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Sample records for mountain area northern

  1. Evaluating extreme flood characteristics of small mountainous basins of the Black Sea coastal area, Northern Caucasus

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    L. S. Lebedeva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The probability of heavy rains and river floods is expected to increase with time in the Northern Caucasus region. Densely populated areas in the valleys of small mountainous watersheds already frequently suffer from catastrophic peak floods caused by intense rains at higher elevations. This study aimed at assessing the flood characteristics of several small basins in the piedmont area of the Caucasus Mountains adjacent to the Black Sea coast including ungauged Cemes River in the Novorossiysk city. The Deterministic-Stochastic Modelling System which consists of hydrological model Hydrograph and stochastic weather generator was applied to evaluate extreme rainfall and runoff characteristics of 1% exceedance probability. Rainfall intensity is shown to play more significant role than its depth in formation of extreme flows within the studied region.

  2. TRAJECTORY ANALYSIS OF FOREST CHANGES IN NORTHERN AREA OF CHANGBAI MOUNTAINS, CHINA FROM LANDSAT TM IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Huang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the information from integrated Landsat TM/ETM images and geographic information systems (GIS, using dynamic model, landscape indices and temporal trajectory analysis, spatio-temporal changes in forest in the northern area of Changbai Mountains were investigated in the past 20 years. The results showed that the forests decreased by 141461 ha at the annual decrease rate of 0.19% from 1986 to 2006. The numbers of forest patch increased, while the patch size of forest land declined. Forestland experienced the process of substantial fragmentation. Close forest showed a net reduction of 13.3×104ha. The typical trajectories of forest changes included forestland-forestland-cropland, forestland-cropland-cropland, forestland-forestland-grassland and forestland-cropland-built-up land. The total area of human-induced change is 1.7 times than that of natural change in the study area. Population, cropland area and gross domestic product increased significantly as forests decreased.

  3. Trends in dynamics of forest upper boundary in high mountains of northern Baikal area

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    V. I. Voronin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2–3 to 25 y.o. and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3 is presented by trees aged in average 15–25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.

  4. Hydrology of area 59, northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Britton, Linda J.; Minges, Donald R.; Kilpatrick, F.A.; Parker, Randolph S.; Kircher, James E.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis aid in decisions to lease federally owned coal and to prepare necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of Public Law 95-87, the "Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977." This act requires an appropriate regulatory agency to issue permits, based on the review of permit-application data to assess hydrologic impacts. This report, which partially fulfills this requirement, is one in a series of nationwide coal province reports that present information thematically, through the use of a brief text and accompanying maps, graphs, charts, or other illustrations for single hydrologic topics. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 59 in north-central Colorado and southeastern Wyoming.The report area, located within the South Platte River basin, covers a 16,000-square-mile area of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics.The South Platte River, the major stream in the area, and most of its tributaries originate in granitic mountains and flow into and through the sedimentary rocks of the Great Plains. Altitudes range from less than 5,000 feet to more than 14,000 feet above sea level. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, and produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt during the spring and summer produces most streamflow. Transmountain diversion of water from the streams on the western slope of the mountains also adds to the streamflow. Precipitation in the plains is as little as 10 inches annually. Streams that originate in the plains are ephemeral.Streamflow quality is best in the mountains, where dissolved-solids concentrations are generally small. Concentrations increase in the plains as streams flow through sedimentary basins, and as urbanization and irrigation increase. The quality of some mountain streams is affected by

  5. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  6. Designing and implementing more effective Integrated Early Warning Systems in mountain areas: a case study from Northern Italy

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    Carolina García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to consider and to understand the social context in which an Early Warning System (EWS is planned and to integrate all of its components, otherwise it is likely to fail. EWS are complex tools for disaster risk reduction which are only effective if they generate an appropriate response in the exposed population. Any effective EWS relies on the reaction capacity of all stakeholders. This reaction capacity is strongly dependent on how well EWS are integrated within their social context, especially with regards to potential marginalized and vulnerable communities. This dependence was confirmed in the study area in Valtellina di Tirano, northern Italy, which is recurrently affected by multiple mountain hazards. The local population is geographically marginalized due to restricted access to the region and exposure to hazardous events, and socially marginalized due to the lack of participation in decision making. Results of a survey show that the local population has low levels of perceived risk, a general lack of self-responsibility with regard to disaster risk reduction, and a tendency to transfer the responsibility to the authorities. However, respondents acknowledge and show interest in addressing their lack of preparedness and in participating actively in disaster risk reduction efforts. A follow-up survey demonstrates that significant variations in vulnerability within a given community over time, occur together with changes in traditional livelihood activities, economic systems and population demographics.

  7. Some results of processing NURE geochemical sampling in the northern Rocky Mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, P.A.; Cook, J.R.; Price, V. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was begun in the spring of 1973 to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The significance of the distribution of uranium in natural waters and sediments will be assessed as an indicator of favorable areas for the discovery of uranium deposits. This paper is oriented primarily to the discussion of stream sediments. Data for the Challis 1 0 x 2 0 NTMS quadrangle will be used for specific samples of NURE data processing. A high-capacity neutron activation analysis facility at SRL is used to determine uranium and about 19 other elements in hydrogeochemical samples. Evaluation of the areal distributions of uranium ratios demonstrate that most of the high U/Hf, U/Th and U/(Th + Hf) ratios occur scattered throughout the western two-thirds of the quadrangle. Most of the higher ratio values are found in samples taken at sites underlain by granitic rocks of the Idaho batholith or Tertiary-age plutons

  8. Protected areas in mountains

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    Hamilton, L. S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The importance of a global Protected Areas Network in sustaining appropriate mountain development is presented in this paper. Present status of the world’s “official” Protected Areas in the UN List, and the proportion that are in mountain areas, and including international designations (World Heritage and Biosphere Reserves. Current and future challenges in the management of these special areas are also commented.



    El autor destaca la importancia de una Red Mundial de Espacios Protegidos para el desarrollo sostenible de las montañas. Comenta luego el estatus actual de las Áreas Protegidas “oficiales” del Mundo en la Lista de las Naciones Unidas y qué proporción de ellas forma parte de las montañas, sin olvidar las figuras internacionales de protección como Patrimonio de la Humanidad y Reservas de Biosfera. Para terminar, se discuten los problemas de gestión actuales y futuros de estas áreas tan especiales

  9. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

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    Xiang Niu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD and soil water retention curve (WRC under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1 the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL > abandoned grassland (ABG; (2 the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL; (3 the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4 the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure.

  10. Fractal Characteristics of Soil Retention Curve and Particle Size Distribution with Different Vegetation Types in Mountain Areas of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiang; Gao, Peng; Wang, Bing; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Based on fractal theory, the fractal characteristics of soil particle size distribution (PSD) and soil water retention curve (WRC) under the five vegetation types were studied in the mountainous land of Northern China. Results showed that: (1) the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC varied greatly under each different vegetation type, with Quercus acutissima Carr. and Robina pseudoacacia Linn. mixed plantation (QRM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. and Pistacia chinensis Bunge mixed plantation (PPM) > Pinus thunbergii Parl. (PTP) > Juglans rigia Linn. (JRL) > abandoned grassland (ABG); (2) the soil fractal dimensions of woodlands (QRM, PPM, PTP and JRL) were significantly higher than that in ABG, and mixed forests (QRM and PPM) were higher than that in pure forests (PTP and JRL); (3) the fractal dimension of soil was positively correlated with the silt and clay content but negatively correlated with the sand content; and (4) the fractal dimension of soil PSD was positively correlated with the soil WRC. These indicated that the fractal parameters of soil PSD and soil WRC could act as quantitative indices to reflect the physical properties of the soil, and could be used to describe the influences of the Return Farmland to Forests Projects on soil structure. PMID:26633458

  11. Driving Forces of Dynamic Changes in Soil Erosion in the Dahei Mountain Ecological Restoration Area of Northern China Based on GIS and RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic change in soil erosion is an important focus of regional ecological restoration research. Here, the dynamic changes of soil erosion and its driving forces in the Dahei Mountain ecological restoration area of northern China were analyzed by LANDSAT TM remote sensing captured via geographic information system (GIS) technologies during three typical periods in 2004, 2008 and 2013. The results showed the following: (1) a decrease in intensive erosion and moderate erosion areas, as well as an increase in light erosion areas, was observed during two periods: one from 2004 to 2008 and the other from 2008 to 2013. (2) Between 2004 and 2008, the variation in the range of slight erosion was the largest (24.28%), followed by light erosion and intensive erosion; between 2008 and 2013, the variation in the range of intensive erosion area was the largest (9.89%), followed by slight erosion and moderate erosion. (3) Socioeconomic impact, accompanied by natural environmental factors, was the main driving force underlying the change in soil erosion within the ecological restoration area. In particular, the socioeconomic factors of per capita forest area and land reclamation rate, as well as the natural environmental factor of terrain slope, significantly influenced soil erosion changes within the ecological restoration area.

  12. Transfer of radiocaesium from soil to vegetation and to grazing lambs in a mountain area in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.; Loensjoe, H.; Andersson, I.

    1994-01-01

    In the northern Arctic and boreal regions many radioecological problems appear in the terrestrial environment. The climate and the soil, and as a consequence also the vegetation types, favour a high transfer of radionuclides to the food chain. Consequently there is a risk for high transfer to domestic animals grazing in these environments. As most of the lamb production in the Nordic countries is carried out on permanent pasture and in semi-natural environments the radioecological and economic effects are evident. This investigation was initiated and supported by the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS), working group RAD-3, as a part of an inter Nordic research programme. All the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, have participated in the project. The sampling technique for soil, herbage and lamb was to be the same in all countries, in areas where no countermeasures had been applied after the Chernobyl fallout. The main results of these common Nordic studies will be summarized by Hove et al., 1994. The Swedish part of the study has also been financially supported by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm. The purpose was to study the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants and further to lamb meat in natural or semi-natural areas over the years. This paper is an extended summary of a work (Rosen et al., 1994) to be published in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. In the present report only results of soil and transfer from soil to vegetation and lambs are given. (author)

  13. Transfer of radiocaesium from soil to vegetation and to grazing lambs in a mountain area in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K; Loensjoe, H [Department of Radioecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala (Sweden); Andersson, I [Department of Biosystems and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, 23053 (Sweden)

    1994-11-01

    In the northern Arctic and boreal regions many radioecological problems appear in the terrestrial environment. The climate and the soil, and as a consequence also the vegetation types, favour a high transfer of radionuclides to the food chain. Consequently there is a risk for high transfer to domestic animals grazing in these environments. As most of the lamb production in the Nordic countries is carried out on permanent pasture and in semi-natural environments the radioecological and economic effects are evident. This investigation was initiated and supported by the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS), working group RAD-3, as a part of an inter Nordic research programme. All the Nordic countries, i.e. Denmark, the Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, have participated in the project. The sampling technique for soil, herbage and lamb was to be the same in all countries, in areas where no countermeasures had been applied after the Chernobyl fallout. The main results of these common Nordic studies will be summarized by Hove et al., 1994. The Swedish part of the study has also been financially supported by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute in Stockholm. The purpose was to study the transfer of radiocaesium from soil to plants and further to lamb meat in natural or semi-natural areas over the years. This paper is an extended summary of a work (Rosen et al., 1994) to be published in Journal of Environmental Radioactivity. In the present report only results of soil and transfer from soil to vegetation and lambs are given. (author)

  14. Precipitation measurement and derivation of precipitation inclination in a windy mountainous area in northern Costa Rica. Scientific Briefing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frumau, K.F.A.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Tobón, C.

    2011-01-01

    Over small-scale topography in windy areas, precipitation tends to be redistributed by wind through the modification of precipitation inclination. The latter is often derived from wind speed and conventional rain gauge records by application of relations-derived mainly for convective rainfall

  15. Soil variability in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, E.; Freppaz, M.; Stanchi, S.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, M.

    2015-01-01

    The high spatial variability of soils is a relevant issue at local and global scales, and determines the complexity of soil ecosystem functions and services. This variability derives from strong dependencies of soil ecosystems on parent materials, climate, relief and biosphere, including human impact. Although present in all environments, the interactions of soils with these forming factors are particularly striking in mountain areas.

  16. Geologic remote sensing study of the Hayden pass-Orient Mine Area, Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wychgram, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    Remote sensor data from a NASA Convair 990 radar flight and Mission 101 and 105 have been interpreted and evaluated. Based on interpretation of the remote sensor data, a geologic map has been prepared and compared with a second geologic map, prepared from interpretation of both remote sensor data and field data. Comparison of the two maps gives one indication of the usefulness and reliability of the remote sensor data. Color and color infrared photography provided the largest amount of valuable information. Multiband photography was of lesser value and side-looking radar imagery provided no new information that was not available on small scale photography. Thermal scanner imagery proved to be a very specialized remote sensing tool that should be applied to areas of low relief and sparse vegetation where geologic features produce known or suspected thermal contrast. Low sun angle photography may be a good alternative to side-looking radar imagery but must be flown with critical timing.

  17. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  18. Ecological Effects of Grazing in the Northern Tianshan Mountains

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    Xiaotao Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the effects of grazing is critical for the conservation, protection and sustainable use of arid grassland ecosystems. However, research regarding the ecological effects of grazing along mountainous elevation gradients is limited in arid areas, particularly at the regional scale. Using the Biome-BGC grazing model, we explored the effects of grazing on grassland net primary productivity (NPP, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE from 1979 to 2012 along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains. The NPP, ET and WUE values were generally lower under the grazing scenario than under the ungrazed scenario; the differences between the grazing and ungrazed scenarios showed increasing trends over time; and distinct spatial heterogeneity in these differences was observed. Distinct decreases in NPP and WUE under the grazing scenario mainly occurred in regions with high livestock consumption. The decrease in ET was greater in mountainous areas with high grazing intensity due to decreased transpiration and increased surface runoff. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological effects of grazing along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains and provides data to support the scientific management of grassland ecosystems.

  19. Mountain big sagebrush age distribution and relationships on the northern Yellowstone Winter Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl L. Wambolt; Trista L. Hoffman

    2001-01-01

    This study was conducted within the Gardiner Basin, an especially critical wintering area for native ungulates utilizing the Northern Yellowstone Winter Range. Mountain big sagebrush plants on 33 sites were classified as large (≥22 cm canopy cover), small (

  20. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-23

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 , Group 2 mite allergens ( Der p 2 and Der f 2 ), domestic feline ( Fel d 1 ), and canine ( Can f 1 ). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1 , 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1 , and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies.

  1. Degradation of High Mountain Ecosystems in Northern Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J(o)rg L(o)ffler

    2004-01-01

    Data material of a long-term highmountain ecosystem research project was used to interpret the grazing impact of reindeers. In central Norway investigations were conducted to both, areas where reindeer grazing is excluded, and areas where intensive pasturing is present for a long period of time.The comparative analysis of grazing impact was based on similar environmental conditions. The results were transposed to northern Norway where dramatic overgrazing had been exceeding the carrying capacity.Using landscape ecological mappings, especially of vege ation and soils, the impact of reindeer grazing in different areas became obvious. Non-grazedlichen-dominated ecosystems of the snow-free locations functioned sensitively near the limit of organism survival. These localities were most influenced by grazing as they offer the winter forage to the reindeers. So, intensive grazing in central Norway led to landscape degradation by destruction of the vegetation and superinduced by soil erosion.Those features were comparable to the situation in northern Norway, where a broad-scale destruction of the environment combined with a depression of the altitudinal belts had occurred due to overgrazing.Functioning principles of intact high mountain systems were explained and used to interpret the environmental background for the understanding of degradation phenomena. Finally, the use of a new model calculating the carrying capacity of high mountain landscape was discussed.

  2. VT Green Mountain National Forest Map - Northern Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The BasemapOther_GMNFMAPN is a cartographic map product depicting the northern half of the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF). The paper map...

  3. Apatite fission track analysis for revealing tectonic events of the Bayinguole area in the west section of Eastern Kunlun Mountains, northern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoning; Yuan Wanming; Hao Nana; Duan Hongwei; Feng Yunlei; Zhang Aikui

    2014-01-01

    Background: Qimantage is an important tectonic metallogenic belt in western part of East Kunlun Mountain. It has experienced complex geological evolution, and significant mineralization. However, because of the plateau climate and inaccessibility, fewer research works have been done on this area, especially after Indo-sinian epoch. Purpose: Our work is to research tectonic activity, thermal history and uplifting around Bayinguole river in Qimantage belt. Methods: The apatite fission-track method was applied to research the tectonic setting, simulate the thermal history and calculate the uplift size and uplift speed. Results: A series of apatite fission track ages from granitoid samples in Bayinguole area of Eastern Kunlun Mountain were obtained, ranging from 120 Ma to 47 Ma that might be divided into three groups': 120-100 Ma, 67 Ma and 54-47 Ma. These ages reflected tectonic events in this area very well. Conclusions: The 120-100 Ma and 67 Ma ages present collision-convergences of Gangdese terrane and Himalayan terrane with their north-side terranes in Early Cretaceous and Late Cretaceous respectively. The ages of 54-47 Ma reflect post-orogenic stretching events in Eocene. Three stages of thermal evolution history are revealed by apatite fission track modeling in this area. Stage one 180-140 Ma is in the bottom temperature of apatite fission track anneal zone. Stage two 140-13 Ma records slow cooling. The last stage after 13 Ma records rapid cooling with temperature dropped 50℃. The uplifting ranges for these three stages are 1.0 km, 0.6 km and 1.4 km, respectively. The cumulative amount of uplift is about 3.0 km. The formula calculations for the 3 samples have their rock uplifts of 3623 m, 3317 m and 3769 m, respectively, averaging 3570 m, in accordance with the results based on the 3 stage thermal history. (authors)

  4. Precipitation interpolation in mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, Sjur

    2015-04-01

    Different precipitation interpolation techniques as well as external drift covariates are tested and compared in a 26000 km2 mountainous area in Norway, using daily data from 60 stations. The main method of assessment is cross-validation. Annual precipitation in the area varies from below 500 mm to more than 2000 mm. The data were corrected for wind-driven undercatch according to operational standards. While temporal evaluation produce seemingly acceptable at-station correlation values (on average around 0.6), the average daily spatial correlation is less than 0.1. Penalising also bias, Nash-Sutcliffe R2 values are negative for spatial correspondence, and around 0.15 for temporal. Despite largely violated assumptions, plain Kriging produces better results than simple inverse distance weighting. More surprisingly, the presumably 'worst-case' benchmark of no interpolation at all, simply averaging all 60 stations for each day, actually outperformed the standard interpolation techniques. For logistic reasons, high altitudes are under-represented in the gauge network. The possible effect of this was investigated by a) fitting a precipitation lapse rate as an external drift, and b) applying a linear model of orographic enhancement (Smith and Barstad, 2004). These techniques improved the results only marginally. The gauge density in the region is one for each 433 km2; higher than the overall density of the Norwegian national network. Admittedly the cross-validation technique reduces the gauge density, still the results suggest that we are far from able to provide hydrological models with adequate data for the main driving force.

  5. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-07-26

    A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Patients' work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants' employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was 'freelancer' (17.5%), followed by 'blue-collar worker' (10.6%) and 'farmer' (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  6. Ability to join the workforce and work productivity among drug users under methadone maintenance treatment in a mountainous area of Northern Vietnam: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Vuong Minh; Boggiano, Victoria L; Nguyen, Lan Huong Thi; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Xuan Bach, Tran; Nguyen, Hung Van; Hoang, Canh Dinh; Latkin, Carl A; Vu, Minh Thuc Thi

    2017-01-01

    Objectives A major measure of treatment success for drug users undergoing rehabilitation is the ability to enter the workforce and generate income. This study examines the absenteeism and productivity among people who inject drugs (PWID) enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Northern Vietnam. Setting We conducted a cross-sectional study in two clinics in Tuyen Quang province. Participants A total of 241 patients enrolled in MMT. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients’ work productivity was measured using the WPAI-GH instrument (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire: General Health V2.0). We also collected additional characteristics about participants’ employment history, such as proficient jobs, whether they actively found a new job and be accepted by employers. Results Most of the participants (>90%) were employed at the time of the study. Rates of absenteeism (missed work), presenteeism (impairment while working) and overall loss of productivity were 15.8%, 5.6% and 11.2%, respectively, as measured by the WPAI-GH questionnaire. The most proficient job was ‘freelancer’ (17.5%), followed by ‘blue-collar worker’ (10.6%) and ‘farmer’ (10.2%). Only 26.8% of patients reported that they actively sought jobs in the past. About half of them had been refused by employers because of their drug use history and/or HIV status. We found no statistically significant difference between patients enrolled in MMT for 1 year. Factors associated with higher work productivity included not endorsing problems in mobility, self-care or pain; being HIV-negative and having greater MMT treatment adherence. Conclusion Our study highlights the high employment rate and work productivity among PWID in MMT programmes in remote areas of Northern Vietnam. The results can help to improve the quality and structure of MMT programmes across Vietnam and in other countries. PMID:28751487

  7. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... nonessential experimental population areas for the gray wolf under section 10(j) of the ESA: the Yellowstone...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the West Fork Elk Management Unit of Montana; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY...

  8. 76 FR 7875 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... the central Idaho and Yellowstone area nonessential experimental populations of gray wolves in the...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the Lolo Elk Management Zone of Idaho; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish...

  9. A history of forest entomology in the Intermountain and Rocky Mountain areas, 1901 to 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm M. Furniss

    2007-01-01

    This account spans the time from A.D. Hopkins' trip to the Black Hills, SD, in 1901 to my retirement in 1982. The focus is on personnel and the work of the Division of Forest Insect Investigations, USDA, and the Forest Service experiment stations in the Rocky Mountain and Intermountain areas. Information for the Intermountain and Northern Rocky Mountain station...

  10. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  11. Periurban landscapes in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Les mutations des paysages régionaux dues aux pressions urbaines questionnent l’usage du sol. Elles interpellent à la fois des enjeux économiques, sociaux et environnementaux voire spatiaux sous-tendus par l’étalement urbain, l’accroissement des déplacements domicile-travail, le mitage de l’espace. Ces évolutions et dysfonctionnements renvoient à la question de la durabilité du développement des régions, et particulièrement des Alpes, espace contraint géographiquement et objet de nombreuses pressions anthropiques et riche en biotopes remarquables. Cet article est basé sur deux ans de travaux menés par des socio-économistes et des écologues sur les effets sur le paysage et l’environnement de la périurbanisation d’un massif alpin. Nous avons pris en compte l’espace dans les processus environnementaux, économiques ou sociaux. Intrinsèque dans les analyses écologiques, elle a longtemps posé problème à l’économie pour intégrer l’espace comme dimension à part entière des processus économiques. Trois thèmes sont ici développés : l’approche du point de vue du paysage, les problèmes d’échelles spatiales et temporelles, le choix d’indicateurs. Ils demandent de hiérarchiser les questions et de pratiquer le travail en commun. Aller au-delà nécessite de développer une interrogation plus écologique ou plus économique et/ou sociale en quittant de ce fait l’interface pour favoriser des interrogations disciplinaires particulières.Changes in regional landscapes due to urban pressures raise questions regarding land use. They also give rise to economic, social and environmental issues related to urban sprawl, increases in daily commuting, and land consumption. These changes and dysfunctions are ultimately underpinned by the question of sustainable regional development. Mountain regions such as the Alps, with their various outstanding biotopes in a restricted space, are particularly vulnerable.

  12. Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeland, D.

    1985-01-01

    Early Oligocene paleogeography of the northern Great Plains and adjacent mountains is inferred in part from published surface and subsurface studies of the pre-Oligocene surface. These studies are combined with published and unpublished information on clast provenance, crossbedding orientation, and Eocene paleogeography. The Oligocene Arctic Ocean-Gulf of Mexico continental divide extended from the southern Absaroka Mountains east along the Owl Creek Mountains, across the southern Powder River Basin, through the northern Black Hills, and eastward across South Dakota. Streams north of the divide flowed northeastward. The Olligocene White River Group contains 50 to 90 percent airfall pyroclastic debris from a northern Great Basin source. Most of the uranium deposits of the region in pre-Oligocene rocks can be related to a uranium source in the volcanic ash of the White River; in many places the pre-Oligocene deposits can be related to specific Oligocene channels. Uranium deposits in sandstones of major Oligocene rivers are an important new type of deposit. The Oligocene channel sandstones also contain small quantities of gold, molybdenum, gas, and oil

  13. Seasonal changes of trophic niche overlap in the stone marten (Martes foina and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes in a mountainous area of the Northern Apennines (N-Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Brangi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 1989 and 1991, 284 scats of stone marten (Martes foina and 642 scats of red fox (Vulpes vulpes were collected in a 280 km² mountainous area in the northern Apennines. The scats were analyzed to identify differences between the two species' diets. The prey were grouped in 6 food categories: Fruits, Other Vegetables, Small Mammals, Other Vertebrates, Invertebrates and Garbage. Annual trophic niche was wider in the Red fox (0.62 than in the stone marten (0.53. We also found a large overlap between the two species with some small differences: Other Vertebrates, Small Mammals and Other Vegetables were more used by the Red fox, while Fruits were more used by the stone marten. Riassunto Variazioni stagionali della sovrapposizione di nicchia trofica della faina (Martes foina e della volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montana degli Appennini settentrionali - Tra il 1989 e il 1991 sono state raccolte 284 feci di faina (Martes foina e 642 feci di volpe (Vulpes vulpes in un'area montuosa di 280 km² situata nell'Appennino settentrionale. Le feci sono state analizzate per evidenziare le eventuali differenze nella dieta delle due specie. Le singole prede sono state raggruppate in 6 categorie alimentari: Frutta, Altri Vegetali, Micromammiferi, Altri Vertebrati, Invertebrati, Rifiuti. L'ampiezza annuale della dieta è risultata maggiore nella Volpe (0,62 che non nella Faina (0,53. È stata trovata inoltre una larga sovrapposizione tra le due specie con alcune differenze nell'uso degli Altri Vertebrati, dei Micromammiferi e degli Altri Vegetali che è maggiore nella Volpe e della Frutta, maggiore nella Faina.

