WorldWideScience

Sample records for mountain range central

  1. Eluvial gold placer formation on actively rising mountain ranges, Central Otago, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craw, D.; Youngson, J. H.

    1993-05-01

    Eluvial gold deposits in Central Otago, New Zealand, have formed and are still forming on the flanks of actively rising antiformal mountain ranges. These gold deposits are derived mainly by erosion and concentration of fine-grained ( soil and sequences (up to 60 m thick) of poorly sorted immature schist gravels. The gravel sequences consist mainly of matrix-supported mass flow deposits and channellised proximal fan deposits, intercalated on a 1-10 m scale. Gold is concentrated in coarse lag gravels (up to 40 cm clasts) at channel bases. Topographic slopes on the rising ranges show an evolutionary trend in space and time, from gentle weakly dissected surfaces, through slightly degraded but convex slopes, to deeply incised convex streams. Eluvial gold occurs sporadically on the gentle slopes, but the most efficient concentration processes occurred where steeper convex slopes yielded an apron of fan sediments. Gold concentration at these sites resulted from selective and localized removal ("winnowing") of most schist debris, leaving coarse lag gravels and gold. The combination of authigenic grain size increase and residual concentration ensures that the eluvial deposits retain coarse-grained gold, and that only fine-grained gold is released to the alluvial systems downstream.

  2. The vortex moving toward Taiwan and the influence of the central mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Yih

    2016-12-01

    Surface friction is important to a vortex moving toward Taiwan but was ignored in several previous studies. The change of the potential vorticity comes from friction in the shallow-water equation, hence, it was applied to study the westbound vortex influenced by the central mountain range (CMR) blocking and surface friction, which is defined as friction coefficient multiplied by the square root of topographic elevation. Without surface friction, the movement of vortex is not affected by the CMR due to the conservation of potential vorticity. With small surface friction, the simulated vortex first deflects southward slightly, then rebounds gently north due to the effect of channel flow, as the previous studies. With moderate or large surface friction, when the vortex approaching Taiwan, it deforms and creates two wind maxima; one due to effect of channel flow and the other on the east of the vortex, because the slowdown vortex is pushed by the mean easterly flow behind. Meanwhile, the vortex and two wind maxima rotate cyclonically. Hence, the vortex can deflect north or south, or form a loop, that depends on the strength and location of the wind maxima. If the circulation of the vortex moves around the northern tip of Taiwan, it can induce a significant secondary vortex on the lee side. On the other hand, the secondary vortex, triggered by the flow passing over the CMR, is rather weak. This paper may provide the formation of asymmetric inner flow and the deflection of the vortex, which may be difficult to define in a more complicated atmospheric model.

  3. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  4. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  5. Mountain Meadows Dacite: Oligocene intrusive complex that welds together the Los Angeles Basin, northwestern Peninsular Ranges, and central Transverse Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Beyer, Larry A.; Morin, Ronald W.

    2001-01-01

    Dikes and irregular intrusive bodies of distinctive Oligocene biotite dacite and serially related hornblende latite and felsite occur widely in the central and eastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, and are related to the Telegraph Peak granodiorite pluton. Identical dacite is locally present beneath Middle Miocene Topanga Group Glendora Volcanics at the northeastern edge of the Los Angeles Basin, where it is termed Mountain Meadows Dacite. This study mapped the western and southwestern limits of the dacite distribution to understand the provenance of derived redeposited clasts, to perceive Neogene offsets on several large strike-slip faults, to test published palinspastic reconstructions, and to better understand the tectonic boundaries that separate contrasting pre-Tertiary rock terranes where the Peninsular Ranges meet the central and western Transverse Ranges and the Los Angeles Basin. Transported and redeposited clasts of dacite-latite occur in deformed lower Miocene and lower middle Miocene sandy conglomerates (nonmarine, nearshore, and infrequent upper bathyal) close to the northern and northeastern margins of the Los Angeles Basin for a distance of nearly 60 km. Tie-lines between distinctive source suites and clast occurrences indicate that large tracts of the ancestral San Gabriel Mountains were elevated along range-bounding faults as early as 16–15 Ma. The tie-lines prohibit very large strike-slip offsets on those faults. Transport of eroded dacite began south of the range as early as 18 Ma. Published and unpublished data about rocks adjacent to the active Santa Monica-Hollywood-Raymond oblique reverse left-lateral fault indicate that cumulative left slip totals 13–14 km and total offset postdates 7 Ma. This cumulative slip, with assembly of stratigraphic and paleogeographic data, invalidates prior estimates of 60 to 90 km of left slip on these faults beginning about 17–16 Ma. A new and different palinspastic reconstruction of a region

  6. Yew matriarchies of the Sierra de Francia. Dynamics and ecology of recently identified Yew populations in the Central Iberian Mountain Range (Sistema Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudencio Fernández-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our study design presents two main objectives: 1 to create a census that details the number of yew individuals and their geographic distribution, and 2 to attempt to unravel possible reproductive relationships and their connection between true population nuclei and meta-population models.Area of study: Recently identified yew populations (Taxus baccata L. were studied in the western sector of the Sistema Central mountain range of theIberian Peninsula, known as the Sierra de Francia. The study was carried out in five watersheds within Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park.Material and Methods: All yew specimens were counted and assigned to age groups. The notable differences observed in regeneration aof these communities propitiates population analysis aimed at explaining the landscape connectivity relationships between the different population nuclei and the possibility of defining the meta-population set. Ecological niche models were also created to define the main ecological characteristics of the different subpopulations studied, and to compare them.Main results: Yew in the Sierra de Francia live in an array of different Mediterranean forests, indicative of species dynamics in theIberian Peninsula. 2,450 specimens were recorded and classified into the three types of yew forest population dynamics: regressional-, naturally regenerating-, and incipient- (i.e.  colonizing new territories.Research highlights: The essential role of connectivity between populations was recognized and confirmed in this study, specifically among the large female trees located at the headwaters. Based on the role of these female trees, we have created a model called “yew matriarchies”, which serves to express the relevance of large female yew trees in population dynamics.Keywords: Taxus baccata; census; connectivity; seed dispersal.

  7. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  8. An expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of a sustainable and decentralised flood retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertermann, D.; Bialas, C.; Zacherl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing settlement pressure, intensifying pressure as a result of the utilisation of flood-threatened surfaces and also in consequence of the climate change with its effects even on local scales an accumulation of flood events is to be expected. Areas that have not been influenced by flood events in the past, like low mountain ranges, can certainly be affected in the near future. Against this background applicable solution and adjustment strategies are required in practice to mitigate such events or to even prevent them. The key aim of the research activities is the development of a standardised and expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of sustainable and decentralised flood retention and protection. Hydrologic characteristics, expressed by the 'run-off-coefficient' and the 'surface roughness', for clearly defined biotope types of German low mountain ranges should be derived with the help of already existing standardised soil/utilisation/vegetation units. According to the current state-of-the-art of flood models land use changes do not have great impact on the slow-flowing, large flood events in widespread watersheds. On the contrary, small, swift-flowing floods in small watersheds can be influenced by land use or management changes. Thus, the focus of the research work is aimed on these small quick flood events. However, also differentiated information for the solution of flood problems in large watersheds can be reached by the summation of statements about small watersheds. The development of a standardised planning method (incl. the GI-System implementation) for the optimization of the drain regulation serves for the reduction of the flood danger. Land use and vegetation is so optimised in adaptation to soil and land management and by taking into account prevailing drain roads that an essential contribution to the regulation of the surface run-off can be performed. The

  9. Depositional framework and regional correlation of pre-Carboniferous metacarbonate rocks of the Snowden Mountain area, central Brooks Range, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes lithofacies, conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies, and depositional environments of Proterozoic(?) through Devonian metacarbonate rocks in the Snowden Mountain area. These rocks are correlated with successions on the Seward Peninsula and across the Brooks Range. Lithologic and paleobiogeographic data suggest that these successions formed along a single continental margin which had faunal exchange with both North America and Siberia, rather than on a series of discrete platforms juxtaposed by later tectonic events.

  10. Central Makran Range, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    A spectacular view of the Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 65.5E) looking north with the Arabian Sea and the city of Karachi in the foreground. In the center, the Indian sub-continent moving slowly north into the Asian continent has caused the folded sedimentary Makran Range to bend from east-west to north-south as well as the uplift forming The Great Himalaya Range and the high Tibetan Plateau to the north.

  11. Interference of lee waves over mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Makarenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal waves in the atmosphere and ocean are generated frequently from the interaction of mean flow with bottom obstacles such as mountains and submarine ridges. Analysis of these environmental phenomena involves theoretical models of non-homogeneous fluid affected by the gravity. In this paper, a semi-analytical model of stratified flow over the mountain range is considered under the assumption of small amplitude of the topography. Attention is focused on stationary wave patterns forced above the rough terrain. Adapted to account for such terrain, model equations involves exact topographic condition settled on the uneven ground surface. Wave solutions corresponding to sinusoidal topography with a finite number of peaks are calculated and examined.

  12. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  13. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  14. Diversity of the Mountain Flora of Central Asia with Emphasis on Alkaloid-Producing Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimjan Tayjanov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of Central Asia with 70 large and small mountain ranges represent species-rich plant biodiversity hotspots. Major mountains include Saur, Tarbagatai, Dzungarian Alatau, Tien Shan, Pamir-Alai and Kopet Dag. Because a range of altitudinal belts exists, the region is characterized by high biological diversity at ecosystem, species and population levels. In addition, the contact between Asian and Mediterranean flora in Central Asia has created unique plant communities. More than 8100 plant species have been recorded for the territory of Central Asia; about 5000–6000 of them grow in the mountains. The aim of this review is to summarize all the available data from 1930 to date on alkaloid-containing plants of the Central Asian mountains. In Saur 301 of a total of 661 species, in Tarbagatai 487 out of 1195, in Dzungarian Alatau 699 out of 1080, in Tien Shan 1177 out of 3251, in Pamir-Alai 1165 out of 3422 and in Kopet Dag 438 out of 1942 species produce alkaloids. The review also tabulates the individual alkaloids which were detected in the plants from the Central Asian mountains. Quite a large number of the mountain plants produce neurotoxic and cytotoxic alkaloids, indicating that a strong chemical defense is needed under the adverse environmental conditions of these mountains with presumably high pressure from herbivores.

  15. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  16. Facing the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains: What other ranges do they look like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creyts, T. T.; Ferraccioli, F.; Bell, R. E.; Wolovick, M.; Corr, H.; Jordan, T. A.; Frearson, N.; Damaske, D.; Rose, K. C.; Braaten, D. A.; Finn, C.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain ranges serve as nucleation sites for continental ice sheets over multiple glacial cycles. During warmer interglacial periods, such ranges provide a toe-hold for snow accumulation and small glaciers that expand as temperatures drop in response to declining carbon dioxide levels. Once an ice sheet grows beyond a critical size, its basal thermal regime favors melting and development of water networks. Studies of deglaciated ice sheet beds indicate a complex thermal regime where cold-based areas are interspersed with warm, temperate areas. The Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains are a massive range in central East Antarctica. They are Earth's only completely ice-covered mountain range. Results from ice penetrating radar reveal steep headwalls with semicircular planform lying along high ridges and with peaks above 2500 m in the central mountain core. These likely represent cirque headwalls and provide evidence for widespread mountain glaciers within the Gamburtsevs. Headwalls are often accompanied by discrete overdeepenings that indicate occupation by cirque glaciers, and the cirque elevations are relatively uniform from north to south, spanning a distance of roughly 750 km. Such mountain glacier features have been preserved since the start of continental-scale glaciation (>33.9 Myr ago). Preservation results from freezing conditions beneath the ice sheet that have reduced erosion despite active water networks. Reconstructions of temperature indicate 17.1--19.3 +/- 4 at sea level, consistent with sedimentary proxies from the early Eocene (48--58 Myr ago). Here, we compare the Gamburtsevs to other mountain ranges using statistical tests. We focus on comparisons among mountain hypsometries, or the distributions of area with elevation. We introduce two tests, a decay-length test that relates the form of the peaks of the individual ranges and a χ2 goodness-of-fit test for the overall distribution. Results show that there is a striking similarity to mountains that are

  17. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  18. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi KUBOTA; Takao YANO

    2001-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).

  19. FORMATIVE MECHANISM OF AKAISHI MOUNTAINS AND ENREI BASIN IN CENTRAL JAPAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasu'uchi; KUBOTA; Takao; YANO

    2001-01-01

    1 Introduction  It is common in mobile belts that uplifting mountains are neighbored by synchronously subsiding basins.The coupling mechanism of such subsidence and uplift is an important target to clarify the dynamics of mobile belts.We investigate the coupled mountain uplift and basin subsidence in the Central Japan highland,the junction of three island arcs (the Northeast Japan,the Southwest Japan and the Izu-Ogasawara arcs).The highland over 3 000 m in height is composed of mountain ranges,plateaus and intramountain basins (Fig.1).……

  20. Paleogene Sediment Character of Mountain Front Central Sumatra Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Suandhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v8i3.164The SE-NW trending Mountain Front of Central Sumatra Basin is located in the southern part of the basin. The Mountain Front is elongated parallel to the Bukit Barisan Mountain, extending from the Regencies of North Padang Lawas (Gunung Tua in the northwest, Rokan Hulu, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, and Inderagiri Hulu Regency in the southeast. The Palaeogene sediments also represent potential exploration objectives in Central Sumatra Basin, especially in the mountain front area. Limited detailed Palaeogene sedimentology information cause difficulties in hydrocarbon exploration in this area. Latest age information and attractive sediment characters based on recent geological fieldwork (by chaining method infer Palaeogene sediment potential of the area. The Palaeogene sedimentary rock of the mountain front is elongated from northwest to southeast. Thickness of the sedimentary unit varies between 240 - 900 m. Palynology samples collected recently indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit is Middle Eocene and the youngest one is Late Oligocene. This latest age information will certainly cause significant changes to the existing surface geological map of the mountain front area. Generally, the Palaeogene sediments of the mountain front area are syn-rift sediments. The lower part of the Palaeogene deposit consists of fluvial facies of alluvial fan and braided river facies sediments. The middle part consists of fluvial meandering facies, lacustrine delta facies, and turbidity lacustrine facies sediments. The upper part consists of fluvial braided facies and transitional marine facies sediments. Volcanism in the area is detected from the occurrence of volcanic material as lithic material and spotted bentonite layers in the middle part of the mountain front area. Late rifting phase is indicated by the presence of transitional marine facies in the upper part of the Palaeogene sediments.

  1. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  2. Local and regional characterisation of the diurnal mountain wind systems in the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrillaga, Jon A.; Cano, Darío; Sastre, Mariano; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Morales, Gema; Viana, Samuel; Inclán, Rosa M.; Fidel González-Roúco, J.; Santolaria, Edmundo; Durán, Luis; Yagüe, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    Diurnal mountain wind systems that develop in the surroundings of the Guadarrama mountain range (Spain) are studied in this work. This area is highly interesting: the city of Madrid is located at approximately 50 km towards the SE; and on the other hand, unlike in other mountainous regions, the summers are characterised to be significantly dry, providing an interesting case study of energy balance in the context of complex orography. Slope and basin circulations formed play an important role in the development of fog and pollution episodes in the whole region. On top of that, when upslope basin winds strengthened by diurnal convection exceed 10 m s-1, the runway configuration at the airport of Madrid needs to be modified. Continuous meteorological data and turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide, water vapour, momentum and heat are provided since June 2016 from measurements at a 10 m tower at La Herrería site, which is located at the foot of the Guadarrama mountain range. Besides, a 4 m high portable station is available for complementary measurements. La Herrería is part of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet; www.ucm.es/gumnet/), an atmospheric and subsurface observational facility distributed over the Guadarrama mountain range. As a support for the analysis, data from conventional meteorological stations within the region and a wind profiler at the airport are also employed. The wind roses for the period analysed (summer 2016) show how the diurnal cycle of the flows is influenced by local slopes and by the configuration of the basin. The irruption of the downslope flow in the evening produces a significant increase of the turbulence intensity and the eventual breakdown of the surface-based thermal inversion. However, the severe drying out of the soil throughout the summer, evident from the evolution of the surface latent and sensible heat fluxes, seems to play a role in altering the characteristics of the mountain-breeze system and its impact on turbulence

  3. Ambient ozone in forests of the Central and Eastern European mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Godzik, B.; Grodzinska, K.; Fraczek, W.; Musselman, R.; Manning, W.; Badea, O.; Popescu, F.; Fleischer, P

    2004-07-01

    Ambient ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations in the forested areas of the Central and Eastern European (CEE) mountains measured on passive sampler networks and in several locations equipped with active monitors are reviewed. Some areas of the Carpathian Mountains, especially in Romania and parts of Poland, as well as the Sumava and Brdy Mountains in the Czech Republic are characterized by low European background concentrations of the pollutant (summer season means {approx}30 ppb). Other parts of the Carpathians, especially the western part of the range (Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Poland), some of the Eastern (Ukraine) and Southern (Romania) Carpathians and the Jizerske Mountains have high O{sub 3} levels with peak values >100 ppb and seasonal means {approx}50 ppb. Large portions of the CEE mountain forests experience O{sub 3} exposures that are above levels recommended for protection of forest and natural vegetation. Continuation of monitoring efforts with a combination of active monitors and passive samplers is needed for developing risk assessment scenarios for forests and other natural areas of the CEE Region. - Ozone concentrations in Central and Eastern European mountain ranges are elevated and phytotoxic to sensitive vegetation.

  4. Stream-power incision model in non-steady-state mountain ranges: An empirical approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yen-Chieh; SUNG Quocheng; CHEN Chao-Nan

    2006-01-01

    Stream-power incision model has always been applied to detecting the steady-state situation of ranges. Oblique arc-continent collision occurring during the period of Penglai Orogeny caused the Taiwan mountain belt to develop landscape of three evolution stages, namely stages of pre-steady-state (growing ranges in southern Taiwan), steady-state (ranges in central Taiwan) and post-steady-state (decaying ranges in northern Taiwan). In the analysis on streams of the Taiwan mountain belt made by exploring the relationship between the slope of bedrock channel (S) and the catchment area (A), the topographic features of the ranges at these three stages are acquired. The S-A plot of the steady-state ranges is in a linear form, revealing that the riverbed height of bedrock channel does not change over time (dz/dt =0). The slope and intercept of the straight line S-A are related to evolution time of steady-state topography and tectonic uplift rate respectively. The S-A plots of the southern and northern ranges of Taiwan mountain belt appear to be in convex and concave forms respectively, implying that the riverbed height of bedrock channel at the two ranges rises (dz/dt>0)and falls (dz/dt<0) over time respectively. Their tangent intercept can still reflect the tectonic uplift rate.This study develops an empirical stream-power eresion model of pre-steady-state and post-steady-state topography.

  5. GIS coverages of the Castle Mountain Fault, south central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Keith A.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2001-01-01

    The Castle Mountain fault is one of several major east-northeast-striking faults in southern Alaska, and it is the only fault with had historic seismicity and Holocene surface faulting. This report is a digital compilation of three maps along the Castle Mountain fault in south central Alaska. This compilation consists only of GIS coverages of the location of the fault, line attributes indicating the certainty of the fault location, and information about scarp height, where measured. The files are presented in ARC/INFO export file format and include metadata.

  6. Understanding Mountain Range Spatial Variability of Surface Hoar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrikx, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface hoar, once buried often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. Surface hoar is a common weak layer type in avalanche accidents in a continental and intermountain snowpack. It is however relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the spatial location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However this factor alone does not explain the complex and often confusing spatial pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger, mountain range spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over one hundred days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations, detailed site scale observations (e.g. Sky view plots) we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar at this scale, and examine the factors that control its spatial distribution. Our results further supports our preliminary work, which shows that small-scale meteorological differences, site scale differences, and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this large, mountain range scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

  7. 49 CFR 71.7 - Boundary line between central and mountain zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boundary line between central and mountain zones... BOUNDARIES § 71.7 Boundary line between central and mountain zones. (a) Montana-North Dakota. Beginning at... mountain standard time zone, except Murdo, S. Dak., which is in the central standard time zone....

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz waves in extratropical cyclones passing over mountain ranges: KH Waves in Extratropical Cyclones over Mountain Ranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Socorro [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Houze, Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Kelvin–Helmholtz billows with horizontal scales of 3–4 km have been observed in midlatitude cyclones moving over the Italian Alps and the Oregon Cascades when the atmosphere was mostly statically stable with high amounts of shear and Ri < 0.25. In one case, data from a mobile radar located within a windward facing valley documented a layer in which the shear between down-valley flow below 1.2 km and strong upslope cross-barrier flow above was large. Several episodes of Kelvin–Helmholtz waves were observed within the shear layer. The occurrence of the waves appears to be related to the strength of the shear: when the shear attained large values, an episode of billows occurred, followed by a sharp decrease in the shear. The occurrence of large values of shear and Kelvin–Helmholtz billows over two different mountain ranges suggests that they may be important features occurring when extratropical cyclones with statically stable flow pass over mountain ranges.

  9. Climate and Floristic Variation in Great Basin Mountain Ranges (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, D. A.; Leary, P.

    2010-12-01

    are 316 in the Snake Range transect, and 425 along the Sheep Range transect. Near the Sheep Range lies the Spring Mountains where 769 samples were obtained. More than 30,000 geo-referenced photographs document the sites, and nearly 1000 vascular plant taxa have been encountered and their distributions documented. Recently completed soil maps, the PRISM precipitation model, and 10m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the study areas exist. As a result, many environmental conditions can be explored with multivariate statistical methods. Preliminary results indicate that different kinds of physical data may be appropriate only at certain scales. Most useful for fine-scale investigations on mountains appears to be measures of irradiance at the solstices and equinox derived from the 10m DEM. Past climate in Nevada is readily evident on its landscapes, featuring glacial, periglacial and pluvial features. Pollen and remains left by woodrats provide vegetation records dating up to 40,000 years before present. The vegetation work described here provides a snapshot of biodiversity at fine scale of several mountain ranges. Efforts of the physical scientists and physiologists now, and repeat visits to the sample sites of this study later, will help us track the processes and manifestations of landscape change as responses to climate.

  10. Oxygen isotope, fluid inclusion, microprobe and petrographic studies of the preCambrian granites from the southern Wind River range and the Granite Mountains, central Wyoming, U.S.A.: Constraints on origin, hydrothermal alteration and uranium genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheang, K. K.

    The Granite Mountain is comprised of the granite of Long Creek Mountain and the volumetrically dominant granite of Lankin Dome. Average delta 018 O values in per mil deg/00 of the granite of Long Creek Mountain is 8.2 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 4) and average delta 018 8.5 + or - -0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), values of the two phases from the granite of Lankin Dome are: biotite granites = delta 018 8.5 + or 0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), leucocratic graphite = 8.4 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 12). The average delta 018 values for Louis Lake Batholith are: hornblende-biotite granodiorite = 7.3 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 13) and leucocratic biotite granite = 7.7 + or - 0.1 deg/00 (N = 6). It is concluded from the whole rock oxygen isotopic, mineralogical, chemical and strontium isotopic data that the unaltered granites in the Granite Mountains were probably derived from a uranium enriched source with some peraluminous metasedimentary component which favoured the preconcentration of uranium and thorium, whereas the Louis Lake Batholith was formed by partial melting of igneous source materials that are not strongly enriched in uranium.

  11. Multi-Temporal Monitoring of Slow Moving Landslides in South Pindus Mountain Range, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogyiou, Christina; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Kontoes, Charalambos; Poyiadji, Eleftheria; Spanou, Natalia; Klimis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    The high frequency of landslide occurrences in Central and Western Greece, part of the Pindus mountain range, is now approached by exploiting the high temporal sampling rate of historical ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR imagery in combination with the Multi Temporal Interferometry (MTI) technique. An existing well-established ground truth dataset is updated and enriched with the diachronic MTI results. Critical areas prone to slide are evaluated through susceptibility assessment and mapping taking into consideration the challenging environmental factors which dominate at the area of interest. A set of supplementary interesting geophysical and structural MTI detections at the region of analysis are additionally discussed.

  12. Mechanisms Contributing to Suppressed Precipitation in Mt. Hua of Central China. Part I: Mountain Valley Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yan; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, L. Ruby; Zhao, Chun; Li, Zhanqing; Rosenfeld, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Significant reduction in precipitation in the past decades has been documented over many mountain ranges such as those in central and eastern China. Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. Rigorous quantitative investigations on the reasons responsible for the precipitation reduction are lacking. Here in this study, we employed an improved Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with online coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) and conducted simulations at the convection-permitting scale to explore the major mechanisms governing changes in precipitation from orographic clouds in the Mountain (Mt.) Hua area in Central China. We find that anthropogenic pollution contributes to a ~ 40% reduction of precipitation over Mt. Hua during the one-month summer time period. The reduction is mainly associated with precipitation events associated with valleymountain circulation and a mesoscale cold front event. In this Part I paper, we scrutinize the mechanism leading to significant reduction for the cases associated with valley-mountain circulation. We find that the valley breeze is weakened by aerosols due to absorbing aerosol induced warming aloft and cooling near the surface as a result of aerosol-radiation interaction (ARI). The weakened valley breeze along with reduced water vapor in the valley due to reduced evapotranspiration as a result of surface cooling significantly reduce the transport of water vapor from the valley to mountain and the relative humidity over the mountain, thus suppressing convection and precipitation in the mountain.

  13. Evolution of basin and range structure in the Ruby Mountains and vicinity, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Reese, N. M.; Kelley, S. A.

    Results from various age dating techniques, seismic reflection profiling hydrocarbon maturation studies, and structural analysis were used to evaluate the Cenozoic deformation in the Ruby Mountains and adjoining ranges (pinyon Range and Cortez Range) in Elko and Eureka Counties, Nevada. Age dating techniques used include potassium-argon ages of biotites from granites published by Kistler et al. (1981) and fission track ages from apatite and zircon. Fission track ages from apatite reflect a closing temperature of 100 plus or minus 20 deg C. Zircon fission track ages reflect a closing temperature of 175 plus or minus 25 deg C and potassium-argon ages from brotite reflect a closing temperature of 250 plus or minus 30 deg C. Thus these results allow a reasonably precise tracking of the evolution of the ranges during the Cenozoic. Seismic reflection data are available from Huntington Valley. Access to seismic reflection data directly to the west of the Harrison Pass Pluton in the central Ruby Mountains was obtained. In addition results are available from several deep exploration holes in Huntington Valley.

  14. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  15. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for northwest Himalaya in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Singh; A Ganju

    2008-10-01

    Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model is developed utilizing surface weather observations of reference stations in each mountain range in northwest Himalaya (NW-Himalaya).The model searches past similar cases from historical dataset of reference observatory in each mountain range based on current situation.The searched past similar cases of each mountain range are used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days in advance.The developed analog weather forecast model is tested with the independent dataset of more than 717 days (542 days for Pir Panjal range in HP)of the past 4 winters (2003 –2004 to 2006 –2007).Independent test results are reasonably good and suggest that there is some possibility of forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode employing analog method over different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.Significant difference in overall accuracy of the model is found for prediction of snow day and no-snow day over different mountain ranges, when weather is predicted under snow day and no-snow day weather forecast categories respectively.In the same mountain range,signi ficant difference is also found in overall accuracy of the model for prediction of snow day and no-snow day for different areas.This can be attributed to their geographical position and topographical differences.The analog weather forecast model performs better than persistence and climatological forecast for day-1 predictions for all the mountain ranges except Karakoram range in NW-Himalaya.The developed analog weather forecast model may help as a guidance tool for forecasting weather in operational weather forecasting mode in different mountain ranges in NW-Himalaya.

  16. Amphibians of the Simbruini Mountains (Latium, Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been paid to the herpetological fauna of the Simbruini Mountains Regional Park, Latium (Central Italy. In this study, we surveyed 50 sites in the course of about ten years of field research, especially during the period 2005-2008. Nine amphibian species, four Caudata and five Anura, 60.0% out of the 15 amphibian species so far observed in Latium, were discovered in the protected area: Salamandra salamandra, Salamandrina perspicillata, Lissotriton vulgaris, Triturus carnifex, Bombina pachypus, Bufo balearicus, Bufo bufo, Rana dalmatina, Rana italica. Physiography of sites has been detailed together with potential threatening patterns. For each species the following topics have been discussed; ecology of sites, altitudinal distribution, phenology, sintopy. Salamandra salamandra and Bombina pachypus are at higher risk. The importance of the maintenance of artificial/natural water bodies for the conservation management of amphibian population of this territory is discussed.

  17. Early human settlements in the southern Qinling Mountains, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuefeng; Lu, Huayu; Wang, Shejiang; Yi, Liang; Li, Yongxiang; Bahain, Jean Jacques; Voinchet, Pierre; Hu, Xuzhi; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Wenchao; Zhuo, Haixin

    2017-05-01

    China is a key area of early human settlement in East Asia, with numerous Paleolithic localities indicating an early Pleistocene presence of hominins in northern and southern China. Considerable research has been devoted to determining possible migration routes for hominins linking the two areas. In this paper, we report the discovery of several loess-covered Paleolithic sites in the Hanzhong and Ankang Basins along the Hanjiang River in the southern piedmont of the Qinling Mountains (QLM) in central China. A chronology is developed for these sections using a combination of detailed optically stimulated luminescence dating, magnetostratigraphic analyses, and pedostratigraphic correlation with the well-dated loess-paleosol sequence of the central Chinese Loess Plateau. The results indicate that the age of the oldest lithic assemblage at the Longgangsi locality 3 Paleolithic site in Hanzhong Basin is ∼1.20 Ma, thus making this locality as one of the oldest sites in central China. Our work also indicates that hominins occupied the Hanjiang valley at several times: ∼1.2, 0.9, ∼0.6, and ∼0.1 Ma. We propose that the Hanjiang River Valley was a probable hominin routeway through the QLM because many sites corresponding to these different phases were also discovered to the north of the QLM. Future study on the Hanjiang River Valley is important for verifying the hypothesis of an early human migration route between southern and northern China.

  18. Landscape and Astronomy in Megalithic Portugal: the Carregal do Sal Nucleus and Star Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Central Portugal, delimited by the Douro river to the north and the Mondego to the south, is the second densest region of megalithic monuments in the country. The Neolithic archaeological record indicates seasonal transhumance between higher pastures in the summer and lower grounds in the winter. The monuments are found in lower ground and it has been suggested that they were built during the winter occupation of their surroundings. The astronomical orientation of their entrances lends further support to this hypothesis. A recent survey of the orientation of the chambers and corridors of these dolmens, conducted by the author, found good agreement with prior surveys, but also demonstrated that other interpretations are possible. This paper presents an update on the survey, including extra sites surveyed in the spring of 2011, as well as the GIS confirmation of all horizon altitudes that couldn’t be empirically measured. The megalithic nucleus of Carregal do Sal, on the Mondego valley, is then looked at in more detail. It is found that there is a preference for the orientation of dolmens towards Star Mountain Range in-line with the topographic arguments of landscape archaeology. In addition, it was found that the topography also marks the rise of particular red stars, Betelgeuse and Aldebaran, during the period of megalithic building, at the onset of spring marking the transition from low ground to the high pastures. This hypothesis finds further support from toponymic folktales that explain the origin of the name of the mountain range.

  19. Geomorphological and sedimentary evidence of probable glaciation in the Jizerské hory Mountains, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Křížek, Marek; Kasprzak, Marek; Traczyk, Andrzej; Hložek, Martin; Krbcová, Klára

    2017-03-01

    The Jizerské hory Mountains in the Czech Republic have traditionally been considered to be a highland that lay beyond the limits of Quaternary glaciations. Recent work on cirque-like valley heads in the central part of the range has shown that niche glaciers could form during the Quaternary. Here we report geomorphological and sedimentary evidence for a small glacier in the Pytlácká jáma Hollow that represents one of the most-enclosed valley heads within the range. Shape and size characteristics of this landform indicate that the hollow is a glacial cirque at a degraded stage of development. Boulder accumulations at the downslope side of the hollow probably represent a relic of terminal moraines, and the grain size distribution of clasts together with micromorphology of quartz grains from the hollow indicate the glacial environment of a small glacier. This glacier represents the lowermost located such system in central Europe and provides evidence for the presence of niche or small cirque glaciers probably during pre-Weichselian glacial periods. The glaciation limit (1000 m asl) and paleo-ELA (900 m asl) proposed for the Jizerské hory Mountains implies that central European ranges lower than 1100 m asl were probably glaciated during the Quaternary.

  20. GPS and gravity constraints on continental deformation in the Alborz mountain range, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamour, Yahya; Vernant, Philippe; Bayer, Roger; Nankali, Hamid Reza; Ritz, Jean-François; Hinderer, Jacques; Hatam, Yaghoub; Luck, Bernard; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Sedighi, Morteza; Khorrami, Fateme

    2010-12-01

    A network of 54 survey GPS sites, 28 continuous GPS stations and three absolute gravity (AG) observation sites have been set up in the Alborz mountain range to quantify the present-day kinematics of the range. Our results allow us to accurately estimate the motion of the South Caspian block (SCB) for the first time, and indicate rotation of the SCB relative to Eurasia, accounting for the left lateral motion in the Alborz range. In light of these new results, it clearly appears that deformation rates vary along the range, the eastern part accommodating mainly left lateral strike slip (2 mm yr-1 south of the range and 5 mm yr-1 north of the range) with a very low range normal shortening rate on the Khazar thrust fault (~2 mm yr-1), and the western part accommodating range normal shortening (~6 mm yr-1) on the Khazar thrust fault with a left lateral component of ~2 mm yr-1 north of the range and 1 mm yr-1 south of the range. These present-day kinematics agree with geomorphologic estimated slip rates, but not the long-term deformation, corroborating the idea that the kinematics of the range have changed recently due to the change of SCB motion. Modelling of the interseismic deformation suggests a deep locking depth on the central-western segment of the Khazar fault (~30 km) in agreement with the Baladeh earthquake rupture and aftershock ranging between 10 and 30 km. Given this unusual deep locking depth and the 34° dip of the thrust, a large part of the Alborz range is located above the seismically coupled part of the fault. Based on our AG measurements this part of the range seems to uplift at a rate of 1-5 mm yr-1, in agreement with terrace uplift.

  1. Use of curlleaf mountain-mahogany by mule deer on a transition range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Edward Dealy; Paul J. Edgerton; Wayne G. Williams

    1986-01-01

    Using the pellet-group sampling method, we concluded that migrating mule deer showed no preference in use between two ratios of curlleaf mountain-mahogany cover and openings on a northern California transition range. Where there is a need to develop forage openings in transition habitats dominated by dense thickets of curlleaf mountain-mahogany, manipulation of cover...

  2. Landscape development under human influence - a case study from the low mountain range Spessart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Annegret; Bork, Hans-Rudolf; Nelle, Oliver; Müller, Ulrich; Fuchs, Markus; Fülling, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Little is known about human settlement in prehistoric times in the low mountain ranges in central Germany. One of these ranges, the Spessart mountains, are known from written sources of the 1850s to have been a very poor area, where people suffered from starvation and numerous diseases. New interdisciplinary research in one catchment provides evidence that the region has first been settled during Neolithic times and provided a much higher soil fertility until early / high medieval times. Soil erosion due to extreme rainfall events and agricultural land use removed the thin fertile loess cover from the slopes of the catchment combined with gully incision. At the intersection of the catchment fan and the alluvial plain of the Elsava River, a high to late medieval archaeological moated site was excavated in 2008 and 2009. Detailed stratigraphy of the sediments in the moat enabled an environmental reconstruction of the area and in particular showed the beginnings of instability within the catchment. This instability continued presumably until ~ 1900 AD, and this persistence was caused by different land use techniques that could be reconstructed from various geomorphological features. Initial results indicate a rotating wood - pasture - agriculture cultivation system that was used within the catchment on slopes with a north west aspect. The intense charcoal production associated with this cultivation system enables anthracological investigations which provides the opportunity for reconstruction of the vegetation composition on a local scale at a high temporal and spatial resolution. This is then combined with paleobotanical macro remains and pollen analysis to enable a comprehensive palaeoenvironmental context for this poorly studied archaeological landscape. By quantifiying sediment flux, these landscape reconstruction results provide a foundation for archaeological and geomorphological research in a wider context throughout central Germany.

  3. USFWS Land Interests Associated with Bull Mountain Game Range [Land Status Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This map was produced by the Division of Realty to depict landownership at Bull Mountain Game Range. It was generated from rectified aerial photography, cadastral...

  4. Geospatial Database of Hydroclimate Variables, Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains 81,481 points arranged in a 270-meter spaced grid that covers the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range in Clark County, Nevada. Points...

  5. Landslide Rates in the Eastern Cascade Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, K. J.; Doten, C. O.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2003-12-01

    Assessing landslide rates is an important factor in quantifying sediment generation in mountainous watersheds. Prediction of the role of land cover change, especially forest harvest and fires, on sediment generation is currently a problem of particular interest to forest management agencies. Traditional aerial photograph interpretation techniques have long been used for estimation of failure rates, however to date such data has rarely been used in a predictive modeling context. Furthermore, relatively little quantitative data exist that are applicable to the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains, where recent fires have created an interest in improved prediction techniques that might help better understand the implications of post-fire sediment generation for the health of streams. Using aerial stereo photographs from the years 1970, 1975, 1979, 1985, and 1992, provided by the U.S. Forest Service, landslides were mapped in the Rainy Creek tributary of the Little Wenatchee basin of the northeastern Washington Cascades. The slides were mapped onto digital orthophotos and were categorized by a confidence scheme based on the visible features of a landslide. Slides were further categorized by the land type (forested, harvested, unforested, burned, and road-related) they occurred in, and stream and forest road intersections were also noted. Landslide rates and slide densities were calculated based on the photo record intervals. The volume of removed sediment was also estimated. These rates were compared to precipitation records over the same time period to evaluate the effect of large storms on mass wasting in this region. Estimated slide number and area densities are compared with similar studies elsewhere in the western U.S. Also, predicted and estimated number and area of slides from a numerical model described in a companion paper (Doten et al) are compared with the orthophoto estimates for the 22-years period 1970-92.

  6. The "Geomorphologic Diagonal" of Central Europe - towards a new morphotectonic interpretation of macroforms in average mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig

    2016-04-01

    Modern methods of low temperature thermochronology are able to throw light on the geomorphological development of macrorelief landforms. A rarely investigated problem concerns the orientation and morphotectonic evolution of Central European uplands (low to mid-elevation mountain ranges). A conspicuous NW-SE striking boundary takes course through Germany from the Osning and Teutoburg Forest in the NW to the Bavarian Forest in the SE. I call this line the "geomorphological diagonal". East of this line, more or less NW-SE striking morphotectonic features (e.g., Harz Mountains, Sudety) dominate the macrorelief up to the eastern border of Central Europe (Thornquist-Teysseire Lineament), with the exception of the Ohre Rift and Central Bohemia. West of this line, the macrorelief is either characterized by NNE-SSW to N-S oriented structures (e.g., Upper Rhine Rift) and, to a lesser extent, by (S)SW-(E)NE mountain ranges (southern Rhenish Slate Mountains and Ore Mountains) or by no predominance at all. In the Lower Rhine Embayment and along the Middle Rhine River, (N)NW-(S)SE directed morphotectonic features influence the low mountain ranges. In several cases geologists have proven that NW-SE morphotectonic structures are related to the Upper Cretaceous (Santonian to Campanian) "basin inversion" (e.g., von Eynatten et al. 2008). A compilation of low temperature thermochronological data (AFT, [U-Th]/He) from Central Europe clearly supports strong crustal cooling during the Upper Cretaceous and lowermost Tertiary in morphotectonically protruded crustal blocks east of the geomorphological diagonal, whereas west of it the age data available so far exhibit a much larger scatter from Upper Paleozoic to Tertiary without clear evidence of an outstanding Upper Cretaceous crustal cooling event. Based on this data I hypothesize that east of the diagonal macroforms of uplifted denudation surfaces ("peneplains" or "etchplains") may be inherited from the Cretaceous whereas west of it

  7. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  8. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Gohm, Alexander; Wagner, Johannes S.

    2016-04-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems and (ii) to analyze their influence on daytime pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by additional 20 \\unit{%} compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, a more than threefold increased earth-atmosphere exchange is found over the various mountain geometries when compared to the reference plain simulation. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height.

  9. Bridging Glaciological and Hydrological Trends in the Pamir Mountains, Central Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malte Knoche; Ralf Merz; Martin Lindner; Stephan M. Weise

    2017-01-01

    With respect to meteorological changes and glacier evolution, the southern Pamir Mountains are a transition zone between the Pamirs, Hindu Kush and Karakoram, which are water towers of Central Asia...

  10. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia.

  11. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  12. New international long-term ecological research on air pollution effects on the Carpathian Mountain forests, Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Badea, Ovidiu; Barbu, Ion; Fleischer, Peter; Fraczek, Witold; Gancz, Vladimir; Godzik, Barbara; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Grodzki, Wojciech; Karnosky, David; Koren, Milan; Krywult, Marek; Krzan, Zbigniew; Longauer, Roman; Mankovska, Blanka; Manning, William J; McManus, Michael; Musselman, Robert C; Novotny, Julius; Popescu, Flaviu; Postelnicu, Daniela; Prus-Głowacki, Wiesław; Skawiński, Paweł; Skiba, Stefan; Szaro, Robert; Tamas, Stefan; Vasile, Cristian

    2003-06-01

    An international cooperative project on distribution of ozone in the Carpathian Mountains, Central Europe was conducted from 1997 to 1999. Results of that project indicated that in large parts of the Carpathian Mountains, concentrations of ozone were elevated and potentially phytotoxic to forest vegetation. That study led to the establishment of new long-term studies on ecological changes in forests and other ecosystems caused by air pollution in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania and in the Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians on the Polish-Slovak border. Both of these important mountain ranges have the status of national parks and are Man & the Biosphere Reserves. In the Retezat Mountains, the primary research objective was to evaluate how air pollution may affect forest health and biodiversity. The main research objective in the Tatra Mountains was to evaluate responses of natural and managed Norway spruce forests to air pollution and other stresses. Ambient concentrations of ozone (O(3)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) as well as forest health and biodiversity changes were monitored on densely distributed research sites. Initial monitoring of pollutants indicated low levels of O(3), SO(2), and NO(x) in the Retezat Mountains, while elevated levels of O(3) and high deposition of atmospheric sulfur (S) and nitrogen (N) have characterized the Tatra Mountains. In the Retezat Mountains, air pollution seems to have little effect on forest health; however, there was concern that over a long time, even low levels of pollution may affect biodiversity of this important ecosystem. In contrast, severe decline of Norway spruce has been observed in the Tatra Mountains. Although bark beetle seems to be the immediate cause of that decline, long-term elevated levels of atmospheric N and S depositions and elevated O(3) could predispose trees to insect attacks and other stresses. European and US scientists studied pollution deposition, soil and

  13. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Extensive tracts of low-gradient topography in steep mountain ranges, either forming rangetop plateaus or terraced pediments on range flanks, are widely distributed in mountain belts around the world. Before the advent of plate tectonics, such populations of planar landforms were interpreted as vestiges of a post-orogenic raised peneplain, i.e., a low-gradient land surface resulting from the decay, during long intervals of base-level stability, of a previous mountain range that was subsequently raised once again to great elevations-thus forming a new mountain range. This two-stage model has been challenged by theories that advocate continuity in tectonic processes and more gradual changes in base level, and thus expect a more immediate and proportionate response of geomorphic systems. Here we present a global survey of erosion surfaces in mountain ranges and put existing theories and empirical evidence into a broad perspective calling for further research into the rates and regimes of long-term mountain evolution. The resulting library of case studies provides opportunities for comparative analysis and helps to classify the landform mosaics that are likely to arise from the interplay between (i) crustal regimes, which at convergent plate margins need be neither uniform nor steady at all times; (ii) radiation-driven and gravity-driven geomorphic regimes, which are mainly determined by crustal boundary conditions and climate; and (iii) paleogeography, through which clues about base-level changes can be obtained. We examine intracratonic and plate-margin settings, with examples from thin-skinned fold belts, thick-skinned fold belts, island-arc and other subduction-related settings, and bivergent collisional orogens. Results reveal that the existence of erosion surfaces is not a simple function of geodynamic setting. Although some erosion surfaces are pre-orogenic, evidence about their predominantly post-orogenic age is supported by apatite fission-track and helium

  14. Pilea nguruensis (Urticaceea), a new species from the Eastern Arc Mountains, central Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Darbyshire, Iain; Wilmot-Dear, C. Melanie

    2015-01-01

    A new and distinctive species, Pilea nguruensis Friis & I. Darbysh. (Urticaceae), is described based on material collected in 2006 from moist montane forest in the Nguru South Forest Reserve, Nguru Mountains, central Tanzania, and its conservation status is assessed. The paper supplements...... a revision of the African species of Pilea Lindl. made by Friis in 1989, and accounts of Pilea for a range of other African floras including the Flora of Tropical East Africa....

  15. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  16. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range of centraleastern Brazil: floristic relationships and geoclimatic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Oliveira Bünger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although biological surveys and taxonomic revisions provide key information to ecological and evolutionary studies, there is a clear lack of floristic and phytogeographic studies of the mountainous regions of Brazil, which harbor some of the most threatened plant ecosystems on the planet. Myrtaceae has been reported to be one of the most important families in the upland areas of Brazil, as well as in the Atlantic Forest Domain. In this study, we investigated the floristic composition of Myrtaceae throughout the Espinhaço Mountain Range and adjacent highlands of central-eastern Brazil, testing the following hypotheses: floristic similarity increases with geographic proximity; and species distribution is affected by geoclimatic variables. We performed statistical analyses using a database containing records of 199 species in 19 areas and of their respective geoclimatic variables. We also performed ordination analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, the first and second axes of which explained 69% and 78% of the variation, respectively. The NMDS analysis demonstrated that variations in the Myrtaceae flora are highly sensitive to geoclimatic variables and geographic proximity. The NMDS ordination also showed a predominantly south-north gradient, as did the cluster analysis. This gradient was highly correlated with variations in rainfall and temperature, which are also associated with the three domains that coincide with the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

  18. Historical biogeography of Asteraceae from Tandilia and Ventania mountain ranges (Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisci V. Jorge

    2001-07-01

    have a high taxa diversity and endemicity. A historical biogeographic analysis was carried out on the basis of distributional patterns of species and infraspecific taxa of Asteraceae inhabiting Tandilia and Ventania in orderto establish the relationships ofthese mountain ranges with other areas. Two methods were applied for the analysis: panbiogeography using the compatibility track method and parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE. Thirteen areas were delimited for the study: Southern North America and Central América, Southern Brazil, Uruguay, Pampa, Tandilia, Ventania, Chaco, Sierras Pampeanas, Sierras Subandinas, Mahuidas, Patagonia, Central Chile, and Northern Andes. The units of the study were 112 taxa inhabiting Tandilia and Ventania (endernic, naturalized, and adventicious species were not included. Both methods connect southern Brazil, Uruguay, Pampa, Tandilia, Ventania, and Sierras Pampeanas, showing that the Asteraceae biota ofTandilia and Ventania have closer relationships with the biota ofthese are as rather than with that of Sierras Subandinas, North Andean, Chaco, Patagonia, Mahuidas, and Central Chile. The Asteraceae ofCentral and North America appear less related to Tandilia and Ventania in regard of the rest ofthe areas. The evolution of Asteraceae in Tandilia and Ventania and related areas is hypothetized to have been affected mainly by Tertiary and Quaternary geologic events. The discontinuous pattern found, occurring mostly in elevated areas, is explained principally by vicariance under dry conditions.

