field trip guide explores the interactions among the geologic evolution, hydrology, and fluvial geomorphology of the central Oregon Cascade Range. Key topics include the geologic control of hydrologic regimes on both the wet and dry sides of the Cascade Range crest, groundwater dynamics and interaction between surface and groundwater in young volcanic arcs, and...

  19. Moessbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J; Toth, I; Sulak, M; Putis, M


    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ Fe 3+ contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Moessbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  20. Moessbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, J; Toth, I [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sulak, M; Putis, M, E-mail: jozef.sitek@stuba.s [Department of of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina G, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe{sup 2+} Fe{sup 3+} contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Moessbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  1. Mössbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains (United States)

    Sitek, J.; Sulák, M.; Putiš, M.; Tóth, I.


    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Mössbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ Fe3+ contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Mössbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  2. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.


    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Middle Triassic history of the Southern Bakony Mts. is outlined on the base of horizontal and vertical facies changes of the formations. During the Pelsonian (Balatonicus Chron the evolution of the basins and platforms was determined basically by synsedimentary tectonics. The Felsõörs basin of the Balaton Highland opened due to the block-faulting of the Bithynian carbonate ramp (Megyehegy Dolomite. Above the drowning blocks „halfgraben” basins were formed (Felsõörs Formation, while isolated platforms developed on the uplifted ones in the middle part of the Balaton Highland and on the Veszprém plateau (Tagyon Formation. Due to the relative sea-level fall in the early Illyrian, the platforms became subaerially exposed and karstified. As a consequence of the late Illyrian tectonic subsidence (manifested by neptunian dykes the central platform of the Balaton Highland has been drowned (Camunum Subchron. On the contrary, the Anisian platform of the Veszprém plateau was totally flooded only during the latest Illyrian (Reitzi Subchron due to eustatic sea-level rise. It was followed by a short highstand period (Secedensis Chron, characterised by the first progradation of the Budaörs platform on the Veszprém plateau and highstand shedding in the basins and on the submarine high (Vászoly Limestone in the centre of the Balaton Highland basin. Due to the following rapid sea-level rise, carbonate sedimentation continued in eupelagic basin from the Fassanian (Buchenstein Formation. At the beginning of the late Longobardian highstand period (Regoledanus Chron the Budaörs platform intensively prograded from the Veszprém plateau to the southwest, causing highstand shedding in the Balaton Highland basin (Füred Limestone. 

  4. Spatial Patterns of Species Diversity and Phylogenetic Structure of Plant Communities in the Tianshan Mountains, Arid Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Xiang Zhang


    Full Text Available The Tianshan Mountains, located in arid Central Asia, have a humid climate and are biodiversity hotspots. Here, we aimed to clarify whether the pattern of species diversity and the phylogenetic structure of plant communities is affected by environmental variables and glacial refugia. In this study, plant community assemblies of 17 research sites with a total of 35 sample plots were investigated at the grassland/woodland boundaries on the Tianshan Mountains. Community phylogeny of these plant communities was constructed based on two plant DNA barcode regions. The indices of phylogenetic diversity and phylogenetic community structure were calculated for these sample plots. We first estimated the correlation coefficients between species richness (SR and environmental variables as well as the presence of glacial refugia. We then mapped the significant values of indices of community phylogeny (PD, RPD, NRI, and NTI to investigate the correlation between community phylogeny and environmental structure or macrozones in the study area. The results showed that a significantly higher value of SR was obtained for the refugial groups than for the colonizing groups (P < 0.05; presence of refugia and environmental variables were highly correlated to the pattern of variation in SR. Indices of community phylogeny were not significantly different between refugial and colonizing regions. Comparison with the humid western part showed that plant communities in the arid eastern part of the Tianshan Mountains tended to display more significant phylogenetic overdispersion. The variation tendency of the PhyloSor index showed that the increase in macro-geographical and environmental distance did not influence obvious phylogenetic dissimilarities between different sample plots. In conclusion, glacial refugia and environmental factors profoundly influenced the pattern of SR, but community phylogenetic structure was not affected by glacial refugia among different plant

  5. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab


    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  6. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido


    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pagel Floriano


    Full Text Available This study was conducted for Pinus elliottii Engelm. at Serra do Sudeste, Rio Grande do Sul, with the following objectives: to check production costs and possible revenues; to perform the economic and financial analysis of Pinus elliottii's wood production under regional conditions; and to determine the rotation of maximum Net Present Value (NPV. The costs for planting the stands were estimated at $2,292.09/ha and the annual maintenance ranged from R$ 134.84 to R$ 363.98 per hectare. Departing from the Site Index 28, with NPV of R$ 1,147.17/ha, Pinus' wood production becomes interesting. At the IS 26, with 6.86% Internal Rate of Return (IRR, it would be possible to pay the 6.75% Propflora's interest. Analysis of different rotations for IS 28 showed maximum VPL with rotation of 26 years, thinning in cycle of 4 years, starting up the cuts to 10 years. The economic analysis was performed with considerable caution, using productivity moderated levels, costs within patterns that can be considered between middle and high and moderated prices for today's wood market. Even with the restrictions imposed on the analysis, results are promising; especially in view of the regional market prices' increase tendency and the probability of wood veneer industries comes to absorb the larger log's size production in a closed future.

  8. Centralization of symptoms and lumbar range of motion in patients with low back pain. (United States)

    Bybee, Ronald F; Olsen, Denise L; Cantu-Boncser, Gloria; Allen, Heather Condie; Byars, Allyn


    This quasi-experimental repeated measures study examined the relationship between centralization of symptoms and lumbar flexion and extension range of motion (ROM) in patients with low back pain. Rapid and lasting changes in lumbar ROM have been noted with centralization of symptoms. However, no study has objectively measured the changes in lumbar ROM occurring with centralization. Forty-two adult subjects (mean age, 45.68 years; SD=15.76 years) with low back pain and associated lower extremity symptoms were followed by McKenzie trained physical therapists. Subjects' lumbar ROM was measured at the beginning and end of each patient visit by using double inclinometers, and pain location was documented. Subjects were grouped as 1) centralized, 2) centralizing, or 3) noncentralized for comparisons of symptom and ROM changes. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance. Significance was set at 0.05. A significant difference was found between initial and final mean extension ROM in the centralized and centralizing groups (p=0.003). No significant difference was found in the noncentralized group (p<0.05). Subjects (n=23) who demonstrated a change in pain location during the initial visit also showed a significant (p<0.001) change in extension ROM, whereas patients with no change in pain location (n=19) did not (p=0.848). Lumbar extension ROM increased as centralization occurred.

  9. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.


    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  10. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia


    Dhar, Amalesh; Balliet, Nicole; Runzer, Kyle; Hawkins, Christopher


    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age) trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in y...

  11. Alpine infrastructure in Central Europe: integral evaluation of wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges. (United States)

    Weissenbacher, N; Mayr, E; Niederberger, T; Aschauer, C; Lebersorger, S; Steinbacher, G; Haberl, R


    Planning, construction and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems at mountain refuges is a challenge. Energy supply, costly transport, limited water resources, unfavourable climate and load variations are only some of the problems that have to be faced. Additionally, legal regulations are different between and even within countries of the Alps. To ensure sustainability, integrated management of the alpine infrastructure management is needed. The energy and water supply and the wastewater and waste disposal systems and the cross-relations between them were analysed for 100 mountain refuges. Wastewater treatment is a main part of the overall 'mountain refuge' system. The data survey and first analyses showed the complex interaction of the wastewater treatment with the other infrastructure. Main criteria for reliable and efficient operation are training, technical support, user friendly control and a relatively simple system set up. Wastewater temperature, alkalinity consumption and high peak loads have to be considered in the planning process. The availability of power in terms of duration and connexion is decisive for the choice of the system. Further, frequency fluctuations may lead to damages to the installed aerators. The type of water source and the type of sanitary equipment influence the wastewater quantity and quality. Biosolids are treated and disposed separately or together with primary or secondary sludge from wastewater treatment dependent on the legal requirements. IWA Publishing 2008.

  12. Groundwater and surface water interaction in a basin surrounded by steep mountains, central Japan (United States)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Kaeriyama, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takanori


    Mountainous headwaters and lower stream alluvial plains are important as water recharge and discharge areas from the view point of groundwater flow system. Especially, groundwater and surface water interaction is one of the most important processes to understand the total groundwater flow system from the mountain to the alluvial plain. We performed tracer approach and hydrometric investigations in a basin with an area 948 square km surrounded by steep mountains with an altitude from 250m to 2060m, collected 258 groundwater samples and 112 surface water samples along four streams flowing in the basin. Also, Stable isotopes ratios of oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) and strontium (Sr) were determined on all water samples. The 18O and D show distinctive values for each sub-basin affected by different average recharge altitudes among four sub-basins. Also, Sr isotope ratio shows the same trend as 18O and D affected by different geological covers in the recharge areas among four sub-basins. The 18O, D and Sr isotope values of groundwater along some rivers in the middle stream region of the basin show close values as the rivers, and suggesting that direct recharge from the river to the shallow groundwater is predominant in that region. Also, a decreasing trend of discharge rate of the stream along the flow supports this idea of the groundwater and surface water interaction in the basin.

  13. K-Ar geochronology of the Survey Pass, Ambler River and Eastern Baird Mountains quadrangles, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska (United States)

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, R.B.; Mayfield, C.F.


    We report 76 previously unpublished K-Ar mineral ages from 47 metamorphic and igneous rocks in the southwestern Brooks Range. The pattern of radiometric ages is complex, reflecting the complex geologic history of this area. Local and regional radiometric evidence suggests that the southern Brooks Range schist belt has, at least in part, undergone a late Precambrian metamorphism and that the parent sedimentary and igneous rocks for the metamorphic rocks dated as late Precambrian are at least this old (Precambrian Z). This schist terrane experienced a major thermal event in mid-Cretaceous time, causing widespread resetting of nearly all K-Ar mica ages. A series of apparent ages intermediate between late Precambrian and mid-Cretaceous are interpreted as indicating varying amounts of partial argon loss from older rocks during the Cretaceous event. The schist belt is characterized by dominant metasediments and subordinate metabasites and metafelsites. Blueschists occur within the schist belt from the Chandalar quadrangle westward to the Baird Mountains quadrangle, but geologic evidence does not support the existence of a fossil subduction zone.

  14. Mountain peatlands range from CO2 sinks at high elevations to sources at low elevations: Implications for a changing climate (United States)

    David J. Millar; David J. Cooper; Kathleen A. Dwire; Robert M. Hubbard; Joseph. von Fischer


    Mountain fens found in western North America have sequestered atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) for millennia, provide important habitat for wildlife, and serve as refugia for regionally-rare plant species typically found in boreal regions. It is unclear how Rocky Mountain fens are responding to a changing climate. It is possible that fens found at lower elevations may...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.


    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons


    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  17. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie


    remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive......The Western Kunlun mountain range is a slowly converging intra-continental orogen where deformation rates are too low to be properly quantified from geodetic techniques. This region has recorded little seismicity, but the recent July 2015 (Mw 6.4) Pishan earthquake shows that this mountain range...... a structural cross-section in which we identify the fault that broke during the Pishan earthquake, an 8-12 km deep blind ramp beneath the Yecheng-Pishan fold. Combining satellite images and DEMs, we achieve a detailed morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, where we find nine levels of incised...

  18. Directional change during a Miocene R-N geomagnetic polarity reversal recorded by mafic lava flows, Sheep Creek Range, north central Nevada, USA (United States)

    Bogue, S. W.; Glen, J. M. G.; Jarboe, N. A.


    Recurring transitional field directions during three Miocene geomagnetic reversals provide evidence that lateral inhomogeneity of the lower mantle affects flow in the outer core. We compare new paleomagnetic results from a composite sequence of 15.2 Ma lava flows in north central Nevada (Sheep Creek Range; 40.7°N, 243.2°E), erupted during a polarity reversal, to published data from Steens Mountain (250 km to the northwest in Oregon) and the Newberry Mountains (650 km to the south in California) that document reversals occurring millions of years and many polarity switches earlier. Alternating field demagnetization, followed by thermal demagnetization in half the samples, clearly isolated the primary thermoremanent magnetization of Sheep Creek Range flows. We correlated results from our three sampled sections to produce a composite record that begins with a single virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) at low latitude in the Atlantic, followed by two VGPs situated near latitude 30°N in NE Africa. After jumping to 83°N (one VGP), the pole moves to equatorial South America (one VGP), back to NE Africa (three VGPs), to high southern latitudes (two VGPs), back to equatorial South America (three VGPs), and finally to high northern latitudes (nine VGPs). The repeated visits of the transitional VGP to positions in South America and near NE Africa, as well as the similar behavior recorded at Steens Mountain and the Newberry Mountains, suggest that lower mantle or core-mantle boundary features localize core flow structures, thereby imparting a discernible regional structure on the transitional geomagnetic field that persists for millions of years.

  19. Central nervous system dysfunction associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever infection in five dogs. (United States)

    Mikszewski, Jessica S; Vite, Charles H


    Five dogs from the northeastern United States were presented with clinical signs of neurological disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) infection. Four of the five dogs had vestibular system dysfunction. Other neurological signs included paresis, tremors, and changes in mentation. All of the dogs had an elevated indirect fluorescent antibody titer or a positive semiquantitative enzyme screening immunoassay titer for Rickettsia rickettsii at the time of presentation. Although a higher mortality rate has been reported for dogs with neurological symptoms and RMSF infection, all of the dogs in this study improved with appropriate medical therapy and supportive care.

  20. New Mexico Mountain Ranges (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  1. Inferring the colonization of a mountain range--refugia vs. nunatak survival in high alpine ground beetles. (United States)

    Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N


    It has long been debated whether high alpine specialists survived ice ages in situ on small ice-free islands of habitat, so-called nunataks, or whether glacial survival was restricted to larger massifs de refuge at the periphery. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in a local radiation of high alpine carabid beetles (genus Trechus) in the Orobian Alps, Northern Italy. While summits along the northern ridge of this mountain range were surrounded by the icesheet as nunataks during the last glacial maximum, southern areas remained unglaciated. We analyse a total of 1366 bp of mitochondrial (Cox1 and Cox2) data sampled from 150 individuals from twelve populations and 530 bp of nuclear (PEPCK) sequence sampled for a subset of 30 individuals. Using Bayesian inference, we estimate ancestral location states in the gene trees, which in turn are used to infer the most likely order of recolonization under a model of sequential founder events from a massif de refuge from the mitochondrial data. We test for the paraphyly expected under this model and for reciprocal monophyly predicted by a contrasting model of prolonged persistence of nunatak populations. We find that (i) only three populations are incompatible with the paraphyly of the massif de refuge model, (ii) both mitochondrial and nuclear data support separate refugial origins for populations on the western and eastern ends of the northern ridge, and (iii) mitochondrial node ages suggest persistence on the northern ridge for part of the last ice age. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian


    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  3. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian


    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  4. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  5. Natural Radioactivity of Intrusive-Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks of the Balkan Mountain Range (Serbia, Stara Planina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Masod Abdulqader


    Full Text Available Stara Planina (also known as the Balkan mountain range is known for numerous occurrences and deposits of uranium and associated radionuclides. It is also famous for its geodiversity. The geologic framework is highly complex. The mountain is situated between the latitudes of 43° and 44° N and the longitudes from 22°16′ to 23°00′ E. Uranium exploration and radioactivity testing on Stara Planina began back in 1948. Uranium has also been mined in the zone of Kalna, within the Janja granite intrusive. The naturally radioactive geologic units of Stara Planina are presented in detail in this paper. The main sources of radioactivity on Stara Planina can be classified as: 1. Granitic endogenous—syngenetic–epigenetic deposits and occurrences; 2. Metamorphogenic—syngenetic; and 3. Sedimentary, including occurrences of uranium deposition and fluctuation caused by water in different types of sedimentary rocks formed in a continental setting, which could be classified under epigenetic types. The area of Stara Planina with increased radioactivity (higher than 200 cps, measured by airborne gamma spectrometry, is about 380 square kilometers. The highest values of measured radioactivity and uranium grade were obtained from a sample taken from the Mezdreja uranium mine tailing dump, where 226Ra measures 2600 ± 100 Bq/kg and the uranium grade is from 76.54 to 77.65 ppm U. The highest uranium (and lead concentration, among all samples, is measured in graphitic schist with high concentrations of organic (graphitic material from the Inovska Series—99.47 ppm U and 107.69 ppm Pb. Thorium related radioactivity is the highest in granite samples from the Janja granite in the vicinity of the Mezdreja granite mine and the Gabrovnica granite mine tailing dump, and it is the same—250 ± 10 Bq/kg for 232Th, while the thorium grade varies from 30.82 to 60.27 ppm Th. In gray siltstones with a small amount of organic material, the highest radioactivity is

  6. Expansion of deciduous tall shrubs but not evergreen dwarf shrubs inhibited by reindeer in Scandes mountain range. (United States)

    Vowles, Tage; Gunnarsson, Bengt; Molau, Ulf; Hickler, Thomas; Klemedtsson, Leif; Björk, Robert G


    One of the most palpable effects of warming in Arctic ecosystems is shrub expansion above the tree line. However, previous studies have found that reindeer can influence plant community responses to warming and inhibit shrubification of the tundra.We revisited grazed (ambient) and ungrazed study plots (exclosures), at the southern as well as the northern limits of the Swedish alpine region, to study long-term grazing effects and vegetation changes in response to increasing temperatures between 1995 and 2011, in two vegetation types (shrub heath and mountain birch forest).In the field layer at the shrub heath sites, evergreen dwarf shrubs had increased in cover from 26% to 49% but were unaffected by grazing. Deciduous dwarf and tall shrubs also showed significant, though smaller, increases over time. At the birch forest sites, the increase was similar for evergreen dwarf shrubs (20-48%) but deciduous tall shrubs did not show the same consistent increase over time as in the shrub heath.The cover and height of the shrub layer were significantly greater in exclosures at the shrub heath sites, but no significant treatment effects were found on species richness or diversity.July soil temperatures and growing season thawing degree days (TDD) were higher in exclosures at all but one site, and there was a significant negative correlation between mean shrub layer height and soil TDD at the shrub heath sites. Synthesis . This study shows that shrub expansion is occurring rapidly in the Scandes mountain range, both above and below the tree line. Tall, deciduous shrubs had benefitted significantly from grazing exclosure, both in terms of cover and height, which in turn lowered summer soil temperatures. However, the overriding vegetation shift across our sites was the striking increase in evergreen dwarf shrubs, which were not influenced by grazing. As the effects of an increase in evergreen dwarf shrubs and more recalcitrant plant litter may to some degree counteract some of

  7. Developing landscape habitat models for rare amphibians with small geographic ranges: a case study of Siskiyou Mountains salamanders in the western USA (United States)

    Nobuya Suzuki; Deanna H. Olson; Edward C. Reilly


    To advance the development of conservation planning for rare species with small geographic ranges, we determined habitat associations of Siskiyou Mountains salamanders (Plethodon stormi) and developed habitat suitability models at fine (10 ha), medium (40 ha), and broad (202 ha) spatial scales using available geographic information systems data and...

  8. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin


    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  9. Long-range dependence in returns and volatility of Central European Stock Indices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav


    Roč. 17, č. 27 (2010), s. 50-67 ISSN 1212-074X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD402/09/H045; GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 5183/2010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : long-range dependence * bootstrapping * rescaled range analysis * rescaled variance analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics dependence in returns and volatility of central european stock indices bces.pdf

  10. Spatiotemporal evolution of Calophaca (Fabaceae) reveals multiple dispersals in the Central Asian mountains and adjacent regions (United States)

    Ming-Li Zhang; Zhi-Bin Wen; Peter W. Fritsch; Stewart C. Sanderson


    The Central Asian flora plays a significant role in Eurasia and the Northern Hemisphere. Calophaca, a member of this flora, includes eight currently recognized species, and is centered in Central Asia, with some taxa extending into adjacent areas. A phylogenetic analysis of the genus utilizing nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid trnS-trnG and rbcL sequences was carried...

  11. Exploration-systems approach to the Copper Mountain area uranium deposits, central Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayala, D.; Lindgren, J.; Babcock, L.


    This report presents the results of multidisciplinary investigations of uranium deposits in the Copper Mountain District of central Wyoming. Although the studies on which the report is based began in 1977, work on the project has been discontinuous and was conducted partly by investigators no longer on the project. The project report represents an effort by the authors to compile and interpret the various data and to draw reasonable conclusions. Although an attempt is made to integrate, where possible, the results of different studies (or surveys), the report is organized into individual sections that present methods and results for each approach used. Investigations reported separately include geology, geochemistry, geophysics, and emanometry. These are aimed at characterizing and understanding the Copper Mountain uranium district and aiding in the detection of similar districts. A summary of overall project results, a comparison of the usefulness of individual approaches or combinations of approaches, and conclusions are presented in separate report sections for the project as a whole. All six sections in this report have been abstracted and indexed

  12. Land–Atmosphere Exchange of Water and Heat in the Arid Mountainous Grasslands of Central Asia during the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Huang


    Full Text Available Arid grassland ecosystems are widely distributed across Central Asia. However, there is a lack of research and observations of the land–atmosphere exchange of water and heat in the arid grasslands in this region, particularly over complex surfaces. In this study, systematic observations were conducted from 2013 to 2015 using an HL20 Bowen ratio and TDR300 and WatchDog1400 systems to determine the characteristics of these processes during the growing season (April–October of the arid mountainous grasslands of this region. (1 The latent heat flux (Le was lower than the sensible heat flux (He overall, and a small transient decrease in Le was observed before its daytime maximum; daily comparative variations in both fluxes were closely related to vegetation growth. (2 Evapotranspiration (ET showed substantial variation across different years, seasons and months, and monthly variations in ET were closely related to vegetation growth. Water condensation (Q was low and relatively stable. Relatively high levels of soil water were measured in spring followed by a decreasing trend. The land–atmosphere exchange of water and heat during the growing season in this region was closely associated with phenology, available precipitation and terrain. This study provides data support for the scientific management of arid mountainous grasslands.

  13. Survey of Pathogenic Chytrid Fungi (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and B. salamandrivorans) in Salamanders from Three Mountain Ranges in Europe and the Americas. (United States)

    Parrott, Joshua Curtis; Shepack, Alexander; Burkart, David; LaBumbard, Brandon; Scimè, Patrick; Baruch, Ethan; Catenazzi, Alessandro


    Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal) is a virulent fungal pathogen that infects salamanders. It is implicated in the recent collapse of several populations of fire salamanders in Europe. This pathogen seems much like that of its sister species, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the agent responsible for anuran extinctions and extirpations worldwide, and is considered to be an emerging global threat to salamander communities. Bsal thrives at temperatures found in many mountainous regions rich in salamander species; because of this, we have screened specimens of salamanders representing 17 species inhabiting mountain ranges in three continents: The Smoky Mountains, the Swiss Alps, and the Peruvian Andes. We screened 509 salamanders, with 192 representing New World salamanders that were never tested for Bsal previously. Bsal was not detected, and Bd was mostly present at low prevalence except for one site in the Andes.

  14. Recognition of strong earthquake-prone areas (M ≥ 6.0) within mountain belts of Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, Alexander I.; Soloviev, Alexander A.; Panza, Giuliano F.; Aoudia, Abdelkrim


    Within mountain belts of Central Europe we identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning method. Some of the delineated nodes host the crustal M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes. To identify all nodes where earthquakes with M ≥ 6.0 may occur, we have employed the pattern-recognition algorithm CORA- 3. The recognized seismogenic nodes are characterized by the contrast in neotectonic movements and by an increased fragmentation of the crust at depth. The results obtained indicate a high seismic potential for the studied area and provide important information for seismic hazard assessment: a number of nodes where strong events have not occurred so far, have been recognized prone to large earthquakes. (author)

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey). (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim


    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  16. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain). (United States)

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas


    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study on Regional Geology and Uranium Mineralization of Schwaner Mountains West and Central Kalimantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soepradto-Tjokrokardono; Djoko-Soetarno; MS; Liliek-Subiantoro; Retno-Witjahyati


    Uranium occurrences indication in Kalimantan has been discovered at metamorphic and granites rocks of Schwaner Mountains as the radioactivity and geochemical anomalies. A regional geology of Schwaner Mountains show a watershed of West and East Kalimantan consist of Pinoh metamorphic rocks that was intruded by tonalitic and granitic batholite. The goal of this study is to observe the mechanism of the Uranium occurrences related to the regional tectonic, metamorphic rocks, tonalite and granitic batholite. Permokarbonaferrous metamorphic rocks as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally as the big masses of roof pendant within tonalite mass. The metamorphic rocks originally derived from sedimentary process that produce a high content of uranium as well as a fine grained volcanic material. This uranium is deposited within neritic facies. Those sediments have been metamorphosed by low grade Abukuma regional metamorphism at the condition about 540 o C and 2000 bar. In early Cretaceous Tonalite of Sep auk intruded the rock and both metamorphics and tonalites. Those rocks were intruded by Late Cretaceous alkalin granite of Sukadana. Those crystalline rocks overlaid by an unconformity-related Kampari and Tebidah Formations that including within Melawi Group of Tertiary age. Uranium mineralization as the centimetric-metric veins related to tectonic N 100 o -110 o E and N 50 o E lineaments. Uranium was interpreted as a volcanic sedimentary origin, than it re mobilized by low grade regional metamorphism process. This enuchment process was carried out by fluor, boron and other metalliferous mineral within hydrothermal solutions of Sukadana granite. (author)

  18. Small-for-gestational age prevalence risk factors in central Appalachian states with mountain-top mining. (United States)

    Ferdosi, Hamid; Lamm, Steve H; Afari-Dwamena, Nana Ama; Dissen, Elisabeth; Chen, Rusan; Li, Ji; Feinleib, Manning


    To identify risk factors for small-for-gestational age (SGA) for counties in central Appalachian states (Kentucky (KY), Tennessee (TN), Virginia (VA), and West Virginia (WV)) with varied coal mining activities. Live birth certificate files (1990-2002) were used for obtaining SGA prevalence rates for mothers based on the coal mining activities of their counties of residence, mountain-top mining (MTM) activities, underground mining activities but no mountain-top mining activity (non-MTM), or having no mining activities (non-mining). Co-variable information, including maternal tobacco use, was also obtained from the live birth certificate. Adjusted odds ratios were obtained using multivariable logistic regression comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities to those without coal mining activities and comparing SGA prevalence rates for counties with coal mining activities for those with and without mountain-top mining activities. Comparisons were also made among those who had reported tobacco use and those who had not. Both tobacco use prevalence and SGA prevalence were significantly greater for mining counties than for non-mining counties and for MTM counties than for non-MTM counties. Adjustment for tobacco use alone explained 50% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 75% of the risk for MTM counties, including demographic pre-natal care co-variables that explained 75% of the increased SGA risk for mining counties and 100% of the risk for MTM. The increased risk of SGA was limited to the third trimester births among tobacco users and independent of the mining activities of their counties of residence. This study demonstrates that the increased prevalence of SGA among residents of counties with mining activity was primarily explained by the differences in maternal tobacco use prevalence, an effect that itself was gestational-age dependent. Self-reported tobacco use marked the population at the increased risk for SGA in central

  19. Territorial dynamics and stable home range formation for central place foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Potts

    Full Text Available Uncovering the mechanisms behind territory formation is a fundamental problem in behavioural ecology. The broad nature of the underlying conspecific avoidance processes are well documented across a wide range of taxa. Scent marking in particular is common to a large range of terrestrial mammals and is known to be fundamental for communication. However, despite its importance, exact quantification of the time-scales over which scent cues and messages persist remains elusive. Recent work by the present authors has begun to shed light on this problem by modelling animals as random walkers with scent-mediated interaction processes. Territories emerge as dynamic objects that continually change shape and slowly move without settling to a fixed location. As a consequence, the utilisation distribution of such an animal results in a slowly increasing home range, as shown for urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes. For certain other species, however, home ranges reach a stable state. The present work shows that stable home ranges arise when, in addition to scent-mediated conspecific avoidance, each animal moves as a central place forager. That is, the animal's movement has a random aspect but is also biased towards a fixed location, such as a den or nest site. Dynamic territories emerge but the probability distribution of the territory border locations reaches a steady state, causing stable home ranges to emerge from the territorial dynamics. Approximate analytic expressions for the animal's probability density function are derived. A programme is given for using these expressions to quantify both the strength of the animal's movement bias towards the central place and the time-scale over which scent messages persist. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical work modelling central place foragers with conspecific avoidance. Some insights into the mechanisms behind allometric scaling laws of animal space use are also given.