  14. CHEAT MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, K.J.; Behum, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey determined that coal is the most important mineral resource in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, West Virginia. It is tentatively ranked as high-volatile A to medium-volatile bituminous similar to coal in nearby mining areas, and is primarily of coking quality. Demonstrated coal resources are estimated to total about 11. 6 million short tons in beds more than 28 in. thick in areas of substantiated resource potential and an additional 32. 7 million short tons in beds between 14 and 28 in. thick have been identified. Limestone, shale, clay, and sandstone occur in the area but these commodities are readily available outside the roadless area. Available information suggests little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or other energy resources in the area.

  15. Preferential retention of POPs on the northern aspect of mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremolada, Paolo; Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea; Ballabio, Cristiano; Comolli, Roberto; Provini, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Soils are the main reservoirs of POPs in mountain ecosystems, but the great variability of the concentrations, also at small scale, leaves some uncertainties in the evaluation of environmental burdens and exposure. The role of the aspect of the mountain side and the seasonal variation in the contamination levels was analysed by means of several soil samples taken from central Italian Alps. A greater contamination content was present in northern soils with a mean ratio between the north vs. south normalised concentration of around a factor of 2 (North-South Enrichment Factor). Experimental factors agreed with theoretical calculations based on temperature-specific calculated K sa values. From May to November consistent differences in normalised concentrations up to 5-fold were observed. A dynamic picture of the POP contamination in high altitudinal soils is derived from the data in this work, with spring-summer half-lives between 60 and 120 days for most of the compounds. - This paper discusses the accumulation of POPs in soils in relation to the aspect of the mountain side and supports the idea of a seasonal cycle of POPs in this matrix.

  16. Widespread bacterial infection affecting Rana temporaria tadpoles in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodic mass die-offs of Rana temporaria tadpole populations have occurred in the ponds of prealpine mountain areas of Brescia (northern Italy since the early 2000s. The author reports some observational data and analytical results from three sites: tadpoles from mortality events had erythema, especially on the legs, suggestive of septicemia. Bacterial culture of these tadpoles revealed Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria, two organisms often associated with Red leg disease. Egg mass counts from 29 pastureland ponds did not revealed breeding activity declines over five years in the Monte Guglielmo area. Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria usually behave as opportunistic bacteria that can become pathogenic after suppression of the immune system by endogenous or exogenous stressors. Thus, a plurality of environmental factors may contribute to mortality events; some of them are discussed, including loss of high altitude breeding ponds resulting in overcrowding and poor water quality in remaining ponds and the presence of other pathogens.

  17. Glacier area changes in Northern Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromova, Tatiana; Nosenko, Gennady; Kutuzov, Stanislav; Muraviev, Anton; Chernova, Ludmila

    2014-01-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies landscape changes in the glacial zone, the origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, etc. The absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies and their changes. The first estimation of glacier state and glacier distribution on the territory of the former Soviet Union has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory (UGI) published in 1965–1982. The UGI is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in the 1940s–1970s. There is information about 28 884 glaciers with an area of 7830.75 km 2 in the inventory. It covers 25 glacier systems in Northern Eurasia. In the 1980s the UGI has been transformed into digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of the 20th century. About 15 000 glacier outlines for the Caucasus, Polar Urals, Pamir Alay, Tien Shan, Altai, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and can be used for glacier change evaluation. Results of the analysis indicate the steady trend in glacier shrinkage in all mountain regions for the second part of the 20th century. Glacier area loss for the studied regions varies from 13% (Tien Shan) to 22.3% (Polar Urals). The common driver, most likely, is an increase in summer air temperature. There is also a very large variability in the degree of

  18. Mountain home known geothermal resource area: an environmental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, S.G.; Russell, B.F. (eds.)

    1979-09-01

    The Mountain Home KGRA encompasses an area of 3853 hectares (ha) at the foot of the Mount Bennett Hills in Elmore County, Idaho. The site is associated with an arid climate and high winds that generate an acute dust problem. The KGRA lies adjacent to the northwest-southeast trending fault zone that reflects the northern boundary of the western Snake River Plain graben. Data indicate that a careful analysis of the subsidence potential is needed prior to extensive geothermal development. Surface water resources are confined to several small creeks. Lands are utilized for irrigated farmlands and rangeland for livestock. There are no apparent soil limitations to geothermal development. Sage grouse and mule deer are the major species of concern. The potential of locating significant heritage resources other than the Oregon Trail or the bathhouse debris appears to be relatively slight.

  19. Temporal and spatial characteristics of wet-dry climate variation in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meiyan; Xi, Chen; Bao, Anming

    2008-10-01

    Based on the monthly temperature and rainfall data of 1961-2006, aridity is calculated and its multi-time scales characteristics in different divisions in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains have been analyzed using Mexican Hat wavelet analysis in this article. The periodic oscillation of aridity variation and the points of abrupt change at different time scales along the time series are discovered. Also the trend of climate change is tested. Additionally, possible association of climate variation in this area with ENSO is explored using SOI date series. The research results indicate that there exist obvious regional characteristics of wet-dry climate variation in the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains. Wavelet analysis shows that there mainly exits two modes of scales (12-24 years and 4-8 years) in every division, while catastrophe point differs in different zones. To predict on the scale of 12-24 years, it will be relatively dry in mountain division and desert area in a period after 2006. In addition, the transition from warm-dry to warm-wet appears in oasis area. Correlation analysis indicted that aridity variation of the northern slope of Tianshan Mountains is affected by ENSO, while influence degree is different between areas; furthermore, this influence is one-year lagging behind ENSO in the whole area.

  20. DEVONIAN RUGOSE CORALS FROM THE KARAKORUM MOUNTAINS (NORTHERN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEFAN SCHRÖDER

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Karakorum Block is regarded as a microplate of "Gondwanan" origin and was part of the Cimmerian continent ("Mega Lhasa" which rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana during the Late Palaeozoic/Early Mesozoic. From the Northern Karakorum Range (Yarkhun and Karambar River Valleys: structurally belonging to the Northern Sedimentary Belt an Upper Givetian to Lower Frasnian rugose coral fauna of the Shogram Formation is described. The fauna is dominated by cosmopolitan genera such as Hexagonaria, Disphyllum, Macgeea and the Temnophyllum/Spinophyllum group, generally showing a geographically wide distribution, although being absent from the Eastern Americas Realm in the Upper Givetian/Lower Frasnian. Therefore its components are of little use for biogeographical deductions at sub-realm level, and in explaining the relation between the Karakorum Range and other Cimmerian crustal blocks. A remarkable exception is the first record of the genus Pseudopexiphyllum outside of Turkey, indicating a connection to the western part of the Cimmerides. On species level, the coral fauna of the Shogram Formation is characterized by the development of a diverse and rather unique fauna including about 35 taxa, that differs from the faunas known from neighbouring crustal blocks. So far, faunistic links to the Central Iranian Microcontinent (Yazd-, and Tabas-Block, the northwest Iranian Plate (Elburz, Central Pamir, the Lhasa Block and Western Qiangtang are not clear, and although each of these fragments are believed to be closely connected they were apparently not in direct contact during the Devonian. However, the Karakorum fauna is remarkably close to one known from the Helmand Block in Afghanistan, showing a very similar generic composition that includes numerous morphologically closely related, although not identical species. Accordingly, the restricted faunal exchange led to the development of new taxa. Distribution of the new species of Spinophyllum

  1. Air Pollution In The Mountain - Urban Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).

  2. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Kenneth; Mehta, Manjari

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropo...

  3. Assessing the Sensitivity of Mountain Forests to Site Degradation in the Northern Limestone Alps, Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Reger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of some land-use practices (such as overstocking with wild ungulates, historical clear-cuts for mining, and locally persisting forest pasture, protective forests in the montane vegetation belt of the Northern Limestone Alps are now frequently overaged and poorly structured over large areas. Windthrow and bark beetle infestations have generated disturbance areas in which forests have lost their protective functions. Where unfavorable site conditions hamper regeneration for decades, severe soil loss may ensue. To help prioritize management interventions, we developed a geographic information system-based model for assessing sensitivity to site degradation and applied it to 4 test areas in the Northern Limestone Alps of Austria and Bavaria. The model consists of (1 analysis of site conditions and forest stand structures that could increase sensitivity to degradation, (2 evaluation of the sensitivity of sites and stands, and (3 evaluation and mapping of mountain forests' sensitivity to degradation. Site conditions were modeled using regression algorithms with data on site parameters from pointwise soil and vegetation surveys as responses and areawide geodata on climate, relief, and substrate as predictors. The resulting predictor–response relationships were applied to test areas. Stand structure was detected from airborne laser scanning data. Site and stand parameters were evaluated according to their sensitivity to site degradation. Sensitivities of sites and stands were summarized in intermediate-scale sensitivity maps. High sensitivity was identified in 3 test areas with pure limestone and dolomite as the prevailing sensitivity level. Moderately sensitive forests dominate in the final test area, Grünstein, where the bedrock in some strata contains larger amounts of siliceous components (marl, mudstone, and moraines; degraded and slightly sensitive forests were rare or nonexistent in all 4 test areas. Providing a comprehensive overview

  4. Geology of Gable Mountain-Gable Butte Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecht, K.R.

    1978-09-01

    Gable Mountain and Gable Butte are two ridges which form the only extensive outcrops of the Columbia River Basalt Group in the central portion of the Pasco Basin. The Saddle Mountains Basalt and two interbedded sedimentary units of the Ellensburg Formation crop out on the ridges. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Asotin Member (oldest), Esquatzel Member, Selah Interbed, Pomona Member, Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed, and Elephant Mountain Member (youngest). A fluvial plain composed of sediments from the Ringold and Hanford (informal) formations surrounds these ridges. The structure of Gable Mountain and Gable Butte is dominated by an east-west-trending major fold and northwest-southeast-trending parasitic folds. Two faults associated with the uplift of these structures were mapped on Gable Mountain. The geomorphic expression of the Gable Mountain-Gable Butte area resulted from the comlex folding and subsequent scouring by post-basalt fluvial systems

  5. Relational Database for the Geology of the Northern Rocky Mountains - Idaho, Montana, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas; Zientek, Michael L.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Evans, Karl V.; Wilson, Anna B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Boleneus, David E.; Pitts, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    A relational database was created to prepare and organize geologic map-unit and lithologic descriptions for input into a spatial database for the geology of the northern Rocky Mountains, a compilation of forty-three geologic maps for parts of Idaho, Montana, and Washington in U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1235. Not all of the information was transferred to and incorporated in the spatial database due to physical file limitations. This report releases that part of the relational database that was completed for that earlier product. In addition to descriptive geologic information for the northern Rocky Mountains region, the relational database contains a substantial bibliography of geologic literature for the area. The relational database nrgeo.mdb (linked below) is available in Microsoft Access version 2000, a proprietary database program. The relational database contains data tables and other tables used to define terms, relationships between the data tables, and hierarchical relationships in the data; forms used to enter data; and queries used to extract data.

  6. Late thrusting extensional collapse at the mountain front of the northern Apennines (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Storti, Fabrizio; Bausã, Jordi; MuñOz, Josep A.

    2012-08-01

    Thrust-related anticlines exposed at the mountain front of the Cenozoic Appenninic thrust-and-fold belt share the presence of hinterlandward dipping extensional fault zones running parallel to the hosting anticlines. These fault zones downthrow the crests and the backlimbs with displacements lower than, but comparable to, the uplift of the hosting anticline. Contrasting information feeds a debate about the relative timing between thrust-related folding and beginning of extensional faulting, since several extensional episodes, spanning from early Jurassic to Quaternary, are documented in the central and northern Apennines. Mesostructural data were collected in the frontal anticline of the Sibillini thrust sheet, the mountain front in the Umbria-Marche sector of the northern Apennines, with the aim of fully constraining the stress history recorded in the deformed multilayer. Compressional structures developed during thrust propagation and fold growth, mostly locating in the fold limbs. Extensional elements striking about perpendicular to the shortening direction developed during two distinct episodes: before fold growth, when the area deformed by outer-arc extension in the peripheral bulge, and during a late to post thrusting stage. Most of the the extensional deformation occurred during the second stage, when the syn-thrusting erosional exhumation of the structures caused the development of pervasive longitudinal extensional fracturing in the crestal sector of the growing anticline, which anticipated the subsequent widespread Quaternary extensional tectonics.

  7. Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina M. Rochefort; Laurie L. Kurth; Tara W. Carolin; Robert R. Mierendorf; Kimberly Frappier; David L. Steenson

    2006-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on subalpine parklands and alpine meadows of southern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and western Montana. These areas lie on the flanks of several mountain ranges including the Olympics, the Cascades of Oregon and Washington, and the Coast Mountains in British Columbia.

  8. The Caledonian mountains. Northern Europe, and their changing ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonesson, M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of solar conditions, the climate of the Caledonian Mountains, Northern Europe, is influenced more by the nearness to the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf Stream than by altitude and latitude. The length of the photoperiod during the growing season increases with latitude, although the total solar influx decreases. Heaths composed of species with a boreal distribution are particularly characteristic at low altitudes and latitudes, whereas species with an arctic and arctic-alpine distribution dominate at high altitudes and latitudes. Periodic events in the population dynamics of certain plant and animal species distinguish the ecosystems at high latitudes from those at low latitude. The effects of global change are likely to become most pronounced in the north since the rate at which the ultraviolet-B (UV-B absorbing ozone layer is being reduced and the increase in concentration of «greenhouse gases» in the atmosphere are both higher in the arctic than in regions further south. Changes in the ecosystems due to increased direct human impacts are also likely to occur in some areas.

    [fr] À l'exception des conditions solaires, le climat des montagnes dites «Caledonian», au Nord de l'Europe, est beaucoup plus influencé par la proximité de l'Océan Atlantique et le Goulf Stream que par l'altitude ou la latitude. La durée de la photopériode pendant la saison de végétation augmente avec la latitude, tandis que la radiation solaire total s'abaisse. À des altitudes et latitudes basses, les landes riches en espèces à distribution boréale deviennent caractéristiques, tandis que les espèces arctiques et artico-alpines dominent dans les hautes altitudes ou latitudes. Des événements périodiques dans la dynamique de la population de certains animaux ou plantes peuvent distinguer les écosystèmes des hautes latitudes de ceux de basse latitude. Les effets du changement climatique global seraient bien sûr plus prononcés au

  9. VT Green Mountain National Forest National Recreation Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) This dataset includes National Recreation Areas (NRAs) designated by Congress on the Green Mountain National Forest (GMNF) as of 2006. There are...

  10. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections of the southwestern Great Basin

  11. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (US); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Inc., Denver, CO (US)

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  12. Rethinking risk and disasters in mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hewitt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a view of risk and disaster in the mountains that finds them fully a part of public safety issues in modern states and developments, rather than separated from them. This contrasts with prevailing approaches to disaster focused on natural hazards, “unscheduled” or extreme events, and emergency preparedness; approaches strongly reinforced by mountain stereotypes. Rather, we find the legacies of social and economic histories, especially relations to down-country or metropolitan actors, are decisive in shaping contemporary “mountain realities”. Developments in transportation, resource extraction and tourism that serve state and international agendas can increase rather than reduce risks for mountain populations, and undermine pre-existing strategies to minimise environmental dangers. Above all, we see rapid urbanisation in mountains generally and the Himalaya in particular as highly implicated in exacerbating risks and creating new types of vulnerabilities. Enforced displacement, and concentration of people in urban agglomerations, is a major part of the modern history of mountain lands that invites more careful exploration. Rapid expansion of built environments and infrastructure, without due regard to hazards and structural safety, introduce new and complex risks, while altering older equations with and to the land and sapping people’s resilience. In the lives of mountain people, environmental hazards are mostly subordinate to other, societal sources of risk and vulnerability, and to the insecurities these involve. Basically we conclude that “marginalisation” of mountain lands is primarily an outcome of socio-economic developments in which their condition is subordinated to strategic planning by state, metropolitan and global actors.Cet article aborde la question des risques et des catastrophes en montagne. Il vise non pas à dissocier mais plutôt à replacer ces concepts au cœur des questions de s

  13. Status of northern mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in Yukon, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy M. Hegel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SV X-NONE X-NONE Caribou (Rangifer tarandus are an important ecological, cultural and economic resource in Yukon, Canada. Three caribou ecotypes occur within Yukon: Grant’s (R. t. granti, northern mountain (R. t. caribou, and boreal (R. t. caribou. Northern mountain caribou are classified as a species of special concern under Canada’s Species at Risk Act, and a national management plan for northern mountain caribou was recently completed. Twenty-six northern mountain caribou herds occur at least partially within Yukon, representing approximately 30,000 – 35,000 animals. Active monitoring of Yukon’s northern mountain caribou began in earnest in the early 1980s. To date, over 200 fall composition surveys have been carried out, over 1000 animals have been fitted with radio-collars, and nearly 40 formal population estimates have been completed. Disease and contaminant monitoring of these caribou has indicated relatively low disease prevalence and contaminant loading. Northern mountain caribou are harvested in Yukon, with an average of 230 caribou harvested per year by licensed hunters (1995 – 2012 and an unknown number by First Nation hunters. Future challenges related to caribou management and conservation in Yukon include increasing levels of industrial development primarily through mineral exploration and development, ensuring harvest of these herds is conducted sustainably given the absence of total harvest information, inter-jurisdictional management of shared herds, existing uncertainty surrounding herd distribution and delineation, and dealing with vehicle-related mortality of caribou for certain herds. Overall, the population status (i.e., trend of eight herds is known, with two increasing, two decreasing, and four stable.

  14. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  15. Directional Absorption of Parameterized Mountain Waves and Its Influence on the Wave Momentum Transport in the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Tang, Ying; Wang, Yuan; Xue, Ming

    2018-03-01

    The directional absorption of mountain waves in the Northern Hemisphere is assessed by examination of horizontal wind rotation using the 2.5° × 2.5° European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-Interim reanalysis between 2011 and 2016. In the deep layer of troposphere and stratosphere, the horizontal wind rotates by more than 120° all over the Northern Hemisphere primary mountainous areas, with the rotation mainly occurring in the troposphere (stratosphere) of lower (middle to high) latitudes. The rotation of tropospheric wind increases markedly in summer over the Tibetan Plateau and Iranian Plateau, due to the influence of Asian summer monsoonal circulation. The influence of directional absorption of mountain waves on the mountain wave momentum transport is also studied using a new parameterization scheme of orographic gravity wave drag (OGWD) which accounts for the effect of directional wind shear. Owing to the directional absorption, the wave momentum flux is attenuated by more than 50% in the troposphere of lower latitudes, producing considerable orographic gravity wave lift which is normal to the mean wind. Compared with the OGWD produced in traditional schemes assuming a unidirectional wind profile, the OGWD in the new scheme is suppressed in the lower stratosphere but enhanced in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere. This is because the directional absorption of mountain waves in the troposphere reduces the wave amplitude in the stratosphere. Consequently, mountain waves are prone to break at higher altitudes, which favors the production of stronger OGWD given the decrease of air density with height.

  16. Stream capture to form Red Pass, northern Soda Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Red Pass, a narrow cut through the Soda Mountains important for prehistoric and early historic travelers, is quite young geologically. Its history of downcutting to capture streams west of the Soda Mountains, thereby draining much of eastern Fort Irwin, is told by the contrast in alluvial fan sediments on either side of the pass. Old alluvial fan deposits (>500 ka) were shed westward off an intact ridge of the Soda Mountains but by middle Pleistocene time, intermediate-age alluvial fan deposits (~100 ka) were laid down by streams flowing east through the pass into Silurian Valley. The pass was probably formed by stream capture driven by high levels of groundwater on the west side. This is evidenced by widespread wetland deposits west of the Soda Mountains. Sapping and spring discharge into Silurian Valley over millennia formed a low divide in the mountains that eventually was overtopped and incised by a stream. Lessons include the importance of groundwater levels for stream capture and the relatively youthful appearance of this ~100-200 ka feature in the slowly changing Mojave Desert landscape.

  17. Miscellaneous investigations series: Bedrock geologic map of the Lone Mountain pluton area, Esmeralda County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, F.

    1984-01-01

    The joint attitudes were measured in the field and plotted on aerial photos at a scale of 1:24,000. The pluton is intensely jointed, primarily as a result of cooling and movement of the magma within a northwest-trending stress field. Foliation, in general, is poorly developed, and quality varies from area to area, but it is best developed close to the contacts with the metasedimentary rocks. A prominent northwest foliation direction was observed that parallels the northwest elongation of the exposed pluton. Faults in the pluton are difficult to identify because of the homogeneity of the rock. Several faults were mapped in the northern part of the area where they have a northeast trend and intersect the northwest-trending lamprophyre dikes with little apparent displacement. A major fault that bounds the northern part of the pluton is downthrown to the north and strikes northeast. This fault offsets the alluvium, the metasedimentary rocks, and the pluton and forms fault scraps as high as 10 m. Aeromagnetic data (US Geological Survey, 1979) suggest the following: (1) the local magnetic highs in the central part of the Lone Mountain pluton are probably related to topographic highs (peaks) where the flight lines are closer to the pluton; (2) a magnetic low in the northeastern part of Lone Mountain coincides with the pluton-country rock contact, which may be very steep; (3) the contours for the southwestern part of the mapped area indicate that the pluton-country rock contact is not as steep as that in the northeastern part and that the pluton probably coalesces at depth with the Weepah pluton, a pluton exposed south of the mapped area; and (4) the contours for the area of the Lone Mountain pluton express a northwest-trending gradient that parallels the northwest elongation of the Lone Mountain pluton and the northwest-trending stress field. 10 refs

  18. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-01-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited

  19. Geologic map of the Paintbrush Canyon Area, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, R.P. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Ltd., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    This geologic map is produced to support site characterization studies of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, site of a potential nuclear waste storage facility. The area encompassed by this map lies between Yucca Wash and Fortymile Canyon, northeast of Yucca Mountain. It is on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain caldera complex within the southwest Nevada volcanic field. Miocene tuffs and lavas of the Calico Hills Formation, the Paintbrush Group, and the Timber Mountain Group crop out in the area of this map. The source vents of the tuff cones and lava domes commonly are located beneath the thickest deposits of pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows. The rocks within the mapped area have been deformed by north- and northwest-striking, dominantly west-dipping normal faults and a few east-dipping normal faults. Faults commonly are characterized by well developed fault scarps, thick breccia zones, and hanging-wall grabens. Latest movement as preserved by slickensides on west-dipping fault scarps is oblique down towards the southwest. Two of these faults, the Paintbrush Canyon fault and the Bow Ridge fault, are major block-bounding faults here and to the south at Yucca Mountain. Offset of stratigraphic units across faults indicates that faulting occurred throughout the time these volcanic units were deposited.

  20. Evaluating the sufficiency of protected lands for maintaining wildlife population connectivity in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Erin L. Landguth; Curtis H. Flather

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The goal of this study was to evaluate the sufficiency of the network of protected lands in the U.S. northern Rocky Mountains in providing protection for habitat connectivity for 105 hypothetical organisms. A large proportion of the landscape...

  1. Biochar effects on the nursery propagation of 4 northern Rocky Mountain native plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarice P. Matt; Christopher R. Keyes; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2018-01-01

    Biochar has emerged as a promising potential amendment of soilless nursery media for plant propagation. With this greenhouse study we used biochar to displace standard soilless nursery media at 4 rates (0, 15, 30, and 45% [v:v]) and then examined media chemistry, irrigation frequency, and the growth of 4 northern Rocky Mountain native plant species: Clarkia pulchella...

  2. Biogeographic, cultural, and historical setting of the Northern Rocky Mountains [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Karen. Dante-Wood

    2018-01-01

    The Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnership (NRAP) includes diverse landscapes, ranging from high mountains to grasslands, from alpine glaciers to broad rivers (fig. 1.1). This region, once inhabited solely by Native Americans, has been altered by two centuries of settlement by Euro- Americans through extractive practices such as timber harvest, grazing, and mining,...

  3. Logging residues in principal forest types of the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An estimated 466 million ft 3 of forest residue material (nonmerchantable, 3 inches diameter and larger) is generated annually in the Northern Rocky Mountains (Montana, Idaho, Wyoming). Extensive studies of residues in the major forest types show a considerable portion is suited for various products. The lodgepole pine type has the greatest potential for increased...

  4. Enhanced sediment delivery in a changing climate in semi-arid mountain basins: Implications for water resource management and aquatic habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime R. Goode; Charles H. Luce; John M. Buffington

    2012-01-01

    The delivery and transport of sediment through mountain rivers affects aquatic habitat and water resource infrastructure. While climate change is widely expected to produce significant changes in hydrology and stream temperature, the effects of climate change on sediment yield have received less attention. In the northern Rocky Mountains, we expect climate change to...