  19. Microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone, Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S.; Almadani, Sattam A.; Al-Dabbagh, Mohammad E.

    2016-03-01

    In order to document the microfacies and diagenesis of the reefal limestone in the uppermost part of the Callovian Tuwaiq Mountain Limestone Formation at Khashm Al-Qaddiyah area, central Saudi Arabia, scleractinian corals and rock samples were collected and thin sections were prepared. Coral framestone, coral floatstone, pelloidal packstone, bioclastic packstone, bioclastic wacke/packstone, algal wackestone and bioclastic foraminiferal wacke/packstone were the recorded microfacies types. Cementation, recrystallization, silicification and dolomitization are the main diagenetic alterations affected the aragonitic skeletons of scleractinian corals. All coral skeletons were recrystallized, while some ones were dolomitized and silicified. Microfacies types, as well as the fossil content of sclearctinian corals, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and foraminifera indicated a deposition in environments ranging from shelf lagoon with open circulation in quiet water below wave base to shallow reef flank and organic build up for the uppermost reefal part of the Tuwaiq Formation in the study area.

  20. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  1. Human and biophysical drivers of fires in Semiarid Chaco mountains of Central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argañaraz, Juan P; Gavier Pizarro, Gregorio; Zak, Marcelo; Landi, Marcos A; Bellis, Laura M

    2015-07-01

    Fires are a recurrent disturbance in Semiarid Chaco mountains of central Argentina. The interaction of multiple factors generates variable patterns of fire occurrence in space and time. Understanding the dominant fire drivers at different spatial scales is a fundamental goal to minimize the negative impacts of fires. Our aim was to identify the biophysical and human drivers of fires in the Semiarid Chaco mountains of Central Argentina and their individual effects on fire activity, in order to determine the thresholds and/or ranges of the drivers at which fire occurrence is favored or disfavored. We used fire frequency as the response variable and a set of 28 potential predictor variables, which included climatic, human, topographic, biological and hydrological factors. Data were analyzed using Boosted Regression Trees, using data from near 10,500 sampling points. Our model identified the fire drivers accurately (75.6% of deviance explained). Although humans are responsible for most ignitions, climatic variables, such as annual precipitation, annual potential evapotranspiration and temperature seasonality were the most important determiners of fire frequency, followed by human (population density and distance to waste disposals) and biological (NDVI) predictors. In general, fire activity was higher at intermediate levels of precipitation and primary productivity and in the proximity of urban solid waste disposals. Fires were also more prone to occur in areas with greater variability in temperature and productivity. Boosted Regression Trees proved to be a useful and accurate tool to determine fire controls and the ranges at which drivers favor fire activity. Our approach provides a valuable insight into the ecology of fires in our study area and in other landscapes with similar characteristics, and the results will be helpful to develop management policies and predict changes in fire activity in response to different climate changes and development scenarios

  2. Geologic setting, depths of emplacement, and regional distribution of fluid inclusions in intrusions of the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Nine mid-Tertiary calc-alkaline stocks, a subvolcanic porphyry system, and coeval volcanic rocks are exposed in a 45-km-long east-trending belt across the central Wasatch Mountains, Utah. The intrusions vary systematically from west to east in texture, style of emplacement, extent of contact metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization. Pressure-depth estimates based on metamorphic mineral assemblages, stratigraphic reconstructions, and fluid inclusion data indicate a regular variation in paleodepths ranging from about 11 km on the west to less than 1 km on the east. These data indicate that the central Wasatch Mountains have been tilted down to the east about 20?? during the late Cenozoic. Fluid inclusion populations in igneous quartz also vary systematically with paleodepth. -from Author

  3. The Significance of High, Isolated, Low-relief Surfaces in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The highest regions of glaciated mountain ranges are characterised by cirques, arêtes and steep hillslopes. In addition, though, many ranges exhibit high, isolated, low-relief surfaces, which may provide an important record of landscape evolution. Broad, low-curvature surfaces, for example in the Laramide Ranges of the western United States, reflect periglacial regolith production and transport (e.g., Anderson, 2002). Here, the focus is on smaller surfaces that appear to be out of equilibrium with current/recent surface processes, and are interpreted as former glacial valley floors isolated from the current valley network. The low-relief surfaces at the crest of the Sierra Nevada, California, are diamict covered. The top of Sardine Canyon is a beheaded cirque, while the cirque on the western side of Baxter Pass is in the process of being beheaded. Meanwhile, the isolated patch of diamict on the northeastern ridge of University Peak is surrounded on all sides by steep cliffs, and presumably represents a more evolved surface. It is inferred that the glaciated eastern Sierra Nevada is subject to a cycle of drainage capture and relief inversion, driven by headward erosion by cirque glaciers. The central Himalaya contains a number of low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, 6,000m is frozen to the bedrock, so sub-glacial erosion will be outpaced by rock uplift. The extreme relief and active tectonics of the central Himalaya mean that drainage capture is not necessarily required in the generation of high, isolated, low-relief surfaces; glacial steps can become exaggerated to form reconstituted glaciers. High, isolated, low-relief surfaces are found across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from Miserable Ridge and Kelly Saddle close to the western range front, through Urquhart Peak and Lake Browning near the Main Divide, to Kaimakamaka Peaks east of the Main Divide. As

  4. Potential pharmaceutical resources of the Qinling Mountain in central China:medicinal fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi SHEN; Wei CHEN; Zhuyun YAN; Zhenfeng XIE

    2009-01-01

    The present investigation on fungal diversity shows that there were rich fungal resources of up to 196 species,belonging to 41 families and 90 genera,in the Qinling Mountainous Range of central China.The dominant families were Polyporaceae,Russulaceae,Tricholomatacea and Lycoperdaceae,which comprised 107 species,54.59% of the total species.The dominant genera were Russula, Lactarius, Trametes, Phellinus, Coprinus,Lycoperdon,Suillu,and Calvatia,which consisted of 59 species,30.09% of the total species.According to the geographical characteristics,the genera were grouped into:cosmopolitan element (74.98%),pantropical element (3.57%),tropical element (1.02%) and north temperate element (21.43%),with the cosmopolitan element constituting the majority.Among these,the cosmopolitan and North Temperate Zone were characteristic of this region.Based on relevant literature review,the primary pharmaceutical action of the medicinal fungi in Qinling Mountain can be classified as follows:anti-cancer,anti-bacteria,anti-inflammation,relief of muscle rigidity and activation of collaterals,hemostasis,immunological regulation,as well as nourishing the stomach and tonification which means enhancing the body system.

  5. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.

  6. METARHYOLITES OF VRANICA MOUNTAIN IN PALEOZOIC OF CENTRAL BOSNIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Majer

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metharyolites of Vranica mountain are roks of emphasized porphyritic texture containing phenocrysts of quartz, K.feldspar and very rarely albite. The groundmass is microcrystallinic, characterized by finegrained phengite, biotite and area consisting of granophyric intergrowths of quartz and feldspar. Accessory minerals are ilmenite, rutila, apatite, zircon and chlorite. Metarhyolites are peraulminous rocks (PI=1.-4.1 having dominantly potassium character (K2O/Na2O=1,3-13,8. Incompatible elements are enriched relative to the normalizing chondrite composition, pointing to the crustal origin of metarhyolite magma. Although phengites typically occur in high pressure rocks, it seems that phengites of metarhyolites of Vranica mountain belong to the seldom group of phengites occurring in the low to medium pressure rocks (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Late Quaternary deformation, Saddle Mountains anticline, south-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, M. W.; Ashland, F. X.; Busacca, A. J.; Berger, G. W.; Shaffer, M. E.

    1996-12-01

    Grabens and beheaded streams above a subjacent thrust fault illuminate late Quaternary deformation on the north limb of the Saddle Mountains anticline, Yakima fold belt, Washington. Geologic mapping and trenches excavated across a scarp on the north flank of a 13-km-long graben and a ± 5-m-high scarp north of the graben, confirm that deformation is related to coseismic slip on the underlying Saddle Mountains fault. Graben development began ca. 100 ka and continued into the Holocene. At least 6.5 m of vertical displacement in a ca. 20 40 ka paleosol yields minimum normal fault slip rates of 0.16 0.33 mm/yr. Assuming that normal slip in the hanging wall above the daylighting fault tip is related to primary reverse slip on the fault, resolution of throw on the 30°-dipping Saddle Mountains fault yields minimum slip of 13 m and minimum slip rates of 0.33 0.65 mm/yr, 2.3 9.4 times greater than slip rates used in a recent seismic hazard analysis for the Hanford Reservation.

  8. A Palaeoenvironmental contribution to the study of trashumance in the Gredos Mountain Range (Ávila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio López Sáez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The Avilan sector of the Gredos Mountain Range represents one of the Iberian Peninsula’s most valuable cultural landscapes. From Prehistory to the present, the importance of trashumance in this region has played a key role in shaping its ecosystyems. Using pollen analysis to examine historical transformations in the region’s ecology, both those engendered by human activity and those relating to palaeoclimatic dynamics, this paper examines the diachronic evolution of the vegetation of the Serranillos Mountain Pass during the Late Holocene.

  9. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  10. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  11. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-12-01

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  12. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    /ha. The SOC stock in mountainous pasture was 20.7 (± 6.5 tones/ha, while in spruce plantation created on previous pasture it was 13.5 (±2.7 tones/ha. Our finding showed that forest conversions effect in central Stara Planina Mountain is expressed by decrease in SOC stock related with losses of carbon from the upper mineral soil decades after creation of coniferous plantations. Nevertheless the relatively large organic carbon storage in forest litter in the spruce plantations compensated C lost from mineral soil after the land-use change. The overall carbon stock both in forest litter and soil under plantations ranged from 56 tones/ha (pine to 77 tones/ha (spruce, while under natural beech forest and pasture the values were 70 and 81 tones/ha respectively. But in terms of stability C sequestrated in mineral soil is more desirable than C sequestrated in forest floor which are more vulnerable to decomposition following disturbances. The application of silvicultural activities in coniferous plantations created by conversion of forest lands or grasslands in the region of central Balkan is desirable to improve the carbon sequestration in soils.

  13. Fungal root endophyte associations of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Szymon; Nobis, Marcin; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Mleczko, Piotr; Nowak, Arkadiusz

    2011-06-01

    The fungal root endophyte associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was found in 15 plant species; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology. AMF colonization was found to be absent only in Matthiola integrifolia, the representative of the Brassicaceae family. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. Mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) accompanied the AMF colonization in ten plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldschuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of three plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants being studied were reported for the first time from this region of Asia. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programmes of these valuable plant species. The potential application of beneficial root-inhabiting fungi in active plant protection projects of rare, endemic and endangered plants is discussed.

  14. Implications of low-temperature cooling history on a transect across the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range boundary, west central Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B.; Naeser, C.W.; Fryxell, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Fission track ages of apatite and zircon from metamorphic, plutonic, and sedimentary rocks along a 80-km transect across the Colorado Plateau-Basin and Range boundary in west central Arizona show differences in the low-temperature cooling histories between the provinces. The transect extends from Cypress Mountain in the Colorado Plateau transition zone to the eastern Buckskin Mountains in the Basin and Range. -from Authors

  15. Range-limited centrality measures in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N.; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both nonweighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than ℓ=1,...,L in the case of nonweighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than wℓ=ℓΔ, ℓ=1,2...,L=R/Δ. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods one step out, two steps out, etc., up to and including the whole network. They are more informative than traditional centrality measures, as network transport typically happens on all length scales, from transport to nearest neighbors to the farthest reaches of the network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large nonweighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling behavior can also be exploited to show that the ranking top list of nodes (edges) based on their range-limited centralities quickly freezes as a function of the range, and hence the diameter-range top list can be efficiently predicted. We also show how to estimate the typical largest node-to-node distance for a network of N nodes, exploiting the afore-mentioned scaling behavior. These observations were made on model networks and on a large social network inferred from cell-phone trace logs (˜5.5×106 nodes and ˜2.7×107 edges). Finally, we apply these concepts to efficiently detect the vulnerability backbone of a network (defined as the smallest percolating cluster of the highest betweenness nodes and edges) and illustrate the importance of weight-based centrality measures in

  16. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-09-29

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  17. Glacial Ice Velocity Determination and Correlation from Different Mountain Ranges Using Aster Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleasants, M.; Haritashya, U. K.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain glaciers make good indicators of even slight changes in climatic conditions because of their sensitivity to temperature and other environmental changes. Due to the inaccessibility of most mountain glaciers, field based measurements of glacier dynamics, especially ice velocities, has proved to be difficult and unrealistic. Because of this, evaluation of satellite imagery has become useful in the determination of glacial ice velocities and production of ice flow models. The calculation and comparison of ice velocities from three glaciated regions (the Southern Alps of New Zealand, the North-east Nepali Himalaya, and the south-eastern Chugach Mountains of Alaska) is presented here. This study was completed to establish the accuracy and global applicability of the method of precise orthorectification, co-registration, and correlation using the software COSI-Corr and in-house filtering techniques. We chose glaciers from different mountain ranges that present different dynamics to establish a specific ice velocity method. Advanced Spacebourne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) L1A images were chosen as close to annual pairs as possible from the available data at the USGS Global Visualization Viewer (GloVis). This study focuses on the Tasman glacier in New Zealand, the Khumbu glacier in the Himalayas, the previously unstudied Scott glacier in Alaska, and the comparison of these ice velocities to climate data for each region compiled from numerous sources in an attempt to draw conclusions of the behavior of these glaciers in response to current climatic changes.

  18. GIS based reconstruction of the prehistoric communities' territories of the northern and central Velebit Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedrana Glavaš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for reconstructing prehistoric territories implementing the geographic information systems (GIS is presented in this article. We focused our research on Iron Age communities of northern and central Velebit Mountain (Croatia, but traces of their territorial extent are very scarce or nonexistent. Territories of the communities in question were modeled using GIS according to the relief characteristics and the time scale of a two-hour walk from the central hill forts using Tobler’s Hiking Equation.

  19. Tectonic uplift, threshold hillslopes, and denudation rates in a developing mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnie, S.A.; Phillips, W.M.; Summerfield, M.A.; Fifield, L.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies across a broad range of drainage basins have established a positive correlation between mean slope gradient and denudation rates. It has been suggested, however, that this relationship breaks down for catchments where slopes are at their threshold angle of stability because, in such cases, denudation is controlled by the rate of tectonic uplift through the rate of channel incision and frequency of slope failure. This mechanism is evaluated for the San Bernardino Mountains, California, a nascent range that incorporates both threshold hill-slopes and remnants of pre-uplift topography. Concentrations of in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be in alluvial sediments are used to quantify catchment-wide denudation rates and show a broadly linear relationship with mean slope gradient up to ???30??: above this value denudation rates vary substantially for similar mean slope gradients. We propose that this decoupling in the slope gradient-denudation rate relationship marks the emergence of threshold topography and coincides with the transition from transport-limited to detachment-limited denudation. The survival in the San Bernardino Mountains of surfaces formed prior to uplift provides information on the topographic evolution of the range, in particular the transition from slope-gradient-dependent rates of denudation to a regime where denudation rates are controlled by rates of tectonic uplift. This type of transition may represent a general model for the denudational response to orogenic uplift and topographic evolution during the early stages of mountain building. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  20. Copernicus crater central peak - Lunar mountain of unique composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1982-01-01

    Olivine is identified as the major mafic mineral in a central peak of Copernicus crater. Information on the mineral assemblages of such unsampled lunar surface material is provided by near infrared reflectance spectra (0.7 to 2.5 micrometers) obtained with earth-based telescopes. The composition of the deep-seated material comprising the Copernicus central peak is unique among measured areas. Other lunar terra areas and the wall of Copernicus exhibit spectral characteristics of mineral assemblages comparable to the feldspathic breccias returned by the Apollo missions, with low-calcium orthopyroxene being the major mafic mineral.

  1. Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael

    2010-06-01

    This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis.

  2. Campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, and shigellosis in free-ranging human-habituated mountain gorillas of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizeyi, J B; Innocent, R B; Erume, J; Kalema, G R; Cranfield, M R; Graczyk, T K

    2001-04-01

    For conservation purposes and due to growing ecotourism, free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei) have been habituated to humans. Fecal specimens (n = 62) collected in January 1999 from mountain gorillas of the Bwindi and Mgahinga National Parks, Uganda, were tested for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp., and the overall prevalence of infection was 19%, 13%, and 6%, respectively. The prevalence of positive specimens was not related to the year of habituation of a gorilla group to humans. Campylobacter spp., Salmonella, and Shigella spp. infections were not distributed equally among the age classes of gorillas; most of the enteropathogens (80%), and all Shigella spp. organisms, S. sonnei, S. boydii, and S. flexneri, were isolated from subadults and adult gorillas with ages ranging from 6.0 to 11.9 yr. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. infections among human-habituated gorillas has doubled during the last 4 yr, and isolation of Shigella spp. for the first time from mountain gorillas, may indicate enhanced anthropozoonotic transmission of these enteropathogens.

  3. Modelling reversibility of central European mountain lakes from acidification: Part II – the Tatra Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kopácek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic, process-based model of surface water acidification, MAGIC7, has been applied to four representative alpine lakes in the Tatra Mountains (Slovakia and Poland. The model was calibrated for a set of 12 to 22-year experimental records of lake water composition. Surface water and soil chemistry were reconstructed from 1860 to 2002 and forecast to 2050 based on the reduction in sulphur and nitrogen emissions presupposed by the Gothenburg Protocol. Relatively small changes in the soil C:N ratios were not sufficient to simulate observed changes in NO3‾ concentrations, so an alternative empirical approach of changes in terrestrial N uptake was applied. Measured sulphate sorption isotherms did not allow calibration of the pattern of sulphate response in the lakes, indicating that other mechanisms of S release were also important. The lake water chemistry exhibited significant changes during both the acidification advance (1860 to 1980s and retreat (1980s to 2010. An increase in lake water concentrations of strong acid anions (SAA; 104–149 μeq l–1 was balanced by a decline in HCO3‾ (13–62 μeq l–1 and an increase in base cations (BC; 42–72 μeq l–1, H+ (0-18 μeq l–1, and Alin+ (0–26 μeq l–1. The carbonate buffering system was depleted in three lakes. In contrast, lake water concentrations of SAA, BC, H+, and Alin+ decreased by 57–82, 28–42, 0–11, and 0–22 μeq l–1, respectively, the carbonate buffering system was re-established, and HCO3‾ increased by 1–21 μeq l–1 during the chemical reversal from atmospheric acidification (by 2000. The MAGIC7 model forecasts a slight continuation in this reversal for the next decade and new steady-state conditions thereafter. Gran alkalinity should come back to 1950s levels (0–71 μeq l–1 in all lakes after 2010. Partial recovery of the soil pool of exchangeable base cations can be expected in one catchment, while only conservation of the current conditions is

  4. Oroclinal Bending and Mountain Uplift in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, C.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2007-05-01

    The large paleomagnetic database now available for the Central Andes permits a good understanding of the overall spatial and temporal variations of rotations. Mesozoic to Early Paleogene rocks along the forearc of northern Chile (23°-28°S) record significant clockwise rotations (>25°) [Arriagada et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001923]. Along the forearc of southern Peru, counterclockwise rotations recorded within flat lying red-beds (Moquegua Formation) increase from about -30° at 17.5°S to - 45° at15.5°S and decrease through time from the late Eocene to the late Oligocene-early Miocene [Roperch et al., 2006, Tectonics, doi:10.1029/2005TC001882]. Recently published thermo-chronological studies show evidence for strong exhumation within Bolivian Eastern Cordillera and the Puna plateau starting in the Eocene while structural studies indicate that the majority of crustal shortening in the Eastern Cordillera occurred during the Eocene-Oligocene, although the final stages of deformation may have continued through the Early Miocene. Rotations in the Peruvian and north Chilean forearc thus occurred at the same time than deformation and exhumation/uplift within the Eastern Cordillera. In contrast Neogene forearc rocks in southern Peru and northern Chile do not show evidences of rotation but low magnitude (10°) counterclockwise rotations are usually found in mid to late Miocene rocks from the northern Altiplano. These Neogene rotations are concomitant with shortening in the Sub-Andean zone and sinistral strike-slip faulting along the eastern edge of the northern Altiplano. We interpret the rotation pattern along the southern Peru and north Chile forearc as a result of strong late Eocene- late Oligocene oroclinal bending of the Central Andes associated with shortening gradients along the Eastern Cordillera associated both with the Abancay deflection and the Arica bend. The amount and spatial distribution of pre-Neogene shortening needed to account for

  5. An inventory of epigeal ants of the western Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinandavha C. Munyai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution, abundance and sensitivity invertebrates to habitat change are largely unknown. Long-term monitoring of ecological gradients with standardised and comparable protocols can form the basis of a better understanding. Altitudinal gradients are particularly relevant within this context. Here we provide a check list and baseline data for ant species collected over a 5-year period across the Soutpansberg Mountain Range, South Africa. Standardised pitfall surveys across 11 sites yielded a total of 133 species in 38 genera and 6 subfamilies. Sample coverage of epigeal ants was 0.98 for the transect as a whole. Of these species, 21% were restricted to the southern slope of the mountain and 14% to the northern slope. Extrapolated richness estimates reached an asymptote for all, except for three sites. These were the only sites impacted by bush encroachment. Observed richness was the highest at a low-altitude mesic site that is exposed to considerable disturbance by megaherbivores and mechanical clearing of woody vegetation. Structural classification of vegetation was predictive of a broad-scale ant assemblage structure. On a smaller scale, however, structure was a function of elevation, space and temperature.Conservation implications: Future monitoring should target indicator taxa associated with bush encroachment, particularly with reference to their impacts on grasslands. Bush encroachment could endanger several ant species associated with mesic grasslands and woodlands on the mountain, as well as ant diversity, as these were the habitats with the highest ant diversity.

  6. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A. [Pacific Western Technologies Ltd., Denver, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here.

  7. Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains and adjacent Raton Basin, southern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    Laramide structure of the central Sangre de Cristo Mountains (Culebra Range) is interpreted as a system of west-dipping, basement-involved thrusts and reverse faults. The Culebra thrust is the dominant structure in the central part of the range; it dips 30 -55?? west and brings Precambrian metamorphic base-ment rocks over unmetamorphosed Paleozoic rocks. East of the Culebra thrust, thrusts and reverse faults break the basement and overlying cover rocks into north-trending fault blocks; these boundary faults probably dip 40-60?? westward. The orientation of fault slickensides indicates oblique (northeast) slip on the Culebra thrust and dip-slip (ranging from eastward to northward) movement on adjacent faults. In sedimentary cover rocks, east-vergent anticlines overlie and merge with thrusts and reverse faults; these anticlines are interpreted as fault-propagation folds. Minor east-dipping thrusts and reverse faults (backthrusts) occur in both the hanging walls and footwalls of thrusts. The easternmost faults and folds of the Culebra Range form a continuous structural boundary between the Laramide Sangre de Cristo highland and the Raton Basin. Boundary structures consist of west-dipping frontal thrusts flanked on the basinward side by poorly exposed, east-dipping backthrusts. The backthrusts are interpreted to overlie structural wedges that have been emplaced above blind thrusts in the basin margin. West-dipping frontal thrusts and blind thrusts are interpreted to involve basement, but backthrusts are rooted in basin-margin cover rocks. At shallow structural levels where erosion has not exposed a frontal thrust, the structural boundary of the basin is represented by an anticline or monocline. Based on both regional and local stratigraphic evidence, Laramide deformation in the Culebra Range and accompanying synorogenic sedimentation in the western Raton Basin probably took place from latest Cretaceous through early Eocene time. The earliest evidence of uplift and

  8. Small fishes crossed a large mountain range: Quaternary stream capture events and freshwater fishes on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daemin; Hirt, M Vincent; Simons, Andrew M; Won, Yong-Jin

    2016-08-31

    The Taebaek Mountains in South Korea serves as the most apparent biogeographic barrier for South Korean freshwater fishes, resulting in two distinct ichthyofaunal assemblages on the eastern (East/Japan Sea slope) and western (Yellow Sea and Korea Strait slopes) sides of the mountain range. Of nearly 100 species of native primary freshwater fishes in South Korea, only 18 species occur naturally on both sides of the mountain range. Interestingly, there are five rheophilic species (Phoxinus phoxinus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Ladislavia taczanowskii, Iksookimia koreensis and Koreocobitis rotundicaudata) found on both sides of the Taebaek Mountains that are geographically restricted to the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers, for L. taczanowskii and I. koreensis) on the eastern side of the mountain range. The Osip River and its neighboring rivers also shared a rheophilic freshwater fish, Liobagrus mediadiposalis, with the Nakdong River on the western side of the mountain range. We assessed historical biogeographic hypotheses on the presence of these rheophilic fishes, utilizing DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Results of our divergence time estimation indicate that ichthyofaunal transfers into the Osip River (and several neighboring rivers in East Sea slope) have occurred from the Han (Yellow Sea slope) and Nakdong (Korea Strait slope) rivers since the late-Pleistocene. The inferred divergence times for the ichthyofaunal transfer across the Taebaek Mountains were consistent with the timing of hypothesized multiple reactivations of the Osip River Fault (late-Pleistocene), suggesting that the Osip River Fault reactivations may have caused stream capture events, followed by ichthyofaunal transfer, not only between the Osip and Nakdong rivers, but also between the Osip and Han rivers. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil chemical fertility in dairy farms of the Guanacaste volcanic mountain range, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Saborío-Montero, Alejandro; Marín-Taylor, Osvaldo; Arguedas-Sánchez, Randall; Ramírez-Fallas, Sinaí

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the fertility of soils of dairy farms at four zones of the Guanacaste volcanic mountain range. The study was conducted during a two-year period (2009-2010) in farms of Guayabo (Bagaces) and Nubes, San Ramón and Florida (Quebrada Grande, Tilarán). A total of 40 soil samples were collected, each one was composed by 20 sub- samples. The results revealed that soil pH in Guayabo tended to be lower (p=0.0539) than in Nubes, San Ramón and Florida. Guayabo so...

  10. Geologic map of the Simcoe Mountains Volcanic Field, main central segment, Yakama Nation, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Mountainous parts of the Yakama Nation lands in south-central Washington are mostly covered by basaltic lava flows and cinder cones that make up the Simcoe Mountains volcanic field. The accompanying geologic map of the central part of the volcanic field has been produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on behalf of the Water Resources Program of the Yakama Nation. The volcanic terrain stretches continuously from Mount Adams eastward as far as Satus Pass and Mill Creek Guard Station. Most of the many hills and buttes are volcanic cones where cinders and spatter piled up around erupting vents while lava flows spread downslope. All of these small volcanoes are now extinct, and, even during their active lifetimes, most of them erupted for no more than a few years. On the Yakama Nation lands, the only large long-lived volcano capable of erupting again in the future is Mount Adams, on the western boundary.

  11. [Environmental significance of wet deposition composition in the central Qilian Mountains, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-jie; Li, Zong-xing; Tian, Qing; Song, Ling-ling; Jia, Bing; Guo, Rui; Song, Yao-xuan; Su, Suo-nan; Han, Chun-tan

    2014-12-01

    A total of 90 precipitation samples were collected from individual precipitation events at the Qilian Alpine Ecology & Hydrology Research Station (Hulugou Station, 30 degrees 47'N, 90 degrees 58'E; 3 260 m a. s. l) located in the central Qilian Mountains from August 2012 to November 2013. All samples were analyzed for major cations (Na, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (Cl- , NO3- and SO4(2-)) and conductivity. Precipitation EC values ranged from 2.26 to 482 μS x cm(-1) with an average value of 41.9 μS x cm(-1). The precipitation was of SO4(2-) -Mg(2+) -Ca2+ type, which contributed > 70% to the total ionic concentration. The same as the precipitation alkalinity, precipitation events occurred around summer showed lower concentrations, while it had higher concentrations in winter and spring with little precipitation and larger wind speed. Enrichment factor (EF), correlation and factor analysis indicated that regional crustal aerosols and species from central Asian and northwestern China arid regions brought by the westerly circulation were the major sources for these ions, some dust from human pollution were the secondary sources, and the contribution of sea salt was the least due to the long distance transport. These characteristics could be also confirmed by the correlation between ionic concentrations and metrological data in the study region. It is also interesting that the precipitation chemistry was different under the different atmospheric circulation: the monsoon precipitation, the interaction precipitation events ( influenced both by monsoon and westerly) and the westerly precipitation.

  12. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  13. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  14. Cenozoic volcanic geology and probable age of inception of basin-range faulting in the southeasternmost Chocolate Mountains, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, B.M.

    1978-02-01

    A complex sequence of Oligocene-age volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks form a major volcanic center in the Picacho area of the southeasternmost Chocolate Mountains, Imperial County, California. Basal-volcanic rocks consist of lava flows and flow breccia of trachybasalt, pyroxene rhyodacite, and pyroxene dacite (32 My old). These volcanic rocks locally overlie fanglomerate and rest unconformably on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. South and southeast of a prominent arcuate fault zone in the central part of the area, the rhyolite ignimbrite (26 My old) forms a major ash-flow sheet. In the southwestern part of the Picacho area the rhyolite ignimbrite interfingers with and is overlain by dacite flows and laharic breccia. The rhyolite ignimbrite and the dacite of Picacho Peak are overlapped by lava flows and breccia of pyroxene andesite (25 My old) that locally rest on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. The volcanic rocks of the Picacho area form a slightly bimodal volcanic suite consisting chiefly of silicic volcanic rocks with subordinate andesite. Late Miocene augite-olivine basalt is most similar in major-element abundances to transitional alkali-olivine basalt of the Basin and Range province. Normal separation faults in the Picacho area trend northwest and north parallel to major linear mountain ranges in the region. The areal distribution of the 26-My-old rhyolite ignimbrite and the local presence of megabreccia and fanglomerate flanking probable paleohighs suggest that the ignimbrite was erupted over irregular topography controlled by northwest- and north-trending probable basin-range faults. These relations date the inception of faulting in southeasternmost California at pre-26 and probably pre-32 My ago. A transition of basaltic volcanism in the area is dated at 13 My ago. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Late Pleistocene glaciation of the Kodar Mountains, south-central Siberia, constrained by Be-10 exposure dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margold, Martin; Jansen, John D.; Gurinov, Artem L.; Reznichenko, Natalya V.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Fink, David

    2014-05-01

    The glacial history of the mountainous Transbaikalia region NE of Lake Baikal, Siberia, has so far received little attention. The Kodar Mountains exceed 3000 m in elevation and small cirque glaciers currently occur in the central parts of the range. Yet, greatly expanded glaciation in the past is evidenced by massive moraine complexes at the mouth of glacial valleys in the Chara Depression (part of the Baikal rift system), and along the Vitim River valley to the NW. The moraines document the existence of large valley glaciers that reached to over 120 kilometres in length. We applied Be-10 exposure dating to determine the timing of glacier advances that formed the major moraines: 19 samples from boulders on 8 moraine ridges in 5 moraine complexes. Our results indicate extensive glaciation in the Kodar Mountains at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum, with our ages spanning from about 20 ka to the Late Glacial. We attribute the age spread on some of the moraines to boulder exhumation linked to permafrost dynamics.

  16. Atmospheric CO2 Consumption in Uplifting Mountain Ranges: New Insight From the New Zealand Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. D.; Blum, J. D.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2004-12-01

    Rates of physical erosion and chemical weathering in uplifting mountain ranges are generally higher than the rates observed in tectonically stable regions. This observation has led to the hypothesis that orogenic events lead to global cooling over geologic time scales by accelerating the rate of atmospheric CO2 drawdown from silicate weathering. However, recent studies of rivers draining the rapidly uplifting Himalaya Mountains have demonstrated that much of the chemical weathering flux is dominated by carbonate dissolution, which does not influence long-term atmospheric CO2 levels. To examine if carbonate weathering dominates in other orogenic environments, we have undertaken investigations of rivers draining the New Zealand Southern Alps, which present a largely unexplored setting for systematically examining tectonic controls on the carbon cycle. In particular, we quantified rates of physical erosion and both silicate and carbonate weathering across a gradient of variable uplift rates but constant bedrock composition. We also compared the findings to global mean values as well as to data for major world rivers in other tectonic and climatic settings. Rapid uplift in the western Southern Alps elevates mechanical erosion rates by a factor of ~13 relative to those on the tectonically stable eastern side. Similarly, the average chemical weathering rate is ~5 times higher on the western compared to eastern side of the mountain range. However, because the proportion of stream-water Ca2+ and Mg2+ from the weathering of trace hydrothermal calcite increases as the rate of mechanical erosion increases, the long-term atmospheric CO2 consumption rate on the western side is only ~2 times higher than that on the eastern side and only ~1.5 times higher than the global mean value. These data demonstrate that tectonic uplift in the New Zealand Southern Alps accelerates physical erosion and chemical weathering rates but does not greatly enhance the rate of long-term atmospheric

  17. Stream flow regime of springs in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region, Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Souza de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The stream flow regime of four springs located in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range region (MG was evaluated and correlated to the respective recharge area, relief characteristics, land cover and physical and hydrologic soil characteristics. The streamflow regime was characterized by monitoring of discharges, calculating the surface runoff and specific discharge and by modeling the discharge over the recession period using the Maillet method. As all recharge areas have similar relief the effect of it on the streamflow was not possible to identify. Analysis included determining the effect of drainage area size, soil characteristics and land cover on the indicators of the streamflow regime. Size of the recharge area had a positive influence on the indicators mean discharge and surface runoff volume and on the regulation of the streamflow regime (springs L4 and L1. The spring under the smallest area of influence provided the worst results for the above mentioned indicators (spring L3. The effect of forest cover (natural and planted, associated with soil characteristics, was evidenced by the indicators surface runoff (in depth and specific yield, both independent of the recharge area size (springs L4 and L2. The interaction of area size, soil characteristics and forest cover (natural and planted provided the best results for all indicators of streamflow regime in the springs studied in the Mantiqueira Mountain Range (spring L4.

  18. Logs of Paleoseismic Excavations Across the Central Range Fault, Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Weber, John; Ragona, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This publication makes available maps and trench logs associated with studies of the Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. Our studies were conducted in 2001 and 2002. We mapped geomorphic features indicative of active faulting along the right-lateral, Central Range Fault, part of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary in Trinidad. We excavated trenches at two sites, the Samlalsingh and Tabaquite sites. At the Samlalsingh site, sediments deposited after the most recent fault movement bury the fault, and the exact location of the fault was unknown until we exposed it in our excavations. At this site, we excavated a total of eleven trenches, six of which exposed the fault. The trenches exposed fluvial sediments deposited over a strath terrace developed on Miocene bedrock units. We cleaned the walls of the excavations, gridded the walls with either 1 m X 1 m or 1 m X 0.5 m nail and string grid, and logged the walls in detail at a scale of 1:20. Additionally, we described the different sedimentary units in the field, incorporating these descriptions into our trench logs. We mapped the locations of the trenches using a tape and compass. Our field logs were scanned, and unit contacts were traced in Adobe Illustrator. The final drafted logs of all the trenches are presented here, along with photographs showing important relations among faults and Holocene sedimentary deposits. Logs of south walls were reversed in Illustrator, so that all logs are drafted with the view direction to the north. We collected samples of various materials exposed in the trench walls, including charcoal samples for radiocarbon dating from both faulted and unfaulted deposits. The locations of all samples collected are shown on the logs. The ages of seventeen of the charcoal samples submitted for radiocarbon analysis at the University of Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory in Tucson, Ariz., are given in Table 1. Samples found in

  19. Lateral continuity of the Blarney Creek Thrust, Doonerak Windown, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, C.M.; Julian, F.E.; Phelps, J.C.; Oldow, J.S.; Avellemant, H.G.

    1985-04-01

    The contact between Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks, exposed along the northern margin of the Doonerak window in the central Brooks Range, is a major thrust fault called the Blarney Creek thrust (BCT). The BCT has been traced over a distance of 25 km, from Falsoola Mountain to Wien Mountain. The tectonic nature of this contact is demonstrated by: (1) omission of stratigraphic units above and below the BCT; (2) large angular discordance in orientation of first-generation cleavage at the BCT; (3) numerous thrust imbricates developed in the upper-plate Carboniferous section that sole into the BCT; and (4) truncation of an upper-plate graben structure at the BCT. Lack of evidence for pre-Carboniferous deformation in the lower plate casts doubt on the interpretation of the contact as an angular unconformity. However, the localized presence below the BCT of Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak Shale, in apparent depositional contact with lower Paleozoic rocks, suggests that the BCT follows an originally disconformable contact between the Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks. The juxtaposition of younger over older rocks at the BCT is explained by calling upon the BCT to act as the upper detachment surface of a duplex structure. Duplex development involves initial imbrication of the Carboniferous section using the BCT as a basal decollement, followed by formation of deeper thrusts in the lower Paleozoic section, which ramp up and merge into the BCT.

  20. Mountaineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘步东

    2005-01-01

    Most young people enjoy some forms of physical activities.It may be walking,cycling or swimming,or in wither,skating or skiing.It may be a game of some kind,football,hockey(曲棍球),golf,or tennis.Perhaps it may be mountaineering.

  1. Impacts of climate and land-use changes on mountain forests in Central Apennines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderaro, Chiara; Palombo, Caterina; Tognetti, Roberto; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to analyze the vegetation dynamics of Pinus mugo Turra subsp. mugo and Fagus sylvatica (L.) at the treeline ecotone between the closed beech forest and the mountain pine krummholz vegetation. This transitional ecosystem zone dominates the high altitudes of the Majella massif, (Central Appennines) and represents the exception on the Apennines chain being treeline dominated by krummholz with mountain pine. This species in the Majella National Park is re-colonizing open areas both upward, to the alpine meadows, and downward, to areas potentially suitable by beech expansion. On the Apennine chain, Central Italy, global change could cause a negative impact on the spatial distribution of rare or endemic species, thus influencing the appearance, structure and productivity of the tree-line ecotone. Mountain pine, growing over the treeline, represents a very sensitive species to the effects of climate change acting in Mediterranean basin. In four sampling site a circular area of 40 m in diameter was established between beech forest and mountain pine krhummolz. For both species, dendrometric parameters were collected and woody cores were extracted. During sampling, basic information, to define the growth dynamics and competition between the two species, were also recorded. A landscape analysis from aerial photographs provided information to better understand the development dynamics of the two plant communities. The dendrochronological analysis, supported by dendrometric parameters, defined the population age, as well as the time of settlement. Climate-growth relationships was analized and showed responses, in terms of plant growth, to the current climate trend. The influence of temperature and precipitation on tree growth during the vegetation season was demonstrated by significant correlation coefficients, particularly for spring and summer temperatures and summer precipitation, in both species. An interesting result is the negative correlation of

  2. Morphometric analysis of relative tectonic activity in the Baturagung Mountain, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasari, Rahmi; Brahmantyo, Budi; Supartoyo

    2017-06-01

    Special Region of Yogyakarta and Klaten district, Central Java is one of areas in Indonesia that is prone to earthquake caused by subduction in Indian Ocean and active fault in land. The earthquake sources from active fault probable from Opak and other faults located in Baturagung Mountain. Active faults controlling landform development in tectonically active regions, and it has significantly affected fluvial systems and mountain - front landscapes in the Baturagung Mountain. To assess tectonic activities in the area used quantitative analysis (morphometric). Morphometric analysis consists of 5 parameters geomorphic indices: drainage basin asymmetry (AF), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi), stream length gradient (SL) index, basin shape index (Bs), and mountain-front sinuosity (Smf). These indices were combined to yield the relative tectonic activity index (RTAI) using geographic information systems (GIS). The result found that RTAI in the study area are divided into three classes: Class 2 (high 0.6% of the watershed area (1.32 km2)); Class 3 (moderate 58.9% (122.1 km2)); and Class 4 (low 40.4% (83.75 km2)). All of morphometric analysis generally indicates this area more influenced by tectonics than erosion. The results are consistent with geomorphological observations.

  3. Strain histories from the eastern Central Range of Taiwan: A record of advection through a collisional orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondro, Claire A.; Fisher, Donald; Yeh, En-Chao

    2017-05-01

    In the eastern Central Range of Taiwan there is a regional variation in the orientation of maximum finite stretch across the slate belt, with down-dip maximum stretch found in the western Central Range and along-strike maximum stretch in the eastern Central Range. Incremental strain histories from syntectonic fibers in pyrite pressure shadows indicate a progressive change in extension direction from down dip to along strike during deformation, there is a corresponding temporal variation in stretching direction shown in samples from the eastern edge of the Central Range, a pattern that mimics the regional west-to-east spatial variation. These observed temporal and spatial strain distributions are used to evaluate the kinematics associated with slaty cleavage development during advection through the Taiwan orogenic system. The subduction zone beneath the island of Taiwan is influenced by two types of obliquity that have the potential to generate the observed along-strike stretching. First, the plate motion vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate is slightly oblique to the regional strike of the mountain range, which could result in partitioning of strike slip shearing into the interior of the collision. Second, the north-south Luzon volcanic arc on the Philippine Sea Plate is obliquely oriented relative to the northeast-southwest edge of the Eurasian continental margin, which could result in lateral extrusion of the ductile core of the range. Incremental strain histories in cleavage-parallel samples represent a time-for-space equivalence where the stretching direction is fixed relative to the position within the mountain belt architecture (e.g., the topographic divide), and temporal variations in the eastern central Range reflect lateral advection through the strain field in response to accretionary and erosional fluxes. Incremental strain histories in cleavage perpendicular samples show both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of

  4. Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, Damien; Ndagijimana, Felix; Giarrusso, Anthony J; Vecellio, Veronica; Stoinski, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, the Virunga mountain gorilla population has almost doubled, now reaching 480 individuals living in a 430-km(2) protected area. Analysis of the gorillas' ranging patterns can provide critical information on the extent and possible effects of competition for food and space. We analyzed 12 years of daily ranging data and inter-group encounter data collected on 11 gorilla groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. During that period, the study population increased in size by almost 50% and the number of groups tripled. Groups had small yearly home ranges compared to other known gorilla populations, with an average 90% kernel density estimate of 8.07 km2 and large between-group variations (3.17-23.59 km2). Most groups had consistent home range location over the course of the study but for some, we observed gradual range shifts of up to 4 km. Neighboring groups displayed high home range overlap, which increased dramatically after the formation of new groups. On average, each group used only 28.6% of its 90% kernel home range exclusively, and in some areas up to six different groups had overlapping home ranges with little or no exclusive areas. We found a significant intra-group positive relationship between the number of weaned individuals in a group and the home range size, but the fitted models only explained 17.5% and 13.7% of the variance in 50% and 90% kernel home range size estimates, respectively. This suggests that despite the increase in size, the study population is not yet experiencing marked effects of feeding competition. However, the increase in home range overlap resulting from the formation of new groups led to a sixfold increase in the frequency of inter-group encounters, which exposes the population to elevated risks of fight-related injuries and infanticide.

  5. Contributing to Sustainable Mountain Development by Facilitating Networking and Knowledge Sharing through ICT - Collaboration between Rocky Mountain States and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights new opportunities for sharing knowledge and networking through the use of information and communication technologies to better contribute to Sustainable Mountain Development and Millennium Development Goals. It analyzes current challenges in mountain countries in Central Asia where political instability and weak governance, in addition to their challenging natural conditions, constitute major constraints for peoples’ lives. The authors examine possible ways to tackle the major obstacles through IT-enabled knowledge sharing and networking. They discuss a number of collaborative initiatives between Rocky Mountain States in the United States and mountain nations in Central Asia aimed at promoting the values of a democratic society and good governance through networking between educators, legislators. Also, these initiatives are aimed at fostering critical thinking through independent e-media. Based on the analysis, they suggest further ways in facilitating networking and knowledge sharing for Sustainable Mountain Development through the use of information and communication technologies by joining the efforts of all active players and also eliciting more contribution from the mountainous communities of the United States.

  6. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  7. A statistical approach to modelling permafrost distribution in the European Alps or similar mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Boeckli

    2012-01-01

    explanatory variables are MAAT and PISR. The linear regression achieves a root mean square error (RMSE of 1.6 °C. The final model combines the two sub-models and accounts for the different scales used for model calibration.

    The modelling approach provides a theoretical basis for estimating mountain permafrost distribution over larger mountain ranges and can be expanded to more surface types and sub-models than considered, here. The analyses performed with the Alpine data set further provide quantitative insight into larger-area patterns as well as the model coefficients for a later spatial application. The transfer into a map-based product, however, requires further steps such as the definition of offset terms that usually contain a degree of subjectivity.

  8. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  9. Insights into the evolution of tectonically-active glaciated mountain ranges from digital elevation model analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; Whipple, K. X.

    2003-12-01

    Glaciers have played an important role in the development of most active mountain ranges around the world during the Quaternary, but the interaction between glacial erosion (as modulated by climate change) and tectonic processes is poorly understood. The so-called glacial buzzsaw hypothesis (Brozovic et al., 1997) proposes that glaciers can incise as rapidly as the most rapid rock uplift rates, such that glaciated landscapes experiencing different rock uplift rates but the same snowline elevation will look essentially the same, with mean elevations close to the snowline. Digital elevation model-based analyses of the glaciated landscapes of the Nanga Parbat region, Pakistan, and the Southern Alps, New Zealand, lend some support to this hypothesis, but also reveal considerably more variety to the landscapes of glaciated, tectonically-active mountain ranges. Larger glaciers in the Nanga Parbat region maintain a low downvalley gradient and valley floor elevations close to the snowline, even in the face of extremely rapid rock uplift. However, smaller glaciers steepen in response to rapid uplift, similar to the response of rivers. A strong correlation between the height of hillslopes rising from the cirque floors and rock uplift rates implies that erosion processes on hillslopes cannot initially keep up with more rapid glacial incision rates. It is these staggering hillslopes that permit mountain peaks to rise above 8000m. The glacial buzzsaw hypothesis does not describe the evolution of the Southern Alps as well, because here mean elevations rise in areas of more rapid rock uplift. The buzzsaw hypothesis may work well in the Nanga Parbat region because the zone of rapid rock uplift is structurally confined to a narrow region. Alternatively, the Southern Alps may not have been rising sufficiently rapidly or sufficiently long for the glacial buzzsaw to be imposed outside the most rapidly uplifting region, around Mount Cook. The challenge now is to understand in detail

  10. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species.

  11. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  12. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  13. Scientific Yield of Meteorites Recovered from the Dominion Range, Transantarctic Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Satterwhite, C.; Funk, R.; Harrington, R.

    2017-01-01

    The US Antarctic Meteorite Program has visited the Dominion Range in the Transantarctic Mountains during several different seasons, including the 1985, 2003, 2008, 2010, and 2014 seasons. Total recovered meteorites from this region is over 2000. The 1985 (11 samples), 2003 (141 samples), 2008 (521) and 2010 (901 samples) seasons have been fully classified, and the 2014 samples (562) are in the process of being classified and characterized. Given that close to 1500 samples have been classified so far, it seems like a good opportunity to summarize the state of the collection. Here we describe the significant samples documented from this area, as well as a large meteorite shower that dominates the statistics of the region.