  20. Searching pristine source of two gabbric plutons outcroping in Central Sierras Pampeanas Range, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daziano, C.; Ayala, R.


    This work is about the study of two gabbric plutons outcrop ing throughout Central Sierras Pampeanas range (Cordoba province, Argentina). San Lorenzo hill gabbric plutons is in the Upper proterozoic age whereas Cañada del Puerto belongs to the Early proterozoic.They are stock-type igneous bodies and they are intrusive s in an Upper Precambrian crystalline basement; it is mainly composed by gneisses, migmatites, schistes, marbles, amphibolite s, tact's, serpentinites and related rocks

  1. Rock Geochemistry and Mineralogy from Fault Zones and Polymetallic Fault Veins of the Central Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Bove, Dana J.


    During the 2004 to 2008 field seasons, approximately 200 hand samples of fault and polymetallic vein-related rocks were collected for geochemical and mineralogical analyses. The samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Evolution of Brittle Structures Task under the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) of the Mineral Resources Program ( The purpose of this work has been to characterize the relation between epithermal, polymetallic mineral deposits, paleostress, and the geological structures that hosted fluid flow and localization of the deposits. The data in this report will be used to document and better understand the processes that control epithermal mineral-deposit formation by attempting to relate the geochemistry of the primary structures that hosted hydrothermal fluid flow to their heat and fluid sources. This includes processes from the scale of the structures themselves to the far field scale, inclusive of the intrusive bodies that have been thought to be the sources for the hydrothermal fluid flow. The data presented in this report are part of a larger assessment effort on public lands. The larger study area spans the region of the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado from the Wyoming to New Mexico borders and from the eastern boundary of the Front Range to approximately the longitude of Vail and Leadville, Colorado. Although the study area has had an extensive history of geological mapping, the mapping has resulted in a number of hypotheses that are still in their infancy of being tested. For example, the proximity of polymetallic veins to intrusive bodies has been thought to reflect a genetic relation between the two features; however, this idea has not been well tested with geochemical indicators. Recent knowledge regarding the coupled nature of stress, strain, fluid flow, and geochemistry warrant new investigations and approaches to test a variety of

  2. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region. (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  3. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin


    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  4. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar


    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  5. Changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar. (United States)

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro


    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  6. Laws, Institutions and Transboundary Pasture Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountain Ecosystem of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lim


    Full Text Available Enhanced rangeland governance is a priority for the governments of the post-Soviet Central Asian states of the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan. Major transitional challenges confront the newly independent states of Central Asia. These challenges include the withdrawal of subsidies previously provided by the centralised Soviet government; moves towards privatisation and the conversion of administrative boundaries to international boundaries. In this context transboundary approaches to rangeland management are essential. This paper highlights the challenges for effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem; the inadequacies of pasture-related legal instruments and the absence of institutions for the implementation of these instruments. Transboundary management is hampered by the lack of agreements between the two countries and the differences between national level laws and institutions. Meaningful transboundary agreements and the harmonization of national level laws would be a significant step towards achieving sustainable transboundary pasture management. However, on their own these legal tools are insufficient. Long-term effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem necessitates that the causes of degradation are addressed. Mountain communities would also need to be convinced of economic and other benefits before current resource-use practices could be expected to change. Institutional and capacity building and adequate funding are also fundamental to ensuring the effectiveness of any legal instruments that are developed and any strategies that are employed.

  7. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation of the Roháčská Valley in the Western Tatra Mountains, central Europe (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Mentlík, Pavel; Braucher, Régis; Křížek, Marek; Pluháčková, Markéta; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim; Aster Team; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim


    10Be exposure ages from moraines and bedrock sites in the Roháčská Valley provide chronology of the last glaciation in the largest valley of the Western Tatra Mts., the Western Carpathians. The minimum apparent exposure age of 19.4 ± 2.1 ka obtained for the oldest sampled boulder and the mean age of 18.0 ± 0.8 ka calculated for the terminal moraine indicate that the oldest preserved moraine was probably deposited at the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The age of this moraine coincides with the termination of the maximum glacier expansion in other central European ranges, including the adjacent High Tatra Mts. and the Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM glacier in the Roháčská Valley, estimated at 1400-1410 m a.s.l., was 50-80 m lower than in the eastern part of the range, indicating a positive ELA gradient from west to east among the north-facing glaciers in the Tatra Mts. Lateglacial glacier expansion occurred no later than 13.4 ± 0.5 ka and 11.9 ± 0.5 ka, as indicated by the mean exposure ages calculated for re-advance moraines. This timing is consistent with the exposure age chronology of the last Lateglacial re-advance in the High Tatra Mts., Alps and lower mountain ranges in central Europe. The ELA in the Roháčská Valley estimated at 1690-1770 m a.s.l. in this period was located 130-300 m lower than in the north-facing valleys in the High Tatra Mts. 10Be exposure ages obtained for a rock glacier constrains the timing of this landform stabilization in the Salatínska Valley and provides the first chronological evidence for the Lateglacial activity of rock glaciers in the Carpathians.

  8. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard


    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  9. Instrumenting the Conifers: A Look at Daily Tree Growth and Locally Observed Environmental Conditions Across Four Mountain Sites in the Central Great Basin, USA (United States)

    Strachan, S.; Biondi, F.; Johnson, B. G.


    Tree growth is often used as a proxy for past environmental conditions or as an indicator of developing trends. Reconstructions of drought, precipitation, temperature, and other phenomena derived from tree-growth indices abound in scientific literature aimed at informing policy makers. Observations of tree recruitment or death in treeline populations are frequently tied to climatic fluctuation in cause-effect hypotheses. Very often these hypotheses are based on statistical relationships between annual-to-seasonal tree growth measurements and some environmental parameter measured or modeled off-site. Observation of daily tree growth in conjunction with in-situ environmental measurements at similar timescales takes us one step closer to quantifying the uncertainty in reconstruction or predictive studies. In four separate sites in two different mountain ranges in the central Great Basin, co-located observations of conifer growth activity and local atmospheric and soils conditions have been initiated. Species include Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine), Pinus flexilis (limber pine), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Pinus monophylla (singleleaf pinyon pine), Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), Abies concolor (white fir), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Measurements of sub-hourly tree radial length change and sap flow activity are compared with a suite of in-situ observations including air temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture/water content. Subalpine study site located at 3360 m elevation in the Snake Range, Nevada

  10. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.


    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m−3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (<5 μg m−3; PM2.5) and coarse (<10 μg m−3; PM2.5–10) fractions monitored at or near four sites. Standard air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  11. Predicting intensity of white-tailed deer herbivory in the Central Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    Kniowski, Andrew B.; Ford, W. Mark


    In eastern North America, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) can have profound influences on forest biodiversity and forest successional processes. Moderate to high deer populations in the central Appalachians have resulted in lower forest biodiversity. Legacy effects in some areas persist even following deer population reductions or declines. This has prompted managers to consider deer population management goals in light of policies designed to support conservation of biodiversity and forest regeneration while continuing to support ample recreational hunting opportunities. However, despite known relationships between herbivory intensity and biodiversity impact, little information exists on the predictability of herbivory intensity across the varied and spatially diverse habitat conditions of the central Appalachians. We examined the predictability of browsing rates across central Appalachian landscapes at four environmental scales: vegetative community characteristics, physical environment, habitat configuration, and local human and deer population demographics. In an information-theoretic approach, we found that a model fitting the number of stems browsed relative to local vegetation characteristics received most (62%) of the overall support of all tested models assessing herbivory impact. Our data suggest that deer herbivory responded most predictably to differences in vegetation quantity and type. No other spatial factors or demographic factors consistently affected browsing intensity. Because herbivory, vegetation communities, and productivity vary spatially, we suggest that effective broad-scale herbivory impact assessment should include spatially-balanced vegetation monitoring that accounts for regional differences in deer forage preference. Effective monitoring is necessary to avoid biodiversity impacts and deleterious changes in vegetation community composition that are difficult to reverse and/or may not be detected using traditional deer

  12. Sediment of a Central European Mountain Lake Implies an Extraterrestrial Impact at the Younger Dryas Onset

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondrák, D.; Kletetschka, G.; Hrubá, J.; Nábělek, L.; Procházka, V.; Svitavská-Svobodová, Helena; Bobek, Přemysl; Hořická, Zuzana; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Takáč, M.; Stuchlík, Evžen


    Roč. 52, S1 (2017), A373-A373, č. článku 6230. ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /80./. 23.07.2017-28.07.2017, Santa Fe] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05935S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 ; RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985530 Keywords : Younger Dryas * Extraterrestrial Impact * Central Europe Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology; DA - Hydrology ; Limnology (BC-A); DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography (GFU-E) OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany

  13. Cloud forest restoration for erosion control in a Kichwa community of the Ecuadorian central Andes Mountains (United States)

    Backus, L.; Giordanengo, J.; Sacatoro, I.


    The Denver Professional Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) has begun conducting erosion control projects in the Kichwa communities of Malingua Pamba in the Andes Mountains south of Quito, Ecuador. In many high elevation areas in this region, erosion of volcanic soils on steep hillsides (i.e., food crops. Following a 2011 investigation of over 75 erosion sites, the multidisciplinary Erosion Control team traveled to Malingua Pamba in October 2012 to conduct final design and project implementation at 5 sites. In partnership with the local communities, we installed woody cloud forest species, grass (sig-sig) contour hedges, erosion matting, and rock structures (toe walls, plunge pools, bank armoring, cross vanes, contour infiltration ditches, etc.) to reduce incision rates and risk of slump failures, facilitate aggradation, and hasten revegetation. In keeping with the EWB goal of project sustainability, we used primarily locally available resources. High school students of the community grew 5000 native trees and some naturalized shrubs in a nursery started by the school principal, hand weavers produced jute erosion mats, and rocks were provided by a nearby quarry. Where possible, local rock was harvested from landslide areas and other local erosion features. Based on follow up reports and photographs from the community and EWB travelers, the approach of using locally available materials installed by the community is successful; plants are growing well and erosion control structures have remained in place throughout the November to April rainy season. The community has continued planting native vegetation at several additional erosion sites. Formal monitoring will be conducted in October 2013, followed by analysis of data to determine if induced meandering and other low-maintenance erosion control techniques are working as planned. For comparison of techniques, we will consider installing check dams in comparable gullies. The October 2013 project will also

  14. Cortical arousal and central nervous system fatigue after a mountain marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez


    Full Text Available La investigación en pruebas de ultra resistencia se ha centrado en el estudio de parámetros fisiológicos y la composición corporal. El estudio de la influencia sobre la función cognitiva y el sistema nervioso central (SNC, utilizando el umbral de frecuencia crítica de fusión (UFCF, no ha sido medido en estas pruebas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en el UFCF antes y después de una maratón de montaña. Se analizaron 26 atletas (22 hombres y 4 mujeres, 66.9 ± 10.0 kg, 171.4 ± 7.1 cm, 37.8 ± 9.9 años. Antes y después del maratón de montaña los corredores realizaron una prueba para analizar el UFCF, también se analizó la concentración de lactato en sangre antes y después de la carrera y la frecuencia cardíaca durante la carrera. Los resultados muestran que el UFCF disminuyó no significativamente (p < 0.05 después de la maratón de montaña. La media de la frecuencia cardíaca fue de 150.9 ± 7.9 lpm y la concentración de lactato sanguíneo final fue de 4.5 ± 1.2 mmol / l. Una maratón de montaña no afectó negativamente al sistema nervioso central, la fatiga fue causada por otras causas periféricas.

  15. Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range of centraleastern Brazil: floristic relationships and geoclimatic controls


    Bünger, Mariana de Oliveira; Stehmann, João Renato; Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira


    Although biological surveys and taxonomic revisions provide key information to ecological and evolutionary studies, there is a clear lack of floristic and phytogeographic studies of the mountainous regions of Brazil, which harbor some of the most threatened plant ecosystems on the planet. Myrtaceae has been reported to be one of the most important families in the upland areas of Brazil, as well as in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we investigated the floristic composition of Myrta...

  16. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Di Matteo


    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  17. Glimpses of East Antarctica: Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic view from the central Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Goodge, John W.


    Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data provide glimpses of the crustal architecture within the Ross Sea sector of the enigmatic, ice-covered East Antarctic shield critical for understanding both global tectonic and climate history. In the central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), exposures of Precambrian basement, coupled with new high-resolution magnetic data, other recent aeromagnetic transects, and satellite magnetic and seismic tomography data, show that the shield in this region comprises an Archean craton modified both by Proterozoic magmatism and early Paleozoic orogenic basement reactivation. CTAM basement structures linked to the Ross Orogeny are imaged 50–100 km farther west than previously mapped, bounded by inboard upper crustal Proterozoic granites of the Nimrod igneous province. Magnetic contrasts between craton and rift margin sediments define the Neoproterozoic rift margin, likely reactivated during Ross orogenesis and Jurassic extension. Interpretation of satellite magnetic and aeromagnetic patterns suggests that the Neoproterozoic rift margin of East Antarctica is offset by transfer zones to form a stepwise series of salients tracing from the CTAM northward through the western margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin to the coast at Terre Adélie. Thinned Precambrian crust inferred to lie east of the rift margin cannot be imaged magnetically because of modification by Neoproterozoic and younger tectonic events.

  18. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.


    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  19. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: composition and adult phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitágoras C. Bispo


    Full Text Available A survey of the stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, is presented as well as data of some factors that could affeet the temporal distribution of the adults. For checking adult phenology, light sources were used in three stations from June 1993 to Jully 1994. The sampled individuais were identified to species or morphospecies, as possible. In this study, 301 individuais belonging to the perlid genera Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909, Kempnyia Klapálek, 1916 and Macrogynoplax Enderlein, 1909 were collected. Adults of most species were collected along the studied period, except for those of Kempnyia that were restricted to the warm-rainy season, the same pattern for this genus in southeastern Brazil. Although adults of most species were collected along most of the studied period, the largest number of adults was collected in the months with larger mean temperatures, showing a clear seasonality in abundance.

  20. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  1. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková


    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  2. Stand and within-stand factors influencing Golden-winged Warbler use of regenerating stands in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja H. Bakermans


    Golden-winged Warblers in the central Appalachian Mountains that managers should strive for 15% young forest in a heavily forested landscape (>70% forest cover and cluster stands within 1-2 km of other young forest habitats.

  3. Gold deposits in the Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region, Qinling mountains, central China (United States)

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, W.; Qiu, Yumin; Deng, J.


    The gold-rich Xiaoqinling-Xiong'ershan region in eastern Shaanxi and western Henan provinces, central China, lies about 30-50 km inland of the southern margin of the North China craton. More than 100 gold deposits and occurrences are concentrated in the Xiaoqinling (west), Xiaoshan (middle), and Xiong'ershan (east) areas. Late Archean gneiss of the Taihua Group, and Middle Proterozoic metavolcanic rocks of the Xiong'er Group are the main host rocks for the deposits. Mesozoic granitoids (ca. 178-104 Ma) are present in most gold districts, but deposits are typically hosted in the Precambrian basement rocks hundreds of meters to as far as 10 km from the intrusions and related hornfels zones. Deposits in the Xiaoqinling and Xiaoshan areas are best classified as orogenic gold deposits, with ores occurring in a number of distinct belts both in quartz veins and disseminated in altered metamorphic rocks. Alteration assemblages are dominated by quartz, sericite, pyrite, and carbonate minerals. The ore-forming fluids were low salinity, CO2-rich, and characterized by isotopically heavy ??18O. Four deposits (Dongchuang, Wenyu, Yangzhaiyu, and Dahu) in the Xiaoqinling area each contain resources of about 1 Moz Au. Some of the gold deposits in the Xiong'ershan area represent more shallowly emplaced tellurium-enriched orogenic systems, which include resources of approximately 1-1.5 Moz Au at Shanggong and Beiling (or Tantou). Others are epithermal deposits (e.g., Qiyugou and Dianfang) that are hosted in volcanic breccia pipes. Isotopic dates for all gold deposits, although often contradictory, generally cluster between 172-99 Ma and are coeval with emplacement of the post-kinematic granitoids. The gold deposits formed during a period of relaxation of far-field compressional stresses, clearly subsequent to the extensive Paleozoic-early Mesozoic accretion of are terranes and the Yangtze craton onto the southern margin of the North China craton. Hydrothermal and magmatic events

  4. Does a weekend effect in diurnal temperature range exist in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Qinglong; Kang Shichang; Xu Yanwei; Huang Jie; Fluegel, Wolfgang-Albert; Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Yan Yuping


    The 'weekend effect' method (defined here as the average for Saturday through Monday minus the average for Wednesday through Friday) has been used to identify fingerprints of anthropogenic emissions. Based on daily maximum and minimum temperature series from the China Meteorological Administration homogenized dataset, the weekend effect in diurnal temperature range (DTR) at 71 stations with elevations above 2000 m asl in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau (TP) during 1961-2004 is examined, and principal component analysis (PCA) is performed to cluster series into four subregions with similar weekend effect variability. The DTR demonstrates a much stronger negative weekend effect in autumn and shows larger positive values in winter, which provides a strong evidence of anthropogenic activity in this region, especially in the central TP. Analysis by topographic type and degree of urbanization shows a clear weekly cycle which cannot be explained by a microclimate effect. We hypothesize that the interaction with anthropogenic aerosols from local emissions and transported by atmospheric circulation may account for the weekly cycle in the TP. More caution should be paid to the driving mechanism of the weekend effect in the most remote and clear regions in the world.

  5. Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven; Thatcher, Wayne; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin


    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.

  6. Soil moisture datasets at five sites in the central Sierra Nevada and northern Coast Ranges, California (United States)

    Stern, Michelle A.; Anderson, Frank A.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.


    In situ soil moisture datasets are important inputs used to calibrate and validate watershed, regional, or statewide modeled and satellite-based soil moisture estimates. The soil moisture dataset presented in this report includes hourly time series of the following: soil temperature, volumetric water content, water potential, and total soil water content. Data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at five locations in California: three sites in the central Sierra Nevada and two sites in the northern Coast Ranges. This report provides a description of each of the study areas, procedures and equipment used, processing steps, and time series data from each site in the form of comma-separated values (.csv) tables.

  7. Estimating background denudation rates and delivery of landslide sediment from a time series of 10Be concentrations in landslide dominated basins in the southern Central Range of Taiwan (United States)

    Chen, C. Y.; Willett, S.; West, A. J.; Dadson, S. J.; Hovius, N.; Christl, M.; Shyu, J. B. H.


    The southern Central Range of Taiwan is located at a tectonic transition zone between an oceanic subduction zone and the arc-continent collision forming the Taiwan orogen. The rapidly evolving tectonic setting, tropical climate and frequent typhoons result in a complex uplift pattern, transient landscapes and extensive landslides. For this study, we obtained a series of 10Be concentrations over the last decade for 13 major drainage basins in the southern Central Range, bracketing the occurrence of a major typhoon, Morakot, which hit Taiwan in 2009 and triggered thousands of landslides. This time series allows us to simultaneously estimate the background erosion rate and assess the impact of Morakot-triggered landslides on 10Be concentrations. The time series of 10Be concentrations shows temporally lower concentrations of 10Be indicating dilution following the Morakot event in most basins. The diluted 10Be concentrations imply erosion rates up to three times higher than the lowest measured rates in the same basins. We constructed a simple sediment-mixing model parameterized by a sudden input of sediment supplied from landslides superimposed on a background denudation rate. This model was calibrated to measured landslide inventories and the series of 10Be data. We obtain a range of permissible background erosion rate and fraction of landslide sediments over time for each basin. The inferred background erosion rate reveals a northward increasing trend, reflecting the initial stage of the mountain building and indicating tectonic forcing is the main driver of the landscape evolution in the southern Central Range. The temporal changes in fraction of landslide sediments show that the available landslide material generated by the Morakot event is decreasing over time with a timescale of several years.

  8. Geomorphological records of diachronous quarrying activities along the ancient Appia route at the Aurunci Mountain pass (Central Italy) (United States)

    Di Luzio, E.; Carfora, P.


    The topic of this research consists in the description of landscape modifications occurring from the 4th century BCE to the 19th century CE as a consequence of quarrying activities on carbonate slopes along a tract of the ancient Appia route crossing the central Apennine belt at the Aurunci Mountain pass (Lazio region, central Italy). The main objectives were to discern different quarrying phases and techniques, quantify quarrying activities and understand the role of quarrying in create morphological features. Multidisciplinary studies were completed including aerial photogrammetry, geoarchaeological field surveys, morphometric characterization of quarry areas, structural analysis of rock outcrops aided by terrestrial photogrammetry, GPS measurements. The results of this study show how the local geomorpological and tectonic setting determined which kinds of extractable rock material, i.e., rock blocks or breccias, were used for different purposes. Moreover, different phases of extraction were evidenced. A main Roman quarrying phase, lasting between the 4th century BCE and the 1st century CE, was recognized as taking place over eight quarry areas. These are delimited by sharp edges and have regular shapes, revealing in some cases a staircase-like morphological profile, and are characterized by similar volumes of extracted rock material. A later quarrying phase -the Bourbon Age, 19th century CE-is assumed to be evidenced instead by five quarries with a peculiar semi-elliptical shape and different volumes of carved material. Seven quarries were found to be of uncertain age. The quarry system described in this paper, together with geomorphological records of slope cuts, terraced surfaces, and the remains of retaining walls, represents a unique and important example of anthropogenic landscape modification in the territory of the central Apennines caused by the construction and maintenance of a Roman road over the centuries. This could be relevant for further studies on

  9. Kinematic Analysis of Fault-Slip Data in the Central Range of Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Sapiie


    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.1.1-16Most of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution in New Guinea is a result of obliquely convergent motion that ledto an arc-continent collision between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The Gunung Bijih (Ertsberg Mining District(GBMD is located in the Central Range of Papua, in the western half of the island of New Guinea. This study presentsthe results of detailed structural mapping concentrated on analyzing fault-slip data along a 15-km traverse of theHeavy Equipment Access Trail (HEAT and the Grasberg mine access road, providing new information concerning thedeformation in the GBMD and the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Central Range. Structural analysis indicatesthat two distinct stages of deformation have occurred since ~12 Ma. The first stage generated a series of en-echelonNW-trending (π-fold axis = 300° folds and a few reverse faults. The second stage resulted in a significant left-lateralstrike-slip faulting sub-parallel to the regional strike of upturned bedding. Kinematic analysis reveals that the areasbetween the major strike-slip faults form structural domains that are remarkably uniform in character. The changein deformation styles from contractional to a strike-slip offset is explained as a result from a change in the relativeplate motion between the Pacific and Australian Plates at ~4 Ma. From ~4 - 2 Ma, transform motion along an ~ 270°trend caused a left-lateral strike-slip offset, and reactivated portions of pre-existing reverse faults. This action had aprofound effect on magma emplacement and hydrothermal activity.

  10. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya


    antenatal care (ANC are important factors in decreasing maternal mortality rate.  This study aimed to identify the association of ANC to nurse/midwife-assisted birth in Papua.Methods: The subjects of this cross-sectional study and purposive sampling consisted of females with toddlers in the family visiting the integrated community center on 15-30 January 2014 in 24 villages in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. Several demographic characteristics, ANC practices, and labor practices were collected by interview. Analysis was carried out by Cox regression with constant time.Results: There were 469 subjects, but only 391 subjects were available for analysis which consisted of 280 subjects with self/family-assisted births and 111 with nurse/midwife-assistedbirths. There were only 3 subjects that gave birth in the forest or stable (“kandang hina”. Compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC in the integrated community center had 5.6-fold possibility to have a nurse/ midwife-assisted birth [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 5.60; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.99-10.47]. In addition, compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC by midwife and 4 ANC visits had higher possibility to have nurse/midwife-assisted birth, 4.9-fold (RRa = 4.89; 95% CI = 2.70-8.86 and 6.9-fold (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3.59-13.27 respectively.Conclusion: Antenatal care service is a possible way to increase the proportion of deliveries by nurse/midwife in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Key words: antenatal care, nurse/midwife attended birth/labor, Papua

  11. The footprint of marginal agriculture in the Mediterranean mountain landscape: An analysis of the Central Spanish Pyrenees. (United States)

    Lasanta, T; Nadal-Romero, E; Errea, M P


    Agriculture forms an essential part of the mountains of the Mediterranean. For centuries, large areas were cultivated to feed the local population, with highly marginal slopes being tilled at times of heavy demographic pressure, using the shifting agriculture system. A great deal of agricultural land was abandoned during the 20th century, giving rise to secondary succession processes that tend to eliminate the agricultural footprint. However, revegetation is a highly complex process leading to areas with dense, well-structured plant cover, and other open areas of scrubland. This article studies the role of traditional agriculture in the deterioration of the landscape. By using experimental plots in the Central Pyrenees to reproduce traditional agriculture and abandonment, maps of field types, and current uses and ground cover, it could be confirmed that shifting agriculture has caused very heavy soil loss, which explains the deterioration of the landscape on several slopes. Burning scrub and adding the ash to the soil as a fertilizer did not greatly help to improve soil quality, but caused high rates of erosion and a very slow process of regrowth. The average data obtained from the shifting experimental plots recorded losses of 1356kgha -1 years -1 , 1.6 times more than the plot of fertilized cereal, and 8.2 times more than the dense scrub plot. Following abandonment, losses in the shifting agriculture plot were almost three times higher than the abandoned sloping field plot. Traditional shifting agriculture in the Pyrenees is the main cause of the deterioration of the landscape 50-70years after agriculture ceased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta


    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  13. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  14. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California. (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth


    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  15. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Coe, J.A.


    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43??mm of rain in 4??h, 35??mm of which fell in the first 2??h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30??) in catchments with small contributing areas (runoff and therefore less likely to generate debris flows by the firehose effect or by rilling. The character of the surficial cover and the spatially variable hydrologic response to intense rainfall, rather than a threshold of contributing area and topographic slope, appears to control the initiation process in the high alpine of the Front Range. Because debris flows initiated by rilling and the firehose effect tend to increase in volume as they travel downslope, these debris flows are potentially more hazardous than those initiated by shallow landslides, which tend to deposit material along their paths. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Celtiberian ceramic productions from the Central Iberian range (Spain): Chemical and petrographic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igea, J.; Perez-Arantegup, J.; Lapuente, P.; Saiz, M. E.; Burillo, F.


    As part of an extended program on archaeometric research of the Celtiberian production centres situated along the Central Iberian Range, ceramic fragments of different vessel types from two selected Celtiberian workshops were analyzed: La Rodriga (Guadalajara, Spain) and Allueva II (Teruel, Spain), dated from the 3nd to the 2st centuries BC. The characterization was focused on the chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, and subjected to commonlyused multivariate statistical methods to distinguish between ceramic materials and to discriminate among different compositional groups in each production centre. The analysis was completed by performing petrographic characterization, textural observations, colour measurement and mineralogical analysis of the pieces by means of XRD. The compositional variations from major, minor and trace elements allowed to establish two subgroups in La Rodriga and one ceramic group in Allueva II. The chemical composition differences were confirmed by the petrographic characteristics and the mineralogical composition of the ceramic fabrics. These results enabled us to complete the preliminary archaeometric study in order to improve the knowledge on cultural and commercial influences in this important Celtiberian territory. (Author) 22 refs.

  17. Climatic niche of Selinum alatum (Apiaceae, Selineae), a new invasive plant species in Central Europe and its alterations according to the climate change scenarios: Are the European mountains threatened by invasion? (United States)

    Konowalik, Kamil; Proćków, Małgorzata; Proćków, Jarosław


    In recent years, a few established populations of Selinum alatum have been found in the Eastern Carpathians outside its native range that is the Caucasus and the Armenian Highlands. The species is spreading predominantly in Poland where it can outcompete native plants in certain cases. This study addresses a potential climatic niche of the plant with the special aims to illuminate future spreading and indicate areas suitable for invasion. Our results show that the extent of the favourable habitat of the species is broader than currently known. This suggests that the plant has the ability to become a potential new element in some semi-natural or disturbed ecosystems associated with mountainous areas, especially in Central and Southern Europe. Future (2070) models mostly rendered similar suitability maps, but showed slight differences over particular areas and a contraction of suitable habitats, mainly in the northern part of the non-native range.