  5. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Jarosław; Łopacka, Magdalena; John, Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  6. Land consolidation in mountain areas. Case study from southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land consolidation procedures are an attempt to comprehensively change the existing spatial structure of land in rural areas. This treatment also brings many other social and economic benefi ts, contributing to the development of consolidated areas. Land consolidation in mountain areas differs in many respects from those implemented in areas with more favorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture. The unfavorable values of land fragmentation indices, terrain conditions and lower than the average soil quality affect both the dominant forms of agricultural activity and the limited opportunities to improve the distribution of plots in space, parameters of shape, and the area as a result of land consolidation. For this reason, the effectiveness of land consolidation in mountain areas can be achieved by improving the quality of transportation network and the accessibility of the plots, arranging ownership issues and improving the quality of cadastral documentation. This article presents the evaluation of the measures of effectiveness of land consolidation realized in mountain areas on the example of Łetownia Village in the Małopolska Province, located in the southern part of Poland. Selected village is an area with unfavorable conditions for the functioning of agriculture and high values of land fragmentation indices.

  7. Paleomagnetic contributions to the Klamath Mountains terrane puzzle-a new piece from the Ironside Mountain batholith, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Gromme, C. Sherman; Irwin, W. Porter

    2013-01-01

    We obtained paleomagnetic samples from six sites within the Middle Jurassic Ironside Mountain batholith (~170 Ma), which constitutes the structurally lowest part of the Western Hayfork terrane, in the Klamath Mountains province of northern California and southern Oregon. Structural attitudes measured in the coeval Hayfork Bally Meta-andesite were used to correct paleomagnetic data from the batholith. Comparing the corrected paleomagnetic pole with a 170-Ma reference pole for North America indicates 73.5° ± 10.6° of clockwise rotation relative to the craton. Nearly one-half of this rotation may have occurred before the terrane accreted to the composite Klamath province at ~168 Ma. No latitudinal displacement of the batholith was detected.

  8. Investigation of Mountaineering and Outdoor Sports Clubs with Activity Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak GÜRER

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current study aims to identify activity areas of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs in Turkey that organize activities regularly. Universe of the study was composed of mountaineering and outdoor sports clubs that were active between the dates of 11 March 2012 and 5 January 2013. This study and the sample included 49 active outdoor sports clubs that could be reached in the region. Data were collected via surveys. Obtained data were analyzed and interpreted with the help of statistical package program (SPSS 16.0. Frequencies and percentage distributions were provided. Criteria for the provision of outdoor sports activities in clubs include requests from members and geographical conditions of the area. It is observed that those clubs provide outdoor walks approximately for 21-40 members. There are clubs without trainers. Clubs provide mountaineering and rock climbing activities the most. Aegean and Marmara Regions are more active compared to other regions. In general, most of the clubs are active in areas such as mountaineering, rock climbing and outdoor walks. It is suggested that local administrations and federations support outdoor sports clubs

  9. Mountainous areas and decentralized energy planning: Insights from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.

    2016-01-01

    Mountainous areas have particular characteristics, whose influence on energy planning is explored in this paper, through a suitably tailored methodology applied to the case of Greece. The core element of the methodology is a linear optimization model with a “total cost” objective function, which includes financial, as well as external costs and benefits. Altitude proves to have decisive influence on energy optimization results, because it affects energy demand. The improvement of local energy systems provides greater socioeconomic benefits in mountainous settlements, due to the high shares of renewables and energy efficiency interventions in the optimal solutions. Energy poverty can be alleviated by redesigning local energy systems and the structure of the energy market. However, spatial and aesthetic restrictions, presented often in mountainous settlements, may affect the operational costs of energy systems, which is a crucial parameter for confronting energy poverty. Furthermore, the study indicates that it could be better to electrify remote areas, far from electricity grids, by decentralized systems than by grid expansion. The results of this study and the assumptions made about the way in which energy market should function, could be utilized for reconsidering energy policy measures, aiming at supporting sensitive societies to improve their development perspectives. - Highlights: •The influence of mountains' characteristics on energy planning was analyzed. •Optimal energy solutions present differentiations with respect to altitude. •Greater socioeconomic benefits by energy optimization in mountainous areas. •Remoteness favors the development of decentralized energy systems. •The study is based on data from Greece.

  10. BLANCO MOUNTAIN AND BLACK CANYON ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Rains, Richard L.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral survey of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas, California indicated that areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential exist only in the Black Canyon Roadless Area. Gold with moderate amounts of lead, silver, zinc, and tungsten, occurs in vein deposits and in tactite. The nature of the geological terrain indicates little likelihood for the occurrence of energy resources in the roadless areas. Detailed geologic mapping might better define the extent of gold mineralization. Detailed stream-sediment sampling and analysis of heavy-mineral concentrations could better define tungsten resource potential.

  11. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  12. Tertiary volcanic rocks and uranium in the Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains, Juab County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.

    1982-01-01

    The Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains have a history of volcanism, faulting, and mineralization that began about 42 m.y. (million years) ago. Volcanic activity and mineralization in the area can be divided into three stages according to the time-related occurrence of rock types, trace-element associations, and chemical composition of mineral deposits. Compositions of volcanic rocks changed abruptly from rhyodacite-quartz latite (42-39 m.y. ago) to rhyolite (38-32 m.y. ago) to alkali rhyolite (21 and 6-7 m.y. ago); these stages correspond to periods of chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, no mineralization(?), and lithophile metal mineralization, respectively. Angular unconformities record episodes of cauldron collapse and block faulting between the stages of volcanic activity and mineralization. The youngest angular unconformity formed between 21 and 7 m.y. ago during basin-and-range faulting. Early rhyodacite-quartz latite volcanism from composite volcanoes and fissures produced flows, breccias, and ash-flow tuff of the Drum Mountains Rhyodacite and Mt. Laird Tuff. Eruption of the Mt. Laird Tuff about 39 m.y. ago from an area north of Joy townsite was accompanied by collapse of the Thomas caldera. Part of the roof of the magma chamber did not collapse, or the magma was resurgent, as is indicated by porphyry dikes and plugs in the Drum Mountains. Chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, resulting in deposits of copper, gold, and manganese, accompanied early volcanism. Te middle stage of volcanic activity was characterized by explosive eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and collapse of the Dugway Valley cauldron. Eruption of the Joy Tuff 38 m.y. ago was accompanied by subsidence of this cauldron and was followed by collapse and sliding of Paleozoic rocks from the west wall of the cauldron. Landslides in The Dell were covered by the Dell Tuff, erupted 32 m.y. ago from an unknown source to the east. An ash flow of the Needles Range

  13. 75 FR 29686 - Proposed Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Mayacmas Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of mildew, a vineyard... often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other areas. Pine..., these mountain soils include large amounts of sand and gravel. Pine Mountain soils are generally less...

  14. On the polychroism of river terraces in mountain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenin, G.N.; Serebryanyj, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of 14 C isotope dating the age of alluvial deposits of river terraces in mountain areas in Fergana is studied. It is shown that the age of the deposits varies from 16 to 10 thousand years. Their formation as dynamically independent, self-developing systems is pointed out. The role of endo- and exogenous factors in the process of terrace-formation evidently comes to the trigger effect [ru

  15. Interpretation of recent gravity profiles over the ophiolite belt, Northern Oman Mountains, United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, M. M.

    1993-04-01

    The compiled Bouguer gravity anomaly map over parts of the ophiolite rocks of the Northern Oman Mountains suggests the existence of three partially serpentinized nappes: two along the Gulf of Oman coast with axes near Dadnah, near Fujira and the third 17 km SSE of Masafi. Modeling of the subsurface geology, beneath two gravity profiles (Diba-Kalba and Masafi-Fujira), is based on the occurrence (field evidence) of multiphase low-angle thrusting of the members of the Tethyan lithosphere in northern and Oman Mountains. An assumed crustal model at the Arabian continental margin, beneath the Masafi-Fujira profile, is made to explain an intense gravity gradient. Gravity interpretation is not inconsistent with a gliding mechanism for obduction of the ophiolite on this part of the Arabian continental margin.

  16. Mineral resources of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Keith A.; Nielson, Jane E.; Simpson, Robert W.; Hazlett, Richard W.; Alminas, Henry V.; Nakata, John K.; McDonnell, John R.

    1988-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 105,200 acres of the Turtle Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-307) were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and resource potential (undiscovered). In this report, the area studied is referred to as "the wilderness study area" or simply "the study area"; any reference to the Turtle Mountain Wilderness Study Area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.The wilderness study area is in southeastern San Bernardino County, Calif. Gold, silver, copper, and lead have been mined within and adjacent to the study area. Copper-zinc-silver-gold mineral occurrences are found in the southern part and gold-silver mineral occurrences are found in the northern part of the study area; identified low- to moderate-grade gold-silver resources occur adjacent to the study area along the western boundary. Six areas in the south-central and northwestern parts of the study area have high resource potential, two broad areas have moderate resource potential, and part of the southwest corner has low resource potential for lode gold, silver, and associated copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, and tungsten. Alluvium locally within one of these areas has moderate resource potential for placer gold and silver, and the entire area has low resource potential for placer gold and silver. There is low resource potential for perlite, ornamental stone (onyx marble and opal), manganese, uranium and thorium, pegmatite minerals, and oil and gas within the study area. Sand and gravel are abundant but are readily available outside the wilderness study area.

  17. Changes in the Surface Area of Glaciers in Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, T.; Nosenko, G.

    2012-12-01

    Glaciers are widely recognized as key indicators of climate change. Recent evidence suggests an acceleration of glacier mass loss in several key mountain regions. Glacier recession implies the landscape changes in the glacial zone, origin of new lakes and activation of natural disaster processes, catastrophic mudflows, ice avalanches, outburst floods, and etc. The presence of glaciers in itself threats to human life, economic activity and growing infrastructure. Economical and recreational human activity in mountain regions requires relevant information on snow and ice objects. Absence or inadequacy of such information results in financial and human losses. A more comprehensive evaluation of glacier changes is imperative to assess ice contributions to global sea level rise and the future of water resources from glacial basins. One of the urgent steps is a full inventory of all ice bodies, their volume and changes The first estimation of glaciers state and glaciers distribution in the big part of Northern Eurasia has been done in the USSR Glacier Inventory published in 1966 -1980 as a part of IHD activity. The Inventory is based on topographic maps and air photos and reflects the status of the glaciers in 1957-1970y. There is information about 23796 glaciers with area of 78222.3 km2 in the Inventory. It covers 23 glacier systems on Northern Eurasia. In the 80th the USSR Glacier Inventory has been transformed in the digital form as a part of the World Glacier Inventory. Recent satellite data provide a unique opportunity to look again at these glaciers and to evaluate changes in glacier extent for the second part of XX century. In the paper we report about 15 000 glaciers outlines for Caucasus, Pamir, Tien-Shan, Altai, Syntar-Khayata, Cherskogo Range, Kamchatka and Russian Arctic which have been derived from ASTER and Landsat imagery and could be used for glacier changes evaluation. The results show that glaciers are retreating in all these regions. There is, however

  18. Policies for the environment and rural development in the mountain area of Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Hovorka, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    38th European Regional Science Association ? Congress 1998 Topic G: Environmental Management, Sustainability and Development Policies for the Environment and Rural Development in the Mountain Area of Austria (Abstract) by Gerhard Hovorka The cultural landscape in Austria is characterised by the high proportion of mountain areas. Mountain agriculture bears the key role in safeguarding the sensitive eco-system in the mountain areas and thereby maintaining the general living and working space as...

  19. Geochemical interpretation of Kings Mountain, North Carolina, orientation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, V.; Ferguson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    An orientation study has been made of uranium occurrences in the area of Kings Mountain, North Carolina. This is one of the orientation studies of known uranium occurrences that are being conducted in several geologic provinces and under various climatic (weathering) conditions to provide the technical basis for design and interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance programs. The Kings Mountain area was chosen for study primarily because of the reported presence of high-uranium monazite. This 750-mi 2 area is in the deeply weathered southern Appalachian Piedmont and spans portions of the Inner Piedmont, Kings Mountain, and Charlotte geologic belts. Uranium concentration maps for ground and surface water samples clearly outline the outcrop area of the Cherryville Quartz Monzonite with highs up to 10 ppb uranium near the reported uraninite. Several surface water samples appear to be anomalous because of trace industrial contamination. Uranium concentration maps for -100 to +200 mesh stream sediments indicate the area of monazite abundance. Several samples with >100 ppM uranium content appear to be high in uranium-rich resistate minerals. When the uranium content of sediment samples is ratioed to the sum of Hf, Dy, and Th, the anomaly pattern shifts to coincide with uranium highs in ground and surface water samples. False anomalies from concentrations of monazite (Ce,ThPO 4 ), xenotime (Y,DyPO 4 ), and zircon (Zr,HfSiO 4 ) in stream sediment samples can thus be eliminated. Residual anomalies should be related to unusual uranium enrichment of these common minerals or to the presence of an uncommon uranium-rich mineral. Tantalum, beryllium, and tin in stream sediments correspond to high concentrations of uranium in stream and ground water but not to uranium in sediments. In an initial reconnaissance, several media should be sampled, and it is essential to correct uranium in sediments for the sample mineralogy

  20. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, f ow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated

  1. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  2. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks, except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes and pressure transducers; steel-tape measurements were corrected for mechanical stretch, thermal expansion, and borehole deviation to obtain precise water-level altitudes. Water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 meters above sea level east of Yucca Mountain to about 1,034 meters above sea level north of Yucca Mountain. Water-level altitudes in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks varied between 752 and 753 meters above sea level during 1993. Water levels were an average of about 0.04 meter lower than 1992 water levels. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data

  3. Utility of high-altitude infrared spectral data in mineral exploration: Application to Northern Patagonia Mountains, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B.R.; King, T.V.V.; Morath, L.C.; Phillips, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Synoptic views of hydrothermal alteration assemblages are of considerable utility in regional-scale minerals exploration. Recent advances in data acquisition and analysis technologies have greatly enhanced the usefulness of remotely sensed imaging spectroscopy for reliable alteration mineral assemblages mapping. Using NASA's Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, this study mapped large areas of advanced argillic and phyllic-argillic alteration assemblages in the southeastern Santa Rita and northern Patagonia mountains, Arizona. Two concealed porphyry copper deposits have been identified during past exploration, the Red Mountain and Sunnyside deposits, and related published hydrothermal alteration zoning studies allow the comparison of the results obtained from AVIRIS data to the more traditional field mapping approaches. The AVIRIS mapping compares favorably with field-based studies. An analysis of iron-bearing oxide minerals above a concealed supergene chalcocite deposit at Red Mountain also indicates that remotely sensed data can be of value in the interpretation of leached caps above porphyry copper deposits. In conjunction with other types of geophysical data, AVIRIS mineral maps can be used to discriminate different exploration targets within a region.

  4. Separating Trends in Whitebark Pine Radial Growth Related to Climate and Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L. van de Gevel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins outbreaks have affected millions of hectares of high-elevation conifer forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains during the past century. Little research has examined the distinction between mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climatic influence on radial growth in endangered whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. ecosystems. We used a new method to explore divergent periods in whitebark pine radial growth after mountain pine beetle outbreaks across six sites in western Montana. We examined a 100-year history of mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climate relationships in whitebark pine radial growth to distinguish whether monthly climate variables or mountain pine outbreaks were the dominant influence on whitebark pine growth during the 20th century. High mortality of whitebark pines was caused by the overlapping effects of previous and current mountain pine beetle outbreaks and white pine blister rust infection. Wet conditions from precipitation and snowpack melt in the previous summer, current spring, and current summer benefit whitebark pine radial growth during the following growing season. Whitebark pine radial growth and climate relationships were strongest in sites less affected by the mountain pine beetle outbreaks or anthropogenic disturbances. Whitebark pine population resiliency should continue to be monitored as more common periods of drought will make whitebark pines more susceptible to mountain pine beetle attack and to white pine blister rust infection.

  5. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 24 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1996. Twenty-two wells representing 28 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored both hourly and periodically. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using either calibrated steel tapes or a pressure sensor. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 727.86 to about 1,034.58 meters above sea level during 1996. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 752.57 meters above sea level during 1996. Mean water-level altitudes for 1996 were an average of about 0.06 meter lower than 1995 mean water-level altitudes and 0.03 meter lower than 1985--95 mean water-level altitudes. During 1996, water levels in the Yucca Mountain area could have been affected by long-term pumping at the C-hole complex that began on May 8, 1996. Through December 31, 1996, approximately 196 million liters were pumped from well UE-25 c number-sign 3 at the C-hole complex. Other ground-water pumpage in the Yucca Mountain area includes annual pumpage from water-supply wells UE-25 J-12 and UE-25 J-13 of approximately 163 and 105 million liters, respectively, and pumpage from well USW G-2 for hydraulic testing during February and April 1996 of approximately 6 million liters

  6. Analyzing Whitebark Pine Distribution in the Northern Rocky Mountains in Support of Grizzly Bear Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, R.; Landenburger, L.; Jewett, J.

    2007-12-01

    Whitebark pine seeds have long been identified as the most significant vegetative food source for grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) and, hence, a crucial element of suitable grizzly bear habitat. The overall health and status of whitebark pine in the GYE is currently threatened by mountain pine beetle infestations and the spread of whitepine blister rust. Whitebark pine distribution (presence/absence) was mapped for the GYE using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) imagery and topographic data as part of a long-term inter-agency monitoring program. Logistic regression was compared with classification tree analysis (CTA) with and without boosting. Overall comparative classification accuracies for the central portion of the GYE covering three ETM+ images along a single path ranged from 91.6% using logistic regression to 95.8% with See5's CTA algorithm with the maximum 99 boosts. The analysis is being extended to the entire northern Rocky Mountain Ecosystem and extended over decadal time scales. The analysis is being extended to the entire northern Rocky Mountain Ecosystem and extended over decadal time scales.

  7. Relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a young mountain ash forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertessy, R A; Benyon, R G; O'Sullivan, S K; Gribben, P R

    1995-09-01

    We examined relationships between stem diameter, sapwood area, leaf area and transpiration in a 15-year-old mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell.) forest containing silver wattle (Acacia dealbata Link.) as a suppressed overstory species and mountain hickory (Acacia frigescens J.H. Willis) as an understory species. Stem diameter explained 93% of the variation in leaf area, 96% of the variation in sapwood area and 88% of the variation in mean daily spring transpiration in 19 mountain ash trees. In seven silver wattle trees, stem diameter explained 87% of the variation in sapwood area but was a poor predictor of the other variables. When transpiration measurements from individual trees were scaled up to a plot basis, using stem diameter values for 164 mountain ash trees and 124 silver wattle trees, mean daily spring transpiration rates of the two species were 2.3 and 0.6 mm day(-1), respectively. The leaf area index of the plot was estimated directly by destructive sampling, and indirectly with an LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer and by hemispherical canopy photography. All three methods gave similar results.

  8. Flora of the Mayacmas Mountains. [Listing of 679 species in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, J.A.

    1981-09-01

    This flora describes the plants that occur within the Mayacmas Mountain Range of northern California. It is the result of ten years of environmental assessment by the author in the Geysers Geothermal Resource area, located in the center of the Mayacmas Range. The flora includes notes on plant communities and ecology of the area, as well as habitat and collection data for most of the 679 species covered. Altogether 74 families, 299 genera and 679 species are included in the flora. The work is divided into eight subdivisions: trees; shrubs; ferns and fern allies; aquatic plants; tules, sedges, and rushes; lilies and related plants; dicot herbs; and grasses. Within each subdivision, family, genera and species are listed alphabetically. Keys are provided at the beginning of each subdivision. A unique combination of physical, environmental and geologic factors have resulted in a rich and diverse flora in the Mayacmas. Maps have been provided indicating known locations for species of rare or limited occurrence.

  9. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  10. The Upper Devonian deposits in the northern part of Leon (Cantabrian Mountains, Northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loevezijn, van G.B.S.; Raven, J.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    During the Late Devonian, deposition in the Cantabrian Mountains was largely controlled by movements along faults. By way of intermitting subsidence of the area south of the Sabero-Gordón line and the connected progradation of the coast during the Frasnian and early Famennian, three regressive

  11. Bryophyte flora on the northern slopes of Zlatar Mountain (Southwest Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a contribution to knowledge of the bryophyte flora of Zlatar Mountain. A total of 127 taxa from 35 families were identified. The hepatics are represented by 18 and mosses by 109 taxa. Representatives of the Holarctic distribution type and the temperate floristic category are highly present the investigated area.

  12. Gridded rainfall estimation for distributed modeling in western mountainous areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreda, F.; Cong, S.; Schaake, J.; Smith, M.

    2006-05-01

    Estimation of precipitation in mountainous areas continues to be problematic. It is well known that radar-based methods are limited due to beam blockage. In these areas, in order to run a distributed model that accounts for spatially variable precipitation, we have generated hourly gridded rainfall estimates from gauge observations. These estimates will be used as basic data sets to support the second phase of the NWS-sponsored Distributed Hydrologic Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP 2). One of the major foci of DMIP 2 is to better understand the modeling and data issues in western mountainous areas in order to provide better water resources products and services to the Nation. We derive precipitation estimates using three data sources for the period of 1987-2002: 1) hourly cooperative observer (coop) gauges, 2) daily total coop gauges and 3) SNOw pack TELemetry (SNOTEL) daily gauges. The daily values are disaggregated using the hourly gauge values and then interpolated to approximately 4km grids using an inverse-distance method. Following this, the estimates are adjusted to match monthly mean values from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Several analyses are performed to evaluate the gridded estimates for DMIP 2 experiments. These gridded inputs are used to generate mean areal precipitation (MAPX) time series for comparison to the traditional mean areal precipitation (MAP) time series derived by the NWS' California-Nevada River Forecast Center for model calibration. We use two of the DMIP 2 basins in California and Nevada: the North Fork of the American River (catchment area 885 sq. km) and the East Fork of the Carson River (catchment area 922 sq. km) as test areas. The basins are sub-divided into elevation zones. The North Fork American basin is divided into two zones above and below an elevation threshold. Likewise, the Carson River basin is subdivided in to four zones. For each zone, the analyses include: a) overall

  13. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2017-07-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  14. The hydrological response of baseflow in fractured mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Losada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of baseflow in mountainous areas of basin headwaters, where the characteristics of the often fractured materials are very different to the standard issues concerning porous material applied in conventional hydrogeology, is an essential element in the characterization and quantification of water system resources. Their analysis through recession fragments provides information on the type of response of the sub-surface and subterranean systems and on the average relation between the storage and discharge of aquifers, starting from the joining of these fragments into a single curve, the Master Recession Curve (MRC. This paper presents the generation of the downward MRC over fragments selected after a preliminary analysis of the recession curves, using a hydrological model as the methodology for the identification and the characterization of quick sub-surface flows flowing through fractured materials. The hydrological calculation has identified recession fragments through surface runoff or snowmelt and those periods of intense evapotranspiration. The proposed methodology has been applied to three sub-basins belonging to a high altitude mountain basin in the Mediterranean area, with snow present every year, and their results were compared with those for the upward concatenation of the recession fragments. The results show the existence of two different responses, one quick (at the sub-surface, through the fractured material and the other slow, with linear behaviour which takes place in periods of 10 and 17 days respectively and which is linked to the dimensions of the sub-basin. In addition, recesses belonging to the dry season have been selected in order to compare and validate the results corresponding to the study of recession fragments. The comparison, using these two methodologies, which differ in the time period selected, has allowed us to validate the results obtained for the slow flow.

  15. Structural character of the northern segment of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, R.P.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed mapping of exposed features along the northern part of the Paintbrush Canyon fault was initiated to aid in construction of the computer-assisted three-dimensional lithostratigraphic model of Yucca Mountain, to contribute to kinematic reconstruction of the tectonic history of the Paintbrush Canyon fault, and to assist in the interpretation of geophysical data from Midway Valley. Yucca Mountain is segmented into relatively intact blocks of east-dipping Miocene volcanic strata, bounded by north-striking, west-dipping high-angle normal faults. The Paintbrush Canyon fault, representing the easternmost block-bounding normal fault, separates Fran Ridge from Midway Valley and continues northward across Yucca Wash to at least the southern margin of the Timber Mountain Caldera complex. South of Yucca Wash, the Paintbrush Canyon Fault is largely concealed beneath thick Quaternary deposits. Bedrock exposures to the north reveal a complex fault, zone, displaying local north- and west-trending grabens, and rhombic pull-apart features. The fault scarp, discontinuously exposed along a mapped length of 8 km north of Yucca Wash, dips westward by 41 degrees to 74 degrees. Maximum vertical offset of the Rhyolite of Comb Peak along the fault measures about 210 m in Paintbrush Canyon and, on the basis of drill hole information, vertical offset of the Topopoah Spring Tuff is about 360 m near the northern part of Fran Ridge. Observed displacement along the fault in Paintbrush Canyon is down to the west with a component of left-lateral oblique slip. Unlike previously proposed tectonic models, strata adjacent to the fault dip to the east. Quaternary deposits do not appear displaced along the fault scarp north of Yucca Wash, but are displaced in trenches south of Yucca Wash

  16. Developing a Topographic Model to Predict the Northern Hardwood Forest Type within Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus Recovery Areas of the Southern Appalachians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Evans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern hardwood forest type is an important habitat component for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus for den sites and corridor habitats between boreo-montane conifer patches foraging areas. Our study related terrain data to presence of northern hardwood forest type in the recovery areas of CNFS in the southern Appalachian Mountains of western North Carolina, eastern Tennessee, and southwestern Virginia. We recorded overstory species composition and terrain variables at 338 points, to construct a robust, spatially predictive model. Terrain variables analyzed included elevation, aspect, slope gradient, site curvature, and topographic exposure. We used an information-theoretic approach to assess seven models based on associations noted in existing literature as well as an inclusive global model. Our results indicate that, on a regional scale, elevation, aspect, and topographic exposure index (TEI are significant predictors of the presence of the northern hardwood forest type in the southern Appalachians. Our elevation + TEI model was the best approximating model (the lowest AICc score for predicting northern hardwood forest type correctly classifying approximately 78% of our sample points. We then used these data to create region-wide predictive maps of the distribution of the northern hardwood forest type within CNFS recovery areas.