  14. Bryconamericus macarenae n. sp. (Characiformes, Characidae from the Güejar River, Macarena mountain range, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román-Valencia, C.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on 174 specimens, using morphometric, meristic and osteological characters, we describe a new species: Bryconamericus macarenae from the Güejar River in La Macarena mountain range, Orinoco Basin, Colombia. It differs from congeners in having: an incomplete lateral line (vs. complete lateral line in all except B. delta and fewer and less conspicuous perforations in the latero-sensorial canal of the extrascapular bone (vs. conspicuous latero-sensorial canal perforation. It has four or fewer unbranched anal-fin rays (vs. five or more unbranched anal-fin rays, a short, thickened extrascapular bone without projections from the posterior margin, or with only a reduced apophysis (vs. extrascapular long, irregular, bony projections on its margins, and with a large undulated apophysis on its posterior margin. It also differs in live coloration. A key of species of Bryconamericus known from the Orinoco Basin and the Catatumbo River is included.

  15. New constraints on Holocene uplift rates for the Baudo Mountain Range, northwestern Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan L.; Shen, Zhixiong; Mauz, Barbara

    2014-07-01

    A beach deposit on the southern end of the Baudo Mountain Range, at an elevation of ˜2.0 m above the backshore of the modern beach, was dated at ˜2870 years using optically stimulated luminescence dating. The calculated average uplift rate necessary to raise this deposit is 0.7 mm/yr. This rate combines the long-term regional deformation associated with the subduction of the Nazca Plate under the South American Plate and the collision of the Choco Block microplate against the South American continent, as well as uplift from local faults. We propose that rapid emergence probably as several pulses, each involving decimeter scale coseismic uplift, is likely to have occurred to elevate the beach above the intertidal zone and offset destructive wave erosion.

  16. JURASSIC PALAEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE TRANSDANUBIAN CENTRAL RANGE (HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATTILA VÖRÖS

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The Transdanubian Central Range (TCR is a flattened range of hills in northern Transdanubia (Hungary, formed mainly by Mesozoic carbonate rocks showing strong facies similarities with the Southern Alps and the Austroalpine domain. The Jurassic system is divided into several formations of predominantly pelagic limestones. Ammonoids are frequent and were collected bed-by-bed in numerous sections, providing an excellent biostratigraphic resolution. The thickness of the Jurassic system is usually small but changes along the strike of the TCR. It reaches a maximum thickness of 500 m in the western part; is very variable (10-400 m in the central segment (Bakony Mts. and rather low (less than 100 m in the east (Gerecse. In the Bakony segment, the thickness variation reflects the strongly dissected topography of the Jurassic sea-floor. Synsedimentary tectonics is dominated by normal faults; tilted blocks and listric faults may be inferred only in the east.Five main steps were identified in the palaeogeographic evolution: 1 Late Hettangian: carbonate oolitic shoals prevail, except for a few sites where non-deposition or neritic sediments occur. 2 Sinemurian and Pliensbachian: tectonic disintegration resulted in an intricate pattern of submarine horsts and intervening basins, with condensed sedimentation or non-deposition on the horsts and thicker, continuous sedimentary sequences in the basins. The submarine topographic highs are surrounded by aprons of redeposited material (scarp breccias, brachiopod coquinas, crinoidal calcarenites, spiculitic cherty limestones, while pure or argillaceous limestones (Rosso Ammonitico prevail in the distal areas. 3 Early Toarcian: the Tethys-wide anoxic event is superimposed on the previous submarine bottom topography; the resulting black shales and sedimentary Mn-ores are concentrated on the western sides of some horsts. 4 Dogger to Early Malm: radiolarites with heterochronous lower and upper boundaries (Aalenian to

  17. Ecological Function Value of Tropical Forests in the Central Mountainous Areas of Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; GAO; Zuguang; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    The integrated value of the ecological function of tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island was 33.064 8 billion yuan/a in 2010(soil improvement,soil consolidation,soil nutrient maintenance,water storage and moisture regulation,water purification,carbon sequestration,oxygen releasing,air purification,biodiversity conservation,eco-tourism),equivalent to 16.1%of GDP in Hainan Province this year(205.212 billion yuan).The tropical forests in the central mountainous areas of Hainan Island make great contribution to Hainan Island’s ecology,and play an important role in maintaining the stability of the ecological environment in Hainan Island.Through the understanding of major ecological function value of tropical forests,it is necessary to make people cherish the tropical forests in the central ecological function conservation areas of Hainan Province,and spontaneously throw themselves into the ecological environment protection and construction,to promote the rapid and sustainable development of construction in Hainan Province as an international tourism island.

  18. Early Cretaceous Shallow-Water Platform Carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains, Central Taurides - South Turkey: Facies Analysis and Depositional Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Cemile; Taslı, Kemal; Koç, Hayati

    2016-10-01

    The study area comprises southern non-metamorphic part of the Bolkar Mountains which are situated in southern Turkey, eastern part of the Central Taurides. The studied five outcrops form geologically parts of the tectonostratigraphic units called as allochthonous Aladag Unit and autochthonous Geyikdagi Unit. The aim of this study is to describe microfacies and depositional environments of the Bolkar Mountains Early Cretaceous shallow- water platform carbonates. The Lower Cretaceous is represented by continuous thick- bedded to massive dolomite sequence ranging from 100 to 150 meters thick, which only contains locally laminated limestone intercalations in the Yüğlük section and thick to very thick-bedded uniform limestones ranging from approximately 50 to 120 meters, consist of mainly laminated- fenestral mudstone, peloidal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, bioclastic packstone- wackestone, benthic foraminiferal-intraclastic grainstone-packstone, ostracod-fenestral wackestone-mudstone, dasycladacean algal packstone-wackestone and ooidal grainstone microfacies. Based on a combination sedimantological data, facies/microfacies and micropaleontological (predominantly dasycladacean algae and diverse benthic foraminifera) analysis, it is concluded that Early Cretaceous platform carbonates of the Bolkar Mountains reflect a tidally affected tidal-flat and restricted lagoon settings. During the Berriasian- Valanginian unfavourable facies for benthic foraminifera and dolomitization were predominate. In the Hauterivian-early Aptian, the effect of dolomitization largely disappeared and inner platform conditions still prevailed showing alternations of peritidal and lagoon facies, going from peritidal plains (representing various sub-environments including supratidal, intertidal area, tidal-intertidal ponds and ooid bars) dominated by ostracod and miliolids, to dasycladacean algae-rich restricted lagoons-subtidal. These environments show a transition in the vertical and

  19. Clinoptilolite zeolitized tuff from Central Alborz Range, North Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghipour, Batoul

    2010-05-01

    Zeolites are hydrated alumino-silicates of the alkaline and alkaline earth cations, principally sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (Iijima 1980; Hay 1981). Zeolites occur principally in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and are particularly widespread in volcani-clastic strata (Hay, 1978). Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite of the heulandite group with the simplified formula of (Na, K)6 Si30 Al6 O72 .nH2. It is the most common natural zeolite found mainly in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin. Alborz zone is one of the important geological divisions in Iran. This zone is restricted to Kopeh dagh zone in North & Central Iranian zone in South and is a region of active deformation within the broad Arabian-Eurasia collision zone (Allen et al. 2003). The zeolitized green tuff belt from Central Alborz which introduce here are made of volcanoclastic sequence of Karaj Formation. This belt is about 40 km long along Alborz Range and is Eocene in age. Zeolites and associated minerals of this altered vitric tuff studied. Zeolitization took place in some beds of Karaj Formations, with average range of 3 to 300 meters thickness. There are several gypsum lenses which interbed with a widespread green tuff succession in the studied area. On the basis of chemical composition these tuffs are in the range of acid to intermediate volcanic rocks. Also magmatic affinity is calc-alkaline and geological setting of the area belongs to volcanic arc granitoid. Petrographic data has shown that various shape and size of shard glass are the main component of tuffs. Based on the field studies, detail microscopy, XRD and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), the following main minerals are determined: Clinoptilolite+montmorillonite+crystobalite. Clinoptilolite and smectite are predominant minerals in all altered samples. Concerning the Si/Al ratio of 40 point analyses of glass shards the Alborz tuff has clinoptilolite composition. Otherwise the chemical composition of altered shard glass

  20. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  1. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations.

  2. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the western United States mountain ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to-day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of and near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July–October when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these biases largely to the underestimated and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the US likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights and weak precipitation in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  3. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  4. Mapping Glacial Lake Changes in Mountain Areas of Central Asia with Landsat Imagery during 1990-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Junli; Chen, Xi; Bao, Anming

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia is one of the world most vulnerable areas responding to global change. Glacier lakes in alpine regions remain sensitive to climatic change and fluctuate with temperature and precipitation variations. Study shows that glaciers in Central Asia have retreated dramatically, leading to the expansion of the existing glacial lakes and the emergence of many new glacial lakes. The existence of these lakes increases the possibility of outburst flood during the ice melting season, which can bring a disaster to the downstream area. Mapping glacial lakes and monitoring their changes would improve our understanding of regional climate change and glacier related hazards. Glacial lakes in Central Asia are mainly located at the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains with average elevation more than 1500 meters. Most of these lakes are supplied with the glaciers and snowmelt water during the summer seasons. Satellite remote sensing provides an efficient and objective tool to analyse the status and variations of glacial lakes. The increased availability of remote sensing sensors with appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, broad coverage makes lake investigations more feasible and cost-effective. The paper intends to map glacier lake changes in the Tianshan Mountains, the Altai Mountains and Kunlun Mountains with Landsat imagery. About 400 scenes of Landsat images in circa 1990, circa 2000 and 2010 are used to map the glacial lakes over the Central Asia, and the temporal processes and spatial patterns of these lake changes are also analysed, so as to find the relations between lake changes and region climate change. Over 12 000 glacial lakes were mapped in circa 2010, and the most of them are located the Altai Mountains and the Tianshan Mountains. The result shows that the numbers and areas of the glacial lakes in the Altai Mountain remain stable. The Tianshan Mountain have experienced changes in the last two decades, and about a half number

  5. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. from the Itremo and Andringitra mountains of central eastern Madagascar (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Michaël; Ramahandrison, Andriamirado T

    2017-06-01

    Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Itremo mountain range and from the Andringitra massif in central eastern Madagascar. The new species is the second one of the genus Canthyporus Zimmermann, 1919 to be recorded from Madagascar, the other being C. pauliani Guignot, 1951, so far endemic to the northern massif of Tsaratanana. The habitus and male and female reproductive structures of the new species are illustrated. Canthyporus reebae sp. nov. differs from C. pauliani notably by larger size, less parallel-sided and more evenly convex habitus, paler pronotum, more weakly impressed body surface reticulation, and a different shape of the median lobe of aedeagus. Differences with similar C. hottentottus-group species from mainland Africa are also discussed. Data on habitat preferences of C. reebae sp. nov. and a distribution map of Malagasy Canthyporus are presented and discussed.

  6. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  7. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  8. Snow algal communities on glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sota; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Miyairi, Masaya; Fujisawa, Yuta; Kadota, Tsutomu; Shirakawa, Tatsuo; Kusaka, Ryo; Takahashi, Shuhei; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Ohata, Tetsuo; Yabuki, Hironori; Konya, Keiko; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    Snow and ice algal communities were investigated on four glaciers in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in eastern Siberia in Russia over three melting seasons from 2012 to 2014. Two taxa of green algae and five taxa of cyanobacteria were observed on the glaciers. The algal community was dominated by green algae: Ancylonema nordenskioldii in the lower bare ice area and Chloromonas sp. in the upper snow area. The total algal bio-volume showed altitudinal variation, ranging from 0.03 to 4.0 mL m-2, and was greatest in the middle of the glaciers. The altitudinal variations in the algal community were similar on all studied glaciers, suggesting that they are typical in this region. Observations over the three years revealed that there was no significant change in the community structure, but a significant change in the total biomass. Since the mean summer air temperature was significantly higher in 2012 when algal biomass was greater, the difference in algal biomass among the years is probably due to the duration of surface melting. The community structure on the studied glaciers is similar to those on glaciers in Arctic and sub-Arctic regions.

  9. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dambaru Ballab Kattel; Tandong Yao

    2013-02-01

    Insufficient long-term in situ observations and complex topographic conditions pose major problems in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. Presented here is three decades (1980–2009) of data on annual maximum, minimum and average temperature trends from 13 mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. The stations are located at elevations between 1304 and 2566 m above sea level and with varied topography. Spatial analyses of the average temperature trend show warming in most of the stations. The magnitude of warming is higher for maximum temperatures, while minimum temperatures exhibit larger variability such as positive, negative or no change. These results are consistent with patterns reported in some parts of the Indian subcontinent and Upper Indus Basin, but different from conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (China), where the warming of minimum temperatures is more prominent than that of the maximum temperatures. From the temporal variations, a dramatic increase in temperature is observed in the latest decade, particularly in the average and maximum temperatures. The results from the cumulative sum chart analyses suggest that the thermal regime shifted in 1997. The dramatic enhancement of average temperature in the last decade is strongly consistent with the result of contemporary studies of the surrounding regions, where warming is attributed to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, as in the western Himalayas and the Upper Indus Basin, the mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas show variability in temperature trends, particularly for the minimum temperature. This inhomogeneous trend is likely ascribed to the differences in topography and microclimatic regime of the observed stations.

  10. Validation of MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Retrieval over Mountains in Central China Based on a Sun-Sky Radiometer Site of SONET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The 3 km Dark Target (DT aerosol optical depth (AOD products, 10 km DT and Deep Blue (DB AOD products from the Collection 6 (C6 product data of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS are compared with Sun-sky Radiometer Network (SONET measurements at Song Mountain in central China, where ground-based remote sensing measurements of aerosol properties are still very limited. The seasonal variations of AODs are significant in the Song Mountain region, with higher AODs in spring and summer and lower AODs in autumn and winter. Annual mean AODs (0.55 µm vary in the range of 0.5–0.7, which indicates particle matter (PM pollutions in this mountain region. Validation against one-year ground-based measurements shows that AOD retrievals from the MODIS onboard Aqua satellite are better than those from the Terra satellite in Song Mountain. The 3 km and 10 km AODs from DT algorithms are comparable over this region, while the AOD accuracy of DB algorithm is relatively lower. However, the spatial coverage of DB products is higher than that of 10 km DT products. Moreover, the optical and microphysical characteristics of aerosols at Song Mountain are analyzed on the basis of SONET observations. It suggests that coarse-mode aerosol particles dominate in spring, and fine-mode particles dominate in summer. The aerosol property models are also established and compared to aerosol types used by MODIS algorithm.

  11. Are there signs of acidification reversal in freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Alewell

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The reversal of freshwater acidification in the low mountain ranges of Germany is of public, political and scientific concern, because these regions are near natural ecosystems and function as an important drinking water supply. The aim of this study was to evaluate the status and trends of acidification reversal after two decades of reduced anthropogenic deposition in selected freshwaters of the low mountain ranges in the Harz, the Fichtelgebirge, the Bavarian Forest, the Spessart and the Black Forest. In response to decreased sulphate deposition, seven out of nine streams investigated had significantly decreasing sulphate concentrations (all trends were calculated with the Seasonal Kendall Test. The decrease in sulphate concentration was only minor, however, due to the release of previously stored soil sulphur. No increase was found in pH and acid neutralising capacity (defined by Reuss and Johnson, 1986. Aluminum concentrations in the streams did not decrease. Thus, no major acidification reversal can currently be noted in spite of two decades of decreased acid deposition. Nevertheless, the first signs of improvement in water quality were detected as there was a decrease in the level and frequency of extreme values of pH, acid neutralising capacity and aluminium concentrations in streams. With respect to nitrogen, no change was determined for either nitrate or ammonium concentrations in precipitation or stream water. Base cation fluxes indicate increasing net loss of base cations from all ecosystems investigated, which could be interpreted as an increase in soil acidification. The latter was due to a combination of continued high anion leaching and significant reduction of base cation deposition. No major improvement was noted in biological recovery, however, initial signs of recovery were detectable as there was re-occurrence of some single macroinvertebrate species which were formerly extinct. The results of this study have important

  12. Re-recognition of the Dajiuhu Wetland in Shennongjia Mountains, Central China%Re-recognition of the Dajiuhu Wetland in Shennongjia Mountains,Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fei; DU Yun; XUE Huaiping; LING Feng; BAN Xuan

    2012-01-01

    The Dajiuhu wetland,a famous sub-alpine wetland located in the the Shennongjia Mountains,north-subtropical region of Central China,has suffered from adverse impacts of unsustainable human practices over the past 60 years.The Dajiuhu wetland reflects the development process that has been accompanied by human activities.Based on field survey data,high resolution remote sensing image and historical records,the present paper provided a review on exploitation and restoration of the wetland.The results showed that the Dajiuhu wetland degraded quickly from 1950 to 2005.During that time,bog shrinkage,lake disappearance,biodiversity decline,sphagnum reduction,and vegetation succession from wetland communities to terrestrial communities in the Dajiuhu wetland,which were the main manifestations of the wetland degradation.Human activities,such as agricultural reclamation and construction of drainage works,have been the main factors resulting in ecological degradation of the wetland since 1986.Poverty and the short-term economic benefits had been the driving forces for wetland drainage and reclamation over the past years.

  13. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  14. Non-Volcanic Tremors beneath the Southern Central Range in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W.; Lin, C.; Peng, Z.; Chao, K.

    2011-12-01

    Deep non-volcanic tremors (NVT) triggered by teleseismic surface waves have been systematically observed in the Central Range in Taiwan recently. The discovery of NVT in Taiwan, as an arc-continental type collision environment, would provide us better understanding of critical conditions related to tremor occurrence and of the fault mechanics at the bottom of the seismogenic layer. Aiming to capture more NVT events, we have further installed two dense 36-element, small-aperture seismic arrays in the Liouguei and Lidao areas. Two arrays are respectively located about 20 km in southwest and northeast to the tremor sources reported at the southern Central Range of Taiwan. In each array, the short-period, vertical-channel GS-11D sensors with 4.5Hz natural frequency were laid out on the relatively flat parts of the mountain areas in a grid of approximately 100 by 80 meters. We had successfully recorded nine sets of continuous seismic data for totally 4034 hours among the first half year of 2011. Among those data, as we expected, the two arrays recorded clear tremors triggered by the great Tohoku earthquake (Mw=8.9) on 2011/03/11. Based on the beamforming results of the western and eastern arrays, the possible tremor sources come from N60E and just beneath it, respectively. Therefore, we believe the possible source of triggered tremors were nearby the Lidao area. Since the array analysis is able to significantly increase the level of tremor detection, we are examining other possible NVT events during the deployed period and the possible conditions related to NVT events, such as the passing seismic waves from other large regional earthquakes.

  15. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  16. Tectonic and climatic controls on fan systems: The Kohrud mountain belt, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stuart J.; Arzani, Nasser; Allen, Mark B.

    2014-04-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene fans of the Kohrud mountain belt (Central Iran) illustrate the problems of differentiating tectonic and climatic drivers for the sedimentary signatures of alluvial fan successions. It is widely recognised that tectonic processes create the topography that causes fan development. The existence and position of fans along the Kohrud mountain belt, NE of Esfahan, are controlled by faulting along the Qom-Zefreh fault system and associated fault zones. These faults display moderate amounts of historical and instrumental seismicity, and so may be considered to be tectonically active. However, fluvial systems on the fans are currently incising in response to low Gavkhoni playa lake levels since the mid-Holocene, producing incised gullies on the fans up to 30 m deep. These gullies expose an interdigitation of lake deposits (dominated by fine-grained silts and clays with evaporites) and coarse gravels that characterise the alluvial fan sediments. The boundaries of each facies are mostly sharp, with fan sediments superimposed on lake sediments with little to no evidence of reworking. In turn, anhydrite-glauberite, mirabilite and halite crusts drape over the gravels, recording a rapid return to still water, shallow ephemeral saline lake sedimentation. Neither transition can be explained by adjustment of the hinterland drainage system after tectonic uplift. The potential influence in Central Iran of enhanced monsoons, the northward drift of the Intertopical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Mediterranean climates for the early Holocene (~ 6-10 ka) point to episodic rainfall (during winter months) associated with discrete high magnitude floods on the fan surfaces. The fan sediments were deposited under the general influence of a highstand playa lake whose level was fluctuating in response to climate. This study demonstrates that although tectonism can induce fan development, it is the sensitive balance between aridity and humidity resulting from changes in

  17. Overview of efforts to expand the range of the Rocky Mountain population of trumpeter swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near extinction in 1900, by 1992 the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) contained +2200 swans. The foremost problem facing the...

  18. Quaternary folding in the south piedmont of central segment of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The Tianshan Mountains are an important active structural belt in the interior of Eurasia. By integrated methods of surface geology survey and interpretation of seismic profiles, we distinguish fold scarps located at the south limb of the Kuqatawu anticline and the north limb of the Dongqiulitag anticline in the Kuqa rejuvenation foreland thrust belt, south piedmont of central segment of the Tianshan Mountains. Fold scarp is a newly found structural phenomenon. Because of the bend of thrust plane and the movement of hanging wall above the thrust plane, the original horizontal deposits of hanging wall and their surface become a monocline structure, resulting from the separating and migration of the active and fixed axial surfaces. Measuring the geometry of fold scarp and using the data of age of the deformed deposits, the crustal shortening rate resulting from the deeply seated subsurface thrust is calculated. The crustal shortening rate reflected by the fold scarp located at the north limb of the Dngqiulitag anticline is (1±0.1) mm/a. The fold scarps of the Dongqiulitag anticline and the Kuqatawu anticline identify that the deformation process of the crustal compressive structures in the Kuqa area extends into the Late Quaternary.

  19. Peatlands in the Toledo Mountains (central Spain: characterisation and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. López-Sáez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We have limited knowledge about the biodiversity and vulnerability of peatlands in the lower-altitude mountains of the Iberian Peninsula, largely because peatlands have not been routinely differentiated from other habitat types in Spain. Understanding is now developing about the ecology of peatlands in central Spain, but they are already under severe threat of conversion and degradation. In this article we describe the results of a field survey and literature review study to characterise and describe the current condition of peatlands in the Toledo Mountains in terms of their typology, the representation of habitat types protected by European (EU designations, threats, endangered plant species, and conservation status. Our results suggest that the principal threats are overgrazing by domestic animals and ungulates (red deer and wild boar, fire, expansion of cereal crops, drying-out and erosion. Disturbance is most severe in areas that are not protected by nature conservation designations, where peatlands are especially vulnerable to damage arising from human activities.

  20. “Medieval Warm Period” on the northern slope of central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Kong, Zhao Chen; Yan, Shun; Yang, Zhen Jing; Ni, Jian

    2009-06-01

    “Medieval Warm Period” is used to describe a past climate epochs in Europe and neighboring regions from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries. In order to discuss the palaeoclimate changes during the MWP on the northern slope of central Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China, three Holocene sediment profiles in Daxigou region, Caotan Lake and Sichang Lake located in different elevations and vegetation zones were chosen for further discussion. A multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in these three profiles using pollen, phytolith records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size, and susceptibility showed that the climate was humid during the period corresponded in time with the MWP (from the middle of the Tang Dynasty to the middle of Yuan Dynasty). Complemented by tree-ring record, other pollen records, data of plant seeds and historical documents; we conclude that during the MWP the climate was humid on the north slopes of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang.

  1. Study of the Reed Dolomite Aided by Remotely Sensed Imagery, Central White-Inyo Range, Easternmost California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.; Paylor, Earnest D., II

    1996-01-01

    Remote-sensing methods are of great value in assessing the stratigraphy and geologic structure of inaccessible terrains, especially where lithologic contrasts are marked. In this report, we show that such techniques can be successfully applied to a massive carbonate unit, the Reed Dolomite, exposed in the Wacuoba Mountain, Blanco Mountain, and Mount Barcroft quadrangles of east-central California.

  2. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  3. Dynamics of erosion in a compressional mountain range revealed by 10Be paleoerosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, P.; Hoke, G. D.; Fosdick, J. C.; Wittmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of erosion over million-year timescales is key to understanding the evolution of mountain ranges and adjacent fold-and-thrust belts. While models of orogenic wedge evolution predict an instantaneous response of erosion to pulses of rock uplift, stream-power based landscape evolution models predict catchment-wide erosion maxima that lag behind a rock uplift pulse. Here, we explore the relationships between rock uplift, erosion, and sediment deposition in the Argentine Precordillera fold-and-thrust belt at 30°S where extensive previous work documents deformation, climate and sediment accumulation histories. Sandstone samples spanning 8.8 to 1.8 Ma were collected from the previously dated wedge-top (Iglesia) and foredeep basins (Bermejo) for quartz purification and 10Be extraction. 10Be concentrations due to burial and exhumation were estimated and subtracted from the measured concentrations and yielded the inherited 10Be concentrations, which were then corrected for sample magnetostratigraphic age. The inherited concentrations were then used to calculate paleoerosion rates. We modeled various pre-burial and post-burial exposure scenarios in order to assess potential sources of uncertainty in the recovered paleoerosion rates. The modeling results reveal that pre-burial and post-burial exposure periods only marginally affect our results. By combining the 10Be-derived paleoerosion rates and geomorphic observations with detrital zircon provenance, we document the isolation of the wedge-top basin, which was later reconnected by an upstream migrating pulse of erosion in a process that was directly controlled by thrust activity and base level. The data further indicate that the attainment of maximum upland erosion rates lags maximum rates of deformation and subsidence over million-year timescales. The magnitudes and causes of the erosional delays shed new light on the catchment erosional response to tectonic deformation and rock uplift in orogenic

  4. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  5. Sustainable yield of the Colle Quartara carbonate aquifer in the Southern Lepini Mountains (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Conte

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research is aimed to contribute to the groundwater resource sustainable management of a carbonate aquifer in a test area of the Lepini Mountains (Central Italy. This aquifer constitutes a major exploited groundwater body of central Apennines. At regional scale, the hydrogeological features of the Lepini hydrostructure are well known. The present study focuses on a portion of the Lepini Mountains where important tapping-works for drinking water supply are in activity (about 1.2 m3/s. New investigations were carried out including: meteo-climatic analysis, spring discharge and hydrometric time series processing, pumping test result interpretation. In addition, a detailed lithostratigraphical and structural survey of a portion of the Lepini hydrostructure at 1:10,000 scale was performed also examining the dense network of discontinuities affecting the carbonate aquifer. Extensional Plio-Pleistocene tectonic activity displaced the carbonate rock sequence under the Pontina Plain, where the carbonate aquifer is confined. The investigation results have allowed the reconstruction of the hydrogeological conceptual model of the studied portion of carbonate massif. Given the scale of the study and the results of the investigation, the carbonate aquifer can be treated as an equivalent porous medium, and the simplified numerical model of the aquifer was constructed with the code MODFLOW-2005. The numerical model, still now under continuous implementation, produced first results on the current withdrawal sustainability, allowing evaluation of possible alternative exploitation scenarios of the carbonate aquifer also considering the probably not significant flow exchanges with the Pontina Plain aquifer.

  6. Isotopic evidences of groundwater circulation in the Kaidu River, South Tianshan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, Yuting; Métivier, François; Chen, Yaning; He, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2015-04-01

    Water demand always exceeds supply in many parts of the world, especially in the arid and semi-arid regions. Groundwater is the primary input to hydrological systems like surface water bodies in polar and high mountain regions. A reasonable application of water isotopes requires a good understanding of the isotopic fractionation in processes controlling the isotopic composition of surface water and groundwater. Through the review of published papers, we find there is still scope for improving the understanding of groundwater isotopes: (1) quite few studies on groundwater circulation via kinetic fractionation of stable isotopes in the arid region of Central Asia; (2) several shortcomings on the quantitative assessment of water recycling for mountain-plain area. Tianshan Mountains, located in Xinjiang Province, is always called water tower in Central Asia and play an important role in the water cycle. In this paper, we implemented hydro-chemical index and Stable isotope mass balance method to study transformation of groundwater with surface water and to quantify recharge proportion between water bodies of typical regions. As a first step towards quantifying the contribution of groundwater, three-component mixing model of Kaidu River Basin into its constituent components has been done. Chemistry type of headstreams in this basin is mainly Ca-Mg-HCO3, while major ions and salinity of surface water show an increasing trend with the water rising time, which could be attributable to significant features of surface water evaporation and concentration. After that chemistry type of oasis-plain area in the basin is mainly Ca-HCO3-CO4. Groundwater recharge ratio was processed via spatial scale, it is only about 15% in upstream areas, while it accounted for 45% or more in the middle and lower reaches. Two groundwater recharge districts were divided according to the distribution characteristics of surface water. The first recharge district is from mountain area with spring

  7. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  8. A method for estimating white pine blister rust canker age on limber pine in the central Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly S. J. Kearns; William R. Jacobi; Brian W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of white pine blister rust on limber pine require a temporal component to explain variations in incidence of infection and mortality. Unfortunately, it is not known how long the pathogen has been present at various sites in the central Rocky Mountains of North America. Canker age, computed from canker length and average expansion rate, can be...

  9. Small-mammal abundance at three elevations on a mountain in central Vermont, USA: a sixteen-year record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brooks; Harvey R. Smith; William M. Healy

    1998-01-01

    As part of a study of forest resilience to gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation, small mammals were sampled with live (box) and pitfall traps for 16 years at three elevations on a mountain in west-central Vermont, USA. The more mesic, lowerslope location had the most diverse small-mammal community. White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were the most commonly...

  10. CUNEOSPIRELLA SAMNITICA N. GEN. N. SP. (FORAMINIFERIDA FROM THE SANTONIAN OF THE MATESE MOUNTAINS (MOLISE, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIETTA CHERCHI

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A new larger foraminifer, Cuneospirella samnitica n. gen., n. sp., from the Santonian of the Matese Mountains (central Italy is described. This taxon, characterized by an initial planispiral, a rectilinear adult stage and the subdivision of chambers by partitions, could be descended from a morphotype like  Spiroplectammina multicamerata Said & Kenawy, recorded in the upper Turonian of the Apennines (central Italy. 

  11. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ∼550 km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (∼20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations.

  12. The representatives of Gentianaceae L. family in the flora of the watershed mountain range in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віра Іванівна Буняк

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the ecological and biological peculiarities of Gentianaceae family representatives spreading in the Watershed mountain range phytocenosis. 8 species of Gentianaceae family, that belong to three genera, were found on the studied territory The botanical and morphological characteristics, phenological phases of rare species and their role in floristic diversity of the meadow associations are presented too. The studied species are the valuable herbs and decorative plants

  13. Holocene climate changes in the central Asia mountain region inferred from a peat sequence from the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Meyers, Philip A.; Liu, Xingtu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xuehui; Li, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Wen, Bolong

    2016-11-01

    A continuous peat sequence collected in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang Province, northwestern China, provides a new opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene climate history in the arid central mountain region of Asia. Based on AMS 14C dating, high resolution records of the humification degree and n-alkane distributions reveal that the region experienced a relatively warm and dry early Holocene (10.0-8.0 ka) and a cold and wet early mid-Holocene (8.0-6.3 ka), followed by a warm and dry mid-Holocene (6.3-5.5 ka). A shift to cold and wet conditions occurred between 5.5 and 4.0 ka, and then the climate entered into a warmer period from 4.0 to 2.5 ka. In the late Holocene (2.5-1.0 ka), the region experienced a colder and wetter climate. A gradual shift to warm and dry conditions occurred during the last 1.0 ky in this region. The regional climate patterns have been generally dominated by alternations of warm-dry and cold-wet episodes during the Holocene that were quite different from the warm-wet and cool-dry episodes in the Asian summer monsoon region. Regional comparisons indicate that the climate changes in arid central Asia have been mainly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) via the westerlies. However, owing to the mountainous character of the study areas, glacial meltwater, and other local factors, the climate changes in the Altai Mountains region have not always been concordant with variations of North Atlantic Ocean SSTs. We postulate that the history of moisture balance between regional precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, and evaporation has been modulated by air temperatures that were mainly influenced by changes in the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Modeling the Variability and Importance of Snow Sublimation in the North-Central Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexstone, G. A.; Clow, D. W.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Liston, G. E.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Knowles, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    In the western United States, where seasonal snowmelt is a critical water resource for ecological and anthropological needs, snow sublimation (sublimation) has been suggested by many studies to be an important component of the snow cover mass balance. However, few studies have evaluated the spatial and temporal variability of sublimation in complex mountainous environments. In this study, we use a process-based snow model (SnowModel) and eddy covariance (EC) measurements to evaluate the variability and importance of sublimation across the north-central Colorado Rocky Mountains for 5 water years (WY 2011 - WY 2015). In-situ EC observations of sublimation compare well with modeled sublimation at sites dominated by surface and canopy components of sublimation, but model verification of blowing sublimation in alpine areas was not feasible because these fluxes often occur when snow is in turbulent suspension, which cannot always be resolved by EC instrumentation. Model simulations showed substantial spatial and temporal variability of sublimation across the study domain. Sublimation rates were found to exhibit differences across landscape characteristics such as elevation and land cover. Land cover type was an important driver of snow sublimation variability, with substantial sublimation occurring in alpine and forested areas, and relatively lower sublimation occurring in open areas below treeline. Sublimation from forested areas accounted for the majority of modeled sublimation losses across the study domain and highlights the importance of sublimation from snow stored in the forest canopy in this region. Additionally, the interannual differences in total sublimation were strongly linked with seasonal snowfall amounts. Results from this study suggest that snow sublimation is a significant component of the winter water balance and have important implications for future water management and decision making.

  15. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in Central East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, and Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–287.6 μg m−3 and 17.2–235.7 μg m−3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of all samples were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.50 % and 72.65 % of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most of the pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  16. Between the high mountains and the deserts: reconstructing palaeoenvironments in the Arid Central Asian loess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Kathryn; Sprafke, Tobias; Deom, Jean-Marc; Sala, Renato; Nigmatova, Saida

    2017-04-01

    Central Asia lies at the arid core of the largest and most populous continent on Earth - Eurasia - and at the intersection between the major climatic drivers of the North Atlantic westerlies, the polar front and the Asian monsoon. It furthermore represents a global "hotspot" for future desertification, facing a potent combination of sensitive climate dynamics and intensive land use. However, we know little about the role of Central Asia in global climate dynamics past and present. This is largely because we have yet to realise the full potential of the widespread loess archives which extend across the semi-arid piedmonts to the north of the Asian high mountains, at the southern margins of the Silk Road deserts. These records have been largely overlooked by scientific investigation, despite correlations between the well-studied loess archives of Europe and China. In spite of its key position in the northern hemisphere climate circulation systems, the climatic history - and trajectory - of arid Central Asia remains largely unknown. Here we reconstruct palaeoenvironmental change over the last 40 ky from three sites in the loess foothills of the northern Tien Shan. Our emerging sedimentological, palaeopedological, geochemical and geochronological datasets suggest that aeolian deposition in this semi-arid region responds in a more complex way to climate than the classical sequences of the Chinese Loess Plateau and Danube basin. In arid Central Asia, landscapes appear to have responded not only to the cooler and warmer conditions of the glacial and interglacial periods respectively, but also to the availability of moisture. Variations in precipitation patterns may have been out of phase with the ice ages, and the impact of precipitation regime change may have been intensified by an extreme continental climate. Emerging data from the Central Asian loess suggest that past climates may not only have been subject to spatial migration, expansion and contraction of the major

  17. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytnerowicz, A; Godzik, B; Fraczek, W; Grodzińska, K; Krywult, M; Badea, O; Barancok, P; Blum, O; Cerny, M; Godzik, S; Mankovska, B; Manning, W; Moravcik, P; Musselman, R; Oszlanyi, J; Postelnicu, D; Szdźuj, J; Varsavova, M; Zota, M

    2002-01-01

    Ozone (O3) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations of O3, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Gubalówka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O3 concentrations in the Vychodna and Gubałówka sites reached 160 and 200 microg/m3 (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as microg/m3; and at 25 degrees C and 760 mm Hg, 1 microg O3/m3 = 0.51 ppb O3). These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal 03 distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon and lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-h period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O3 levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O3 levels with elevation occurred. Concentrations of O3 determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O3 concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O3 distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O3 on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the AOT40 indices for forest trees and natural vegetation. Concentrations of NO2 and SO2 in the entire Carpathian range were typical

  18. Distribution of ozone and other air pollutants in forests of the Carpathian Mountains in central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytnerowicz, A. [Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Godzik, B. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Institute of Botany; Frczek, W. [Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands (US)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations were monitored during the 1997-1999 growing seasons in 32 forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains. At all sites (elevation between 450 and 1320 m) concentrations f O{sub 3}, nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) were measured with passive samplers. In addition, in two western Carpathian locations, Vychodna and Guba Iowka, ozone was continuously monitored with ultraviolet (UV) absorption monitors. Highest average hourly O{sub 3} concentrations in the Vychodna and Guba Iowka sites reached 160 and 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (82 and 102 ppb), respectively (except for the AOT40 values, ozone concentrations are presented as {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and at 25{sup o}C and 760 mm Hg, 1 {mu}g O{sub 3} = 0.51 ppb O{sub 3}), These sites showed drastically different patterns of diurnal O{sub 3} distribution, one with clearly defined peaks in the afternoon with lowest values in the morning, the other with flat patterns during the entire 24-hr period. On two elevational transects, no effect of elevation on O{sub 3} levels was seen on the first one, while on the other a significant increase of O{sub 3} levels with elevation occurred, Concentrations of O{sub 3} determined with passive samplers were significantly different between individual monitoring years, monitoring periods, and geographic location of the monitoring sites. Results of passive sampler monitoring showed that high O{sub 3} concentrations could be expected in many parts of the Carpathian range, especially in its western part, but also in the eastern and southern ranges. More than four-fold denser network of monitoring sites is required for reliable estimates of O{sub 3} distribution in forests over the entire Carpathian range (140 points). Potential phytotoxic effects of O{sub 3} on forest trees and understory vegetation are expected on almost the entire territory of the Carpathian Mountains. This assumption is based on estimates of the A0T40 indices for forest trees and natural

  19. Vegetation and Climate Variations at Taibai, Qinling Mountains in Central China for the Last 3 500 cal BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qiang LI; John DODSON; Jie ZHOU; Su-Min WANG; Qian-Li SUN

    2005-01-01

    Pollen records of two swamp sections, located at Taibai Mountain, the highest peak in the Qinling Mountains of central China, show variations of vegetation and climate for the last 3 500 cal BP. The pollen assemblage at the Foyechi and Sanqingchi sections and the surface soil pollen allowed us to reconstruct a high-altitude vegetation history at Taibai Mountain for the first time. The data indicated that there was a cold-dry climate interval between 3 500 and 3 080 cal BP and a relatively warm and wet period compared with the present from 3 080 to 1 860 cal BP. The warmest period in the late Holocene on Taibai Mountain was from 1 430 to 730 cal BP, with an approximate 2℃ increase in mean annual temperature compared with today.There was a relatively cool-dry climate interval from 730 to 310 cal BP. After 310 cal BP, a mountain tundra vegetation developed again and the position of the modern tree line was established.

  20. Dinosaur tracks from the Jurassic Shemshak Group in the Central Alborz Mountains (Northern Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbassi, Nasrollah; Madanipour, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    The Shemshak Group includes alternating layers of coal-bearing shale and siliciclastic sediments in the Baladeh area in the central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. A diverse and abundant Jurassic dinosaur footprint assemblage is now recognized in the group, which is Toarcian to Bajocian in age in the northern Baladeh. This is the first report of a diverse dinosaur ichnoassemblage from Iran that includes the footprints of sauropods. These tracks can be assigned to three groups of trackmakers: theropods, ornithopods and sauropods. Those of theropods are typically tridactyl in shape, their trackways reflecting bipedal movement. Theropod footprints are very abundant in both northern and western Baladeh. The studied theropod tracks themselves are divided into three major dimensional groups. The medium sized footprints (footprint length, 11-15 cm) are abundant and have a stride length, digit and pace angles like the coelurosaurs footprints and trackway. Theropod footprints were identified as similar to Schizograllator otariensis, Talmontopus tersi and Wildeichnus isp. Ornithopod footprints are tridactyl with rounded and thick toes and belong to bipeds. Some didactyl imprints were also observed. Skin imprints were well preserved in these footprints. The ornithopod tracks resemble Jiayinosorupus johnsoni, as well as Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis for didactyl footprints. Sauropod footprints found in the western part of Baladeh are assigned here to Eosauropus isp., which are pentadactyl pes imprints of a quadruped. The assemblage from Iran resembles similar associations from eastern Asia.

  1. Depositional setting and paleobotany of Permian and Triassic permineralized peat from the central Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.L.; Taylor, T.N.; Collinson, J.W. (Ohio State University, Columbus (USA). Byrd Polar Research Center)

    1989-06-01

    Silicified peat is known from two sites in the central Transantarctic Mountains. Both are within a 2-km-thick Permo-Triassic sandstone-shale sequence that was deposited by braided streams in a rapidly subsiding foreland basin along the paleo-Pacific margin of Antarctica. Upper Permian permineralized peat occurs as scattered boulders just above a channel-form sandstone in the upper part of the Buckley Formation on Skaar Ridge overlooking the Beardmore Glacier. These boulders are erosional remnants of fine-grained deposits that accumulated in shallow lakes or swamps on a flood plain. At Fremouw Peak, the peat occurs near the top of the Fremouw Formation in strata that are probably Middle to Late Triassic in age. The peat consists of large blocks that were rafted into a sandy braided stream channel during a flood and then stranded and buried as flood waters receded. Both sites are characterized by exceptionally well-preserved plant material, although the composition and diversity of the two floras are very different. Permineralization apparently took place rapidly and was enhanced by the dissolution of siliceous volcanic detritus that is abundant in both formations.

  2. Geochemistry of middle Tertiary volcanic rocks in the northern Aquarius Mountains, west-central Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, A.M.; Haxel, G.B.

    1993-04-01

    The northern Aquarius Mountains volcanic field ([approximately]50km east of Kingman) covers an area of 400 km[sup 2], bounded by upper Trout Creek (S), the Truxton Valley (N), the Big Sandy Valley (W), and Cross Mountain (E). The volcanic sequence rests upon a pre-middle Eocene erosional surface. The lowest units is a 250 m-thick unit of rhyolitic pyroclastic breccias and airfall tuffs. Successively younger units are: basanite flows and cinder cones; hornblende latite flows and domes; porphyritic dacite flows, domes, and breccias; alkali basalt intrusions; and low-silica rhyolite domes and small high=silica rhyolite flows. Dacite is volumetrically dominant, and erupted primarily from vents in and around Cedar Basin (Penitentiary Mtn 7.5[prime] quad.). Other geologists have obtained K-Ar dates [approximately]24--20 Ma for the basanites and latites. The alkali basalts, latites, dacites, and rhyolites evidently constitute a genetically-related high-K to shoshonitic calcalkaline suite with chemistry typical of subduction-related magmatism: enrichment in LILE and LREE, and depletion of Nb and Ta relative to K and La and of Ti relative to Hf and Yb. Each rock type is unique and distinguishable in K/Rb and Rb/Sr. The basanites are primitive (mg=0.75--0.78), have intraplate affinities (La/Nb[<=]1), and show consistent and distinctive depletion of K relative to the other LILE. The presence of these basanites in an early Miocene volcanic sequence is unusual or unexpected, as they predate (by [approximately]10 m.y.) the regional eruption of asthenosphere-derived basalts associated with Basin-and-Range extension.

  3. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  4. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  5. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  6. Spatial variability of recent glacier area changes in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, using Corona (~ 1970), Landsat (~ 2000), and ALOS (~ 2007) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Kääb, Andreas; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2010-03-01

    Geographic variability of the recent changes of glacier coverage in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia, is assessed using Corona KH-4B satellite photographs for 1968-1971, Landsat 7 ETM+data for 1999-2002, and ALOS/PRISM and AVNIR data for 2006-2008. The four mountain regions investigated (Pskem, Ili-Kungöy, At-Bashy, and SE-Fergana) cover several distributed glacierized areas in the Tien Shan Mountain system, a region that is affected by highly variable local precipitation regimes. Over the 30 years investigated between ~ 1970 and ~ 2000, glacier area decreased by 19% in the Pskem region, 12% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 12% in the At-Bashy region, and 9% in the SE-Fergana region. In the last 7 years (~ 2000 to ~ 2007), glacier area shrank by 5% in the Pskem region, 4% in the Ili-Kungöy region, 4% in the At-Bashy region, and 0% in the SE-Fergana region. Glacier behavior has varied markedly in these regions. The most dramatic glacier shrinkage has occurred in the outer ranges of the Tien Shan Mountains. Recent glacier area loss has resulted from rising summer temperatures. Regional differences of glacier-area changes related to local climate conditions, to the altitudinal distribution of glacier areas, and to the relative proportion of glaciers in different size classes. The observed accelerated glacier shrinkage is expected to have two impacts on the more populated outer ranges: 1) water shortages during summer and 2) increased threat from glacier hazards such as glacier lake outburst floods (GLOFs) and ice avalanches.

  7. Annotated bibliography of the hydrology, geology, and geothermal resources of the Jemez Mountains and vicinity, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyta, Cynthia G.; Delaney, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Jemez Mountains volcanic complex, located in north-central New Mexico at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and Jemez lineament, is a potential location for geothermal energy exploration. This bibliography lists selected papers pertaining to the geology, hydrology, geochemistry, geothermometry, geophysics, ecology, and geothermal and hydrologic modeling aspects of the Jemez region. The bibliography is composed of 795 citations with annotations and a subject and author index. (USGS)

  8. Geomorphological map of glaciated gorges in a granitic massif (Gredos range, Central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Néstor; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    A detailed geomorphological map on a 1:10,000 scale is presented for a high mountain area in Gredos range (Iberian Central System), this area is located in a granitic massif 160 km West of Madrid and comprises three gorges : La Vega, Taheña-Honda and La Nava. Only few detailed geomorphological maps of the Gredos range are available despite the wide diversity of landforms, in order to improve the understanding of this zone, this geomorphological map of the area has been produced, showing in detail the geomorphologic diversity of these gorges. The map was created with the aid of 25 cm resolution aerial photographs, 25 cm resolution satellite images, Iberpix 3D images provided by the Spanish National Geographic Institute and verified with field work. The landforms were delimitated with a stereoscope and satellite image pairs and digitized using GIS and CAD software, in some areas 3D glasses has been used with 3D images and the software Esri ArcScene. The landforms resulting from interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images were classified using the IGUL (Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne) legend system (developed at the end of the 1980s) combined with the legend proposed by Peña et al. (1997) and some personal adaptations. The map legend includes 45 landforms divided into seven sections: structural, hydrography, fluvial, gravitative, glacial, nival and anthropic landforms. The use of both legend systems allows us to represent the landform types distributed over an area of 40 km2 and to identify the geomorphic processes involved in their morphogenesis, this variety of processes and landforms identified demonstrated that geomorphological cartography obtained by combining traditional image interpretation and GIS technology facilitates the production of geomorphological maps and the obtaining of valuable data for identify and understand surface processes and landforms. References: Maillard, B., Lambiel, C., Martin, S., Pellitero, R., Reynard, E

  9. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bergdahl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft, 44.0675°/-115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft, 46.5528°/-115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of P. bousqueti and P. lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho.

  10. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, James C; Kavanaugh, David H

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho.

  11. Estimating the age of rock glaciers from weathering rind thickness in the yari-hotaka mountain range, northern japanese alps

    OpenAIRE

    AOYAMA, Masafumi

    2001-01-01

    Formative periods of rock glaciers distributed in the Yari-Hotaka Mountain Range, northern Japanese Alps, were estimated from weathering rind thickness. The results suggest that the age of rock glaciers in the Minamisawa-Kita cirque and the most headward of the Tenguppara cirque is between the age of Early Yarisawa Stage II moraines and the Late Yarisawa Stage II moraines, and the age of rock glaciers in the northern part of the Tenguppara cirque and Ohkiretto cirque is same or younger than t...