  18. Quantifying diffuse pathways for overland flow between the roads and streams of the mountain ash forests of central Victoria Australia (United States)

    Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hairsine, Peter B.; Croke, Jacky C.; Takken, Ingrid


    Limiting connectivity between road runoff sources and stream networks is crucial for preservation of water quality in forested environments. Where flow is non-eroding, the length of hillslope available to accommodate volumes of discharged water is the key to restricting connectivity. Hairsine et al. ([2002], Hydrological Processes 16: 2311-2327) proposed a probabilistic model of diffuse overland flow that predicted the hillslope lengths required to infiltrate road discharge, based on the concept of volume to breakthrough (Vbt). This paper extends this analysis to a different forest environment with the aim of testing the portability of the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model. The volume of flow required to travel overland to a distance of 5 and 10 m (Vbt5 and Vbt10) from drainage outlets was measured in deep, highly conductive mountain soils in the Upper Tyers catchment, Victoria, Australia. Rainfall, hydraulic conductivity and soil depths contrasted markedly with those in the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) study, and represent an extreme in Australian forests. Statistical analyses revealed the population of Vbt5 to be indistinguishable from that observed by Hairsine et al. ([2002]), indicating the model is valid for a range of forest soils. There was no significant correlation of sediment plume length with site characteristics such as slope, width of flow, or existence of incised pathways. It is suggested there are universal properties of pathways draining tracks and roads, with bioturbation acting to restore available pore spaces filled by antecedent plumes. Drain discharge design criteria may be developed for local conditions using the Hairsine et al. ([2002]) model, providing a robust tool for protection of water quality in the siting of new forest roads, and maintenance of exiting roads and tracks.

  19. 76 FR 22748 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range... (United States)


    ... Ltd.--Intra-Corporate Family Merger Exemption-- Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway Company and Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railway Company Wisconsin Central Ltd. (WCL), Duluth, Missabe and Iron Range Railway Company (DMIR) and Duluth, Winnipeg and Pacific Railway Company (DWP) have jointly filed a...

  20. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change in the Central Appalachian Mountains, U.S.: A Multi-Scale Analysis (United States)

    Eshleman, K. N.; Negley, T. L.; Townsend, P. A.


    Quantifying, understanding, and predicting the hydrological impacts of land use changes and land management practices are important objectives of both the academic hydrologist and the civil engineer. Relationships between stormflow response and land use have been most readily observed at small spatial scales (e.g., hillslopes, small experimental watersheds), but have proved difficult to establish in larger basins where (1) high-resolution precipitation data are usually unavailable, (2) land use patterns are often exceedingly complex, and (3) land use changes are essentially uncontrolled. In the Central Appalachian Mountains of the U.S., conversion of forests to mined lands (through devegetation, excavation of overburden and coal deposits, and subsequent reclamation) is the dominant land use change presently occurring. In the Georges Creek basin in western Maryland, for example, the portion of the watershed classified as mined (including active, reclaimed, and abandoned surface mines) increased from 3.8 to 15.5% from 1962 to 1997; modest urbanization of the basin (2.4 to 4.7%) also occurred during this period. In 1999, we initiated a comparative field study to determine if surface coal-mining and subsequent land reclamation practices affect stormflow responses at multiple spatial scales: (1) plot, (2) small watershed, and (3) river basin scales. Results from the plot-scale experiments suggested that soil infiltration capacity is grossly reduced during mining and reclamation, apparently due to loss of forest litter and soil compaction by heavy machinery. At the small watershed (<25 ha) scale, a comparative analysis of a pair of gaged watersheds indicated that conventional methods of surface mining and reclamation can increase peak stormflow, total storm runoff, and storm runoff coefficient by about 250% relative to similar forested watersheds in the same region. Finally, frequency analysis of long-term runoff data from the larger, extensively-mined Georges Creek

  1. Climate change induced lanslide hazard mapping over Greece- A case study in Pelion Mountain (SE Thessaly, Central Greece) (United States)

    Angelitsa, Varvara; Loupasakis, Constantinos; Anagnwstopoulou, Christina


    Landslides, as a major type of geological hazard, represent one of the natural events that occur most frequently worldwide after hydro-meteorological events. Landslides occur when the stability of a slope changes due to a number of factors, such as the steep terrain and prolonged precipitation. Identification of landslides and compilation of landslide susceptibility, hazard and risk maps are very important issues for the public authorities providing substantial information regarding, the strategic planning and management of the land-use. Although landslides cannot be predicted accurately, many attempts have been made to compile these maps. Important factors for the the compilation of reliable maps are the quality and the amount of available data and the selection of the best method for the analysis. Numerous studies and publications providing landslide susceptibility,hazard and risk maps, for different regions of Greece, have completed up to now. Their common characteristic is that they are static, taking into account parameters like geology, mean annual precipitaion, slope, aspect, distance from roads, faults and drainage network, soil capability, land use etc., without introducing the dimension of time. The current study focuses on the Pelion Mountain, which is located at the southeastern part of Thessaly in Central Greece; aiming to compile "dynamic" susceptibility and hazard maps depending on climate changes. For this purpose, past and future precipipation data from regional climate models (RCMs) datasets are introduced as input parameters for the compilation of "dynamic" landslide hazard maps. Moreover, land motion mapping data produced by Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) are used for the validation of the landslide occurrence during the period from June 1992 to December 2003 and as a result for the calibration of the mapping procedure. The PSI data can be applied at a regional scale as support for land motion mapping and at local scale for the

  2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone (United States)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R.


    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the northern Talkeetna Mountains represents a Kimmeridgian-Valanginian backarc basin that was filled by northwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Mesozoic strata of the island-arc assemblage. The Kahiltna assemblage exposed in the southern Alaska Range represents a Valanginian-Cenomanian remnant ocean basin filled by west-southwestward-flowing submarine-fan systems that were transporting sediment derived from Paleozoic continental-margin strata uplifted in the along-strike suture zone. A belt of retrograde metamorphism and a regional anticlinorium developed along the continental margin from 115 to 106 Ma, roughly coeval with the end of widespread deposition in the Kahiltna sedimentary basins. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. Coeval with metamorphism of deposits of the Kahiltna basin in the southern part of the suture zone was development of a thrust-top basin, the Cantwell basin, in the northern part of the suture zone. Geologic mapping and compositional data suggest that the 4 km of Upper Cretaceous nonmarine and marginal marine sedimentary strata in this basin

  3. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark


    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  4. Thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic sedimentary successions from organic and inorganic studies: the case history of the Holy Cross Mountains (central Poland) (United States)

    Trolese, Matteo; Stefano Celano, Antonio; Corrado, Sveva; Caricchi, Chiara; Schito, Andrea; Aldega, Luca


    The rapid increase in shale gas production in the USA has triggered a growing interest in unconventional resources in Eastern and Northern Europe. In this framework, the potential shale gas reserves in Poland are the most promising in Europe, extending from the Baltic Sea to the Ukraine border. In this area, the Baltic, Podlasie and Lublin basins have already become objective of shale gas exploration and the Holy Cross Mountains (HCM, Central Poland) represents the outcropping analog of the buried targeted Lower Paleozoic successions, providing a unique opportunity to study and assess source rock potential. In this work, we provide new thermal maturity data of Paleozoic rocks exposed in the HCM. A multi-method approach, coupling organic matter/graptolites (i.e., marine organoclasts) optical analysis and X-ray diffraction of clay-sized fraction of sediments, was applied to constrain the burial - thermal evolution of the sedimentary succession. The investigated area of the HCM includes two different tectonic blocks: the Łysogóry region to the North and the Kielce region to the South, separated by the Holy Cross Fault (HCF). lllite content in mixed layer illite-smectite determinations and vitrinite/graptolites reflectance measurements (Roeq%), performed on samples (Cambrian - Devonian) collected from both the regions, show a substantial difference between the two blocks in terms of thermal maturity and burial history. Roeq% values in the southern block range from 0.5% to 1.0%, with few exceptions, indicating early to mid-mature stage of hydrocarbon generation. Samples collected in the northern block show much higher values, mainly from 1.2% up to 1.7%, representative of the gas generation window. The I-S ordering type also shows relevant differences in the two blocks. In the southern block, mixed-layered clay minerals varies from R1 (short-range) to R3 (long-range), whereas R3 structures are recorded in the northern block. Vitrinite reflectance and mixed-layer I

  5. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt - A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Chia Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot


    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and

  6. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates


    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  7. Definition of spatial patterns of bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) outbreak spreading in Tatra Mountains (Central Europe), using GIS (United States)

    Rastislav Jakus; Wojciech Grodzki; Marek Jezik; Marcin Jachym


    The spread of bark beetle outbreaks in the Tatra Mountains was explored by using both terrestrial and remote sensing techniques. Both approaches have proven to be useful for studying spatial patterns of bark beetle population dynamics. The terrestrial methods were applied on existing forestry databases. Vegetation change analysis (image differentiation), digital...

  8. Central-European mountain spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) forests: regeneration of tree species after a bark beetle outbreak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Magda; Prach, Karel


    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 15-27 ISSN 0925-8574 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest management * mountain spruce forest * natural regeneration Subject RIV: GK - Forestry Impact factor: 0.890, year: 2004

  9. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.


    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  10. Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae, Brachymeles elerae (Taylor, 1917: Rediscovery in Old Balbalan, Cordillera Mountain Range, Luzon Island, Philippines, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siler, C. D.


    Full Text Available Brachymeles elerae (Taylor 1917 is one of 18 recognized lizard species of Brachymeles, and is one of only twospecies known to possess four digits on the fore- and hind limbs. This unique species was originally described on thebasis of two specimens, both lacking locality data, and has long been presumed to occur in the Nueva Vizcaya Provincein the north central region of Luzon Island in the Philippines. In 1920, two additional specimens were collected from theMunicipality of Balbalan of Luzon by E. H. Taylor. All subsequent reviews of the genus have been based on this material. Ireport on the first records of Brachymeles elerae in over ninety years and present the first photograph and new data onmorphology and habitat.

  11. Distribution of lithostratigraphic units within the central block of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: A three-dimensional computer-based model, Version YMP.R2.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesch, D.C.; Nelson, J.E.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II; San Juan, C.A.; Spengler, R.W.; Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is underlain by 14.0 to 11.6 Ma volcanic rocks tilted eastward 3 degree to 20 degree and cut by faults that were primarily active between 12.7 and 11.6 Ma. A three-dimensional computer-based model of the central block of the mountain consists of seven structural subblocks composed of six formations and the interstratified-bedded tuffaceous deposits. Rocks from the 12.7 Ma Tiva Canyon Tuff, which forms most of the exposed rocks on the mountain, to the 13.1 Ma Prow Pass Tuff are modeled with 13 surfaces. Modeled units represent single formations such as the Pah Canyon Tuff, grouped units such as the combination of the Yucca Mountain Tuff with the superjacent bedded tuff, and divisions of the Topopah Spring Tuff such as the crystal-poor vitrophyre interval. The model is based on data from 75 boreholes from which a structure contour map at the base of the Tiva Canyon Tuff and isochore maps for each unit are constructed to serve as primary input. Modeling consists of an iterative cycle that begins with the primary structure-contour map from which isochore values of the subjacent model unit are subtracted to produce the structure contour map on the base of the unit. This new structure contour map forms the input for another cycle of isochore subtraction to produce the next structure contour map. In this method of solids modeling, the model units are presented by surfaces (structure contour maps), and all surfaces are stored in the model. Surfaces can be converted to form volumes of model units with additional effort. This lithostratigraphic and structural model can be used for (1) storing data from, and planning future, site characterization activities, (2) preliminary geometry of units for design of Exploratory Studies Facility and potential repository, and (3) performance assessment evaluations

  12. Chiricahua leopard frog status in the Galiuro Mountains, Arizona, with a monitoring framework for the species' entire range (United States)

    Lawrence L. C. Jones; Michael J. Sredl


    The Chiricahua leopard frog (Rana chiricahuensis) was historically widespread in suitable habitat throughout its range. Reports of recent population declines led to inventories of Chiricahua leopard frog localities. Surveys reported here establish a new baseline of occurrence in the Galiuros: only two of 21 historical localities were found to be...

  13. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft


    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  14. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan


    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  15. Metallogeny of The Sierra de Guanajuato Range, Central México (United States)

    Pedro F., Z. D.


    The Sierra de Guanajuato Range (SGR), trending N315° at Central México, is an orographic feature extending over a distance of 80 km. SGR comprises three well defined lithostratigraphic units: (1) a cretaceous basement including an arc-derived terrane named Guanajuato Arc (GA) made of gabbro, diorite and basaltic pillowed lava, and volcano-sedimentary rocks belonging to Arperos fore-arc basin which are geochemically anomalous in Au (0.15 ppm), Ag (3 ppm), Cu (40 ppm), Pb (50 ppm) and Zn (15 ppm); (2) Early Tertiary intrusive rocks, e.g., Comanja Granite which is affected by the presence of tourmalinized (schörl) aplito-pegmatite dykes mineralized with rare earths elements, and (3) Eocene redbeds (1,500-2000 m) and Oligocene-Miocene volcanics cover. The metallogeny of the SGR shows a multiple origin in time and space: volcano-sedimentary, granitic and volcanic, being possible to define three metallogenic epochs: cretaceous, paleocene and oligocene. Cretaceous epoch includes: (a) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) of bimodal-siliclastic type belonging to León-Guanajuato district; wallrock of VMS is made of felsic-internediate volcanics and black argillite; at Los Gavilanes deposit paragenesis is next: chalcopyrite > sphalerite > galena, pyrite > pyrrhotite > marcasite; grade is as follows: Au: .02-.07 g/t; Ag: 157-18.5 g/t; Cu: 2.24-0.81%, Pb: 4.16-0.03%; Zn: 10.35-3.02 %; (b) lens-shaped stratiform bodies of massive pyrite (i. ex., San Ignacio prospect; ˜ 4,000 ton) of exhalative-sedimentary origin with chalcopyrite and sphalerite microveins. Paleocene epoch includes both quartz-cordierite-sanidine veins and replacement bodies of hydrothermal metamorphic filliation (W +Se-Bi, Pb, Zn, Cu), and pyrometasomatic bodies [Cu, Pb, Zn (Ag), W] which genetically are linked to Comanja Granite emplacement. The wallrock at El Maguey mine (35,000 ton; 0.6% WO3) is made of hornfel and the vein (1.8-3.2m width) has a banding structure made of : \\{quartz & K

  16. Weathering landforms exposure and erosion phases in Pedriza de Manzanares (Spanish Central Range) (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M.; Centeno Carrillo, J. D.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.


    The phases of erosion can be reconstructed measuring the position and dimensions of exposed granite underground weathering landforms. We afford a first approach of this kind of "erosion history" in the area of Pedriza de Manzanares. Pedriza de Manzanares is the main part of the Natural Park of High Manzanares River Basin. The area is part also of the Late Paleozoic granites of the Spanish Central Range, intruded during the Variscan orogeny, and uplifted to its present position during Alpine orogeny. The granite shows a complex fracture pattern (related to Variscan and Alpine processes) that defines a landscape with alternance of regolith-connected-depressions and fresh granite outcrops with abundant bornhards and boulders. Pedriza (as most people call it) is a well known area for its granite landforms which attract tourism, educators and rock climbers. In this area, the contrasting hydrological behaviour of fresh and weathered granite, especially in fractures areas, produces small aquifers with a high recharge from adjacent impermeable surfaces. These conditions have been studied in relation to the soil water availability (for both human and ecosystems), and in relation to the geomorphic edaphic processes (taffoni, flared slopes, etc.). In previous works (García et al., 2008, Centeno et al., 2010) a conceptual model using MS-Excel was devised which provided the basis by which were defined the relevant variables and their interconnections (landforms, climate, hydrogeology). From the standpoint of soils water (and the related weathering processes or ecosystem characteristics), this is especially important in semi-arid and arid climates, as has been appreciated by practising farmers for many years, for the contrast in productive potential in stark between the regolithic and rocky areas. At the same time, granite weathering is enhanced by the persistent presence of water in the regolith and, as a consequence, many microforms are initiated or evolve under the regolith

  17. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  18. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula. (United States)

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo


    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-component ensembles of future meteorological and natural snow conditions for 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range, Northern French Alps (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Déqué, Michel; Eckert, Nicolas; Lejeune, Yves; Morin, Samuel


    This article investigates the climatic response of a series of indicators for characterizing annual snow conditions and corresponding meteorological drivers at 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range in the Northern French Alps. Past and future changes were computed based on reanalysis and observations from 1958 to 2016, and using CMIP5-EURO-CORDEX GCM-RCM pairs spanning historical (1950-2005) and RCP2.6 (4), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (13 each) future scenarios (2006-2100). The adjusted climate model runs were used to drive the multiphysics ensemble configuration of the detailed snowpack model Crocus. Uncertainty arising from physical modeling of snow accounts for 20 % typically, although the multiphysics is likely to have a much smaller impact on trends. Ensembles of climate projections are rather similar until the middle of the 21st century, and all show a continuation of the ongoing reduction in average snow conditions, and sustained interannual variability. The impact of the RCPs becomes significant for the second half of the 21st century, with overall stable conditions with RCP2.6, and continued degradation of snow conditions for RCP4.5 and 8.5, the latter leading to more frequent ephemeral snow conditions. Changes in local meteorological and snow conditions show significant correlation with global temperature changes. Global temperature levels 1.5 and 2 °C above preindustrial levels correspond to a 25 and 32 % reduction, respectively, of winter mean snow depth with respect to the reference period 1986-2005. Larger reduction rates are expected for global temperature levels exceeding 2 °C. The method can address other geographical areas and sectorial indicators, in the field of water resources, mountain tourism or natural hazards.

  20. Long range forecasting of summer monsoon rainfall from SST in the central equatorial Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y; Murthy, T.V.R.

    of summer monsoon rainfall from SST in the central equatorial Indian ocean Y. Sadhuram and T. V. Ramana Murthy National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176, Lawson's Bay Colony, . Visakhapatnam-530017 ABSTRACT Severalprediction tedmiques have... and droughts associated with strong and weak monsoons greatly influence the economy of the country. Most of the droughts and floods are associated with EI-Nino and La- Nina respectively (Webster andYang3 and krishna Kumar et al\\. The relationship between ENSO...

  1. Palaeoenvironmental and geochemical approach of Archaeocyath-rich facies from Lower Cambrian of Western Gondwana margin at Central Iberian Zone (Urda, Toledo Mountains, Spain) (United States)

    Menéndez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Moreno-Eris, Elena; Perejón, Antonio; Reitner, Joachim


    Archaeocyath-rich facies are located in a quarry close to Urda village, at Toledo Mountains, Spain. The outcrops belong to the Caliza de los Navalucillos Formation and they record a considerably high diverse archaeocyath assemblage in the Lower Cambrian successions from the Central Iberian Zone (Julivert et al. 1972 [1974]). In fact, it is first time recorded the presence of Agyrekocyathus, Dokidocyathus, and Plicocyathus in the Central Iberian Zone. Therefore Plicocyathus is no longer exclusive to biozone VI in Spain. The presence of Anthomorpha is characteristic for the early Botomian, presently early Stage 4 (ICS, 2009), and the assemblage corresponds to the biozone VII (late Ovetian, following the biozonation of Perejón & Moreno-Eiris, 2006). The fossiliferous part of the succession is formed by seven lithofacies, all of them tectonically folded and with a low grade metamorphic overprint. They are comprised by two main groups of facies: (a) mound-shaped to massive lithofacies (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (b) massive to bedded and nodular lithofacies (B1, B2, B3). Archaeocyaths occur in several facies: (A1) mound-shaped white marble with irregular to stromatactoid cavities; (A2) massive mottled white to grey limestone; (A3) massive grey limestone with slumps levels; (A4) massive archaeocyath-rich orange limestone; as well as in carbonate nodules embedded in siltstones and cherts (B1, B2 and B3). The best preserved assemblage comes from the nodule record, where fossils are partially pyritized. This type of preservation is exceptional and has never been described before. XRD and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses reveal the presence of pyrite and pyrrotine partially altered to iron oxides and hydroxides (hematite and goethite) surrounding the archaeocyath cups. In Central Iberian Zone, the development of mounds and nodular facies like those described here is unusual, although the Botomian marks the peak for Early Cambrian archaeocyathan-microbial mounds

  2. The polycyclic Lausche Volcano (Lausitz Volcanic Field) and its message concerning landscape evolution in the Lausitz Mountains (northern Bohemian Massif, Central Europe) (United States)

    Wenger, Erik; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf; Mrlina, Jan


    The Tertiary Lausitz Volcanic Field covers a broad area encompassing parts of Eastern Saxony (Germany), Lower Silesia (Poland) and North Bohemia (Czech Republic). Volcanism was predominantly controlled by the volcano-tectonic evolution of the Ohře Rift and culminated in the Lower Oligocene. This paper deals with the highest volcano of this area, the Lausche Hill (792.6 m a.s.l.) situated in the Lausitz Mountains. We offer a reconstruction of the volcanic edifice and its eruptive history. Its complex genesis is reflected by six different eruption styles and an associated petrographic variety. Furthermore, the Lausche Volcano provides valuable information concerning the morphological evolution of its broader environs. The remnant of an alluvial fan marking a Middle Paleocene-Lower Eocene (62-50 Ma) palaeo-surface is preserved at the base of the volcano. The deposition of this fan can be attributed to a period of erosion of its nearby source area, the Lausitz Block that has undergone intermittent uplift at the Lausitz Overthrust since the Upper Cretaceous. The Lausche Hill is one of at least six volcanoes in the Lausitz Mountains which show an eminent low level of erosion despite their Oligocene age and position on elevated terrain. These volcanoes are exposed in their superficial level which clearly contradicts their former interpretation as subvolcanoes. Among further indications, this implies that the final morphotectonic uplift of the Lausitz Mountains started in the upper Lower Pleistocene ( 1.3 Ma) due to revived subsidence of the nearby Zittau Basin. It is likely that this neotectonic activity culminated between the Elsterian and Saalian Glaciation ( 320 ka). The formation of the low mountain range was substantially controlled by the intersection of the Lausitz Overthrust and the Ohře Rift.

  3. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus: a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M Araújo

    Full Text Available Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental

  4. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus): a comparison between central and range edge populations. (United States)

    Araújo, Rita M; Serrão, Ester A; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Åberg, Per


    Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s)) of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s) much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity) of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s) that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental variability and

  5. Climate and environmental changes over the past 150 years inferred from the sediments of Chaiwopu Lake, central Tianshan Mountains, northwest China (United States)

    Ma, Long; Wu, Jinglu; Abuduwaili, Jilili


    We used a 55-cm sediment core from shallow Chaiwopu Lake in the central Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, northwest China, to investigate climate and environmental changes in this arid region over the past ~150 years. The core was dated using 137Cs. We compared temporal changes in several sediment variables with recent meteorological and tree-ring records. Organic matter had a positive correlation with the Palmer Drought Severity Index in the central Tianshan Mountains, and the δ13C of organic matter had a positive correlation with regional temperature. We applied constrained incremental sum-of-squares cluster analysis to element concentrations in the core and identified three distinct zones: (1) 55-46 cm, ~1860-1910, (2) 46-26 cm, ~1910-1952, and (3) 26-0 cm, 1952-present. Between 1880 and 1910 AD, following the Little Ice Age (LIA), the sediment environment was relatively stable, climate was cold and dry, and the lake water displayed high salinity, in contrast to conditions during the LIA. During the LIA, westerlies carried more water vapor into Central Asia when the North Atlantic Oscillation was in a negative phase, and encountered the enhanced Siberia High, which probably led to increased precipitation. In the period 1910-1950 AD, the lake was shallow and the regional climate was unstable, with high temperatures and humidity. In the last ~15-20 years, human activities caused an increase in sediment magnetic susceptibility, and heavy metal and total phosphorus concentrations in the sediment were substantially enriched. Mean annual temperature displays a warming trend over the past 50 years, and the lowest temperature was observed in the 1950s. There has been an increase in annual total precipitation since the 1990s. The combined influences of climate and human activity on the lake environment during this period were faithfully recorded in sediments of Chaiwopu Lake. This study provides a scientific basis for environmental management and protection.

  6. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA) (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus


    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  7. First detection of Bacillus anthracis in feces of free-ranging raptors from central Argentina. (United States)

    Saggese, Miguel D; Noseda, Ramón P; Uhart, Marcela M; Deem, Sharon L; Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo C; Ferreyra-Armas, María C; Hugh-Jones, Martin


    Prevalence of anthrax spores in feces of raptors was determined from samples collected in November-December 2000 and April-May 2001 in an agricultural region of Santa Fé province, Argentina. Feces were tested from 48 birds of six raptor species. One of 14 chimango caracaras (Milvago chimango) and one of eight road-side hawks (Buteo magnirostris) tested positive. The prevalence of Bacillus anthracis spores in feces for the six species was 4% (n=48). The prevalence was 7% (n=14) for chimango caracaras, 13% for road-side hawks (n=8), and 0% for the remaining species (Burrowing owl [Speotyto cunicularia] [n=17], Swainson's hawk [Buteo swainsoni] [n=3], Aplomado falcon [Falco femoralis] [n=2], and American kestrel [Falco sparverius] [n=4]). Grouped by their feeding habits, prevalence for scavenger species was not significantly different than for predators (7% vs. 3%, P>0.999). This study provides evidence that in central Argentina scavenger and non-scavenger raptors may have a role in the epidemiology of anthrax. Long-term studies to determine the extent of this potential involvement in the epidemiology of anthrax in central Argentina are required.

  8. Immobilization of free-ranging maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) with tiletamine and zolazepam in central Brazil. (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Kashivakura, Cynthia Kayo; Ferro, Claudia; de Almeida, Jácomo Anah Tereza; Silveira, Leandro; Astete, Samuel


    A tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride combination was used successfully to immobilize 27 free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) at a mean dose of 2.77+/-0.56 (mean+/-SD) mg/kg. The induction time ranged from 3-15 min. Animals remained immobilized for periods of 48.56 +/-12.65 min. Compulsive licking, excessive salivation, muscle twitching, muscle tremors, tachypnea, and bradycardia were observed associated with the induction of the anesthesia in 13 of 27 maned wolves. Muscle twitching, pedal withdrawal reflex, muscle tremors, and ataxia were observed during recovery in three (11%) maned wolves. There were no significant differences in heart rates (P = 0.44), respiratory rates (P = 0.82), and rectal temperatures (P = 0.54) recorded at 5, 15, and 25 min after induction at these dosages. The tiletamine hydrochloride-zolazepam hydrochloride combination was shown to be an effective and safe immobilizing agent for free-ranging maned wolves.

  9. Biomass and species structure of the phytoplankton of an high mountain lake (Lake Paione Superiore, Central Alps, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta BETTINETTI


    Full Text Available In the framework of the EU MOLAR Project on “Measuring and modelling the dynamic response of remote mountain lake ecosystems to environmental change” a three whole-year study (1996-1998 on the composition and dynamics of phytoplankton community of the high mountain lake, acid sensitive Lago Paione Superiore (LPS was carried out. The data were analyzed and compared with those gathered during the years 1991-1993. The phytoplankton was made up by nanoplanktonic unicellular algae, the only exception being the colonial Dinobryon sertularia. Just four species, belonging to Chrysophyceae (Chromulina sp., Dinobryon sertularia and Mallomonas alveolata and to Dinophyceae (Gymnodinium sp. were important as biomass and density, and they were always present throughout the year. The prevalence of potentially mixotrophic species suggests an adaptive strategy to the low environmental concentrations of inorganic carbon and phosphorus. The seasonal variations of the total biomass were similar to those observed in the previous years. The total number of species has increased; this could be related with the recent increase of the pH and of the alkalinity.

  10. Nitrogen mineralization in forestry-drained peatland soils in the Stołowe Mountains National Park (Central Sudetes Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glina Bartłomiej


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the intensity of nitrogen mineralization in forestry drained ombrotrophic peatland soils in the Stołowe Mountains National Park, SW Poland. Additionally discussion about the shallow organic soils classification according to Polish Soil Classification (2011 is presented. For the study three research transects were established on forestry drained ombrotrophic peatlands in the Stołowe Mountains. Each of the transect consisted of four (site A and B or five (site C sampling plots. Sampling was conducted in the year 2012. The soil samples for the basic soil properties analysis were sampled in April, whereas undisturbed soil samples were collected in stainless steel rings (100 cm3 every 10 cm in April (spring, July (summer and October (autumn to show the seasonal dynamics of nitrogen mineralization. Statistical analysis showed that the content of N-NH4 was mainly determined by actual soil moisture and precipitation rate, whereas the content of N-NO3 was positively correlated with air temperature. Among investigated peatlands the highest concentrations of mineral nitrogen forms was observed in the Długie Mokradło bog, situated on the Skalniak Plateau-summit. Additionally, the results obtained showed that implementation of new subtype: shallow fibric peat soils (in Polish: gleby torfowe fibrowe płytkie within the type of peat soils (in polish: gleby torfowe should be considered during developing of the next update of Polish Soil Classification.

  11. Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Landgraf, A.


    The tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.

  12. Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Landgraf, A.; Zielke, Olaf; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Ballato, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Schildgen, T. F.; Friedrich, A. M.; Tabatabaei, S. H.


    The tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.