  17. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  18. Microbes Characteristics in Groundwater Flow System in Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chisato; Tsujimura, Maki; Kato, Kenji; Sakakibara, Koichi; Ogawa, Mahiro; Sugiyama, Ayumi; Nagaosa, Kazuyo

    2017-04-01

    We focus on a possibility of microbes as a tracer for groundwater flow investigation. Some previous papers showed that the total number of prokaryotes in groundwater has correlation with depth and geology (Parkes et al., 1994; Griebler et al., 2009; Kato et al., 2012). However, there are few studies investigating both microbe characteristics and groundwater flow system. Therefore, we investigated a relationship between the total number of prokaryotes and age of spring water and groundwater. Intensive field survey was conducted at four mountainous areas, namely Mt. Fuji (volcano), a headwater at Mt. Setohachi, a headwater at River Oi and a headwater at River Nagano underlain by volcanic lava at Mt. Fuji, granite at Mt. Setohachi and sedimentary rock at River Oi and River Nagano. We collected totally 40 spring water/ groundwater samples in these mountainous areas in October 2015, August, October and November 2016 and analyzed concentration of inorganic ions, the stable isotopes of oxygen - 18, deuterium, CFCs and SF6. Also, we counted prokaryotic cells under the epifluorescence microscopy after fixation and filteration. The total number of prokaryotes in the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 1.0×102 to 7.0×103cells mL-1 at the Mt. Fuji, 1.3×104 to 2.7×105cells mL-1 at Mt. Setohachi, 3.1×104cells mL-1 at River Oi and 1.8×105 to 3.2×106cells mL-1 at River Nagano. The SF6 age of the spring water/ groundwater ranged from 8 to 64 years at Mt. Fuji, 2 to 32.5 years at Mt. Setohachi, 2.5 years at River Oi and 15 to 16 years at River Nagano. The total number of prokaryotes showed a clear negative correlation with residence time of spring water/ groundwater in all regions. Especially the prokaryotes number increased in the order of 102 cells mL-1 with decreasing of residence time in approximately 10 years in the groundwater and spring water with the age less than 15 years.

  19. Big mountains but small barriers: population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Aibin; Li, Cheng; Fu, Jinzhong

    2009-04-09

    Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis) to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high elevations, which may significantly contribute to the

  20. Big mountains but small barriers: Population genetic structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis in the Tsinling and Daba Mountain region of northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amphibians in general are poor dispersers and highly philopatric, and landscape features often have important impacts on their population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic differentiation among amphibian populations are particularly pronounced for populations separated by mountain ridges. The Tsinling Mountain range of northern China is a major mountain chain that forms the boundary between the Oriental and Palearctic zoogeographic realms. We studied the population structure of the Chinese wood frog (Rana chensinensis to test whether the Tsinling Mountains and the nearby Daba Mountains impose major barriers to gene flow. Results Using 13 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci, 523 individuals from 12 breeding sites with geographical distances ranging from 2.6 to 422.8 kilometers were examined. Substantial genetic diversity was detected at all sites with an average of 25.5 alleles per locus and an expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.504 to 0.855, and two peripheral populations revealed significantly lower genetic diversity than the central populations. In addition, the genetic differentiation among the central populations was statistically significant, with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.0175 to 0.1625 with an average of 0.0878. Furthermore, hierarchical AMOVA analysis attributed most genetic variation to the within-population component, and the between-population variation can largely be explained by isolation-by-distance. None of the putative barriers detected from genetic data coincided with the location of the Tsinling Mountains. Conclusion The Tsinling and Daba Mountains revealed no significant impact on the population genetic structure of R. chensinensis. High population connectivity and extensive juvenile dispersal may account for the significant, but moderate differentiation between populations. Chinese wood frogs are able to use streams as breeding sites at high

  1. A three-component hydrograph separation based on geochemical tracers in a tropical mountainous headwater catchment in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hugenschmidt, C.; Ingwersen, J.; Sangchan, W.; Sukvanachaikul, Y.; Duffner, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Streck, T.

    2014-01-01

    Land-use change in the mountainous parts of northern Thailand is reflected by an increased application of agrochemicals, which may be lost to surface and groundwater. The close relation between flow paths and contaminant transport within hydrological systems requires recognizing and understanding

  2. Simulating the effects of climate change on population connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. N. Wasserman; S. A. Cushman; A. S. Shirk; E. L. Landguth; J. S. Littell

    2012-01-01

    We utilize empirically derived estimates of landscape resistance to assess current landscape connectivity of American marten (Martes americana) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA, and project how a warming climate may affect landscape resistance and population connectivity in the future. We evaluate the influences of five potential future temperature scenarios...

  3. A new fossil-lagerstätte from the lower eocene of lessini mountains (northern Italy): A multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giusberti, L.; Bannikov, A.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Fornaciari, E.; Frieling, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338017909; Luciani, V.; Papazzoni, C.A.; Roghi, G.; Schouten, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/137124929; Sluijs, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474748; Bosellini, F.R.; Zorzin, R.

    2014-01-01

    Hemipelagic dark limestones within calciturbiditic deposits at Monte Solane in the western Lessini Mountains of northern Italy yield a fish fauna dominated by stomiiforms. A minor component of the fossil assemblage is represented by a macroalgal non-calcareous flora associated with rarer terrestrial

  4. Response of six non-native invasive plant species to wildfires in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis E. Ferguson; Christine L. Craig

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents early results on the response of six non-native invasive plant species to eight wildfires on six National Forests (NFs) in the northern Rocky Mountains, USA. Stratified random sampling was used to choose 224 stands based on burn severity, habitat type series, slope steepness, stand height, and stand density. Data for this report are from 219 stands...

  5. Seeing Northern European Fjord and Mountain Agriculture Through Farmers' Eyes: A Critical Step in Promoting Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bernués

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a minor contributor to local economies in European mountain and fjord areas where tourism is predominant; however, it is essential to maintain the agricultural landscape and other important nonmarket functions of mountain agroecosystems. Policy-makers have aimed to support agriculture in these areas, but farmers' perspectives are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze (1 the main characteristics of livestock farming systems and the recent changes they have undergone, (2 farmers' perceptions of different functions of agriculture, (3 farmers' goals, and (4 the relationships among these elements in order to support more targeted policy-making in fjord and mountain areas in Scandinavian countries. We collected data from 27 farms and conducted univariate and multivariate (principal components and cluster analyses. Most recent changes in farming have been related to improving working conditions and increasing tourist activity. According to the farmers, the main nonmarket functions of agriculture were (1 maintaining cultural heritage and rural development, (2 delivering environmental services, and (3 promoting traditional agriculture. The farmers' primary goals were (1 innovating for better farming, (2 improving the family's quality of life, and (3 achieving economic objectives. We identified 2 clusters of farmers based on divergent perceptions of rural development and the goal of improving the family's quality of life. These results point to the importance of integrated policies that address agricultural, environmental, and rural development together and take into account farmers' diverse perceptions and goals.

  6. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, R.P.; Goemaat, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1995. Seventeen wells representing 18 depth intervals were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, 2 wells representing 3 depth intervals were monitored hourly, and 9 wells representing 15 depth intervals were monitored both periodically and hourly. All wells monitor water levels in Tertiary volcanic rocks except one that monitors water levels in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Water levels were measured using calibrated steel tapes, a multiconductor cable unit, and/or pressure transducers. Mean water-level altitudes in the Tertiary volcanic rocks ranged from about 728 to about 1,034 meters above sea level during 1995. The mean water-level altitude in the well monitoring the Paleozoic carbonate rocks was about 753 meters above sea level during 1995. Mean water level altitudes were only an average of about 0.01 meters higher than 1994 mean water level altitudes. A single-well aquifer test was conducted on well UE-25 WT number-sign 12 during August and September 1995. Well USW 0-2 was also pumped during October and November 1995, in preparation for single-well aquifer test at that well. All data were acquired in accordance with a quality-assurance program to support the reliability of the data

  7. The utilization of mesh meteorological data maps for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueyama, H.

    2008-01-01

    Hilly and mountainous areas occupy approximately 70% of Japan, and the area of farmland in these regions is decreasing; these areas are defined as those from the outer plains to the mountains. The development of strategies for the revitalization of local agriculture in hilly and mountainous areas is therefore a significant problem in Japan. Systematic agriculture is efficient in hilly and mountainous areas, and distribution maps are effective planning tools for evaluating the meteorological conditions for individual farms in those areas where farms are small and interspersed. Public agricultural research centers in each prefecture of Japan have developed mesh meteorological data maps with some kilometers grid cell resolutions for local agriculture, and have been made many studies using mesh meteorological data maps. However, critical variations exist between estimated mesh data and actual meteorological condition within the area of each grid cell. To address this problem, methods of estimating air temperature and solar radiation on a 50 m mesh (latitude 1.5 sec x longitude 2.25 sec) were developed. While many studies with mesh meteorological data maps have been made, numbers of concrete examples of utility for agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous areas have been few. This paper presents therefore some studies for utilization facilitated of mesh meteorological data maps in hilly and mountainous areas. And furthermore, it is proposed some guides to utilize mesh meteorological data maps for the purpose of revitalizing an agricultural activity in hilly and mountainous area with concrete examples

  8. Measuring and modeling carbon balance in mountainous Northern Rocky mixed conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Berardi, D.; Stenzel, J.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and wildfire caused by changing precipitation patterns, increased temperatures, increased fuel loads, and decades of fire suppression are reducing forest carbon uptake from local to continental scales. This trend is especially widespread in Idaho and the intermountain west and has important implications for climate change and forest management options. Given the key role of forests in climate regulation, understanding forest response to drought and the feedbacks to the atmosphere is a key research and policy-relevant priority globally. As temperature, fire, and precipitation regimes continue to change and there is increased risk of forest mortality, measurements and modeling at temporal and spatial scales that are conducive to understanding the impacts and underlying mechanisms of carbon and nutrient cycling become critically important. Until recently, sub-daily measurements of ecosystem carbon balance have been limited in remote, mountainous terrain (e.g Northern Rocky mountain forests). Here, we combine new measurement technology and state-of-the-art ecosystem modeling to determine the impact of drought on the total carbon balance of a mature, mixed-conifer forest in Northern Idaho. Our findings indicate that drought had no impact on aboveground NPP, despite early growing season reductions in soil moisture and fine root biomass compared to non-drought years in the past. Modeled estimates of net ecosystem production (NEP) suggest that a simultaneous reduction in heterotrophic respiration increased the carbon sink for this forest. This has important implications for forest management, such as thinning where the objectives are to increase forest resilience to fire and drought, but may decrease NEP.

  9. Bedrock geologic map of the northern Alaska Peninsula area, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Blodgett, Robert B.; Blome, Charles D.; Mohadjer, Solmaz; Preller, Cindi C.; Klimasauskas, Edward P.; Gamble, Bruce M.; Coonrad, Warren L.

    2017-03-03

    The northern Alaska Peninsula is a region of transition from the classic magmatic arc geology of the Alaska Peninsula to a Proterozoic and early Paleozoic carbonate platform and then to the poorly understood, tectonically complex sedimentary basins of southwestern Alaska. Physiographically, the region ranges from the high glaciated mountains of the Alaska-Aleutian Range to the coastal lowlands of Cook Inlet on the east and Bristol Bay on the southwest. The lower Ahklun Mountains and finger lakes on the west side of the map area show strong effects from glaciation. Structurally, a number of major faults cut the map area. Most important of these are the Bruin Bay Fault that parallels the coast of Cook Inlet, the Lake Clark Fault that cuts diagonally northeast to southwest across the eastern part of the map area, and the presently active Holitna Fault to the northwest that cuts surficial deposits.Distinctive rock packages assigned to three provinces are overlain by younger sedimentary rocks and intruded by widely dispersed latest Cretaceous and (or) early Tertiary granitic rocks. Much of the east half of the map area lies in the Alaska-Aleutian Range province; the Jurassic to Tertiary Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith and derivative Jurassic sedimentary rocks form the core of this province, which is intruded and overlain by the Aleutian magmatic arc. The Lime Hills province, the carbonate platform, occurs in the north-central part of the map area. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic Ahklun Mountains province in the western part of the map area includes abundant chert, argillite, and graywacke and lesser limestone, basalt, and tectonic mélange. The Kuskokwim Group, an Upper Cretaceous turbidite sequence, is extensively exposed and bounds all three provinces in the west-central part of the map area.

  10. Impacts of conflict on land use and land cover in the Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan and northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Virginia B.

    The Imatong Mountain region of South Sudan makes up the northern most part of the Afromontane conservation 'biodiversity hotspot' due to the numerous species of plants and animals found here, some of which are endemic. At the same time, this area (including the nearby Dongotana Hills and the Agoro-Agu region of northern Uganda) has witnessed decades of armed conflict resulting from the Sudan Civil War and the presence of the Ugandan Lord's Resistance Army (LRA). The objective of my research was to investigate the impact of war on land use and land cover using a combination of satellite remote sensing data and semi-structured interviews with local informants. Specifically, I sought to (1) assess and compare changes in forest cover and location during both war and peace; (2) compare trends in fire activity with human population patterns; and (3) investigate the underlying causes influencing land use patterns related to war. I did this by using a Disturbance Index (DI), which isolates un-vegetated spectral signatures associated with deforestation, on Landsat TM and ETM+ data in order to compare changes in forest cover during conflict and post-conflict years, mapping the location and frequency of fires in subsets of the greater study area using MODIS active fire data, and by analyzing and summarizing information derived from interviews with key informants. I found that the rate of forest recovery was significantly higher than the rate of disturbance both during and after wartime in and around the Imatong Central Forest Reserve (ICFR) and that change in net forest cover remained largely unchanged for the two time periods. In contrast, the nearby Dongotana Hills experienced relatively high rates of disturbance during both periods; however, post war period losses were largely offset by gains in forest cover, potentially indicating opposing patterns in human population movements and land use activities within these two areas. For the Agoro-Agu Forest Reserve (AFR) region

  11. The triggering factors of the Móafellshyrna debris slide in northern Iceland: intense precipitation, earthquake activity and thawing of mountain permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Thorsteinn; Morino, Costanza; Kristinn Helgason, Jón; Conway, Susan J.; Pétursson, Halldór G.

    2017-04-01

    On the 20th of September in 2012, a large debris slide occurred in the Móafellshyrna Mountain in the Tröllaskagi peninsula, central north Iceland. Three factors are likely to have contributed to the failure of the slope: intense precipitation, earthquake activity and thawing of ground ice. The weather conditions prior the slide were somewhat unusual, with a warm and dry summer. From the 20th of August to the 20th of September, about 440 mm of precipitation fell in the area, where the mean annual precipitation at the nearest station is around 670 mm. The slide initiated after this thirty day period of intense precipitation, followed by a seismic sequence in the Eyjafjarðaráll graben, located about 60 km NNE of Móafellshyrna Mountain, a sequence that started on the 19th of September. The slide originated at elevation of 870 m a.s.l. on the NW-slope of the mountain. The total volume of the debris slide is estimated around 500,000 m3 and that its primary cause was intense precipitation. We cannot exclude the influence of the seismic sequence as a secondary contributing factor. The presence of ice-cemented blocks of talus immediately after the debris slide shows that thawing of ground ice could also have played an important role as a triggering factor. Ice-cemented blocks of talus have been observed in the deposits of two other recent landslides in northern Iceland, in the Torfufell Mountain and the Árnesfjall Mountain. The source areas for both the Móafellshyrna and the Torfufell slides are within the lower elevation limit of mountain permafrost in northern Iceland but the source area of the Árnesfjall slide is at much lower elevation, around 350 m a.s.l. The fact that there are now three documented landslides which are linked to ground ice-melting suggests that discontinuous permafrost is degrading in Iceland, consistent with the decadal trend of increasing atmospheric temperature in Iceland due to climate change. This study highlights that ground ice thaw

  12. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies, Division of Earth Sciences; Shevenell, L., Garside, L. [Nevada Univ., Reno, NV (United States). Mackay School of Mines, Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste.

  13. Geothermal resource assessment of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, T.; Buchanan, P.; Trexler, D.

    1995-12-01

    An assessment of the geothermal resources within a fifty-mile radius of the Yucca Mountain Project area was conducted to determine the potential for commercial development. The assessment includes collection, evaluation, and quantification of existing geological, geochemical, hydrological, and geophysical data within the Yucca Mountain area as they pertain to geothermal phenomena. Selected geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data were reduced to a set of common-scale digital maps using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for systematic analysis and evaluation. Available data from the Yucca Mountain area were compared to similar data from developed and undeveloped geothermal areas in other parts of the Great Basin to assess the resource potential for future geothermal development at Yucca Mountain. This information will be used in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project to determine the potential suitability of the site as a permanent underground repository for high-level nuclear waste

  14. Precipitation stable isotope records from the northern Hengduan Mountains in China capture signals of the winter India-Burma Trough and the Indian Summer Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wusheng; Tian, Lide; Yao, Tandong; Xu, Baiqing; Wei, Feili; Ma, Yaoming; Zhu, Haifeng; Luo, Lun; Qu, Dongmei

    2017-11-01

    This project reports results of the first precipitation stable isotope (δ18 O and δD) time series produced for Qamdo in the northern Hengduan Mountains in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. The data showed that the fluctuations of precipitation stable isotopes at Qamdo during the different seasons revealed various moisture sources. The westerlies and local recycling moisture dominated at the study area before the pre-monsoon and after the post-monsoon seasons, which resulted in similar trends of both precipitation stable isotopes and temperature. The marine moisture was transported to the northern Hengduan Mountains by the winter India-Burma Trough combined with convection. Consequently, stable isotopes in subsequent precipitation were occasionally observed to decrease suddenly. However, δ18 O and δD values of precipitation at Qamdo were lower during the monsoon period and the duration of those low values was longer because of the effects of the Indian Summer Monsoon and the strengthening convection. Our findings indicate that the effects of seasonal precipitation differences caused by various climate systems, including the winter India-Burma Trough and Indian Summer Monsoon, need to be considered when attempting to interpret tree-ring and ice core records for the Hengduan Mountains.

  15. Composition of airborne particulate matter in the industrial area versus mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbora Sýkorová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with research of air pollution in two different locations on the Moravian-Silesian Region, Czech Republic. These are the sites Ostrava-Radvanice, which is located in the area affected by the industry and Ostravice in the mountains (without significant effect of the industry. The dust particles collected at these locations were subjected to a wide range of analyses. The mass concentration, the mass-size distribution, mineralogical composition, the concentration of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and the concentrations of selected metals (Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, As, Ni, Co, and Cr were observed at the particulate matter.

  16. Mountains and energy transition. Status of use of renewable energies and challenges for their development in mountain areas - Renewable energies Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peguin, Marion; Moncorps, Sebastien; Fourcade, Michel; Denis, Helene

    2013-10-01

    After an overview of challenges related to the development of renewable energies in mountain areas (conservation of biodiversity and landscapes, main legal measures regarding biodiversity and landscapes), this report proposes an overview of the status and potentials of the different renewable energies (solar, wind, hydroelectricity, bio-energies, geothermal) in mountain areas. It proposes an assessment (strengths and weaknesses) and recommendations for solar, wind, hydroelectricity and bio energies in mountain areas

  17. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs

  18. Native American plant resources in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Halmo, D.B. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Inst. for Social Research; Niles, W.E.; O`Farrell, J.T. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA)

    1989-11-01

    This report presents Native American interpretations of and concerns for plant resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This one of three research reports regarding Native American cultural resources that may be affected by site characterization activities related to the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Representatives of the sixteen involved American Indian tribes identified and interpreted plant resources as part of a consultation relationship between themselves and the US Department of Energy (DOE). Participants in the ethnobotany studies included botanists who have conducted, and continue to conduct, botanical studies for the Yucca Mountain Project. This report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding the process of consulting with the sixteen tribes, interviews with tribal plant specialists and elders, and findings from the ethnobotanical visits with representatives of the sixteen tribes. An annual report will include a chapter that summarizes the key findings from this plant resources study. 23 refs., 75 figs., 39 tabs.

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IGNIȘ – GUTÂI MOUNTAIN AREA BY TYPE OF TOURISM PREDOMINANTLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana PUI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Igniș – Gutâi mountain area has a complex picturesque landscape, an attractive anthropogenic potential and a favorable position which allows national and international tourist flows. The area’s tourist profile is revealed by combining rural tourism with mountain recreational tourism, health, hunting and transit tourism. The variety of tourist potential supports the development of various types and forms of tourism which contribute to completing the current tourist offer and the area’s sustainable development. This paper aims at developing new tourist areas within the Igniș – Gutâi mountain area, thus promoting it as a complex tourist destination.

  20. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.E.; Hull, Sieg C.; Anderson, D.E.; Kaufman, D.S.; Pearthree, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that stand-replacing fire has been an important phenomenon in late Holocene ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forests on steep slopes. Fires have occurred on centennial scales during this period, although temporal hiatuses between recorded fires vary widely and appear to have decreased during the past 2000 years. Steep slopes and complex terrain may be responsible for localised crown fire behaviour through preheating by vertical fuel arrangement and accumulation of excessive fuels. Holocene wildfire-induced debris flow events occurred without a clear relationship to regional climatic shifts (decadal to millennial), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences are recorded when (1) sufficient time has passed (centuries) to accumulate fuels; and (2) stored sediment is available to support debris flows. The frequency of reconstructed debris flows should be considered a minimum for severe events in the study area, as fuel production may outpace sediment storage. ?? IAWF 2011.

  1. Stratigraphy and structure of the Miners Mountain area, Wayne County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luedke, Robert G.

    1953-01-01

    The Miners Mountain area includes about 85 square miles in Wayne County, south-central Utah. The area is semiarid and characterized by cliffs and deep canyons. Formations range in age from Permian to Upper Jurassic and have an aggregate thickness of about 3,500 feet. Permian formations are the buff Coconino sandstone and the overlying white, limy, shert-containing Kaibab limestone. Unconformably overlying the Kaihab is the lower Triassic Moenkopi formation of reddish-brown and yellow mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone; it contains the Sinbad limestone member (?) in the lower part. Thin, lenticular Shinarump conglomerate unconformably overlies the Moenkopi, but grades upward into the Upper Triassic Chinle formation of variegated mudstone with some interbedded sandstone and limestone lenses. Uncomformably overlying the Chinle are the Wingate sandstone, Kayenta formation, and Navajo sandstone of the Jurassic (?) Glen Canyon group, which consist of red to white sandstone. Only the lower part of the Carmel formation of the Upper Jurassic San Rafael group is exposed in the area; it consists of variegated siltstone, sandstone, limestone, and gypsum. The conspicuous structural feature in the area is the Teasdale anticline which trends northwest, is about 14 miles long, and is asymmetric with a steeper west flank. Bounding the anticline on the northeast and east is the Capitol Reef monocline, the northern part of the Waterpocket Fold. Strata in the area are broken by steeply-dipping normal faults with small displacements, except for the Teasdale fault which has a maximum displacement of over 1,000 feet. Jointing is prominent in some formations. The major orogenic movement in the area is believed to be late Upper Cretaceous to early Tertiary. Epeirogenic uplift occurred intermittently throughout Tertiary and perhaps Quaternary time.

  2. Natural gels in the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Relict gels at Yucca Mountain include pore- and fracture-fillings of silica and zeolite related to diagenetic and hydrothermal alternation of vitric tuffs. Water-rich free gels in fractures at Rainier Mesa consist of smectite with or without silica-rich gel fragments. Gels are being studied for their potential role in transport of radionuclides from a nuclear-waste repository

  3. Sport and Recreation Influence upon Mountain Area and Sustainable Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelica J. MARKOVIĆ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary tourism, sport and recreation are increasingly becoming the dominant motives for undertaking the journey, and as a result of modern living, active holidays are more frequent. Mountain areas have always been attractive to deal with the various sports activities. Winter sports were the initiators of the development of mountain resorts. Mountain resorts invest in construction of hotels, ski lifts, snowmaking equipment, for the sake of attracting a growing number of tourist clientele. On the other hand, sport and recreation also serve to promote summer mountain tourism. Tennis, golf, swimming, horseback riding are key tools to attract visitors in the summer months toward the resorts facilities. The main problems regarding the development of mountain tourism centers come in the form of the growing concern for the preservation of the environment, of the human and traffic congestion in the mountains and the intensive use of natural resources by tourists. This paper aims to highlight the positive and negative impacts of sport and recreation in the development of mountain tourism and to present possible solutions to reduce negative impacts. Methodology is based on document review of many bibliographic resources, which are related with skiing and mountain biking as examples of winter and summer sport activities on mountains.