  12. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    The potential for economic development of energy-related or metallic mineral resources in the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas is low to moderate as indicated by geologic, geophysical, and geochemical investigations.

  13. MICROMORPHOLOGY AND PEDOGENESIS OF MOUNTAINOUS INCEPTISOLS IN THE MANTIQUEIRA RANGE (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Campos Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTUnderstanding soil formation processes across different landscapes is needed to predict how soil properties will respond to land use change. This study aimed to characterize mountainous Inceptisols (Cambisols under high altitude subtropical climate in southeastern Brazil, by soil physical, chemical and micromorphological analyses, under native forest and pasture. The soil under pasture had a greater bulk density than under forest, resulting in a severe reduction of macroporosity. At two depths, coarse quartz grains are angular, suggesting absence of transportational processes, thus confirming an autochthonous pedogenesis from the underlying gneissic rock. Most feldspars were weathered beyond recognition, but mineral alteration was commonly seen across cleavage plans and edges of micas. The micromorphological results suggest an intermediate stage of mineral weathering and soil development, which is in accordance with properties expected to be found in Inceptisols.

  14. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks.

  15. Potential influence of wildfire in modulating climate-induced forest redistribution in a central Rocky Mountain landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John L.; Shinneman, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    IntroductionClimate change is expected to impose significant tension on the geographic distribution of tree species. Yet, tree species range shifts may be delayed by their long life spans, capacity to withstand long periods of physiological stress, and dispersal limitations. Wildfire could theoretically break this biological inertia by killing forest canopies and facilitating species redistribution under changing climate. We investigated the capacity of wildfire to modulate climate-induced tree redistribution across a montane landscape in the central Rocky Mountains under three climate scenarios (contemporary and two warmer future climates) and three wildfire scenarios (representing historical, suppressed, and future fire regimes).MethodsDistributions of four common tree species were projected over 90 years by pairing a climate niche model with a forest landscape simulation model that simulates species dispersal, establishment, and mortality under alternative disturbance regimes and climate scenarios.ResultsThree species (Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, subalpine fir) declined in abundance over time, due to climate-driven contraction in area suitable for establishment, while one species (ponderosa pine) was unable to exploit climate-driven expansion of area suitable for establishment. Increased fire frequency accelerated declines in area occupied by Douglas-fir, lodgepole pine, and subalpine fir, and it maintained local abundance but not range expansion of ponderosa pine.ConclusionsWildfire may play a larger role in eliminating these conifer species along trailing edges of their distributions than facilitating establishment along leading edges, in part due to dispersal limitations and interspecific competition, and future populations may increasingly depend on persistence in locations unfavorable for their establishment.

  16. Reconstruction of the glacial maximum recorded in the central Cantabrian Mountains (N Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2014-05-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal range up to 2648 m altitude trending parallel to northern Iberian Peninsula edge at a maximum distance of 100 km inland (~43oN 5oW). Glacial sediments and landforms are generally well-preserved at altitudes higher than 1600 m, evidencing the occurrence of former glaciations. Previous research supports a regional glacial maximum prior to ca 38 cal ka BP and an advanced state of deglaciation by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., 2013). A geomorphological database has been produced in ArcGIS (1:25,000 scale) for an area about 800 km2 that partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A reconstruction of the ice extent and flow pattern of the former glaciers is presented for this area, showing that an ice field was developed on the study area during the local glacial maximum. The maximum length of the ice tongues that drained this icefield was remarkably asymmetric between both slopes, recording 1 to 6 km-long in the northern slope and up to 19 km-long in southern one. The altitude difference between the glacier fronts of both mountain slopes was ca 100 m. This asymmetric character of the ice tongues is related to geologic and topo-climatic factors. Jiménez-Sánchez, M., Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L., García-Ruiz, J.M., Domínguez-Cuesta, M.J., Farias, P., Valero-Garcés, B., Moreno, A., Rico, M., Valcárcel, M., 2013. A review of glacial geomorphology and chronology in northern Spain: timing and regional variability during the last glacial cycle. Geomorphology 196, 50-64. Research funded by the CANDELA project (MINECO-CGL2012-31938). L. Rodríguez-Rodríguez is a PhD student with a grant from the Spanish national FPU Program (MECD).

  17. Geomorphic and Fish Genetics Constraints on Late Cenozoic Long Wavelength Topographic Evolution of the Hangay Mountains, Central Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, K. W.; Tamra, M.; Sabaj Pérez, M.; Lopresti, M.; Cole, M. B.; Gosse, J. C.; Smith, S. G.; Bayasgalan, G.; Ancuta, L. D.; McDannell, K. T.; Gallen, S. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hangay Mountains stand 1.5 - 2 km above adjacent lowlands and the timing and cause of their high elevation is debated. As part of a broad collaborative project, we synthesize several data sets that collectively suggest the Hangay increased in elevation during the mid-to-late Miocene, while topographic relief, one metric commonly associated with active mountain ranges, remained largely unchanged. The topographic crest of the Hangay forms the drainage divide between the Selenga River and internal drainage of the Mongolian Depression of Lakes (MDL) and northern Gobi. Synthetic drainage divides for the Hangay were created by filtering digital topography in the spectral domain (50 - 200 km wavelengths) using a 2D-FFT function. The co-location of the synthetic and modern divides suggests that the Hangay divide is in a stable, equilibrium configuration. This assumption is corroborated by chi-maps of steady-state river channel elevations that exhibit nearly equal values across water divides. An exception to both of these metrics occurs in the northwest Hangay where the Bulnay fault crosses a low divide between the western Selenga basin and the MDL. Recent basalt vesicle paleoaltimetry results allow for ~1 km of surface uplift of the central Hangay in the past ~ 10 Ma. These same basalt flows in-filled late Miocene valleys cut into basement with a minimum of 800 m of local relief; similar to the amount of modern, post-glacial relief along the drainage divide. mtDNA analyses from > 250 combined Stone Loaches (Barbatula), Grayling (Thymallus), and Eurasian Dace (Leuciscus) samples from both sides of the continental drainage divide are supportive of Miocene surface uplift. Molecular genetic differences between the loach populations across the divide suggest that they separated from a common ancestor between 20 and 11 Ma. This date is consistent with the timing of surface uplift and valley incision preserved in the Miocene basalt flows. The dace and grayling populations on

  18. Trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in Central Europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Lidia; Strakowska, Judyta; Chełkowski, Jerzy; Gąbka-Buszek, Agnieszka; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of Trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the Gorce Mountains (location A), Karkonosze Mountains (location B) and Tatra Mountains (location C) in Central Europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. The present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: Trichoderma atroviride P. Karst., Trichoderma citrinoviride Bissett, Trichoderma cremeum P. Chaverri & Samuels, Trichoderma gamsii Samuels & Druzhin., Trichoderma harzianum complex, Trichoderma koningii Oudem., Trichoderma koningiopsis Samuels, C. Suárez & H.C. Evans, Trichoderma longibrachiatum Rifai, Trichoderma longipile Bissett, Trichoderma sp. (Hypocrea parapilulifera B.S. Lu, Druzhin. & Samuels), Trichoderma viride Schumach. and Trichoderma viridescens complex. Among them, T. viride was observed as the most abundant species (53 % of all isolates) in all the investigated locations. The Shannon's biodiversity index (H), evenness (E), and the Simpson's biodiversity index (D) calculations for each location showed that the highest species diversity and evenness were recorded for location A-Gorce Mountains (H' = 1.71, E = 0.82, D = 0.79). The preliminary screening of 119 Trichoderma strains for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity showed the real potential of all Trichoderma species originating from wood with decay symptoms to produce cellulases and xylanases-the key enzymes in plant cell wall degradation.

  19. Improved Lg attenuations maps in the central U.S.-Rocky Mountain transition zone: New insight from induced seismicity in Oklahoma, Kansas, and the Raton Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelHameid, D.; Levandowski, W. B.; Boyd, O. S.; McNamara, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    Regional-scale differences in seismic attenuation exist across the continental United States, and it is well established that attenuation of Lg-phase waves is greater west of the Rocky Mountains than east of the Rocky Mountains. Yet there is less clarity in defining the transition in attenuation, as few near-field strong motion observations have been available in the central United States. A recent abundance of induced earthquakes in Oklahoma, southern Kansas, and the Raton Basin have provided unprecedented coverage. Utilizing Lg-phase waves recorded at regional distances (200-1500 km) at 300 seismic stations from Oklahoma to central Nevada, we compute the path-averaged apparent Q, source terms, and local amplification factors at one-octave frequency bands centered at 0.75, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, and 12.0 Hz. Amplification correlates better with km-scale topographic relief than local slope on the Great Plains and Gulf Coast, and is generally greater east of the Rocky Mountain Front than west. We do not observe any difference between magnitude-source term scaling for induced events and for natural seismicity, suggesting that either source term is not a proxy for stress drop or that the stress drops of induced events are not lower than for natural events. Subsequently subdividing the study area into distinct physiographic regions, we quantify the average path-averaged Q in the Basin and Range, Colorado Plateau, Rocky Mountains, Gulf Coast, and Great Plains. As in previous work, we find roughly 50-100% greater Q in the Plains and Plateau than in the Rockies and Basin and Range. Preliminary 2-D tomography delineates a sharp (100-200 km-wide) boundary between adjacent Q-provinces. Our refined Q(f) model supplements the attenuation component of the USGS National Crustal Model and provides improved ground motion characterization in the USGS National Seismic Hazard map, particularly in the central United States in which shaking from induced seismicity is of increasing concern.

  20. Four New Species of Nepenthes L. (Nepenthaceae from the Central Mountains of Mindanao, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gronemeyer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Together with the islands of Sumatra (Indonesia and Borneo (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines are the main center of diversity for carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus, Nepenthes L. Nepenthes are the largest of all carnivorous plants, and the species with the biggest pitchers are capable of trapping and digesting small amphibians and even mammals. The central cordillera of Mindanao Island in the south of the Philippines is mostly covered with old, primary forest and is the largest remaining cohesive, untouched area of wilderness in the Philippines. In a recent field exploration of two areas of the central cordillera, namely Mount Sumagaya and a section of the Pantaron range, four new taxa of Nepenthes were discovered. These four remarkable new species, N. pantaronensis, N. cornuta, N. talaandig and N. amabilis, are described, illustrated and assessed.

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites of Howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) inhabiting the fragmented landscape of the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino, Carolina; Rico-Hernández, Guillermo; Mandujano, Salvador

    2010-06-01

    In recent years populations of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) in southeastern Mexico have decreased substantially due to the transformation and loss of natural habitats. This is especially evident in the Santa Marta mountain range, Veracruz, Mexico where several studies have evaluated the impact of fragmentation on howler monkey populations in order to propose management programs for their conservation. The conditions generated by fragmentation likely change the rates of parasitic infection and could decrease howler survival. In this study, gastrointestinal parasite species richness, prevalence, and egg density of infection were determined in howler groups inhabiting five forest fragments at the Santa Marta mountain range. Two hundred and seventy-eight fresh fecal samples were collected between October 2002 and April 2003. Three parasite species were found during the dry and the wet season in all forest fragments sampled: one unidentified species of Eimeriidae; Trypanoxyuris minutus (Oxyuridae); and Controrchis biliophilus (Dicrocoeliidae). Both the prevalence of T. minutus and infection density for all parasites differed between seasons and fragments (the largest fragment consistently differed from other fragments). Host density, distance to the nearest town, fragment size, fragment shape, and total basal area of food trees explained parasite prevalence, but each species had a different pattern. Although parasite richness was lower, prevalence and density were higher than values reported for howlers in conserved forests. These results suggest that the establishment of biological corridors and animal translocation programs must take into account the parasite ecology of each fragment to avoid higher infection rates and preclude potential consequent mortality.

  2. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  3. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  4. An empirical law for wavelet maxima interpretation of potential fields: Application to the Uinta Mountains range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier, Paul; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza; Poprawski, Yohann; Inggs, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Wavelet methods have been used in potential fields study to estimate source properties such as depth or structural index, through the analysis of Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Lines (WTMML) intersections and slopes at high scales. Little has been done on the study of maximum points of the wavelet diagram, that we call here Maximum Wavelet Coefficient Scales (MWCS). Previous works have shown interesting correlations between MWCS and source depths, depending on the wavelet used in regards to the source nature and the data derivative order. In this paper, we introduce an empirical law involving spectral parameters that have not been studied so far, which allows analytical calculation of the MWCS, knowing the source characteristics and using certain wavelets. In return, the study of MWCS allows recovering source characteristics from the use of a single wavelet, without prior knowledge on the source. We demonstrate through synthetic models that the new capability of predicting the source type and depth according to the wavelet coefficient behaviour allows new ways of potential fields' sources characterization and identification. We show an application of the formula on a real case example in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA).

  5. Differentiation of flea communities infesting small mammals across selected habitats of the Baltic coast, central lowlands, and southern mountains of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Krzysztof; Eichert, Urszula; Bogdziewicz, Michał; Rychlik, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Only a few studies comparing flea composition on the coast and in the mountains have been conducted. We investigated differences in flea communities infesting small mammals in selected habitats in northern, central, and southern Poland. We predicted (1) a greater number of flea species in the southeastern Poland and a lower number in the north, (2) a greater number of flea species in fertile and wet habitats than in poor and arid habitats, and (3) a low similarity of flea species between flea communities in western and eastern Poland. We found a negative effect of increasing latitude on flea species richness. We suppose that the mountains providing a variety of environments and the limits of the geographic ranges of several flea subspecies in southeastern Poland result in a higher number of flea species. There was a positive effect of increasing wetness of habitat on flea species richness. We found a high diversity in flea species composition between western and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 11) and between central and eastern Poland (beta diversity = 12). Re-colonization of Poland by small mammals and their ectoparasites from different (western and eastern) refugees can affect on this high diversity of flea species.

  6. Notes on autumn-winter stomach contents of the Stone Marten (Martes foina in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumi Hisano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied autumn-winter food (November-February, 1997-2003 of the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains, Central Bulgaria. A total of 26 stomachs (18 of males and eight of females were examined, of which contents was expressed as the number of occurrence and relative frequency of occurrence. The result clearly showed that rodents are primary prey for the Stone Marten. Birds and insects were the following categories consumed. The edible dormouse was detected as a prey for the first time in Bulgaria. Besides, wild ungulates and domestic animals were occasionally scavenged, while neither fruits nor artificial materials were detected in the marten stomachs. Thus, our study showed that the Stone Marten in the Balkan Mountains tended to be more carnivorous in winter.

  7. Simulation of heavy, long-term rainfall over low mountain ranges; Simulation von Starkniederschlaegen mit langer Andauer ueber Mittelgebirgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, M.

    2003-03-01

    A diagnostic model for the estimation of orographic precipitation during large-scale upslide motions is presented. It is based on linear theory for 3-D mountain overflow. From the simulated vertical velocities rain intensities at the ground are calculated using a model for precipitation formation. Due to the small number of free parameters and because of the simple initialisation method, e.g. with single radiosonde data, the model is used for regionalisation of precipitation from rain gauge observations as well as for deriving its statistics under dynamical constraints. For Southwest Germany and Eastern France, with the low mountain ranges of the Vosges, Black Forest and Swabian Alb, model simulations are performed for individual events with heavy rainfall. Thereby it is evaluated, how realistic rainfall patterns can be obtained with a combination of model simulations and measurement data. Mean rainfall distributions are derived from simulations of all extreme events with 24-h totals over 60 mm at selected rain gauge stations between 1971 and 2000. Furthermore the calculation of rain sums for different return periods is performed using extreme value statistics. So it is possible to quantify the hazard potential of heavy rainfall, which may cause flooding or landslides, in high spatial resolution (2.5 x 2.5 km). (orig.)

  8. Mesoproterozoic Continental Arc Type Granite in the Central Tianshan Mountains: Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb Dating and Geochemical Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tiannan; LI Jinyi; SUN Guihua; WANG Yanbin

    2008-01-01

    The Central Tianshan belt in northwestern China is a small Precambrian block located in the southern part of the Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which is considered as "the most voluminous block of young continental crust in the world" that comprises numerous small continental blocks separated by Paleozoic magmatic arcs. The Precambrian basement of the central Tianshan Mountains is composed of volcanic rocks and associated volcano-sedimentary rocks that were intruded by granitic plutons. Geochemical analyses demonstrate that the granitic plutons and volcanic rocks were generated in the Andean-type active continental arc environment like today's Chile, and the zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating indicates that they were developed at about 956 Ma, possibly corresponding to the subduction of the inferred Mozambique Ocean under the Baltic-African super-continent.

  9. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (< 2% TC). Calcite dominated sediments are only present in the topmost 15 cm. Grasses and wormword are dominating throughout the sequence, probably reflecting the main constituents of the regional vegetation. Cattail (Typha/Sparganium) and especially milfoil (Myriophyllum) are recorded abundantly and continuously throughout the sequence. In combination with green algae like Pediastrum the first pollen

  10. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees. Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in diameter, are up to six times more abundant, in percentage of total weight, in transports caused by heavy rainfalls than in the material collected after snowmelt flows. In its turn, bed load mobilized by snowmelt flows is mainly composed by medium and fine gravel, from 2 to 8 mm. These may amount up to 60 % of total weight of bed load. The reasons for these so different size distributions are discussed.

    [es] En una cuenca de alta montaña localizada en el alto valle del río Gallego (Pirineo central se comparan las distribuciones por tamaños de los acarreos movilizados por diferentes tipos de caudal. Tres tipos de eventos hidrológicos han podido ser caracterizados: los ocasionados por intensas lluvias de otoño, los originados por tormentas estivales aisladas y los producidos por la fusión de la nieve acumulada durante el invierno. Se concluye que cada uno de ellos lleva asociada una distribución por tamaños típica de la carga de fondo. Así, se ha comprobado que las fracciones más gruesas consideradas -superiores a los 30 mm de diámetro- son hasta seis veces más abundantes -en porcentaje sobre el peso total- en las exportaciones causadas por lluvias de gran intensidad que en las generadas por caudales de fusión. A su vez, las descargas ocasionadas por la fusión arrastran principalmente gravas de calibre medio y fino -entre 2y8 mm- que llegan a suponer el 60 % en peso del volumen movilizado. Este artículo discute las razones que provocan

  11. An evaluation of seven methods for controlling mountain laurel thickets in the mixed-oak forests of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose

    2017-01-01

    In the Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America, mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) thickets in mixed-oak (Quercus spp.) stands can lead to hazardous fuel situations, forest regeneration problems, and possible forest health concerns. Therefore, land managers need techniques to control mountain laurel thickets and limit...

  12. THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LAKE WETLANDS IN THE CENTRAL GROUP OF THE EAST CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the lake wetlands in the Central Group of the East Carpathian Mountains, we have chosen 6 anthropic lakes and 3 natural ones. The lake wetlands develop mainly in the area upstream the lake tail, at the outlet of the main watercourses. The most developed wetland areas can be found in Roşu Lake, at the mouth of the rivulets Licaş and Suhard, and in the area of Crucii Lake, appeared recently following a landslide. The dominant herbaceous vegetation is made up of bulrush, reeds and wetlands lawns, while the tree vegetation is made up of alders, willows and poplars.

  13. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  14. Elevation-dependent temperature trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: changes over a 56- and 20-year record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R McGuire

    Full Text Available Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953-2008 and a shorter 20-year (1989-2008 record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data

  15. Cloud forest restoration for erosion control in a Kichwa community of the Ecuadorian central Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, L.; Giordanengo, J.; Sacatoro, I.

    2013-12-01

    The Denver Professional Chapter of Engineers Without Borders (EWB) has begun conducting erosion control projects in the Kichwa communities of Malingua Pamba in the Andes Mountains south of Quito, Ecuador. In many high elevation areas in this region, erosion of volcanic soils on steep hillsides (i.e., teach these skills to adjacent villages.

  16. An attempt to restore a central European species-rich mountain grassland through grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejkova, [No Value; van Diggelen, R; Prach, K

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of re-establishing seasonal cattle grazing by 0.7 animal.ha(-1) on vegetation in a long-term abandoned, and partly degraded, semi-natural mountain pasture in the Sumava National Park, Czech Republic. There was very uneven grazing intensity inside the locality, and gr

  17. Cryogenic cave carbonates from the Cold Wind Cave, Nízke Tatry Mountains, Slovakia: Extending the age range of cryogenic cave carbonate formation to the Saalian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak K.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold Wind Cave, located at elevations ranging between 1,600 and 1,700 m a. s. l. in the main range of the Nízke Tatry Mountains(Slovakia, is linked in origin with the adjacent Dead Bats Cave. Together, these caves form a major cave system located within anarrow tectonic slice of Triassic sediments. Both caves have undergone complex multiphase development. A system of sub-horizontalcave levels characterized by large, tunnel-like corridors was formed during the Tertiary, when elevation differences surroundingthe cave were less pronounced than today. The central part of the Nízke Tatry Mountains, together with the cave systems, wasuplifted during the Neogene and Lower Pleistocene, which changed the drainage pattern of the area completely. The formation ofnumerous steep-sloped vadose channels and widespread cave roof frost shattering characterized cave development throughout theQuaternary.In the Cold Wind Cave, extensive accumulations of loose, morphologically variable crystal aggregates of secondary cave carbonateranging in size between less than 1 mm to about 35 mm was found on the surface of fallen limestone blocks. Based on the C andO stable isotope compositions of the carbonate (δ13C: 0.72 to 6.34 ‰, δ18O: –22.61 to –13.68 ‰ V-PDB and the negative relationbetween δ13C and δ18O, the carbonate crystal aggregates are interpreted as being cryogenic cave carbonate (CCC. Publishedmodels suggest the formation of CCC in slowly freezing water pools, probably on the surface of cave ice, most probably duringtransitions from stadials to interstadials. Though the formation of these carbonates is likely one of the youngest events in thesequence of formation of cave sediments of the studied caves, the 230Th/234U ages of three samples (79.7±2.3, 104.0±2.9, and180.0±6.3 ka are the oldest so far obtained for CCC in Central Europe. This is the first description of CCC formation in one caveduring two glacial periods (Saalian and Weichselian.

  18. Plan of study to define hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone in the east mountain area of central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The east mountain area of central New Mexico includes the eastern one-third of Bernalillo County and portions of Sandoval, Santa Fe, and Torrance Counties. The area covers about 320 square miles. The Madera Limestone, the principal aquifer in the east mountain area, is the sole source of water for domestic, municipal, industrial, and agricultural uses for many residents. Some water is imported from wells near Edgewood by the Entranosa Water Cooperative, which serves a population of approximately 3,300. The remaining population is served by small water systems that derive supplies locally or by individually owned domestic wells. The population of the east mountain area has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. In 1970, the population of the east mountain area was about 4,000. Demographic projections suggest that approximately 1,000 people per year are moving into the area, and with a growth rate of 3.0 percent the population will be 16,700 in 2000. Consequently, ground-water withdrawals have increased substantially over the past 20 years, and will continue to increase. Little is known about the flow characteristics and hydrogeologic properties of the Madera Limestone. This report describes existing information about the geologic and hydrologic framework and flow characteristics of the Madera Limestone, and presents a plan of study for data-collection activities and interpretive studies that could be conducted to better define the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Madera Limestone. Data-collection activities and interpretive studies related to the hydrogeologic components of the Madera Limestone are prioritized. Activities that are necessary to improve the quantification of a component are prioritized as essential. Activities that could add additional understanding of a component, but would not be necessary to improve the quantification of a component, are prioritized as useful.

  19. Spatial-temporal variation of near-surface temperature lapse rates over the Tianshan Mountains, central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan-Jun; Shen, Yanjun; Goetz, Jason; Brenning, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    Adequate estimates of near-surface temperature lapse rate (γlocal) are needed to represent air temperature in remote mountain regions with sparse instrumental records such as the mountains of central Asia. To identify the spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in the Tianshan Mountains, long-term (1961-2011) daily maximum, mean, and minimum temperature (Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin) data from 17 weather stations and 1 year of temperature logger data were analyzed considering three subregions: northern slopes, Kaidu Basin, and southern slopes. Simple linear regression was performed to identify relationships between elevation and temperature, revealing spatial and seasonal variations in γlocal. The γlocal are higher on the southern slopes than the northern slopes due to topography and regional climate conditions. Seasonally, γlocal are more pronounced higher in the summer than in the winter months. The γlocal are generally higher for Tmax than Tmean and Tmin. The Kaidu Basin shows similar seasonal variability but with the highest γlocal for Tmean and Tmin occurring in the spring. Formation of γlocal patterns is associated with the interactions of climate factors in different subregions. Overall, annual mean γlocal for Tmax, Tmean, and Tmin in the study's subregions are lower than the standard atmospheric lapse rate (6.5°C km-1), which would therefore be an inadequate choice for representing the near-surface temperature conditions in this area. Our findings highlight the importance of spatial and temporal variations of γlocal in hydrometeorological research in the data-sparse Tianshan Mountains.

  20. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  1. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Vicente

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.25 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover ($C$ factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and

  2. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Vicente

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.04 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover (C factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and maximum rainfall intensity (6.0 mm h−1

  3. Structural Analysis of Serpentinite in the Jikkoku Pass Area, Northwestern Kanto Mountains, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirauchi, K.; Hisada, K.

    2004-12-01

    Serpentinite is a product made by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic rocks such as peridotite. It has been understood that serpentinite along a fault or a plate boundary plays a role as a lubricant for rheological properties. However, it is unknown how serpentinite actually acts through its deformation processes. The study area is located on the Jikkoku Pass area, northwestern Kanto Mountains, central Japan. Serpentinite bodies are intermittently distributed along fault boundaries. In this study, we divided serpentinite into four deformation stages (D1-D4) based on meso- and microstructures. 1) D1 stage: It is represented by block-in-matrix structure. Block sizes are various, and their longest axis is about 1 m. Shapes of blocks are almost oblate type and rounded to subangular. The long axes of blocks nearly show a same orientation, and planar structures are nearly parallel to them. Inner structures of blocks are entirely deformed, and mesh texture as a pseudomorph of olivine and euhedral chromian spinels are observed. Serpentines consist mainly of lizardite and chrysotile. Fine-gained serpentines of various sizes are randomly scattered in the matrix. 2) D2 stage: It is represented by alternation in portions of different colors and textures. Colors consist mainly of dark green and yellowish green. Intervals of this alternation vary from 1 to 3 mm. In portions of dark green, needle-shaped antigorites have a preferred orientation. Antigorites are remarkably fine-grained in some cases, and are similar to characteristics of ultramylonite. Portions of yellowish green include opaque minerals such as magnetite, forming planar structures. A chromian spinel occurs as a porphyroclast (rounded shape) together with fine-grained recrystallized antigorites. 3) D3 stage: It is represented by fracture foliation. It is formed by foliation as fracture planes that are penetratively developed with a few hundreds of ƒEm intervals. Besides, intervals of this foliation also vary on

  4. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  5. Glacial effects limiting mountain height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egholm, D L; Nielsen, S B; Pedersen, V K; Lesemann, J-E

    2009-08-13

    The height of mountain ranges reflects the balance between tectonic rock uplift, crustal strength and surface denudation. Tectonic deformation and surface denudation are interdependent, however, and feedback mechanisms-in particular, the potential link to climate-are subjects of intense debate. Spatial variations in fluvial denudation rate caused by precipitation gradients are known to provide first-order controls on mountain range width, crustal deformation rates and rock uplift. Moreover, limits to crustal strength are thought to constrain the maximum elevation of large continental plateaus, such as those in Tibet and the central Andes. There are indications that the general height of mountain ranges is also directly influenced by the extent of glaciation through an efficient denudation mechanism known as the glacial buzzsaw. Here we use a global analysis of topography and show that variations in maximum mountain height correlate closely with climate-controlled gradients in snowline altitude for many high mountain ranges across orogenic ages and tectonic styles. With the aid of a numerical model, we further demonstrate how a combination of erosional destruction of topography above the snowline by glacier-sliding and commensurate isostatic landscape uplift caused by erosional unloading can explain observations of maximum mountain height by driving elevations towards an altitude window just below the snowline. The model thereby self-consistently produces the hypsometric signature of the glacial buzzsaw, and suggests that differences in the height of mountain ranges mainly reflect variations in local climate rather than tectonic forces.

  6. The Chi-Chi Earthquake and the Seismic Cycle Associated with Mountain Building in Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    avouac, j; avouac, j; dominguez, s; Michel, R.

    2001-12-01

    Co-seismic deformation due to the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, Mw=7.6, was measured from SPOT satellite images in combination to available co-seismic GPS data. Surface ruptures clearly show off in the measured horizontal displacement field allowing for a detailed cartography and measurement of co-seismic slip along the fault trace. The strike-perpendicular component varies smoothly and indicates 4-5 m thrust on average. The strike-parallel component of about 3-4 m to the south, near the epicenter, gradually increases northward to reach about 7-8 m. This pattern is associated with a general clockwise deviation of surface displacements to the north. Displacements and strain are much larger in the hanging wall than in the footwall. The zone of large co-seismic surface displacement fall within the Sun Moon Lake seismic gap and is bounded to the east by the range front where intense micro-seismic activity was taking place before the earthquake. Co-seismic deformation was modelled using elastic dislocations. The fault geometry was constrained from structural geology. Its geometry and the slip distribution were adjusted to fit both horizontal surface displacements measured from SPOT and vertical displacements measured from GPS. The fault plane makes shallow 20-35o east dipping ramp and roots into a décollement at a depth of 6 to 8 km. The data are satisfactorily adjusted, assuming a nearly constant slip azimuth on the main fault plane close to the azimuth of plate convergence (N305oE +/-5o) and with most of the co-seismic slip being confined (near the surface) on the shallow ramp. The northward rotation of displacements are well reproduced from the model and thus appear to be an edge effect due to oblique direction of thrusting and to the eastward bend of the fault trace at its northern end. Based on these data, we suggest that the model proposed for the Himalaya of Nepal also apply to some extent to the central range of Taiwan. In the inter-seismic period, aseismic shear

  7. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    OpenAIRE

    James Bergdahl; David Kavanaugh

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°/-115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°/-115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater...

  8. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scales is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing imagery of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  9. The use of remote sensing to quantify wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range, Upper Blue Nile basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Teferi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands provide multiple ecosystem services such as storing and regulating water flows and water quality, providing unique habitats to flora and fauna, and regulating micro-climatic conditions. Conversion of wetlands for agricultural use is a widespread practice in Ethiopia, particularly in the southwestern part where wetlands cover large areas. Although there are many studies on land cover and land use changes in this region, comprehensive studies on wetlands are still missing. Hence, extent and rate of wetland loss at regional scale is unknown. The objective of this paper is to quantify wetland dynamics and estimate wetland loss in the Choke Mountain range (area covering 17 443 km2 in the Upper Blue Nile basin, a key headwater region of the river Nile. Therefore, satellite remote sensing images of the period 1986–2005 were considered. To create images of surface reflectance that are radiometrically consistent, a combination of cross-calibration and atmospheric correction (Vogelman-DOS3 methods was used. A hybrid supervised/unsupervised classification approach was used to classify the images. Overall accuracies of 94.1% and 93.5% and Kappa Coefficients of 0.908 and 0.913 for the 1986 and 2005 imageries, respectively were obtained. The results showed that 607 km2 of seasonal wetland with low moisture and 22.4 km2 of open water are lost in the study area during the period 1986 to 2005. The current situation in the wetlands of Choke Mountain is characterized by further degradation which calls for wetland conservation and rehabilitation efforts through incorporating wetlands into watershed management plans.

  10. Human-climate-environment interactions during the past 4000 years in the Taurus Mountain Range, SW Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Broothaerts, Nils; Van Loo, Maarten; Poblome, Jeroen; Degryse, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean has been an area of intense human occupation since the early Neolithic. However, contrary to many temperate environments in NW Europe, human pressure on the landscape did not follow a linear trajectory from the Neolithic to the present, but is rather characterised by cycles of land cover expansion and contraction. Here, we provide a synthesis of human-climate-environment interactions in the region of the antique city of Sagalassos in the Taurus mountain range of SW Turkey. The combination of archaeological, palynological and geomorphological data, together with geochemical sediment provenancing and spatial modelling techniques, enabled to reconstruct the relative importance of anthropogenic pressure and climatic changes on the environment. The sensitivity of the landscape towards anthropogenic disturbance is strongly controlled by the geomorphic-tectonic setting, as well as by important feedback mechanisms in the soil system. The first major clearing of the landscape in the Iron Age led to a peak in soil erosion, but also to soil exhaustion limiting erosion rates in subsequent periods. Soil erosion and sediment delivery is more limited during the main occupation phases of the Roman Imperial Period. Periods with more favorable climate in the Roman and Mid-Byzantine periods resulted in the occupation of more isolated parts of the territory (i.e. higher up in the mountains), whilst a decrease in human pressure can be observed during the Early Byzantine and Ottoman periods related to less favorable conditions. Such smaller and short-lasting bursts of human occupation did not significanlty impact the environment. Only in the last two hundred years, human pressure reached similar values as those encountered in the classical period.

  11. Drought Occurrence in Central European Mountainous Region (Tatra National Park, Slovakia within the Period 1961–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Vido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought has recently become a significant topic in the Central European region. It has been observed that the drought phenomenon has severe impacts on the agriculture, hydrology, social, and economic sectors of lowland areas. This study focuses on how drought, defined as a precipitation shortage, occurs in higher altitudes of the Tatra National Park (Tatra Mts., Slovakia, which is a significant biological reserve of the Central European fauna and flora. The main goals of this research include identifying drought variability and its characteristics over the Tatra National Park in the West Carpathians (Slovakia, especially to characterizing drought variability and its spatial pattern across the Tatra National Park from 1961 to 2010 using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and standard Geographic Information System (GIS methods. The results showed that frequency of drought occurrence has cyclic pattern with approximately 30-year period. The spatial analyses showed that precipitation shadow of the mountains influences the risk of drought occurrence. The drought-prone areas over the mountains are also identified.

  12. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  13. Present-day changes of mountain glaciers on the southern slope of the Dzhungarian Alatau range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Kokarev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glacierization of southern slope of the Dzhungarian (Zhetysu Alatau range was estimated by means of data obtained by operational satellite Landsat 7 surveys on August 19 and September 2011 (sensors ETM+ with the use of digital relief models (ASTER GDEM. Analysis of these materials by means of computer programs ENVI, ERDAS Imagine, MapInfo, and ArcGIS made it possible to obtain a spatial information of glacier systems of the territory under investigation and to define morphological characteristics of glaciers, present-day moraine complexes, glacier lakes as well as other elements of glacial monitoring at the survey moments. To estimate changes of the glacierization the data from previous Inventories of this glacier system as of 1956 and 1972 (P.A. Cherkasov, 1990 and 2000 (authors of this article were used. 30 glaciers being now located on the Chine territory but included into the Inventories of 1956 and 1972 (because the boundaries were changed after 1990 were included into new Inventory.As of 2011, 500 glaciers with total area of their open parts 120.12 km2 were registered in Southern Dzhungaria. 124 glaciers (57% of total number cover area less 0.1 km2 each, and their total area is equal to 9.01 km2 (8% of total area of the glacierization.Total area of the moraines reached 105.6 km2. Volume of open ice calculated by formulas was estimated 4.6 km3. According to calculations, the firn line altitude of the glaciers on the southern slope was equal to 3685 m. As compared to 1956 (3645 m this line lifted by 40 m. 190 glacier lakes with total area 6.0 km2 were found on this territory, among them 19 lakes were classified as especially dangerous for outbursting (their total area – 2.5 km2.For the last 55 years the glacierization area in the Southern Dzhungaria was reduced by 47.4% or, on the average, by 0.86% in every year. It should be noted that for the several last years, the rate of degradation decreased almost twice as compared to earlier years

  14. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszlányi, Július; Grodzińska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described.

  15. Nature conservation in Central and Eastern Europe with a special emphasis on the Carpathian Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oszlanyi, Julius; Grodzinska, Krystyna; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuriy

    2004-07-01

    The natural environment of the Carpathian Mountains is one of the richest in Europe in terms of species richness and ecological value. In general, these mountains are well preserved and constitute an important part of Europe's nature resources. The Carpathian area, although divided by political and ethnic frontiers, provides an excellent example of the possibility of protection and conservation of natural and cultural heritage. Natural or seminatural forest ecosystems are the most valuable ecosystems together with man-made meadows and pastures. It is expected that the formerly diverse approaches to nature protection will become unified as the Carpathian countries are incorporated into the European Union. In this paper the various forms of nature protection in the individual Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine and Romania) are described. - Current status of nature protection in countries of the Carpathian Region is described.

  16. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards—A prewildfire evaluation for the Jemez Mountains, north-central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.

    2016-08-11

    Wildfire can substantially increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire or subsequent rainfall intensity and duration cannot be known, probabilities of fire and debris‑flow occurrence for given locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious potential debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Jemez Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in both the unburned and previously burned areas of the Jemez Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Forest Service.Of the 4,998 subbasins modeled for this study, computed debris-flow probabilities in 671 subbasins were greater than 80 percent in response to the 100-year recurrence interval, 30-minute duration rainfall event. These subbasins ranged in size from 0.01 to 6.57 square kilometers (km2), with an average area of 0.29 km2, and were mostly steep, upstream tributaries to larger channels in the area. Modeled debris-flow volumes in 465 subbasins were greater than 10,000 cubic meters (m3), and 14 of those subbasins had modeled debris‑flow volumes greater than 100,000 m3.The rankings of integrated relative debris-flow hazard indexes for each subbasin were generated by multiplying the individual subbasin values for debris-flow volume, debris‑flow probability, and average burn probability. The subbasins with integrated hazard index values in the top 2 percent typically are large, upland tributaries to canyons and channels primarily in the Upper Rio Grande

  17. Diurnal Cycle of Convective Instability around the Central Mountains in Japan during the Warm Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomonori; Kimura, Fujio

    2005-05-01

    Convective rainfall often shows a clear diurnal cycle. The nighttime peak of convective activity prevails in various regions near the world's mountains. The influence of the water vapor and convective instability upon nocturnal precipitation is investigated using a numerical model and observed data. Recent developments in GPS meteorology allow the estimation of precipitable water vapor (PWV) with a high temporal resolution. A dense network has been established in Japan. The GPS analysis in August 2000 provides the following results: In the early evening, a high-GPS-PWV region forms over mountainous areas because of the convergence of low-level moisture, which gradually propagates toward the adjacent plain before midnight. A region of convection propagates simultaneously eastward into the plain. The precipitating frequency correlates fairly well with the GPS-PWV and attains a maximum value at night over the plain. The model also provides similar characteristics in the diurnal cycles of rainfall and high PWV. Abundant moisture accumulates over the mountainous areas in the afternoon and then advects continuously toward the plain by the ambient wind. The specific humidity greatly increases at about the 800-hPa level over the plain at night, and the PWV reaches its nocturnal maximum. The increase in the specific humidity causes an increase of equivalent potential temperature at about the 800-hPa level; as a result, the convective instability index becomes more unstable over the plain at night. These findings are consistent with the diurnal cycle of the observed precipitating frequency.

  18. Evolution of an Interbasin Mountain-Block Extensional Accommodation Zone Within the Central Colorado Rio Grande Rift, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S. A.; Caine, J. S.; Fridrich, C.; Hudson, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of extensional strain transfer and accommodation in continental rifts has grown considerably, but few studied transfer zones exhibit high internal topographic and structural relief. In the Rio Grande rift of Colorado the WNW-trending northern tip of the Sangre de Cristo Range separates the opposite-tilted Upper Arkansas River (UAR) and San Luis half grabens. We have investigated the development and role of faults flanking this "Poncha" intrarift mountain block in transferring extension between rift basins, mountain block surface uplift, and landscape evolution. The topographically rugged Poncha block consists of Proterozoic metamorphic and plutonic rocks overlain on its west and southwest flanks by 34.5-33-Ma volcanic rocks and alluvial deposits of the Mio-Pliocene Dry Union Formation. Similar Dry Union sediments underlie a moderately elevated, strongly dissected older piedmont along the northern front of the mountain block. All of these units are tilted 10-35º to the W and SW. A WNW-trending, right-stepping fault system > 25 km in length separates the piedmont and UAR basin from the steep northern Poncha mountain front. Slip measurements along this fault system, cutting deposits as young as ~200 ka, indicate dextral-normal oblique movement. The NNW-striking, down-to-E southern Sawatch range-front fault system forms the western terminus of the Poncha block where it juxtaposes Dry Union deposits against Sawatch Proterozoic basement rocks. Gently tilted proximal diamicton and alluvial deposits on the downthrown blocks of both range-front faults likely mark Plio-Pleistocene(?) mountain block uplift. Arrays of NNW- to WNW-striking faults cutting volcanic and Dry Union units on the flanks of the Poncha block commonly have normal-oblique slip, with greater tendency for dextral strike-slip components on WNW-striking faults. Preliminary paleomagnetic data from the volcanic rocks detect no significant vertical-axis rotation that accompanied oblique

  19. The effect of impurities on the surface melt of a glacier in the Suntar Khayata Mountain Range, Russian Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated characteristics of impurities and their impact on the ablation of Glacier No.31 in the Suntar-Khayata Mountain Range in Russian Siberia during summer 2014. Positive degree-day factors (PDDFs obtained from 20 stake measurements distributed across the glacier’s ablation area varied from 3.00 to 8.55 mm w.e. K-1 day-1. The surface reflectivity measured with a spectrometer as a proxy for albedo, ranged from 0.09 to 0.62, and was negatively correlated with the PDDF, suggesting that glacier ablation is controlled by surface albedo on the studied glacier. Mass of total insoluble impurities on the ice surface varied from 0.1 to 45.2 g m-2 and was not correlated with surface reflectivity, suggesting that albedo is not directly conditioned by the mass of the impurities. Microscopy of impurities revealed that they comprised mineral particles, cryoconite granules, and ice algal cells filled with dark-reddish pigments (Ancylonema nordenskioldii. There was a significant negative correlation between surface reflectivity and algal biomass or organic matter, suggesting that the ice algae and their products are the most effective constituents in defining glacier surface albedo. Our results suggest that the melting of ice surface was enhanced by the growth of ice algae, which increased the melting rate 1.6 - 2.6 times greater than that of the impurity free bare-ice.

  20. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  1. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  2. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  3. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  4. Acidification and recovery at mountain lakes in Central Alps assessed by the MAGIC model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela ROGORA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic model MAGIC was calibrated and applied to 84 lakes in Central Alps to predict the response of water chemistry to different scenarios of atmospheric deposition of S and N compounds. Selected lakes were representative of a wide range of chemical characteristics and of sensitivity to acidification. The most sensitive lakes have already shown in the latest years signs of recovery in terms of pH and ANC. The model well captured the main trends in lake chemical data. According to the model forecast, recovery at sensitive lakes will continue in the next decades under the hypothesis of a further decrease of acidic input from the atmosphere. Results clearly demonstrated the benefits of achieving the emission reductions in both S and N compounds agreed under the Gothenburg Protocol. Nevertheless, besides the achieved reduction of SO4 2- deposition from the peak levels of the 80s, also N deposition should be reduced in the near future to protect alpine lakes from further acidification. The condition of lake catchments with regard to N saturation will probably be the dominant factor driving recovery extent. Beside atmospheric deposition, other factors proved to be important in determining long-term changes in surface water chemistry. Climate warming in particular affects weathering processes in lake catchments and dynamics of the N cycle. Including other factors specific to the alpine area, such as dust deposition and climate change, may improve the fit of experimental data by the model and the reliability of model forecast.

  5. Chytridiomycosis in endemic amphibians of the mountain tops of the Córdoba and San Luis ranges, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Julián N; Longo, Silvana; Robledo, Gerardo

    2013-02-28

    Chytridiomycosis is a major threat to amphibian conservation. In Argentina, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been recorded in several localities, and recently, it was registered in amphibians inhabiting low-elevation areas of mountain environments in Córdoba and San Luis provinces. In the present study, we searched for B. dendrobatidis in endemic and non-endemic amphibians on the mountain tops of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. We collected dead amphibians in the upper vegetation belt of the mountains of Córdoba and San Luis. Using standard histological techniques, the presence of fungal infection was confirmed in 5 species. Three of these species are endemic to the mountain tops of both provinces. Although there are no reported population declines in amphibians in these mountains, the presence of B. dendrobatidis in endemic species highlights the need for long-term monitoring plans in the area.

  6. The Dynamic Range Paradox: A Central Auditory Model of Intensity Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Andrew J.R.; Reiss, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use empirical loudness modeling to explore a perceptual sub-category of the dynamic range problem of auditory neuroscience. Humans are able to reliably report perceived intensity (loudness), and discriminate fine intensity differences, over a very large dynamic range. It is usually assumed that loudness and intensity change detection operate upon the same neural signal, and that intensity change detection may be predicted from loudness data and vice versa. However, while loudness grows as intensity is increased, improvement in intensity discrimination performance does not follow the same trend and so dynamic range estimations of the underlying neural signal from loudness data contradict estimations based on intensity just-noticeable difference (JND) data. In order to account for this apparent paradox we draw on recent advances in auditory neuroscience. We test the hypothesis that a central model, featuring central adaptation to the mean loudness level and operating on the detection of maximum central-loudness rate of change, can account for the paradoxical data. We use numerical optimization to find adaptation parameters that fit data for continuous-pedestal intensity change detection over a wide dynamic range. The optimized model is tested on a selection of equivalent pseudo-continuous intensity change detection data. We also report a supplementary experiment which confirms the modeling assumption that the detection process may be modeled as rate-of-change. Data are obtained from a listening test (N = 10) using linearly ramped increment-decrement envelopes applied to pseudo-continuous noise with an overall level of 33 dB SPL. Increments with half-ramp durations between 5 and 50,000 ms are used. The intensity JND is shown to increase towards long duration ramps (p<10−6). From the modeling, the following central adaptation parameters are derived; central dynamic range of 0.215 sones, 95% central normalization, and a central loudness JND

  7. The dynamic range paradox: a central auditory model of intensity change detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J R Simpson

    Full Text Available In this paper we use empirical loudness modeling to explore a perceptual sub-category of the dynamic range problem of auditory neuroscience. Humans are able to reliably report perceived intensity (loudness, and discriminate fine intensity differences, over a very large dynamic range. It is usually assumed that loudness and intensity change detection operate upon the same neural signal, and that intensity change detection may be predicted from loudness data and vice versa. However, while loudness grows as intensity is increased, improvement in intensity discrimination performance does not follow the same trend and so dynamic range estimations of the underlying neural signal from loudness data contradict estimations based on intensity just-noticeable difference (JND data. In order to account for this apparent paradox we draw on recent advances in auditory neuroscience. We test the hypothesis that a central model, featuring central adaptation to the mean loudness level and operating on the detection of maximum central-loudness rate of change, can account for the paradoxical data. We use numerical optimization to find adaptation parameters that fit data for continuous-pedestal intensity change detection over a wide dynamic range. The optimized model is tested on a selection of equivalent pseudo-continuous intensity change detection data. We also report a supplementary experiment which confirms the modeling assumption that the detection process may be modeled as rate-of-change. Data are obtained from a listening test (N = 10 using linearly ramped increment-decrement envelopes applied to pseudo-continuous noise with an overall level of 33 dB SPL. Increments with half-ramp durations between 5 and 50,000 ms are used. The intensity JND is shown to increase towards long duration ramps (p<10(-6. From the modeling, the following central adaptation parameters are derived; central dynamic range of 0.215 sones, 95% central normalization, and a central

  8. Lithogeochemistry of mineralized and altered rock samples from the northern Talkeetna Mountains, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Thomas D.; Schmidt, Jeanine M.