  13. The timing and cause of glacial activity during the last glacial in central Tibet based on 10Be surface exposure dating east of Mount Jaggang, the Xainza range (United States)

    Dong, Guocheng; Zhou, Weijian; Yi, Chaolu; Fu, Yunchong; Zhang, Li; Li, Ming


    Mountain glaciers are sensitive to climate change, and can provide valuable information for inferring former climates on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The increasing glacial chronologies indicate that the timing of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) recorded across the TP is asynchronous, implying different local influences of the mid-latitude westerlies and Asian Summer Monsoon in triggering glacier advances. However, the well-dated sites are still too few, especially in the transition zone between regions controlled by the two climate systems. Here we present detailed last glacial chronologies for the Mount Jaggang area, in the Xainza range, central Tibet, with forty-three apparent 10Be exposure-ages ranging from 12.4 ± 0.8 ka to 61.9 ± 3.8 ka. These exposure-ages indicate that at least seven glacial episodes occurred during the last glacial cycle east of Mount Jaggang. These include: a local LGM that occurred at ∼61.9 ± 3.8 ka, possibly corresponding to Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS 4); subsequent glacial advances at ∼43.2 ± 2.6 ka and ∼35.1 ± 2.1 ka during MIS 3; one glacial re-advance/standstill at MIS3/2 transition (∼29.8 ± 1.8 ka); and three glacial re-advances/standstills that occurred following MIS 3 at ∼27.9 ± 1.7 ka, ∼21.8 ± 1.3 ka, and ∼15.1 ± 0.9 ka. The timing of these glacial activities is roughly in agreement with North Atlantic millennial-scale climate oscillations (Heinrich events), suggesting the potential correlations between these abrupt climate changes and glacial fluctuations in the Mount Jaggang area. The successively reduced glacial extent might have resulted from an overall decrease in Asian Summer Monsoon intensity over this timeframe.

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel


    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  15. Congruence between distribution modelling and phylogeographical analyses reveals Quaternary survival of a toadflax species (Linaria elegans) in oceanic climate areas of a mountain ring range. (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo


    · The role of Quaternary climatic shifts in shaping the distribution of Linaria elegans, an Iberian annual plant, was investigated using species distribution modelling and molecular phylogeographical analyses. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain the Quaternary history of its mountain ring range. · The distribution of L. elegans was modelled using the maximum entropy method and projected to the last interglacial and to the last glacial maximum (LGM) using two different paleoclimatic models: the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROC). Two nuclear and three plastid DNA regions were sequenced for 24 populations (119 individuals sampled). Bayesian phylogenetic, phylogeographical, dating and coalescent-based population genetic analyses were conducted. · Molecular analyses indicated the existence of northern and southern glacial refugia and supported two routes of post-glacial recolonization. These results were consistent with the LGM distribution as inferred under the CCSM paleoclimatic model (but not under the MIROC model). Isolation between two major refugia was dated back to the Riss or Mindel glaciations, > 100 kyr before present (bp). · The Atlantic distribution of inferred refugia suggests that the oceanic (buffered)-continental (harsh) gradient may have played a key and previously unrecognized role in determining Quaternary distribution shifts of Mediterranean plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.


    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  17. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown


    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  18. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range. (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C


    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  19. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem. (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya


    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. [Effect of artificial mountain climate on the functional state of higher regions of the central nervous system in man]. (United States)

    Berezovskiĭ, V A; Levashov, M I


    The study included 97 patients with vegetative vascular dystonia and chronic non-specific pulmonary diseases exposed to artificial high-altitude climate in an Orotron climatic chamber during 2 weeks. Atmospheric conditions maintained in the chamber had the following parameters: partial pressure of oxygen--147-160 gPa, relative humidity--60-70%, air temperature--16-18 degrees C, light aeroion content--up to 6000 It was shown that the exposure to artificial mountain climatic conditions enhanced functional mobility of nervous processes and decreased the length of the sensorimotor reactions of the patients. Individual differences in the change of parameters being measured depended on the degree of initial functional flexibility of nervous processes.

  1. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James


    clastic rocks reported in previously measured sections of the Phi Kappa, as well as the sequence along Phi Kappa Creek from which the name originates, are excluded from the Phi Kappa as revised and are reassigned to two structural plates of Mississippian Copper Basin Formation; other strata now excluded from the formation are reassigned to the Trail Creek Formation and to an unnamed Silurian and Devonian unit. As redefined, the Phi Kappa Formation is only about 240 m thick, compared with the 3,860 m originally estimated, and it occupies only about 25 percent of the outcrop area previously mapped in 1930 by H. G. Westgate and C. P. Ross. Despite this drastic reduction in thickness and the exclusion of the rocks along Phi Kappa Creek, the name Phi Kappa is retained because of widely accepted prior usage to denote the Ordovician graptolitic shale facies of central Idaho, and because the Phi Kappa Formation as revised is present in thrust slices on Phi Kappa Mountain, at the head of Phi Kappa Creek. The lithic and faunal consistency of this unit throughout the area precludes the necessity for major facies telescoping along individual faults within the outcrop belt. However, tens of kilometers of tectonic shortening seems required to juxtapose the imbricated Phi Kappa shale facies with the Middle Ordovician part of the carbonate and quartzite shale sequence of east central Idaho. The shelf rocks are exposed in the Wildhorse structural window of the northeastern Pioneer Mountains, and attain a thickness of at least 1,500 m throughout the region north and east of the Pioneer Mountains. The Phi Kappa is in direct thrust contact on intensely deformed medium- to high-grade metamorphic equivalents of the same shelf sequence in the Pioneer window at the south end of the Phi Kappa-Trail Creek outcrop belt. Along East Pass, Big Lake, and Pine Creeks, north of the Pioneer Mountains, some rocks previously mapped as Ramshorn Slate are lithologically and faunally equivalent to the P

  2. Long-range atmospheric transport of persistent organochlorinated compounds from south and mainland south-eastern Asia to a remote mountain site in south-western China. (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Hua; Liu, Xiang


    A range of organochlorinated compounds have been consumed in China, India and the countries of mainland southeast Asia (MSA). Considering their persistence in the environment and ability in long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT), the potential outflow of these compounds from this region is therefore of great concern in the context of the global distribution of toxic chemicals. As part of a monitoring campaign aimed at investigating the LRAT of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from southern China, MSA and northern India, atmospheric levels of OCPs and PCBs were measured once a week from October 2005 through December 2006 at Tengchong Mountain (TM), a remote site located in south-western China. The average concentrations of OCPs were found to be higher than those in other remote stations in the Arctic and the Tibetan plateau, except for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH). A high level of β-HCH and low α-HCH/β-HCH ratio was attributed to an accidental release of β-HCH from unknown sources, besides obvious evidence of lindane (γ-HCH) and technical HCH usage. Temporal variations of chlordanes and endosulfan were related to the usage pattern of these compounds, as well as LRAT. In contrast, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) exhibited a relatively minor seasonal variation. The OCP levels at the monitoring site were found to be related to the air parcel back trajectories on the basis of four distinct clusters. Elevated levels of HCHs and DDTs were observed when air parcels originated from northern India where considerable OCP usage was reported recently, while high levels of γ-HCH and TC (trans-chlordane) were mainly associated with air masses from southern China and northern MSA. The study highlighted the high background level of OCPs as well as their temporal patterns of trans-boundary LRAT in the MSA region.

  3. Source-to-sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Central Range and Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia) (United States)

    Babault, Julien; Viaplana-Muzas, Marc; Legrand, Xavier; Van Den Driessche, Jean; González-Quijano, Manuel; Mudd, Simon M.


    The island of New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. Recent studies have shown that rapid subduction, uplift and exhumation events took place in response to rapid, oblique convergence between the Pacific and the Australian plates. The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the New Guinea Island is still poorly understood: this bay links a major structural block, the Kepala Burung block, to the island's Central Ranges. Previous studies have shown that Cenderawasih Bay contains a thick (>8 km) sequence of undated sediments. One hypothesis claims that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma opening created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate. Alternatively, the current configuration of Cenderawasih Bay could have resulted from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics and oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. We test these hypotheses using (i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, (ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and (iii) seismic lines interpretation. We suggest that sediments started to accumulate in Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the inception of growth of the Central Range, beginning at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12,200 m. This evidence is more consistent with the second hypothesis, and the volume of sediment accumulated means it is unlikely that the embayment was the result of recent (2-3 Ma) rotation of structural blocks. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. Ophiolites, volcanic arc rocks and diorites contribute minor proportions. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase

  4. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.


    preserved in the Colorado Headwaters Basin, suggesting this basin may have remained closed throughout the Paleocene and early Eocene. The field trip also addresses middle Eocene(?) folding of the late Laramide basin-fill strata, related to steep reverse faults that offset the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Late Oligocene magmatic activity is indicated by dikes, plugs, and eruptive volcanic rocks in the Rabbit Ears Range and the Never Summer Mountains that span and flank the Colorado Headwaters Basin. These intrusions and eruptions were accompanied by extensional faulting along predominantly northwesterly trends. Erosion accompanied the late Oligocene igneous activity and faulting, leading to deposition of boulder conglomerates and sandstones of the North Park Formation and high-level conglomerates across the landscape that preserve evidence of a paleo-drainage network that drained the volcanic landscape.

  5. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile. (United States)

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar


    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  6. Strain localization in the lower crust: brittle precursors versus lithological heterogeneities (Musgrave Ranges, Central Australia) (United States)

    Hawemann, Friedrich; Mancktelow, Neil; Wex, Sebastian; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Camacho, Alfredo


    The Davenport shear zone in Central Australia is a strike-slip ductile shear zone developed during the Petermann Orogeny (~ 550 Ma). The conditions of shearing are estimated to be amphibolite-eclogite facies (650 °C, 1.2 GPa). The up to seven kilometre thick mylonite zone encloses several large low strain domains with excellent exposure, thus allowing a thorough study of the initiation of shear zones. Quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and granitoids inherit a suite of lithological heterogeneities such as quartz-rich pegmatites, mafic layers and dykes. When in a favourable orientation to the shortening direction, these rheologically different pre-existing layers might be expected to localize deformation. However, with the singular exception of long, continuous and fine-grained dolerite dykes, this is not observed. Quartz-rich pegmatites are mostly unsheared, even if in a favourable orientation, and sometimes boudinaged or folded. There are instead many shear zones only a few mm to cm in width, extending up to tens of metres, which are in fact oriented at a very high angle to the shortening direction. Parallel to these, a network of little to moderately overprinted brittle fractures are observed, commonly marked by pseudotachylyte (pst) and sometimes new biotite. Shear reactivation of these precursor fractures is generally limited to the length of the initial fracture and typically re-uses and shears the pst. The recrystallized mineral assemblage in the sheared pst consists of Cpx+Grt+Fsp±Ky and is the same to that in the adjacent sheared gneiss, with the same PT estimates (650 °C, 1.2 GPa). In some cases, multiple generations of cross-cutting and sheared pst demonstrate alternating fracture and flow during progressive shear zone development and a clear tendency for subsequent pst formation to also localize in the existing shear zone. The latest pst may be both unsheared and unrecrystallized (no grt) and is probably related to a late stage, still localized within the

  7. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume (United States)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.


    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  8. Vascular plant species richness along environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone in central Japan. (United States)

    Tsujino, Riyou; Yumoto, Takakazu


    In order to clarify how vegetation types change along the environmental gradients in a cool temperate to sub-alpine mountainous zone and the determinant factors that define plant species richness, we established 360 plots (each 4 × 10 m) within which the vegetation type, species richness, elevation, topographic position index (TPI), slope inclination, and ground light index (GLI) of the natural vegetation were surveyed. Mean elevation, TPI, slope inclination, and GLI differed across vegetation types. Tree species richness was negatively correlated with elevation, whereas fern and herb species richness were positively correlated. Tree species richness was greater in the upper slope area than the lower slope area, whereas fern and herb species richness were greater in the lower slope area. Ferns and trees species richness were smaller in the open canopy, whereas herb species richness was greater in the open canopy. Vegetation types were determined firstly by elevation and secondary by topographic configurations, such as topographic position, and slope inclination. Elevation and topography were the most important factors affecting plant richness, but the most influential variables differed among plant life-form groups. Moreover, the species richness responses to these environmental gradients greatly differed among ferns, herbs, and trees.

  9. DEM-based delineation for improving geostatistical interpolation of rainfall in mountainous region of Central Himalayas, India (United States)

    Kumari, Madhuri; Singh, Chander Kumar; Bakimchandra, Oinam; Basistha, Ashoke


    In mountainous region with heterogeneous topography, the geostatistical modeling of the rainfall using global data set may not confirm to the intrinsic hypothesis of stationarity. This study was focused on improving the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps by spatial stratification in complex terrain. Predictions of the normal annual rainfall data were carried out by ordinary kriging, universal kriging, and co-kriging, using 80-point observations in the Indian Himalayas extending over an area of 53,484 km2. A two-step spatial clustering approach is proposed. In the first step, the study area was delineated into two regions namely lowland and upland based on the elevation derived from the digital elevation model. The delineation was based on the natural break classification method. In the next step, the rainfall data was clustered into two groups based on its spatial location in lowland or upland. The terrain ruggedness index (TRI) was incorporated as a co-variable in co-kriging interpolation algorithm. The precision of the kriged and co-kriged maps was assessed by two accuracy measures, root mean square error and Chatfield's percent better. It was observed that the stratification of rainfall data resulted in 5-20 % of increase in the performance efficiency of interpolation methods. Co-kriging outperformed the kriging models at annual and seasonal scale. The result illustrates that the stratification of the study area improves the stationarity characteristic of the point data, thus enhancing the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps derived using geostatistical methods.

  10. Holocene record of precipitation seasonality from lake calcite δ18O in the central Rocky Mountains, United States (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh


    A context for recent hydroclimatic extremes and variability is provided by a ~10 k.y. sediment carbonate oxygen isotope (??18O) record at 5-100 yr resolution from Bison Lake, 3255 m above sea level, in northwestern Colorado (United States). Winter precipitation is the primary water source for the alpine headwater lake in the Upper Colorado River Basin and lake water ??18O measurements reflect seasonal variations in precipitation ??18O. Holocene lake water ??18O variations are inferred from endogenic sedimentary calcite ??18O based on comparisons with historic watershed discharge records and tree-ring reconstructions. Drought periods (i.e., drier winters and/or a more rain-dominated seasonal precipitation balance) generally correspond with higher calcite ??18O values, and vice-versa. Early to middle Holocene ??18O values are higher, implying a rain-dominated seasonal precipitation balance. Lower, more variable ??18O values after ca. 3500 yr ago indicate a snow-dominated but more seasonally variable precipitation balance. The middle to late Holocene ??18O record corresponds with records of El Ni??o Southern Oscillation intensification that supports a teleconnection between Rocky Mountain climate and North Pacific sea-surface temperatures at decade to century time scales. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  11. Tectono-karst depressions in the central-western part of the MehedinTi Mountains (SW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Povara


    Full Text Available The horst structure of the Mehedinţi Mountains, bounded to the east by the Mehedinţi Plateau, and to the west by the Cerna Graben, has been leveled by the Râul Şes II karst planation surface, at an altitude of 1250-1030 m. Part of the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, limestones developed in Urgonian facies widely outcrop, overlying the crystalline-granite bedrock. On a system of faults adjacent to the graben, close to the Cerna Valley slope, uvala and mega-sinkhole depressions, with various depths, have been developed. From NNE to SSW they are extended over a distance of 14 km and an area of 10.376 km 2 . Their orientation follows the direction of the faults to which they are related. The entire plateau presents an endorhei c character. There were three different stages of genesis and evolution of the depressions: (1 active valley; (2 Quaternary tectonic hanging of the valley; (3 endorheic evolution. Recent depressions evolved only during the last two stages. The most developed depressions are opened westward, as a consequence of the eastward retreat of the Cerna Valley tectonic slope. The rainfall infiltration water is drained towards east and west, outflowing at the base of tectonic sunken blocks as permanent springs with maximum flow rates of up to 50 l/s.

  12. Topography- and Species-Dependent Climatic Responses in Radial Growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii in the Luyashan Mountains of North-Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Zhang


    Full Text Available Dendroecological techniques were used to examine the relationships between topographic aspects, climate factors and radial growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii in Luyashan Mountains, North-Central China. Four sites were selected at timberline and totally 67 trees and 134 cores were collected. Pearson correlation and regression surface analysis were conducted to reveal the growth-climate relationships. The results indicated that the two species both showed significant negative correlations with temperature during preceding November on the two topographic aspects. On both slope aspects, growth of P. meyeri exhibited significant negative correlations with precipitation in current June, whereas growth of L. principis-rupprechtii showed significant negative correlations with precipitation in preceding September. On north-facing slope, tree growth was limited by low temperature in early growing season, which not shown on south-facing slope. If climate warming continues, L. principis-rupprechtii may be more favored and a reverse between relationships with temperature and precipitation maybe occur in growth of trees. Treeline position on the north-facing slope may possess a greater potential for elevation shifting than the south-facing slope. Our results supply useful information for discussing the potential effect of future climate on the forest growth in North-Central China.

  13. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.


    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  14. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.


    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  15. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  16. Tectonic uplift-influenced monsoonal changes promoted hominin occupation of the Luonan Basin: Insights from a loess-paleosol sequence, eastern Qinling Mountains, central China (United States)

    Fang, Qian; Hong, Hanlie; Zhao, Lulu; Furnes, Harald; Lu, Huayu; Han, Wen; Liu, Yao; Jia, Zhuoyue; Wang, Chaowen; Yin, Ke; Algeo, Thomas J.


    Quaternary soil deposits from northern and southern China are distinctly different, reflecting variability of the East Asian monsoon north and south of the Qinling Mountains. Coeval sediments from the transitional climatic zone of central China, which are little studied to date, have the potential to improve our understanding of Quaternary monsoon changes and associated influences on hominin occupation of this region. Here, we investigate in detail a well-preserved and continuous Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence (Shangbaichuan) from the Luonan Basin, using a variety of weathering indices including major and trace element ratios, clay mineralogy, and Fe-oxide mineralogy. The whole-rock samples display similar rare earth element patterns characterized by upper continental crustal ratios: (La/Yb)N ≈ 9.5 and Eu/Eu* ≈ 0.65. Elemental data such as (La/Yb)N, La/Th and Eu/Eu* ratios show a high degree of homogeneity, suggesting that dust in the source region may have been thoroughly mixed and recycled, resulting in all samples having a uniform initial composition. Indices for pedogenic weathering such as Na/K, Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, CIA, CIW, CPA, PIA, kaolinite/illite, (kaolinite + smectite)/illite, and hematite/(hematite + goethite) exhibit similar secular trends and reveal a four-stage accumulation history. The indices also indicate that the climate was warmer and wetter during the most recent interglacial stage, compared with coeval environments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Secular changes in weathering intensity can be related to stepwise uplift of the Qinling Mountains and variation in East Asian monsoon intensity, both of which played significant roles in controlling climate evolution in the Luonan Basin. Furthermore, intensified aridity and winter monsoon strength in dust source areas, as evidenced by mineralogic and geochemical changes, may have been due to the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. Based on temporal correlation of warmer and wetter climatic conditions

  17. Population structure, historical biogeography and demographic history of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Meng

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs  = 0.0185<0.05, indicating the existence of isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence for cyt b + COI sequence, which suggests that the distribution of genetic variation is due to geographical separation rather than natural selection. The population expansion or contraction and genetic differentiation between populations or lineages could be explained by topography and the repetitive uplifts of the Tsinling Mountains and the climatic cycles during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. S. ningshanensis experienced a rapid population expansion about 40,000 years before present. The current decline in population size was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance. Current populations of S. ningshanensis are from different refugia though the location of these refugia could not be determined in our study. Topography, climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs was determined

  18. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.


    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  19. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.


    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  20. Transmitter-equipped darts in a protocol for chemically immobilizing free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nicoloso


    Full Text Available Twenty-two free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus, 9 males and 13 females (7 months to 13 years old, were captured in October-November 2006 and December 2007, along the Apenninic ridge (44°06’N, 11°00’E between the Pistoia (Tuscany and Bologna (Emilia-Romagna provinces, as part of a reintroduction project in Gran Sasso and Laga’s Mountains National Park (42°33’N, 13°28’E, Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a red deer capture protocol, using equipped transmitter darts, in Apennine areas where other methods had not been successful. The red deer were darted (by an operative team of 5-7 operators during dark hours with a mixture of Zoletil® (Z and xylazine (X and, whenever secondary dosages became necessary, a mixture of ketamine (K and X were used. Twenty-five animals were shot, only 3 of which could not be approached to re-dart them. All animals were darted, during dark hours, from a vehicle at a distance of 10-30 m and then recovered, using 3-cc disposable Pneu-dart® transmitter darts, 50-280 m (median 80 m from the dart site. These technical choices were forced by an uneven and wooded environment of the study area. Before the transport to the reintroduction site, the animals were kept in a lairage stable, arranged in single boxes, provided with water and food. This accommodation was necessary to collect a reasonable number of animals to arrange the transport. The immobilized animals were brought to the stable and haemoglobin saturation and heart rate were constantly monitored with a pulse oximeter. Oxygen was insufflated into a nostril at a rate of 10 litres/min for 20-35 min. Atipamezole was administered two thirds intramuscularly (IM and one third intravenously, 45 to 120 min after the last IM narcotic injection, to revive the animals. No side effects other than different levels of meteorism, were displayed. In conclusion, the protocol applied, which proved safe for the animals and had optimal

  1. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat


    Since the Black sea mountains at the north of the country and the Taurus mountains in the south lay parallel to the seashore and rise very sharply rain clouds can not penetrate to the internal part of the country. Rain clouds drops most of their water on the slopes opposite the sea. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach Central Anatolia they have no significant capability of rain. For this reason, the Central Anatolia does not have very much precipitation. The difference between the rates of precipitation on the inner and outer slopes seems to be effective on the expansion of plants. For example, there is a subtropical climate prevailing on the Black sea shore between Sinop and Batum where precipitation is more than 1000-2000 mm yearly. Going from Sinop to the mouth of the Sakarya River the rate of precipitation goes down to 800-1250 mm in a year. Running from the Sakarya River to the western area covering Thrace the climate seems to be continental, and in the area dominant plant cover is of the Mediterranean type. Since the succession of the mountains in Western Anatolia lay perpendicular to the seashore, rain clouds penetrate towards the inner regions for about 400 km. The continental climate with long, dry and summer affects this area. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, since the elevation of the mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m, valleys are disorderly scattered and located at high elevations, and the northern Black sea mountains and Caucasian mountains hold the rain clouds, the area is effected by the continental climate with long and very cold winters. Consequently precipitation at the lgdir River goes down to 300 mm while it is 500-800 mm in most of areas and 1000-1500 mm in some regions towards northern Mu and Bingol provinces. As mentioned above, high mountains, which hold rain clouds, surround the Central Anatolia, which has caused drought in this region. In the central Anatolia covering Afyon, Eski hir, Ankara, Qankiri, Qorum, Amasya, Kayseri

  2. A low-altitude mountain range as an important refugium for two narrow endemics in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region biodiversity hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppel, Gunnar; Robinson, Todd P.; Wardell-Johnson, Grant W.; Yates, Colin J.; Niel, Van Kimberly P.; Byrne, Margaret; Schut, Tom


    Background and Aims Low-altitude mountains constitute important centres of diversity in landscapes with little topographic variation, such as the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR). They also provide unique climatic and edaphic conditions that may allow them to function as refugia. We

  3. Kinematics of active deformation across the Western Kunlun mountain range (Xinjiang, China), and potential seismic hazards within the southern Tarim Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guilbaud, Christelle; Simoes, Martine; Barrier, Laurie


    remains seismic. To quantify the rate of active deformation and the potential for major earthquakes in this region, we combine a structural and quantitative morphological analysis of the Yecheng-Pishan fold, along the topographic mountain front in the epicentral area. Using a seismic profile, we derive...

  4. Identification and conservation of important plant areas (IPAS) for the distribution of medicinal, aromatic and economic plants in the Hindukush-Himalaya mountain range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, H.; Ali, H.; Rehman, S.


    Study on the identification of Important Plant Areas (IPAs) was conducted in seven valleys of Hindukush-Himalayas mountainous ranges of Pakistan during 2005 and 2006. The principal aim of the study is to search new avenues for the conservation and sustainable utilization of threatened medicinal and economic plants and their habitats in IPAs. IPAs are sites of tremendous ecological and economic values that still exist in the world and are being managed on specific sites to study wild plant diversity. Several of such plants are used in the traditional medicines that are being used since the dawn of history to provide basic healthcare to people the world over. According to WHO, 80% of the human population of Africa still use medicinal plants in their primary healthcare. The popularity of herbal drugs is on the constant rise in many developed countries of the world, while in developing countries like Pakistan; medicinal plants contribute significantly to the income sources of people living in remote areas. Keeping such importance in view, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched a global vision in the form of 'Global Strategy for Plant Conservation' having various targets and mile stones. Target 5 of the strategy required for the global integration of the herbal medicine in health care system with proper identification of medicinal plants and the conservation of sites where such plants are found naturally, as its basic elements. In order to contribute to the specified target, WHO advised the relevant institutions to develop research plans and conservation programmes that are focused on the Global strategy in general and target 5 in specific. While complementing the appeal and contributing to its vision, a study was conducted in various eco-systems of the Pakistan's Hindukush-Himalayas region, identifying Important Plant Areas (IPAs) for their subsequent conservation and uses for scientific purposes. Site selection for the study was based on: 1). Exceptional

  5. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of landslides in volcanic areas - a case study from the Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco Mountain Range, Mexico (United States)

    Wilde, Martina; Rodríguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Schwindt, Daniel; Bücker, Matthias; Flores Orozco, Adrián; García García, Emilio; Pita de la Paz, Carlos; Terhorst, Birgit


    The Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco mountain range, situated in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, is highly susceptible to landslides, which is evidenced by the high frequency of landslide events of different sizes. The study area is located near the Gulf of Mexico coastline in the eastern sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. There, landslide triggers are intense rainfalls related to tropical storms and hurricanes. Steeper slopes are commonly affected by rockfalls, whereas moderate slopes, covered by massive slope deposits, are affected by shallow as well as deep seated landslides. Some of the landslides in the slope deposits reach dimensions of more than 1000 m in length and depths of over 30 m. The heterogeneous parent material as well as older slide masses hamper the detailed characterization of the involved materials. Therefore, in this study, a multidisciplinary approach is applied that integrates geomorphological, geological, and geophysical data. The aim is the reconstruction of process dynamics by analyzing the geomorphological situation and subsurface conditions before and after the event. The focus lies on the identification of past landslide areas, which represent areas with high susceptibility for the reactivation of old slide masses. Furthermore, the analysis of digital terrain models, generated before the landslide event, indicate initial movements like extension cracks, which are located close to the current scarp area. In order to characterize the subsurface of slide masses geophysical investigations are applied. The geophysical survey consists of a total of nine profiles covering relevant key features of the large affected area. Along these profiles, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) data were collected. Both, electrical and seismic images reveal a sharp contrast between relatively loose and dry material of the slide mass (high resistivities and low seismic velocities) and the former land surface that is

  6. K-Ar age of molybdenum mineralization in the east-central Kitakami Mountains, northern Honshu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Shunso; Shibata, Ken; Uchiumi, Shigeru


    Three K-Ar ages were determined on rocks and minerals from the mineralized areas in the east-central part of the Kitakami Cretaceous granitic terrain, where a Paleogene mineralization age was reported recently on molybdenite by the Re-Os method. The present result showed an early Cretaceous age of 114±4 Ma for the same molybdenite deposit. A rather large discrepancy was found between the Re-Os ages for molybdenite and the K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages for silicate minerals from the same ore deposits of Mesozoic-Cenozoic ages in the Circum-Pacific region, indicating that the Re-Os method needs further examination. (author)

  7. Pre-eruptive conditions of the ~31 ka rhyolitic magma of Tlaloc volcano, Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range, Central Mexico (United States)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Rueda, H.; Gardner, J.


    Tlaloc volcano is located at the northern tip of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range in Central Mexico. This Pleistocene to Recent volcanic range consists from north to south of Tlaloc-Telapón-Teyotl-Iztaccíhuatl-and- Popocatépetl volcanoes. While andesitic to barely dacitic volcanism dominates the southern part of the range (i.e. Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl); dacitic and rare rhyolithic volcanism (i.e. Telapón, Tlaloc) dominates the northern end. The known locus of rhyolitic magmatism took place at Tlaloc volcano with a Plinian-Subplinian eruption that occurred 31 ka ago. The eruption emplaced the so-called multilayered fallout and pumiceous pyroclastic flows (~2 km3 DRE). The deposit consists of 95% vol. of juvenile particles (pumice + crystals) and minor altered lithics 5% vol. The mineral association of the pumice fragments (74-76 % wt. SiO2) consists of quartz + plagioclase + sanidine + biotite and rare oxides set in a glassy groundmass with voids. Melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts suggest that prior to the eruption the rhyolitic contain ~7% of H2O and Nevado de Toluca volcano (~6 km) some 50 km to the southwest.