  4. Intrinsic And Extrinsic Controls On Unsteady Deformation Rates, Northern Apennine Mountains, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Gunderson, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Kodama, K. P.

    2017-12-01

    The slip rates of faults in the Northern Apennine Mountains were unsteady at 104-105 year timescales during the Neogene and Quaternary. Fault slip rates were recovered from growth strata and uplifted fluvial terraces associated with the Salsomaggiore, Quatto Castella, and Castevetro fault-related folds, sampled along the Stirone, Enza, and Panaro Rivers, respectively. The forelimb stratigraphy of each anticline was dated using rock magnetic-based cyclostratigraphy, which varies with Milankovitch periodicity, multispecies biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, OSL luminescence dating, TCN burial dating, and radiocarbon dating of uplifted and folded fluvial terraces. Fault slip magnitudes were constrained with trishear forward models. We observed decoupled deformation and sediment accumulation rates at each structure. From 3.5Ma deformation of a thick and thin-skinned thrusts was temporally variable and controlled by intrinsic rock processes, whereas, the more regional Pede-Apenninic thrust fault, a thick-skinned thrust underlying the mountain front, was likely activated because of extrinsic forcing from foreland basin sedimentation rate accelerations since 1.4Ma. We found that reconstructed slip rate variability increased as the time resolution increased. The reconstructed slip history of the thin-skinned thrust faults was characterized relatively long, slow fold growth and associated fault slip, punctuated by shorter, more rapid periods limb rotation, and slip on the underlying thrust fault timed asynchronously. Thrust fault slip rates slip rates were ≤ 0.1 to 6 mm/yr at these intermediate timescales. The variability of slip rates on the thrusts is likely related to strain partitioning neighboring faults within the orogenic wedge. The studied structures slowed down at 1Ma when there was a switch to slower synchronous fault slip coincident with orogenic wedge thickening due to the emplacement of the out of sequence Pene-Apenninic thrust fault that was emplaced at 1

  5. Uranium extraction from Uro area phosphate ore, Nuba mountains, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A. A.; Eltayeb, M. A. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out mainly to extract uranium from Uro area phosphate ore in the eastern part of Nuba mountains near Abu Gibiha town in southern Kurdufan state. For this purpose first, the phosphate ore samples were decomposed with sulphuric acid. the resulting phosphoric acid was filtered off, and pretreated with pyrite and activated charcoal. the chemical analysis of the obtained grain phosphoric acid showed that about 98% of uranium content of the phosphate ore was rendered soluble in the phosphoric acid. The clear green phosphoric acid was introduced to uranium extraction by 25% tributylphosphate (Tbp) in kerosene. The effect of several factors on the extraction and stripping processes namely, interference's effect, the suitable strip solution, the required number of extraction and stripping stages, the optimum phase ratio have been studied in details. A three stage extraction at a phase ratio (aqueous/organic) of 1:2, followed by two stages stripping using 0.5 M sodium carbonate solution at a phase ratio (A/O) of 1:4 were found to be the optimum conditions to report more than 98% of uranium content in green phosphoric acid to the aqueous phase as uranyl tricarbonate complex (UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 ) 4- . By applying sodica decomposition upon the stripping carbonate solution using 50% sodium hydroxide, about 98% of uranium content was precipitated as sodium diuranate concentrate (Na 2 U 2 O 7 ). The chemical analysis using atomic absorption spectrometry (Aas) showed a good agreement between the specification of the obtained uranium concentrate with the standard commercial specification of sodium diuranate concentrate. Further purification was achieved for the yellow cake by selective precipitation of uranium from the solution as uranium peroxide (UO 4 .2H 2 O) using 30% hydrogen peroxide. Finally the uranium peroxide precipitated was calcined at 450 degree C to obtain the orange powder uranium trioxide (UO 3 ). The chemical analysis of the final uranium trioxide

  6. Geology and Volcanology of Kima'Kho Mountain, Northern British Columbia: A Pleistocene Glaciovolcanic Edifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, M.; Porritt, L. A.; Edwards, B. R.; Russell, K.

    2014-12-01

    Kima'Kho Mountain is a 1.8 Ma (40Ar/39Ar of 1.82 +/- 40 ka) Pleistocene an alkali-olivine basaltic tuya situated in northern British Columbia. The volcanic edifice rises 460 m from its base and comprises a central vent, dominated by lapilli-tuff and minor pillow lava and dykes; and a surrounding plateau underlain by a sequence of dipping beds of basaltic tuff-breccia and capped by a series of flat-lying, subaerial lava flows. We present a 1:10,000 geological map for Kima'Kho Mountain building on the preliminary work of Ryane et al. (2010). We use the volcanic stratigraphy to explore the implications of three unique features. (1) The central cone comprises massive to crudely-bedded lapilli tuffs containing abundant armoured lapilli - cores of highly-vesicular pyroclasts coated with blocky to cuspate vitric ash. These units suggest an explosive origin from within an ice-enclosed lake, and deposited by wet, dilute pyroclastic surge events. (2) The entire stratigraphic sequence hosts at least two "passage zones" (cf. Jones, 1969); the presence and geometry of these passage zones constrain ice thicknersses at the time of eruption and inform on the englacial lake dynamics. (3) Lastly, our field-based stratigraphic relationships are at odds with the classic tuya model (i.e. an effusive onset to the eruption, forming pillow basalts, followed by explosive activity). Our field mapping suggests an alternative model of tuya architecture, involving a highly-energetic, sustained explosive onset creating a tephra cone that become emergent followed by effusive eruption to create lavas and a subaqueous lava-fed delta. Jones, J. G. Intraglacial volcanoes of the Laugarvatn region, south-west Iceland-I. Geological Society of London Quarterly Journal 124, 197-211 (1969). Ryane, C., Edwards, B. R. & Russell, J. K. The volcanic stratigraphy of Kima'Kho Mountain: A Pleistocene tuya, northwestern British Columbia. Geological Survey of Canada, Current Research 2011-104, 12p, doi:10

  7. Bedrock geologic map of the Knox Mountain pluton area, Marshfield and Peacham, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital Data from VG08-3 Kim, J., Charnock, R., Chow, D. and Springston, G., 2008, Bedrock geologic map of the Knox Mountain pluton area, Marshfield and Peacham,...

  8. Combustion efficiency and emission factors for wildfire-season fires in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains, US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Urbanski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the US, wildfires and prescribed burning present significant challenges to air regulatory agencies attempting to achieve and maintain compliance with air quality regulations. Fire emission factors (EF are essential input for the emission models used to develop wildland fire emission inventories. Most previous studies quantifying wildland fire EF of temperate ecosystems have focused on emissions from prescribed burning conducted outside of the wildfire season. Little information is available on EF for wildfires in temperate forests of the conterminous US. The goal of this work is to provide information on emissions from wildfire-season forest fires in the northern Rocky Mountains, US. In August 2011, we deployed airborne chemistry instruments and sampled emissions over eight days from three wildfires and a prescribed fire that occurred in mixed conifer forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. We measured the combustion efficiency, quantified as the modified combustion efficiency (MCE, and EF for CO2, CO, and CH4. Our study average values for MCE, EFCO2, EFCO, and EFCH4 were 0.883, 1596 g kg−1, 135 g kg−1, 7.30 g kg−1, respectively. Compared with previous field studies of prescribed fires in temperate forests, the fires sampled in our study had significantly lower MCE and EFCO2 and significantly higher EFCO and EFCH4. The fires sampled in this study burned in areas reported to have moderate to heavy components of standing dead trees and down dead wood due to insect activity and previous fire, but fuel consumption data was not available. However, an analysis of MCE and fuel consumption data from 18 prescribed fires reported in the literature indicates that the availability of coarse fuels and conditions favorable for the combustion of these fuels favors low MCE fires. This analysis suggests that fuel composition was an important factor contributing to the low MCE of the fires measured in this study. This study only measured EF for CO2, CO

  9. Tree competition and species coexistence in a Quercus--Betula forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ji-hua; Mi, Xiang-cheng; Liu, Can-ran; Ma, Ke-ping

    2006-09-01

    The population size structure, growth dynamics and mode of competition among adult trees (≥ 4 cm DBH) of six abundant tree species in a 5 ha study plot of a temperate deciduous forest in the Dongling Mountains in northern China were investigated using diffusion and growth dynamics models. In the year of 2000, two dominant species, Quercus liaotungensis and Betula dahurica accounted for ca. 68.69% of the total basal area and 52.71% of the total density of adult plants. Q. liaotungensis, Populus davidiana and Acer mono exhibited inverse J-shaped DBH distributions whereas Betula dahurica, B. platyphylla and Salix caprea had unimodal DBH distributions. One-sided interspecific competition was detected between some species combinations at the scale of the 5 ha study plot, and the competitive effect was mainly size-dependent rather than from species-specific interactions with large individuals in the canopy layer out competing smaller individuals in the understory. Symmetric competition was found between Q. liaotungensis and A. mono only. However, considering the straight line relationship of G ( t, x) - √{D(t, x)}, which suggests that competitive asymmetry is very low or absent, combined with the relatively low mortality of trees with a DBH larger than 4 cm, we speculate that asymmetric interspecific competition was not important in structuring this tree community. Regeneration characteristics of each species are most likely important in regulating species coexistence and stand dynamics in this forest.

  10. Deglaciation and postglacial treeline fluctuation in the northern San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado contain numerous lakes and bogs at and above treeline. In June 1978, Lake Emma, a tarn above present-day treeline, was suddenly drained by the collapse of underground mine workings. This study was initiated because the draining exposed a well-preserved archive of subfossil coniferous wood fragments that provided a unique opportunity to further our understanding of the paleoclimatic history of this region. These paleoclimatic studies-coniferous macrofossil identification in conjunction with radiocarbon dating, deuterium analysis of the dated conifer fragments, as well as pollen and fossil insect analyses-yielded new information regarding Holocene climate and accompanying treeline changes in the northern San Juan Mountains. This report synthesizes previously published reports by the author and other investigators, and unpublished information of the author bearing on late Pleistocene and Holocene treeline and climate in this region. Retreat of the glacier that occupied the upper Animas River valley from its Pinedale terminal position began about 19.4 + or - 1.5 10Be thousands of years ago and was essentially complete by about 12.3 + or - 1.0 10Be thousands of years ago. Two sets of late Pleistocene cirque moraines were identified in the northern San Juan Mountains. The older set is widespread and probably correlates with the Younger Dryas (11,000-10,000 radiocarbon years before present; 12,800-11,500 calendar years). The younger set is found only in the Grenadier Range and represents remnant glacier ice lying in well-shaded niches in a mountain range undergoing rapid deglaciation. A snowbank at the northern base of this range appears to be fronted by a Little Ice Age moraine. Soon after deglaciation the average July temperature is estimated to have been about 5°C cooler and timberline about 650 meters lower than at present. However, timberline (and treeline) responded rapidly to the postglacial warming and reached

  11. Atmospheric PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs at an urban, mountainous, and marine sites in Northern China: Molecular composition, sources, and ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Yang, Lingxiao; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Chen, Jianmin; Chen, Xiangfeng; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Pan; Li, Yanyan; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wenxing

    2018-01-01

    18 gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16 nitro-derivative (NPAHs), and 7 oxy-derivative (OPAHs) were analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) at three locations in Northern China, an urban site (Jinan), a marine site (Tuoji island), and a mountain site (Mt. Tai). The combined gas and particulate concentrations of 18 PAHs, 16 NPAHs, and 7 OPAHs were highest at the urban site (305.91, 2.80, and 9.05 ng/m3, respectively) and lowest at the mountain location (37.83, 0.27, and 1.59 ng/m3, respectively). A noticeable increase in the high molecular weight PAHs was observed during polluted conditions compared to clean conditions. Diagnostic ratios clearly demonstrated that coal/biomass combustion was the major PAH source in Northern China. The particulate PAHs were the most aged at the mountain site due to long-distance atmospheric transport. The formation rate of NPAHs was most efficient at the mountain location and during heavily polluted days at the urban and marine sites. In addition, the main formation pathway for NPAHs was through the OH initiated secondary reaction. NO3 radicals most significantly contributed to the NPAHs formation at night, during clear weather, and at the mountain site. The logKp value was lowest at the urban site for most individual compounds and highest at the mountain site. Higher logKp was found for NPAHs and OPAHs compared with their corresponding parent PAHs. The linear regression of logKp vs logPL0 at the three sites suggested that the gas-particle partitioning of PAHs might be in non-equilibrium.

  12. Mineral resources of the Swasey Mountain and Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas, Millard County, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, D.A.; Zimbelman, D.R.; Campbell, D.L.; Duval, J.S.; Cook, K.L.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Yambrick, R.A.; Tuftin, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Swasey Mountain and the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Areas are underlain by an east-dipping sequence of carbonate rocks, shale, and quartzite of Cambrian age. The Sand Pass mineralized area, immediately northwest of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area, contains numerous occurrences of jasperoid, small igneous intrusions of Tertiary age, and geochemical anomalies; the mineralized area has been explored for gold. Although no identified resources of metals are known in or near the wilderness study areas, the distribution of geologic structures and stream-sediment geochemical anomalies indicates there is a moderate potential for undiscovered resources of lead, zinc, copper, molybdenum, silver, and gold. An area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends south and east into the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area from the Sand Pass mineralized area. A second area of moderate potential for undiscovered resources of these metals extends from the southern part of the Swasey Mountain Wilderness Study Area across the western part of the Howell Peak Wilderness Study Area. Both study areas contain inferred subeconomic resources of quartzite, high-purity limestone, and sand and gravel. Both areas have moderate resource potential for high-purity limestone and dolomite. Fossils, especially trilobites, of interest to collectors are present in both areas. The potential for undiscovered resources is moderate for oil and gas and is low for geothermal energy within the study areas. There is no potential for undiscovered resources of coal.

  13. [Vulnerability of eco-economy in northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-zhai; Li, Bo; Zhang, Xin-shi; Zhao, Wen-wu; Jiang, Guang-hui

    2008-04-01

    Based on the theoretical meaning of vulnerability, a vulnerability assessment of eco-econom in fifteen counties in the northern slope region of Tianshan Mountains was conducted. The ecosystem services change to land use was regarded as the impact, and based on the fourteen indices from resource holding, society development, and economy development statistic data, the adaptive ability was evaluated by using the methods of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy synthetic evaluation. On the basis of assessment results of impact and adaptive capacity, the fifteen counties were divided into five classes under the assessment principles, and the district with higher-class number was of more vulnerability. The first class included Usu City and Changji City, the second class included Hutubi County, Miquan County, Fukang City, Jimsar County, Qitai County and Mori Kazak Autonomous County, the third class included Karamay City and Urumqi City, the fourth class included Kuitun City and Shawan County, and the fifth class included Jinghe County, Shihezi City and Manas County. The vulnerability reflected the level of eco-environment change and socioeconomic development, and the vulnerability assessment could be a good way to ensure the sustainable development. Aiming to decrease the vulnerability, various districts belonging to different class of vulnerability should establish relevant tactics according to the vulnerability factors to accelerate the region's sustainable development.

  14. Peat δ13Ccelluose-recorded wetting trend during the past 8000 years in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Lan, Bo; Ran, Min; Mu, Guijin

    2018-05-01

    There have been large discrepancies in the proposed mechanisms accounting for the wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. To validate or invalidate the widely reported wetting trend, we obtained a carbon isotope of cellulose (δ13Ccelluose)-recorded warm-season moisture history from a Narenxia (NRX) peat core in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China. The δ13Ccelluose-recorded warm-season moisture reconstruction of the NRX peat core provides a strong support to the widely-reported proposition that the climate was generally dry before ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP and was changed to a wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. The wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP well resembles the increasing trend of the reconnaissance drought index (RDI) that was calculated on the basis of pollen-inferred temperature and precipitation data from the same core. The resemblance implies that the wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years resulted from the combined effect of temperature and precipitation.

  15. Interactions between Shrubs and Permafrost in the Torngat Mountains, Northern Labrador, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, A.; Way, R. G.; Hermanutz, L.; Trant, A.; Siegwart Collier, L.; Whitaker, D.

    2017-12-01

    Discontinuous permafrost is acutely sensitive to climate warming and vegetation dynamics. Shrub height is positively correlated with accumulation of snow in the tundra resulting in warming of the ground in winter, and greater shading and lower surface temperatures in summer. Rapid greening due to climate warming has been observed throughout northeastern Canada and particularly in the coastal mountainous terrain of the Torngat Mountains National Park. Our research examines how this shrubification in the Torngat Mountains is modifying permafrost characteristics using observations which extend over a 100 km south-north transect from the sporadic zone (Saglek, Torr Bay) to where permafrost is widespread (Nakvak Brook, Kangalaksiorvik Lake) and potentially continuous (Komaktorvik River). We use air and ground temperature monitoring, vegetation surveys, dendrochronology, frost probing and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to describe the complex interactions between shrub growth, geomorphology, climate and permafrost in a region where climate warming is rapidly altering the landscape. Preliminary analysis of field data shows low resistivity anomalies in the ERT profiles at some sites with thin permafrost, interpreted as unfrozen zones correlated with areas of tall shrubs (Alnus spp., Salix spp. and Betula glandulosa; ranging from prostrate to 2 m). Elsewhere, high resistivities extend to the base of the ERT profiles, indicating thicker permafrost, and no obvious impact of medium to low-prostrate shrubs (Salix spp., Betula glandulosa, Rhododendron spp., and Vaccinium spp.; up to 50 cm). Permafrost is interpreted to be present at most sites with low or prostrate shrubs, except where hydrological conditions favour warmer ground temperatures. We infer that the net impact of increasing shrub heights on the active layer and permafrost depends on antecedent ground temperatures and surficial geology. Increasing shrub heights may cause permafrost degradation at sites where

  16. Late Pleistocene and Holocene landscape formation in a gully catchment area in Northern Hesse, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döhler, Susanne; Damm, Bodo; Terhorst, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    the differentiation between Pleistocene and Holocene landforms. Radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating are applied to add numerical data to the relative ages of the sediments and landforms. The gully channels are oriented along Pleistocene depressions that are built up of periglacial cover beds...... and intercalated reworked loess. As the gully channels cut through the periglacial cover beds, especially the upper layer, the gully system is of Holocene age. At least two phases of gully erosion are identified in the alluvial fan sediments. The initial gully erosion is dated to the time span between the Late......Permanent gully channels under forest are common geomorphological features in Central European low mountain areas. In the Rehgraben/Fuchslöchergraben gully catchment in Northern Hesse, Germany the Late Pleistocene landscape formation is reconstructed based on periglacial cover beds. In addition...

  17. Snow multivariable data assimilation for hydrological predictions in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Gaia; Campo, Lorenzo; Gabellani, Simone; Rudari, Roberto; Castelli, Fabio; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto; Stevenin, Hervé; Ratto, Sara Maria

    2016-04-01

    -based and remotely sensed data of different snow-related variables (snow albedo and surface temperature, Snow Water Equivalent from passive microwave sensors and Snow Cover Area). SMASH performance was evaluated in the period June 2012 - December 2013 at the meteorological station of Torgnon (Tellinod, 2 160 msl), located in Aosta Valley, a mountain region in northwestern Italy. The EnKF algorithm was firstly tested by assimilating several ground-based measurements: snow depth, land surface temperature, snow density and albedo. The assimilation of snow observed data revealed an overall considerable enhancement of model predictions with respect to the open loop experiments. A first attempt to integrate also remote sensed information was performed by assimilating the Land Surface Temperature (LST) from METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG), leading to good results. The analysis allowed identifying the snow depth and the snowpack surface temperature as the most impacting variables in the assimilation process. In order to pinpoint an optimal number of ensemble instances, SMASH performances were also quantitatively evaluated by varying the instances amount. Furthermore, the impact of the data assimilation frequency was analyzed by varying the assimilation time step (3h, 6h, 12h, 24h).

  18. Tourism, biodiversity and protected areas--Review from northern Fennoscandia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolvanen, Anne; Kangas, Katja

    2016-03-15

    Tourist numbers in northern Fennoscandia outweigh those in other northern boreal - arctic regions, which creates a specific need to evaluate the impacts of tourism. This review 1) identifies patterns and trends in the vegetation and wildlife of northern Fennoscandian terrestrial ecosystems as a consequence of tourism and recreation, 2) discusses the implications of findings in terms of the intensity, area and magnitude of impacts, changing climate and management needs under increasing tourist pressure, and 3) identifies research gaps. The reviewed studies show negative environmental and biodiversity impacts that are most pronounced near tourist resorts. The most sensitive plants, birds and mammals decline or disappear from the disturbed sites, and the species composition shifts from 'wild' species to cultural and human associated species. There is little research on the spread of alien species, but the few examples show that alien species can be promoted by tourism activities. Impacts of the use of motorized vehicles have not been widely studied either, despite the extensive track network which can cause disturbance to wildlife. The integrated impacts of tourism and climate change on the vegetation and wildlife was not addressed directly in any of the reviewed studies. In addition, little research has been done on carrying out restoration at tourist areas. Scientific research on these topics is needed to prevent, minimize or restore the most negative ecological impacts of tourism and recreation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Landscape movements by two species of migratory nectar-feeding bats (Leptonycteris) in a northern area of seasonal sympatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul; Weise, Christa D.; Valdez, Ernest W.

    2017-01-01

    Animals often migrate to exploit seasonally ephemeral food. Three species of nectar-feeding phyllostomid bats migrate north from Mexico into deserts of the United States each spring and summer to feed on blooms of columnar cactus and century plants (Agave spp.). However, the habitat needs of these important desert pollinators are poorly understood. We followed the nighttime movements of 2 species of long-nosed bats (Leptonycteris yerbabuenae and L. nivalis) in an area of late-summer sympatry at the northern edges of their migratory ranges. We radio-tracked bats in extreme southwestern New Mexico during 22 nights over 2 summers and acquired location estimates for 31 individuals. Both species cohabitated 2 major day roosts that were 30 km apart and in different mountain ranges, and individual bats sometimes moved between the roosts. Sampling was opportunistic and limited, but there were no obvious qualitative differences in observed patterns of movement between species or years, or among sex, age, and reproductive groups. Both species were observed foraging most often in the mountain range that had a relatively higher observed density of presumed food plants (Agave palmeri); when roosting in an adjacent mountain range, bats sometimes commuted >20 km one way to forage. Contrary to evidence indicating these species partition resources farther south in Mexico, our findings suggest that L. yerbabuenae and L. nivalis seasonally share common roost and food resources during late summer in this northern area of sympatry.

  20. 3D Tomographic SAR Imaging in Densely Vegetated Mountainous Rural Areas in China and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L.; Muller, J. P., , Prof

    2017-12-01

    3D SAR Tomography (TomoSAR) and 4D SAR Differential Tomography (Diff-TomoSAR) exploit multi-baseline SAR data stacks to create an important new innovation of SAR Interferometry, to unscramble complex scenes with multiple scatterers mapped into the same SAR cell. In addition to this 3-D shape reconstruction and deformation solution in complex urban/infrastructure areas, and recent cryospheric ice investigations, emerging tomographic remote sensing applications include forest applications, e.g. tree height and biomass estimation, sub-canopy topographic mapping, and even search, rescue and surveillance. However, these scenes are characterized by temporal decorrelation of scatterers, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion and an open issue regarding possible height blurring and accuracy losses for TomoSAR applications particularly in densely vegetated mountainous rural areas. Thus, it is important to develop solutions for temporal decorrelation, orbital, tropospheric and ionospheric phase distortion.We report here on 3D imaging (especially in vertical layers) over densely vegetated mountainous rural areas using 3-D SAR imaging (SAR tomography) derived from data stacks of X-band COSMO-SkyMed Spotlight and L band ALOS-1 PALSAR data stacks over Dujiangyan Dam, Sichuan, China and L and P band airborne SAR data (BioSAR 2008 - ESA) in the Krycklan river catchment, Northern Sweden. The new TanDEM-X 12m DEM is used to assist co - registration of all the data stacks over China first. Then, atmospheric correction is being assessed using weather model data such as ERA-I, MERRA, MERRA-2, WRF; linear phase-topography correction and MODIS spectrometer correction will be compared and ionospheric correction methods are discussed to remove tropospheric and ionospheric delay. Then the new TomoSAR method with the TanDEM-X 12m DEM is described to obtain the number of scatterers inside each pixel, the scattering amplitude and phase of each scatterer and finally extract

  1. CanWEA regional issues and wind energy project siting : mountainous areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, M. [Jacques Whitford Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Axys Environmental Consulting Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Planning and permitting considerations for wind energy project siting in mountainous areas were discussed. Mountainous regions have a specific set of environmental and socio-economic concerns. Potential disruptions to wildlife, noise, and visual impacts are a primary concern in the assessment of potential wind farm projects. Alpine habitats are unique and often contain fragile and endangered species. Reclamation techniques for mountainous habitats have not been extensively tested, and the sites are not as resilient as sites located in other ecosystems. In addition, alpine habitats are often migratory corridors and breeding grounds for threatened or endangered birds. In the winter months, alpine habitats are used by caribou, grizzly bears, and wolverine dens. Bats are also present at high elevations. It is often difficult to conduct baseline and monitoring studies in mountainous areas since alpine habitat is subject to rapid weather changes, and has a very short construction period. tabs., figs.