    2011-01-01

    Mineralized and altered rock samples collected from the northern Talkeetna Mountains, Alaska, were analyzed by two different inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) methods for as many as 44 elements; by fire assay and either direct-coupled plasma (DCP) or atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) for gold (Au); by cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAA) for mercury (Hg); and by irradiated neutron activation analysis (INAA) for tungsten (W). The analytical results showed that some samples contain high values of multiple elements and may be potential indicators of hydrothermal mineralization in the area.

  9. Reconstruction and prediction of climate and vegetation change in the Holocene in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchebakova, N M; Parfenova, E I [V N Sukachev Institute of Forests, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, 50/28, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Blyakharchuk, T A, E-mail: ncheby@forest.akadem.r, E-mail: tarun5@rambler.r [Institute for Monitoring Climatic and Ecological Systems, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademichesky Prospekt 10/3, 643055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    Two quantitative methods were used to reconstruct paleoenvironments and vegetation in the Altai-Sayan mountains, Central Asia, during the Holocene. The 'biomization' method of Prentice et al (1996 Clim. Dyn. 12 185-96), applied to the surface pollen record, worked fairly well in the reconstructions of current vegetation. Applying this method to fossil pollen data, we reconstructed site paleovegetation. Our montane bioclimatic model, MontBioCliM, was used inversely to convert site paleovegetation into site paleoclimates. The differences between site paleo and current climates served as past climate change scenarios. The climatic anomalies for 2020, 2050, and 2080 derived from HadCM3 A1FI and B1 of the Hadley Centre, UK, served as climate change scenarios in the 21st century. MontBioCliM was applied directly to all climate scenarios through the Holocene to map past and future mountain vegetation over the Altai-Sayan mountains. Our results suggest that the early Holocene ca 10 000 BP was cold and dry; the period between 8000 and 5300 BP was warm and moist; and the time slice ca 3200 BP was cooler and drier than the present. Using kappa statistics, we showed that the vegetation at 8000 BP and 5300 BP was similar, as was the vegetation at 10 000 BP and 3200 BP, while future vegetation was predicted to be dissimilar to any of the paleovegetation reconstructions. The mid-Holocene is frequently hypothesized to be an analog of future climate warming; however, being known as warm and moist in Siberia, the mid-Holocene climate would likely impact terrestrial ecosystems differently from the projected warm and dry mid-century climate.

  10. The Neogene molasse deposits of the Zagros Mountains in central Dezful Embayment: facies, sedimentary environments and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hossein Jalilian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Neogene sequence of the Zagros Mountains consists of a clastic succession which is identified as Aghajari and Bakhtyari formations. The sequence is an excellent example of synorogenic sedimentation or molasse deposited in northern portion of the Zagros foreland basin. Sedimentological analysis of an outcrop section representing Miocene-Pliocene sediments in central Dezful Embayment resulted in recognizing 9 lithofacies and 4 architectural elements. These lithofacies include conglometate (Gt, Gh, Gmm, sandstone (Sp, Sh, Sr, St and mudstone (Fm, Fl that were deposited in meandering stream, braided river and alluvial fan environments. Paleocurrent analysis of cross-beds, channels and asymmetric ripple marks indicate that these Neogene clastics were mainly drived from Cretaceous to Paleogene highlands in the Zagros Mountains on the north. This stratigraphic record is coarsening-upward and formed by a regressive depositional megacycle under arid climate. Facies and depositional history analysis show that sedimentation of the Zagros molasse was primarily controlled by base-level changes rather than catchment lithology or climate. The sedimentary record of this regressive megacycle reveales the base-level was constantly falling down on one hand and the provenance was uplifting on the other hand. Tectonic activities and Zagros Mountains rising in the Late Miocene resulted in deposition of fining-upward point-bar and floodplain sequences of the Aghajari Formation in low-gradient meandering streams. The Lahbari Member of the Aghajari Formation represents deposition in braided rivers that composed predominantly of flood-plain deposits in the Early Pliocene. Finally, the sedimentary cycle of the Zagros molasse deposits terminated with massive conglomerates of the Bakhtyari Formation deposited in large alluvial fans near the source area.

  11. New Mexico Mountain Ranges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  12. Groundwater lowering and stream incision rates in the Central Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory S. Springer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface channel incision rates are of broad geomorphological interest because they set the boundary conditions for landscape change by affecting changes in local relief and hillslope angles. We report groundwater table lowering rates associated with subsurface Buckeye Creek and the surface channel of Spring Creek in southeastern West Virginia, USA. The mountainous watersheds have drainage areas of 14 km2 and 171 km2, respectively. The lowering rates are derived from U/Th-dating of stalagmites and the paleomagnetostratigraphy of clastic sediments in Buckeye Creek Cave. The oldest stalagmites have a minimum age of 0.54 Ma and we use a minimum age of 0.778 Ma for clastic cave sediments deposited during a period of reversed magnetic polarity. The water table at Buckeye Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤40 m Ma-1. Based on the relative elevations of Buckeye and Spring creeks, the water table at Spring Creek has lowered at a rate of ≤47 m Ma-1. These values are consistent with previously published rates obtained from caves in the region, although those rates were reported as surface channel incision rates, based on the assumption local groundwaters drained to the surface channel of interest. However, the rates we report are almost certainly not simple bedrock incision rates because of autogenic processes within the cave and surrounding, well-developed fluviokarst. Caveats aside, incision rates of ≤47 m Ma-1 now appear typical of landscapes of the Appalachian Mountains and Plateau.

  13. Increasing risks related to landslides from degrading permafrost into new lakes in de-glaciating mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Wilfried; Schaub, Yvonne; Huggel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    While glacier volumes in most cold mountain ranges rapidly decrease due to continued global warming, degradation of permafrost at altitudes above and below glaciers is much slower. As a consequence, many still existing glacier and permafrost landscapes probably transform within decades into new landscapes of bare bedrock, loose debris, sparse vegetation, numerous new lakes and steep slopes with slowly degrading permafrost. These new landscapes are likely to persist for centuries if not millennia to come. During variable but mostly extended future time periods, such new landscapes will be characterized by pronounced disequilibria within their geo- and ecosystems. This especially involves long-term stability reduction of steep/icy mountain slopes as a slow and delayed reaction to stress redistribution following de-buttressing by vanishing glaciers and to changes in mechanical strength and hydraulic permeability caused by permafrost degradation. Thereby, the probability of far-reaching flood waves from large mass movements into lakes systematically increases with the formation of many new lakes and systems of lakes in close neighborhood to, or even directly at the foot of, so-affected slopes. Results of recent studies in the Swiss Alps are reviewed and complemented with examples from the Cordillera Blanca in Peru and the Mount Everest region in Nepal. Hot spots of future hazards from potential flood waves caused by large rock falls into new lakes can already now be recognized. To this end, integrated spatial information on glacier/permafrost evolution and lake formation can be used together with scenario-based models for rapid mass movements, impact waves and flood propagation. The resulting information must then be combined with exposure and vulnerability considerations related to settlements and infrastructure. This enables timely planning of risk reduction options. Such risk reduction options consist of two components: Mitigation of hazards, which in the present

  14. Determinants of Farmers' Adoption of Improved Soil Conservation Technology in a Middle Mountain Watershed of Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R.; Sitaula, Bishal K.; Nyborg, Ingrid L. P.; Paudel, Giridhari S.

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers’ interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  15. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation in the Krkonoše Mountains, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Braucher, Régis; Traczyk, Andrzej; Laetitia, Léanni; AsterTeam

    2014-02-01

    A new chronology of the last glaciation is established for the Krkonoše (Giant) Mountains, Central Europe, based on in-situ produced 10Be in moraine boulders. Exposure ages and Schmidt Hammer rebound values obtained for terminal moraines on the northern and southern flank of the mountains suggest that the oldest preserved moraines represent early phases of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Large moraines at the outlet of the Snowy Cirques (Śnieżne Kotły) and in the middle part of the Úpa (Obří důl) trough were deposited around 21 ka while a series of smaller moraines above the LGM deposits represent readvances that occurred no later than 18.1 ± 0.6 ka, 15.7 ± 0.5 ka, 13.5 ± 0.5 ka and 12.9 ± 0.7 ka. An exposure age of 13.8 ± 0.4 ka obtained for protalus ramparts at the foot of the Úpská jáma Cirque headwall indicates that glaciers advanced only in north- to east-facing cirques during the Lateglacial. The last glacier fluctuation was synchronous with the Younger Dryas cold event. The timing of local glacier advances during the last glacial episode correlates with the late Weichselian glacier phases in the Alps and in the Bavarian/Bohemian Forest.

  16. Determinants of farmers' adoption of improved soil conservation technology in a middle mountain watershed of Central Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Krishna R; Sitaula, Bishal K; Nyborg, Ingrid L P; Paudel, Giridhari S

    2008-08-01

    This study explores different socio-economic and institutional factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology (ISCT) on Bari land (Rainfed outward sloping terraces) in the Middle Mountain region of Central Nepal. Structured questionnaire survey and focus group discussion methods were applied to collect the necessary information from farm households. The logistic regression model predicted seven factors influencing the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the study area including years of schooling of the household head, caste of the respondent, land holding size of the Bari land, cash crop vegetable farming, family member occupation in off farm sector, membership of the Conservation and Development Groups, and use of credit. The study showed that technology dissemination through multi-sectoral type community based local groups is a good option to enhance the adoption of improved soil conservation technology in the Middle Mountain farming systems in Nepal. Planners and policy makers should formulate appropriate policies and programs considering the farmers' interest, capacity, and limitation in promoting improved soil conservation technology for greater acceptance and adoption by the farmers.

  17. Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Upland Vegetation in the Blue Mountains [Chapter 6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky K. Kerns; David C. Powell; Sabine Mellmann-Brown; Gunnar Carnwath; John Kim

    2017-01-01

    The Blue Mountains ecoregion (BME) extends from the Ochoco Mountains in central Oregon to Hells Canyon of the Snake River in extreme northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho, and then north to the deeply carved canyons and basalt rimrock of southeastern Washington (see fig. 1.1 in chapter 1). The BME consists of a series of mountain ranges occurring in a southwest to...

  18. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2016-12-09

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  19. Shallow seismic reflection profiling over a Mylonitic Shear Zone, Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range Metamorphic Core Complex, NE Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawman, Robert B.; Ahmed, Hishameldin O.

    Seismic reflection profiling carried out with a sledgehammer source has imaged Tertiary extensional structures over a depth range of 45-500 m within lower plate rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The 400-m CMP profile straddles an exposed contact between tectonic slices of dolomitic marble and metaquartzite emplaced by low-angle ductile-brittle normal faulting. Subhorizontal reflections from layering within the tectonic slices give way at 160 ms (160-220 m depth) to reflections that dip 15-45° to the east, in contrast with dips indicated in a poorly imaged segment of a coincident regional seismic line but in agreement with dips of foliation mapped for nearby up-plunge exposures of a late Proterozoic - early Cambrian sequence of metaquartzites, marbles, schists, and granitic rocks that forms the bulk of the underlying shear zone. Differences with the regional profile are attributed to the higher frequencies (30-100 Hz) generated by the smaller hammer source and the enhanced lateral resolution provided by the straighter profile and much smaller shot-receiver offsets (46-157 m) contributing to the stack for each CMP. The results suggest that the near-surface, east-dipping component of the anastomozing shear zone extends at least 2 km farther east than previously interpreted. Rough estimates of interval velocities (1500-4500 m/s) inferred from stacking velocities are consistent with velocities of mylonitic rocks measured perpendicular to foliation at low confining pressures when the effects of macroscopic fractures and joints are taken into account. Peaks in amplitude spectra of stacked traces suggest long-wavelength components of layering resolved at scales from 5-8 m (depth: 50 m) to 15-25 m (depth: 500 m).

  20. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  1. Isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Sáenz-Rosales, Oscar; Piedra-Marín, Gilberto; Fonseca-Sánchez, Alicia; Madrigal-Solís, Helga; Ulloa-Chaverri, Franz; Rojas-Jiménez, Luis D; Vargas-Víquez, José A

    2017-03-01

    The linkage between precipitation and recharge is still poorly understood in the Central America region. This study focuses on stable isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. During the dry season, rainfall samples corresponded to enriched events with high deuterium excess. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone poses over Costa Rica resulting in a depletion of (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/H ratios. A parsimonious four-variable regression model (r(2 )= 0.52) was able to predict daily δ(18)O in precipitation. Air mass back trajectories indicated a combination of Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean sources, which is clearly depicted in groundwater isoscape. Aquifers relying on Pacific-originated recharge exhibited a more depleted pattern, whereas recharge areas relying on Caribbean parental moisture showed an enrichment trend. These results can be used to enhance modelling efforts in Central America where scarcity of long-term data limits water resources management plans.

  2. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency).

  3. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Cretaceous Nanushuk, Seabee, and Tuluvak formations exposed on Umiat Mountain, north-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    Upper Cretaceous strata of the upper part of the Nanushuk Formation, the Seabee Formation, and the lower part of the Tuluvak Formation are exposed along the Colville River on the east flank of Umiat Mountain in north-central Alaska. The Ninuluk sandstone, which is the uppermost unit of the Nanushuk Formation, displays a vertical succession of facies indicative of deposition in an upward-deepening estuarine through shoreface setting. A marine-flooding surface lies between the Ninuluk sandstone and organic-rich shale of the basal part of the Seabee Formation. The Ninuluk sandstone and the lower part of the Seabee Formation are interpreted as components of a transgressive-systems tract. The lowest, well-exposed strata in the Seabee Formation are a succession of shoreface sandstone beds in the middle of the formation. Integration of outcrop information and the Umiat No. 11 well log suggests that this sandstone succession rests on a sequence boundary and is capped by a marine-flooding surface. The sandstone succession is interpreted as a lowstand-systems tract. The upper part of the Seabee Formation includes a thick interval of organic-rich shale deposited in a dysaerobic offshore environment, and the gradational Seabee-Tuluvak contact is a coarsening-upward shale-to-sandstone succession deposited in a prodelta/delta-front environment. The observation that the upper part of the Seabee Formation correlates with seismic clinoforms suggests that dysaerobic conditions extended well up onto the prodelta slope during intervals of transgression and highstand. Correlation of the Umiat Mountain outcrop section with well logs and seismic data suggests that sequence boundaries and lowstand shoreface deposits may be common in the Seabee Formation and that wave action may have been important in transporting sand to the paleoshelf margin. These conclusions may contribute to an enhanced understanding of sand distribution in prospective lowstand turbidite deposits in the subsurface of

  4. Factors controlling stable isotope composition of precipitation in arid conditions: an observation network in the Tianshan Mountains, central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjie Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of the Earth's arid areas are distributed across central Asia. The stable isotope composition of precipitation in this region is affected by its aridity, therefore subject to high evaporation and low precipitation amount. To investigate the factors controlling stable water isotopes in precipitation in arid central Asia, an observation network was established around the Tianshan Mountains in 2012. Based on the 1052 event-based precipitation samples collected at 23 stations during 2012–2013, the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of δD and δ18O in precipitation were investigated. The values of δD and δ18O are relatively more enriched in the rainfall dominant summer months (from April to October and depleted in the drier winter months (from November to March with low D-excess due to subcloud evaporation observed at many of the driest low elevation stations. The local meteoric water line (LMWL was calculated to be δD=7.36δ18O – 0.50 (r2=0.97, p<0.01 based on the event-based samples, and δD=7.60δ18O+2.66 (r2=0.98, p<0.01 based on the monthly precipitation-weighted values. In winter, the data indicate an isotopic rain shadow effect whereby rainout leads to depletion of precipitation in the most arid region to the south of the Tianshan Mountains. The values of δ18O significantly correlate with air temperature for each station, and the best-fit equation is established as δ18O=0.78T – 16.01 (r2=0.73, p<0.01. Using daily air temperature and precipitation derived from a 0.5° (latitude×0.5° (longitude gridded data set, an isoscape of δ18O in precipitation was produced based on this observed temperature effect.

  5. Geologic map of south-central Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Robert P.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2004-01-01

    New 1:6,000-scale geologic mapping in a 20-square-kilometer area near the south end of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is the proposed site of an underground repository for the storage of high-level radioactive wastes, substantially supplements the stratigraphic and structural data obtained from earlier, 1:24,000-scale mapping. Principal observations and interpretations resulting from the larger scale, more detailed nature of the recent investigation include: (1) the thickness of the Miocene Tiva Canyon Tuff decreases from north to south within the map area, and the lithophysal zones within the formation have a greater lateral variability than in areas farther north; and (2) fault relations are far more complex than shown on previous maps, with both major (block-bounding) and minor (intrablock) faults showing much lateral variation in (a) the number of splays and (b) the amount, distribution, and width of anastomosing breccia and fracture zones.

  6. Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 pre-monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shrestha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 pre-monsoon season (May–June. This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevation in the Middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14~340 nm, and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening, during the transitional period of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak period was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to

  7. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  8. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin

    2017-08-16

    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  9. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  10. Deglaciation and postglacial environmental changes in the Teton Mountain Range recorded at Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ofstun, Adam R.

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contained in lake basins positioned along the eastern front of the Teton Mountain Range preserve a continuous and datable record of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions. Here, we develop a multiproxy glacier and paleoenvironmental record using a combination of seismic reflection data and multiple sediment cores recovered from Jenny Lake and other nearby lakes. Age control of Teton lake sediments is established primarily through radiocarbon dating and supported by the presence of two prominent rhyolitic tephra deposits that are geochemically correlated to the widespread Mazama (∼7.6 ka) and Glacier Peak (∼13.6 ka) tephra layers. Multiple glacier and climate indicators, including sediment accumulation rate, bulk density, clastic sediment concentration and flux, organic matter (concentration, flux, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios), and biogenic silica, track changes in environmental conditions and landscape development. Sediment accumulation at Jenny Lake began centuries prior to 13.8 ka and cores from three lakes demonstrate that Teton glacier extents were greatly reduced by this time. Persistent ice retreat in Cascade Canyon was slowed by an interval of small glacier activity between ∼13.5 and 11.5 ka, prior to the end of glacial lacustrine sedimentation ∼11.5 ka. The transition to non-glacial sediments marks the onset of Holocene conditions at Jenny Lake and reflects a shift toward warmer summers, increased vegetation cover, and landscape stability in the Tetons. We discuss the Teton lake sediment records within the context of other regional studies in an effort to construct a comprehensive overview of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions at Grand Teton National Park.

  11. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation of the Roháčská Valley in the Western Tatra Mountains, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Mentlík, Pavel; Braucher, Régis; Křížek, Marek; Pluháčková, Markéta; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-09-01

    10Be exposure ages from moraines and bedrock sites in the Roháčská Valley provide chronology of the last glaciation in the largest valley of the Western Tatra Mts., the Western Carpathians. The minimum apparent exposure age of 19.4 ± 2.1 ka obtained for the oldest sampled boulder and the mean age of 18.0 ± 0.8 ka calculated for the terminal moraine indicate that the oldest preserved moraine was probably deposited at the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The age of this moraine coincides with the termination of the maximum glacier expansion in other central European ranges, including the adjacent High Tatra Mts. and the Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM glacier in the Roháčská Valley, estimated at 1400-1410 m a.s.l., was 50-80 m lower than in the eastern part of the range, indicating a positive ELA gradient from west to east among the north-facing glaciers in the Tatra Mts. Lateglacial glacier expansion occurred no later than 13.4 ± 0.5 ka and 11.9 ± 0.5 ka, as indicated by the mean exposure ages calculated for re-advance moraines. This timing is consistent with the exposure age chronology of the last Lateglacial re-advance in the High Tatra Mts., Alps and lower mountain ranges in central Europe. The ELA in the Roháčská Valley estimated at 1690-1770 m a.s.l. in this period was located 130-300 m lower than in the north-facing valleys in the High Tatra Mts. 10Be exposure ages obtained for a rock glacier constrains the timing of this landform stabilization in the Salatínska Valley and provides the first chronological evidence for the Lateglacial activity of rock glaciers in the Carpathians.

  12. Field report: Exploring the Doonerak fenster of the central Brooks Range, Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin V. Strauss

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Alaska is a ‘suspect’ terrane that encompasses approximately 20% of Alaska, stretching from the southern Brooks Range all the way to the continental shelves of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Although the origin and subsequent travels of this large crustal fragment are debated among geologists, most researchers agree upon its composite nature and exotic origin. To constrain the early geological history of this terrane, we describe a recent expedition to the Doonerak fenster of the central Brooks Range. This area has long been regarded as a key locality for understanding the structural evolution of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic Brooks Range orogen; however, our target was different: a unique sequence of volcanic and siliciclastic rocks (Apoon assemblage exposed beneath a profound pre-Mississippian unconformity, which we argue is of key importance to understanding the early Paleozoic tectonic history of northern Alaska and the greater Arctic.

  13. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m-3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (<5 μg m-3; PM2.5) and coarse (<10 μg m-3; PM2.5-10) fractions monitored at or near four sites. Standard air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  14. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  15. Comparison of precipitation chemistry in the Central Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, K.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Ingersoll, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Volume-weighted mean concentrations of nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulfate (SO42-) in precipitation were compared at high-elevation sites in Colorado from 1992 to 1997 to evaluate emission source areas to the east and west of the Rocky Mountains. Precipitation chemistry was measured by two sampling methods, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) and snowpack surveys at maximum accumulation. Concentrations of NO3- and SO42- in winter precipitation were greater on the western slope of the Rockies, and concentrations of NO3- and NH4+ in summer precipitation were greater on the eastern slope. Summer concentrations in general were almost twice as high as winter concentrations. Seasonal weather patterns in combination with emission source areas help to explain these differences. This comparison shows that high-elevation ecosystems in Colorado are influenced by air pollution emission sources located on both sides of the Continental Divide. It also suggests that sources of nitrogen and sulfur located east of the Divide have a greater influence on precipitation chemistry in the Colorado Rockies. Copyright (C) 2000.

  16. Changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation in Popa Mountain Park, Central Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Naing Zaw; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yoshida, Shigejiro

    2013-02-01

    Implementing effective conservation requires an understanding of factors affecting deforestation and forest degradation. Previous studies have investigated factors affecting deforestation, while few studies have examined the determinants of both of deforestation and forest degradation for more than one period. To address this gap, this study examined factors influencing deforestation and forest degradation during 1989-2000 and 2000-2005 in the Popa Mountain Park, Myanmar. We applied multinomial logistic regression (MNL) using land cover maps derived from Landsat images as the dependent variables as well as spatial and biophysical factors as the independent variables. The MNL models revealed influences of the determinants on deforestation and forest degradation changes over time. For example, during 1989-2000, deforestation from closed forest was positively correlated to the distance from the park boundary and was negatively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope, western aspect and elevation. On the other hand, during 2000-2005, deforestation of closed forest was positively correlated with distance from villages, roads, the park circular road, slope and western aspect, and negatively correlated with distance from the park boundary and elevation. Similar scenarios were observed for the deforestation of open forest and forest degradation of closed forest. The study also found most of the determinants influenced deforestation and forest degradation differently. The changes in determinants of deforestation and forest degradation over time might be attributable to the general decrease in resource availability and to the effect of conservation measures conducted by the park.

  17. Laws, Institutions and Transboundary Pasture Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountain Ecosystem of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rangeland governance is a priority for the governments of the post-Soviet Central Asian states of the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan. Major transitional challenges confront the newly independent states of Central Asia. These challenges include the withdrawal of subsidies previously provided by the centralised Soviet government; moves towards privatisation and the conversion of administrative boundaries to international boundaries. In this context transboundary approaches to rangeland management are essential. This paper highlights the challenges for effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem; the inadequacies of pasture-related legal instruments and the absence of institutions for the implementation of these instruments. Transboundary management is hampered by the lack of agreements between the two countries and the differences between national level laws and institutions. Meaningful transboundary agreements and the harmonization of national level laws would be a significant step towards achieving sustainable transboundary pasture management. However, on their own these legal tools are insufficient. Long-term effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem necessitates that the causes of degradation are addressed. Mountain communities would also need to be convinced of economic and other benefits before current resource-use practices could be expected to change. Institutional and capacity building and adequate funding are also fundamental to ensuring the effectiveness of any legal instruments that are developed and any strategies that are employed.

  18. Comparison of wood-inhabiting myxomycetes in subalpine and montane coniferous forests in the Yatsugatake Mountains of Central Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunari; Harakon, Yuichi

    2012-05-01

    To demonstrate altitudinal gradients (and resulting temperatures) that affect myxomycete biodiversity and species composition, we statistically compared myxomycete assemblages between a subalpine coniferous forest and a montane pine forest within the region of the Yatsugatake Mountains, Nagano Prefecture, Central Japan. In summer and autumn field surveys during 2003-2010, 53 myxomycete taxa (with varieties treated as species) were observed from 639 records of fruiting bodies in the subalpine forest and 32 taxa were detected from 613 records in the montane forest. There were 20 species in common between the assemblages and the percentage similarity index was 0.400. Myxomycete biodiversity was higher in the subalpine than in the montane forest. Nine myxomycete species were statistically frequent occurrences in the subalpine forest and appeared in autumn: Lamproderma columbinum, Cribraria macrocarpa, Trichia botrytis, Physarum newtonii, Diderma ochraceum, Enteridium splendens, Elaeomyxa cerifera, Trichia verrucosa, and Colloderma oculatum. Five species were restricted to appear in the subalpine forest: Cribraria purpurea, Cribraria rufa, Cribraria ferruginea, Cribraria piriformis, and Lepidoderma tigrinum. Dead wood in the subalpine forest provided a breeding habitat for specific myxomycetes that inhabit cold areas; that is those areas having geographical features of decreasing temperature and increasing elevation, such as the temperate area of Central Japan.

  19. Effects of environment and grazing disturbance on tree establishment in meadows of the central Cascade Range, Oregon, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.A.; Halpern, C.B. [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Coll. of Forest Resources

    1998-04-01

    Within the last century there has been widespread establishment of trees in mountain meadows of the Pacific Northwest. We reconstructed patterns of tree invasion at 17 meadow sites in the central Cascade Range of Oregon, USA - sites representing diverse physical environments and vegetation types and experiencing different histories of recent anthropogenic disturbance (sheep grazing). Spatial distributions and age structures of invasive tree populations were analysed with respect to climatic records and grazing history. Patterns of establishment varied considerably among meadows, reflecting strong differences in environment and grazing history. In montane hydric meadows, tree establishment was spatially clumped beneath large old trees and on elevated microsites; however the timing of invasion differed between sites with stable versus fluctuating water tables. In upland mesic/dry montane meadows, timing of invasion corresponded with cessation of sheep grazing (early 1940s) and the onset of wetter summers (mid 1940s). In the subalpine zone, climate and aspect interacted to produce contrasting histories of invasion on north- and south-faced slopes. Establishment on north-facing slopes, concentrated in heath-shrub communities, coincided with regional warming (1920-1945) when snowpacks were lighter and melted earlier. Recruitment of trees onto south-facing slopes occurred later, when conditions were wetter (1945-1985). In many environments, the spatial distribution of recruitment suggests that once trees have established, autogenic factors become increasingly important as individual trees or groups of trees alter the physical or biotic conditions that once inhibited establishment. Knowledge of the factors that influence invasion, and of their varying importance across gradients in environment and vegetation, is critical to predicting future changes in these dynamic systems 74 refs, 12 figs, 2 figs

  20. Late Paleogene topography of the Central Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains region using hydrogen isotope ratios in volcanic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, G.; Fricke, H. C.; Cassel, E. J.; Evanoff, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Rocky Mountains (CRM), located in southern Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico, are characterized by the highest elevation basins (up to 2500 m) and mountains (over 4000 m) in the North American Cordillera. The timing and drivers for surface uplift of the CRM have not been conclusively determined. The goal of this study is to constrain the timing of surface uplift of the CRM by comparing hydrogen isotope ratios of hydration waters (δDglass) in late Paleogene volcanic glasses preserved in felsic tuffs deposited in CRM basins to δDglass values from glasses of similar age (34.9 to 32.2 Ma) preserved in tuffs from the surrounding Great Plains. The tuffs deposited in the Great Plains, to the north and east of the CRM, are currently at elevations of 1100-1600 m. Volcanic glass hydrates shortly after deposition, preserving the δD of ancient meteoric water on geologic timescales, and can thus be used as a proxy for ancient precipitation δD values. Volcanic glasses from the CRM have δDglass values that are an average of ~31‰ higher than δDglass values from the Great Plains, while modern day precipitation δD values in the CRM are ~25‰ lower than δD values in the Great Plains. These results suggest that the uplift of the CRM relative to the surrounding Great Plains occurred after ~32 Ma. This requires a mechanism such as mantle upwelling or differential crustal hydration, not solely Laramide tectonism, to uplift the CRM to current elevations. Elevation, however, may not have been the only control on the spatial distribution of precipitation δD values across the western US. Similar to the modern, mixing of Pacific and Gulf coast air masses likely occurred during the latest Paleogene, driving regional variability in δD values of precipitation.

  1. The significance of avulsion phenomena in the alluvial filling configuration of a mountain stream: Venero Claro (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.; Fernández-García, P.; Ballesteros, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    In the dynamics and evolution of large river floodplains, alluvial fans and debris cones, avulsion phenomena have been considered very important. However, traditionally, in mountain streams, avulsion phenomena have been underestimated because they are not very frequent, and usually they are restricted to little chute cut-off. Nevertheless, there are mountainous areas where the valley bottom gets wider, and the alluvial filling works like an elongated debris cone. The Cabrera Stream in the Venero Claro reach (Spanish Central System) is one of these special areas. In this case, avulsion phenomena took place triggered by flash floods, and they were usually associated with hyperconcentrated flows, which exceeded the upper level of levees and banks, redefining the sedimentary architecture of the alluvial filling. In this study, an analysis of geomorphologic and sedymentological evolution of the alluvial filling in Venero Claro have been carried out. On this way, cartography made from the 19th Century until ninety ages were compared, and a stereoscopic analysis of aerial photographs and digital ortoimages were applied. Furthermore, the sedimentary filling was studied applying classic sedimentological techniques, such as a description and interpretation of sedimentary structures and facies analysis at field. As a result of the geomorphologic evolution analysis, a straightforward evolution model is proposed. This model enhances the relevant importance of the avulsion phenomena in the geomorphologic configuration of the Cabrera Stream in the Venero Claro reach. From the river pattern point of view, the avulsion phenomena originate capture processes in the main stream and its tributaries. As a result of these processes, the drainage network pattern changes successively from dendritic to sub-parallel. On other hand, from the sedimentologic point of view, the stratigraphy is composed of channel facies (debris flow facies and fluvial-torrential gravelbars) and back

  2. Water resources in the vicinity of municipalities on the central Mesabi Iron Range, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, R.D.; Young, H.L.; Petri, L.R.; Prior, C.H.

    1965-01-01

    Additional supplies of water are available near the municipalities on the central Mesabi Iron Range. Ground water presents the greatest potential yield, and most of the productive aquifers are in the Biwabik Iron-Formation and the stratified glacial drift. /k single body of ice-contact stratified drift underlies parts of all but one of the five municipality areas mapped. Surface-water supplies are generally inadequate. The Two River system in the eastern part of the area of this report offers some possibilities. Flow data from one discharge station and one miscellaneous gaging site are presented.

  3. Spatio-temporal development of high-mountain lakes in the headwaters of the Amu Darya River (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergili, Martin; Müller, Johannes P.; Schneider, Jean F.

    2013-08-01

    The sources of the Amu Darya, one of the major Central Asian rivers draining to the Aral Sea, are located in the glacierized high-mountain areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Afghanistan. There, climate change and the resulting retreat of glaciers have led to the formation of numerous new glacial lakes. Other lakes in the area are embedded in older glacial landscapes (erosion lakes) or retained by block or debris dams (e.g., Lake Sarez). A multi-temporal lake inventory is prepared and analysed, based on remotely sensed data. Corona images from 1968 are used as well as more up-to-date ASTER and Landsat 7 scenes. 1642 lakes are mapped in total, 652 out of them are glacial lakes. 73% of all lakes are located above 4000 m a.s.l. Glacial lakes, abundant in those areas where glacier tongues retreat over flat or moderately steep terrain, have experienced a significant growth, even though changes are often superimposed by short-term fluctuations. The analysis results also indicate a shifting of the growth of glacial lakes from the south western Pamir to the central and northern Pamir during the observation period. This trend is most likely associated with more elevated contribution areas in the central and northern Pamir. The lakes of the other types have remained constant in size in general. The lake development reflects changes in the state of the water resources in the study area on the one hand and determines the level of lake outburst hazards on the other hand.

  4. Chemical characterization of aerosols at the summit of Mountain Tai in the middle of central east China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deng

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available PM2.5 and TSP samples were collected at the summit of Mountain Tai (MT (1534 m a.s.l. in spring 2006/2007 and summer 2006 to investigate the characteristics of aerosols over central eastern China. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected at Tazhong, Urumqi, Tianchi in Xinjiang in northwestern China, Duolun and Yulin in northern China, and two urban sites in the megacities, Beijing and Shanghai, in spring 2007. Daily mass concentrations of TSP and PM2.5 ranged from 39.6–276.9 μg/m3 and 17.2–235.7 μg/m3 respectively at the summit of MT. Averaged concentrations of PM2.5 showed a pronounced seasonal variation with higher concentration in summer than spring. 17 water-soluble ions (SO42−, NO3, Cl, F, PO43−, NO2, CH3COO, CH2C2O42−, C2H4C2O42−, HCOO, MSA, C2O42−, NH4+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, and 19 elements of 176 samples from MT were measured. SO42−, NO3, and NH4+ were the major water-soluble species in PM2.5, accounting for 61.5% and 73.8% of the total measured ions in spring and summer, respectively. The average ratio of PM2.5/TSP was 0.37(2006 and 0.49(2007 in spring, while up to 0.91 in summer, suggesting that aerosol particles were primarily comprised of fine particles in summer and of considerable coarse particles in spring. Crustal elements (e.g., Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, etc. showed higher concentration in spring than summer, while most pollution species (SO42−, NO3, K

  5. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  6. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  7. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  8. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historica...

  9. Mesozoic high-K granitic rocks from the eastern Dabie Mountains, Central China and their geological implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Chunjing

    2001-01-01

    [1]Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources of Anhui Province, Regional Geology Annals of Anhui Province, Beijing: Geological Publishing House, 1987.[2]Xu, S. T., Liu, Y. C., Jiang, L. L. et al., Tectonic Regime and Evolution of Dabie Mountains, Beijing: Science Press, 1994, 175.[3]Chen, T. Y., Niu, B. G., Liu, Z. G. et al., Geochronology of Yanshanian magmatism and metamorphism in the hinterland of the Dabie Mountains and their geological significance, Acta Geologica Sinica, 1991, 4: 329-336.[4]Chen, J. F., Xie, Z., Liu, S. S. et al., Cooling age of Dabie orogen, China, determined by 40Ar-39Ar and fission track tech-niques, Science in China, Ser. B, 1995, 38: 749-757.[5]Xue, F., Rowley, D. B., Tucker, R. D. et al., U-Pb zircon ages of granitoid rocks in the north Dabie complex, eastern Dabie Shan, China, J. Geol., 1997, 105: 744-753.[6]Ma, C. Q., Li, Z. C., Ehlers, C. et al., A post-collisional magmatic plumbing system: Mesozoic granitoid plutons from the Dabieshan high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic zone, east-central China, Lithos., 1998, 45: 431-456.[7]Chapell, B. W., White, A. J. R., Two contrasting granite types, Pacific Geology, 1974, 8: 173-174.[8]Peccerillo, A., Taylor, S. R., Geochemistry of Eocene calcalkaline volcanic rocks from the Kastamonu area, northern Tur-key, Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 1976, 58: 63-81.[9]Batchelor, R. A., Bowden, P., Petrogenetic interpretation of granitoid rock series using multicationic parameters, Chem. Geol., 1985, 48: 43-55.[10]Faure, G., Principles of Isotope Geology, 2nd edition, New York, Santa Barbara, London, Sydney, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, 1986, 217-239.[11]Xie, Z., Chen, J. F., Zhou, T. X. et al., Nd isotopic compositions of metamorphic and granitic rocks from Dabie and their geological significance, Acta Petrologica Sinica , 1996, 12: 401-408.[12]Hacker, B. R., Wang, Q. C., Ar/Ar geochronology of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in central China

  10. Cortical arousal and central nervous system fatigue after a mountain marathon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación en pruebas de ultra resistencia se ha centrado en el estudio de parámetros fisiológicos y la composición corporal. El estudio de la influencia sobre la función cognitiva y el sistema nervioso central (SNC, utilizando el umbral de frecuencia crítica de fusión (UFCF, no ha sido medido en estas pruebas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los cambios en el UFCF antes y después de una maratón de montaña. Se analizaron 26 atletas (22 hombres y 4 mujeres, 66.9 ± 10.0 kg, 171.4 ± 7.1 cm, 37.8 ± 9.9 años. Antes y después del maratón de montaña los corredores realizaron una prueba para analizar el UFCF, también se analizó la concentración de lactato en sangre antes y después de la carrera y la frecuencia cardíaca durante la carrera. Los resultados muestran que el UFCF disminuyó no significativamente (p < 0.05 después de la maratón de montaña. La media de la frecuencia cardíaca fue de 150.9 ± 7.9 lpm y la concentración de lactato sanguíneo final fue de 4.5 ± 1.2 mmol / l. Una maratón de montaña no afectó negativamente al sistema nervioso central, la fatiga fue causada por otras causas periféricas.

  11. Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes association with Rhodnius prolixus and R. pallescens allopatric distribution in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Antón, Fernando; Urrea, Daniel Alfonso; Guhl, Felipe; Arévalo, Carolina; Azofeifa, Gabriela; Urbina, Andrea; Blandón-Naranjo, Melissa; Sousa, Octavio E; Zeledón, Rodrigo; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2009-12-01

    Previous kDNA polymorphism-based reports have revealed the existence of two Trypanosoma rangeli genotypes (KP1+ and KP1-): SL and SSU rRNA gene polymorphism-based studies have revealed that five genotypes (A-E) are distributed throughout different Latin-American countries. Some evidence has shown that the genotypes' biogeographical distribution is associated with sympatric Rhodnius species. 12 T. rangeli isolates from humans and reservoirs from El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama were characterised by kDNA and mini-exon gene intergene spacer analysis and compared to 12 previously characterised isolates from humans and vectors from Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras and Venezuela. Central American isolates corresponded to genotypes called KP1(+) or lineage A and KP1(-) or lineage C. Such dimorphism was corroborated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 22 selected isolates; a dendrogram was thus produced having two defined branches. One branch grouped KP1(-) or lineage C strains isolated from Rhodnius colombiensis (Colombia), humans (Panama), Procyon lotor and Choloepus hoffmanni (Costa Rica). The other group was formed by KP1(+) or lineage A strains isolated from Rhodnius prolixus (Colombia, Venezuela) and humans (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras). These results present evidence that both groups infect different mammals (humans, domestic and silvatic animals) having no association with any particular vertebrate species; however, T. rangeli KP1(+) or (A) strains have been isolated in Central America in areas where R. prolixus circulate (Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala) and KP1(-) or (C) strains have been isolated in areas where Rhodnius pallescens is the main vector (Panama and Costa Rica) indicating a parasite-vector association. The same lineages circulate in Andean countries (Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru), KP1+ being associated with members of the prolixus group (R. prolixus and Rhodnius robustus) and KP1- with members of the

  12. Understanding karst environments by thermo-hygrometric monitoring: preliminary results from the Cesi Mountain karst system (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Di Matteo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of karst systems is of paramount importance for the protection and valorisation of these environments. A multidisciplinary study is presented to investigate the possible interconnection between karst features of a karst area located in the south-western part of the Martani chain (Cesi Mountain, Central Italy. This hydrogeological structure contributes to recharge a deep regional aquifer. The latter feeds the high discharge and salinity Stifone springs. In the southwestern part of Martani chain, seven caves have been mapped, five of which are hosted in the Calcare Massiccio Formation. The analysis of thermo-hygrometric data collected since Autumn 2014 into the caves and those from external meteorological stations, showed the timing of the airflow inversion occurring on late winter/early spring and summer/ early autumn. Despite the complexity of the morphology of caves and of conceptual models of airflow pattern, these data seem to indicate that the monitored small caves could be interconnected to a considerably wider cave system. Data here presented coupled with the knowledge on hydrogeological and geological-structural setting of the limestone massif are useful to drive future speleological explorations, aiming to discover new large cavities and to better understand the water recharge process.

  13. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan mountains, central Asia, by ground penetrating radar survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Puyu Wang; Zhongqin Li; Shuang Jin; Ping Zhou; Hongbing Yao; Wenbin Wang

    2014-04-01

    The results of radar survey for three times are presented, aiming to determine ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Tianshan Mountains, central Asia. Results show that the distribution of ice is more in the center and lesser at both ends of the glacier. The bedrock is quite regular with altitudes decreasing towards the ice front, showing the U-shaped subglacial valley. By comparison, typical ice thinning along the centerline of the East Branch of the glacier was 10–18 m for the period 1981–2006, reaching a maximum of ∼30 m at the terminus. The corresponding ice volume was 10296.2 × 104 m3, 8797.9 × 104 m3 and 8115.0 × 104 m3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is the direct result of glacier thinning. In the same period, the ice thickness, area and terminus decreased by 12.2%, 10.3%, and 3.6%, respectively. These changes are responses to the regional climatic warming, which show a dramatic increase of 0.6°C (10 a)−1 during the period 1981–2006.

  14. CASEARIA QUENSTEDT AND CYPELLIA POMEL (HEXACTINELLIDA, PORIFERA FROM THE JURASSIC OF THE SHOTORI MOUNTAINS, EAST-CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The hexactinellid sponge genera Casearia Quenstedt, Caseispongia Quenstedt, and Cypellia Pomel are all morphologically similar and externally annulated. Caseispongia is internally a chambered sponge, like the hypercalcified genus Amblysiphonella . The internal construction of almost all externally annulated specimens illustrated as Casearia by Quenstedt and some other authors is not known enough. Despite of this lack of knowledge the genus name Caseispongia is synonymized with Casearia based on observations of Müller and the description of Schmidel. Both genera were described originally from the Upper Jurassic of southern Germany. Hexactinellid sponges, described in this paper, are reported for the first time from the Jurassic of the Shotori Mountains in east-central Iran. The following species are new to science: Casearia tabasensis , Cypellia irregularis , C. cylindrica , and C. tabulata . 

  15. Modelling air quality impact of a biomass energy power plant in a mountain valley in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curci, Gabriele; Cinque, Giovanni; Tuccella, Paolo; Visconti, Guido; Verdecchia, Marco; Iarlori, Marco; Rizi, Vincenzo

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the potential impact on local air quality of a biomass power plant, which is planned for installation near L'Aquila, a city of 70,000 people located in a mountain valley in Central Italy. The assessment is carried out by applying a one year simulation with the CALPUFF model, following the recommendations of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. Meteorological input is produced with CALMET model, fed with both MM5 meteorological fields at 3 km resolution and wind observations from a surface weather station. We estimate small (<0.5 μg m-3) annual average increments to SO2, NO2 and PM10 ambient levels over the domain of interest, but significant (up to 50% for NO2) enhancements and several violations (up to 141 for NO2) of hourly limits for human protection within 1.5 km from the source. These results anticipate a larger negative effect on local air quality than those published by the building firm of the plant. We also suggest that a minimum distance of 5 km from the nearest residential area would represent a significant decrease of population exposure.

  16. Glimpses of East Antarctica: Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic view from the central Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Goodge, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and satellite magnetic data provide glimpses of the crustal architecture within the Ross Sea sector of the enigmatic, ice-covered East Antarctic shield critical for understanding both global tectonic and climate history. In the central Transantarctic Mountains (CTAM), exposures of Precambrian basement, coupled with new high-resolution magnetic data, other recent aeromagnetic transects, and satellite magnetic and seismic tomography data, show that the shield in this region comprises an Archean craton modified both by Proterozoic magmatism and early Paleozoic orogenic basement reactivation. CTAM basement structures linked to the Ross Orogeny are imaged 50–100 km farther west than previously mapped, bounded by inboard upper crustal Proterozoic granites of the Nimrod igneous province. Magnetic contrasts between craton and rift margin sediments define the Neoproterozoic rift margin, likely reactivated during Ross orogenesis and Jurassic extension. Interpretation of satellite magnetic and aeromagnetic patterns suggests that the Neoproterozoic rift margin of East Antarctica is offset by transfer zones to form a stepwise series of salients tracing from the CTAM northward through the western margin of the Wilkes Subglacial Basin to the coast at Terre Adélie. Thinned Precambrian crust inferred to lie east of the rift margin cannot be imaged magnetically because of modification by Neoproterozoic and younger tectonic events.

  17. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  18. Influence of Glacier Retreat On The Water Yield From High Mountain Areas, Comparison Alps - Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagg, W.; Braun, L.

    The main objective of the study is the investigation of the link between glacier retreat and discharge in selected catchments in Central Asia and the comparison of these results with conditions in the Alps. For this purpose, the conceptual runoff model HBV-ETH has been applied in three glacierized basins in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyztan and China, which represent regions of different continentality. Operating only with air temperature and precipitation data, the model calculates discharge and other water balance components in a daily timestep. To evaluate the reaction of the simulated hydrograph to climate change, the meteorological model input has been modified, according to the results of regional climate modeling under the assumption of doubling of atmospheric CO2. These runoff scenarios were made for three different stages of deglacierization. The first results show a similar pattern as observed in the Alps in previous studies: under a present-day glacier extent the water yield rises drastically during the melting period, after a reduction of the glacierized area by 50 % the flood peaks are reduced to presently observed values, and after a complete disappearance of the glaciers the calculated runoff indicates a strong reduction of runoff during summer months, which would have a significant effect on the availability of water resources in these dry regions of Asia.

  19. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: composition and adult phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitágoras C. Bispo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, is presented as well as data of some factors that could affeet the temporal distribution of the adults. For checking adult phenology, light sources were used in three stations from June 1993 to Jully 1994. The sampled individuais were identified to species or morphospecies, as possible. In this study, 301 individuais belonging to the perlid genera Anacroneuria Klapálek, 1909, Kempnyia Klapálek, 1916 and Macrogynoplax Enderlein, 1909 were collected. Adults of most species were collected along the studied period, except for those of Kempnyia that were restricted to the warm-rainy season, the same pattern for this genus in southeastern Brazil. Although adults of most species were collected along most of the studied period, the largest number of adults was collected in the months with larger mean temperatures, showing a clear seasonality in abundance.

  20. THE LATE PLEISTOCENE APENNINE CHAMOIS FROM GROTTA MORA CAVORSO (SIMBRUINI MOUNTAINS, CENTRAL ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO SALARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paperdescribes a sub-entire, partially articulated skeleton of chamois found togetherwith other vertebrate remainsina silty lens withlimestone clastsbetween the 104 and 105 SSUU of Grotta Mora Cavorso(Latium, Italy. Thissilty lensis chronologically correlatable to a temperate oscillation of MIS 3.The skull and post-cranial remains from Grotta Mora Cavorso were compared with the fossil remains of chamois from numerous Late Pleistocene and older Holocene sites of Italy and of Pyrenees and Iberian Peninsula. Additional comparisons were made with large samples of extant chamois, Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata , R. pyrenaica pyrenaica and R. rupicapra rupicapra .Morphological and morphometric features of the skull and the horn-core, as well as other characters of the metacarpus suggest to refer the fossil remainsfrom Grotta Mora Cavorsoto Apennine chamois, R. pyrenaica ornata . This is the earliest ascertained recordin Central-Southern Italyofthe ornata -like chamois, a subspeciesso far knownwith certaintyonly in the Holocene, orpossibly in the Lateglacial.