  8. Population structure of the golden snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, central China (United States)

    Kang Huang; Songtao Guo; Samuel A. Cushman; Derek W. Dunn; Xiaoguang Qi; Rong Hou; Jing Zhang; Qi Li; Qiang Zhang; Zhen Shi; Kan Zhang; Baoguo Li


    Environmental barriers and habitat fragmentation can restrict gene flow, leading to genetic divergence among animal populations. The golden snub-nosed monkey, Rhinopithecus roxellana, is endemic to China, and ranges across 4 provinces. However, over the past 40 years its populations have become fragmented. We investigated the genetic diversity, demographic...

  9. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Traub

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future

  10. Deep Learning Identifies High-z Galaxies in a Central Blue Nugget Phase in a Characteristic Mass Range (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Primack, J. R.; Dekel, A.; Koo, D. C.; Lapiner, S.; Ceverino, D.; Simons, R. C.; Snyder, G. F.; Bernardi, M.; Chen, Z.; Domínguez-Sánchez, H.; Lee, C. T.; Margalef-Bentabol, B.; Tuccillo, D.


    We use machine learning to identify in color images of high-redshift galaxies an astrophysical phenomenon predicted by cosmological simulations. This phenomenon, called the blue nugget (BN) phase, is the compact star-forming phase in the central regions of many growing galaxies that follows an earlier phase of gas compaction and is followed by a central quenching phase. We train a convolutional neural network (CNN) with mock “observed” images of simulated galaxies at three phases of evolution— pre-BN, BN, and post-BN—and demonstrate that the CNN successfully retrieves the three phases in other simulated galaxies. We show that BNs are identified by the CNN within a time window of ∼0.15 Hubble times. When the trained CNN is applied to observed galaxies from the CANDELS survey at z = 1–3, it successfully identifies galaxies at the three phases. We find that the observed BNs are preferentially found in galaxies at a characteristic stellar mass range, 109.2–10.3 M ⊙ at all redshifts. This is consistent with the characteristic galaxy mass for BNs as detected in the simulations and is meaningful because it is revealed in the observations when the direct information concerning the total galaxy luminosity has been eliminated from the training set. This technique can be applied to the classification of other astrophysical phenomena for improved comparison of theory and observations in the era of large imaging surveys and cosmological simulations.

  11. Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferezliev Angel


    Full Text Available In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria. The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

  12. Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy, determined by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truzzi C.


    Full Text Available Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV was used to determine Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park, Central Italy. Samples were collected from three different areas of the Park (Mount Bove North, Mount Bove South and Springs of River Nera during the period 2004-2011. Physical-chemical parameters were also determined to obtain a general characterization of the waters. Very low metal concentrations were observed (i.e., Cd 1.3±0.4 ng L-1, Pb 13.8±5.6 ng L-1, Cu 157±95 ng L-1, well below the legal limits and also below the medians of known Italian and European data. Comparing the three areas it was noted that waters from the area of the Nera Springs are the poorest in heavy metals and the richest in minerals, that conversely the waters of Mt. Bove North are the richest in heavy metals and the poorest in mineral salts, and finally that intermediate values both for heavy metals and mineral salts were observed for the waters of Mt. Bove South.

  13. Occurrence of pathogenic fungi to Amblyomma cajennense in a rural area of Central Brazil and their activities against vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Walmirton B; Humber, Richard A; Luz, Christian


    Two isolates of Beauveria bassiana and one of Purpureocillium lilacinum (=Paecilomyces lilacinus) were found infecting Amblyomma cajennense engorged females collected on horses (0.15% infection rate from a total of 1982 specimens) and another two isolates of P. lilacinum and one Metarhizium anisopliae detected in soils (2.1% from 144 samples) collected in typical pasture habitats of this tick in Central Brazil from October 2009 to March 2011. Fungi were isolated from soils with Rhipicephalus sanguineus as surrogate baits. No fungi were found in ticks or soils during the driest months (May to August). Testing pathogenicity of fungi all R. sanguineus females were killed regardless of the isolate and fungi sporulated abundantly on the cadavers. A. cajennense was less susceptible to infection with P. lilacinum within 20 days than R. sanguineus. All three fungal species probably act as natural antagonists of A. cajennense particularly in the rainy season and have interest for integrate control of vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonics of the eastern and central Alaska Range: Progressive basin development and deformation in a suture zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridgway, K.D.; Trop, J.M.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Davidson, C.M.; Eastham, K.R. [Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth & Atmospheric Science


    Analysis of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic rocks, and major faults in the eastern and central Alaska Range documents the progressive development of a suture zone that formed as a result of collision of an island-arc assemblage (the Wrangellia composite terrane) with the former North American continental margin. New basin-analysis, structural, and geochronologic data indicate the following stages in the development of the suture zone: (1) Deposition of 3-5 km of Upper Jurassic-Upper Cretaceous marine strata (the Kahiltna assemblage) recorded the initial collision of the island-arc assemblage with the continental margin. (2) Metamorphism of submarine-fan deposits of the Kahiltna basin, located near the leading edge of the island-arc assemblage, occurred at ca. 74 Ma, as determined from a new U-Pb zircon age for a synkinematic sill. (3) Shortening and exhumation of the suture zone peaked from 65 to 60 Ma on the basis of metamorphic and geochronologic data. (4) From 60 to 54 Ma, about 3 km of volcanic strata were deposited over deformed sedimentary strata of the Cantwell basin, and several granitic plutons (the McKinley sequence) were emplaced along the suture zone. (5) Following igneous activity, strike-slip displacement occurred from ca. 54 to 24 Ma along the Denali fault system, which had developed in the existing suture zone. (6) Regional transpressive shortening characterized the suture zone from ca. 24 Ma to the present. Regional subsidence resulted in Miocene coal seams up to 20 m thick and well-developed lacustrine deposits. Overlying the Miocene deposits are about 1.2 km of Pliocene and Holocene conglomeratic deposits. These mapping relationships provide evidence that regional shortening continues to the present in the eastern and central Alaska Range.

  15. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: abiotic factors and nymph density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitágoras da Conceição Bispo


    Full Text Available The stonefly (Pleeoptera nymphs of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, and some abiotie factors that might affect their temporal distribution were studied. Nymphs were sampled monthly (June 1993 to July 1994 in five stations with a Surber sampler, and each sample consisted of 20 units totalling 2 m². In each station, stream velocity, discharge, temperature, electrical conductivity and pH were measured in order to assess their influence on the density of nymphs. Nymphs were identified to genus level. In general, the annual variation in density of nymphs, in four stations, showed that the seasonal variation was not clearly influenced by the annual rain cycle. In the case of the one of the stations, where numbers of stonefly nymphs were low and the anthropic action high, there was a density peak in the rainy season. This peak was probably related to dilution of the organie pollution in the rainy season, improving the environmental conditions for the Pleeoptera.

  16. Central Asia Temperature and Precipitation Data, 1879-2003, Version 1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides temperature and precipitation data from 298 meteorological stations in the Northern Tien Shan and Pamir Mountain Ranges of Central Asia,...

  17. Ion chemistry and individual particle analysis of atmospheric aerosols over Mt. Bogda of eastern Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia. (United States)

    Zhao, Shuhui; Li, Zhongqin; Zhou, Ping


    Aerosol samples were collected during the scientific expedition to Mt. Bogda in July-August, 2009. The major inorganic ions (Na( + ), NH⁺₄, K( + ), Mg(2 + ), Ca(2 + ), Cl( - ), SO²⁻₄, and NO⁻₃) of the aerosols were determined by ion chromatography. SO²⁻₄, NO⁻₃, and Ca(2 + ) were the dominate ions, with the mean concentrations of 0.86, 0.56, and 0.28 μg m⁻³, respectively. These mean ion concentrations were generally comparable with the background conditions in remote site of Xinjiang, while much lower than those in Ürümqi. Morphology and elemental compositions of 1,500 particles were determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer. Based on the morphology and elemental compositions, particles were classed into four major groups: soot (15.1%), fly ash (4.7%), mineral particles (78.9%), and little other matters (0.8% Fe-rich particles and 0.5% unrecognized particles). Presence of soot and fly ash particles indicated the influence of anthropogenic pollutions, while abundance mineral particles suggested that natural processes were the primary source of aerosols over this region, coinciding with the ionic analysis. Backward air mass trajectory analysis suggested that Ürümqi may contribute some anthropogenic pollution to this region, while the arid and semi-arid regions of Central Asia were the primary source.

  18. Approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity based on sparse data in a mountainous catchment of the Yangtze River in Central China. (United States)

    Schönbrodt-Stitt, Sarah; Bosch, Anna; Behrens, Thorsten; Hartmann, Heike; Shi, Xuezheng; Scholten, Thomas


    In densely populated countries like China, clean water is one of the most challenging issues of prospective politics and environmental planning. Water pollution and eutrophication by excessive input of nitrogen and phosphorous from nonpoint sources is mostly linked to soil erosion from agricultural land. In order to prevent such water pollution by diffuse matter fluxes, knowledge about the extent of soil loss and the spatial distribution of hot spots of soil erosion is essential. In remote areas such as the mountainous regions of the upper and middle reaches of the Yangtze River, rainfall data are scarce. Since rainfall erosivity is one of the key factors in soil erosion modeling, e.g., expressed as R factor in the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation model, a methodology is needed to spatially determine rainfall erosivity. Our study aims at the approximation and spatial regionalization of rainfall erosivity from sparse data in the large (3,200 km(2)) and strongly mountainous catchment of the Xiangxi River, a first order tributary to the Yangtze River close to the Three Gorges Dam. As data on rainfall were only obtainable in daily records for one climate station in the central part of the catchment and five stations in its surrounding area, we approximated rainfall erosivity as R factors using regression analysis combined with elevation bands derived from a digital elevation model. The mean annual R factor (R a) amounts for approximately 5,222 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1). With increasing altitudes, R a rises up to maximum 7,547 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1) at an altitude of 3,078 m a.s.l. At the outlet of the Xiangxi catchment erosivity is at minimum with approximate R a=1,986 MJ mm ha(-1) h(-1) a(-1). The comparison of our results with R factors from high-resolution measurements at comparable study sites close to the Xiangxi catchment shows good consistance and allows us to calculate grid-based R a as input for a spatially high-resolution and area-specific assessment of

  19. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garee Khan


    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  20. Radiometric age determination on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. Remarkable age difference across a fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hisatoshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro


    K-Ar and zircon fission-track dating was carried out on some granitic rocks in the Hida Range, central Japan. The samples analyzed were collected on both sides of one of the major faults in the Hida Range: the Kurobe-Takase fracture zone. Ages obtained west of the fault are ∼60 Ma, while those obtained to the east of the fault are less than ∼5 Ma. These results indicate a remarkable age difference across the fault. The Okukurobe granite, located west of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 60-55 Ma, and the Kanazawa granodiorite, located east of the fault, cooled rapidly from ∼600degC to ∼240degC between 5-1 Ma. The Okukurobe granite has remained cooler than ∼240degC since ∼55 Ma. Thus, it was found that the granitic rocks across the fault have experienced a remarkable different cooling history. (author)

  1. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon (United States)

    Michelle C. Agne; David C. Shaw; Travis J. Woolley; Mónica E. Queijeiro-Bolaños; Mai-He. Li


    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes....

  2. Evaluating potential fire behavior in lodgepole pine-dominated forests after a mountain pine beetle epidemic in north-central Colorado (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Mike A. Battaglia; Daniel R. West; Sheryl L. Costello; Jose F. Negron


    A mountain pine beetle outbreak in Colorado lodgepole pine forests has altered stand and fuel characteristics that affect potential fire behavior. Using the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator, potential fire behavior was modeled for uninfested and mountain pine beetle-affected plots 7 years after outbreak initiation and 10 and 80% projected...

  3. Integrating Extensive Livestock and Soil Conservation Policies in Mediterranean Mountain Areas for Recovery of Abandoned Lands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. A Long-Term Research Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio


    Land abandonment is a global issue with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Abandoned Mediterranean croplands start a process of secondary succession that is initially colonized by grasslands, shrubs and forest. In Mediterranean mountain areas, the process is very slow, so the

  4. Geometrical optics design of a compact range Gregorian subreflector system by the principle of the central ray (United States)

    Clerici, Giancarlo; Burnside, Walter D.


    In recent years, the compact range has become very popular for measuring Radar Cross Section (RCS) and antenna patterns. The compact range, in fact, offers several advantages due to reduced size, a controlled environment, and privacy. On the other hand, it has some problems of its own, which must be solved properly in order to achieve high quality measurement results. For example, diffraction from the edges of the main reflector corrupts the plane wave in the target zone and creates spurious scattering centers in RCS measurements. While diffraction can be minimized by using rolled edges, the field of an offset single reflector compact range is corrupted by three other errors: the taper of the reflected field, the cross polarization introduced by the tilt of the feed and the aperture blockage introduced by the feed itself. These three errors can be eliminated by the use of a subreflector system. A properly designed subreflector system offers very little aperture blockage, no cross-polarization introduced and a minimization of the taper of the reflected field. A Gregorian configuration has been adopted in order to enclose the feed and the ellipsoidal subreflector in a lower chamber, which is isolated by absorbers from the upper chamber, where the main parabolic reflector and the target zone are enclosed. The coupling between the two rooms is performed through a coupling aperture. The first cut design for such a subreflector system is performed through Geometrical Optics ray tracing techniques (GO), and is greatly simplified by the use of the concept of the central ray introduced by Dragone. The purpose of the GO design is to establish the basic dimensions of the main reflector and subreflector, the size of the primary and secondary illuminating surfaces, the tilt angles of the subreflector and feed, and estimate the feed beamwidth. At the same time, the shape of the coupling aperture is initially determined.

  5. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.


    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs

  6. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.


    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  7. Relationship between thermotectonic evolution of Serra do Mar mountain range and Santos Basin, SP, Brazil, accessed through fission track analysis in apatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadler, J.C; Tello, S.C.A; Iunes, P.J.; Guedes, S; Hackspacher, P; Paulo, S.R; Ribeiro, L.F.B


    the laboratory use. Through these models, these times are extrapolated to geological ones. The most employed model was proposed by Laslett et al. (1987). It is based on the best fit of the annealing data set by Green et al. (1986). By this model, a track length distribution can be obtained from both the thermal history and age of a sample. However, what one can obtain through the FTM is the track length distribution and what one wants is the thermal history. The employment of the model in this 'inverse' way was proposed by Lutz and Omar (1991) and is widely accepted since then. In this work, the 'inverse model' was utilized to determine the thermal history of a group of samples collected in Serra do Mar Mountain Range (SMMR). As these samples were collected in the same tectonic unit, a common thermal history is a plausible expectation. To show the consistence of this analysis, the relationship between the obtained thermal history and stratigraphic data of Santos Basin is presented (au)

  8. Inferred Early Permian Arc Rifting in Bogda Mountain, Southernmost of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt: Evidence from a Peperite Bearing Volcano-Sedimentary Succession (United States)

    Memtimin, M.; Guo, Z.


    Late Paleozoic tectonic history, especially Carboniferous-Permian periods, of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is considered to be the turning point for the termination of terrane amalgamation and closure of the Paleoasian Ocean. However, the debate about the paleoenvironment and tectonic setting of the region during the period is still not resolved. In this study, we report a set of volcano-sedimentary sequence in the Bogda Mountain of the southernmost of CAOB, which is associated with contemporaneous subaqueous emplacement of and interaction between mafic lava and carbonate sediments. The succession contains four distinct facies including closely packed pillow basalts, pillow basalts with interstitial materials, hyaloclastites and peperites. We discuss their formation and emplacement mechanism, interaction between hot magma-water/unconsolidated sediments and thermal metamorphism during the interaction. Textural features of the sequence, especially hyaloclastites and peperites, provide clear evidence for in situ autofragmentation of lava flows, synvolcanic sedimentation of carbonates, fuel coolant interaction when hot magma bulldozed into wet unconsolidated sediments, and represent autochthonous origin of the succession. Lateral transition of the lithofacies indicate a progressively deepening subaqueous environment, resembling a stepwise evolution from early stage of volcanic intrusion with lower lava flux in shallower water level to increasingly subsiding basin with more lava flux in greater depth. Previous studies determined that the mafic magma was intruded around the Carboniferous-Permian boundary ( 300Ma), and geochemical studies showed the magma was originated from dry depleted mantle with little crustal contamination. Nevertheless, the succession was thought to be fault related allochthones formation which was transferred in as part of a Carboniferous intraplate arc. Combining our findings with the previous study results, we propose a new model to

  9. Big mountains but small barriers: population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China. (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jinzhong


    Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the

  10. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  11. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.


    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  12. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI


    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  13. The passive river restoration approach as an efficient tool to improve the hydromorphological diversity of rivers - Case study from two river restoration projects in the German lower mountain range (United States)

    Groll, M.


    Intensive use of European rivers during the last hundreds of years has led to profound changes in the physicochemical properties, river morphology, and aquatic faunistic communities. Rectifying these changes and improving the ecological state of all surface water bodies is the central aim of the European Water Frame Directive (WFD), and river restoration measures are the main tool to achieve this goal for many rivers. As the cost-effectiveness of all measures is crucial to the WFD implementation, the approach of the passive river restoration has become very popular over the last decades. But while costs of this approach are minimal, not much is known about the long-term effectiveness of passive river restorations. The research presented here provides essential and in-depth data about the effects of two such restoration measures on the riverbed morphology of a large river of the lower mountain region in Germany (type 9.2). More than 3200 data sets were acquired using the TRiSHa method (Typology of Riverbed Structures and Habitats). The results show a high spatial and temporal diversity and dynamic for all analyzed hydromorphologic parameters - ranging from riverbed sediments, organic structures like dead wood or macrophytes, to the distribution of 32 microhabitat types. The structures and their dynamic depend on the character of the study area (free-flowing or impounded), the location of the study sites within the research area (main channel or restored side channel), and on the occurrence of major flood events (the mapping and sampling were conducted annually from 2006 to 2008 with a 50-year flood event occurring in early 2007). These results show the potential of the passive restoration approach for creating morphologically diverse riverbeds, as habitat diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of the riverbed substrates increased significantly (e.g., more than 40% of all habitat types were only detected in the newly restored side channels). But the results also

  14. Magmatic Activity Beneath the Quiescent Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, Inferred from Satellite InSAR (United States)

    Wicks, C. W.; Dzurisin, D.; Ingebritsen, S.; Thatcher, W.; Lu, Z.; Iverson, J.


    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The uplift is centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano, the youngest stratovolcano in the volcanic center. The center has been volcanically inactive since the last eruption ~1500 years ago. Multiple European Space Agency ERS-1 and 2 satellite images from 1992 through 2000, used in this study, were selected based on orbital separation and time of year. Summer and early autumn scenes were necessary to avoid decorrelation from snow cover. Interferograms generated from these images indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an apparently ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted ~1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a magma reservoir prior to the uplift. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and a positive correlation between chloride concentration and spring temperature were found within the uplift area, with larger SO4/Cl ratios in springs at higher elevations. These findings are indicative of a high-temperature hydrothermal system driven by magma intrusions. The current inflation episode observed with InSAR may lead to an eruption, but the more persistent geochemical evidence suggests that the episode is likely the latest in a series of hitherto undetected magma intrusions. We do not yet know if the inflation has abated, is continuing, or has accelerated since October 2000--we only know that the highest rate of uplift occurred in the last year for which ERS-2 data was available (1999- 2000). In May of 2001, a continuous GPS receiver and seismometer were installed by the USGS within the Three Sisters Wilderness to monitor the

  15. Record of a Statherian rift-sag basin in the Central Espinhaço Range: Facies characterization and geochronology (United States)

    Costa, Alice Fernanda de Oliveira; Danderfer, André; Bersan, Samuel Moreira


    Several rift-related sequences and volcanic-plutonic associations of Statherian age occur within the São Francisco block. One succession within the sedimentary record, the Terra Vermelha Group, defines one of the evolutionary stages of the Espinhaço basin in the Central Espinhaço Range. As a result of stratigraphic analyses and supported by U-Pb zircon geochronological data, the evolution of this unit has been characterized. To more effectively delimit its upper depositional interval, the sequence of this unit, which is represented by the Pau d'Arco Formation, was also studied. The sedimentary signature of the Terra Vermelha Group suggests the infilling of an intracontinental rift associated with alluvial fans as well as lacustrine and eolian environments with associated volcanism. The basal succession represented by the Cavoada do Buraco Formation mainly consists of conglomerates with interlayered sandstones and subordinate banded iron formations. Detrital zircon obtained from this unit reveals ages of 1710 ± 21 Ma. The upper succession, represented by the Espigão Formation, records aeolian sandstones with volcanic activity at the top. A volcanic rock dated at 1758 ± 4 Ma was interpreted as the timing of volcanism in this basin. The eolian deposits recorded within the Pau d'Arco Formation were caused by a renewal of the sequence, which represent a stage of post-rift thermal subsidence. The maximum age of sedimentation for this unit is 1675 ± 22 Ma. The basin-infill patterns and Statherian ages suggest a direct link with the first rifting event within the São Francisco block, which was responsible for the deposition of the Espinhaço Supergroup.

  16. Remains of mining in the territory of villages´ Červenica and Zlatá Baňa in the mountain range of Slanské vrchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Magula


    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the territory that is recondite for mining activities. It is situated in a north part of the mountain range of Slanské vrchy. There are villages that were known as mining villages in the past. The mining activities for gold, silver and mercury had only a local economical importance, beside of the output or production of opal. The output of opal on this territory was world noted, in the past. The aim of this article is to remit at some historical facts about former mines and to draw our attention to some attempts for building up, the educational and touristic path on this territory.

  17. Remains of mining in the territory of villages´ Červenica and Zlatá Baňa in the mountain range of Slanské vrchy


    Rudolf Magula; Ján Brehuv


    This article is devoted to the territory that is recondite for mining activities. It is situated in a north part of the mountain range of Slanské vrchy. There are villages that were known as mining villages in the past. The mining activities for gold, silver and mercury had only a local economical importance, beside of the output or production of opal. The output of opal on this territory was world noted, in the past. The aim of this article is to remit at some historical facts about former m...

  18. Methane production from coal seams and CO2 uptake capability of the Mecsek mountain range, Hungary; Die Methangewinnung aus Kohlefloezen und das CO{sub 2}-Aufnahmevermoegen des Mecsek-Gebirges in Ungarn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, Z.N. [Univ. Miskolc (Hungary); Lakatos, I. [Forschungsinstitut der angewandten Chemie (Hungary); Foeldessy, J.; Toth, J.; Fodor, B.; Csecsei, T. [Ungarischer Geologischer Dienst, Rotaqua KFT (Hungary)


    Methane from the Mecsek mountain range coal seams is of vast economic importance. Modified geological models focusing on zones of enhanced permeability may be useful in the development of practicable winning technologies. High gas volumes are assumed in stowed material, which may be recovered by a simple technology. There is a power station in the vicinity which produces waste gases that may be used for injection, so the Mecsek region offers promising conditions for CO2 CBM production. The same power plant is also a potential consumer of the recovered methane. (orig.)

  19. Disentangling the effects of acidic air pollution, atmospheric CO2 , and climate change on recent growth of red spruce trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains. (United States)

    Mathias, Justin M; Thomas, Richard B


    In the 45 years after legislation of the Clean Air Act, there has been tremendous progress in reducing acidic air pollutants in the eastern United States, yet limited evidence exists that cleaner air has improved forest health. Here, we investigate the influence of recent environmental changes on the growth and physiology of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees, a key indicator species of forest health, spanning three locations along a 100 km transect in the Central Appalachian Mountains. We incorporated a multiproxy approach using 75-year tree ring chronologies of basal tree growth, carbon isotope discrimination (∆ 13 C, a proxy for leaf gas exchange), and δ 15 N (a proxy for ecosystem N status) to examine tree and ecosystem level responses to environmental change. Results reveal the two most important factors driving increased tree growth since ca. 1989 are reductions in acidic sulfur pollution and increases in atmospheric CO 2 , while reductions in pollutant emissions of NO x and warmer springs played smaller, but significant roles. Tree ring ∆ 13 C signatures increased significantly since 1989, concurrently with significant declines in tree ring δ 15 N signatures. These isotope chronologies provide strong evidence that simultaneous changes in C and N cycling, including greater photosynthesis and stomatal conductance of trees and increases in ecosystem N retention, were related to recent increases in red spruce tree growth and are consequential to ecosystem recovery from acidic pollution. Intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) of the red spruce trees increased by ~51% across the 75-year chronology, and was driven by changes in atmospheric CO 2 and acid pollution, but iWUE was not linked to recent increases in tree growth. This study documents the complex environmental interactions that have contributed to the recovery of red spruce forest ecosystems from pervasive acidic air pollution beginning in 1989, about 15 years after acidic pollutants started to

  20. Distribution and interannual variability of supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains, Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Liu; Mayer, Christoph; Liu, Shiyin


    Supraglacial lakes are widely formed on debris-covered glaciers in the Khan Tengri-Tumor Mountains (KTTM), Tianshan, Central Asia. Study of their distribution characters based on regional-wide remote sensing investigations is still lacking, but it can promote our understanding about the influence of supraglacial lakes on the surface melting, hydrology and dynamics of debris-covered glaciers in this region. This study presents results of the supraglacial lake inventory in the KTTM region, based on multi-year Landsat images. We focus on the glacio-geomorphological characters of the supraglacial lakes and their late summer conditions, since all suitable Landsat images were acquired between August and September during 1990–2011. With a minimum threshold extent of 3600 m 2 for conservative mapping results, we totally mapped 775 supraglacial lakes and 38 marginal glacial lakes on eight huge debris-covered glaciers. Supraglacial lakes are concentrated on the Tumor Glacier and the South Inylchek Glacier, two biggest glaciers in this region. Although most supraglacial lakes are short-lived, a number of lakes can be repeatedly identified between different Landsat images. Detailed investigation of these ‘perennial’ lakes on the Tumor Glacier indicates that their filling frequency and area contributions have increased since 2005. Analysis of the area-elevation distributions for all mapped supraglacial lakes shows that they predominantly occur close to the altitude of 3250 m a.s.l., as high as the lowest reach of clean ice where surface debris begins to appear, and can further develop upglacier to a limit of about 3950 m a.s.l.. Total and mean area of supraglacial lakes in the KTTM region during the late summer seasons show great variability between years. Correlation analysis between the annual lake area and the observed nearby meteorological conditions suggests that warmer springs seem related to the draining of some supraglacial lakes during the following seasons, due

  1. New records on the Abruzzo brown bear range, particularly on Gran Sasso and Laga Mountains / Osservazioni sull'areale dell'orso marsicano, con particolare riferimento al Gran Sasso e ai Monti della Laga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bologna


    Full Text Available Abstract New records of Abruzzo brown bear (Ursus arctos marsicanus in some mountain massifs of Central Apennines (Laga, Gran Sasso, Velino, Sirente and Northern Molise are reported. These records are discussed in relation to the recent dispersion of the relictual population, and the probable recolonization of some areas where the brown bear went out in the last two centuries. Riassunto Viene brevemente discusso il fenomeno di dispersione e ricolonizzazione di aree montane centro-appenniniche da parte dell'orso bruno marsicano. Tra i nuovi reperti, particolarmente significativi sono quelli più settentrionali, relativi ai Monti della Laga ed al Gran Sasso, dove la specie era estinta da circa duecento anni.

  2. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative (United States)

    Greenwood, G. B.


    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  3. Geologic and geophysical maps of the eastern three-fourths of the Cambria 30' x 60' quadrangle, central California Coast Ranges (United States)

    Graymer, R.W.; Langenheim, V.E.; Roberts, M.A.; McDougall, Kristin


    The Cambria 30´ x 60´ quadrangle comprises southwestern Monterey County and northwestern San Luis Obispo County. The land area includes rugged mountains of the Santa Lucia Range extending from the northwest to the southeast part of the map; the southern part of the Big Sur coast in the northwest; broad marine terraces along the southwest coast; and broadvalleys, rolling hills, and modest mountains in the northeast. This report contains geologic, gravity anomaly, and aeromagnetic anomaly maps of the eastern three-fourths of the 1:100,000-scale Cambria quadrangle and the associated geologic and geophysical databases (ArcMap databases), as well as complete descriptions of the geologic map units and the structural relations in the mapped area. A cross section is based on both the geologic map and potential-field geophysical data. The maps are presented as an interactive, multilayer PDF, rather than more traditional pre-formatted map-sheet PDFs. Various geologic, geophysical, paleontological, and base map elements are placed on separate layers, which allows the user to combine elements interactively to create map views beyond the traditional map sheets. Four traditional map sheets (geologic map, gravity map, aeromagnetic map, paleontological locality map) are easily compiled by choosing the associated data layers or by choosing the desired map under Bookmarks.