  2. Methodological issues in implementing a sustainable forest management plan in remote mountain areas - The Karakorum (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Efrem

    2014-01-01

    Based on a practical case-study, the Central Karakorum National Park - Gilgit-Baltistan - Pakistan, the aim of the thesis is to present a methodological framework for promoting the sustainable forest management in mountain areas characterized by remoteness, difficulties of access and where few data are available. Forest resources of Karakorum Mountains assume an essential role for the livelihoods of local communities, heavily dependent on wood for heating, cooking and construction purposes...

  3. Geology of Kubi Algi and Derati mountains, pantellerite bodies of Miocene age from the northern part of the Kenyan Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, R. T.

    The small isolated peaks of Kubi Algi and Derati on the periphery of the Koobi Fora basin, to the north-east of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya, are remnants of silicic peralkaline volcanic centres. Detailed geological maps of the areas of the two mountains are presented. Both are massive bodies of generally aphyric, microgranular pantellerite sharing similar petrography and chemistry. Kubi Algi shows evidence of having formed as an extrusive dome and is considered the source of local pantellerite lava flows, here designated the Il Burrka Formation. Derati mountain can best be interpreted as a denuded plug of a second extrusive centre. The volcanoes were active in the middle Miocene towards the end of a period of regional magmatism extending from late-Oligocene times. The pantellerites are holocrystalline and thus contrast with the normally glassy over-saturated peralkaline rocks from the East African rifts, including older pyroclastic pantellerites of the northern Lake Turkana region. Despite being very finely crystalline, they show mineralogical features seen elsewhere in more slowly cooled, deep-seated, peralkaline granites. A very broad range of feldspar compositions present in the rocks is explained by the interaction of groundwater with the rapidly cooling magma. Of additional interest is the abundance of aegirine, present as a product of primary magmatic crystallization and, in the Derati rock, as a hydrothermal mineral. It contains significant but highly variable amounts of titanium and zirconium, the latter broadly equivalent to typical maximum concentrations reported from peralkaline intrusive complexes.

  4. Mapping Forest Fire Susceptibility in Temperate Mountain Areas with Expert Knowledge. A Case Study from Iezer Mountains, Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Bogdan; Savulescu, Ionut

    2014-05-01

    Forest fires in Romanian Carpathians became a frequent phenomenon during the last decade, although local climate and other environmental features did not create typical conditions. From 2004, forest fires affect in Romania more than 100 hectares/year of different forest types (deciduous and coniferous). Their magnitude and frequency are not known, since a historical forest fire inventory does not exist (only press papers and local witness for some selected events). Forest fires features the summer dry periods but there are dry autumns and early winter periods with events of different magnitudes. The application we propose is based on an empirical modeling of forest fire susceptibility in a typical mountain area from the Southern Carpathians, the Iezer Mountains (2462 m). The study area features almost all the altitudinal vegetation zones of the European temperate mountains, from the beech zone, to the coniferous zone, the subalpine and the alpine zones (Mihai et al., 2007). The analysis combines GIS and remote sensing models (Chuvieco et al., 2012), starting from the ideas that forest fires are featured by the ignition zones and then by the fire propagation zones. The first data layer (ignition zones) is the result of the crossing between the ignition factors: lightning - points of multitemporal occurence and anthropogenic activities (grazing, tourism and traffic) and the ignition zones (forest fuel zonation - forest stands, soil cover and topoclimatic factor zonation). This data is modelled from different sources: the MODIS imagery fire product (Hantson et al., 2012), detailed topographic maps, multitemporal orthophotos at 0.5 m resolution, Landsat multispectral imagery, forestry cadastre maps, detailed soil maps, meteorological data (the WorldClim digital database) as well as the field survey (mapping using GPS and local observation). The second data layer (fire propagation zones) is the result of the crossing between the forest fuel zonation, obtained with the

  5. Cryptic diversity in Ptyodactylus (Reptilia: Gekkonidae from the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates uncovered by an integrative taxonomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Simó-Riudalbas

    Full Text Available The Hajar Mountains of south-eastern Arabia form an isolated massif surrounded by the sea to the east and by a large desert to the west. As a result of their old geological origin, geographical isolation, complex topography and local climate, these mountains provide an important refuge for endemic and relict species of plants and animals. With 19 species restricted to the Hajar Mountains, reptiles are the vertebrate group with the highest level of endemicity, becoming an excellent model for understanding the patterns and processes that generate and shape diversity in this arid mountain range. The geckos of the Ptyodactylus hasselquistii species complex are the largest geckos in Arabia and are found widely distributed across the Arabian Mountains, constituting a very important component of the reptile mountain fauna. Preliminary analyses suggested that their diversity in the Hajar Mountains may be higher than expected and that their systematics should be revised. In order to tackle these questions, we inferred a nearly complete calibrated phylogeny of the genus Ptyodactylus to identify the origin of the Hajar Mountains lineages using information from two mitochondrial and four nuclear genes. Genetic variability within the Hajar Mountains was further investigated using 68 specimens of Ptyodactylus from 46 localities distributed across the entire mountain range and sequenced for the same genes as above. The molecular phylogenies and morphological analyses as well as niche comparisons indicate the presence of two very old sister cryptic species living in allopatry: one restricted to the extreme northern Hajar Mountains and described as a new species herein; the other distributed across the rest of the Hajar Mountains that can be confidently assigned to the species P. orlovi. Similar to recent findings in the geckos of the genus Asaccus, the results of the present study uncover more hidden diversity in the northern Hajar Mountains and stress once

  6. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  7. Mid-21st-century climate changes increase predicted fire occurrence and fire season length, Northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Karin L.; Loehman, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to increase fire frequency, fire season length, and cumulative area burned in the western United States. We focus on the potential impact of mid-21st-century climate changes on annual burn probability, fire season length, and large fire characteristics including number and size for a study area in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Although large fires are rare they account for most of the area burned in western North America, burn under extreme weather conditions, and exhibit behaviors that preclude methods of direct control. Allocation of resources, development of management plans, and assessment of fire effects on ecosystems all require an understanding of when and where fires are likely to burn, particularly under altered climate regimes that may increase large fire occurrence. We used the large fire simulation model FSim to model ignition, growth, and containment of wildfires under two climate scenarios: contemporary (based on instrumental weather) and mid-century (based on an ensemble average of global climate models driven by the A1B SRES emissions scenario). Modeled changes in fire patterns include increased annual burn probability, particularly in areas of the study region with relatively short contemporary fire return intervals; increased individual fire size and annual area burned; and fewer years without large fires. High fire danger days, represented by threshold values of Energy Release Component (ERC), are projected to increase in number, especially in spring and fall, lengthening the climatic fire season. For fire managers, ERC is an indicator of fire intensity potential and fire economics, with higher ERC thresholds often associated with larger, more expensive fires. Longer periods of elevated ERC may significantly increase the cost and complexity of fire management activities, requiring new strategies to maintain desired ecological conditions and limit fire risk. Increased fire activity (within the historical range of

  8. A novel assessment of population structure and gene flow in grey wolf populations of the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Stahler, Daniel R; Bangs, Edward E; Smith, Douglas W; Jimenez, Mike D; Mack, Curt M; Niemeyer, Carter C; Pollinger, John P; Wayne, Robert K

    2010-10-01

    The successful re-introduction of grey wolves to the western United States is an impressive accomplishment for conservation science. However, the degree to which subpopulations are genetically structured and connected, along with the preservation of genetic variation, is an important concern for the continued viability of the metapopulation. We analysed DNA samples from 555 Northern Rocky Mountain wolves from the three recovery areas (Greater Yellowstone Area, Montana, and Idaho), including all 66 re-introduced founders, for variation in 26 microsatellite loci over the initial 10-year recovery period (1995-2004). The population maintained high levels of variation (H(O) = 0.64-0.72; allelic diversity k=7.0-10.3) with low levels of inbreeding (F(IS) wolves will rely on management decisions that promote natural dispersal dynamics and minimize anthropogenic factors that reduce genetic connectivity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Microendemicity in the northern Hajar Mountains of Oman and the United Arab Emirates with the description of two new species of geckos of the genus Asaccus (Squamata: Phyllodactylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Carranza

    2016-08-01

    recovered the Hajar endemic A. montanus as sister taxon to all the other Asaccus species included in the analyses, rendering the Arabian species of Asaccus polyphyletic. Discussion Using this integrative approach we have uncovered a very old diversification event that has resulted in a case of microendemicity, where three morphologically and ecologically similar medium-sized lizard species coexist in a very short and narrow mountain stretch. Asaccus caudivolvulus is restricted to a small coastal area of the UAE and at risk from heavy development, while the two new species described herein are widely distributed across the northern tip of the Hajar Mountains and seem to segregate in altitude when found in close proximity in the Musandam Peninsula (Oman. Similarly to other integrative analyses of Hajar reptiles, this study highlights the high level of diversity and endemicity of this arid mountain range, underscoring its status as one of the top hotspots of reptile diversity in Arabia.

  10. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available.

  11. Study on the path selection of sustainable development in the mountainous area of Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Malin; Zhou, Zhujun; Zhang, Huizhi; Chen, Ci; Chen, Junhong; Zhou, Zhongren

    2018-02-01

    The mountainous area of Beijing is the broad region with weak economic features, ecologically fragile and special ecological functions. The ecological conditions, sustainability and regional economic development are intercorrelated in the region. It is arduous to enhance the regional competitive advantage and improve the economic development level through the environmental protection and ecological conservation. This study elaborates the relationship between ecology and economic development from the perspectives of ecology, productivity and life style in mountainous areas of Beijing. Then this paper discusses how to increase sustainable development of mountain areas from several aspects, including key regional developments, industrial development, and ecological compensation mechanism, considering the strategic goals of accelerating economic transformation, coordinating urban and rural development, and promoting new-type urbanization.

  12. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  13. Mineral resources of the Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.B.; Tosdal, R.M.; Pitkin, J.A.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Wood, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Muggins Mountains Wilderness Study Area covers approximately 8,855 acres immediately south of the Yuma Proving Ground. This study area contains sand and gravel, and it has a moderate potential for gold in placer deposits. One small drainage basin along the southeast boundary of this study area has a moderate potential for uranium. This study area has a low potential for geothermal energy and for oil and gas resources

  14. Mineral resources of the Hawk Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Honey County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrin, B.D.; Conrad, J.E.; Plouff, D.; King, H.D.; Swischer, C.C.; Mayerle, R.T.; Rains, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Hawk Mountain Wildeness Study Area in south-central Oregon is underlain by Miocene age basalt, welded tuff, and interbedded sedimentary rock. The western part of this study area has a low mineral resource potential for gold. There is a low mineral resource potential for small deposits of uranium in the sedimentary rocks. This entire study area has a low potential for geothermal and oil and gas resources. There are no mineral claims or identified resources in this study area

  15. Evaluation of trace elements contamination in cloud/fog water at an elevated mountain site in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-huan; Wai, Ka-ming; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Peng-hui; Guo, Jia; Xu, Peng-ju; Wang, Wen-xing

    2012-07-01

    Totally 117 cloud/fog water samples were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai (1534m a.s.l.)-the highest mountain in the Northern China Plain. The results were investigated by a combination of techniques including back trajectory model, regional air quality and dust storm models, satellite observations and Principal Component Analysis. Elemental concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with stringent quality control measures. Higher elemental concentrations were found at Mt. Tai compared with those reported by other overseas studies. The larger proportions and higher concentrations of toxic elements such as Pb and As in cloud/fog water compared with those in rainwater at Mt. Tai suggests higher potential hazards of cloud/fog water as a source of contamination in polluted areas to the ecosystem. Peak concentrations of trace elements were frequently observed during the onset of cloud/fog events when liquid water contents of cloud/fog water were usually low and large amount of pollutants were accumulated in the ambient air. Inverse relationship between elemental concentrations and liquid water contents were only found in the samples with high electrical conductivities and liquid water contents lower than 0.3gm(-3). Affected mainly by the emissions of steel industries and mining activities, air masses transported from south/southwest of Mt. Tai were frequently associated with higher elemental concentrations. The element Mn is attributed to play an important role in the acidity of cloud/fog water. The composition of cloud/fog water influenced by an Asian dust storm event was reported, which was seldom found in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wolf population dynamics in the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains are affected by recruitment and human-caused mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, J.A.; Mitchell, M.S.; Russell, R.E.; Sime, C.A.; Bangs, E.E.; Mech, L.D.; Ream, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable analyses can help wildlife managers make good decisions, which are particularly critical for controversial decisions such as wolf (Canis lupus) harvest. Creel and Rotella (2010) recently predicted substantial population declines in Montana wolf populations due to harvest, in contrast to predictions made by Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP). We replicated their analyses considering only those years in which field monitoring was consistent, and we considered the effect of annual variation in recruitment on wolf population growth. Rather than assuming constant rates, we used model selection methods to evaluate and incorporate models of factors driving recruitment and human-caused mortality rates in wolf populations in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Using data from 27 area-years of intensive wolf monitoring, we show that variation in both recruitment and human-caused mortality affect annual wolf population growth rates and that human-caused mortality rates have increased with the sizes of wolf populations. We document that recruitment rates have decreased over time, and we speculate that rates have decreased with increasing population sizes and/or that the ability of current field resources to document recruitment rates has recently become less successful as the number of wolves in the region has increased. Estimates of positive wolf population growth in Montana from our top models are consistent with field observations and estimates previously made by MFWP for 2008-2010, whereas the predictions for declining wolf populations of Creel and Rotella (2010) are not. Familiarity with limitations of raw data, obtained first-hand or through consultation with scientists who collected the data, helps generate more reliable inferences and conclusions in analyses of publicly available datasets. Additionally, development of efficient monitoring methods for wolves is a pressing need, so that analyses such as ours will be possible in future years when fewer resources

  17. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-01 Topographic Data for Intensive Study Areas, Northern Ecuadorian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains topographic/geomorphological data associated with the four Intensive Study Areas (ISAs) in the Northern Ecuadorian Amazon (northern Oriente)...

  19. Bedrock geologic Map of the Central Block Area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W.C. Day; C. Potter; D. Sweetkind; R.P. Dickerson; C.A. San Juan

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As such, this map focuses on the central block at Yucca Mountain, which contains the potential repository site. The central block is a structural block of Tertiary volcanic rocks bound on the west by the Solitario Canyon Fault, on the east by the Bow Ridge Fault, to the north by the northwest-striking Drill Hole Wash Fault, and on the south by Abandoned Wash. Earlier reconnaissance mapping by Lipman and McKay (1965) provided an overview of the structural setting of Yucca Mountain and formed the foundation for selecting Yucca Mountain as a site for further investigation. They delineated the main block-bounding faults and some of the intrablock faults and outlined the zoned compositional nature of the tuff units that underlie Yucca Mountain. Scott and Bonk (1984) provided a detailed reconnaissance geologic map of favorable area at Yucca Mountain in which to conduct further site-characterization studies. Of their many contributions, they presented a detailed stratigraphy for the volcanic units, defined several other block-bounding faults, and outlined numerous intrablock faults. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bonk (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the

  20. Climate Change Impacts on Ecosystem Services in High Mountain Areas: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Palomo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available High mountain areas are experiencing some of the earliest and greatest impacts of climate change. However, knowledge on how climate change impacts multiple ecosystem services that benefit different stakeholder groups remains scattered in the literature. This article presents a review of the literature on climate change impacts on ecosystem services benefiting local communities and tourists in high mountain areas. Results show a lack of studies focused on the global South, especially where there are tropical glaciers, which are likely to be the first to disappear. Climate change impacts can be classified as impacts on food and feed, water availability, natural hazards regulation, spirituality and cultural identity, aesthetics, and recreation. In turn, climate change impacts on infrastructure and accessibility also affect ecosystem services. Several of these impacts are a direct threat to the lives of mountain peoples, their livelihoods and their culture. Mountain tourism is experiencing abrupt changes too. The magnitude of impacts make it necessary to strengthen measures to adapt to climate change in high mountain areas.

  1. Evolution of the northern santa cruz mountains by advection of crust past a san andreas fault bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R S

    1990-07-27

    The late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California, reflect uplift associated with the nearby restraining bend on the San Andreas fault. Excellent correspondence of the coseismic vertical displacement field caused by the 17 October 1989 magnitude 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake and the present elevations of these terraces allows calculation of maximum long-term uplift rates 1 to 2 kilometers west of the San Andreas fault of 0.8 millimeters per year. Over several million years, this uplift, in concert with the right lateral translation of the resulting topography, and with continual attack by geomorphic processes, can account for the general topography of the northern Santa Cruz Mountains.

  2. A Cost-Constrained Sampling Strategy in Support of LAI Product Validation in Mountainous Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaofei Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being paid on leaf area index (LAI retrieval in mountainous areas. Mountainous areas present extreme topographic variability, and are characterized by more spatial heterogeneity and inaccessibility compared with flat terrain. It is difficult to collect representative ground-truth measurements, and the validation of LAI in mountainous areas is still problematic. A cost-constrained sampling strategy (CSS in support of LAI validation was presented in this study. To account for the influence of rugged terrain on implementation cost, a cost-objective function was incorporated to traditional conditioned Latin hypercube (CLH sampling strategy. A case study in Hailuogou, Sichuan province, China was used to assess the efficiency of CSS. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, land cover type, and slope were selected as auxiliary variables to present the variability of LAI in the study area. Results show that CSS can satisfactorily capture the variability across the site extent, while minimizing field efforts. One appealing feature of CSS is that the compromise between representativeness and implementation cost can be regulated according to actual surface heterogeneity and budget constraints, and this makes CSS flexible. Although the proposed method was only validated for the auxiliary variables rather than the LAI measurements, it serves as a starting point for establishing the locations of field plots and facilitates the preparation of field campaigns in mountainous areas.

  3. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) community composition in the rangeland of the northern slopes of The Qilian Mountains in northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Liu, Z Y; Qin, L P; Long, R J

    2015-01-01

    In order to describe grasshopper (Orthoptera: Acrididae) species composition, diversity, abundance, and density of four rangelands types, we compared the grasshopper community composition and dynamics in the rangeland of the northern slopes of the Qilian Mountains. In total, 55 grasshopper species were collected from 2007 to 2009, representing three families and six subfamilies. The subfamily Oedipodinae was dominant, followed by Gomphocerinae and Catantopinae. Species abundance varied among rangeland types (RTs). The greatest abundance of grasshoppers was found in mountain rangeland, while the lowest abundance of grasshoppers was caught in alpine shrublands. Three species (Chorthippus cf. brunneus (Thunberg) (Acrididae), Chorthippus Dubius (Zubovski), and Gomphocerus licenti (Chang) were broadly distributed in the four RTs and constituted 7.5% of all grasshoppers collected. Ch. dubius was very abundant in desert rangeland and alpine shrubland. Bryodema dolichoptera Yin et Feng Eremippus qilianshanensis Lian and Zheng, and Filchnerella qilianshanensis Xi and Zheng (Pamphagidae) were endemic to the region of the Qilian Mountains. Species similarity between RTs ranged from 17.8 to 51.6 based on the Renkonen index. Similarly, the Sörensen index indicated a wide separation in species composition among RTs. The abundance of the eight most common species showed obvious differences among RTs and years. On average, mountain rangeland had the highest density values in 2007 and 2008, and alpine shrubland supported the smallest density. The densities in desert and mountain rangeland in 2007 were significantly higher than in 2008, while alpine rangeland and shrublands did not present obvious differences among years. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  4. A unique mountainous vertical distribution patterns and related environmental interpretation-a case study on the northern slope of the ili river valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Z.P.; Wang, X.L.; Zhuang, L.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of plant diversity and soil factors along the altitude gradient on the northern slope of Ili River Valley were examined. Plant and environment characteristics were surveyed from 1000-2200 m. There were a total of 155 vascular plant, 133 herbage, 18 shrub, and 7 tree species in 44 sampled plots. The plant richness of vegetation types generally showed a special pattern along altitude, with a bimodal change of plant species number at 100m intervals of altitude samples. The two belts of higher plant richness were in transient areas between vegetation types, the first in areas from low-mountain desert to forest, and the other from dry grass to coniferous forest. Matching the change of richness of plant species to environmental factors along altitude by GAM model and relation analysis revealed that the environmental factors controlling species richness and their patterns were the combined effects of soil salt and nutrition. Water was more important at lower altitude, and temperature at higher altitude, the role of the inversion layer at high altitude coniferous forest species diversity appearing to rise. Soil nutrition and salt also showed a similar distribution pattern of diversity. Especially, diversity index and soil salinity showed a strong correlation. This study provides insights into plant diversity conservation of ili River Valley in Tianshan Mountain. (author)

  5. Remote sensing monitoring on soil erosion based on LUCC in Beijing mountain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiying, Chen

    2014-01-01

    The eco-environmental problems caused by land use and land cover change have been a severe block to regional sustainable development in the Beijing mountain areas. In this study, two temporal Landsat TM images in 2002 and 2009 were used, the soil erosion factors included vegetation coverage, slope and land use were calculated. The soil erosion degree was divided into six levels, micro, mild, moderate, strong, intensive and severe. The raster data with 30 m × 30 m pixels small-class of the soil erosion map was used to extract soil erosion information. This thesis evaluated soil erosion dynamic in Beijing mountain areas based on land use and land cover change with the combination of technologies and methodologies of multi-temporal satellite remote sensing, GIS and field investigation. The soil erosion change and their driving forces were analysed. The results showed micro and mild soil erosion mainly existed in the Beijing mountain areas. The moderate erosion emerged in the areas with both slope and poor vegetation cover. The strong, intensive and severe soil erosion were rare but distributed in mountainous areas in Huairou, Miyun, and Mentougou. The soil erosion situation has improved markedly due to environment management from 2002 to 2009

  6. Bedrock geologic map of the central block area, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock geologic maps form the foundation for investigations that characterize and assess the viability of the potential high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This study was funded by the US Department of Energy Yucca Mountain Project to provide a detailed (1:6,000-scale) bedrock geologic map for the area within and adjacent to the potential repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to this study, the 1:12,000-scale map of Scott and Bon, (1984) was the primary source of bedrock geologic data for the Yucca Mountain Project. However, targeted detailed mapping within the central block at Yucca Mountain revealed structural complexities along some of the intrablock faults that were not evident at 1:12,000 (Scott and Bonk, 1984). As a result, this study was undertaken to define the character and extent of the dominant structural features in the vicinity of the potential repository. In addition to structural considerations, ongoing subsurface excavation and geologic mapping within the exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), development of a three-dimensional-framework geologic model, and borehole investigations required use of a constituent stratigraphic system to facilitate surface to underground comparisons. The map units depicted in this report correspond as closely as possible to the proposed stratigraphic nomenclature by Buesch and others (1996), as described here

  7. The climate and flood risk potential of northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    The extreme floods in northern parts of Pakistan are caused by glacier lake outbursts and Dam-Breaks following landslides, which block river valleys. Geographically glacier dams in mountain rivers and valleys have occurred from the east-western and west-western Karakuram ranges and in the lesser Karakuram range floods which arise from Karakuram precipitation and temperature of various region pose greater problem, as these floods are neither homogeneous nor stationary. These floods arise from various generating mechanisms i. e. generated by melting of snow and glacier and those generated from the monsoon rainfall and dam-breaks following landslide into the river and out burst of glacier lake. The estimation of present and future risk of flooding at sites in northern Pakistan requires an understanding, of the climate, which provides, the generating mechanism of floods. Climates are extremely variable and depend op broad global circulation patterns and local topographic influences. The variables of the climate are studied using available data, with emphasis on temperature and precipitation Spatial Co-relation in northern area stations have been conducted to find Co-relation Co-efficient, using regression analysis. This is spread over intra seasonal and inter station comparison. The time series analysis of the climatic variables has been conducted to examine geographically and statistically the trend in their behaviour. This may be reflected in the hydrological regime of glaciers and rivers and it can cause non linear flood series through changes in any one of the flood generating mechanism. The climate feed-back mechanism has been discussed, which are practically important because they assist seasonal prediction of climate and flow in the Indus. Additionally if climate warming is causing an upward Trend in winter and spring temperature and reduction in snowfall, the effect might be felt more widely over the region. The non-linear changes with elevation and differences

  8. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how

  9. Assessing the Priority Area of Mountainous Tourism Using Geospatial Approach in Kendal Regency, Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riwayatiningsih; Purnaweni, Hartuti

    2018-02-01

    Kendal is one of 35 regencies in Central Java which has diverse topographies, from low land, hilly, to mountainous areas. Mountainous area of Kendal with numerous unique and distinct natural environments, supported by various unique and distinct culture of its community can be used for tourism activities. Kendal has natural and sociocultural resources for developing tourism that must be considered by the local government. Therefore, nature based tourism resources assessment is important in order to determine the appropriate area in the planning of sustainable tourism destination. The objectives of this study are to assess and prioritize the potential area of mountainous tourism object in Kendal using geospatial approach based on criteria attractiveness, accessibility and amenity of the tourism object. Those criteria are modification of ADO-ODTWA guidelines and condition of the study location. There are 16 locations of tourism object that will be assessed. The result will be processed using ArcMap 10.3. The result will show the most potential tourism object that could become priority for mountainous tourism development in Kendal.

  10. Using Social Impact Assessment to Strengthen Community Resilience in Sustainable Rural Development in Mountain Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imperiale, Angelo Jonas; Vanclay, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Building community resilience is an important topic in the current debate about achieving positive community development outcomes from sustainable place-based policies, especially in mountain regions and less-favored areas. At the practical, grassroots level, however, it remains unclear how

  11. Timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux; Paul E. Sendak; William H. McWilliams; Neil Huyler; Thomas Malecek; Worthen Muzzey; Toni Jones

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a timber supply and demand assessment of the Green and White Mountain National Forests' market area using USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis data, production information provided by forest industry, and a stump-to-mill logging cost-prediction model. Nonavailable timberland that includes reserve and steep-terrain lands is...