  1. Surface pollen and vegetation reconstruction from central and northern mountains of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Surface pollen from various montane vegetations in Shalixian Mt. and Lepei Mt. of central and northern Taiwan have been explored and analyzed. The pollen data were used to simulate vegetation types by using the biomisation technique. Computing three matrixes of pollen taxa, plant functional types and combined biomes, vegetation types at each site have been finally defined through the fuzz selections of a tie-breaking rule. The results show that surface pollen data can simulate the subtropical Castanopsis and Cyclobalanopsis forests, alpine warm-temperate Quercus and Quercus-Pinus forests, and alpine temperate/cool-temperate conifers of Tsuga-Picea and Picea-Abies forests. Simulated elevations of the forests are similar to actual locations of the forests. This study can add vertical surface pollen data for extending investigation of various vegetation types in China, provide PFT schemes and vegetation types in low-latitude and montane areas, and be applied as modern analogues for fossil pollen in order to reconstruct Quaternary vegetations.

  2. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  3. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace M Meyer

    Full Text Available The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May and summer (September 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1 beetles (Coleoptera, (2 spiders (Araneae, (3 grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera, and (4 millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species and 76% (254 species of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests. Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon, significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  4. Aerosol chemistry during the wet season in central Amazonia - The influence of long-range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Artaxo, P.; Garstang, M.

    1990-01-01

    The temporal variation in the concentration and chemistry of the atmospheric aerosol over central Amazonia, Brazil, during the 1987 wet season is discussed based on ground and aircraft collected data obtained during the NASA GTE ABLE 2B expedition conducted in April/May 1987. It is found that wet-season aerosol concentrations and composition are variable in contrast to the more uniform biogenic aerosol observed during the 1985 dry season; four distinct intervals of enhanced aerosol concentration coincided with short periods (3 to 5 d) of extensive rainfall. It is hypothesized that aerosol chemistry in Amazonia during the wet season is strongly influenced by long-range transport of soil dust, marine aerosol, and possibly biomass combustion products advected into the central Basin by large-scale tropospheric circulation, producing periodic pulses of material input to local boundary layer air. The resultant wet-season aerosol regime is dynamic, in contrast to the uniformity of natural biogenic aerosols during the dry season.

  5. Late-Holocene environmental and climatic changes in central part of the Western Sayan Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenaderova, Anna; Sharafutdinov, Ruslan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this collaborative research is to determine how Holocene climate variability affects the landscapes evolution in valley of Buyba River. The work was conducted at the intersection of three disciplines: paleobotany, mineralogy and geochemistry. Data about environmental and climate changes in the Late Holocene in central part of Western Sayan are presented. We analyzed four peatland locations that, related to a single area of the river catchment. Sediment cores were taken from the central part of the peatland landscape. The age was determined by radiocarbon dating. Start of bog forming occurred asynchronously within the northern macroslope of Western Sayan. Bogs age decreases with the increase in the absolute elevations. On the highest elevation of 1656 m, the process of peat accumulation started 460 ± 80 years ago, after a significant reduction of snowfields. The most ancient peat layers formed at the altitude of 1320 meters and in elevations down the slope, and were aged 2950 ± 110 years or more (up to 5000 years). Over the period from 5000 to 4000 years ago, there were dryer and warmer climate conditions in the research area. Slopes of trough valleys were covered with sub-alpine shrubs of dwarf birch and alder, tree layer was absent. According to the pollen analysis, the role of tree vegetation (Pinus forest with participation of Pinus sibirica and Betula sect. Albae) was larger at the foothills. At the same time, at an altitude of 1650 m peat deposits are not formed, only isolated remains of plant detritus were found in much younger gravelly-clay sediments. Shallow flowing pond conditions were characteristic for stages before peat accumulation . Geochemical analysis of the ratio Th / U in loam, underlying peat, allows one to infer about oxidizing conditions during sedimentation. Analysis of the minerals in the peat layer, and the dynamics of accumulation of Na, Al, Ti (INAA-method) indicate that the time interval 500-2200 years was characterized

  6. Time Variability of Surface-Layer Characteristics over a Mountain Ridge in the Central Himalayas During the Spring Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Raman; Singh, Narendra; Kiran Kumar, N. V. P.; Rajeev, K.; Dhaka, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    We present the diurnal variations of surface-layer characteristics during spring (March-May 2013) observed near a mountain ridge at Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1926 m above mean sea level), a hill station located in the southern part of the central Himalayas. During spring, this region generally witnesses fair-weather conditions and significant solar heating of the surface, providing favourable conditions for the systematic diurnal evolution of the atmospheric boundary layer. We mainly utilize the three-dimensional wind components and virtual temperature observed with sonic anemometers (sampling at 25 Hz) mounted at 12- and 27-m heights on a meteorological tower. Tilt corrections using the planar-fit method have been applied to convert the measurements to streamline-following coordinate system before estimating turbulence parameters. The airflow at this ridge site is quite different from slope flows. Notwithstanding the prevalence of strong large-scale north-westerly winds, the diurnal variation of the mountain circulation is clearly discernible with the increase of wind speed and a small but distinct change in wind direction during the afternoon period. Such an effect further modulates the surface-layer water vapour content, which increases during the daytime and results in the development of boundary-layer clouds in the evening. The sensible heat flux ( H) shows peak values around noon, with its magnitude increasing from March (222± 46 W m^{-2}) to May (353± 147 W m^{-2}). The diurnal variation of turbulent kinetic energy ( e) is insignificant during March while its mean value is enhanced by 30-50 % of the post-midnight value during the afternoon (1400-1600 IST), delayed by {≈ }2 h compared to the peak in H. This difference between the phase variations of incoming shortwave flux, H and e primarily arise due to the competing effects of turbulent eddies produced by thermals and wind shear, the latter increase significantly with time until nighttime during April

  7. Gravity, aeromagnetic and rock-property data of the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Gravity, aeromagnetic, and rock-property data were collected to support geologic-mapping, water-resource, and seismic-hazard studies for the central California Coast Ranges. These data are combined with existing data to provide gravity, aeromagnetic, and physical-property datasets for this region. The gravity dataset consists of approximately 18,000 measurements. The aeromagnetic dataset consists of total-field anomaly values from several detailed surveys that have been merged and gridded at an interval of 200 m. The physical property dataset consists of approximately 800 density measurements and 1,100 magnetic-susceptibility measurements from rock samples, in addition to previously published borehole gravity surveys from Santa Maria Basin, density logs from Salinas Valley, and intensities of natural remanent magnetization.

  8. Kinematic Analysis of Fault-Slip Data in the Central Range of Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Sapiie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.1.1-16Most of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution in New Guinea is a result of obliquely convergent motion that ledto an arc-continent collision between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The Gunung Bijih (Ertsberg Mining District(GBMD is located in the Central Range of Papua, in the western half of the island of New Guinea. This study presentsthe results of detailed structural mapping concentrated on analyzing fault-slip data along a 15-km traverse of theHeavy Equipment Access Trail (HEAT and the Grasberg mine access road, providing new information concerning thedeformation in the GBMD and the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Central Range. Structural analysis indicatesthat two distinct stages of deformation have occurred since ~12 Ma. The first stage generated a series of en-echelonNW-trending (π-fold axis = 300° folds and a few reverse faults. The second stage resulted in a significant left-lateralstrike-slip faulting sub-parallel to the regional strike of upturned bedding. Kinematic analysis reveals that the areasbetween the major strike-slip faults form structural domains that are remarkably uniform in character. The changein deformation styles from contractional to a strike-slip offset is explained as a result from a change in the relativeplate motion between the Pacific and Australian Plates at ~4 Ma. From ~4 - 2 Ma, transform motion along an ~ 270°trend caused a left-lateral strike-slip offset, and reactivated portions of pre-existing reverse faults. This action had aprofound effect on magma emplacement and hydrothermal activity.

  9. Kinematic Analysis of Fault-Slip Data in the Central Range of Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Sapiie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution in New Guinea is a result of obliquely convergent motion that ledto an arc-continent collision between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The Gunung Bijih (Ertsberg Mining District(GBMD is located in the Central Range of Papua, in the western half of the island of New Guinea. This study presentsthe results of detailed structural mapping concentrated on analyzing fault-slip data along a 15-km traverse of theHeavy Equipment Access Trail (HEAT and the Grasberg mine access road, providing new information concerning thedeformation in the GBMD and the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Central Range. Structural analysis indicatesthat two distinct stages of deformation have occurred since ~12 Ma. The first stage generated a series of en-echelonNW-trending (π-fold axis = 300° folds and a few reverse faults. The second stage resulted in a significant left-lateralstrike-slip faulting sub-parallel to the regional strike of upturned bedding. Kinematic analysis reveals that the areasbetween the major strike-slip faults form structural domains that are remarkably uniform in character. The changein deformation styles from contractional to a strike-slip offset is explained as a result from a change in the relativeplate motion between the Pacific and Australian Plates at ~4 Ma. From ~4 - 2 Ma, transform motion along an ~ 270°trend caused a left-lateral strike-slip offset, and reactivated portions of pre-existing reverse faults. This action had aprofound effect on magma emplacement and hydrothermal activity.

  10. Chemical and isotopic variations in the Wiśniówka Mała mine pit water, Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Zdzisław M.; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Hałas, Stanisław; Dąbek, Józef; Dołęgowska, Sabina; Budzyk, Irena; Starnawska, Ewa; Michalik, Artur

    2009-03-01

    In 2005 and 2006, hydrogeochemical study was carried out in the bipartite Wiśniówka Mała pit lake of the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland). This is the largest acidic water body in Poland. This report presents the element concentrations in the water and sediment, stable sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios in the soluble sulfates, and stable oxygen isotope ratio in the water. The scope of the investigation also encompassed mineralogical examinations (scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction) of the sediment. The results of this study show that there is a spatial and temporal variability in concentrations of most elements and sulfur isotope ratios in the examined pit lake. The water of the western pond displayed a lower pH with a mean of 3.73 and higher conductivity (390 μS cm-1) as well as higher concentrations of sulfates (156 mg L-1) and most of the cations and anions. The concentrations of Fe2+ and Fe3+ averaged 0.8 and 0.4 mg·L-1. In contrast, the eastern pond water revealed a higher pH (mean of 4.36), lower conductivity (293 μS cm-1) and lower sulfate (90 mg L-1) and trace metal levels. Similar variations were recorded in the stable sulfur isotope ratios. The δ34SV-CDT(SO4 2-) values in the water of the western pit pond were in the range of -6.7 to -4.6‰ (mean of -5.6‰), whereas that in the eastern pit pond ranged from -2.2 to -0.9‰ (-1.6‰). The alkalinity of the entire lake water was below 0.1 mg·L-1 CaCO3. No distinct difference in the δ18OV-SMOW(SO4 2-) was noted between the western and eastern pit ponds. Compared to the Purple Pond in the Sudetes (Poland) and similar sites throughout the world, the examined pit lake is highlighted by distinctly low concentrations of sulfates, iron and other trace metals. Based on this and other studies performed in the Holy Cross Mountains, a conclusion can be drawn that the SO4 2- in the Wiśniówka Mała pit lake water is a mixture of SO4 2- derived from the following sources: (1) pyrite

  11. Bedrock Control on Slope Gradients in the Luckiamute Watershed, Central Coast Range, Oregon: Implications for Sediment Transport and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Luckiamute River watershed drains 815 sq km along the east flank of the Coast Range in west-central Oregon. Active mountain building and extreme precipitation patterns result in a dynamic geomorphic system characterized by seasonal flooding and slope failure. Style of surficial process and landform associations are controlled by topographic position, underlying bedrock geology, and resistance to erosion. Bedrock map units are grouped into four lithospatial domains, these include the Siletz River Volcanics Domain (south), the Tyee Domain (west-southwest), the Yamhill-Intrusive Domain (north-northwest), and the Valley Fill-Spencer Domain (east). The Siletz River Domain comprises 19% of the watershed and is mainly seafloor basalt. The Tyee Domain (29% of total area) is underlain by arkosic sandstone lithofacies with local mafic intrusives. The Yamhill-Intrusive Domain occupies 23% of the watershed and is characterized by outcrop of marine siltstone and mafic intrusives. The Valley Fill-Spencer Domain (29%) is underlain by a patchwork of marine sandstones and Quaternary alluvium. Hillslope landforms and colluvial processes dominate the Siletz River, Tyee, and Yamhill domains, whereas fluvial landforms and alluvial processes are characteristic of the Valley Fill Domain. GIS-based analyses of USGS 10-meter DEMs elucidate associations between lithospatial domains and slope gradients. Average gradients for the Valley Fill, Siletz, Yamhill, and Tyee domains are 3.2 (n = 2290702 10-m cells), 12.7 (n = 1510287 10-m cells), 11.9 (n = 1926899 10-m cells), and 14.5 (n = 2409140 10-m cells) degrees, respectively. The Tyee Domain is associated with significantly steeper slopes on average compared to the other three domains. In addition, greater than 14% of the Tyee Domain area has slopes greater than 25 degrees, compared to less than 1% for the Valley Fill Domain, and less than 8% for the Siletz and Yamhill domains. Results of the slope analyses are consistent with debris

  12. Antenatal care practice and the chance of having nurse/midwife birth attendant: a study in Central Mountain of Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Asiah Nuril Haya

    2015-01-01

    antenatal care (ANC are important factors in decreasing maternal mortality rate.  This study aimed to identify the association of ANC to nurse/midwife-assisted birth in Papua.Methods: The subjects of this cross-sectional study and purposive sampling consisted of females with toddlers in the family visiting the integrated community center on 15-30 January 2014 in 24 villages in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. Several demographic characteristics, ANC practices, and labor practices were collected by interview. Analysis was carried out by Cox regression with constant time.Results: There were 469 subjects, but only 391 subjects were available for analysis which consisted of 280 subjects with self/family-assisted births and 111 with nurse/midwife-assistedbirths. There were only 3 subjects that gave birth in the forest or stable (“kandang hina”. Compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC in the integrated community center had 5.6-fold possibility to have a nurse/ midwife-assisted birth [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 5.60; 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.99-10.47]. In addition, compared with those who never had ANC, those who had ANC by midwife and 4 ANC visits had higher possibility to have nurse/midwife-assisted birth, 4.9-fold (RRa = 4.89; 95% CI = 2.70-8.86 and 6.9-fold (RRa = 6.90; 95% CI = 3.59-13.27 respectively.Conclusion: Antenatal care service is a possible way to increase the proportion of deliveries by nurse/midwife in Central Mountain of Jayawijaya, Papua. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:60-6Key words: antenatal care, nurse/midwife attended birth/labor, Papua

  13. Assessment of soil erosion sensitivity and post-timber-harvesting erosion response in a mountain environment of Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Pasquale; Schütt, Brigitta

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of forest management on the occurrence of accelerated soil erosion by water. The study site is located in a mountainous area of the Italian Central Apennines. Here, forest harvesting is a widespread forestry activity and is mainly performed on the moderate to steep slopes of the highlands. Through modeling operations based on data on soil properties and direct monitoring of changes in the post-forest-harvesting soil surface level at the hillslope scale, we show that the observed site became prone to soil erosion after human intervention. Indeed, the measured mean soil erosion rate of 49 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for the harvested watershed is about 21 times higher than the rate measured in its neighboring undisturbed forested watershed (2.3 t ha- 1 yr- 1). The erosive response is greatly aggravated by exposing the just-harvested forest, with very limited herbaceous plant cover, to the aggressive attack of the heaviest annual rainfall without adopting any conservation practices. The erosivity of the storms during the first four months of field measurements was 1571 MJ mm h- 1 ha- 1 in total (i.e., from September to December 2008). At the end of the experiment (16 months), 18.8%, 26.1% and 55.1% of the erosion monitoring sites in the harvested watershed recorded variations equal or greater than 0-5, 5-10 and > 10 mm, respectively. This study also provides a quantification of Italian forestland surfaces with the same pedo-lithological characteristics exploited for wood supply. Within a period of ten years (2002-2011), about 9891 ha of coppice forest changes were identified and their potential soil erosion rates modeled.

  14. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  15. Patterns of soil carbon and nitrogen in relation to soil movement under different land uses in mountain farmland fields (South Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, A.; Gaspar, L.; López-Vicente, M.; Machín, J.

    2009-04-01

    Cultivation on mountain landscapes has been identified as a main factor triggering soil erosion. The loss of soil particles and its redistribution across the landscape is associated to that of soil nutrients. Patterns of soil erosion and of the transport and redistribution of soil particles appear to be closely linked to that of carbon in soils. In this work the redistribution of total organic carbon and nitrogen and that of soil particles is analysed in different geomorphic parts of mountain farmland fields. A southern orientated hillslope in the Central Spanish Pyrenees was selected as representative of main land uses. In the region, farmland abandonment during the last decades affects 74 % of its surface and therefore patterns of soil and nutrient losses in the fields are affected by land abandonments and tillage. A set of cultivated and abandoned fields with different ages of land abandonment, slope gradients and length were selected to conduct this study. In each of the fields, sampling was carried out in different parts of the slope to assess the pattern of particle size distribution and of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Other general soil properties analysed: pH, EC and carbonate contents provided supplementary information for better understanding soil and nutrient redistribution patterns. In addition, information provided by a previous research using fallout caesium 137 was used to document soil movement in these fields. At the bottom slope of the fields significant increases in the sand percentage occurs whereas the clay contents decrease slightly. This could be due to the export of the finest fractions with high runoff in spite that fields are surrounded with stone walls as well as to some clay leaching in the soil profile, as suggested by the lowest values of EC at the bottom of the slope. The results indicate that in general TOC increases from the crest to the bottom slope of the fields. Percentages of TOC increases range from 5 to

  16. Dual-system Tectonics of the San Luis Range and Vicinity, Coastal Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. H.

    2010-12-01

    The M 6.5 "San Simeon" earthquake of December 22, 2003, occurred beneath the Santa Lucia Range in coastal central California, and resulted in around $250,000,000 property damage and two deaths from collapse of an historic building in the town of Paso Robles, located 40 km from the epicenter. The earthquake and more than 10,000 aftershocks were well recorded by nearby seismographs, which permitted detailed analysis of the event (eg: McLaren et al., 2008). This analysis facilitated evaluation of the hazard of the occurrence of a similar event in the nearby San Luis Range, located along the coast west of the city of San Luis Obispo some 55 km south of the San Simeon epicenter. The future occurrence of earthquakes analogous to the 2003 event in this area had been proposed in the late 1960’s (eg: Benioff and Smith, 1967; Richter, 1969) but the apparent hazard of such occurrences came to be overshadowed by the discovery of the “Hosgri” strike slip fault passing close to the area in the offshore. However data accumulated since the early 1970’s clearly demonstrate the hazard as being partitioned between nearby earthquakes of strike slip origin, and underlying earthquakes of thrust origin analogous to that of the 2003 San Simeon earthquake. And for the onshore San Luis Range area, an underlying actively seismogenic thrust wedge appears to provide the maximum potential seismic ground motion; exceeding that potentially resulting from large events on nearby strike slip faults of the San Simeon-Hosgri system, for onshore sites. Understanding and documentation of the geology, geomorphology, tectonics and seismogenesis of the San Luis Range and vicinity has recently experienced a quantum improvement as both new and accumulated data have been analysed. An integrated interpretation of all available data now clearly shows that a dual “side by side” system of active tectonics exists in the region. Essentially the most obvious evidence for this is seen simply in the

  17. Declining pine growth in Central Spain coincides with increasing diurnal temperature range since the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Martínez-Peña, Fernando; Aldea, Jorge; Rigling, Andreas; Fischer, Erich M.; Camarero, J. Julio; Hayes, Michael J.; Fatton, Vincent; Egli, Simon

    2013-08-01

    Growing evidence suggests environmental change to be most severe across the semi-arid subtropics, with past, present and projected drying of the Mediterranean Basin posing a key multidisciplinary challenge. Consideration of a single climatic factor, however, often fails to explain spatiotemporal growth dynamics of drought-prone ecosystems. Here, we present annually resolved and absolutely dated ring width measurements of 871 Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris) from 18 individual plot sites in the Central Spanish Pinar Grande forest reserve. Although comprising tree ages from 6 to 175 years, this network correlates surprisingly well with the inverse May-July diurnal temperature range (r = 0.84; p Atlantic Oscillation, and the long-term growth decline coincided with Iberian-wide drying since the mid-1970s. Climate model simulations not only confirm this negative trend over the last decades but also project drought to continuously increase over the 21st century. Associated ecological effects and socio-economic consequences should be considered to improve adaptation strategies of agricultural and forest management, as well as biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service.

  18. Alice Springs age shear zones from the southeastern Reynolds Range, central Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, I.; Lambert, D.D. [Monash University, Clayton, VIC (Australia). Victorian Institute of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences; Buick, I.S.; Foster, D.A. [La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC (Australia). Victorian Institute of Earth and Planetary Sciences, School of Earth Sciences

    1999-06-01

    The southeast Reynolds Range, central Australia, is cut by steep northwest-trending shear zones that are up to hundreds of metres wide and several kilometres long. Amphibolite-facies shear zones cut metapelites, while greenschist-facies shear zones cut metagranites. Rb-Sr and {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar data suggest that both sets of shear zones formed in the 400-300 Ma Alice Springs Orogeny, with the sheared granites yielding well-constrained {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar ages of ca 334 Ma. These data imply that the shear zones represent a distinct tectonic episode in this terrain, and were not formed during cooling from the ca 1.6 Ga regional metamorphism. A general correlation between regional metamorphic grade and the grade of Alice Springs structures implies a similar distribution of heat sources for the two events. This may be most consistent with both phases of metamorphism being caused by the burial of anomalously radiogenic heat-producing granites. The sheared rocks commonly have undergone metasomatism implying that the shear zones were conduits of fluid flow during Alice Springs times. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 44 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. Structural development of the west-central Grant Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, J. E.

    The Grant Ridge in east central Nevada shows a complex history of Mesozoic and Cenozoic deformation. The oldest structure in the range is a major east vergent overturned anticline, possibly related to a thrust fault at depth. Most of the lower to upper Cambrian rocks exposed in the study area are part of the overturned limb of the anticline. After folding, the Cambrian rocks were metamorphosed, locally to staurolite grade; neomineralization dies out upward through the fold. The older set dips to the southeast, and generally placed slightly to unmetamorphosed units upon more severely deformed units. The younger fault set dips west, cutting east dipping faults and syntectonic conglomerates likely correlative with the Mio-Pliocene Horse Camp Formation. These faults are therefore Pliocene or younger in age. These relationships indicate that, folding, metamorphism, ductile shearing, and low angle normal faulting were geometrically and chronologically independent of each other. Post late Cretaceous and pre late Oligocene low angle north directed shearing occurred, but the relationship of this shearing to the regional structural history is uncertain.

  20. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-02-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43 mm of rain in 4 h, 35 mm of which fell in the first 2 h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30°) in catchments with small contributing areas (material along their paths.

  1. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALYA SUBASINGHE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Subasinghe K, Sumanapala AP. 2014. Biological and functional diversity of bird communities in natural and human modified habitats in Northern Flank of Knuckles Mountain Forest Range, Sri Lanka. Biodiversitas 15: 200-205. The Knuckles Mountain Forest Range (KMFR has a complex mosaic of natural and human modified habitats and the contribution of these habitats to the biological and functional diversities has not been deeply studied. Present study investigated both of these diversities in five habitat types (two natural habitats: Sub-montane forest and Pitawala Patana grassland; three modified habitats: cardamom, pinus and abandoned tea plantations in Northern Flank of KMFR using birds as the indicator group. Bird communities were surveyed using point count method. A total of 1,150 individuals belonging to 56 species were observed. The highest species richness was reported from the cardamom plantation where as sub-montane forest had the highest feeding guild diversity in terms of Shannon Weiner index. The abandoned tea plantation and the Pitawala Patana grasslands with fairly open habitats, showed relatively lower levels of feeding guild diversities. It is clear that the structurally complex habitats contribute more to the area’s biological and functional diversities and need to be taken into consideration when developing conservation plans.

  2. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies of carbonate deposits from the Tolfa Mountains mining district (Latium, central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, U.; Ferrini, V.; O'Neil, J.R.; Batchelder, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotope analyses were made of representative samples of calcite and quartz from the carbonate deposits in the Tolfa Mountains mining district. Measurements were also made of hydrogen isotope compositions, filling temperatures and salinities of fluid inclusions in these minerals. There are three stages of mineralization at Tolfa. In stage I, characterized by calc-silicate hornfels, the carbonates have relatively high ?? 18O values of 14.5 to 21.6 suggesting a rather low water/rock ratio. ??13C values of -0.3 to 2.1 indicate that appreciable decarbonation or introduction of deep-seated carbon did not occur. Stage II is marked by phanerocrystalline carbonates; ?? 18O values of 13.1 to 20.0 and ??13C values of 0.7 to 5.0 identify them as hydrothermal veins rather than marbles. ?? D values of -56 to -50 for inclusion fluids suggest a possible magmatic component to the hydrothermal fluid. Filling temperatures of coarse-grained samples of Calcite II are 309?? to 362?? C with a salinity range of 5.3 to 7.1 weight percent NaCl. Calculated ??18O values of 11-12 for these fluids are again indicative of low water/rock ratios. The sparry calcites of stage III have ??18O and ??13C values of 8.1 to 12.9 and -1.7 to 3.2, respectively. ?? D values of inclusion fluids are -40 to -33, clearly heavier than in earlier stages and similar to values of modern local ground waters. A salinity measurement of link with associated carbonates. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Centrality measures in networks based on nodes attributes, long-range interactions and group influence

    CERN Document Server

    Aleskerov, F; Shvydun, S

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for assessing agents influence in network structures, which takes into consideration nodes attributes, individual and group influences of nodes, and the intensity of interactions. This approach helps us to identify both explicit and hidden central elements which cannot be detected by classical centrality measures or other indices.

  4. Fluid induced microstructures in granulites from the Reynolds Range, central Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prent, Alexander; Beinlich, Andreas; Raimondo, Tom; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Fluids play a major role in the evolution of the Earth's crust, driving metamorphic reactions, facilitating transport of mass and heat, and changing the physical properties of rock. Shear zones present in intraplate orogens are ideal natural laboratories to study the relationship of fluid-driven rock weakening to deformation, and thus the impact of fluid availability on the tectonic reworking of continental interiors. Here we present preliminary observations from the Aileron Shear Zone (ASZ), Reynolds Range, central Australia, a major crustal-scale thrust of the Palaeozoic Alice Springs Orogen (ASO). This study focuses on the effects of fluids on the mineralogy and mineral chemistry of deep crustal rocks collected from a transect running through the ASZ. The ASZ is thought to have been of major importance during exhumation of the ASO, and exhumes a partly retrogressed suite of felsic and metasedimentary granulite facies gneisses. Hydration reactions associated with retrogression resulted in the partial replacement of orthopyroxene and numerous myrmekite textures associated with plagioclase and mica. In undeformed samples, orthopyroxene (En56 Fer44) rims are partly replaced by a zoned sequence of biotite (Phl70 Ann30), sub-parallel rims of magnetite, biotite and K-feldspar (Or87). Deformed samples gradually show an increase in dynamic recrystallization of quartz, with fully recrystallized bands of foam texture quartz defining the foliation together with biotite. Quartz and minor biotite replacement then dominates the mineral assemblage with increasing strain. The presence of fluid-driven mineral replacement reactions in undeformed samples suggests that hydration predates shearing and exhumation, and furthermore, that strain may have been localised in areas of intense hydration and rock weakening. Retrograde reactions and myrmekite textures suggest the availability of a silica-saturated fluid. Additional mass-balance calculations will be applied to constrain the

  5. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43??mm of rain in 4??h, 35??mm of which fell in the first 2??h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30??) in catchments with small contributing areas (flow process. Based on field observations and examination of soils mapping of the northern part of the study area, we identified a relation between the degree of soil development and the process type that generated debris flows. In general, areas with greater soil development were less likely to generate runoff and therefore less likely to generate debris flows by the firehose effect or by rilling. The character of the surficial cover and the spatially variable hydrologic response to intense rainfall, rather than a threshold of contributing area and topographic slope, appears to control the initiation process in the high alpine of the Front Range. Because debris flows initiated by rilling and the firehose effect tend to increase in volume as they travel downslope, these

  6. Habitat Range of two Alpine Medicinal Plants in a Trans-Himalayan Dry Valley, Central Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharat Babu SHRESTHA; Pramod Kumar JHA

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the habitat range of threatened Himalayan medicinal plants which are declining in their abundance due to high anthropogenic disturbances is essential for developing conservation strategies and agro-technologies for cultivation. In this communication, we have discussed the habitat range of two alpine medicinal plants, Aconitum naviculare (Briihl) Stapf and Neopierorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennel) Hong in a trans-Himalayan dry valley of central Nepal, Manang district. They are the most prioritized medicinal plants of the study area in terms of ethnomedicinal uses. A. naviculare occurs on warm and dry south facing slopes between 4090-4650 m asl along with sclerophyllous and thorny alpine scrubs, while N. serophulariiflora is exclusively found on cool and moist north facing slope between 4o0o and 4400 m asl where adequate water is available from snow melt to create a suitable habitat for this wetland dependent species. The soil in rooting zone of the two plants differs significantly in organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Due to cool and moist condition of N. scrophulariiflora habitat, accumulation of soil OC is higher, but soil N content is lower probably due to slow release from litter, higher leaching loss and greater retention in perennial live biomass of the plant. The C/N ratio of soil is more suitable in A. navuculare habitat than that of N scrophulariiflora for N supply. Warm and sunny site with N rich soft can be suitable for cultivation of A. naviculare, while moist and cool site with organic soil for N. scrophulariiflora. The populations of both the plants are fragmented and small. Due to collection by human and trampling damage by livestock, the population of A. naviculare was found absent in open areas in five of the six sampling sites and it was confined only within the bushes of alpine scrubs. For N. serophulariiflora, high probability of complete receding of small glaciers may

  7. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  8. Evaluation of habitat use by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in north-central New Mexico using global positioning system radio collars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-04-01

    In 1996 the authors initiated a study to identify habitat use in north-central New Mexico by Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. They collared six elk in the spring of 1996 with GPS radio collars programmed to obtain locational fixes every 23 h. Between April 1, 1996 and January 7, 1997, they collected >1,200 fixes with an approximately 70% observation rate. They have interfaced GPS locational fixes of elk and detailed vegetation maps using the geographical information system to provide seasonal habitat use within mountainous regions of north-central New Mexico. Based on habitat use and availability analysis, use of grass/shrub and pinon/juniper habitats was generally higher than expected during most seasons and use of forested habitats was lower than expected. Most of the collared elk remained on LANL property year-round. The authors believe the application of GPS collars to elk studies in north-central New Mexico to be a more efficient and effective method than the use of VHF (very-high frequency) radio collars.

  9. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2015-09-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. The complex tectonic setting produced an intricate pattern of landscapes that we try to systemize using remote sensing tectonic geomorphology and available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes while lower segments characterized by multiple knickpoints, that adjust to new base-level conditions. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos fore-arc sliver, and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central America Volcanic Arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos fore-arc sliver and the North American plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén basin.

  10. Geomorphic analysis of transient landscapes in the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains (northern Central America): implications for the North American-Caribbean-Cocos plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, L.; Gloaguen, R.

    2016-01-01

    We use a geomorphic approach in order to unravel the recent evolution of the diffuse triple junction between the North American, Caribbean, and Cocos plates in northern Central America. We intend to characterize and understand the complex tectonic setting that produced an intricate pattern of landscapes using tectonic geomorphology, as well as available geological and geophysical data. We classify regions with specific relief characteristics and highlight uplifted relict landscapes in northern Central America. We also analyze the drainage network from the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains in order to extract information about potential vertical displacements. Our results suggest that most of the landscapes of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas and Maya Mountains are in a transient stage. Topographic profiles and morphometric maps highlight elevated relict surfaces that are characterized by a low-amplitude relief. The river longitudinal profiles display upper reaches witnessing these relict landscapes. Lower reaches adjust to new base-level conditions and are characterized by multiple knickpoints. These results backed by published GPS and seismotectonic data allow us to refine and extend existing geodynamic models of the triple junction. Relict landscapes are delimited by faults and thus result from a tectonic control. The topography of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas evolved as the result of (1) the inland migration of deformation related to the coupling between the Chiapas Massif and the Cocos forearc sliver and (2) the compression along the northern tip of the Central American volcanic arc. Although most of the shortening between the Cocos forearc sliver and the North American Plate is accommodated within the Sierra de Chiapas and Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, a small part may be still transmitted to the Maya Mountains and the Belize margin through a "rigid" Petén Basin.

  11. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  12. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermotectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range and adjacent North Slope foreland basin, Alaska: Including fission track results from the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, P. B.; Murphy, J.M.; Blythe, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Apatite fission track data are used to evaluate the thermal and tectonic history of the central Brooks Range and the North Slope foreland basin in northern Alaska along the northern leg of the Trans-Alaska Crustal Transect (TACT). Fission track analyses of the detrital apatite grains in most sedimentary units resolve the timing of structures and denudation within the Brooks Range, ranging in scale from the entire mountain range to relatively small-scale folds and faults. Interpretation of the results indicates that rocks exposed within the central Brooks Range cooled rapidly from paleotemperatures 110?? to 50??C during discrete episodes at ???100??5 Ma, ???60??4 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma, probably in response to kilometer-scale denudation. North of the mountain front, rocks in the southern half of the foreland basin were exposed to maximum paleotemperatures 110??C in the Late Cretaceous to early Paleocene as a result of burial by Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. Rapid cooling from these elevated paleotemperatures also occurred due to distinct episodes of kilometer-scale denudation at ???60??4 Ma, 46??3 Ma, 35??2 Ma, and ???24??3 Ma. Combined, the apatite analyses indicate that rocks exposed along the TACT line through the central Brooks Range and foreland basin experienced episodic rapid cooling throughout the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in response to at least three distinct kilometer-scale denudation events. Future models explaining orogenic events in northern Alaska must consider these new constraints from fission track thermochronology. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial tableland formation in an intra-mountainous basin in a tectonically active mountain belt - A case study in the Puli Basin, central Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tseng, Chia Han; Lüthgens, Christopher; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Reimann, Tony; Frechen, Manfred; Böse, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The morphology in Taiwan is a product of high tectonic activity at the convergent margin and East Asian monsoon climate. Tablelands are prominent geomorphic features in the Puli Basin in central Taiwan. These tablelands provide an archive to understand links between past climatic evolution and te

  14. Exploitability of construction materials in the calcareous dorsal of the Haouz Mountain range in the region of Tangier-Tetouan, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellero, Hatim; El Kharim, Younes

    2017-05-01

    This study constitutes a geospatial approach to determining the exploitability of the carbonate formations of the Haouz Mountain range in the Tangier-Tetouan region of northern Morocco, for the purpose of the production of construction material, using geographic information system (GIS) tools. The method employed in this study starts by outlining the limits of the study area, based on the geological character of the exploitable deposits. Then, we proceeded to identify the environmental and land use factors that would normally constrict the quarrying activity. The idea is to create multiple ;constraint maps;, one for each related group of element that can hinder that type of activity, with various degrees of impact for each map. Finally we opted to weigh these constraint maps and combine them in order to produce one simplistic ;exploitability map; for the aggregate exploration industries in the area. The resulting map can be utilised in the future as base for the creation of a management plan for the mining industries in the sector of the Haouz Mountains.

  15. Chemical and physical characteristics of long-range transport submicron particles at the central Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, Q.; Shi, J.; Ge, X.; Xie, C.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau, the biggest and highest plateau on the Earth, is an ideal location for studying long range transport of air pollution due to the minimum of local emission. Recent studies in this region have revealed a significant influx of air pollution from south Asia during pre-monsoon period because of the favorable atmospheric circulation and less precipitation. In order to characterize the chemical composition of aerosol particles in this pristine area and elucidate the sources and optical properties of transported aerosol pollutants, we conducted an intensive field study during June 2015 at a high elevation station (4730 m a.s.l) on the central Tibetan Plateau by deploying a suite of advanced instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), a nephelometer, and a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP). The average mass concentration of submicron particular matter (PM1) for the whole campaign period was 1.85 µg m-3, with organics accounting for 64% of the mass, followed by sulfate (16%), black carbon (9%), ammonium (8%), and nitrate (3%). The mass concentrations and chemical properties of PM1 were significantly different between pre-monsoon and monsoon periods. Elevated aerosol pollution episodes were observed during pre-monsoon period, while aerosol concentrations were persistently low during monsoon period. Aerosol composition was generally similar during the whole campaign period. However, organic aerosol was more oxidized during premonsoon period with an average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratio of = 0.7 compared to O/C = 0.52 during monsoon period. HYSPLIT trajectory calculations revealed that most of the arriving air masses traveled long distances (>1,000 km) and went through the northwest of India during premonsoon period. Positive matrix factorization of the HR-ToF-AMS spectra of organic aerosol identified two oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) factors - a less oxidized OOA (LO-OOA) and a more

  16. Use of past precipitation data for regionalisation of hourly rainfall in the low mountain ranges of Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pluntke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of flood forecasting we deal with the improvement of regionalisation methods for the generation of highly resolved (1 h, 1×1km2 precipitation fields, which can be used as input for rainfall-runoff models or for verification of weather forecasts. Although radar observations of precipitation are available in many regions, it might be necessary to apply regionalisation methods near real-time for the cases that radar is not available or observations are of low quality.

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether past precipitation information can be used to improve regionalisation of rainfall. Within a case study we determined typical precipitation Background-Fields (BGF for the mountainous and hilly regions of Saxony using hourly and daily rain gauge data. Additionally, calibrated radar data served as past information for the BGF generation. For regionalisation of precipitation we used de-trended kriging and compared the results with another kriging based regionalisation method and with Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW. The performance of the methods was assessed by applying cross-validation, by inspection and by evaluation with rainfall-runoff simulations.

    The regionalisation of rainfall yielded better results in case of advective events than in case of convective events. The performance of the applied regionalisation methods showed no significant disagreement for different precipitation types. Cross-validation results were rather similar in most cases. Subjectively judged, the BGF-method reproduced best the structures of rain cells. Precipitation input derived from radar or kriging resulted in a better matching between observed and simulated flood hydrographs. Simple techniques like IDW also deliver satisfying results in some occasions. Implementation of past radar data into the BGF-method rendered no improvement, because of data shortages. Thus, no method proved to outperform the others

  17. The effects of sustained forest use on hillslope soil hydraulic conductivity in the Middle Mountains of Central Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghimire, C.P.; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Bonell, Mike; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, M.; Gilmour, Don A.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigated the multi-decadal changes in field saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, beneath severely degraded pasture, natural forest and two mature planted Pinus roxburghii stands between two sets of measurements made in 1986 and 2011 at the same locations in the Middle Mountains of

  18. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  19. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  20. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  1. Metallogeny of The Sierra de Guanajuato Range, Central México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro F., Z. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra de Guanajuato Range (SGR), trending N315° at Central México, is an orographic feature extending over a distance of 80 km. SGR comprises three well defined lithostratigraphic units: (1) a cretaceous basement including an arc-derived terrane named Guanajuato Arc (GA) made of gabbro, diorite and basaltic pillowed lava, and volcano-sedimentary rocks belonging to Arperos fore-arc basin which are geochemically anomalous in Au (0.15 ppm), Ag (3 ppm), Cu (40 ppm), Pb (50 ppm) and Zn (15 ppm); (2) Early Tertiary intrusive rocks, e.g., Comanja Granite which is affected by the presence of tourmalinized (schörl) aplito-pegmatite dykes mineralized with rare earths elements, and (3) Eocene redbeds (1,500-2000 m) and Oligocene-Miocene volcanics cover. The metallogeny of the SGR shows a multiple origin in time and space: volcano-sedimentary, granitic and volcanic, being possible to define three metallogenic epochs: cretaceous, paleocene and oligocene. Cretaceous epoch includes: (a) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) of bimodal-siliclastic type belonging to León-Guanajuato district; wallrock of VMS is made of felsic-internediate volcanics and black argillite; at Los Gavilanes deposit paragenesis is next: chalcopyrite > sphalerite > galena, pyrite > pyrrhotite > marcasite; grade is as follows: Au: .02-.07 g/t; Ag: 157-18.5 g/t; Cu: 2.24-0.81%, Pb: 4.16-0.03%; Zn: 10.35-3.02 %; (b) lens-shaped stratiform bodies of massive pyrite (i. ex., San Ignacio prospect; ˜ 4,000 ton) of exhalative-sedimentary origin with chalcopyrite and sphalerite microveins. Paleocene epoch includes both quartz-cordierite-sanidine veins and replacement bodies of hydrothermal metamorphic filliation (W +Se-Bi, Pb, Zn, Cu), and pyrometasomatic bodies [Cu, Pb, Zn (Ag), W] which genetically are linked to Comanja Granite emplacement. The wallrock at El Maguey mine (35,000 ton; 0.6% WO3) is made of hornfel and the vein (1.8-3.2m width) has a banding structure made of : \\{quartz & K

  2. Weathering landforms exposure and erosion phases in Pedriza de Manzanares (Spanish Central Range)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M.; Centeno Carrillo, J. D.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.

    2012-04-01

    The phases of erosion can be reconstructed measuring the position and dimensions of exposed granite underground weathering landforms. We afford a first approach of this kind of "erosion history" in the area of Pedriza de Manzanares. Pedriza de Manzanares is the main part of the Natural Park of High Manzanares River Basin. The area is part also of the Late Paleozoic granites of the Spanish Central Range, intruded during the Variscan orogeny, and uplifted to its present position during Alpine orogeny. The granite shows a complex fracture pattern (related to Variscan and Alpine processes) that defines a landscape with alternance of regolith-connected-depressions and fresh granite outcrops with abundant bornhards and boulders. Pedriza (as most people call it) is a well known area for its granite landforms which attract tourism, educators and rock climbers. In this area, the contrasting hydrological behaviour of fresh and weathered granite, especially in fractures areas, produces small aquifers with a high recharge from adjacent impermeable surfaces. These conditions have been studied in relation to the soil water availability (for both human and ecosystems), and in relation to the geomorphic edaphic processes (taffoni, flared slopes, etc.). In previous works (García et al., 2008, Centeno et al., 2010) a conceptual model using MS-Excel was devised which provided the basis by which were defined the relevant variables and their interconnections (landforms, climate, hydrogeology). From the standpoint of soils water (and the related weathering processes or ecosystem characteristics), this is especially important in semi-arid and arid climates, as has been appreciated by practising farmers for many years, for the contrast in productive potential in stark between the regolithic and rocky areas. At the same time, granite weathering is enhanced by the persistent presence of water in the regolith and, as a consequence, many microforms are initiated or evolve under the regolith

  3. Current re-vegetation patterns and restoration issues in degraded geological phosphorus-rich mountain areas: A synthetic analysis of Central Yunnan, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest area of inland geological phosphorus-rich (GPR mountains in the world, where vegetation restoration is key to safeguarding the environment. We reviewed the published literature and collected new data in order to analyze re-vegetation patterns and the status of plant communities in central Yunnan. The aim of our analysis was to suggest future improvements to restoration strategies in GPR mountain regions. Our results showed that spontaneous recovery was the most widespread type of restoration. N-fixing species such as Coriaria nepalensis and Alnus nepalensis play a vital role in succession. In the past, monoculture tree plantation was the primary method used in afforestation activities in central Yunnan; in recent years however, several different methods of restoration have been introduced including the use of agroforestry systems. For practical restoration, we found that spontaneous recovery was capable of delivering the best results, but that during its early stages, restoration results were affected by several factors including erosion risk, the origin of propagates and environmental variation. In contrast, methods employing human-made communities performed better in their early stages, but were constrained by higher costs and vulnerability to degradation and erosion. The use of N-fixing species such as A. nepalensis and Acacia mearnsii in plantations were unsuccessful in restoring full ecosystem functions. The success of restoration activities in GPR mountain regions could be improved through the following measures: (1 developing a better understanding of the respective advantages and disadvantages of current natural and human-engineered restoration approaches; (2 elucidating the feedback mechanism between phosphorus-rich soil and species selected for restoration, especially N-fixing species; (3 introducing market incentives aimed at encouraging specific restoration activities such as agroforestry, and improving the

  4. Evaluating controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nereson, A. L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Booth, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Earthflows are an important mass-wasting process in many mountainous landscapes. In addition to radically changing the fabric of the landscape and damaging man-made infrastructure, earthflows deliver, for their area, a disproportionately large sediment load to rivers. In California, earthflows are typically restricted to clay-rich and mechanically-weak lithologies, such as the Franciscan mélange. In addition, several studies have observed that earthflows in California favor south-facing slopes, even in settings with spatially-uniform lithology. This fundamental observation remains largely unexplained under the current understanding of earthflow behavior. Here, we evaluate the controls on the aspect dependence of earthflows in the Alameda Creek watershed near Fremont, California, where many large, but relatively inactive earthflows are observed in the Franciscan mélange. We first apply spectral analysis to LiDAR-derived digital elevation models to objectively map the topographic signature of landslides and determine the degree of aspect dependence. We then explore several hypotheses that can explain our observation that earthflows tend to form on south-facing slopes, including: (1) lack of dense vegetation and trees with slope-stabilizing root systems on south-facing slopes; (2) higher pore fluid pressures due to relatively lower rates of evapotranspiration on sparsely vegetated south-facing slopes; (3) increased dessication and/or deformation cracking on south-facing earthflow surfaces, creating fast-flow pathways into the interior of landslides.

  5. Photographic estimation of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in the Carpathian Mountains of central Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeman, Richard; Cattaruzza, Renate; Cattaruzza, Marco; Fischer, Justin

    2016-03-01

    Observations of wild boar damage to alpine grazing pastures in Romania's Carpathian Mountains were collected using photographs of the slopes from vantage points. We mapped the rooted areas and then used GIS software to estimate the relative proportions of the total grazing areas visible in the photographs that were damaged by wild boar. The amounts of damage from our two demonstration pastures were 11.2 and 13.5 %. Pastures are rented for summer grazing with grazing density monitored. Wild boar damage essentially decreases the economic benefit received for the cost of the grazing rights. This paper appears to be the first documentation of the very direct costs to livestock owners from significant wild boar rooting within rented pastures. The photographic method we present provides a quick and efficient means to quantify damage to alpine grazing pastures and may have broad application for mountainous areas where swine damage (or other disturbance) occurs and there is sufficient visibility of the damaged habitat.