  4. Comparative analysis of the evaluation of the intrinsic vulnerability in carbonate aquifers (Canete Mountain Range, province of Malaga); Analisis comparativo de la evaluacion de la vulnerabilidad intrinseca de acuiferos carbonaticos (Sierra de Canete, provincia de Malaga)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Madrid, A.; Carrasco Cantos, F.; Martinez Navarrete, C.


    Groundwater of the carbonate aquifers of Canete Mountain Range constitute a basic source for water supply to different populations. Vulnerability intrinsic assesment is one of the most useful tools for the protection of the groundwater bodies, for this reason, this area has been chosen, to realize a comparative analysis, by means of the use of tools of spatial analysis and technical statistics of a Geographical Information System. In this work, Reduced DRASTIC, COP and RISK method have been applied, due to the fact that they are the methods used by Spain, both first ones, to evaluate the vulnerability of the groundwater bodies in the inter communal basins of the whole national territory, and for BRGM of France, the last one, to approach the carbonate aquifers protection. The obtained results show as the COP and RISK methods, specifics of carbonate aquifers, there show results more according to the characteristics of Canete Mountain Range that the obtained ones with Reduced DRASTIC, which unsaturated zone valuation causes an undervaluing the results of vulnerability obtained. (Author) 35 refs.

  5. The Diversity and Productivity of Indigenous Forage in Former Limestone Mining Quarry in Karst Mountain of Southern Gombong, Central Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doso Sarwanto


    Full Text Available Indonesia is a country that has a lot of limestone mountains, covering 15.4 million hectares. Limestone mountains have strategic functions as limestone is used as building materials and as raw material in cement industry. Therefore, limestone mining quarry in various areas of limestone mountains in Indonesia is increasingly widespread. The biggest negative impact of limestone mining is the formed open land which is abandoned and unutilized. Changes in the ecosystem will lead to the reduced levels of diversity and productivity of indigenous forage which will ultimately reduce the performance and development of ruminants livestock kept by farmers in the mountainous region of limestone. This study aims to determine the diversity and productivity of indigenous forage on former limestone mining quarry in limestone mountains of southern Gombong. The research was conducted through survey by identifying and measuring the forage production of sample plots assigned purposively. Location of the study was divided into three categories, mild, moderate and heavy mining. Results showed that soil fertility levels in open fields of former limestone mining in southern Gombong mountains are low with total N content of 0.049 - 0.141%, total P2O5 of 0.067 - 0.133% and total K2O of 0.086 - 0.100%. The diversity of indigenous forage on mild mining was more diverse than that of moderate and heavy mining, i.e. 13 species comprising 7 grass species, 2 legumes species, and 4 species of shrubs. The most dominant species in all mining categories are Cynodon dactylon, Imperata cylindrica, Ageratum conyzoides and Mikania micrantha. The results also showed that in the open land of mild mining had the highest production of fresh and dry matter compared to that of moderate and severe mining

  6. Mountaineering Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Maher


    Full Text Available Reviewed: Mountaineering Tourism Edited by Ghazali Musa, James Higham, and Anna Thompson-Carr. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge, 2015. xxvi + 358 pp. Hardcover. US$ 145.00. ISBN 978-1-138-78237-2.

  7. Air-water gas exchange of chlorinated pesticides in four lakes spanning a 1,205 meter elevation range in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Andrew C; Kimpe, Lynda E; Blais, Jules M


    Concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air and water were measured from four lakes that transect the Canadian Rocky Mountains. These data were used in combination with wind velocity and temperature-adjusted Henry's law constants to estimate the direction and magnitude of chemical exchange across the air-water interface of these lakes. Bow Lake (1,975 m above sea level [masl]) was studied during the summers of 1998 through 2000; Donald (770 masl) was studied during the summer of 1999; Dixon Dam Lake (946 masl) and Kananaskis Lake (1,667 masl) were studied during the summer of 2000. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and dieldrin volatilized from Bow Lake in spring and summer of 1998 to 2000 at a rate of 0.92 +/-1.1 and 0.55+/-0.37 ng m(-2) d(-1), respectively. The alpha-endosulfan deposited to Bow Lake at a rate of 3.4+/-2.2 ng m(-2) d(-1). Direction of gas exchange for gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) changed from net deposition in 1998 to net volatilization in 1999, partly because of a surge in y-HCH concentrations in the water at Bow Lake in 1999. Average gamma-HCH concentrations in air declined steadily over the three-year period, from 0.021 ng m(-3) in 1998, to 0.0023 ng m(-3) in 2000, and to volatilization in 1999 and 2000. Neither the concentrations of organochlorine compounds (OCs) in air and water, nor the direction and rate of air-water gas exchange correlate with temperature or elevation. In general, losses of pesticides by outflow were greater than the amount exchanged across the air-water interface in these lakes.

  8. Characterization, Long-Range Transport and Source Identification of Carbonaceous Aerosols during Spring and Autumn Periods at a High Mountain Site in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Jia


    Full Text Available PM10 (particulate matter samples were collected at Mount Lu, a high elevation mountain site in south China (August and September of 2011; and March, April and May of 2012. Eight carbonaceous fractions of particles were analyzed to characterize the possible carbonaceous emission sources. During the sampling events, daily average concentrations of PM10 at Mount Lu were 97.87 μg/m3 and 73.40 μg/m3 in spring and autumn, respectively. The observed mean organic carbon (OC and element carbon (EC concentrations during spring in PM10 were 10.58 μg/m3 and 2.58 μg/m3, respectively, and those in autumn were 6.89 μg/m3 and 2.40 μg/m3, respectively. Secondary organic carbon concentration was 4.77 μg/m3 and 2.93 μg/m3 on average, accounting for 28.0% and 31.0% of the total OC in spring and autumn, respectively. Relationships between carbonaceous species and results of principal component analysis showed that there were multiple sources contributing to the carbonaceous aerosols at the observation site. Through back trajectory analysis, it was found that air masses in autumn were mainly transported from the south of China, and these have the highest OC but lowest EC concentrations. Air masses in spring transported from northwest China bring 7.77 μg/m3 OC and 2.28 μg/m3 EC to the site, with lower levels coming from other sites. These air mass sources were featured by the effective carbon ratio (ECR.

  9. Changes in home range of breeding and post-breeding male Pearly-eyed Thrashers in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico (United States)

    Jose William Beltran; Joseph M. Wunderle, Jr.; Wayne J. Arendt


    Food abundance, time of year, and stage of the reproductive cycle are important factors affecting home range size in birds. Between 23 January and 28 November 2003, we determined the home range and core area sizes for 10 radio-tagged male Pearly-eyed Thrashers (Margarops fuscatus; Mimidae) within the Luquillo Experimental Forest, northeastern Puerto Rico. We found...

  10. Introduction to natural disturbances and historic range of variation: type, frequency, severity, and post-disturbance structure in central hardwood forests (United States)

    Katie Greenberg; Beverly S. Collins; Henry McNab; Douglas K. Miller; Gary R. Wein


    EXCERPT FROM: Natural Disturbances and Historic Range Variation 2015. Throughout the history of upland hardwood forests of the Central Hardwood Region, natural disturbances have been integral to shaping forest structure and composition, and essential in maintaining diverse biotic...

  11. Seroprevalence of Selected Infectious Agents in a Free-Ranging, Low-Density Lion Population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana▿


    Ramsauer, Sandra; Bay, Gert; Meli, Marina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans


    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  12. Seroprevalence of selected infectious agents in a free-ranging, low-density lion population in the Central Kalahari Game Reserves in Botswana. (United States)

    Ramsauer, Sandra; Bay, Gert; Meli, Marina; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans


    Twenty-one free-ranging Central Kalahari lions (Panthera leo) exhibited a high prevalence rate of feline herpesvirus (100%) and feline immunodeficiency virus (71.4%). Canine distemper virus and feline calicivirus occurred with a low prevalence. All individuals tested negative for feline coronavirus, feline parvovirus, feline leukemia virus, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum.

  13. Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 9 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000 (United States)

    Brooks, Mark S.


    The Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 44,176 km2 (17, 057 mi2) (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). With the exception of a small part of the ecoregion extending into southern Wyoming and southern Idaho, the vast majority of the ecoregion is located along the eastern mountain ranges of Utah. The ecoregion is situated between the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateaus Ecoregions to the east and south and the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion to the west; in addition, the Middle Rockies, Snake River Basin, and Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions are nearby to the north. Considered the western front of the Rocky Mountains, the two major mountain ranges that define the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion include the north-south-trending Wasatch Range and east-west- trending Uinta Mountains. Both mountain ranges have been altered by multiple mountain building and burial cycles since the Precambrian era 2.6 billion years ago, and they have been shaped by glacial processes as early as 1.6 million years ago. The terrain is defined by sharp ridgelines, glacial lakes, and narrow canyons, with elevations ranging from 1,829 m in the lower canyons to 4,123 m at Kings Peak, the highest point in Utah (Milligan, 2010).

  14. Non-indigenous plant species and their ecological range in Central European pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests


    Zerbe , Stefan; Wirth , Petra


    International audience; In this study, forest ecosystems were analysed with regard to the occurrence and ecological range of non-indigenous plant species. Pine forests in the NE German lowland, which naturally and anthropogenically occur on a broad range of different sites, were taken as an example. The analysis is based on a data set of about 2 300 vegetation plots. The ecological range was assessed applying Ellenberg's ecological indicator values. Out of a total of 362 taxa recorded in the ...


    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  16. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.


    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  17. Geomorphology of the north flank of the Uinta Mountains (United States)

    Bradley, W.H.


    The Uinta Mountains, whose northern margin is almost coincident with the southern boundary of Wyoming, extend from the Wasatch Range eastward across the northern part of Utah into northwestern Colorado. They were carved out of a large, simple anticlinal fold of sedimentary rocks arched up into essentially their present attitude at the end of the Cretaceous period. The Uinta Mountain group (Uinta quartzite of previous reports) a series of brick-red to purplish-red quartzite and sandstone beds of pre-Cambrian age, aggregating more than 12,000 feet in thickness, makes up the central mass of the range. Flanking the quartzite core and sharing its anticlinal structure are beds of limestone, sandstone, and shale ranging in age from Upper or Middle Cambrian to Upper Cretaceous. These rocks, which have a total thickness of about 15,000 feet, have been eroded from the higher part of the range, so the upturned edges of the harder

  18. The Minas de Henarejos basin (Iberian Ranges, Central Spain): precursor of the Mesozoic rifting or a relict of the late Variscan orogeny? New sedimentological, structural and biostratigraphic data


    Arche, A.; López-Gómez, José; Broutin, J.


    [EN] The tiny outcrop of the mining area of Minas de Henarejos is unique among the early post-Variscan basins of the Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, for several reasons: Its age, considered up now to be Late Carboniferous (Stephanian B-C), its syn-sedimentary compressional structures and the thick coal beds in the upper part of the section. A re-assesment of the biostratigraphic range of its macroflora shows that it is representative of the hygrophytic assemblage that ranges from the Lat...

  19. The Minas de Henarejos basin (Iberian Ranges, Central Spain): precursor of the Mesozoic rifting or a relict of the late Variscan orogeny? New sedimentological, structural and biostratigraphic data


    Arche, Alfredo; López Gómez, José; Broutin, Jean


    The tiny outcrop of the mining area of Minas de Henarejos is unique among the early post-Variscan basins of the Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, for several reasons: Its age, considered up now to be Late Carboniferous (Stephanian B-C), its syn-sedimentary compressional structures and the thick coal beds in the upper part of the section. A re-assesment of the biostratigraphic range of its macrofl ora shows that it is representative of the hygrophytic assemblage that ranges from the Late...

  20. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule]. (United States)

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang


    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal

  1. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy) to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate


    Andrea LAMI; Pierluigi CAMMARANO; Michele ARMIRAGLIO; Pierisa PANZANI; Roberta BETTINETTI; Alessandra PUGNETTI; Anna M. NOCENTINI; Gabriele A. TARTARI; Simona MUSAZZI; Giuseppe MORABITO; Angela BOGGERO; Marina MANCA; Michela ROGORA; Rosario MOSELLO; Aldo MARCHETTO


    Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shif...

  2. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil]. (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando


    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  3. Pathogen-Host Associations and Predicted Range Shifts of Human Monkeypox in Response to Climate Change in Central Africa (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A.; Fuller, Trevon; Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Shiplacoff, Julia A. G.; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Blumberg, Seth; Johnston, Sara C.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Kinkela, Timothée L.; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; LeBreton, Matthew; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L.; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Buermann, Wolfgang; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E.; Lloyd-Smith, James O.; Smith, Thomas B.; Rimoin, Anne W.


    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX). Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts. PMID:23935820

  4. Human impacts to mountain streams (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen


    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  5. A late Frasnian (Late Devonian) radiolarian, sponge spicule, and conodont fauna from the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Roberts Mountains allochthon, Nevada (United States)

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Sandberg, C.A.; Murchey, B.L.; Harris, A.G.


    Co-occuring conodonts, radiolarians, and sponge spicules from the type locality of the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, indicate that the radiolarian and sponge spicule assemblage described herein correlates with the Late rhenana conodont Zone (late Frasnian). The moderately well preserved radiolarians are the first Frasnian-age fauna described from the Western Hemisphere. They include spumellarians, Ceratoikiscum, and Paleoscenidium, and a radiolarian which we have assigned to a new genus, Durahelenifore Boundy-Sanders and Murchey, with its type species, Durahelenifore robustum Boundy-Sanders and Murchey. Sponge spicules include umbellate microscleres of the Subclass Amphidiscophora, Order Hemidiscosa, previously documented only in Pennsylvanian and younger rocks.

  6. Spectral analysis of geological materials in the Central Volcanic Range of Costa Rica and its relationship to the remote detection of anomalies


    Rejas, J. G.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Martínez, R.; Bonatti, J.


    The aim of this work is the comparative study of methods for calculating spectral anomalies from imaging spectrometry in several test areas of the Central Volcanic Range (CVR) of Costa Rica. In the detection of anomalous responses it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, so that the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information significantly differentiated with respect to a background to be estimated, either globally for the full scene, either locally by i...

  7. Legacy K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data from the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska (United States)

    Koeneman, Lisa L.; Wilson, Frederic H.


    Sample descriptions and analytical data for more than 200 K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses from rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith of south-central Alaska are reported here. Samples were collected over a period of 20 years by Bruce R. Reed and Marvin A. Lanphere (both U.S. Geological Survey) as part of their studies of the batholith.

  8. Terrestrial lichen response to partial cutting in lodgepole pine forests on caribou winter range in west-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse


    Full Text Available In west-central British Columbia, terrestrial lichens located in older, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are important winter forage for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Clearcut harvesting effectively removes winter forage habitat for decades, so management approaches based on partial cutting were designed to maintain continuous lichen-bearing habitat for caribou. This study tested a group selection system, based on removal of 33% of the forest every 80 years in small openings (15 m diameter, and two irregular shelterwood treatments (whole-tree and stem-only harvesting methods where 50% of the stand area is cut every 70 years in 20 to 30 m diameter openings. The abundance of common terrestrial lichens among the partial cutting and no-harvest treatments was compared across five replicate blocks, pre-harvest (1995 and post-harvest (1998, 2000 and 2004. The initial loss of preferred forage lichens (Cladonia, Cladina, Cetraria and Stereocaulon was similar among harvesting treatments, but there was greater reduction in these lichens in the openings than in the residual forest. After eight years, forage lichens in the group selection treatment recovered to pre-harvest amounts, while lichen in the shelterwood treatments steadily increased from 49 to 57% in 1998 to about 70% of pre-harvest amounts in 2004. Although not part of the randomized block design, there was substantially less lichen in three adjacent clearcut blocks than in the partial cuts. Regression analysis pre- and post-harvest indicated that increased cover of trees, shrubs, herbs, woody debris and logging slash corresponded with decreased forage lichen abundance. In the short-term, forestry activities that minimize inputs of woody debris, control herb and shrub development, and moderate the changes in light and temperatures associated with canopy removal will lessen the impact on lichen. Implementation of stand level prescriptions is only one aspect of caribou habitat

  9. Detection of spatio-temporal variability of air temperature and precipitation based on long-term meteorological station observations over Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia (United States)

    Xu, Min; Kang, Shichang; Wu, Hao; Yuan, Xu


    As abundant distribution of glaciers and snow, the Tianshan Mountains are highly vulnerable to changes in climate. Based on meteorological station records during 1960-2016, we detected the variations of air temperature and precipitation by using non-parametric method in the different sub-regions and different elevations of the Tianshan Mountains. The mutations of climate were investigated by Mann-Kendall abrupt change test in the sub-regions. The periodicity is examined by wavelet analysis employing a chi-square test and detecting significant time sections. The results show that the Tianshan Mountains experienced an overall rapid warming and wetting during study period, with average warming rate of 0.32 °C/10a and wet rate of 5.82 mm/10a, respectively. The annual and seasonal spatial variation of temperature showed different scales in different regions. The annual precipitation showed non-significant upward trend in 20 stations, and 6 stations showed a significant upward trend. The temperatures in the East Tianshan increased most rapidly at rates of 0.41 °C/10a. The increasing magnitudes of annual precipitation were highest in the Boertala Vally (8.07 mm/10a) and lowest in the East Tianshan (2.64 mm/10a). The greatest and weakest warming was below 500 m (0.42 °C/10a) and elevation of 1000-1500 m (0.23 °C/10a), respectively. The increasing magnitudes of annual precipitation were highest in the elevation of 1500 m-2000 m (9.22 mm/10a) and lowest in the elevation of below 500 m (3.45 mm/10a). The mutations of annual air temperature and precipitation occurred in 1995 and 1990, respectively. The large atmospheric circulation influenced on the mutations of climate. The significant periods of air temperature were 2.4-4.1 years, and annual precipitation was 2.5-7.4 years. Elevation dependency of temperature trend magnitude was not evidently in the Tianshan Mountains. The annual precipitation wetting trend was amplified with elevation in summer and autumn. The strong

  10. Superimposed extension and shortening in the southern Salinas Basin and La Panza Range, California: A guide to Neogene deformation in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; McPhee, Darcy K.; McDougall, Kristin; Hourigan, Jeremy K.


    We synthesized data from geologic maps, wells, seismic-reflection profiles, potential-field interpretations, and low-temperature thermochronology to refine our understanding of late Cenozoic extension and shortening in the Salinian block of the central California Coast Ranges. Data from the La Panza Range and southern Salinas Basin document early to middle Miocene extension, followed by Pliocene and younger shortening after a period of little deformation in the late Miocene. Extension took place on high-angle normal faults that accommodated ∼2% strain at the scale of the ∼50-km-wide Salinian block (oriented perpendicular to the San Andreas fault). Shortening was accommodated by new reverse faults, reactivation of older normal faults, and strike-slip faulting that resulted in a map-view change in the width of the Salinian block. The overall magnitude of shortening was ∼10% strain, roughly 4–5 times greater than the amount of extension. The timing and magnitude of deformation in our study area are comparable to that documented in other Salinian block basins, and we suggest that the entire block deformed in a similar manner over a similar time span. The timing and relative magnitude of extension and shortening may be understood in the context of central Coast Range tectonic boundary conditions linked to rotation of the western Transverse Ranges at the south end of the Salinian block. Older models for Coast Range shortening based on balanced fault-bend fold-style cross sections are a poor approximation of Salinian block deformation, and may lead to mechanically improbable fault geometries that overestimate the amount of shortening.

  11. The impact of long-range-transport on PM1 and PM2.5 at a Central Mediterranean site (United States)

    Perrone, M. R.; Becagli, S.; Garcia Orza, J. A.; Vecchi, R.; Dinoi, A.; Udisti, R.; Cabello, M.


    Water soluble ions, methanesulfonate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals in PM2.5 and PM1 samples were analysed by Positive Matrix Factorization to identify and quantify major sources of fine particles at a Central Mediterranean site. The cluster analysis of four-day back trajectories was used to determine the dependence of PM2.5 and PM1 levels and composition on air-flows. The cluster analysis has identified six, six, and seven distinct air-flow types arriving at 500, 1500, and 3000 m above sea level (asl), respectively. Slow-west (Wslow) and north-eastern (NE) flows at 500 and 1500 m asl were the most frequent and were associated with the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations. The PM concentrations from combustion sources including biomass burning were at their maximum under north-western (NW) flows. Similarly, the ammonium sulphate source was enhanced under Wslow and NE flows. South-eastern Mediterranean Sea air-flows were associated with the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to the heavy-oil-combustion source and the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations due to the secondary marine source. PM2.5 concentrations due to the reacted dust and traffic source and PM1 concentrations due to the nitrate with reacted dust and mixed anthropogenic source showed no clear dependence on air-flows. This work highlights the different impact of aerosol sources on PM2.5 and PM1 fractions, being PM1 more adequate to control anthropogenic emissions from combustion sources.

  12. Aerosol ionic components at Mt. Heng in central southern China: abundances, size distribution, and impacts of long-range transport. (United States)

    Gao, Xiaomei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Yuan, Chao; Gao, Rui; Zhou, Yang; Nie, Wei; Zhang, Qingzhu; Wang, Wenxing


    Water-soluble ions in PM(2.5) were continuously measured, along with the measurements of many other species and collection of size-resolved aerosol samples, at the summit of Mt. Heng in the spring of 2009, to understand the sources of aerosols in rural central southern China. The mean concentrations of SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+) and NO(3)(-) in PM(2.5) were 8.02, 2.94 and 1.47 μg/m(3), indicating a moderate aerosol pollution level at Mt. Heng. Water-soluble ions composed approximately 40% of the PM(2.5) mass on average. PM(2.5) was weakly acidic with about 66% of the samples being acidic. SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-) and NH(4)(+) exhibited similar diurnal patterns with a broad afternoon maximum. SO(4)(2-) and NH(4)(+) were mainly present in the fine aerosols with a peak in the droplet mode of 0.56-1 μm, suggesting the important role of cloud processing in the formation of aerosol sulfate. NO(3)(-) was largely distributed in the coarse particles with a predominant peak in the size-bin of 3.2-5.6 μm. Long-distance transport of processed air masses, dust aerosols, and cloud/fog processes were the major factors determining the variations of fine aerosol at Mt. Heng. The results at Mt. Heng were compared with those obtained from our previous study at Mt. Tai in north China. The comparison revealed large differences in the aerosol characteristics and processes between southern and northern China. Backward trajectories indicated extensive transport of anthropogenic pollution from the coastal regions of eastern/northern China and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) to Mt. Heng in spring, highlighting the need for regionally coordinated control measures for the secondary pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuing Inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.


    Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South Sister volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  14. Source-to-Sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the Central Range, Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia) and Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea) (United States)

    Babault, J.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Legrand, X.; Van Den Driessche, J.; González-Quijano, M.; Mudd, S. M.; Kergaravat, C.; Ringenbach, J. C.; Callot, J. P.; Vetel, W.; Dhont, D.


    The island of Papua New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the island of Papua New Guinea (Indonesia), which links the Kepala Burung block to the Central Range is still poorly understood. Previous studies have shown that this bay contains a thick (> 8 km) sequence of undated sediments. Hypothesis claim that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma aperture created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate, or from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics/oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. Using a source-to-sink approach, based on i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and iii) seismic lines interpretation, we suggest that sediments started to accumulate in the Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the beginning of the Central Range building at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12200 m. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase accumulation (SPAR) since 12 Ma, the first one at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.12-0.25 mm/a with a maximum SPAR of 0.23-0.58 mm/a, and the second during the last 3 Ma, at a mean SPAR ranging between 0.93-1.62 mm/a and with a maximum SPAR between 2.13-3.17 mm/a, i.e., 6700-10000 m of Plio-Pleistocene sediment accumulation. Local transtensional tectonics may explain these unusually high rates of sedimentation in an overall sinistral oblique convergence setting. We further extended this approach to the Gulf of Papua (Papua New Guinea), a foreland basin developed

  15. Hydrologeologic characteristics of faults at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, Robert P.


    Yucca Mountain is under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located

  16. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling (United States)

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.


    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  17. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.


    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  18. Milk quality according to the daily range in farm production in the Mesoregion Central Mineira and Oeste of Minas Gerais regions, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Borges


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize milk production from the Central Mineira and Oeste Mesoregions regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to quality parameters such as somatic cell count, total bacteria count, and composition for specific production ranges. Average results for milk fat, protein, total and nonfat solids were compliant with Brazilian legal requirements (IN-62/2011 in all the production ranges selected. Average somatic cell counts (SCC complied with the legal requirements of 600,000 cells/mL, except for the range with a daily production above 1,000 liters. However, average maximum values of 400,000 cells/mL are recommended for good milk quality. Total bacterial count was the most critical quality factor, with the highest values found in breeds with milk production above 500 liters per day.

  19. Tree ring-based chronology of hydro-geomorphic processes as a fundament for identification of hydro-meteorological triggers in the Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Central Europe). (United States)

    Tichavský, Radek; Šilhán, Karel; Tolasz, Radim


    /floods in the Central European mountains in transition between temperate oceanic and continental climatic conditions and may prompt further research of these phenomena in the Eastern Sudetes in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Wet meadows, riparian corridor phreatophyte assemblages, and high-altitude spring-fed aspen meadows comprise a very small percentage of the total landscape of the mountain ranges in the central Great Basin however, they represent important ecological environments. We have used s...

  1. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama. (United States)

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E


    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  2. Initial Study of the Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae and Other Invertebrates from “Leshnitsa” Nature Reserve(Central Stara Planina Mountains, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora M. Teofilova


    Full Text Available The invertebrate fauna of the “Leshnitsa” nature reserve was studied, with particular consideration to the ground beetles. During the study altogether 394 specimens of carabid beetlesbelonging to 32 species and subspecies were captured, as well as 23 other invertebrate species,some of which are with a conservation significance (protected, Bulgarian and Balkan endemics.Ground beetles were characterized and classified according to their zoogeographical belonging,degree of endemism and the life forms they refer to. Threats for the invertebrate fauna and negativefactors of anthropogenic origin were determined and measures for diminishing of their effect wereproposed. So far the invertebrate fauna in this part of the mountain has been insufficiently studied.The real state of the diversity of this group in the area will be revealed only after futureinvestigations and discovery of additional new species for the region.

  3. Effects of group dynamics and diet on the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. (United States)

    Cipolletta, Chloé


    This study describes how group dynamics and diet have influenced the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The results are compared with those from an earlier study [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], when the same group was larger and undergoing the process of habituation to humans. Data were obtained from maps of the gorillas' travel routes, direct observations, and analysis of fecal samples. Through the years, the group has experienced a decrease in size, from eight to three individuals, with periods of membership fluctuation. The male's search for new mates resulted in a larger home range than was recorded when the group consisted of more individuals. Moreover, despite an average group size of three throughout this study, the monthly range and mean daily path length (DPL) were also larger when the group was acquiring/losing members in new areas, than when no new members joined or left the group. Fruit was consumed year-round, although more heavily so during wet months. The influence of fruit consumption on the ranging patterns was concealed initially by the effect of habituation [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], and later (at least partially) by the male's search for new mates. In the last 14 months of the study, when the group numbered only three individuals and was ranging in a restricted area, the average DPL, but not the monthly range, increased when the gorillas were consuming more fruit.

  4. From The Mountain To The Sea: Exchange Between The South-Central Highlands And The South Coast During The Early Horizon Period


    Young, Michele


    This article reviews the evidence of the exchange of obsidian and cinnabar, highly coveted resources that traveled in prehistoric Peru from the south-central highlands to the Paracas culture area. The evidence for exchange of these materials is compared with evidence of cultural exchange between the coast and the south-central highlands, focusing on ceramic materials uncovered from excavations at the archaeological site Atalla, located in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. The article argues t...

  5. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.


    intruding the upper crust along the brittle-ductile interface — a process that must occur episodically beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence of unusual seismicity. We speculate that such intrusive episodes last from days to years and are separated by quiescent periods of decades to centuries. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. The USGS has updated its volcano hazards assessment for the Three Sisters region, notified appropriate agencies and the public, and is helping to prepare an emergency coordination and communication plan.