  12. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-01-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  13. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syuhada, Ahmad, E-mail: syuhada-mech@yahoo.com; Mubarak, Amir Zaki, E-mail: amir-zaki-mubarak@yahoo.com; Maulana, M. Ilham, E-mail: mil2ana@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Syiah Kuala University Jl. Syech Abdul Rauf No.7 Darussalam Banda Aceh 23111 (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US$ 14,938.

  14. Population genetic structure and demographic history of the freshwater crab Potamon elbursi (Brachyura: Potamidae) from the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Keikhosravi; Sara Fratini; Christoph D. Schubart

    2015-01-01

    Hydrographically separated populations of the freshwater crab Potamon elbursi Pretzmann, 1976 were genetically investigated to assess their local diversity and to reconstruct the possible role of Quaternary glaciations in shaping current diversity in the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. A total of 61 specimens from six rivers were collected from the two different drainage systems of the Alborz Mountains, Namak Lake and the South Caspian watershed. A comparative analysis of a partial sequence ...

  15. The XXI century mountains: sustainable management of mountainous areas based on animal traction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues J.B.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, there are around 300 million working animals worldwide. They play a fundamental role in human livelihoods through their contribution to financial, human and social capital, supporting between 300 and 600 million people globally, particularly in poorer areas, where animal energy represents a huge and extremely important sustainable power resource. Yet their recognition remains largely neglected, with animal traction being largely ignored by decision and policy makers and even by civil society at all levels, which compromises a real development and improvement of this technology as well as animal welfare. On the other hand, a collective ecological and economical consciousness and an increasing awareness of public opinion about the need to reduce the excessive industrialization and mechanization of agriculture and forestry has led some sectors of society to consider the (reuse of animal traction as a valid modern source of energy. Indeed, working animals optimally transform the consumed biomass in energy and natural fertilizer, which avoids soil degradation and contributes to a sustainable management of arable lands, forests and sensitive areas. The need to maintain biodiversity, reduce carbon emissions, encourage self-reliance and reduce consumption of resources also contributes to this trend.

  16. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Agriculture in Mountain Areas: A Willingness to Pay (WTP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Mazzocchi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most evident elements of the agricultural crisis is farm abandonment in many marginal rural areas, such as mountains. Some traits of mountain agriculture such as remoteness, low productivity, extreme weather and small farm size, can limit the adaptation and the competitiveness of this branch. The analysis aims to assess the consumers’ Willingness to Pay (WTP for permanence of the upland farms and mountain pastures, by a Contingent Valuation analysis. The main results are that a WTP for the redevelopment of the pastures exists and that the personal characteristics of the sample are more influential than the opinions of the individuals on WTP. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that consumers seem to prefer an agricultural orientation of the upland farms rather than a touristic one. In the conclusion section, some policy guidelines are proposed.

  17. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  19. Postglacial faulting and paleoseismicity in the Landsjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1988-10-01

    Post-glacial fault scarps, up to about 20 m in height and forming a 50 km long fault set with a SSW-NNE orientation, occur in the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden. By trenching across the fault scarps it has been possible to date fault movement relative to the Quaternary stratigraphy. It is concluded that the fault scarps generally developed as single event movements shortly after the deglaciation about 9000 years ago. At one location there are indications that minor fault movements may have occurred earlier during a previous glaciation but this is uncertain. The fault scarps are, at least partially, developed in strongly fractured and chemically weathered zones of presumed pre-Quaternary age. To judge from the appearance of the bedrock fault scarps, and the deformation of the Quaternary deposits, the faults are reverse and have dips between some 40-50 0 and the vertical. The faulting was co-seismic and earthquakes in the order of M 6.5-7.0, or higher, are inferred from fault dimensions and the distribution of seismically triggered landslides in a wider region. Distortions in different types of sediment, interpreted as caused by the influence of seismic shock, occur frequently in the area. Examples of these are briefly described. (orig.)

  20. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prandi, F.; Magliocchetti, D.; Poveda, A.; De Amicis, R.; Andreolli, M.; Devigili, F.

    2016-06-01

    Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas) project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  1. New Approach for forest inventory estimation and timber harvesting planning in mountain areas: the SLOPE project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Prandi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests represent an important economic resource for mountainous areas being for a few region and mountain communities the main form of income. However, wood chain management in these contexts differs from the traditional schemes due to the limits imposed by terrain morphology, both for the operation planning aspects and the hardware requirements. In fact, forest organizational and technical problems require a wider strategic and detailed level of planning to reach the level of productivity of forest operation techniques applied on flatlands. In particular, a perfect knowledge of forest inventories improves long-term management sustainability and efficiency allowing a better understanding of forest ecosystems. However, this knowledge is usually based on historical parcel information with only few cases of remote sensing information from satellite imageries. This is not enough to fully exploit the benefit of the mountain areas forest stocks where the economic and ecological value of each single parcel depends on singletree characteristics. The work presented in this paper, based on the results of the SLOPE (Integrated proceSsing and controL systems fOr sustainable forest Production in mountain arEas project, investigates the capability to generate, manage and visualize detailed virtual forest models using geospatial information, combining data acquired from traditional on-the-field laser scanning surveys technologies with new aerial survey through UAV systems. These models are then combined with interactive 3D virtual globes for continuous assessment of resource characteristics, harvesting planning and real-time monitoring of the whole production.

  2. ST radar observations of atmospheric waves over mountainous areas: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Röttger

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Lee and mountain waves are dominant dynamic processes in the atmosphere above mountain areas. ST VHF radars had been intensively used to investigate these wave processes. These studies are summarized in this work. After discussing features of long-period quasi-stationary lee waves, attention is drawn to the frequent occurrence of freely propagating waves of shorter periods, which seem to be more common and characteristic for wave processes generated over mountainous areas. Characteristics of these waves such as their relation to the topography and background winds, the possibility of trapping by and breaking in the tropopause region and their propagation into the stratosphere is investigated. These orographically produced waves transport energy and momentum into the troposphere and stratosphere, which is considered an important contribution to the kinetic energy of the lower atmosphere. The occurrence of inertia-gravity waves in the stratosphere had been confused with lee waves, which is discussed in conclusion. Finally further questions on mountain and lee waves are drawn up, which remain to be solved and where investigations with ST radars could play a fundamental role.Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Middle atmosphere dynamics; Waves and tides; Instruments and techniques

  3. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Malek, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: → We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. → Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. → Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. → Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. → Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  4. Baseflow characterization of the inter-mountainous regions of northern Idaho and eastern Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Murillo, R.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.; Elliot, W.

    2012-12-01

    Baseflow is one of the most important components of the streamflow regime of any river or creek since it provides continuous habitat to aquatic biota; regulates water temperature and dissolved oxygen during summer; and functions as an essential supply for drinking water and irrigation in most temperate regions. Understanding which factors control how water is released to streams during baseflow periods has become critical for watershed management worldwide, especially, in arid and semiarid areas. This study analyzed storage-discharge relationships of 26 watersheds of northern Idaho and eastern Washington using Brutsaert and Nieber (1977) baseflow recession analysis. Daily streamflow and precipitation records ranged from 7 to 70 years. Mean annual precipitation fluctuated from 536 to 1,312 mm. Drainage basin areas varied from 6.35 to 12,357 km2, with streamgage elevation ranging from 536 to 2,172 m. Mean watershed slope varied from 9.24 to 46.53%. Because of the non-uniqueness watershed shapes, illustrated by the natural spectrum of data points, organic correlation analysis was used to determine the recession coefficients (kb). Numerous climatic attributes and geomorphology characteristics were evaluated as potential predictors of kb rates using a Pearson's correlation matrix. Baseflow coefficients ranged from 0.015 to 0.08 day-1. The mean characteristic timescale for baseflow drainage was found to be 33±15 days with extremes of 12.5 and 66.7 days. Watersheds dominated by basalt features showed the lowest drainage times (12.5-20.0 days). The drainage time increased as the metamorphic and sedimentary rock composition increased (33.3-66.7 days). Watersheds mainly composed by granitic features ranged from 29.1 to 50.0 days. The ratio of mean annual precipitation (MAP) to annual potential evapotranspiration (PET), also known as Aridity Index (AI), was found to explain 67% of kb variability. Mean watershed slope exhibited a moderate negative correlation of -0.57. Other

  5. Bagley Fire Sediment Study: Shasta-Trinity National Forest, Eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; De La Fuente, J. A.; Hill, B.; Mai, C.; Mikulovsky, R. P.; Mondry, Z.; Rust, B.; Young, D.

    2013-12-01

    The US Forest Service is conducting a study of sediment mobilization, transport, and deposition on the Bagley Fire, which burned about 18,000 hectares in late summer, 2012, on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, south of McCloud, CA. The fire area is in steep terrain of the Eastern Klamath Mountains that are underlain primarily by metasedimentary rock. The watersheds affected drain into the headwaters of Squaw Creek, along with small streams tributary to the McCloud and Pit Rivers, all of which flow into Shasta Lake Reservoir. In November and December of 2012, intense storms occurred over the fire area with estimated return intervals of 25-50 years, based on 4-day storm totals in ranging from 38 to 56 cm. The Squaw Creek storm response was unique for this area, in that it remained turbid for about 2 months following the storms. Subsequent small storms through June, 2013 have also generated prolonged turbidity. This may be attributable to the remobilization of fine particles temporarily stored in the channel network. Preliminary observations from field reconnaissance include the following: a) Erosional processes were dominated by sheet, rill, and gully erosion, and the resulting sediment delivered to channels was rich in fine particles and gravels; b) Landslides were infrequent, and as a result, a limited amount of large rock and logs were delivered to channels; c) Sediment laden flows occurred in most burned low order channels, but classic debris flows, those scouring all vegetation from channel bottoms, were very uncommon; d) Most road stream crossing culverts failed in high severity burn areas; e) Low gradient stream reaches in Squaw Creek were aggraded with fine sediment; f) Sustained high levels of turbidity occurred in the main stem of Squaw Creek. The goals of this study are to characterize relative roles of surface erosion, landslides, and debris flows in delivering sediment to streams after the fire, and if possible, to develop a rough sediment budget

  6. Geology of the Ulugh Muztagh area, northern Tibet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchfiel, B.C.; Molnar, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the Ulugh Muztagh area, north central Tibet, an east-west-trending ophiolitic melange marks a suture that apparently was formed during a late Triassic or slightly younger collision between a continental fragment to the south and the rest of Asia. The southern continental fragment carries a thick sequence of upper Triassic sandstone, but the contact between the sandstone and the ophiolitic melange is covered by a younger redbed sequence of unknown age. A suite of 2-mica, tourmaline-bearing leucogranite plutons and dikes intruded the Triassic sandstone at shallow crustal levels 10.5 to 8.4 Ma. These rocks range from granite to tonalite in composition, are geochemically very similar to slightly older High Himalayan leucogranite and are interpreted to have been derived by the partial melting of crustal material. We interpret this to mean that crustal thickening began in this part of the Tibetan plateau at least by 10.5 Ma. Welded rhyolitic tuff rests on a conglomerate that consists of abundant debris from the Ulugh Muztagh intrusive rocks and has yielded Ar/Ar ages of about 4 Ma. The tuffs are geochemically identical to the intrusive rocks suggesting that crustal thickening may have continued to 4 Ma. Crustal thickening probably occurred by distributed crustal shortening similar to shortening now occurring north of Ulugh Muztagh along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. (orig.)

  7. Limited evidence for CO2 -related growth enhancement in northern Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine populations across climate gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Charlotte C; Ballantyne, Ashley P; Cooper, Leila Annie; Sala, Anna

    2018-04-15

    Forests sequester large amounts of carbon annually and are integral in buffering against effects of global change. Increasing atmospheric CO 2 may enhance photosynthesis and/or decrease stomatal conductance (g s ) thereby enhancing intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), having potential indirect and direct benefits to tree growth. While increasing iWUE has been observed in most trees globally, enhanced growth is not ubiquitous, possibly due to concurrent climatic constraints on growth. To investigate our incomplete understanding of interactions between climate and CO 2 and their impacts on tree physiology and growth, we used an environmental gradient approach. We combined dendrochronology with carbon isotope analysis (δ 13 C) to assess the covariation of basal area increment (BAI) and iWUE over time in lodgepole pine. Trees were sampled at 18 sites spanning two climatically distinct elevation transects on the lee and windward sides of the Continental Divide, encompassing the majority of lodgepole pine's northern Rocky Mountain elevational range. We analyzed BAI and iWUE from 1950 to 2015, and explored correlations with monthly climate variables. As expected, iWUE increased at all sites. However, concurrent growth trends depended on site climatic water deficit (CWD). Significant growth increases occurred only at the driest sites, where increases in iWUE were strongest, while growth decreases were greatest at sites where CWD has been historically lowest. Late summer drought of the previous year negatively affected growth across sites. These results suggest that increasing iWUE, if strong enough, may indirectly benefit growth at drier sites by effectively extending the growing season via reductions in g s . Strong growth decreases at high elevation windward sites may reflect increasing water stress as a result of decreasing snowpack, which was not offset by greater iWUE. Our results imply that increasing iWUE driven by decreasing g s may benefit tree growth in

  8. Preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Black Mountain area is in the Mojave Desert about 20 km northeast of Victorville, California. The geology of this area is of interest primarily for its excellent exposures of the early Mesozoic Fairview Valley Formation, a sequence of weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks including a thick, commercially important unit of limestone conglomerate that has been mined for cement at Black Mountain Quarry for several decades. Recent geochronologic work has shown that the Fairview Valley Formation is probably of Early Jurassic age. This preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area depicts the stratigraphic and structural relations of the Fairview Valley Formation and the associated rocks, most notably the overlying Sidewinder Volcanics of Early(?), Middle, and Late(?) Jurassic age. The map is based on new field studies by the author designed to clarify details of the stratigraphy and structure unresolved by previous investigations. The map is considered preliminary because the ages of some geologic units critical for a satisfactory understanding of the stratigraphic and structural framework remain unknown. The map area also includes a segment of the Helendale Fault, one of several faults of known or inferred late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement that make up the Eastern California Shear Zone. The fault is marked by aligned northeast-facing scarps in Pleistocene or older alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock units. Relations in the map area suggest that right-lateral displacement on the Helendale Fault probably does not exceed 2 km, a conclusion compatible with previous estimates of displacement on this fault based on relations both within and outside the Black Mountain area.

  9. Status of fisher in the northern Idaho panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Lucid; L. Robinson; S. Cushman; L. Allen; M. Schwartz; K. Pilgrim

    2013-01-01

    The Multi-species Baseline Initiative (MBI) is a collaborative of organizations which is conducting a comprehensive inventory for fisher (Martes pennanti) and other wildlife species across the Idaho Panhandle and adjacent mountain ranges. From 2010-2012, MBI partners established 112 forest carnivore bait stations to collect photographs and DNA from 22 wildlife species...

  10. Devonian trilobites of the southern Cantabrian Mountains (northern Spain) with a systematic description of the Asteropyginae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeenk, Z.

    1983-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a research into the Devonian trilobites of the southern Cantabrian Mountains. The systematics of the most common group, the subfamily of the Asteropyginae, forms the major part of this work. More than 50 species, belonging to sixteen (sub)genera are distinguished;

  11. Conservation assessment for the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander in northern California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W. S.; LaGory, K. E.; Adduci, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-10-20

    The purpose of this conservation assessment is to summarize existing knowledge regarding the biology and ecology of the Siskiyou Mountains salamander and Scott Bar salamander, identify threats to the two species, and identify conservation considerations to aid federal management for persistence of the species. The conservation assessment will serve as the basis for a conservation strategy for the species.

  12. Comparative wood anatomy of some shrubs native to the Northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlene Dale

    1968-01-01

    This paper describes some xylem characteristics of the more important shrub species of the Northern Rockies and presents a key for identifying shrub-wood specimens by microscopic characters. The paper contains photomicrographs of 55 shrub woods.

  13. THE POPULATION IN THE APUSENI MOUNTAINS AREA: PAST, PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES (1900–2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN PLĂIAŞ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the phenomena that drew attention to the Apuseni Mountains area, the population dynamics recorded over time has a prominent place. The present article carries out research regarding the evolution of this phenomenon over the last 110 years. The information the article relies upon was gathered from the censuses that were started in 1900 and continued in the years 1910, 1930, 1941, 1956, 1966, 1977, 1992 and 2011. The problem that requires attention nowadays concerning the population of the Apuseni Mountains is the constant and gradual population decline, which registered different intensities in all villages of the area included in the perimeter. The period we analyze witnessed different types of intervals: some of them were characterized by significant increases in population, others by relative stagnations and the last ones (since the 1966 census by a dramatic reduction in the number of inhabitants. The demographic decline which has taken place in the Apuseni Mountains area over the last 60 year has, among other consequences, that of modifying the age structure of the population in an unfavorable direction with regards to the population stability in the area on the medium and long term. The changes in the population structure have led, and will continue to do so, to acceleration in the demographic decline over time. As it stands, the prognosis for the year 2030 underlines an increasingly worrisome situation

  14. Geochemical reanalysis of historical U.S. Geological Survey sediment samples from the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk River drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdon, Melanie B.; Granitto, Matthew; Azain, Jaime S.

    2015-01-01

    The State of Alaska’s Strategic and Critical Minerals (SCM) Assessment project, a State-funded Capital Improvement Project (CIP), is designed to evaluate Alaska’s statewide potential for SCM resources. The SCM Assessment is being implemented by the Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), and involves obtaining new airborne-geophysical, geological, and geochemical data. As part of the SCM Assessment, thousands of historical geochemical samples from DGGS, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and U.S. Bureau of Mines archives are being reanalyzed by DGGS using modern, quantitative, geochemical-analytical methods. The objective is to update the statewide geochemical database to more clearly identify areas in Alaska with SCM potential. The USGS is also undertaking SCM-related geologic studies in Alaska through the federally funded Alaska Critical Minerals cooperative project. DGGS and USGS share the goal of evaluating Alaska’s strategic and critical minerals potential and together created a Letter of Agreement (signed December 2012) and a supplementary Technical Assistance Agreement (#14CMTAA143458) to facilitate the two agencies’ cooperative work. Under these agreements, DGGS contracted the USGS in Denver to reanalyze historical USGS sediment samples from Alaska. For this report, DGGS funded reanalysis of 653 historical USGS sediment samples from the statewide Alaska Geochemical Database Version 2.0 (AGDB2; Granitto and others, 2013). Samples were chosen from an area covering portions of the Inmachuk, Kugruk, Kiwalik, and Koyuk river drainages, Granite Mountain, and the northern Darby Mountains, located in the Bendeleben, Candle, Kotzebue, and Solomon quadrangles of eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska (fig. 1). The USGS was responsible for sample retrieval from the National Geochemical Sample Archive (NGSA) in Denver, Colorado through the final quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) of the geochemical analyses obtained through the USGS contract

  15. A revised Lithostratigraphic Framework for the Southern Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.W. Spengler; F.M. Byers; R.P. Dickerson

    2006-01-01

    An informal, revised lithostratigraphic framework for the southern Yucca Mountain area, Nevada has been developed to accommodate new information derived from subsurface investigations of the Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program. Lithologies penetrated by recently drilled boreholes at locations between Stagecoach Road and Highway 95 in southern Nye County include Quaternary and Pliocene alluvium and alluvial breccia, Miocene pyroclastic flow deposits and intercalated lacustrine siltstone and claystone sequences, early Miocene to Oligocene pre-volcanic sedimentary rocks, and Paleozoic strata. Of the 37 boreholes currently drilled, 21 boreholes have sufficient depth, spatial distribution, or traceable pyroclastic flow, pyroclastic fall, and reworked tuff deposits to aid in the lateral correlation of lithostrata. Medial and distal parts of regional pyroclastic flow deposits of Miocene age can be correlated with the Timber Mountain, Paintbrush, Crater Flat, and Tram Ridge Groups. Rocks intercalated between these regional pyroclastic flow deposits are substantially thicker than in the central part of Yucca Mountain, particularly near the downthrown side of major faults and along the southern extent of exposures at Yucca Mountain

  16. [Relationships between soil and rocky desertification in typical karst mountain area based on redundancy analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jian; Liao, Hong-Kai; Li, Juan; Chen, Cai-Yun

    2012-06-01

    Redundancy analysis (RDA) was employed to reveal the relationships between soil and rocky desertification through vegetation investigation and analysis of soil samples collected in typical karst mountain area of southwest Guizhou Province. The results showed that except TP, TK and ACa, all other variables including SOC, TN, MBC, ROC, DOC, available nutrients and basal respiration showed significant downward trends during the rocky desertification process. RDA results showed significant correlations between different types of desertification and soil variables, described as non-degraded > potential desertification > light desertification > moderate desertification > severe desertification. Moreover, RDA showed that using SOC, TN, AN, and BD as soil indicators, 74.4% of the variance information on soil and rocky desertification could be explained. Furthermore, the results of correlation analysis showed that soil variables were significantly affected by surface vegetation. Considering the ecological function of the aboveground vegetation and the soil quality, Zanthoxylum would be a good choice for restoration of local vegetation in karst mountain area.

  17. Transformation of tourist landscapes in mountain areas: Case studies from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Chrenka

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available After two decades of deregulated free market economy the post-socialist rural mountain areas are being unprecedently commodified. Landscapes of tourist consumption with specific behaviour patterns are produced and reproduced. The paper explores how landscapes are transformed due to massive investments into tourist infrastructure with questionable impacts on quality of life and environmental sustainability. Power relations and related production of space are analysed in three case studies in the selected mountain areas in Slovakia. First, the Oščadnica case study reflects on rural landscape rapidly transformed by massive ski resort development and deforestation. Second, the Tále golf course development case study describes commodification and gentrification processes in Central Slovakia. Third, the High Tatras case study explores how power structures push on the transformation of the oldest and most visited National Park in Slovakia.

  18. [Effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of schoolchildren in the mountain area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yin; Wu, Jie-Shu; Zhu, Ran-Feng; Zhao, Xian-feng; Wang, Zhi-xu; Yin, Shi-an

    2006-09-01

    To study the effect of balanced diet on the nutrition status of primary schoolchildren in the mountain area in November 2004. All the subjects aged 7-9 years old were divided into intervention group and control group. The balanced diet was provided for the intervention group and the control group was maintained on their usual diet for 30 days in December. The anthropometric and nutritional status of the subjects were checked before and after the study. The growth and nutritional status of the intervention group improved significantly. However the unbalanced diet in the control group affects the normal growth of the children because the usual diet can not meet the nutrient requirement. The nutrition intervention can improve the growth and nutritional status of the primary schoolchildren in the mountain area.

  19. Impacts of out-migration on land management in mountain areas

    OpenAIRE

    Schwilch, Gudrun; Jaquet, Stéphanie; Liniger, Hanspeter; Sudmeier-Rieux, K.; Penna, I.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Kaenzig, R.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Out-migration from mountain areas is leaving behind half families and elderly to deal with managing the land alongside daily life challenges. A potential reduction of labour force as well as expertise on cropping practices, maintenance of terraces and irrigation canals, slope stabilization, grazing, forest and other land management practices are further challenged by changing climate conditions and increased environmental threats. An understanding of the resilience of managed...

  20. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cavicchioli, D.; Bertoni, D.; Tesser, F.; Frisio, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilisti...

  1. TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SOCIAL AND EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY IN CONDITIONS OF MOUNTAIN AREA PRIMARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonida Pesotskaya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the question of using of the method of coaching in preparation of the students to the managerial activity in the sphere of preschool education in mountain areas. The necessity of preparation under the modern conditions of social-economic development of mountain areas has been proved. The content of the article generalizes basic contradictions between the necessity and reality. The definition of the main points of the research has been given. The attention is accentuated on the basic principles of management and on the notion “coaching” in the process of management of preschool education in mountain area. Coaching includes partnership, potential revealing, effectiveness. Methodology of coaching is based on the principle that the person naturally is sufficiently talented and owns great potential, which isn’t realized fully. An important condition of this approach is valuable, respectful attitude of the participants of polylogue to one another. Basic theoretical regulations of the coaching approach have been determined. In the context of selection of teching technologies on the basis of coaching approach, the method “reflexive team” has been briefly revealed. It is determined that coaching is a style of management, transformed culture: if the authoritarian style is substituted into coaching, then the hierarchy changes from the support of blaming and ridiculing to the objective evaluation, all-hands activity changes to strategic planning. Coaching approach will allow optimizing the structure of economic activity of a separate preschool educational establishment. The attention is accentuated at the fact, that using coaching with the students at the lessons as a style of management of preschool education, will let future managers of preschool educational establishments to form the skills of behavior in critical situations of mountain area, to enrich their activity with the new means of performing, to develop professional

  2. Projected land use changes impacts on water yields in the karst mountain areas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Yanqing; Song, Wei; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2018-04-01

    Human-induced land use changes over short time scales have significant impacts on water yield, especially in China because of the rapid social economic development. As the biggest developing country of the world, China's economy is expected to continuously grow with a high speed in the next few decades. Therefore, what kind of land use changes will occur in the future in China? How these changes will influence the water yields? To address this issue, we assessed the water yields in the karst mountain area of China during the periods of 1990-2010 and 2010-2030 by coupling an Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and a Conversion of Land Use and its Effects (CLUE) model. Three different land use scenarios i.e. natural growth, economic development, and ecological protection, were developed in 2030 using the CLUE model. It was concluded that, given land use changes between 1990 and 2010, total water yields in the karst mountain area are characterized by a trend towards fluctuating reduction. However, total water yields of 2030 in the economic development scenario revealed an increase of 1.25% compared to the actual water yields in 2010. The economy development in karst mountain areas of China in the future has a slight positive influence on water yields.