  6. Bats (CHIROPTERA) and their zoogeographic distribution characteristics in the Qinling and Daba Mountain Ranges%秦岭和大巴山区翼手类及其动物地理分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴家炎; 裴俊峰

    2011-01-01

    There have been different ideas over whether or not the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges are part of the dividing line in Central China between the Palaearctic realm and the Oriental realm in the zoogeographical distribution of animals. Our predecessors have tried to prove this hypothesis from the perspectives of different disciplines by conducting surveys of birds, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and some mammals. The authors have carried out 3 major collections of bat ( CHIROPTERA) specimens in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges since 1964. Over 2 000 obtained specimens were I-dentified and classified as 32 species belonging to 4 families and 4 subfamilies. The analytical results indicate that 23 species belong to the Oriental realm, accounting for 71. 8% of the total, and 9 belong to the Palaearctic realm, accounting for 28. 2%. These species are all seen in every Chinese zoogeographic region and their frequencies range as follows: Central China region, Southwest China region, South China region, North China region, Inner Mongolia-Xinjiang region, and Qinghai-Xizang region. Some of China' s endemic genera and species, including monotypic ones, also are distributed in the Qinling and Daba mountain ranges. The authors believe that bats are a class affected by climate, topography, and vegetation , and their geographic distribution is relatively sensitive and therefore restricted. According to the regional composition and distribution characteristics of bats in the Qinling and Daba ranges, the Oriental realm is limited to the northern slopes of Qinling range while the Palaearctic realm gradually declines in number from the southern slopes of Qinling range to the northern slopes of Daba range. There is a gradual transition for bats between the two realms in the southern slopes of the Qinling range and the northern slopes of Daba range, demonstrating that this is a transitional region for bats. All this further proves that the view is correct to consider the Qinling

  7. Tectonic Affinity, T-t Path and Uplift Trajectory of Eclogites from Northern Dabie Mountains, Central-Eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Petrologic geochemistry and isotopic chronology of the eclogites suggest that most of the eclogites in northern Dabie Mountains produced from the Triassic Yangtze subducted continental crust (lower crust and formed during the deep subduction) and the metamorphosed mafic-untramafic belt with eclogite, marble and meta-peridotite blocks around the Mozitan-Xiaotian fault zone may represent the meta-tectonic melange produced during the active subduction of an ancient oceanic slab and subsequent collision between the Yangtze and North China continental plates. The cooling history of the eclogites from ~900 ℃ to 300 ℃ can be subdivided into three stages: one isothermal stage and two rapid cooling stages. The initial stage between (230±6) and 210 Ma was a near-isothermal or temperature rise process corresponding to the retrograded metamorphism of granulite-facies with a rapid uplift of 4 nun/a, then two fast cooling stages occurred with cooling rate of ~10 ℃/Ma during 210 Ma to (172±3) Ma and ~4 ℃/Ma during (172±3) Ma to 130 Ma. After the peak metamorphism of eclogite-facies, their initial isothermal stage with slower uplift rate and cooling rate and high-T overprinting of granulite-facies metamorphism is the major difference between the eciogites in northern Dabie Mountains from those in southern Dabie Mountains. This may be one of the most important reasons to preserve few evidences of earlier ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism.

  8. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus: a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M Araújo

    Full Text Available Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental

  9. Palaeoenvironmental and geochemical approach of Archaeocyath-rich facies from Lower Cambrian of Western Gondwana margin at Central Iberian Zone (Urda, Toledo Mountains, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Moreno-Eris, Elena; Perejón, Antonio; Reitner, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Archaeocyath-rich facies are located in a quarry close to Urda village, at Toledo Mountains, Spain. The outcrops belong to the Caliza de los Navalucillos Formation and they record a considerably high diverse archaeocyath assemblage in the Lower Cambrian successions from the Central Iberian Zone (Julivert et al. 1972 [1974]). In fact, it is first time recorded the presence of Agyrekocyathus, Dokidocyathus, and Plicocyathus in the Central Iberian Zone. Therefore Plicocyathus is no longer exclusive to biozone VI in Spain. The presence of Anthomorpha is characteristic for the early Botomian, presently early Stage 4 (ICS, 2009), and the assemblage corresponds to the biozone VII (late Ovetian, following the biozonation of Perejón & Moreno-Eiris, 2006). The fossiliferous part of the succession is formed by seven lithofacies, all of them tectonically folded and with a low grade metamorphic overprint. They are comprised by two main groups of facies: (a) mound-shaped to massive lithofacies (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (b) massive to bedded and nodular lithofacies (B1, B2, B3). Archaeocyaths occur in several facies: (A1) mound-shaped white marble with irregular to stromatactoid cavities; (A2) massive mottled white to grey limestone; (A3) massive grey limestone with slumps levels; (A4) massive archaeocyath-rich orange limestone; as well as in carbonate nodules embedded in siltstones and cherts (B1, B2 and B3). The best preserved assemblage comes from the nodule record, where fossils are partially pyritized. This type of preservation is exceptional and has never been described before. XRD and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses reveal the presence of pyrite and pyrrotine partially altered to iron oxides and hydroxides (hematite and goethite) surrounding the archaeocyath cups. In Central Iberian Zone, the development of mounds and nodular facies like those described here is unusual, although the Botomian marks the peak for Early Cambrian archaeocyathan-microbial mounds

  10. Monitoring and analysis of natural vegetation in a special protected area of mountain Antichasia--Meteora, central Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliadis, Ioannis; Platis, Panagiotis; Ainalis, Apostolos; Meliadis, Miltiadis

    2010-04-01

    Natural ecosystems are renewable resources with special environmental, social, and economical attributes and characteristics. The increasing need of human beings for a better environment results in the use of new technologies that offer many advantages in detecting changes in the ecosystems. Remote sensing tools, technology, and the spatial analysis of the Geographic Information System were used in determining any changes in this study which attempts to classify land cover over a 10-year period. The study area is in Thessaly, central Greece, and has been classified as a Special Protection Area, because of its important wild fauna. The results have shown that current technologies can be used for modeling environmental parameters which improve our knowledge of the attributes, characteristics, situation, trends, and changes of natural ecosystems. The changes over time that have been observed result from the development of the vegetation or to anthropogenic and socioeconomic reasons. Rational range management will be a very comprehensive tool for farmers. This action will have a positive impact on flora in the rangelands. The core strategy is to combine forest, pasture, and livestock so that each component produces usable products.

  11. The polycyclic Lausche Volcano (Lausitz Volcanic Field) and its message concerning landscape evolution in the Lausitz Mountains (northern Bohemian Massif, Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Erik; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf; Mrlina, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The Tertiary Lausitz Volcanic Field covers a broad area encompassing parts of Eastern Saxony (Germany), Lower Silesia (Poland) and North Bohemia (Czech Republic). Volcanism was predominantly controlled by the volcano-tectonic evolution of the Ohře Rift and culminated in the Lower Oligocene. This paper deals with the highest volcano of this area, the Lausche Hill (792.6 m a.s.l.) situated in the Lausitz Mountains. We offer a reconstruction of the volcanic edifice and its eruptive history. Its complex genesis is reflected by six different eruption styles and an associated petrographic variety. Furthermore, the Lausche Volcano provides valuable information concerning the morphological evolution of its broader environs. The remnant of an alluvial fan marking a Middle Paleocene-Lower Eocene (62-50 Ma) palaeo-surface is preserved at the base of the volcano. The deposition of this fan can be attributed to a period of erosion of its nearby source area, the Lausitz Block that has undergone intermittent uplift at the Lausitz Overthrust since the Upper Cretaceous. The Lausche Hill is one of at least six volcanoes in the Lausitz Mountains which show an eminent low level of erosion despite their Oligocene age and position on elevated terrain. These volcanoes are exposed in their superficial level which clearly contradicts their former interpretation as subvolcanoes. Among further indications, this implies that the final morphotectonic uplift of the Lausitz Mountains started in the upper Lower Pleistocene ( 1.3 Ma) due to revived subsidence of the nearby Zittau Basin. It is likely that this neotectonic activity culminated between the Elsterian and Saalian Glaciation ( 320 ka). The formation of the low mountain range was substantially controlled by the intersection of the Lausitz Overthrust and the Ohře Rift.

  12. Spatiotemporal characteristics and synchronization of extreme rainfall in South America with focus on the Andes Mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The South American Andes are frequently exposed to intense rainfall events with varying moisture sources and precipitation-forming processes. In this study, we assess the spatiotemporal characteristics and geographical origins of rainfall over the South American continent. Using high-spatiotemporal resolution satellite data (TRMM 3B42 V7), we define four different types of rainfall events based on their (1) high magnitude, (2) long temporal extent, (3) large spatial extent, and (4) high magnitude, long temporal and large spatial extent combined. In a first step, we analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of these events over the entire South American continent and integrate their impact for the main Andean hydrologic catchments. Our results indicate that events of type 1 make the overall highest contributions to total seasonal rainfall (up to 50 %). However, each consecutive episode of the infrequent events of type 4 still accounts for up to 20 % of total seasonal rainfall in the subtropical Argentinean plains. In a second step, we employ complex network theory to unravel possibly non-linear and long-ranged climatic linkages for these four event types on the high-elevation Altiplano-Puna Plateau as well as in the main river catchments along the foothills of the Andes. Our results suggest that one to two particularly large squall lines per season, originating from northern Brazil, indirectly trigger large, long-lasting thunderstorms on the Altiplano Plateau. In general, we observe that extreme rainfall in the catchments north of approximately 20°S typically originates from the Amazon Basin, while extreme rainfall at the eastern Andean foothills south of 20°S and the Puna Plateau originates from southeastern South America.

  13. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  14. TESTING THE LONG RANGE-DEPENDENCE FOR THE CENTRAL EASTERN EUROPEAN AND THE BALKANS STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pece Andreea Maria

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we tested the existence of long memory in the the return series for major Central Eastern European and Balkans stock markets, using the following statistical methods: Hurst Exponent, GPH method, Andrews and Guggenberger method, Reisen method, Willinger, Taqqu and Teverovsky method and ARFIMA model. The results obtained are mixed. The Hurst Exponent showed the existence of long memory in all indices, except PX. After applying the GPH method, the results showed that BET, ATHEX, SOFIX and CROBEX have a predictable behavior. The ARFIMA model results support the existence of long memory for BUX, SAX and BELEX. The predictable behavior of index returns may suggest that the CEE and Balkans stock markets are not weak form efficient.

  15. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Joris; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Berger, Joram; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gomber, Bhawna; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kumar, Ashok; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Passaseo, Marina; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tadel, Matevz; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Dutta, Suchandra; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Ekenel, Ali; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Sedat; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hamdan, Saleh; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  16. Sedimentology and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain and Torok Formations Exposed Along the Siksikpuk River, North-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wartes, Marwan A.

    2007-01-01

    An exposure of the Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain and Torok Formations along the Siksikpuk River in north-central Alaska provides a rare opportunity to observe the stratigraphic contact between these two formations and to interpret the depositional facies and sequence stratigraphy of the exposed strata. The Fortress Mountain Formation at the base of the measured section includes braided-fluvial and coastal-plain facies deposited in a lowstand-systems tract, and an overlying succession of mostly shallow marine facies deposited in the basal part of a transgressive-systems tract. The overlying Torok Formation includes a thick, upward-deepening succession of marine-shelf to marine-slope facies deposited in the upper part of the transgressive-systems tract. The upper part of the section includes marine-slope and incised-slope-channel turbidite deposits of the Torok Formation, interpreted as a highstand-systems tract. Consideration of the balance between accommodation and sediment flux inferred from the sequence-stratigraphic analysis suggests that both tectonics and eustasy may have influenced deposition of the lowstand-systems and transgressive-systems tracts. In contrast, the highstand-systems tract may have been primarily influenced by progradation of a regional sediment-dispersal system and by subsidence induced by sediment loading.

  17. Differentiating simple and composite tectonic landscapes using numerical fault slip modeling with an example from the south central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    KAUST Repository

    Landgraf, A.

    2013-09-01

    The tectonically driven growth of mountains reflects the characteristics of the underlying fault systems and the applied tectonic forces. Over time, fault networks might be relatively static, but stress conditions could change and result in variations in fault slip orientation. Such a tectonic landscape would transition from a “simple” to a “composite” state: the topography of simple landscapes is correlated with a single set of tectonic boundary conditions, while composite landscapes contain inherited topography due to earlier deformation under different boundary conditions. We use fault interaction modeling to compare vertical displacement fields with topographic metrics to differentiate the two types of landscapes. By successively rotating the axis of maximum horizontal stress, we produce a suite of vertical displacement fields for comparison with real landscapes. We apply this model to a transpressional duplex in the south central Alborz Mountains of Iran, where NW oriented compression was superseded by neotectonic NE compression. The consistency between the modeled displacement field and real landforms indicates that the duplex topography is mostly compatible with the modern boundary conditions, but might include a small remnant from the earlier deformation phase. Our approach is applicable for various tectonic settings and represents an approach to identify the changing boundary conditions that produce composite landscapes. It may be particularly useful for identifying changes that occurred in regions where river profiles may no longer record a signal of the change or where the spatial pattern of uplift is complex.

  18. Salmonellosis in a free-ranging population of javelinas (Pecari tajacu) in south central Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shender, Lisa A; Glock, Robert D; Spraker, Terry R

    2009-10-01

    The javelina, or collared peccary (Pecari tajacu), is indigenous to Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas in the United States and ranges throughout Latin America. From June 2004 to April 2005, an estimated 105 javelinas died in a mortality event that occurred in Tucson, Arizona, and neighboring areas. Clinical signs observed in sick animals included emaciation, dehydration, lethargy, and diarrhea. In addition, some animals showed labored breathing and hind limb weakness. We necropsied 34 animals, and enteritis was the most frequent clinical sign, followed by colitis, pulmonary congestion, and pneumonia. The only consistent findings were isolations of Clostridium perfringens type A and multiple Salmonella serotypes. Although it is likely that these javelinas ultimately succumbed to salmonellosis, it is unclear whether other unidentified underlying factors were involved. This is the first reported case of widespread salmonellosis in free-ranging javelinas.

  19. Multi-resolution Changes in the Spatial Extent of Perennial Arctic Alpine Snow and Ice Fields with Potential Archaeological Significance in the Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesche, M. E.; Freeburg, A. K.; Rasic, J. T.; Ciancibelli, C.; Fassnacht, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Perennial snow and ice fields could be an important archaeological and paleoecological resource for Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve in the central Brooks Range mountains of Arctic Alaska. These features may have cultural significance, as prehistoric artifacts may be frozen within the snow and ice. Globally significant discoveries have been made recently as ancient artifacts and animal dung have been found in melting alpine snow and ice patches in the Southern Yukon and Northwest Territories in Canada, the Wrangell mountains in Alaska, as well as in other areas. These sites are melting rapidly, which results in quick decay of biological materials. The summer of 2015 saw historic lows in year round snow cover extent for most of Alaska. Twenty mid to high elevation sites, including eighteen perennial snow and ice fields, and two glaciers, were surveyed in July 2015 to quantify their areal extent. This survey was accomplished by using both low flying aircraft (helicopter), as well as with on the ground in-situ (by foot) measurements. By helicopter, visual surveys were conducted within tens of meters of the surface. Sites visited by foot were surveyed for extent of snow and ice coverage, melt water hydrologic parameters and chemistry, and initial estimates of depths and delineations between snow, firn, and ice. Imagery from both historic aerial photography and from 5m resolution IKONOS satellite information were correlated with the field data. Initial results indicate good agreement in permanent snow and ice cover between field surveyed data and the 1985 to 2011 Landsat imagery-based Northwest Alaska snow persistence map created by Macander et al. (2015). The most deviation between the Macander et al. model and the field surveyed results typically occurred as an overestimate of perennial extent on the steepest aspects. These differences are either a function of image classification or due to accelerated ablation rates in perennial snow and ice coverage

  20. An Examination of Selected Historical Rainfall-Induced Debris-Flow Events within the Central and Southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L. Scott; Morgan, Benjamin A.; Wooten, R.M.; Morrissey, M.

    2009-01-01

    Generally, every several years, heavy amounts of rainfall trigger a large number of debris flows within the central and southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States. These types of landslides damage buildings, disrupt infrastructure, and occasionally injure and kill people. One of the first large debris flows was described in Pennsylvania in August 1779. The most destructive event occurred during August 19-20, 1969, in Nelson County, Va. During a period of 8 hours, 710 to 800 milimeters of rain triggered more than 3,000 landslides, killing more than 150 people. As the population increases in this region, future storms will likely increase the risks of property damage and loss of life. We provide a general overview of debris flows in the Appalachians, using a compilation of 19 storm events for which rainfall, duration of the storm, and descriptions of the resulting landslides have been substantially documented.

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  2. Generation and fate of glacial sediments in the central Transantarctic Mountains based on radiogenic isotopes and implications for reconstructing past ice dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, G. Lang; Licht, Kathy J.

    2016-10-01

    The Nd, Sr and Pb isotopic compositions of glacial tills from the Byrd and Nimrod Glaciers in the central Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) in East Antarctica were obtained to assess the sources of detritus transported by these ice masses. Tills from lateral moraines along the entire extent of both glaciers have isotopic compositions consistent with their derivation predominately from erosion of adjacent bedrock. Fine- (<63μ) and coarser-grained (0.5 mm-2 mm) sediment from these tills have identical isotopic characteristics, indicating that fine-grained detritus is the product of further comminution of coarser sediments. Comparison of present-day till isotopic data to existing data from fine-grained LGM tills in the central Ross Sea confirm that these were deposited from East Antarctic ice that expanded through the TAM and indicates that the LGM sediments are mixtures of detritus eroded along the entire path of ice transiting the TAM. If specific lithologies were preferentially eroded as ice passed through the TAM, it is not clearly evident in the Ross Sea till isotopic compositions. Our data do demonstrate, however, that glacial tills generated from erosion of inboard regions of the mountain belt yield sediment with a larger component of 560 Ma to 600 Ma detrital zircons and lower average εNd(0) values (<-5) than that produced further downstream. As a result, past retreat of ice grounding-lines up the narrow valleys of the TAM resulting in active erosion of inboard region should recognizable in glacial sediments deposited in the Ross Sea and so provide a means to identify times when the East Antarctic ice sheet was smaller than today. This study highlights both the value and necessity of utilizing multiple provenance methods in evaluating glacial erosion and transport when reconstructing past ice sheet dynamics.

  3. Steady state deformation of the Coso Range, east central California, inferred from satellite radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C.W.; Thatcher, W.; Monastero, F.C.; Hasting, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Observations of deformation from 1992 to 1997 in the southern Coso Range using satellite radar interferometry show deformation rates of up to 35 mm yr-1 in an area ???10 km by 15 km. The deformation is most likely the result of subsidence in an area around the Coso geothermal field. The deformation signal has a short-wavelength component, related to production in the field, and a long-wavelength component, deforming at a constant rate, that may represent a source of deformation deeper than the geothermal reservoir. We have modeled the long-wavelength component of deformation and inferred a deformation source at ???4 km depth. The source depth is near the brittle-ductile transition depth (inferred from seismicity) and ???1.5 km above the top of the rhyolite magma body that was a source for the most recent volcanic eruption in the Coso volcanic field [Manley and Bacon, 2000]. From this evidence and results of other studies in the Coso Range, we interpret the source to be a leaking deep reservoir of magmatic fluids derived from a crystallizing rhyolite magma body.

  4. A survey of East Palaearctic-Lycosidae (Araneae). 10. Three new Pardosa species from the mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusik, Yuri M; Nadolny, Anton A; Omelko, Mikhail M

    2013-01-01

    Three new species of Pardosa, P. svatoni sp. n. (dy, SE Kazakhstan), P. fengisp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) and P lii sp. n. (male female, Central Xinjiang) are described and illustrated. The two former species cannot be placed in any species group. Pardosa lii sp. n. belongs to the P. wagleri species group. It is compared with P. italica Tongiorgi, 1966, whose embolic division has not previously been illustrated.

  5. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  6. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  7. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  8. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size.

  9. U-Pb zircon age of the foliated garnet-bearing granites in western Dabie Mountains,Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    U-Pb zircon dating on two foliated gar net-bearing granite samples in the western Dabie ultra high-pressure (UHP) metamorphic unit yields concordant ages of (234±4) Ma and (227±5) Ma, respectively. These ages, following the UHP peak metamorphism, represent the magma emplacement ages for the foliated garnet-bearing granites. This, for the first time, shows that there are the Triassic granites in the Dabie Mountains. The foliated gar net-bearing granites resemble A-type granite in geochemical characteristics, indicating that they were formed in exten sional geodynamic setting. The magma formation reflects a reheating event in the Dabie orogenic belt and it enhances the transfer of tectonic regime from collision into extension and promotes the rapid exhumation into lower crust for the UHP metamorphic rocks.

  10. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  11. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James

    1980-01-01

    clastic rocks reported in previously measured sections of the Phi Kappa, as well as the sequence along Phi Kappa Creek from which the name originates, are excluded from the Phi Kappa as revised and are reassigned to two structural plates of Mississippian Copper Basin Formation; other strata now excluded from the formation are reassigned to the Trail Creek Formation and to an unnamed Silurian and Devonian unit. As redefined, the Phi Kappa Formation is only about 240 m thick, compared with the 3,860 m originally estimated, and it occupies only about 25 percent of the outcrop area previously mapped in 1930 by H. G. Westgate and C. P. Ross. Despite this drastic reduction in thickness and the exclusion of the rocks along Phi Kappa Creek, the name Phi Kappa is retained because of widely accepted prior usage to denote the Ordovician graptolitic shale facies of central Idaho, and because the Phi Kappa Formation as revised is present in thrust slices on Phi Kappa Mountain, at the head of Phi Kappa Creek. The lithic and faunal consistency of this unit throughout the area precludes the necessity for major facies telescoping along individual faults within the outcrop belt. However, tens of kilometers of tectonic shortening seems required to juxtapose the imbricated Phi Kappa shale facies with the Middle Ordovician part of the carbonate and quartzite shale sequence of east central Idaho. The shelf rocks are exposed in the Wildhorse structural window of the northeastern Pioneer Mountains, and attain a thickness of at least 1,500 m throughout the region north and east of the Pioneer Mountains. The Phi Kappa is in direct thrust contact on intensely deformed medium- to high-grade metamorphic equivalents of the same shelf sequence in the Pioneer window at the south end of the Phi Kappa-Trail Creek outcrop belt. Along East Pass, Big Lake, and Pine Creeks, north of the Pioneer Mountains, some rocks previously mapped as Ramshorn Slate are lithologically and faunally equivalent to the P

  12. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    preserved in the Colorado Headwaters Basin, suggesting this basin may have remained closed throughout the Paleocene and early Eocene. The field trip also addresses middle Eocene(?) folding of the late Laramide basin-fill strata, related to steep reverse faults that offset the Proterozoic crystalline basement. Late Oligocene magmatic activity is indicated by dikes, plugs, and eruptive volcanic rocks in the Rabbit Ears Range and the Never Summer Mountains that span and flank the Colorado Headwaters Basin. These intrusions and eruptions were accompanied by extensional faulting along predominantly northwesterly trends. Erosion accompanied the late Oligocene igneous activity and faulting, leading to deposition of boulder conglomerates and sandstones of the North Park Formation and high-level conglomerates across the landscape that preserve evidence of a paleo-drainage network that drained the volcanic landscape.

  13. Attribution of observed hydrological changes and impacts of future climate change in glacierized mountain catchments in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duethmann, Doris; Menz, Christoph; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Merz, Bruno; Kriegel, David; Bolch, Tobias; Pieczonka, Tino; Farinotti, Daniel; Jiang, Tong; Su, Buda; Güntner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    High elevation areas in Central Asia currently undergo considerable changes. Trend analyses show that discharge in two headwater catchments of the Tarim River, Northwest China, increased by more than 30% over the past decades. While many studies focus on trend detection, understanding the causes of these changes, i.e. trend attribution, may be even more important. In this study, we first demonstrate the use of a simulation-based approach for attributing the observed streamflow increase to its possible causes. In a second step, we analyze the impact of future climate scenarios for these catchments. Particular attention was given to multiobjective and multivariable calibration, including daily streamflow variability, long-term streamflow changes, annual variability of glacier and regional glacier mass changes. The hydrological model thus allows us to evaluate whether the causes for the observed changes in discharge are also consistent with these data. The hydrological model considers transient reductions in glacier area and lowering of the glacier surface elevation resulting from sustained negative glacier mass balances. For trend attribution, we compare simulations with original and detrended temperature and precipitation series. In the catchment with a lower glacierization, temperature and precipitation increases were both important for the discharge increase. In the catchment with a higher glacier cover, discharge increases are predominantly attributed to temperature increases and related increases of glacier melt, indicating that the increased discharge originates to a considerable extent from loss of glacier storage. A major advantage of the simulation-based attribution approach is seen in the fact that it relies on process-based relationships. The climate impact analysis is based on hundreds of simulations runs that consider different GCMs, emission scenarios and hydrological model parameters. By 2100, projections show a reduction in glacier area by 28 to 89

  14. Riparian litter inputs to streams in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie K.; Hibbs, David E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian-zone vegetation can influence terrestrial and aquatic food webs through variation in the amount, timing, and nutritional content of leaf and other litter inputs. We investigated how riparian-forest community composition, understory density, and lateral slope shaped vertical and lateral litter inputs to 16 streams in the Oregon Coast Range. Riparian forests dominated by deciduous red alder delivered greater annual vertical litter inputs to streams (504 g m−2 y−1) than did riparian forests dominated by coniferous Douglas-fir (394 g m−2 y−1). Deciduous forests also contributed greater lateral litter inputs per meter of stream bank on one side (109 g m−1 y−1) than did coniferous forests (63 g m−1 y−1). Total litter inputs from deciduous forests exceeded those from coniferous forests most strongly in November, coincident with an autumn peak in litter inputs. Lateral litter inputs contributed most to total inputs during winter in both forest types. Annual lateral litter movement increased with slope at deciduous sites, but only in spring/summer months at coniferous sites. Neither experimental removal of understory vegetation nor installation of mesh fences to block downslope litter movement affected lateral litter inputs to streams, suggesting that ground litter moves litter fractions were higher at deciduous sites and, when combined with greater litter amounts, yielded twice as much total litter N flux to streams in deciduous than coniferous sites. The presence of red alder in riparian forests along many small streams of the deeply incised and highly dendritic basins of the Oregon Coast Range enhances total fluxes and seasonality of litter delivery to both terrestrial and aquatic food webs in this region and complements the shade and large woody debris provided by large coniferous trees.

  15. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar

    2016-10-29

    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  16. Transient shortening strain across an active extensional fault, Basin and Range Province, north-central Nevada, USA, based on geodetic and paleoseismologic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, A.; Wernicke, B.; Lee, J.; Sieh, K.

    2003-04-01

    The northern Basin and Range province is one of the largest continental extensional regions on earth. At 40 degrees N latitude, the province is 800 km wide and consists of 15 and 20 N-S striking normal faults. These faults accommodated mainly east-west directed extension of tens of kilometers since Mid-Miocene time and recent geodetic surveys show that extension is still active today at a rate of ~1.5 cm/yr across the province (e.g., Bennett et al. 2000; Thatcher et al. 1999). The distribution of this geodetically measurable strain accumulation within the province, however, contradicts geologic observations across some of the active normal faults. For example, coordinated geologic and geodetic measurements across the Crescent Valley fault (CVF), north-central Nevada, reveal a profound mismatch in deformation rates. Since 1996, the two ranges on either side of the CVF have been moving toward each other at ca. 2 mm/yr, indicating shortening. In contrast, new reconnaissance mapping and paleoseismological analyses along the CVF also indicate that this fault is one of the more active normal faults of the Basin and Range province. The 50 km long Cortez Mountains range front is characterized by relief of up to 1.3 km, steep (up to 36 degrees) triangular facets, and young (late Pleistocene to late Holocene) alluvial fans cut by normal fault scarps. Vertical displacement across the CVF is ca. 3 km; since 15 Ma the average long-term vertical displacement rate is ca. 0.2 mm/yr. Topographic profiling shows that fault scarps, 2-7 m high, are the result of a single rupture event and cut late Holocene alluvial fans. A trench across a faulted alluvial fan at Fourmile Canyon reveals a vertical displacement of 4.5 m distributed across two normal faults. 14C analyses on charcoal from a buried offset surface in the hanging wall of the trench and from the base of the overlying colluvial wedge tightly bracket the age of the most recent earthquake to between 2.8 +- 0.1 and 2.7 +- 0.1 ka

  17. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  18. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  19. Map showing alpine debris flows triggered by a July 28, 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    This 1:24,000-scale map shows an inventory of debris flows that were triggered above timberline by a thunderstorm in the central Front Range of Colorado. We have classified the debris flows into two categories based on the style of initiation processes in the debris-flow source areas: 1) soil slip, and 2) non-soil slip erosive processes. This map and associated digital data are part of a larger study of the debris-flow event, results of which we plan to present in a forthcoming paper.

  20. Chromite deposits of the north-central Zambales Range, Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, D.L.

    1970-01-01

    Peridotite and gabbro form an intrusive complex which is exposed over an area about 35 km wide and 150 km long in the center of the Zambales Range of western Luzon. The Zambales Complex is remarkable for its total known resources, mined and still remaining, of about 15 million metric tons of chromite ore. Twenty percent of Free World production was obtained from this area between 1950 and the end of 1964; in 1960 production reached a high of 606,103 metric tons of refractory-grade ore, mostly from the Coto mine near Masinloc, and 128,426 metric tons of metallurgical ore from the Acoje mine. The United States imports 80 to 90 percent of its refractory-grade chromite from the Philippines, and its basic refractory technology has been designed upon the chemical and physical characteristics of Coto high-alumina chromite ore. Continuation of this pattern will depend upon discovery of additional ore reserves to replace those depleted by mining. The Zambales Ultramafic Complex is of the alpine type in which lenticular or podiform deposits of chromite lie in peridotite or dunite, mostly near Contacts with gabbroic rocks. Layered structures, foliation, and lineation commonly are well developed and transect boundaries between major rock units, including chromite deposits, at any angle. Accordingly, these structures cannot be used as guides in exploration and mining as they are used in stratiform complexes such as the Bushveld, where chromite layers extend for many miles. Probably 90 percent of the known deposits in the Zambales Complex are located in two belts in its northern part. One zone containing high-aluminua refractory-grade deposits extends northeast from the Coto mine and Chromite Reservation No. I along a peridotite contact with olivine gabbro, and another of high-chromium metallurgical grade chromite extends south through the Zambales and Acoje properties, and swings westward around the south side of Mount Lanai along a peridotite contact with norite. The textures

  1. Timing of Pleistocene glacial oscillations recorded in the Cantabrian Mountains (North Iberia): correlation of glacial and periglacial sequences from both sides of the range using a multiple-dating method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimón; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal mountain range up to 2648 m altitude located at 43oN latitude and directly influenced by the North Atlantic climate oscillations. Although nowadays it is fully deglaciatied, glacial sediments and landforms are clearly preserved elsewhere above 1600 m. Particularly, glacial evidence in the central Cantabrian Mountains suggests the formation of an icefield in the headwaters of the Porma and Esla catchments drained by glaciers up to 1-6 km in length in the northern slope and 19 km-long in the southern slope, with their fronts at minimum altitudes of 900 and 1150 m asl respectively (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2014). Numerical ages obtained from the base of the Brañagallones ice-dammed deposit and one of the lateral moraines that are damming this deposit suggest that the local glacial maximum was prior to ca 33.5 cal ka BP in the Monasterio Valley (see data compiled in Rodriguez-Rodríguez et al., in press). Currently, our research is focused on developing a full chronology of glacial oscillations in both sides of the range and investigating their paleoclimate significance and relationship with glacial asymmetry through the combined use of surface exposure, OSL and radiocarbon dating methods. In this work, we present 47 10Be surface exposure ages obtained from boulders in moraines, glacial erratic boulders and rock glaciers in the Monasterio and Porma valleys. The glacial record of these valleys was chosen because of: (i) its good preservation state; (ii) the occurrence of a quartz-rich sandstone formation; and (iii) the availability of previous 14C and OSL numerical ages. Sampling sites were selected considering the relative age of glacial stages to cover as complete as possible the history of Pleistocene glaciations in the studied area, from the glacial maximum stage to the prevalence of periglacial conditions. Preliminary results suggest the occurrence of several glacial advances of similar extent at ca 150 - 50 ka followed

  2. Channel geometry change of a first-order stream after a small debris flow in Ashio Mountains of central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattanji, T.; Wasklewicz, T.

    2006-12-01

    We examined geometry change of a steep first-order channel with a laserscanner before and after a small debris flow. The study site is located in chert area, Ashio Mountains, Japan. On August 12, 2005, a 20-year storm event with maximum 1-hour rainfall of 75.4 mm/h triggered a small landslide at a steep channel head. The sliding material moved as a debris flow along the first-order channel (C3) to the mouth. We successfully measured high-resolution channel topography with the Leica Geosystems High-Definition Surveying Laser Scanner before (April 30) and after the debris-flow event (October 9-11). Width, depth and other related parameters were measured for 30 selected cross sections. Bankfull stage of this first-order channel after the debris-flow event is much higher than two-year flood stage. The magnitude of channel geometry change varies non-linearly in downstream direction. The non-linear variability is attributed to differences in stream bed and bank characteristics. Bedrock-channel reach is less impacted by the debris flow. The largest magnitude changes in the channel geometry parameters occur along colluvially confined channel reaches.

  3. Tectono-karst depressions in the central-western part of the MehedinTi Mountains (SW Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Povara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The horst structure of the Mehedinţi Mountains, bounded to the east by the Mehedinţi Plateau, and to the west by the Cerna Graben, has been leveled by the Râul Şes II karst planation surface, at an altitude of 1250-1030 m. Part of the Mesozoic sedimentary cover, limestones developed in Urgonian facies widely outcrop, overlying the crystalline-granite bedrock. On a system of faults adjacent to the graben, close to the Cerna Valley slope, uvala and mega-sinkhole depressions, with various depths, have been developed. From NNE to SSW they are extended over a distance of 14 km and an area of 10.376 km 2 . Their orientation follows the direction of the faults to which they are related. The entire plateau presents an endorhei c character. There were three different stages of genesis and evolution of the depressions: (1 active valley; (2 Quaternary tectonic hanging of the valley; (3 endorheic evolution. Recent depressions evolved only during the last two stages. The most developed depressions are opened westward, as a consequence of the eastward retreat of the Cerna Valley tectonic slope. The rainfall infiltration water is drained towards east and west, outflowing at the base of tectonic sunken blocks as permanent springs with maximum flow rates of up to 50 l/s.

  4. Holocene record of precipitation seasonality from lake calcite δ18O in the central Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lesleigh

    2011-01-01

    A context for recent hydroclimatic extremes and variability is provided by a ~10 k.y. sediment carbonate oxygen isotope (??18O) record at 5-100 yr resolution from Bison Lake, 3255 m above sea level, in northwestern Colorado (United States). Winter precipitation is the primary water source for the alpine headwater lake in the Upper Colorado River Basin and lake water ??18O measurements reflect seasonal variations in precipitation ??18O. Holocene lake water ??18O variations are inferred from endogenic sedimentary calcite ??18O based on comparisons with historic watershed discharge records and tree-ring reconstructions. Drought periods (i.e., drier winters and/or a more rain-dominated seasonal precipitation balance) generally correspond with higher calcite ??18O values, and vice-versa. Early to middle Holocene ??18O values are higher, implying a rain-dominated seasonal precipitation balance. Lower, more variable ??18O values after ca. 3500 yr ago indicate a snow-dominated but more seasonally variable precipitation balance. The middle to late Holocene ??18O record corresponds with records of El Ni??o Southern Oscillation intensification that supports a teleconnection between Rocky Mountain climate and North Pacific sea-surface temperatures at decade to century time scales. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Paleoenvironmental changes recorded in a luminescence dated loess/paleosol sequence from the Tianshan Mountains, arid central Asia, since the Penultimate Glaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Rao, Zhiguo; Duan, Yanwu; Xia, Dunsheng; Wang, Leibin; Madsen, David B.; Jia, Jia; Wei, Haitao; Qiang, Mingrui; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu

    2016-08-01

    Mid-latitude arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the driest regions in the world and is a key source area of global atmospheric dust. Loess records of paleoclimatic changes in ACA are complex and interpretations are problematic due primarily to the lack of robust chronologies. Quartz OSL and K-feldspar pIRIR dating methods were employed to date 8 quartz and 30 K-feldspar samples from a 30 m loess sequence (BYH10 section) on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, central ACA, northwest China. The reliability of quartz and K-feldspar ages was monitored by internal checks of luminescence characteristics and by comparison of the quartz and K-feldspar ages. The section lithology, proxy indexes of grain size and magnetic susceptibility, and the high resolution OSL chronology together indicate: (1) Quartz OSL dating can be used to date ACA loess samples less than 40 ka, while K-feldspar pIRIR dating is reliable for loess samples at least as old as ∼150 ka from ACA; (2) Aeolian loess began to be deposited on the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains beginning at least ∼145 ka ago, and was deposited primarily during the penultimate and last glaciation periods; (3) Rapid loess deposition occurred during MIS 6, MIS 4 to early-mid MIS 3, and MIS 2, but little or no loess deposition occurred during MIS 5, MIS 3a and MIS 1; (4) This loess depositional sequence is comparable to previously published stalagmite growth records in the region on glacial-interglacial cycles. Rapid dust deposition and lack of stalagmite growth during glacials, and lack of loess deposition and stalagmite growth during interglacials, indicate a climatic pattern of wet-warm (interglacial) and dry-cold (glacial) climatic regimes on orbital cycles in ACA; (5) Variation in the loess deposition rates in ACA was much larger than in the central loess plateau during the last glaciation; (6) Depositional hiatuses of >50 kyr occur in ACA loess sequences, and high resolution chronologies are needed when

  6. Long-term landscape development: a perspective from the southern Buenos Aires ranges of east central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoulin, A.; Zarate, M.; Rabassa, J.

    2005-06-01

    Traditionally, the long-term landscape evolution of the southern Buenos Aires ranges of east central Argentina has been related to the influence of the Andean orogeny. We describe the large-scale morphological units and associated weathering products in the Tandilia and Ventania ranges. Two main planation surfaces are encountered at varying altitudes in different sectors of these ranges. The lower surface is characterized by roots of kaolinized weathering profiles in the Tandil area and silicified conglomerates around Sierra de La Ventana. In an interpretative model linking the range morphogenesis to the tectonosedimentary evolution of the bordering Salado and Colorado Basins, we suggest that the main morphogenetic stages are related to the late Jurassic-early Cretaceous south Atlantic rifting and Miocene tectonic reactivation induced by the Andean orogeny. Thus, the uplifted surfaces appear much older than commonly believed: pre-Cretaceous and Paleogene. Although they contradict recent results of apatite fission-track studies along the South America and South Africa passive margins, the implied low denudation rates (˜4 m/My) can be explained by the limited Meso-Cenozoic uplift suffered by the southern Buenos Aires ranges. The discussion also shows the limits of the comparison that can be made with the South African planation surfaces.

  7. Topography- and Species-Dependent Climatic Responses in Radial Growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii in the Luyashan Mountains of North-Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendroecological techniques were used to examine the relationships between topographic aspects, climate factors and radial growth of Picea meyeri and Larix principis-rupprechtii in Luyashan Mountains, North-Central China. Four sites were selected at timberline and totally 67 trees and 134 cores were collected. Pearson correlation and regression surface analysis were conducted to reveal the growth-climate relationships. The results indicated that the two species both showed significant negative correlations with temperature during preceding November on the two topographic aspects. On both slope aspects, growth of P. meyeri exhibited significant negative correlations with precipitation in current June, whereas growth of L. principis-rupprechtii showed significant negative correlations with precipitation in preceding September. On north-facing slope, tree growth was limited by low temperature in early growing season, which not shown on south-facing slope. If climate warming continues, L. principis-rupprechtii may be more favored and a reverse between relationships with temperature and precipitation maybe occur in growth of trees. Treeline position on the north-facing slope may possess a greater potential for elevation shifting than the south-facing slope. Our results supply useful information for discussing the potential effect of future climate on the forest growth in North-Central China.

  8. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  9. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dzepina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m−3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%, followed by sulfate (21% and nitrate (17%. Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80 with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25 collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100–1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers

  10. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in

  11. Differentiation in stag beetles, Neolucanus swinhoei complex (Coleoptera: Lucanidae): four major lineages caused by periodical Pleistocene glaciations and separation by a mountain range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Lung; Wan, Xia; Yeh, Wen-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Taxonomic debates on Neolucanus swinhoei complex consisting of N. swinhoei, N. doro doro, N. doro horaguchii, and N. euganiae, distributed exclusively in Taiwan, have been ongoing for several decades because of their overlapping morphological characters. To clarify their taxonomic status and phylogeographical history, we analyzed nine morphological characteristics and four molecular amplicons. Phylogenetic inferences based on COI+16S rDNA+wingless showed one eastern and three western lineages, with the latter consisting of one low-hill and two montane lineages. Intermingled DNA sequences from different populations within each lineage, many low FST values, and a high variance component between lineages indicate the possibility of gene flow among populations. However, positive relationships were observed between the genetic divergences of 16S rDNA and its FST values with geographic distance. A divergence estimation based on COI+16S revealed that these beetles might have originated from Asian mainland and differentiated into western and eastern lineages ca. 1Mya, with the differentiation of the western lineages occurring approximately 0.50-0.75Mya. Isolation by mountain ranges and limited flying capability of these beetles as well as populations retreat to and expansion from refugia in response to glaciation cycles have resulted in the current distribution of N. swinhoei complex. Although most morphological characters are variable and undistinguishable, multi-dimensional scaling analysis based on measurable characteristics could recognize hill N. swinhoei as a cluster distinct from the others. However, based on the realities of genetic admixture, shared phylogeographical history and overlapping characteristics, all of these stag beetles should be regarded as Neolucanus swinhoei Bates, 1866.

  12. Reactivity, interactions and transport of trace elements, organic carbon and particulate material in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Point, David; Bareille, Gilles; Amouroux, David; Etcheber, Henri; Donard, Olivier F X

    2007-02-01

    The background levels, variability, partitioning and transport of eleven trace elements-Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and U-were investigated in a mountain range river system (Adour River, France). This particular river system displayed a turbulent hydrodynamic regime, characterized by flash-transient discharge conditions leading to fast shifts in suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations as high as two orders of magnitude (12 to 600 mg l(-1)). The distribution of SPM was accurately predicted with a "hysteresis" transport model, indicating that about 75% of the annual solids load was exported within 20 to 40 days. Dissolved and particulate concentrations of most trace elements were low compared to their concentrations in other reference river systems expect for Pb and Cr, associated with historical anthropogenic activities. Although dissolved and particulate metal concentrations were steady for most elements during low and average discharge conditions, significant changes were observed with increasing river discharge. The changes in trace element concentrations in the two compartments was found to induce a partitioning anomaly referred to as the particulate concentration effect. This anomaly was significant for Cr, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and organic carbon (p < 0.03). The processes driving this anomaly were possibly linked to the modification and/or increase of colloidal organic and inorganic vectors, suggested by the significant increase of DOC (p < 0.001) and dissolved Al concentrations (p < 0.05) during flood conditions. A complementary process linked to the influence of coarse particles of low complexation capacity and transported mainly during high discharge may also effect trace element concentrations. Annual metal fluxes transported by this river system were estimated using the hysteresis SPM model with consideration of these fate processes. Metals in the Adour River system are primarily exported into the Bay of Biscay (Atlantic Ocean).

  13. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  14. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  15. Impact of climate change on the relict tropical fish fauna of central sahara: threat for the survival of adrar mountains fishes, mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Four central Sahara mountainous massifs provide habitats for relict populations of fish. In the Adrar of Mauritania all available data on the presence and distribution of fish come from pre-1960 surveys where five fish species were reported: Barbus pobeguini, Barbus macrops, Barbus mirei, Sarotherodon galilaeus, and Clarias anguillaris. Since 1970, drought has had a severe impact in the Adrar where rainfall decreased by 35%. To investigate whether the relict populations of fish have survived the continuing drought, a study was carried out from 2004 to 2008. An inventory of perennial bodies of water was drawn up using a literature review and analysis of topographical and hydrological maps. Field surveys were carried out in order to locate the bodies of water described in the literature, identify the presence of fish, determine which species were present and estimate their abundance. The thirteen sites where the presence of fish was observed in the 1950s -Ksar Torchane, Ilij, Molomhar, Agueni, Tachot, Hamdoun, Terjit, Toungad, El Berbera, Timagazine, Dâyet el Mbârek, Dâyet et-Tefla, Nkedeï- were located and surveyed. The Ksar Torchane spring -type locality and the only known locality of B. mirei- has dried up at the height of the drought in 1984, and any fish populations have since become extinct there. The Timagazine, Dâyet el Mbârek and Dâyet et-Tefla pools have become ephemeral. The Hamdoun guelta appears to be highly endangered. The fish populations at the other sites remain unchanged. Four perennial pools which are home to populations of B. pobeguini are newly recorded. The tropical relict fish populations of the Adrar mountains of Mauritania appear to be highly endangered. Of thirteen previously recorded populations, four have become extinct since the beginning of the drought period. New fish population extinctions may occur should low levels of annual rainfall be repeated.