  6. An in situ survey of Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, Tonopah Test Range, Central Nevada. Date of survey: September--November 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A ground-based in situ radiological survey was conducted downwind of the Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3 nuclear safety test sites at the Tonopah Test Range in central Nevada from September through November 1993. The purpose of the study was to corroborate the americium-241 ( 241 Am) soil concentrations that were derived from the aerial radiological survey of the Clean Slate areas, which was conducted from August through October 1993. The presence of 241 Am was detected at 140 of the 190 locations, with unrecoverable or lost data accounting for fifteen (15) of the sampling points. Good agreement was obtained between the aerial and in situ results

  7. Lepini Mountains Carbonatic Ridge: try of springs recharge areas verification and water exchange quantification with Pontina Plain by use of a numerical model (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Teoli


    Full Text Available The study area of this work is represented by the Lepini Mountains carbonatic ridge and by the Pontina Plain foothills area, on which in the past, within quantitative hydrogeological characterizations, models were developed for calculating the groundwater flow, but only referred to the ridge. The most recent studies (Teoli, 2012 have done their best, instead, to represent the underground water exchanges between the ridge and the Pontina Plain foothill area. The new model (developed using computer code MODFLOW 2005 has been implemented to simulate steady-state underground flow using equivalent porous media approach even for the ridge; attention has been particularly directed to the proper tectonic ridge schematic, which the authors had previously defined, together with others (Alimonti et al., 2010, on detailed structural-geological survey basis, integrated by hydrogeological analysis. So, it’s been possible to determine partitioning effects on groundwater flowpaths and on springs recharge areas extent, whose total average discharge is about 10m3/s. Model calibration main goal has been the recharge areas permeability definition, posing the correspondence of calculated flows with measured springs’ flows; as a consequence, it’s been possible to improve the model reliability (uncertainty reduction quantifying the flow residuals’ standard deviation offset.

  8. Intra-Annual Xylem Growth of Larix principis-rupprechtii at Its Upper and Lower Distribution Limits on the Luyashan Mountain in North-Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang


    Full Text Available Altitude-related climatic factors, especially temperature, are important factors that affect tree growth in mountain forest ecosystems. The aims of this study were to estimate the intra-annual radial growth differences of Larix principis-rupprechtii (L. principis-rupprechtii between its upper and lower distribution limits, at 2740 and 2040 m a.s.l, respectively. Dynamics of xylem growth were observed by collecting microcore samples weekly during the 2011 growth season. The result indicated that different strategies were adopted at the two selected sites. Trees at the upper distribution limit adopted an “intensive strategy” with higher maximum growth rates (0.69 cell·day−1 within a shorter duration of 95 days, producing 21 new tracheids. By contrast, trees at the lower distribution limit exhibited an “extensive strategy” with lower maximum growth rates (0.53 cell·day−1 over a longer duration of 135 days, producing 50 tracheids. The soil temperature was probably the main factor limiting the onset of cambial activity for L. principis-rupprechtii, its daily mean thresholds for onset were 0 °C and 1.4 °C at the upper and lower distribution limits, respectively. These results indicate that L. principis-rupprechtii is able to adjust its xylem growth according to environmental conditions.

  9. Characterization of Haemaphysalis flava (Acari: Ixodidae from Qingling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis in Qinling Mountains (Central China by morphology and molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yu Cheng

    Full Text Available Tick is one of important ectoparasites capable of causing direct damage to their hosts and also acts as vectors of relevant infectious agents. In the present study, the taxa of 10 ticks, collected from Qinling giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis in Qinling Mountains of China in April 2010, were determined using morphology and molecular markers (nucleotide ITS2 rDNA and mitochondrial 16S. Microscopic observation demonstrated that the morphological features of these ticks were similar to Haemaphysalis flava. Compared with other Haemaphysalis species, genetic variations between Haemaphysalis collected from A. m. qinlingensis and H. flava were the lowest in ITS2 rDNA and mitochondrial 16S, with sequence differences of 2.06%-2.40% and 1.30%-4.70%, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships showed that all the Haemaphysalis collected from A. m. qinlingensis were grouped with H. flava, further confirmed that the Haemaphysalis sp. is H. flava. This is the first report of ticks in giant panda by combining with morphology and molecular markers. This study also provided evidence that combining morphology and molecular tools provide a valuable and efficient tool for tick identification.

  10. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.


    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  11. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek


    Full Text Available Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  12. Hildenbrandia rivularis (Rhodophyta) in central Poland


    Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek; Maciej Ziułkiewicz


    Freshwater red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis has been noted for the first time in central Poland near the Lodz agglomeration. Until now, this alga was recorded only in mountain and Polish Lowland areas. The wide range of habitat conditions influencing the occurrence for this protected species has been determined in the spring niche. The possible threat to habitat where H. rivularis occurs, is connected with construction and exploitation of the A2 highway.

  13. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil (United States)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.


    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  14. Growth dynamics of tree-line and lake-shore Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in the central Scandinavian Mountains during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the early Little Ice Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans W Linderholm


    Full Text Available Trees growing at their altitudinal or latitudinal distribution in Fennoscandia have been widely used to reconstruct warm season temperatures, and the region hosts some of the world’s longest tree-ring chronologies. These multi-millennial long chronologies have mainly been built from tree remains found in lakes (subfossil wood from lake-shore trees. We used a unique dataset of Scots pine tree-ring data collected from wood remains found on a mountain slope in the central Scandinavian Mountains, yielding a chronology spanning over much of the last 1200 years. This data was compared with a local subfossil wood chronology with the aim to 1 describe growth variability in two environments during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA and the early Little Ice Age (LIA, and 2 investigate differences in growth characteristics during these contrasting periods. It was shown that the local tree-line during both the MCA and early LIA was almost 150 m higher that at present. Based on living pines from the two environments, tree-line pine growth was strongly associated with mid-summer temperatures, while the lake-shore trees showed an additional response to summer precipitation. During the MCA, regarded to be a period of favourable climate in the region, the tree-ring data from both environments showed strong coherency and moderate growth variability. In the early LIA, the two chronologies were less coherent, with the tree-line chronology showing more variability, suggesting different growth responses in the two environments during this period of less favourable growing conditions. Our results indicate that tree-ring width chronologies mainly based on lake-shore trees may need to be re-evaluated.

  15. Redescripción y consideraciones biogeográfcas de dos especies de Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae de ambientes montanos del centro de Argentina y Chile Redescription and biogeographic considerations of two species of Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from mountain environments of central Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. Silvestro


    Full Text Available El género neotropical Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprende 61 especies distribuidas desde el centro de Perú y sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, revisamos dos especies de Scotobius que habitan el oeste de las provincias de San Juan, Mendoza y Neuquén (Argentina y en Chile central, a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes y las montañas extra-andinas en Argentina: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 y S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969. Se proveen redescripciones utilizando nuevos caracteres morfológicos y se proporcionan fotografías de los adultos y de los pronotos. Se consigna la distribución geográfica, rangos altitudinales y las provincias biogeográficas en las que habitan estas especies. Se utiliza un modelo predictivo de distribución de especies para proponer hipótesis sobre los factores que influencian la distribución espacial y que explicarían la alopatría de ambas especies.The Neotropical genus Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprises 61 species distributed from central Peru and southern Brazil to southern Argentine and Chile. In this contribution two species of Scotobius: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 and S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969, that inhabit in western San Juan, Mendoza, and Neuquén provinces (Argentina and in central Chile, along the “Cordillera de los Andes” and extra-Andean mountains in Argentina, are revised. Redescriptions using new morphological data and photographs of habitus and pronota are provided. This article informs about the geographic distribution, altitudinal ranges and the biogeographic provinces that these species inhabit. A predictive model of species distribution is presented to propose hypothesis about the factors that influence the space distribution and the allopatry of these two species.

  16. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data (United States)

    Mars, John L.


    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  17. An aerial radiological survey of the Tonopah Test Range including Clean Slate 1,2,3, Roller Coaster, decontamination area, Cactus Springs Ranch target areas. Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, A.E.; Hendricks, T.J.


    An aerial radiological survey was conducted of major sections of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in central Nevada from August through October 1993. The survey consisted of aerial measurements of both natural and man-made gamma radiation emanating from the terrestrial surface. The initial purpose of the survey was to locate depleted uranium (detecting 238 U) from projectiles which had impacted on the TTR. The examination of areas near Cactus Springs Ranch (located near the western boundary of the TTR) and an animal burial area near the Double Track site were secondary objectives. When more widespread than expected 241 Am contamination was found around the Clean Slates sites, the survey was expanded to cover the area surrounding the Clean Slates and also the Double Track site. Results are reported as radiation isopleths superimposed on aerial photographs of the area

  18. A gravity study along a profile across the Sichuan Basin, the Qinling Mountains and the Ordos Basin (central China): Density, isostasy and dynamics (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqian; Teng, Jiwen; Wang, Qianshen; Lü, Qingtian; Si, Xiang; Xu, Tao; Badal, José; Yan, Jiayong; Hao, Zhaobing


    In order to investigate the structure of the crust beneath the Middle Qinling Mountains (MQL) and neighboring areas in the North China Block and South China Block, a north-south gravity profile from Yuquan in the Sichuan Basin to Yulin in the Ordos Basin was conducted in 2011. The Bouguer gravity anomaly is determined from a high-quality gravity dataset collected between 31°N and 36°N of latitude, and varies between -200 and -110 mGal in the study region. Using accredited velocity density relationships, an initial crust-mantle density model is constructed for MQL and adjacent areas, which is later refined interactively to simulate the observed gravity anomaly. The present study reveals the features of the density and Bouguer gravity with respect to the tectonic units sampled by the profile. The lithosphere density model shows typical density values that depict a layered structure and allow differentiate the blocks that extend along the reference profile. The gravity field calculated by forward modeling from the final density distribution model correlates well with the measured gravity field within a standard deviation of 1.26 mGal. The density in the crystalline crust increases with depth from 2.65 g/cm3 up to the highest value of 2.95 g/cm3 near the bottom of the crust. The Conrad interface is identified as a density jump of about 0.05 g/cm3. The average density of the crust in MQL is clearly lower than the density in the formations on both sides. Starting from a combined Airy-Pratt isostatic compensation model, a partly compensated crust is found below MQL, suggesting future growth of the crust, unlike the Ordos and Sichuan basins that will remain stable. On the basis of the density and isostatic state of the crust and additional seismological research, such as the P-wave velocity model and Poisson's ratio, it is concluded that the lower crust delamination is a reasonable interpretation for the geophysical characteristics below the Qinling Orogen.

  19. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin


    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  20. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil. (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares


    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  1. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Goldstein

    Full Text Available Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1 that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100 were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40, supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010 in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  2. Fault propagation folds induced by gravitational failure and slumping of the Central Costa Rica volcanic range: Implications for large terrestrial and Martian volcanic edifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgia, A.; Burr, J.; Montero, W.; Morales, L.D.; Alvarado, G.E.


    Long sublinear ridges and related scarps located at the base of large volcanic structures are frequently interpreted as normal faults associated with extensional regional stress. In contrast, the ridges bordering the Central Costa Rica volcanic range (CCRVR) are the topographic expression of hanging wall asymmetric angular anticlines overlying low-angle thrust faults at the base of the range. These faults formed by gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of the range due to the weight of the volcanic edifices and were perhaps triggered by the intrusion of magma over the past 20,000 years. These anticlines are hypothesized to occur along the base of the volcano, where the thrust faults ramp up toward the sea bottom. Ridges and scarps between 2,000 and 5,000 m below sea level are interpreted as the topographic expression of these folds. The authors further suggest that the scarps of the CCRVR and valid scaled terrestrial analogs of the perimeter scarp of the Martian volcano Olympus Mons. They suggest that the crust below Olympus Mons has failed under the load of the volcano, triggering the radial slumping of the flanks of the volcano on basal thrusts. The thrusting would have, in turn, formed the anticlinal ridges and scarps that surround the edifice. The thrust faults may extend all the way to the base of the Martian crust (about 40 km), and they may have been active until almost the end of the volcanic activity. They suggest that gravitational failure and slumping of the flanks of volcanoes is a process common to most large volcanic edifices. In the CCRVR this slumping of the flanks is a slow intermittent process, but it could evolve to rapid massive avalanching leading to catastrophic eruptions. Thus monitoring of uplift and displacement of the folds related to the slump tectonics could become an additional effective method for mitigating volcanic hazards

  3. Quick Release of Internal Water Storage in a Glacier Leads to Underestimation of the Hazard Potential of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Lake Merzbacher in Central Tian Shan Mountains (United States)

    Shangguan, Donghui; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin; Xie, Zunyi; Pieczonka, Tino; Xu, Junli; Moldobekov, Bolot


    Glacial meltwater and ice calving contribute to the flood volume of glacial lakes such as Lake Merzbacher in the Tian Shan Mountains of central Asia. In this study, we simulated the lake's volume by constructing an empirical relationship between the area of Lake Merzbacher, determined from satellite images, and the lake's water storage, derived from digital elevation models. Results showed that the lake water supply rate before Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) generally agreed well with those during the GLOFs from 2009 to 2012 but not in 2008 and 2015. Furthermore, we found that the combination of glacial meltwater and ice calving is not enough to fully explain the supply rate during GLOFs in 1996 and 1999, suggesting other factors affect the supply rate during GLOFs as well. To examine this further, we compared the water supply rate before and during GLOF events in 1999 and 2008. We inferred that quickly released short-term and intermediate-term water storage by glaciers have likely contributed to both flood events in those years. This study highlights the need to improve our understanding of the supply component of outburst floods, such as irregularly released stored water may lead to GLOF events with generally three different types: case I (singular event-triggered englacial water release), case II (glacier melt due to temperature changes), and case III (englacial water release mixed with glacier melt).

  4. SP mountain data analysis (United States)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.


    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in Gentile di maiale, a smoked meat product typical of some mountain areas in Latina province (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Carrabs


    Full Text Available Gentile di maiale is a typical meat product prepared in some traditional plants of Latina Province (Central Italy. It is obtained from dehydration, salting, smoking and ripening of swine rectum. Aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the traditional smoking process on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs content by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic/fluorescence detection. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons detected in 8 samples of raw material (swine rectum and samples of smoked gentile were: benzo[a]anthracene, chrisene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a] pyrene, benzo[a,h]anthracene. Their residues were detected in all samples of finished product. European Regulation 835/2011 established two levels of PAHs content in meat products. According to first levels, in force until September 2014, only 2 out of 8 samples exceeded legal limit. According to the subsequent, more restrictive, limits all samples would be non-compliant. An improvement and a standardisation of traditional smoking procedures are recommended.

  6. Wild food plants and wild edible fungi of Heihe valley (Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi, central China: herbophilia and indifference to fruits and mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Kang


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate knowledge and use of wild food plants and fungi in Han (i.e. Chinese nationality villages in central China, including famine plants used in the respondents' childhood. A valley adjacent to the extremely species-rich temperate forest vegetation of the Taibai Nature Reserve was chosen. Eighty-two people from 5 villages took part in the study. Altogether, 159 wild food plant species and 13 fungi folk taxa were mentioned by informants. The mean number of freelisted wild foods was very high (24.8; median – 21.5. An average respondent listed many species of wild vegetables (mean – 17, me- dian – 14.5, a few wild fruits (mean – 5.9 and median – 6 and very few fungi (mean – 1.9, median – 1, which they had eaten. Over 50% of respondents mentioned gathering the young shoots or leaves of Celastrus orbiculatus, Staphylea bumalda and S. holocapra, Caryopteris divaricata, Helwingia japonica, Pteridium aquilinum, Pimpinella sp., Amaranthus spp., Matteucia struthiopteris, Allium spp., Cardamine macrophylla and Chenopodium album. Only one species of fruits (Schisandra sphenanthera and none of the mushrooms were mentioned by over half of the respondents. Although very diverse, it can be noted that the use of wild vegetables has decreased compared to the second half of the 20th century, as informants listed several plants which they had stopped using (e.g. Abelia engleriana due to the availability of cultivated vegetables and other foodstuffs. On the other hand, the collection of the most well-known wild vegetables is maintained by selling them to tourists visiting agritourist farms, and restaurants.

  7. Yucca Mountain project prototype testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.T.; Girdley, W.A.


    The U.S. DOE is responsible for characterizing the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada to determine its suitability for development as a geologic repository to isolate high-level nuclear waste for at least 10,000 years. This unprecedented task relies in part on measurements made with relatively new methods or applications, such as dry coring and overcoring for studies to be conducted from the land surface and in an underground facility. The Yucca Mountain Project has, since 1988, implemented a program of equipment development and methods development for a broad spectrum of hydrologic, geologic, rock mechanics, and thermomechanical tests planned for use in an Exploratory Shaft during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. A second major program was fielded beginning in April 1989 to develop and test methods and equipment for surface drilling to obtain core samples from depth using only air as a circulating medium. The third major area of prototype testing has been during the ongoing development of the Instrumentation/ Data Acquisition System (IDAS), designed to collect and monitor data from down-hole instrumentation in the unsaturated zone, and store and transmit the data to a central archiving computer. Future prototype work is planned for several programs including the application of vertical seismic profiling methods and flume design to characterizing the geology at Yucca Mountain. The major objectives of this prototype testing are to assure that planned Site Characterization testing can be carried out effectively at Yucca Mountain, both in the Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF), and from the surface, and to avoid potential major failures or delays that could result from the need to re-design testing concepts or equipment. This paper will describe the scope of the Yucca Mountain Project prototype testing programs and summarize results to date. 3 figs

  8. Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of Baird Mountains Quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.


    Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Baird Mountains quadrangle form a relatively thin (about 550 m), chiefly shallow-water succession that has been imbricately thrust and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. Middle and Upper Cambrian rocks - the first reported from the western Brooks Range - occur in the northeastern quarter of the quadrangle, south of Angayukaqsraq (formerly Hub) Mountain. They consist of marble grading upward into thin-bedded marble/dolostone couplets and contain pelagiellid mollusks, acetretid brachiopods, and agnostid trilobites. Sedimentologic features and the Pelagiellas indicate a shallow-water depositional environment. Overlying these rocks are Lower and Middle Ordovician marble and phyllite containing graptolites and conodonts of midshelf to basinal aspect. Upper Ordovician rocks in this area are bioturbated to laminated dolostone containing warm, shallow-water conodonts. In the Omar and Squirrel Rivers areas to the west, the Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks show striking differences in lithofacies, biofacies, and thickness. Here they are mainly dolostone with locally well-developed fenestral fabric and evaporite molds, and bioturbated to laminated orange- and gray-weathering dolomitic marble. Upper Silurian dolostone, found near Angayukaqsraq Mountain and on the central Squirrel River, contains locally abundant corals and stronmatoporoids. Devonian carbonate rocks are widely distributed in the Baird Mountains quadrangle; at least two distinct sequences have been identified. In the Omar area, Lower and Middle Devonian dolostone and marble are locally cherty and rich in megafossils. In the north-central (Nakolik River) area, Middle and Upper Devonian marble is interlayered with planar to cross-laminated quartz-carbonate metasandstone and phyllite.

  9. A rare and cryptic endemic of the Central Rocky Mountains, U.S.A: The distribution of the Arapahoe snowfly, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) (Plecoptera: Capniidae) (United States)

    Fairchild, Matthew P.; Belcher, Thomas P.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Vieira, Nicole K.M.; Kondratieff, Boris C.


    The Arapahoe snowfly, Arsapnia arapahoe (Nelson & Kondratieff, 1988) (Plecoptera: Capniidae) is a candidate species warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act. Prior to this study, A. arapahoe was known from only two tributaries of the Cache la Poudre River in Larimer County, Colorado: Young Gulch and Elkhorn Creek. The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of this endemic stonefly, and to identify sympatric species as possible surrogate indicators of its occurrence. Eighty-four streams were sampled within the expected geographical range and emergence time-period from 2013 to 2017. Adults of A. arapahoe were discovered in 19 first-, second-, and fourth-order streams beyond the original type localities tributary to the Cache la Poudre River. The new and recently recorded localities were discovered in the Big Thompson River, St. Vrain River, Boulder Creek, and Upper South Platte River Watersheds. Two species, A. decepta (Banks, 1897) and Capnia gracilaria Claassen, 1924, always co-occurred with A. arapahoe, suggesting this species pair may serve as a surrogate indicator of suitable stream habitat for A. arapahoe. Suggestions for future investigation into the distribution, life-history, and habitat of A. arapahoe are presented to aid the conservation of this rare and endemic Colorado stonefly.

  10. A sightability model for mountain goats (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.


    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  11. Developing a Validated Long-Term Satellite-Based Albedo Record in the Central Alaska Range to Improve Regional Hydroclimate Reconstructions (United States)

    Kreutz, K. J.; Godaire, T. P.; Burakowski, E. A.; Winski, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Wang, Z.; Sun, Q.; Hamilton, G. S.; Birkel, S. D.; Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Schaaf, C.


    Mountain glaciers around the world, particularly in Alaska, are experiencing significant surface mass loss from rapid climatic shifts and constitute a large proportion of the cryosphere's contribution to sea level rise. Surface albedo acts as a primary control on a glacier's mass balance, yet it is difficult to measure and quantify spatially and temporally in steep, mountainous settings. During our 2013 field campaign in Denali National Park to recover two surface to bedrock ice cores, we used an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) FieldSpec4 Standard Resolution spectroradiometer to measure incoming solar radiation, outgoing surface reflectance and optical grain size on the Kahiltna Glacier and at the Kahiltna Base Camp. A Campbell Scientific automatic weather station was installed on Mount Hunter (3900m) in June 2013, complementing a longer-term (2008-present) station installed at Kahiltna Base Camp (2100m). Use of our in situ data aids in the validation of surface albedo values derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat satellite imagery. Comparisons are made between ASD FieldSpec4 ground measurements and 500m MODIS imagery to assess the ability of MODIS to capture the variability of surface albedo across the glacier surface. The MODIS MCD43A3 BRDF/Albedo Product performs well at Kahiltna Base Camp (albedo (10-28% relative to ASD data) appear to occur along the Kahiltna Glacier due to the snow-free valley walls being captured in the 500m MODIS footprint. Incorporating Landsat imagery will strengthen our interpretations and has the potential to produce a long-term (1982-present) validated satellite albedo record for steep and mountainous terrain. Once validation is complete, we will compare the satellite-derived albedo record to the Denali ice core accumulation rate, aerosol records (i.e. volcanics and biomass burning), and glacier mass balance data. This research will ultimately contribute to an improved understanding of the


    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P


    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA. (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph


    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  14. Central American Flying Weather (United States)


    CEILING; VISIBILITY; WIND, PRECIPITATIDNc’--." HAZE, SMOKE, TEMPORALE ; MOUNTAIN WAVE; MILITARY METEOROLOGY. 4k- / ’A. bstract; Asummary of~ing weather...1 The " Temporale " ....................................1 Mountain Waves ......................I...............1 Severe Thunderstorms...charts. The for any part of Central America lies in having: Tactical Pilota.e Chart series , produced by the Df -.nse Mapping Agency, is * A good, basic

  15. Postwildfire measurement of soil physical and hydraulic properties at selected sampling sites in the 2011 Las Conchas wildfire burn scar, Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico (United States)

    Romero, Orlando C.; Ebel, Brian A.; Martin, Deborah A.; Buchan, Katie W.; Jornigan, Alanna D.


    The generation of runoff and the resultant flash flooding can be substantially larger following wildfire than for similar rainstorms that precede wildfire disturbance. Flash flooding after the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in New Mexico provided the motivation for this investigation to assess postwildfire effects on soil-hydraulic properties (SHPs) and soil-physical properties (SPPs) as a function of remotely sensed burn severity 4 years following the wildfire. A secondary purpose of this report is to illustrate a methodology to determine SHPs that analyzes infiltrometer data by using three different analysis methods. The SPPs and SHPs are measured as a function of remotely sensed burn severity by using the difference in the Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) metric for seven sites. The dNBR metric was used to guide field sample collection across a full spectrum of burn severities that covered the range of Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) and Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) thematic classes from low to high severity. The SPPs (initial and saturated soil-water content, bulk density, soil-organic matter, and soil-particle size) and SHPs (field-saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity) were measured under controlled laboratory conditions for soil cores collected in the field. The SHPs were estimated by using tension infiltrometer measurements and three different data analysis methods. These measurements showed large effects of burn severity, focused in the top1 centimeter (cm) of soil, on some SPPs (bulk density, soil organic matter, and particle sizes). The threshold of these bulk density and soil organic matter effects was between 300 and 400 dNBR, which corresponds to a MTBS thematic class between moderate and high burn severity and a BARC4 thematic class of high severity. Gravel content and the content of fines in the top 1 cm of soil had a higher threshold value between 450 and 500 dNBR. Lesser effects on SPPs were observed at depths of 1–3 cm

  16. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Credit: CDC A male cayenne tick, Amblyomma cajennense, ... and New Mexico. Why Is the Study of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever a Priority for NIAID? Tickborne diseases are becoming ...

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever (United States)

    ... spotted fever on the foot Rocky Mountain spotted fever, petechial rash Antibodies Deer and dog tick References McElligott SC, Kihiczak GG, Schwartz RA. Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other rickettsial infections. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann ...

  18. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington (United States)

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John


    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  19. 75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area (United States)


    ... states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of mildew, a vineyard... often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other areas. Pine..., these mountain soils include large amounts of sand and gravel. Pine Mountain soils are generally less...

  20. Long-term fluid circulation in extensional faults in the central Catalan Coastal Ranges: P-T constraints from neoformed chlorite and K-white mica (United States)

    Cantarero, Irene; Lanari, Pierre; Vidal, Olivier; Alías, Gemma; Travé, Anna; Baqués, Vinyet


    The neoformation of chlorite and K-white mica in fault rocks from two main faults of the central Catalan Coastal Ranges, the Vallès and the Hospital faults, has allowed us to constrain the P-T conditions during fault evolution using thermodynamic modeling. Crystallization of M1 and M2 muscovite and microcline occured as result of deuteric alteration during the exhumation of the pluton (290 °C > T > 370 °C) in the Permian. After that, three tectonic events have been distinguished. The first tectonic event, attributed to the Mesozoic rifting, is characterized by precipitation of M3 and M4 phengite together with chlorite and calcite C1 at temperatures between 190 and 310 °C. The second tectonic event attributed to the Paleogene compression has only been identified in the Hospital fault with precipitation of low-temperature calcite C2. The shortcut produced during inversion of the Vallès fault was probably the responsible for the lack of neoformed minerals within this fault. Finally, the third tectonic event, which is related to the Neogene extension, is characterized in the Vallès fault by a new generation of chlorite, associated with calcite C4 and laumontite, formed at temperatures between 125 and 190 °C in the absence of K-white mica. Differently, the Hospital fault is characterized by the precipitation of calcite C3 during the syn-rift stage at temperatures around 150 °C and by low-temperature fluids precipitating calcites C5, C6 and PC1 during the post-rift stage. During the two extensional events (Mesozoic and Neogene), faults acted as conduits for hot fluids producing anomalous high geothermal gradients (50 °C/km minimum).

  1. Seismic imaging of the southern California plate-boundary around the South-Central Transverse Ranges using double-difference tomography (United States)

    Share, P. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Thurber, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Guo, H.


    We derive P and S seismic velocities within and around the South-Central Transverse Ranges section of the San Andreas Fault (SAF), using a new double-difference tomography algorithm incorporating both event-pair and station-pair differential times. The event-pair data can determine high-resolution relative earthquake locations and resolve fine-scale structure in seismogenic zones, whereas station-pair data allow for better absolute locations and higher resolution of structure near the surface where stations are most dense. The tomographic results are based on arrival times of P and S waves generated by 17,753 M>1 local events from 1/1/2010 to 6/30/2015 recorded by 259 stations within a 222 km x 164 km region. The resulting P and S velocity models include low velocities along major fault segments and across-fault velocity contrasts. For example, at depths 50 km parallel to the SAF around Coachella Valley but offset to the NE by 13 km. This is interpreted to mark a dipping section of the SAF that separates granites at depth in the SW from gneisses and schists in the NE. Analysis of fault zone head waves propagating along these sections of the SAF and SJFZ show that major bimaterial interfaces are associated with the observed velocity contrasts. Additional features within the models include elongated low velocity anomalies extending from the SJFZ trifurcation area, which itself has associated low velocity at great depth (>14 km), to the Elsinore Fault in the SW. Moreover, a deep (>13 km) velocity contrast appears beneath the SBB with an east-west strike oblique to both the northern SJFZ and SAF traces. The latter is potentially related to the ancestral Banning Fault, which dips to the north, separating low velocity Pelona schist in the north from high velocity granites in the south.