  16. Impact of climate change on the relict tropical fish fauna of central sahara: threat for the survival of adrar mountains fishes, mauritania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Trape

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Four central Sahara mountainous massifs provide habitats for relict populations of fish. In the Adrar of Mauritania all available data on the presence and distribution of fish come from pre-1960 surveys where five fish species were reported: Barbus pobeguini, Barbus macrops, Barbus mirei, Sarotherodon galilaeus, and Clarias anguillaris. Since 1970, drought has had a severe impact in the Adrar where rainfall decreased by 35%. To investigate whether the relict populations of fish have survived the continuing drought, a study was carried out from 2004 to 2008. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An inventory of perennial bodies of water was drawn up using a literature review and analysis of topographical and hydrological maps. Field surveys were carried out in order to locate the bodies of water described in the literature, identify the presence of fish, determine which species were present and estimate their abundance. The thirteen sites where the presence of fish was observed in the 1950s -Ksar Torchane, Ilij, Molomhar, Agueni, Tachot, Hamdoun, Terjit, Toungad, El Berbera, Timagazine, Dâyet el Mbârek, Dâyet et-Tefla, Nkedeï- were located and surveyed. The Ksar Torchane spring -type locality and the only known locality of B. mirei- has dried up at the height of the drought in 1984, and any fish populations have since become extinct there. The Timagazine, Dâyet el Mbârek and Dâyet et-Tefla pools have become ephemeral. The Hamdoun guelta appears to be highly endangered. The fish populations at the other sites remain unchanged. Four perennial pools which are home to populations of B. pobeguini are newly recorded. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The tropical relict fish populations of the Adrar mountains of Mauritania appear to be highly endangered. Of thirteen previously recorded populations, four have become extinct since the beginning of the drought period. New fish population extinctions may occur should low levels of annual rainfall be

  17. Anticipating Central Asian Water Stress: Variation in River Flow Dependency on Melt Waters from Alpine to Plains in the Remote Tien Shan Range, Kyrgyzstan Using a Rapid Hydro Assessment Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. F.; Wilson, A. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2016-12-01

    The future of mountain water resources in High Asia is of high interest to water managers, development organizations and policy makers given large populations downstream reliant on snow and ice sourced river flow. Together with historical and cultural divides among ex-Soviet republics, a lack of central water management following the Soviet break-up has led to water stress as trans-boundary waters weave through and along borders. New upstream hydropower development, a thirsty downstream agricultural sector and a shrinking Aral Sea has led to increasing tension in the region. Despite these pressures and in contrast to eastern High Asia's Himalayan basins (Ganges, Brahmaputra), little attention has been given to western High Asia draining the Pamir and Tien Shan ranges (Syr Darya and Amu Darya basins) to better understand the hydrology of this vast and remote area. Difficult access and challenging terrain exacerbate challenges to working in this remote mountain region. As part of the Contributions to High Asia Runoff from Ice and Snow (CHARIS) project, we asked how does river flow source water composition change over an alpine-to-plains domain of Kyrgyzstan's Naryn River in the Syr Darya basin? In addition, what may the future hold for river flow in Central Asia given the differing responses of snow and ice to climate changes? Utilizing a Rapid Hydrologic Assessment methodology including a suite of pre-field mapping techniques we collected in situ water chemistry data at targeted, remote mountain sites over 450km of the Naryn River over an elevation gradient from glacial headwaters to the lower lying areas - places where people, hydropower and agriculture utilize water. Chemical and isotope tracers were used to separate stream flow to understand relative dependency on melt waters as the river moves downstream from glaciers and snow covered areas. This case study demonstrates a technique to acquire field data over large scales in remote regions that facilitates

  18. Tectonic uplift-influenced monsoonal changes promoted hominin occupation of the Luonan Basin: Insights from a loess-paleosol sequence, eastern Qinling Mountains, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qian; Hong, Hanlie; Zhao, Lulu; Furnes, Harald; Lu, Huayu; Han, Wen; Liu, Yao; Jia, Zhuoyue; Wang, Chaowen; Yin, Ke; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2017-08-01

    Quaternary soil deposits from northern and southern China are distinctly different, reflecting variability of the East Asian monsoon north and south of the Qinling Mountains. Coeval sediments from the transitional climatic zone of central China, which are little studied to date, have the potential to improve our understanding of Quaternary monsoon changes and associated influences on hominin occupation of this region. Here, we investigate in detail a well-preserved and continuous Quaternary loess-paleosol sequence (Shangbaichuan) from the Luonan Basin, using a variety of weathering indices including major and trace element ratios, clay mineralogy, and Fe-oxide mineralogy. The whole-rock samples display similar rare earth element patterns characterized by upper continental crustal ratios: (La/Yb)N ≈ 9.5 and Eu/Eu* ≈ 0.65. Elemental data such as (La/Yb)N, La/Th and Eu/Eu* ratios show a high degree of homogeneity, suggesting that dust in the source region may have been thoroughly mixed and recycled, resulting in all samples having a uniform initial composition. Indices for pedogenic weathering such as Na/K, Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, CIA, CIW, CPA, PIA, kaolinite/illite, (kaolinite + smectite)/illite, and hematite/(hematite + goethite) exhibit similar secular trends and reveal a four-stage accumulation history. The indices also indicate that the climate was warmer and wetter during the most recent interglacial stage, compared with coeval environments of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Secular changes in weathering intensity can be related to stepwise uplift of the Qinling Mountains and variation in East Asian monsoon intensity, both of which played significant roles in controlling climate evolution in the Luonan Basin. Furthermore, intensified aridity and winter monsoon strength in dust source areas, as evidenced by mineralogic and geochemical changes, may have been due to the mid-Pleistocene climate transition. Based on temporal correlation of warmer and wetter climatic conditions

  19. Structure of the crust and uppermost mantle from broadband seismic array in the western Dabie Mountains, east central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua; WANG LiangShu; LI Cheng; LIU FuTian; HU DeZhao; YU DaYong

    2009-01-01

    A broadband seismic array of 7 stations was set up in the western Dabie Mountains (31°20′-31°50′N, 114°30′-115°E). Teleseismic events from May 2001 to November 2001 were collected and analyzed by radial receiver function to determine the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. The crustal thickness is 32-38 km beneath the array. The crust-mantle boundary appears as a gently north-dipping velocity discontinuity, but turns to be a velocity gradient beneath a station near the Qiliping shear zone in the south of the array. In the north of the array, a large offset of 4-6 km exists in the Moho along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, suggesting a suture zone formed by the northward subduction of the Yangtze plate beneath the North China plate. Along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, a north-dipping, EW-striking low-velocity zone was observed in the upper mantle, which may be related to the collision boundary between the Yangtze and the North China plates in the Triassic. Therefore the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone is the southern boundary of suture zone between the Yangtze and the North China plates. In the south of the array, a high-velocity body in the lower crust near the Qiliping shear zone probably results from the underpiate of mafic magma into the lower crust, which is generally associated with large-scale extension triggered by delamination of the thickened crust.

  20. Structure of the crust and uppermost mantle from broadband seismic array in the western Dabie Mountains, east central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A broadband seismic array of 7 stations was set up in the western Dabie Mountains (31°20′-31°50′N, 114°30′-115°E). Teleseismic events from May 2001 to November 2001 were collected and analyzed by radial receiver function to determine the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle. The crustal thickness is 32-38 km beneath the array. The crust-mantle boundary appears as a gently north-dipping velocity discontinuity, but turns to be a velocity gradient beneath a station near the Qiliping shear zone in the south of the array. In the north of the array, a large offset of 4-6 km exists in the Moho along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, suggesting a suture zone formed by the northward subduction of the Yangtze plate beneath the North China plate. Along the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone, a north-dipping, EW-striking low-velocity zone was observed in the upper mantle, which may be related to the collision boundary between the Yangtze and the North China plates in the Triassic. Therefore the Tongbai-Tongcheng shear zone is the southern boundary of suture zone between the Yangtze and the North China plates. In the south of the array, a high-velocity body in the lower crust near the Qiliping shear zone probably results from the underplate of mafic magma into the lower crust, which is generally associated with large-scale extension triggered by delamination of the thickened crust.

  1. Population structure, historical biogeography and demographic history of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis in the Tsinling Mountains of Central China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Meng

    Full Text Available Population genetic structure, historical biogeography and historical demography of the alpine toad Scutiger ningshanensis were studied using the combined data mtDNA cytochrome b (cyt b and the mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI as the molecular markers. This species has high genetic variation. There was a significant genetic differentiation among most populations. Three lineages were detected. The phylogenetic relationship analyses and the SAMOVA (spatial analysis of molecular variance results showed significant phylogeographic structure. 82.15% genetic variation occurred among populations whereas differentiation within populations only contributed 17.85% to the total. Mantel test results showed a significant correlation between the pairwise calculated genetic distance and pairwise calculated geographical distance of the populations (regression coefficient  = 0.001286, correlation coefficient  = 0.77051, p (rrand≥robs  = 0.0185<0.05, indicating the existence of isolation-by-distance pattern of genetic divergence for cyt b + COI sequence, which suggests that the distribution of genetic variation is due to geographical separation rather than natural selection. The population expansion or contraction and genetic differentiation between populations or lineages could be explained by topography and the repetitive uplifts of the Tsinling Mountains and the climatic cycles during the late Pliocene and Pleistocene. S. ningshanensis experienced a rapid population expansion about 40,000 years before present. The current decline in population size was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance. Current populations of S. ningshanensis are from different refugia though the location of these refugia could not be determined in our study. Topography, climatic changes and repetitive population expansion/contraction together led to the high level of genetic variation in S. ningshanensis. A total of three management units (MUs was determined

  2. Understand mountain studies from earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Sichuan earthquake on 12 May was the most devastating one to hit China over the past 60 years or so. As the affected were mostly mountainous areas, serious damages were caused by various secondary disasters ranging from mountain collapse to the formation of quake lakes. This leaves Prof. DENG Wei, director-general of the Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, CAS, much to think about, and he is calling for strengthening studies on mountain science.

  3. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined.

  4. The Black Top Hat function applied to a DEM: A tool to estimate recent incision in a mountainous watershed (Estibère Watershed, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Felipe; Maire, Eric; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Darrozes, José

    2002-03-01

    The Top Hat Transform function is a grey-level image analysis tool that allows extracting peaks and valleys in a non-uniform background. This function can be applied onto a grey-level Digital Elevation Model (DEM). It is herein applied to quantify the volume of recent incised material in a mountainous Pyrenean watershed. Grey-level Closing operation applied to the Present-Day DEM gives a new image called ``paleo'' DEM. The Black Top Hat function consists in the subtraction of the ``paleo'' DEM with the Present-Day DEM. It gives a new DEM representing all valleys whose sizes range between the size of the structuring element and the null value as no threshold is used. The calculation of the incised volume is directly derived from the subtraction between the two DEM's. The geological significance of the quantitative results is discussed.

  5. Direct Observation of Upper Mantle Shear Flow Since 14.9 Ma in the Central Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, G. P.

    2005-12-01

    Asthenospheric flow in the Basin and Range province of the western United States has been hypothesized in dynamic models of the region. Models have included southwest flow in response to a hotspot-like upwelling in northeast Nevada, rapid northeast flow in response to extension and Pacific-North American margin shear, and slow, top-to-the-west simple shear. Detailed P-wave tomographic imaging in southern Nevada provides a direct measure of mantle flow to >200 km since ~14.9 Ma. A nearly vertical, 1-2.5% high velocity column presently exists immediately beneath the Timber Mountain/Silent Canyon caldera complex (37.2° N, 116.2° W) that is interpreted as the root of the complex. Volcanism reached 500 km3 in eruptive volumes (comparable to Long Valley Caldera) by 14.9 Ma, and a total of over 7,000 km3 by 11.7 Ma, whereupon the system declined drastically in activity. The root is interpreted from tomographic, geochemical, and petrological considerations to correspond to a de-watering feature that conveyed a pulse of volatile rich volcanism and left a dry, depleted, and slightly cooled column behind. As a melt ascension residual of some sort, we infer that it was originally nearly vertical. With that assumption, the root structure comprises a shear flow marker for activity since it formed. The edifice is 0-15 km west of its center at 200 km depth, indicating that there has been little or no top-to-the-west shear and no channelized flow to the east or west since ~14.9 Ma. Approximately 40 km of top-to-the-south flow is observed, consistent with some geological models. Below 200 km the root appears to plunge NE at 45 degrees to the bottom of the model at 400 km. Synthetic modeling indicates that the deep delay structure is not an artifact of the root, but array aperture is too small to eliminate association with even deeper structures. Hydrous, subsolidus conditions to ~150 km are inferred on a NE linear trend southeast of the root structure. In Nevada this trend does

  6. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS of Central Asia, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and lately Afghanistan to collect observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and to deliver them to the end-users for operational tasks and scientific studies. The newly developed and installed remotely operated multi-parameter stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. Additionally, three stations integrate seismic sensors for earthquake monitoring. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted nominally in near-real time, but at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is planed to be distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  7. A new permanent multi-parameter monitoring network in Central Asian high mountains – from measurements to data bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Schöne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of water resources and climate parameters at the scale of river basins requires networks of continuously operated in-situ stations. Since 2009, GFZ and CAIAG, in cooperation with the National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMS, are establishing such a regional monitoring network in Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan which is collecting observations of meteorological and hydrological parameters and delivering them to the end-users. The network design focuses mainly on the higher elevations where the recent decline of monitoring stations and networks established in Soviet times was strongest, and the resulting observational gap hinders research on climate and hydrological change as well as operational tasks in water management such as the seasonal runoff forecast. The newly developed and installed Remotely Operated Multi-Parameter Stations (ROMPS do not only monitor standard meteorological and hydrological parameters, but also deliver GPS data for atmospheric sounding as well as tectonic studies. The observational data from the ROMPS is transmitted at least once a day to a centralized geo-database infrastructure for long-term storage and data redistribution. Users can access the data manually using a web-interface or automatically using SOS requests; in addition, data is distributed to the NHMS through standard communication and data exchange channels.

  8. Implications for Fault and Basin Geometry in the Central California Coast Ranges from Preliminary Gravity and Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Jachens, R. C.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary aeromagnetic and newly processed gravity data help define block-bounding faults and deep sedimentary basins in the central California Coast Ranges, ranging from the Hosgri fault east to the San Andreas fault and from Monterey Bay south to Pt. Conception. Interpretation of these data results in an improved framework for seismic hazard and groundwater studies. Aeromagnetic data include a new survey with a flight-line spacing of 800 m at a nominal 300 m above ground and covering 15,000 km2. More than 11,500 gravity measurements, reprocessed with terrain corrections calculated from 30-m DEMs, form a roughly 2-km grid over most of the study area. Combined potential-field data and existing geologic mapping, delineate major fault-bounded blocks in the central California Coast Ranges. Main block-bounding faults from west to east include the San Gregorio- Hosgri, San Luis-Willmar-Santa Maria River-Little Pine, Oceanic-West Huasna, Nacimiento, Rinconada-South Cuyama, San Juan-Chimineas-Morales, and San Andreas faults. Most of these faults have evidence of Quaternary activity. Gravity gradients indicate that the reach of the San Andreas fault bounding the Gabilan Range and the northern extension of the Rinconada fault bounding the Santa Lucia Range dip steeply southwestward and have a reverse component of slip. Magnetic and microseismicity data suggest that the northern reach of the Hosgri fault dips eastward. The potential-field data also delineate several deep sedimentary basins, such as the 3-4 km deep Cuyama basin, the Santa Maria basin, and several basins along and possibly offset by the Rinconada fault. Gravity data show that the main west-northwest-striking faults bounding the Cuyama basin dip away from the basin, indicating compression adjacent to the big bend in the San Andreas fault. Prominent gravity and magnetic highs northeast of the San Andreas fault immediately east of Cuyama Valley suggest that there the San Andreas fault dips southwest. Such dip

  9. Range overlap and individual movements during breeding season influence genetic relationships of caribou herds in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Adams, Layne G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Dale, Bruce W.

    2012-01-01

    North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds commonly exhibit little nuclear genetic differentiation among adjacent herds, although available evidence supports strong demographic separation, even for herds with seasonal range overlap. During 1997–2003, we studied the Mentasta and Nelchina caribou herds in south-central Alaska using radiotelemetry to determine individual movements and range overlap during the breeding season, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to assess levels of genetic differentiation. Although the herds were considered discrete because females calved in separate regions, individual movements and breeding-range overlap in some years provided opportunity for male-mediated gene flow, even without demographic interchange. Telemetry results revealed strong female philopatry, and little evidence of female emigration despite overlapping seasonal distributions. Analyses of 13 microsatellites indicated the Mentasta and Nelchina herds were not significantly differentiated using both traditional population-based analyses and individual-based Bayesian clustering analyses. However, we observed mtDNA differentiation between the 2 herds (FSTM = 0.041, P

  10. Pre-eruptive conditions of the ~31 ka rhyolitic magma of Tlaloc volcano, Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Rueda, H.; Gardner, J.

    2008-12-01

    Tlaloc volcano is located at the northern tip of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Range in Central Mexico. This Pleistocene to Recent volcanic range consists from north to south of Tlaloc-Telapón-Teyotl-Iztaccíhuatl-and- Popocatépetl volcanoes. While andesitic to barely dacitic volcanism dominates the southern part of the range (i.e. Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl); dacitic and rare rhyolithic volcanism (i.e. Telapón, Tlaloc) dominates the northern end. The known locus of rhyolitic magmatism took place at Tlaloc volcano with a Plinian-Subplinian eruption that occurred 31 ka ago. The eruption emplaced the so-called multilayered fallout and pumiceous pyroclastic flows (~2 km3 DRE). The deposit consists of 95% vol. of juvenile particles (pumice + crystals) and minor altered lithics 5% vol. The mineral association of the pumice fragments (74-76 % wt. SiO2) consists of quartz + plagioclase + sanidine + biotite and rare oxides set in a glassy groundmass with voids. Melt inclusions in quartz phenocrysts suggest that prior to the eruption the rhyolitic contain ~7% of H2O and Toluca volcano (~6 km) some 50 km to the southwest.

  11. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Traub

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future

  12. A 70-yr record of oxygen-18 variability in accumulation from the Tanggula Mountains, central Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Joswiak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A 33 m ice core was retrieved from the Tanggula Mtns, central Tibetan Plateau at 5743 m a.s.l. in August 2005. Annual average δ18O ratios were determined for the upper 17 m depth, representing the time series since the mid-1930's based on multi-parameter dating techniques. Data are compared to previous results (Kang et al., 2007 of an ice core from Mt. Geladaindong, 100 km to the northwest, for the period 1935–2003. During the time 1935–1960, δ18O ratios differed by 2–3‰ between the two ice cores, with generally lower ratios preserved in the Tanggula 2005 core. Differences in interannual variability and overall average ratios between the two study locations highlight the spatially variable climatic signals of ice core isotope ratios within the boundary of monsoon- and westerly-impacted regions of the central Tibetan Plateau. Average annual net accumulation was 261 mm w.eq. yr−1 for the period 1935–2004. Overall average δ18O ratio was −13.2‰ and exhibited a statistically significant increase from the 1935–1969 average (−413.7‰ to the 1970–2004 average (−12.6‰. Despite the observed increase in isotope ratios, temperature dependence was not found based on comparison with long-term data from meteorological stations to the north and southwest of the study location. Lack of temperature dependence is likely due monsoon influence, which results in relatively more depleted moisture arriving during the warm season. Evidence of monsoon impacts on precipitation in the central Tibetan Plateau has been previously documented, and statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.37, p<0.01 between the annual average ice core δ18O ratio and N. India monsoon rainfall was observed for the period 1935–2004.

  13. Water resources in the vicinity of municipalities on the east-central Mesabi Iron Range, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, R.D.; Young, H.L.; Petri, L.R.; Prior, C.H.

    1965-01-01

    Additional supplies of water are available near the municipalities on the east-central Mesabi Iron Range. Both ground water and surface water offer good potential supplies. For the ground-water supplies, the most productive aquifers are the Biwabik Iron Formation and the stratified glacial drift. Surface-water supplies are variable. Streams in the western part of the report area are too small to yield supplies of importance, but lakes are a good potential supply. Eveleth and Gilbert are the only towns presently utilizing this source. In the eastern part of the area of this report, the Pike and Embarrass Rivers offer good potential supplies. Flow records from two gaging stations are presented as are data from many wells and test holes. Surface water generally has a high concentration of iron and is colored. Most ground water has a high concentration of iron and manganese and is hard. Analyses of water from many sources are presented.

  14. Multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of landslides in volcanic areas - a case study from the Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco Mountain Range, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Martina; Rodríguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Schwindt, Daniel; Bücker, Matthias; Flores Orozco, Adrián; García García, Emilio; Pita de la Paz, Carlos; Terhorst, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    The Palma Sola-Chiconquiaco mountain range, situated in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, is highly susceptible to landslides, which is evidenced by the high frequency of landslide events of different sizes. The study area is located near the Gulf of Mexico coastline in the eastern sector of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. There, landslide triggers are intense rainfalls related to tropical storms and hurricanes. Steeper slopes are commonly affected by rockfalls, whereas moderate slopes, covered by massive slope deposits, are affected by shallow as well as deep seated landslides. Some of the landslides in the slope deposits reach dimensions of more than 1000 m in length and depths of over 30 m. The heterogeneous parent material as well as older slide masses hamper the detailed characterization of the involved materials. Therefore, in this study, a multidisciplinary approach is applied that integrates geomorphological, geological, and geophysical data. The aim is the reconstruction of process dynamics by analyzing the geomorphological situation and subsurface conditions before and after the event. The focus lies on the identification of past landslide areas, which represent areas with high susceptibility for the reactivation of old slide masses. Furthermore, the analysis of digital terrain models, generated before the landslide event, indicate initial movements like extension cracks, which are located close to the current scarp area. In order to characterize the subsurface of slide masses geophysical investigations are applied. The geophysical survey consists of a total of nine profiles covering relevant key features of the large affected area. Along these profiles, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and seismic refraction tomography (SRT) data were collected. Both, electrical and seismic images reveal a sharp contrast between relatively loose and dry material of the slide mass (high resistivities and low seismic velocities) and the former land surface that is

  15. Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park (Central Italy, determined by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truzzi C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV was used to determine Cd, Pb and Cu in spring waters of the Sibylline Mountains National Park, Central Italy. Samples were collected from three different areas of the Park (Mount Bove North, Mount Bove South and Springs of River Nera during the period 2004-2011. Physical-chemical parameters were also determined to obtain a general characterization of the waters. Very low metal concentrations were observed (i.e., Cd 1.3±0.4 ng L-1, Pb 13.8±5.6 ng L-1, Cu 157±95 ng L-1, well below the legal limits and also below the medians of known Italian and European data. Comparing the three areas it was noted that waters from the area of the Nera Springs are the poorest in heavy metals and the richest in minerals, that conversely the waters of Mt. Bove North are the richest in heavy metals and the poorest in mineral salts, and finally that intermediate values both for heavy metals and mineral salts were observed for the waters of Mt. Bove South.

  16. Drought history inferred from tree ring δ 13C and δ 18O in the central Tianshan Mountains of China and linkage with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guobao; Liu, Xiaohong; Qin, Dahe; Chen, Tuo; Sun, Weizhen; An, Wenling; Wang, Wenzhi; Wu, Guoju; Zeng, Xiaomin; Ren, Jiawen

    2014-05-01

    Annual tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C chronologies from 1790 to 2008 were established using Tianshan spruce ( Picea schrenkiana) in the central Tianshan Mountains of northwestern China. Temperature has a positive effect on tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C in the study area, while precipitation and relative humidity have negative effects. The standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) considered all of these effects and was significantly negatively correlated with tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C. We combined the tree ring δ 18O and δ 13C series to reconstruct the past 192 years of SPEI, which accounted for about 46 % of the total variance of SPEI from 1950 to 2006. The reconstruction showed good spatial agreement with gridded data in Palmer Drought Severity Index and precipitation and an inverse relationship with temperature. Our SPEI reconstruction reveals several wet and dry periods over the past 192 years and has good agreement with other drought records. Wavelet analysis showed quasi-periodic 10-, 20-, 30-, and 70-year fluctuations in the reconstruction. The 10-, 20-, and 30-year periodicities may reflect the potential influence of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Overall, this study indicates that the SPEI is a potential drought index, and the winter NAO affects regional moisture conditions in the long term.

  17. Estimates of flow direction for calc-alkaline welded tuffs and paleomagnetic data reliability from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility measurements: Central San Juan Mountains, southwest Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, Brooks B.

    1982-07-01

    Flow directions are estimated from the measurement of the magnetic fabric of 106 samples, collected at 18 sites in four welded tuff units in the central San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. The estimates assume that the tuffs generally flowed directly away from the extrusive vents and that the lineations of magnetic grains within the tuffs represent the flow direction at individual sites. Errors in the estimation may arise from topographic variation, rheomorphism (post-emplacement mass flow) within the tuff, and other factors. Magnetic lineation is defined as the site mean anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility maximum azimuth. A test on the flow directions for individual units is based on the projection of lineation azimuths and their intersection within or near the known source caldera for the tuff. This test is positive for the four units examined. Paleomagnetic results for these tuffs are probably reliable indicators of the geomagnetic field direction in southwest Colorado, during the time (28.2-26.5 Ma) of emplacement.

  18. Inheritance of Jurassic rifted margin architecture into the Apennines Neogene mountain building: a case history from the Lucretili Mts. (Latium, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollati, Andrea; Corrado, Sveva; Marino, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    The western Lucretili Mts. in the central Apennines (Latium, Italy) have been recently re-mapped in great detail and are the subject of combined stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural investigations. In this paper, we present a new stratigraphic interpretation of the Jurassic paleogeography of western Lucretili Mts., where a rift-derived intrabasinal paleo-high of the Alpine Tethys has been identified for the first time by means of facies analysis and biostratigraphic dating. Recognised facies associations, combined with dated stratigraphic sections, allow to define the morphology of the structural paleo-high and to identify the associated gravity-driven deposits (olistoliths) accumulated in the surrounding basin. Furthermore, we investigated the modes of interaction between Jurassic extensional structures and the subsequent contractional patterns developed during the Tertiary mountain building. In detail, the role played during Apennines tectonics by the paleo-escarpments bounding the paleo-high and by the surrounding olistoliths has been analysed. The paleo-escarpments either acted as focussing features for ENE-directed frontal thrust ramp localisation and were offset with small shortening amounts or reactivated as NNE striking high angle transpressional faults or preserved the original geometries as a result of variable orientation of paleo-escarpments with respect to the Neogene compressive stress field (with ENE oriented sigma1). Newly formed ENE striking tear faults connect these either inherited or neo-formed discontinuities. This complex stratigraphic and structural pattern is substantially different from the previous interpretations of this portion of the central Apennines based on a hypothesised layer-cake stratigraphy deformed by neo-formed Neogene thrusts. This contribution strengthens the importance of integrating facies analyses and structural investigations to detect the influence of pre-orogenic structures on compressive structural patterns

  19. TranSCorBe Project: A high-resolution seismic-passive profile to study the variation of the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Stich, Daniel; Heit, Benjamín; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mancilla, Flor; Benito, José; Carrion, Francisco; Serrano, Inmaculada; López-Comino, Jose Angel; Abreu, Rafael; Alguacil, Gerardo; Almendros, Javier; Carmona, Enrique; Ontiveros, Alfonso; García-Quiroga, Daniel; García-Jerez, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this project is to study the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges and their variations between the different geological domains. We deployed 50 broadband and short period seismic stations during 18 months following two profiles. We collect teleseismic events to perform a high-resolution P-to-S and S-to-P receiver function analysis. The main profile (TranSCorBe), of 160 km length, starts near the coast in Mazarrón (Murcia) and follows a NW-SE direction, crossing the Cazorla mountain range. It probes, from south to north, the Alboran domain (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif. The spacing between stations is around 3-4 km. This inter-station distance allows us mapping with high accuracy the variations of the crust and upper mantle discontinuities in the Betic Range and their transition to the Iberian Massif. A second profile (HiRe II) with a larger spacing between seismic stations, is a continuation of a previously installed HiRe I profile, a NS profile starting near the Mediterranean coast in Adra (Almería) through Sierra Nevada Mountains. HiRe II profile prolongs HiRe I profile until the Variscan intersecting with TranSCorBe profile near Cazorla.

  20. Stonefly (Plecoptera fauna of streams in a mountainous area of Central Brazil: abiotic factors and nymph density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitágoras da Conceição Bispo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The stonefly (Pleeoptera nymphs of streams of the Almas River basin, Pirenópolis, Goiás State, Central Brazil, and some abiotie factors that might affect their temporal distribution were studied. Nymphs were sampled monthly (June 1993 to July 1994 in five stations with a Surber sampler, and each sample consisted of 20 units totalling 2 m². In each station, stream velocity, discharge, temperature, electrical conductivity and pH were measured in order to assess their influence on the density of nymphs. Nymphs were identified to genus level. In general, the annual variation in density of nymphs, in four stations, showed that the seasonal variation was not clearly influenced by the annual rain cycle. In the case of the one of the stations, where numbers of stonefly nymphs were low and the anthropic action high, there was a density peak in the rainy season. This peak was probably related to dilution of the organie pollution in the rainy season, improving the environmental conditions for the Pleeoptera.

  1. Seasonal drainage of supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers in the Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Tadono, Takeo; Yamamoto, Minako; Kääb, Andreas; Morita, Reira; Ukita, Jinro

    2017-06-01

    Using field surveys in 2013, 2014, and 2016 plus satellite data from the 1999-2015 period, we analyze the seasonal drainage cycle of supraglacial lakes on seven debris-covered glaciers in the central Tien Shan. We characterize this cycle by the number of lakes and their water levels. The cycle of the Southern Inylchek Glacier starts to increase in the beginning of April, reaches a maximum in May-June, and decreases sharply in June-July. The increase in April to June comes from an inflow of meltwater from snow and ice, and the subsequent decrease arises from a greater connectivity to the englacial drainage network. For the Southern Inylchek Glacier, 94% of the supraglacial lakes that exist and appear during 2013-2015 drain during all three years, indicating that most lakes could connect to the englacial drainage network for three years. Concerning the water level, lakes in close proximity and with the same base-level tend to synchronize their seasonal water levels through the englacial channels. Although the maximum water level of the three-year, field-measured lake is about the same from 2014 through 2016, the date of maximum water level varies between mid-May and mid-June. During this period, the lifetime and size of the supraglacial lakes are controlled by the timing of their connectivity to the englacial drainage network.

  2. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garee Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  3. New records and range expansion of the white bald uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus, I. Geoffroy, 1847) in Central Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alcântara Cardoso, Nayara; Valsecchi, João; Vieira, Tatiana; Queiroz, Helder Lima

    2014-04-01

    The white bald uakari (Cacajao calvus calvus) is among the least studied of the Amazonian primates and is found exclusively in remote areas of the central Amazon. The geographic distribution of this subspecies is still uncertain, and information on current threats and its conservation status is sparse. In this paper, we identify new locations of occurrence and propose range expansion of the Cacajao calvus calvus. Between 2008 and 2010, six field expeditions were undertaken in the middle Solimões region to search for the subspecies and to conduct interviews with local residents regarding its presence. The presence of the white bald uakari was confirmed in the lower courses of the Juruá and lower Jutaí rivers, in addition to areas inside the Mamirauá Reserve, where its presence was expected. Results indicate an expansion and new limits on the geographic range of the subspecies, including its detection in areas in which it had not previously been reported and its exclusion from areas where white bald uakaris were assumed to occur. The new information provided by this study and the remaining shortcomings regarding the distribution of the calvus group point to the urgent need for further research on the geographic distribution and habitat use of this group, especially along the lower courses of the Juruá and Jutaí rivers, which remain little explored.

  4. Gradual loss of genetic diversity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations in the invaded range of central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočiš-Tubić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an invasive allergenic weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. causes serious public health and economic problems in invaded ranges of Europe. Over the last two decades, while expanding toward southern parts of Serbia, this common ragweed has become a very troublesome plant species in the whole country. Considering the importance of genetic studies in understanding of invasive species, our main objectives in this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from Central Serbia, a relatively recently invaded region. Comparing values of genetic measures obtained by microsatellite analyses, a number of differences were detected in genetic diversity between sampled populations. Allelic richness-r (ranged from 5.42 to 7.80, the mean number of alleles per locus-NA (5.8-8.4 and the mean number of rare alleles per locus-NR (2.8-5.8 have quite similar ranges across populations. We observed greater genetic variability in populations from the northern part of investigated area than in southern populations. Based on pairwise Fst values, AMOVA results and PCo Analysis, moderate differentiation among population was detected, while the STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated SR-Kru and SR-Les. Data obtained for analyses of differentiation and gradual losses of genetic diversity of sampled populations provides useful information about invasion dynamics of common ragweed in recently invaded region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002 and the Secretariat for Science and Tehnological Development, Province of Vojvodina (No. 114-457-2173/2011-01

  5. Structural and geochronological record of India-Asia suturing in the Lopu Kangri Range, south-central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowski, A. K.; Kapp, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    Better constraining the geological evolution of the India-Asia suture zone is vital to our comprehension of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. This study presents new mapping, igneous U-Pb geochronology, and detrital zircon geochronology from suture zone rocks exposed in the Lopu Kangri Range. Located ~50 km NW of Saga in south-central Tibet, this range exposes a >1.5 km thick panel of suture zone architecture that was exhumed by late Cenozoic orogen-parallel extension across two N-S, moderate-angle normal faults. The Lopu Kangri Range and its surroundings expose all of the major suture-zone assemblages. In the north, Cretaceous--Eocene Gangdese arc granitoids are unconformably overlain by nonmarine, conglomerate-bearing strata of the Eocene (?)--Miocene Kailas Fm. Metaconglomerate exposed in the same structural position within the Range contains garnet porphyroblasts. Gangdese arc and metaconglomerate rocks are confined to the footwall of the north-directed Great Counter Thrust system, which carried Cretaceous-Early Eocene Xigaze forearc, suture zone mélange, and Indian passive margin (Tethyan) strata northwards across three major NE-SW fault strands during the Miocene. Tethyan strata in the Range consist of locally garnet- and sillimanite-bearing calc-gneiss and schist that display N-S stretching lineations and top-N s-c fabrics. These rocks are exposed in the southern half of the range beneath suture zone mélange in the footwall of a moderately N-dipping, normal-sense shear zone. Six detrital zircon samples from the Xigaze forearc, metaconglomerate and meta-Tethyan strata were analyzed to confirm our lithologic correlations and provenance interpretations made in the field. 12 igneous U-Pb samples were analyzed to characterize granitoids that intrude the Range. They reveal a suite of 50-40 Ma granitoids that display a general younging trend from north to south across the suture. Five samples of 35-10 Ma leucogranites contain inherited zircon cores whose age spectra

  6. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians) – evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Peter; Méres Štefan

    2015-01-01

    Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians) have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists) were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites...

  7. Surface faulting and paleoseismic history of the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area, west-central Nevada, and implications for modern tectonics of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.W.; DePolo, C.M.; Ramelli, A.R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    -size, characteristic rupture events may characterize late Quaternary slip on the zone. A comparison of event timing with the average late Quaternary recurrence interval indicates that slip has been largely regular (periodic) rather than temporally clustered. To account for the spatial separation of the primary surface faulting in Monte Cristo Valley from the epicenter and for a factor-of-two-to-three disparity between the instrumentally and geologically determined seismic moments associated with the earthquake, we hypothesize two alternative tectonic models containing undetected subevents. Either model would adequately account for the observed faulting on the basis of wrench-fault kinematics that may be associated with the Walker Lane. The 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake is considered an important modern analogue for seismotectonic modeling and estimating seismic hazard in the Walker Lane region. In contrast to most other historical events in the Basin and Range province, the 1932 event did not occur along a major range-bounding fault, and no single, throughgoing basement structure can account for the observed rupture pattern. The 1932 faulting supports the concept that major earthquakes in the Basin and Range province can exhibit complicated distributive rupture patterns and that slip rate may not be a reliable criterion for modeling seismic hazard.

  8. Integrating Extensive Livestock and Soil Conservation Policies in Mediterranean Mountain Areas for Recovery of Abandoned Lands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. A Long-Term Research Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2016-01-01

    Land abandonment is a global issue with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Abandoned Mediterranean croplands start a process of secondary succession that is initially colonized by grasslands, shrubs and forest. In Mediterranean mountain areas, the process is very slow, so the

  9. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  10. 近年来祁连山中段冰川变化%Change of Glaciers in the Central Qilian Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 李忠勤; 王璞玉; 周平; 金爽

    2013-01-01

    基于遥感和实测的方法,对近50a来祁连山中段,包括黑河流域和北大河流域的冰川变化特征进行了分析.研究表明:1956-2003年,祁连山中段所研究的910条冰川面积共缩小了21.7%.其中,黑河流域冰川面积缩小了29.6%,北大河流域冰川面积缩小了18.7%.小冰川面积变化较大冰川要大,其对气候变化的敏感性较强.由于祁连山中段东西跨度较大,气候和地形等因素的不同,直接造成了冰川变化的区域差异.近期野外考察发现,位于黑河上游的葫芦沟流域,1956-2010年冰川面积缩小了30.1%,近7 a冰川面积缩小的比率达到前期的近5倍,且其中的十一冰川由于消融严重,已经完全分离成2条独立的冰川.雪冰融水径流是该流域中重要的水源,在稳定河川径流、调节其年际变化和年内分配方面发挥着重要作用.%Change of glaciers in the central Qilian Mountain in recent 50 years,including the Heihe River Basin and the Beidahe River Basin,was analyzed based on the remote sensing data and field survey.Results indicated that the total area of 910 glaciers investigated was reduced by 21.7% with a reduction rate of 0.002 km2 · a-1 during the period from 1956 to 2003,in which the total area of glaciers was reduced by 29.6% in the Heihe River Basin and 18.7% in the Beidahe River Basin.Reduction rate of the small glaciers was generally higher than that of the large ones,indicating that the small glaciers were more sensitive to climate change than the large ones.There was a regional difference in area change of glaciers due to the different geographical locations of the glaciers,local climate conditions and topographic factors in the central Qilian Mountain.Recent field survey revealed that the total area of glaciers in the Hulugou River Basin located in upper reaches of the Heihe River was reduced by 30.1%during the period from 1956 to 2010,and the reduction of glacier area in recent 7 years was 5

  11. Reconstruction of Late Glacial and Holocene landscape-climatic changes in the central Selenga Middle Mountains based on the isotopic composition of organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubtsov, V. A.; Ryzhov, Yu. V.

    2017-02-01

    The results of investigation into the composition of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of organic matter in the soils developed within soil-sedimentary sequences in the central part of the Selenga Middle Mountains in the Late Glacial and Holocene are presented. In the past 15000 years, the organic matter of the investigated soils has only been formed from the biomass of C3 plants (without the participation of C4 plants). This is confirmed by the of δ13C values from-27.00 to-23.35‰. A combined analysis of the parameters of the organic matter (Corg, Ntotal, C/N, δ13C, and δ15N) of soils formed in different periods makes it possible to assume that the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen reflects changes in the climate humidity during the Late Glacial and Holocene periods. The specified intervals of soil formation correspond to the climate humidification and stabilization of the surface owing to the development of dense vegetation. Aridization periods were characterized by the accumulation of sediments that buried soil horizons. The most pronounced stages of climate aridization occurred at the transition from the Late Glacial to the Holocene, from the Boreal to the Atlantic, and from the Atlantic to the Subboreal periods. The optimum soil-forming conditions existed in the periods of 11700-11000, 8800-6900, and 4700-1000 years ago, which is confirmed by the published data on the landscape-climatic changes in the adjacent areas in the past 15000 years.

  12. The chemical and biological response of two remote mountain lakes in the Southern Central Alps (Italy to twenty years of changing physical and chemical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea LAMI

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Two small high mountain lakes in the Alps were monitored in 1984-2003 to follow their response to changes in human impact, such as deposition of atmospheric pollutants, fish stocking and climate change. The results were compared to occasional samplings performed in the 1940s, and to the remains found in sediment cores. When monitoring started, the most acid-sensitive of them, Lake Paione Superiore, was acidified, with evident effects in its flora and fauna: benthic diatoms assemblage was shifted towards acidophilous species, and zooplankton lost the dominant species, Arctodiaptomus alpinus. Palaeolimnological studies outlined that lake acidification paralleled the increasing input of long-range transported industrial pollutants, traced by spherical carbonaceous particles. On the contrary, the biota of Lake Paione Inferiore appeared to be mainly affected by fish stocking. In the last twenty years, decrease in acid load from the atmosphere led to an improvement in lake water quality, with an increase in both pH and alkalinity. First signs of biological recovery were identified, such as change in diatom flora and appearance of sensitive species among benthic insects. However, climate change and episodic deposition of Saharan dust were important driving factors controlling lake water chemistry. Further monitoring to assess the effects of climate change and of the increasing load of nitrogen and other pollutants is recommended.

  13. Pattern and timing of late Cenozoic rapid exhumation and uplift of the Helan Mountain,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The Helan Mountain, an intraplate deformation belt in the North China Craton, is located in the northern portion of the China North-South seismic belt, and at the northwestern margin of the Ordos Block. The Cenozoic deformation history of the Helan Mountain is characterized by extension along the eastern Helan Mountain fault (EHSF), resulting in the exhumation and uplift of the Helan Mountain, relative to the rifting of the adjacent Yinchuan Basin. Here we present new apatite fission track (AFT) data from several transects adjacent to the EHSF in the central and northern Helan Mountain. AFT ages from the northern Helan Mountain (Dawukou and Zhengyiguan transects) range from 10 Ma to 89 Ma, whereas AFT ages from the southern Helan Mountain (Suyukou transect) are greater than 71 Ma. The AFT data analysis reveals initiation of rapid uplift and exhumation of the Helan Mountain at 10–12 Ma. Additionally, a plot of the AFT ages versus their mean track length shows a distinctive "boomerang" pattern indicating that the Helan Mountain experienced a discrete phase of accelerated exhumation beginning at 10-12 Ma. Spatially, AFT samples systematically increase in age away from the EHSF and are consistent with late Cenozoic exhumation that was slow in the southwestern Helan Mountain and rapid in the northeastern Helan Mountain, as well more rapid adjacent to the EHSF and slower away from the EHSF. Obviously, the spatial distribution of late Cenozoic exhumation indicates that normal faulting of the EHSF is related to southwestward tilting and rapid exhumation of the Helan Mountain beginning at 10–12 Ma. The uplift and exhumation of the Helan Mountain was a response to the intensive extension of the northwestern margin of the Ordos Block in the late Cenozoic; this occurred under a regional extensional stress field oriented NW-SE along the Yinchuan-Jilantai-Hetao and the Weihe-Shanxi graben systems adjacent to the Ordos Block.

  14. Middle Jurassic Topawa group, Baboquivari Mountains, south-central Arizona: Volcanic and sedimentary record of deep basins within the Jurassic magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, G.B.; Wright, J.E.; Riggs, N.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; May, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Among supracrustal sequences of the Jurassic magmatic arc of the southwestern Cordillera, the Middle Jurassic Topawa Group, Baboquivari Mountains, south-central Arizona, is remarkable for its lithologic diversity and substantial stratigraphic thickness, ???8 km. The Topawa Group comprises four units (in order of decreasing age): (1) Ali Molina Formation-largely pyroclastic rhyolite with interlayered eolian and fluvial arenite, and overlying conglomerate and sandstone; (2) Pitoikam Formation-conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and sandstone overlain by interbedded silt- stone and sandstone; (3) Mulberry Wash Formation-rhyolite lava flows, flow breccias, and mass-flow breccias, with intercalated intraformational conglomerate, sedimentary breccia, and sandstone, plus sparse within-plate alkali basalt and comendite in the upper part; and (4) Tinaja Spring Porphyry-intrusive rhyolite. The Mulberry Wash alkali basalt and comendite are genetically unrelated to the dominant calcalkaline rhyolite. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon from volcanic and intrusive rocks indicate the Topawa Group, despite its considerable thickness, represents only several million years of Middle Jurassic time, between approximately 170 and 165 Ma. Sedimentary rocks of the Topawa Group record mixing of detritus from a minimum of three sources: a dominant local source of porphyritic silicic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks, identical or similar to those of the Topawa Group itself; Meso- proterozoic or Cambrian conglomerates in central or southeast Arizona, which contributed well-rounded, highly durable, polycyclic quartzite pebbles; and eolian sand fields, related to Middle Jurassic ergs that lay to the north of the magmatic arc and are now preserved on the Colorado Plateau. As the Topawa Group evidently represents only a relatively short interval of time, it does not record long-term evolution of the Jurassic magmatic arc, but rather represents a Middle Jurassic "stratigraphic snapshot" of the arc

  15. The passive river restoration approach as an efficient tool to improve the hydromorphological diversity of rivers - Case study from two river restoration projects in the German lower mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, M.

    2017-09-01

    Intensive use of European rivers during the last hundreds of years has led to profound changes in the physicochemical properties, river morphology, and aquatic faunistic communities. Rectifying these changes and improving the ecological state of all surface water bodies is the central aim of the European Water Frame Directive (WFD), and river restoration measures are the main tool to achieve this goal for many rivers. As the cost-effectiveness of all measures is crucial to the WFD implementation, the approach of the passive river restoration has become very popular over the last decades. But while costs of this approach are minimal, not much is known about the long-term effectiveness of passive river restorations. The research presented here provides essential and in-depth data about the effects of two such restoration measures on the riverbed morphology of a large river of the lower mountain region in Germany (type 9.2). More than 3200 data sets were acquired using the TRiSHa method (Typology of Riverbed Structures and Habitats). The results show a high spatial and temporal diversity and dynamic for all analyzed hydromorphologic parameters - ranging from riverbed sediments, organic structures like dead wood or macrophytes, to the distribution of 32 microhabitat types. The structures and their dynamic depend on the character of the study area (free-flowing or impounded), the location of the study sites within the research area (main channel or restored side channel), and on the occurrence of major flood events (the mapping and sampling were conducted annually from 2006 to 2008 with a 50-year flood event occurring in early 2007). These results show the potential of the passive restoration approach for creating morphologically diverse riverbeds, as habitat diversity and the spatial heterogeneity of the riverbed substrates increased significantly (e.g., more than 40% of all habitat types were only detected in the newly restored side channels). But the results also

  16. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Eby

    Full Text Available Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36 were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13, which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments.

  17. Identification of 18S ribosomal DNA genotype of Acanthamoeba from hot spring recreation areas in the central range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ma, Po-Hua; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    SummaryAcanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and keratitis. Infections of keratitis are frequently reported through wearing lens while swimming in the non-disinfected aquatic environment. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we identified Acanthamoeba based on the PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair and investigated the distribution of Acanthamoeba at five hot spring recreation areas in central range, Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including various sampling sites, aquatic environment, physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 55 sites and Acanthamoeba was detected in 9 (16.4%). The most frequently detected was Acanthamoeba griffini, followed by Acanthamoeba jacobsi. Legionella were detected in 18 (32.7%) of the sites sampled in this study. The species of Legionella identified included Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, serotype 1, and Legionella erythra. Overall, 9.1% of the samples contained both Acanthamoeba and Legionella. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba was contrary to the levels of microbiological indicators recommended by Taiwan CDC, and no significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, P Acanthamoeba and water quality parameters. Results of this survey confirm the existence of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan spring recreation areas. Acanthamoeba, the organism responsible for the majority of Acanthamoeba keratitis and can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

  18. Geomorphic controls on mercury accumulation in soils from a historically mined watershed, Central California Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Historic Hg mining in the Cache Creek watershed in the Central California Coast Range has contributed to the downstream transport of Hg to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Different aspects of Hg mobilization in soils, including pedogenesis, fluvial redistribution of sediment, volatilization and eolian transport were considered. The greatest soil concentrations (>30 mg Hg kg-1) in Cache Creek are associated with mineralized serpentinite, the host rock for Hg deposits. Upland soils with non-mineralized serpentine and sedimentary parent material also had elevated concentrations (0.9-3.7 mg Hg kg-1) relative to the average concentration in the region and throughout the conterminous United States (0.06 mg kg-1). Erosion of soil and destabilized rock and mobilization of tailings and calcines into surrounding streams have contributed to Hg-rich alluvial soil forming in wetlands and floodplains. The concentration of Hg in floodplain sediment shows sediment dispersion from low-order catchments (5.6-9.6 mg Hg kg-1 in Sulphur Creek; 0.5-61 mg Hg kg-1 in Davis Creek) to Cache Creek (0.1-0.4 mg Hg kg-1). These sediments, deposited onto the floodplain during high-flow storm events, yield elevated Hg concentrations (0.2-55 mg Hg kg-1) in alluvial soils in upland watersheds. Alluvial soils within the Cache Creek watershed accumulate Hg from upstream mining areas, with concentrations between 0.06 and 0.22 mg Hg kg-1 measured in soils ~90 km downstream from Hg mining areas. Alluvial soils have accumulated Hg released through historic mining activities, remobilizing this Hg to streams as the soils erode.

  19. Biases in the diurnal temperature range in Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate models and their possible causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-09-15

    The study examines how regional climate models (RCMs) reproduce the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in their control simulations over Central Europe. We evaluate 30-year runs driven by perfect boundary conditions (the ERA40 reanalysis, 1961-1990) and a global climate model (ECHAM5) of an ensemble of RCMs with 25-km resolution from the ENSEMBLES project. The RCMs' performance is compared against the dataset gridded from a high-density stations network. We find that all RCMs underestimate DTR in all seasons, notwithstanding whether driven by ERA40 or ECHAM5. Underestimation is largest in summer and smallest in winter in most RCMs. The relationship of the models' errors to indices of atmospheric circulation and cloud cover is discussed to reveal possible causes of the biases. In all seasons and all simulations driven by ERA40 and ECHAM5, underestimation of DTR is larger under anticyclonic circulation and becomes smaller or negligible for cyclonic circulation. In summer and transition seasons, underestimation tends to be largest for the southeast to south flow associated with warm advection, while in winter it does not depend on flow direction. We show that the biases in DTR, which seem common to all examined RCMs, are also related to cloud cover simulation. However, there is no general tendency to overestimate total cloud amount under anticyclonic conditions in the RCMs, which suggests the large negative bias in DTR for anticyclonic circulation cannot be explained by a bias in cloudiness. Errors in simulating heat and moisture fluxes between land surface and atmosphere probably contribute to the biases in DTR as well. (orig.)