  2. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II


    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections of the southwestern Great Basin

  3. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (US); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Inc., Denver, CO (US)


    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  4. Mountain cedar allergens found in nonpollen tree parts. (United States)

    Goetz, D W; Goetz, M A; Whisman, B A


    Mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen is the principal aeroallergen in south central Texas from late December through February. The major mountain cedar allergen is a 40-kD glycoprotein, gp40. To identify allergens in mountain cedar wood, leaves, and berries and to detect mountain cedar allergen in smoke from burning male or female trees. SDS-PAGE plus mountain cedar human sIgE and monoclonal antibody immunoblots identified mountain cedar allergens within pollen and nonpollen tree part extracts. IgE immunoblots identified a single wood allergen at 36 kD and three berry allergens at 36, 26-27, and 21 kD, in addition to known pollen allergens. Mountain cedar monoclonal antibody bound an allergen epitope present not only on 40, 33, and 28-kD pollen allergens, but also on 36 and 32-kD wood allergens, and the 26-27-kD berry allergen. Immunoblot studies detected no mountain cedar allergen in leaves and no allergen in smoke from burning male and female trees. Allergens constituted a much smaller percentage of extractable protein in wood and berries than in pollen. Mountain cedar berry allergen content is too small to give credence to the ingestion of berries as a folk medicine treatment of mountain cedar pollinosis. In addition, while smoke from burning mountain cedar trees may be irritating, it contains no allergens that could cause allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

  5. Plagioclase Textures and Zoning Patterns in the Miocene Dowdy Ranch Andesite, Central California Coast Ranges: Implications for Open and Closed System Behavior in Magmatic Systems (United States)

    Bavishi, D. K.; Metzger, E. P.; Miller, J. S.


    The Miocene Dowdy Range Andesite (DRA) of the Central California Coast Ranges is part of a northwestward-younging sequence of volcanic rocks that were apparently formed by northward movement of the Mendocino triple junction, formation of a slab window, and infilling by asthenospheric mantle. The highly porphyritic andesite contains plagioclase phenocrysts with a wide array of disequilibrium textures and zoning patterns, providing an opportunity to reconstruct andesite-forming processes in a tectonic environment that evolved from subduction to transform motion. The DRA encloses metasedimentary, granulitic, and gabbroic xenoliths (described elsewhere) and displays arc-like trace element chemistry. It features glomeroporphyritic, intersertal and hyalopilitic textures with plagioclase as the dominant phase both as phenocrysts and in the groundmass. Other groundmass minerals include orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and ilmenite. Plagioclase exhibits normal, reverse, oscillatory and patchy zoning patterns and sieve and sponge textures, with several populations of plagioclase crystals observed on the scale of a single thin section. The presence of abundant quartz xenocrysts rimmed by augite and absence of mafic enclaves suggest that incorporation of crustal material played an important role in forming the andesite. Preliminary examination of back-scattered electron images and electron microprobe analysis of zoned plagioclase shows both concordant and discordant relationships between An and FeO, suggesting that the andesite was formed by a combination of open and closed system magmatic processes. Plagioclase cores vary from An 45-65%. Clear rims surrounding spongy zones are common and show abrupt and significant (~10-50% An and 5-20% FeO) increases in both An and FeO, as expected for magma recharge by more mafic magma. Clear rim compositions are consistent from sample to sample, suggesting that the phenocrysts experienced a common history during later stages of

  6. Mountain building processes in the Central Andes (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Isacks, B. L.

    False color composite images of the Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 5, 4, and 2 were examined to make visual interpretations of geological features. The use of the roam mode of image display with the International Imaging Systems (IIS) System 600 image processing package running on the IIS Model 75 was very useful. Several areas in which good comparisons with ground data existed, were examined in detail. Parallel to the visual approach, image processing methods are being developed which allow the complete use of the seven TM bands. The data was organized into easily accessible files and a visual cataloging of the quads (quarter TM scenes) with preliminary registration with the best available charts for the region. The catalog has proved to be a valuable tool for the rapid scanning of quads for a specific investigation. Integration of the data into a complete approach to the problems of uplift, deformation, and magnetism in relation to the Nazca-South American plate interaction is at an initial stage.

  7. Deep structure of the Alborz Mountains by joint inversion of P receiver functions and dispersion curves (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mehdi; Rahimi, Habib; Motaghi, Khalil; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.


    The Alborz Mountains represent a tectonically and seismically active convergent boundary in the Arabia - Eurasia collision zone, in western Asia. The orogenic belt has undergone a long-lasted tectono-magmatic history since the Cretaceous. The relationship between shallow and deep structures in this complex tectonic domain is not straightforward. We present a 2D velocity model constructed by the assemblage of 1D shear wave velocity (Vs) models from 26 seismic stations, mainly distributed along the southern flank of the Alborz Mountains. The shear wave velocity structure has been estimated beneath each station using joint inversion of P-waves receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. A substantiation of the Vs inversion results sits on the modeling of Bouguer gravity anomaly data. Our velocity and density models show low velocity/density anomalies in uppermost mantle of western and central Alborz at a depth range of ∼50-100 km. In deeper parts of the uppermost mantle (depth range of 100-150 km), a high velocity/density anomaly is located beneath most of the Mountain range. The spatial pattern of these low and high velocity/density structures in the upper mantle is interpreted as the result of post collisional delamination of lower part of the western and central Alborz lithosphere.

  8. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.


    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  9. What is the impact of altitude on energy demand? A step towards developing specialized energy policy for mountainous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.


    Specific strategies for the energy sector should be a central part of a sustainable mountain policy. However, there is a lack of research on the energy issues of mountainous areas and specialized energy policy measures cannot be effectively supported. The determination of the energy demand in mountainous areas, which is an essential step in the direction of developing mountain energy policy, is analyzed in this paper. Greece has been selected as a case study. The results show that altitude is the decisive factor affecting degree-days and energy needs, within the geographical range of Greece. It is proved that the thermal, as well as the total energy demand are significantly increased in mountain settlements. The annual energy expenditure of a typical residence lying at an altitude of 1000 m proved to be 85% higher than the corresponding cost at sea level. This makes mountainous populations vulnerable to energy poverty. It is also proved that the subsidy policy for heating oil, in Greece, cannot alleviate energy poverty. The results of the present study can be utilized in the direction of re-designing the present policy and this is a completely necessary step for creating a sustainable policy for mountainous areas, in general. - Highlights: • The altitude’s influence on degree-days and energy needs in Greece was quantified. • Altitude affects heating degree-days 3.5 times more intensely than latitude in Greece. • A typical home has two times more thermal needs at 800 m than at sea-level in Greece. • The subsidy policy for heating oil is inadequate for Greek mountainous territories. • More than 85% of the households located over 800 m are energy poor in Greece

  10. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam


    Full Text Available The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (−3.5<η<5 allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162±22(syst. to 17170±770(syst. in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch/dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  11. Centrality evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Bartsch, Esther; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batista Camejo, Arianna; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont Iii, Ronald John; Belmont Moreno, Ernesto; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chelnokov, Volodymyr; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Choi, Kyungeon; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Connors, Megan Elizabeth; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Albino, Rigoberto; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Denes, Ervin Sandor; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Drozhzhova, Tatiana; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erdemir, Irem; Erhardt, Filip; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabbietti, Laura; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Grachov, Oleg Anatolievich; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grynyov, Borys; Grion, Nevio; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Haake, Rudiger; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hippolyte, Boris; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Kiss, Gabor; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobayashi, Taiyo; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Kofarago, Monika; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolozhvari, Anatoly; Kondratev, Valerii; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Kopcik, Michal; Kour, Mandeep; Kouzinopoulos, Charalampos; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Ajay; Kumar, Jitendra; Lokesh, Kumar; Kumar, Shyam; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron De Guevara, Pedro; Lagana Fernandes, Caio; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara Martinez, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lattuca, Alessandra; Laudi, Elisa; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leogrande, Emilia; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Li, Shuang; Li, Xiaomei; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Lonne, Per-Ivar; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahajan, Sanjay; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martin Blanco, Javier; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-Garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel Anthony; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Mcdonald, Daniel; Meddi, Franco; Melikyan, Yuri; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Meninno, Elisa; Mercado-Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Mieskolainen, Matti Mikael; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Minervini, Lazzaro Manlio; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz Czeslaw; Mitra, Jubin; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mohammadi, Naghmeh; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Montes Prado, Esther; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Perez Moreno, Luis Alberto; Moretto, Sandra; Morreale, Astrid; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhlheim, Daniel Michael; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mulligan, James Declan; Gameiro Munhoz, Marcelo; Munzer, Robert Helmut; Murray, Sean; Musa, Luciano; Musinsky, Jan; Naik, Bharati; Nair, Rahul; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nellen, Lukas; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Okatan, Ali; Okubo, Tsubasa; Olah, Laszlo; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Ozdemir, Mahmut; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Papcun, Peter; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Woojin; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrov, Viacheslav; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym


    The centrality dependence of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends to more peripheral collisions the previous results reported by ALICE. No strong evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when the results are normalized to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the centrality evolution is likewise small. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged–particle multiplicity are limited. The broad pseudorapidity range allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from $162\\pm 22$(syst.) to $17170\\pm 770$(syst.) in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The results are compared to models which describe ${\\rm d}N_{\\rm ch}/{\\rm d}\\eta$ at mid–rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that t...

  12. Impact of catastrophic events on small mountainous rivers: Temporal and spatial variations in suspended- and dissolved-solid fluxes along the Choshui River, central western Taiwan, during typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004 (United States)

    Milliman, J. D.; Lee, T. Y.; Huang, J. C.; Kao, S. J.


    Small mountainous rivers deliver disproportionately large quantities of suspended and dissolved solids to the global ocean, often in response to catastrophic events such as earthquakes or floods. Here we report on the impact of a major flood on the Choshui River, central-western Taiwan, generated by typhoon Mindulle, July 2-6, 2004, five years after the nearby Mw 7.6 Chichi earthquake. Water samples taken at 3-h intervals at three stations along main stem, as well as from two downriver tributaries, allow us to delineate the temporal and spatial variability in concentrations and fluxes of suspended and dissolved constituents within the middle and lower portions of the river in response to this flood. High suspended-sediment concentrations, some as high as 200 g/l, reflected the rapid erosion of landslide scars and debris deposits generated by super-typhoon Herb in 1996 and the 1999 Chichi earthquake. Dissolved-solid and suspended-sediment discharges totaled 0.22 and 70 million tons (mt), 50 mt of which were discharged in just two days. Particulate organic carbon (POC) discharge, most of which was pre-modern in age, was 195,000 t. More than half of the discharged water, POC and dissolved solids came from upriver, whereas about 70% of the suspended sediment and 60% of the dissolved nitrate came from two downriver tributaries, the Chenyoulan and Qingshui rivers. Spatial and temporal differences in the character and discharge of suspended and dissolved solids within and between rivers in the Choshui drainage basin reflect different geologies, landslide histories, the effects of human impact, and the abrupt draining of the Tsaoling landslide lake in the Qingshui basin, as well as the possible shifting of importance of groundwater vs. overland flow. Neither wind-blown pollutants nor sea salts appear to have contributed significantly to dissolved solid character or discharge. Sediment contribution from the landslides in the Chenyoulan basin generated by super-typhoon Herb

  13. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.


    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems

  14. Impacts of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics on species range limits: a case study of Liriodendron chinense. (United States)

    Yang, Aihong; Dick, Christopher W; Yao, Xiaohong; Huang, Hongwen


    Species ranges are influenced by past climate oscillations, geographical constraints, and adaptive potential to colonize novel habitats at range limits. This study used Liriodendron chinense, an important temperate Asian tree species, as a model system to evaluate the roles of biogeographic history and marginal population genetics in determining range limits. We examined the demographic history and genetic diversity of 29 L. chinense populations using both chloroplast and nuclear microsatellite loci. Significant phylogeographic structure was recovered with haplotype clusters coinciding with major mountain regions. Long-term demographical stability was suggested by mismatch distribution analyses, neutrality tests, and ecological niche models (ENM) and suggested the existence of LGM refuges within mountain regions. Differences in genetic diversity between central and marginal populations were not significant for either genomic region. However, asymmetrical gene flow was inferred from central populations to marginal populations, which could potentially limit range adaptation and expansion of L. chinense.

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts


    Gross, Donovan


    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  16. Anfibios de las Sierras Pampeanas Centrales de Argentina: diversidad y distribución altitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián N. Lescano


    Full Text Available Amphibians from Sierras Pampeanas Centrales of Argentina: diversity and altitudinal distribution. Sierras Pampeanas Centrales (SPC mountains are located in Córdoba and San Luis provinces (Argentina and represent an area of unique biogeographic importance. In this paper we provide a synthesis about the knowledge of diversity and altitudinal distribution of anurans that inhabit SPC mountains. We compiled a species list through different information sources (field data, biological collections and bibliography. Using this information we characterize altitudinal distribution range of each species and analyze associations between species richness and composition and altitude gradient. We recorded 24 amphibians species belonging to five families. These species are heterogeneously distributed over the altitude gradient of SPC. We detect a linear negative relationship between altitude and species richness and defined assemblages associated with different altitude sectors. The results obtained in the paper represent basic information that will be useful to evaluate anthropogenic impact on this particular and fragile mountain system.

  17. Mountain Plover [ds109 (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Point locations representing observations of mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) feeding and roosting flocks (and occasional individuals) documented during an...

  18. Equilibrium of vegetation and climate at the European rear edge. A reference for climate change planning in mountainous Mediterranean regions. (United States)

    Ruiz-Labourdette, Diego; Martínez, Felipe; Martín-López, Berta; Montes, Carlos; Pineda, Francisco D


    Mediterranean mountains harbour some of Europe's highest floristic richness. This is accounted for largely by the mesoclimatic variety in these areas, along with the co-occurrence of a small area of Eurosiberian, Boreal and Mediterranean species, and those of Tertiary Subtropical origin. Throughout the twenty-first century, we are likely to witness a climate change-related modification of the biogeographic scenario in these mountains, and there is therefore a need for accurate climate regionalisations to serve as a reference of the abundance and distribution of species and communities, particularly those of a relictic nature. This paper presents an objective mapping method focussing on climate regions in a mountain range. The procedure was tested in the Cordillera Central Mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, in the western Mediterranean, one of the ranges occupying the largest area of the Mediterranean Basin. This regionalisation is based upon multivariate analyses and upon detailed cartography employing 27 climatic variables. We used spatial interpolation of data based on geographic information. We detected high climatic diversity in the mountain range studied. We identified 13 climatic regions, all of which form a varying mosaic throughout the annual temperature and rainfall cycle. This heterogeneity results from two geographically opposed gradients. The first one is the Mediterranean-Euro-Siberian variation of the mountain range. The second gradient involves the degree of oceanicity, which is negatively related to distance from the Atlantic Ocean. The existing correlation between the climatic regions detected and the flora existing therein enables the results to be situated within the projected trends of global warming, and their biogeographic and ecological consequences to be analysed.

  19. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever. (United States)

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C


    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  20. Glacier Monitoring and Capacity Building: Important Ingredients for Sustainable Mountain Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel U. Nussbaumer


    Full Text Available Glacier observation data from major mountain regions of the world are key to improving our understanding of glacier changes: they deliver fundamental baseline information for climatological, hydrological, and hazard assessments. In many mountain ecosystems, as well as in the adjacent lowlands, glaciers play a crucial role in freshwater provision and regulation. This article first presents the state of the art on glacier monitoring and related strategies within the framework of the Global Terrestrial Network for Glaciers (GTN-G. Both in situ measurements of changes in glacier mass, volume, and length as well as remotely sensed data on glacier extents and changes over entire mountain ranges provide clear indications of climate change. Based on experiences from capacity-building activities undertaken in the Tropical Andes and Central Asia over the past years, we also review the state of the art on institutional capacity in these regions and make further recommendations for sustainable mountain development. The examples from Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate that a sound understanding of measurement techniques and of the purpose of measurements is necessary for successful glacier monitoring. In addition, establishing durable institutions, capacity-building programs, and related funding is necessary to ensure that glacier monitoring is sustainable and maintained in the long term. Therefore, strengthening regional cooperation, collaborating with local scientists and institutions, and enhancing knowledge sharing and dialogue are envisaged within the GTN-G. Finally, glacier monitoring enhances the resilience of the populations that depend on water resources from glacierized mountains or that are affected by hazards related to glacier changes. We therefore suggest that glacier monitoring be included in the development of sustainable adaptation strategies in regions with glaciated mountains.

  1. The Black Mountain tectonic zone--a reactivated northeast-trending crustal shear zone in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska: Chapter D in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael; Day, Warren C.; Alienikoff, John N.; Saltus, Richard W.; Gough, Larry P.; Day, Warren C.


    The Black Mountain tectonic zone in the YukonTanana terrane of east-central Alaska is a belt of diverse northeast-trending geologic features that can been traced across Black Mountain in the southeast corner of the Big Delta 1°×3° degree quadrangle. Geologic mapping in the larger scale B1 quadrangle of the Big Delta quadrangle, in which Black Mountain is the principal physiographic feature, has revealed a continuous zone of normal and left-lateral strikeslip high-angle faults and shear zones, some of which have late Tertiary to Quaternary displacement histories. The tectonic zone includes complexly intruded wall rocks and intermingled apophyses of the contiguous mid-Cretaceous Goodpaster and Mount Harper granodioritic plutons, mafic to intermediate composite dike swarms, precious metal mineralization, early Tertiary volcanic activity and Quaternary fault scarps. These structures define a zone as much as 6 to 13 kilometers (km) wide and more than 40 km long that can be traced diagonally across the B1 quadrangle into the adjacent Eagle 1°×3° quadrangle to the east. Recurrent activity along the tectonic zone, from at least mid-Cretaceous to Quaternary, suggests the presence of a buried, fundamental tectonic feature beneath the zone that has influenced the tectonic development of this part of the Yukon-Tanana terrane. The tectonic zone, centered on Black Mountain, lies directly above a profound northeast-trending aeromagnetic anomaly between the Denali and Tintina fault systems. The anomaly separates moderate to strongly magnetic terrane on the northwest from a huge, weakly magnetic terrane on the southeast. The tectonic zone is parallel to the similarly oriented left-lateral, strike-slip Shaw Creek fault zone 85 km to the west.

  2. Basement control of alkalic flood rhyolite magmatism of the Davis Mountains volcanic field, Trans-Pecos Texas, U.S.A. (United States)

    Parker, Don F.; White, John C.; Ren, Minghua; Barnes, Melanie


    Voluminous silicic lava flows, erupted 37.4 Ma from widespread centers within the Davis Mountains Volcanic Field (DMVF), covered approximately 10,000 km2 with an initial volume as great as 1000 km3. Lava flows form three major stratigraphic units: the Star Mountain Rhyolite (minimum 220 km3) of the eastern Davis Mountains and adjacent Barilla Mountains, the Crossen Formation ( 75 km3) of the southern Davis Mountains, and the Bracks Rhyolite ( 75 km3) of the Rim Rock region west of the Davis Mountains proper. Similar extensive rhyolite lava also occurs in slightly younger units (Adobe Canyon Rhyolite, 125 km3, 37.1 Ma), Sheep Pasture Formation ( 125 km3, 36 Ma) and, less voluminously, in the Paisano central volcano ( 36.9 Ma) and younger units in the Davis Mountains. Individual lava flows from these units formed fields as extensive as 55 km and 300-m-thick. Flood rhyolite lavas of the Davis Mountains are marginally peralkaline quartz trachyte to low-silica rhyolite. Phenocrysts include alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene, FeTi oxides, and apatite, and, rarely, fayalite, as well as zircon in less peralkaline units. Many Star Mountain flows may be assigned to one of four geochemical groupings. Temperatures were moderately high, ranging from 911 to 860 °C in quartz trachyte and low silica rhyolite. We suggest that flood rhyolite magma evolved from trachyte magma by filter pressing processes, and trachyte from mafic magma in deeper seated plutons. The Davis Mountains segment of Trans-Pecos Texas overlies Grenville basement and is separated from the older Southern Granite and Rhyolite Province to the north by the Grenville Front, and from the younger Coahuila terrane to the south by the Ouachita Front. We suggest that basement structure strongly influenced the timing and nature of Trans-Pecos magmatism, probably in varying degrees of impeding the ascent of mantle-derived mafic magmas, which were produced by upwelling of asthenospheric mantle above the foundered Farallon slab

  3. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah (United States)

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don


    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  4. Superposed orogenic collision and core-complex formation at the present contact between the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin: The Bukulja and Cer Mountains in central and western Serbia (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu; Toljic, Marinko; Ducea, Mihai; Stojadinovic, Uros


    Formation of large extensional detachments during orogenic collapse can follow inherited weakness zones such as major asymmetries given by pre-existing subduction zones active during mountain building processes. This is valid in particular in low-topography foreland coupling orogens of Mediterranean type where large amounts of deformation is concentrated in their lower plates, favoring weakness zones activated during a subsequent phase of extensional collapse. One good place to study the orogenic collapse post-dating major collision is the NE margin of the Dinarides in central and western Serbia, where Cretaceous-Eocene shortening and collision was recorded in the Alpine Tethys Sava zone between the European-derived Dacia and Tisza mega-units and the lower Adriatic plate. This is the same place where the Pannonian basin formed as a Miocene back-arc basin in response to a different subduction and roll-back taking place along the external Carpathians. A lineament of Paleogene and Miocene plutons is observed at the northern and eastern margin of the Dinarides, interpreted to be the product of both syn- to post-orogenic subduction magmatism and of decompressional melting during the Pannonian extension. Two of these plutons, Cer and Bukulja, located in western and respectively central Serbia, are intruded in the Jadar-Kopaonik composite thrust sheet, part of the lower Adriatic plate, near the contact with the main suture formed during the Cretaceous-Eocene subduction of the Sava zone. The Lower Miocene age (19-17Ma) Bukulja intrusion is a S-type granite with rare aplitic veins (Cvetkovic et al., 2007). The Cer intrusive complex is a S type two mica granite of around 16Ma in age with an older I-type quartz monzonite component (Koroneos et al. in press). Both granitoids are intruded into the Jadar-Kopaonik metamorphic series, which are in direct contact along the northern, eastern and southern flank with non-metamorphosed, mainly clastic sediments of Cretaceous-Miocene in

  5. Advances in global mountain geomorphology (United States)

    Slaymaker, Olav; Embleton-Hamann, Christine


    Three themes in global mountain geomorphology have been defined and reinforced over the past decade: (a) new ways of measuring, sensing, and analyzing mountain morphology; (b) a new emphasis on disconnectivity in mountain geomorphology; and (c) the emergence of concerns about the increasing influence of anthropogenic disturbance of the mountain geomorphic environment, especially in intertropical mountains where population densities are higher than in any other mountain region. Anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change increases geomorphic hazards and risks but also provides new opportunities for mountain landscape enhancement. Each theme is considered with respect to the distinctiveness of mountain geomorphology and in relation to important advances in research over the past decade. The traditional reliance on the high energy condition to define mountain geomorphology seems less important than the presence of unique mountain landforms and landscapes and the distinctive ways in which human activity and anthropogenically induced hydroclimate change are transforming mountain landscapes.

  6. Preliminary description of quaternary and late pliocene surficial deposits at Yucca Mountain and vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, D.L.


    The Yucca Mountain area, in the south-central part of the Great Basin, is in the drainage basin of the Amargosa River. The mountain consists of several fault blocks of volcanic rocks that are typical of the Basin and Range province. Yucca Mountain is dissected by steep-sided valleys of consequent drainage systems that are tributary on the east side to Fortymile Wash and on the west side to an unnamed wash that drains Crater Flat. Most of the major washes near Yucca Mountain are not integrated with the Amargosa River, but have distributary channels on the piedmont above the river. Landforms in the Yucca Mountain area include rock pediments, ballenas, alluvial pediments, alluvial fans, stream terraces, and playas. Early Holocene and older alluvial fan deposits have been smoothed by pedimentation. The semiconical shape of alluvial fans is apparent at the junction of tributaries with major washes and where washes cross fault and terrace scarps. Playas are present in the eastern and southern ends of the Amargosa Desert. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  7. Klamath Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 13 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000 (United States)

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Calzia, James P.


    The Klamath Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 47,791 km2 (18,452 mi2) of the Klamath and Siskiyou Mountains of northern California and southern Oregon (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is flanked by the Coast Range Ecoregion to the west, the Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion to the south, the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions to the east, and the Willamette Valley Ecoregion to the north. The mild Mediterranean climate of the ecoregion is characterized by hot, dry summers and wet winters; the amount of winter moisture varies within the ecoregion, decreasing from west to east. The Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region is widely recognized as an important biodiversity hotspot (Whittaker, 1960; Kruckeberg, 1984; Wagner, 1997; DellaSala and others, 1999), containing more than 3,500 plant species, more than 200 of which are endemic (Sawyer, 2007). A biological assessment by DellaSala and others (1999) ranked the Klamath–Siskiyou Mountains region as the fifth richest coniferous forest in terms of species diversity. In addition, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature considers the region an area of notable botanical importance (Wagner, 1997). Twenty-nine different species of conifers can be found in the Klamath Mountains Ecoregion (Sawyer, 1996).

  8. Climate along the crest of the US Rocky Mountains during the last glaciation: preliminary insights from numerical modeling of paleoglaciers (United States)

    Leonard, E. M.; Laabs, B. J.; Plummer, M. A.; Huss, E.; Spiess, V. M.; Mackall, B. T.; Jacobsen, R. E.; Quirk, B.


    Climate conditions at the time of the local Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the US Rocky Mountains were assessed using a 2-d coupled glacier energy/mass-balance and ice-flow model (Plummer and Phillips, 2003). The model was employed to understand the conditions that would be necessary to sustain valley glaciers and small mountain icecaps at their maximum extents in eight areas distributed along the crest of the range from northern New Mexico (35.8oN) to northern Montana (48.6oN). For each setting, model experiments yield a set of temperature and precipitation combinations that may have accompanied the local LGM. If the results of global and regional climate models are used to constrain temperature depression estimates from our model experiments, the following precipitation pattern emerges for the local LGM. In the northern Rocky Mountains in Montana and northern Wyoming, model results suggest a strong reduction in precipitation of 50% or more. In the central Rocky Mountains of southern Wyoming and Colorado, precipitation appears to have been 50-90% of modern. By contrast, precipitation appears to have been strongly enhanced in the southern Rocky Mountains of New Mexico. These results are broadly consistent with a pattern of precipitation observed in global and regional climate simulations of the LGM in the western U.S., in which precipitation was reduced in the northern Rocky Mountains but increased in the southern Rocky Mountains. This pattern may reflect a southward displacement of mean position the Pacific Jet Stream in western North America during and possibly following the LGM.

  9. Leaf litter copepods from a cloud forest mountain top in Honduras (Copepoda: Cyclopidae, Canthocamptidae). (United States)

    Fiers, Frank; Jocque, Merlijn


    Five different species of Copepoda were extracted from a leaf litter sample collected on the top (at 2000 m a.s.l.) of a cloud forested mountain in El Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Three of them, one Cyclopidae and two Canthocamptidae are new to science, and are described herein. Olmeccyclops hondo sp. nov. is the second representative thus far known of this New World genus. Moraria catracha sp. nov. and Moraria cusuca sp. nov. are the first formally described members of the genus occurring in Central America. The concept of a "Moraria-group" is considered to be an artificial grouping and is limited here to the genera Moraria and Morariopsis only. The distributional range of this group is essentially Holarctic, with the mountainous regions in Honduras, and probably in west Nicaragua, as the southernmost limits in the New World.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Saavedra


    Full Text Available The Chongón-Colonche Mountain Range is important for their goods and environmental services, its high biodiversity, and being one of the few coastal regions of Ecuador, which still houses the coastal Jaguar Panthera onca centralis. In the Forest Protector Cerro Blanco (BPCB, last Southeast extension of the mountain chain, it was developed the field research through the data collection with direct and indirect medium-sized and higher mammals’ records. Besides a Cuddeback Digital camera trap was used, by selecting a sampling point within a probable route of the jaguar. Inspections in a nearby quarry were made to observe traces of major feline registries. The same consolidated past sightings or evidence of witnesses which complemented the study for the determination of the status of the species in the BPCB. The study showed indirect and direct records of white-tailed deer, peccaries, raccoons, agoutis, wild rabbits, howler monkeys, Capuchin white or monkeys, agouti, bears Anteaters and Jaguars from the coast for which it is considered that the BPCB is probably a meeting place between two individuals; however, it is important to note that the results presented are preliminary.

  11. Baboquivari Mountain plants: Identification, ecology, and ethnobotany [Book Review (United States)

    Rosemary L. Pendleton


    The Sky Islands of southern Arizona and northwestern Mexico make up a region that is rich, both biologically and culturally. These isolated