  3. Natural flood retention in mountain areas by forests and forest like short rotation coppices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt-Imjela, Christian; Schulte, Achim; Hartwich, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Natural water retention is an important element of flood risk management in flood generating headwater areas in the low mountain ranges of Central Europe. In this context forests are of particular interest because of the high infiltration capacities of the soils and to increase water retention reforestation of agricultural land would be worthwhile. However competing claims for land use in intensely cultivated regions in Central Europe impede reforestation plans so the potential for a significant increase of natural water retention in forests is strongly limited. Nevertheless the development of innovative forms of land use and crop types opens new perspectives for a combination of agricultural land use with the water retention potential of forests. Recently the increasing demand for renewable energy resources leads to the cultivation of fast growing poplar and willow hybrids on agricultural land in short rotation coppices (SRC). Harvested in cycles of three to six years the wood from the plantations can be used as wood chips for heat and electricity production in specialized power plants. With short rotation plantations a crop type is established on arable land which is similar to forests so that an improvement of water retention can be expected. To what extend SRC may contribute to flood attenuation in headwater areas is investigated for the Chemnitzbach watershed (48 km2) in the Eastern Ore Mountains (Free State of Saxony, Germany), a low mountain range which is an important source of flood runoff in the Elbe basin. The study is based on a rainfall-runoff model of flood events using the conceptual modelling system NASIM. First results reveal a significant reduction of the flood peaks after the implementation of short rotation coppices. However the effect strongly depends on two factors. The first factor is the availability of areas for the plantations. For a substantial impact on the watershed scale large areas are required and with decreasing percentages of SRC

  4. [Research on stormwater runoff quality of mountain city by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Shan, Bao-Qing; Zhao, Jian-Wei; Guo, Shu-Gang; Gao, Yong

    2012-10-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from 10 source areas in Mountain City, Chongqing, during five rain events in an attempt to investigate the characteristics of runoff quality and influencing factors. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance of sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results indicated that the stormwater runoff of Mountain City presented a strong first flush for almost all events and constituents. The runoff quality indices were also influenced by the rainfall intensity. The concentration of TSS, COD, TN and TP decreased as the rainfall intensity increased. The concentrations of COD and TP in stormwater runoff were highly correlated with TSS concentrations. Suspended solid matter were not only the main pollutant of stormwater runoff but also served as the vehicle for transport of organic matter and phosphorus. Organic matter and phosphorus in stormwatrer runoff were mainly bound to particles, whereas nitrogen was predominantly dissolved, with ammonia and nitrate. A significant difference of stormwater runoff quality was observed among the ten monitored source areas. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the commercial area and the first trunk road, followed by the minor road, residential area, parking lot and roof. Urban surface function, traffic volume, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. Commercial area, the first trunk road and residential area with high population density are the critical sources areas of urban stormwater runoff pollution.

  5. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40 ±4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  6. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA)); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. (Syrian Petroleum Company, Damascus (Syria))

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  7. [Co-occurrence of soil fauna communities with changes in altitude on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Fuchun; Jin, Zhedong; Wang, Qingli; Xiao, Yihua

    2003-10-01

    The co-occurrence of soil fauna communities at different altitudes may reflect at some extent the relationships among communities, their coexistence, and the replacement of species along the altitude gradient. The continuous or disjunctive distribution of different species along altitude gradient not only reflected the environment variation at altitude gradient, but also the biological and ecological spatiality as well as the adaptability of species. The northern slope of Changbai Moutain has not only a high diversity in soil fauna types and species, but also a high variation of diversity pattern along the altitude gradient, which is a perfect transect for the research of biodiversity and gradient patterns. From 550 m to 2,560 m on the northern slope of Changbai Mountain, twenty-two plots were investigated with an interval of 100 m in altitude. By using Jaccard index, the co-occurrence of soil fauna communities at different altitudes was analyzed. For the species of different life forms or for all the species as a whole, the co-occurrence of soil faunae between neighboring communities was the highest, except for that between different soil fauna types. The peak and valley values of the co-occurrence of soil fauna communities along altitude gradient were matched with their gradient patterns, and the co-occurrence of soil faunae at different layers or all of the soil fauna communities were decreased with increasing altitude difference.

  8. Effects of fuel treatments on carbon-disturbance relationships in forests of the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt; Lisa Holsinger

    2010-01-01

    Fuel treatments alter conditions in forested stands at the time of the treatment and subsequently. Fuel treatments reduce on-site carbon and also change the fire potential and expected outcome of future wildfires, including their carbon emissions. We simulated effects of fuel treatments on 140 stands representing seven major habitat type groups of the northern Rocky...

  9. Data base for early postfire succession in Northern Rocky Mountain forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Stickney; Robert B. Campbell

    2000-01-01

    Web site and CD-ROM include 21 pages of text plus electronic data for 55 succession sites including color plates, tables, and figures. Provides data on quantitative postfire changes of plant species and forest vegetation components for up to the first 25 years of secondary plant succession for 55 forest sites in northern Idaho and northwestern Montana. Cover (aerial...

  10. Expansion of Protected Areas under Climate Change: An Example of Mountainous Tree Species in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chih Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tree species in mountainous areas are expected to shift their distribution upward in elevation in response to climate change, calling for a potential redesign of existing protected areas. This study aims to predict whether or not the distributions of two high-mountain tree species, Abies (Abies kawakamii and Tsuga (Tsuga chinensis var. formosana, will significantly shift upward due to temperature change, and whether current protected areas will be suitable for conserving these species. Future temperature change was projected for 15 different future scenarios produced from five global climate models. Shifts in Abies and Tsuga distributions were then predicted through the use of species distribution models (SDMs which included occurrence data of Abies and Tsuga, as well as seasonal temperature, and elevation. The 25 km × 25 km downscaled General Circulation Model (GCMs data for 2020–2039 produced by the Taiwan Climate Change Projection and Information Platform was adopted in this study. Habitat suitability in the study area was calculated using maximum entropy model under different climatic scenarios. A bootstrap method was applied to assess the parameter uncertainty of the maximum entropy model. In comparison to the baseline projection, we found that there are significant differences in suitable habitat distributions for Abies and Tsuga under seven of the 15 scenarios. The results suggest that mountainous ecosystems will be substantially impacted by climate change. We also found that the uncertainty originating from GCMs and the parameters of the SDM contribute most to the overall level of variability in species distributions. Finally, based on the uncertainty analysis and the shift in habitat suitability, we applied systematic conservation planning approaches to identify suitable areas to add to Taiwan’s protected area network.

  11. Characterization of photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding on the factors that affect photochemical pollution at different elevations in mountainous areas, concurrent systematic field measurements (September to November 2010 were conducted at a mountain site and at an urban site at the foot of the mountain in Hong Kong. The mixing ratios of air pollutants were greater at the foot of the mountain (i.e., Tsuen Wan urban site, TW than near the summit (i.e., Tai Mao Shan mountain site, TMS, expect for ozone. In total, only one O3 episode day was observed at TW, whereas twenty-one (21 O3 episode days were observed at TMS. The discrepancy of O3 at the two sites was attributed to the mixed effects of NO titration, vertical meteorological conditions, regional transport and mesoscale circulations. The lower NO levels at TMS and the smaller differences of "oxidant" Ox (O3 + NO2 between the two sites suggested that variations of O3 at the two sites were partly attributed to different degree of NO titration. In addition, analysis of vertical structure of meteorological variables revealed that the inversion layer at the range of altitudes of 500–1000 m might be another factor that caused the high O3 levels at TMS. Furthermore, analyses of the wind fields, the levels of air pollutants in different air flows, ratios of different trace gases and the correlation between variability and the lifetime of VOCs (volatile organic compounds indicated that high O3 concentrations at TMS were somewhat influenced by regional air masses from the highly polluted Pearl River delta (PRD region. In particular, the diurnal profiles and correlations of gaseous pollutants suggested influence of mesoscale circulations, which is confirmed using the Master Chemical Mechanism moving box model (Mbox and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. By investigating the correlations of observed O3 and NOx* and the relationships of O3 and its precursors by an observation-based model (OBM, as well as the ratios

  12. Thermal evaluation for exposed stone house with quantitative and qualitative approach in mountainous area, Wonosobo, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawan, Hermawan; Prianto, Eddy

    2017-12-01

    A building can be considered as having a good thermal performance if it can make the occupant comfortable. Thermal comfort can be seen from the occupant's respond toward the architectural elements and the environment, such as lighting, the room crowding, air temperature, humidity, oxygen level, and occupant's behaviours. The objective of this research is to analyse the thermal performance of four different orientation houses in mountainous area. The research was conducted on the four expose stone houses with four different orientations in the slope of Sindoro Mountain which has relative cool temperature, about 26°C. The measurement of the elements above was done quantitatively and qualitatively for 24 hours. The results are as follows. First, the most comfortable house is west-orientation house. Second, based on the quantitative and qualitative observation, there is no significant difference (±5 %). Third, the occupant's behaviours (caring and genen) also become factors influencing occupant's comfort.

  13. Borehole and geohydrologic data for test hole USW UZ-6, Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitfield, M.S. Jr.; Loskot, C.L.; Cope, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Test hole USW UZ-6, located 1.8 kilometers west of the Nevada Test Site on a major north-trending ridge at Yucca Mountain, was dry drilled in Tertiary tuff to a depth of 575 meters. The area near this site is being considered by the US Department of Energy for potential construction of a high-level, radioactive-waste repository. Test hole USW UZ-6 is one of seven test holes completed in the unsaturated zone as part of the US Geological Survey's Yucca Mountain Project to characterize the potential repository site. Data pertaining to borehole drilling and construction, lithology of geologic units penetrated, and laboratory analyses for hydrologic characteristics of samples of drill-bit cuttings are included in this report

  14. Preliminary investigation of two areas in New York State in terms of possible potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy. [Adirondack Mountains and Catskill Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachsen, Y.W.

    1978-09-27

    Two areas in New York State were studied in terms of possible long range potential for geothermal energy: the Adirondack Mountains which are undergoing contemporary doming, and an anomalous circular feature centered on Panther Mountain in the Catskill Mountains. The Adirondack Mountains constitute an anomalously large, domical uplift on the Appalachian foreland. The domical configuration of the area undergoing uplift, combined with subsidence at the northeastern perimeter of the dome, argues for a geothermal rather than glacioisostatic origin. A contemporary hot spot near the crust-mantle boundary is proposed as the mechanism of doming, based on analogy with uplifts of similar dimensions elsewhere in the world, some of which have associated Tertiary volcanics. The lack of thermal springs in the area, or high heat flow in drill holes up to 370 m deep, indicates that the front of the inferred thermal pulse must be at some depth greater than 1 km. From isopach maps by Rickard (1969, 1973), it is clear that the present Adirondack dome did not come into existence until sometime after Late Devonian time. Strata younger than this are not present to provide further time stratigraphic refinement of this lower limit. However, the consequent radial drainage pattern in the Adirondacks suggests that the dome is a relatively young tectonic feature. Using arguments based on fixed hot spots in central Africa, and the movement of North American plate, Kevin Burke (Appendix I) suggests that the uplift may be less than 4 m.y. old.The other area of interest, the Panther Mountain circular feature in the Catskill Mountains, was studied using photogeology, gravity and magnetic profiling, gravity modeling, conventional field methods, and local shallow seismic refraction profiling.

  15. Quantifying the National Significance of Local Areas for Regional Conservation Planning: North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Travis Belote

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists recognize that additional protected areas are needed to maintain biological diversity and ecological processes. As regional conservation planners embark on recommending additional areas for protection in formal ecological reserves, it is important to evaluate candidate lands for their role in building a resilient protected areas system of the future. Here, we evaluate North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures with respect to their (1 ecological integrity, (2 role in connecting existing core protected areas, (3 potential to diversify the ecosystem representation of reserves, and (4 role in maintaining hotspots of biologically-rich areas that are not well protected. Mountain Treasures represent a citizen inventory of roadless areas and serve as candidates for elevated levels of conservation protection on U.S. federal lands. We compared Mountain Treasures to other candidate lands throughout the country to evaluate their potential national significance. While the Mountain Treasures tended to be more impacted by human modifications than other roadless areas, they are as important as other roadless areas with respect to their role in connecting existing protected areas and diversifying representation of ecosystems in conservation reserves. However, Mountain Treasures tended to have a much higher biodiversity priority index than other roadless areas leading to an overall higher composite score compared to other roadless areas. Our analysis serves as an example of how using broad-scale datasets can help conservation planners assess the national significance of local areas.

  16. Preliminary geological assessment for rare earths at Ombo Area, San Vicente, Northern Palawan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Angelito F.; Santos, Gabriel Jr.; Magsambol, Wilfred N.; Castillo, Marilyn K.; Tabora, Estrelita U.

    2001-04-01

    A preliminary geological assessment for rare earths was conducted along Ombo beach area, San Vicente, northern Palawan to evaluate the potential geologic reserve and to determine the relative concentration of REE, thorium and uranium. This investigation also aims to establish the distribution of heavy minerals. The study area, covering, about 6500 m 2 is comprised of the undisturbed beach sand deposits confined between the high tide line and the base of the mountains that borders the coastline. The investigation involved the establishment of shallow test pits with depths varying from one meter ot less than three meters. A total of 23 heavy mineral panned concentrates were collected. All the samples were analyzed for REE, Th and U using the portable X-MET 820 x-ray fluorescence and GR-320 gamma ray spectrometer. Radiometric measurements were also taken along the stretch of Ombo beach to establish the natural background radioactivity. The radiometric values vary from 27 cps to 420 cps. The high readings could be attributed to the presence of radioactive rare earth bearing minerals, principally allanite. This initial investigation indicates a positive geologic reserve of approximately 19,000 metric tons beach sand deposits, containing an average grade of 22.19% REE (Ce, La), 0.85% Th and 0.55% U. The average distribution of heavy minerals is 3600 gm heavies per cubic meter. Moreover, a probable geologic reserve of about 41,000 metric tons with an average grade of 22.13% REE (Ce, La), 0.85% Th and 0.55% U was also determined. The average distribution of heavy minerals is about 3300 gm heavies per cubic meter. (Author)

  17. Feeder and post Deccan Trap dyke activities in the northern slope of the Satpura Mountain: Evidence from new 40Ar-39Ar ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Shrivastava

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present new 40Ar-39Ar plagioclase crystallization ages from the dykes exposed at the northern slope of the Satpura Mountain range near Betul-Jabalpur-Pachmarhi area, ∼800 km NE of the Western Ghats escarpment. Among the two plateau ages, the first age of 66.56 ± 0.42 Ma from a dyke near Mohpani village represents its crystallization age which is either slightly older or contemporaneous with the nearby Mandla lava flows (63–65 Ma. We suggest that the Mohpani dyke might be one of the feeders for the surrounding lava flows as these lavas are significantly younger than the majority of the main Deccan lavas of the Western Ghats (66.38–65.54 Ma. The second age of 56.95 ± 1.08 Ma comes from a younger dyke near Olini village which cuts across the lava flows of the area. The age correlates well with the Mandla lavas which are chemically similar to the uppermost Poladpur, Ambenali and Mahabaleshwar Formation lavas of SW Deccan. Our study shows that the dyke activities occurred in two phases, with the second one representing the terminal stage.

  18. Insights into contaminant transport from unconventional oil and gas developments from analog system analysis of methane-bearing thermal springs in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Grant; Grasby, Stephen E.

    2018-03-01

    Natural gas is currently being produced from shales of the Montney and Liard basins in western Canada. Production requires hydraulic fracturing due to the low permeability of the shales in the basins. Stratigraphically equivalent shales are present in the northern Canadian Rocky Mountains. Thermal springs with notable hydrocarbon concentrations occur where large-scale faults intersect the same shale units that are the focus of gas development, indicating that under certain circumstances, connection of deep fractured shales to the land surface is possible. To constrain these conditions, simulations were conducted for the spring with the highest hydrocarbon flux (Toad River Spring), results of which indicate that in order to supply sufficient water to a fault to support measurable advection, the effective permeability of the shales in these structurally deformed areas must be one to four orders of magnitude higher than in areas of active gas production to the east. The spatial scale of enhanced permeability is much greater than that which is achieved by hydraulic fracturing and the mechanism of maintaining high pressures at depth is more persistent in time. Examination of groundwater velocities suggests that upward migration of solutes from hydraulic fracturing may take decades to centuries. Results also indicate that any temperature anomaly will be associated with transport along a fault at such velocities. No such temperature anomaly has been documented in regions with unconventional oil and gas development to date. Such an anomaly would be diagnostic of a deep solute source.

  19. Evaluation and parameterization of ATCOR3 topographic correction method for forest cover mapping in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Vincent; Vanacker, Veerle; Lambin, Eric F.

    2012-08-01

    A topographic correction of optical remote sensing data is necessary to improve the quality of quantitative forest cover change analyses in mountainous terrain. The implementation of semi-empirical correction methods requires the calibration of model parameters that are empirically defined. This study develops a method to improve the performance of topographic corrections for forest cover change detection in mountainous terrain through an iterative tuning method of model parameters based on a systematic evaluation of the performance of the correction. The latter was based on: (i) the general matching of reflectances between sunlit and shaded slopes and (ii) the occurrence of abnormal reflectance values, qualified as statistical outliers, in very low illuminated areas. The method was tested on Landsat ETM+ data for rough (Ecuadorian Andes) and very rough mountainous terrain (Bhutan Himalayas). Compared to a reference level (no topographic correction), the ATCOR3 semi-empirical correction method resulted in a considerable reduction of dissimilarities between reflectance values of forested sites in different topographic orientations. Our results indicate that optimal parameter combinations are depending on the site, sun elevation and azimuth and spectral conditions. We demonstrate that the results of relatively simple topographic correction methods can be greatly improved through a feedback loop between parameter tuning and evaluation of the performance of the correction model.

  20. Late quaternary faulting and paleoseismicity in northern Fennoscandia, with particular reference to the Lansjaerv area, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerbaeck, R.

    1990-01-01

    Many fault scarps, interpreted as post- or late-glacial in age, occur in northern Sweden and adjacent parts of Finland and Norway. In the Lansjaerv area in northern Sweden attempts have been made to date fault displacement relative to the glacial and postglacial stratigraphy by trenching across some of these fault scarps. It is shown that the faulting occurred soon after the local deglaciation some 9000 years ago. There are no signs of movements since that time. The faulting was obviously associated with violent earthquakes because seismically induced phenomena, dating from the same period as the faulting, are frequently found in the vicinity. Numerous landslides, developed in glacial till, occur in the same region as the faults and different types of seismites (seismically-induced sediment deformation) were found when actively sought for. It is concluded that several earthquakes of high magnitudes occurred in northern Fennoscandia during the vanishing of the inland ice sheet. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peppin, W.A.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes activities for the year ending 30 June 1988 by staff members of the Seismological Laboratory in support of the Yucca Mountain site assessment program. Activities during the year centered largely around acquisition of equipment to be used for site assessment and around a review of the draft site characterization plan for Yucca Mountain. Due to modifications in the scheduling and level of funding, this work has not progressed as originally anticipated. The report describes progress in seven areas, listed in approximate order of significance to the Yucca Mountain project. These are: (1) equipment acquisition, (2) review of the draft site characterization plan, (3) studies of earthquake sequence related to the tectonic problems at Yucca Mountain, (4) a review of the work of Szymanski in relation to Task 4 concerns, (5) coordination meetings with USGS, DOE, and NRC personnel, (6) studies related to Yucca Mountain, and (7) other studies

  2. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This document describes activities for the year ending 30 June 1988 by staff members of the Seismological Laboratory in support of the Yucca Mountain site assessment program. Participants include James N. Brune, Director, John Anderson, William Peppin, Keith Priestley, Martha Savage, and Ute Vetter. Activities during the year centered largely around acquisition of equipment to be used for site characterization plan for Yucca Mountain. Due to modifications in the scheduling and level of funding, this work has not progressed as originally anticipated. The report describes progress in seven areas, listed in approximate order of significance to the Yucca Mountain project. These are: (1) equipment acquisition, (2) review of the draft site characterization plan, (3) studies of earthquake sequence related to the tectonic problems at Yucca Mountain, (4) a review of the work of Szymanski in relation to Task 4 concerns, (5) coordination meetings with USGS, DOE and NRC personnel, (6) studies related to Yucca Mountain and (7) other studies

  3. Multi-component ensembles of future meteorological and natural snow conditions for 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range, Northern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verfaillie, Deborah; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Déqué, Michel; Eckert, Nicolas; Lejeune, Yves; Morin, Samuel

    2018-04-01

    This article investigates the climatic response of a series of indicators for characterizing annual snow conditions and corresponding meteorological drivers at 1500 m altitude in the Chartreuse mountain range in the Northern French Alps. Past and future changes were computed based on reanalysis and observations from 1958 to 2016, and using CMIP5-EURO-CORDEX GCM-RCM pairs spanning historical (1950-2005) and RCP2.6 (4), RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 (13 each) future scenarios (2006-2100). The adjusted climate model runs were used to drive the multiphysics ensemble configuration of the detailed snowpack model Crocus. Uncertainty arising from physical modeling of snow accounts for 20 % typically, although the multiphysics is likely to have a much smaller impact on trends. Ensembles of climate projections are rather similar until the middle of the 21st century, and all show a continuation of the ongoing reduction in average snow conditions, and sustained interannual variability. The impact of the RCPs becomes significant for the second half of the 21st century, with overall stable conditions with RCP2.6, and continued degradation of snow conditions for RCP4.5 and 8.5, the latter leading to more frequent ephemeral snow conditions. Changes in local meteorological and snow conditions show significant correlation with global temperature changes. Global temperature levels 1.5 and 2 °C above preindustrial levels correspond to a 25 and 32 % reduction, respectively, of winter mean snow depth with respect to the reference period 1986-2005. Larger reduction rates are expected for global temperature levels exceeding 2 °C. The method can address other geographical areas and sectorial indicators, in the field of water resources, mountain tourism or natural hazards.

  4. Mountain Pine Beetles, Salvage Logging, and Hydrologic Change: Predicting Wet Ground Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rex

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle epidemic in British Columbia has covered 18.1 million hectares of forest land showing the potential for exceptionally large-scale disturbance to influence watershed hydrology. Pine stands killed by the epidemic can experience reduced levels of evapotranspiration and precipitation interception, which can translate into an increase in soil moisture as observed by some forest practitioners during salvage logging in the epicenter of the outbreak. They reported the replacement of summer ground, dry firm soil areas, with winter ground areas identified by having wetter, less firm soils upon which forestry equipment operation is difficult or impossible before winter freeze-up. To decrease the likelihood of soil disturbance from harvesting, a set of hazard indicators was developed to predict wet ground areas in areas heavily infested by the mountain pine beetle. Hazard indicators were based on available GIS data, aerial photographs, and local knowledge. Indicators were selected by an iterative process that began with office-based selection of potential indicators, model development and prediction, field verification, and model refinement to select those indicators that explained most field data variability. Findings indicate that the most effective indicators were lodgepole pine content, understory, drainage density, soil texture, and the topographic index.

  5. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Yucca Mountain Project Proposed Land Withdrawal and Adjacent Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig Lyons, Thane Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) proposed land withdrawal was conducted from January to April 2006, and encompassed a total area of approximately 284 square miles (73,556 hectares). The aerial radiological survey was conducted to provide a sound technical basis and rigorous statistical approach for determining the potential presence of radiological contaminants in the Yucca Mountain proposed Land withdrawal area. The survey site included land areas currently managed by the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Air Force as part of the Nevada Test and Training Range or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) as part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The survey was flown at an approximate ground speed of 70 knots (36 meters per second), at a nominal altitude of 150 ft (46 m) above ground level, along a set of parallel flight lines spaced 250 ft (76 m) apart. The flight lines were oriented in a north-south trajectory. The survey was conducted by the DOE NNSA/NSO Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis, which is located in Las Vegas, Nevada. The aerial survey was conducted at the request of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The primary contaminant of concern was identified by YMP personnel as cesium-137 ( 137 Cs). Due to the proposed land withdrawal area's proximity to the historical Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) facilities located on the NTS, the aerial survey system required sufficient sensitivity to discriminate between dispersed but elevated 137 Cs levels from those normally encountered from worldwide fallout. As part of that process, the survey also measured and mapped the exposure-rate levels that currently existed within the survey area. The inferred aerial exposure rates of the natural terrestrial background radiation varied from less than 3 to 22 microroentgens per hour. This range of exposure rates was primarily due to the surface

  6. Eye problems in mountain and remote areas: prevention and onsite treatment--official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine ICAR MEDCOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerton, John A; Zuljan, Igor; Agazzi, Giancelso; Boyd, Jeffrey J

    2009-01-01

    Although eyes are not frequently injured in the mountains, they are exposed to many adverse factors from the environment. This article, intended for first responders, paramedics, physicians, and mountaineers, is the consensus opinion of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR-MEDCOM). Its aim is to give practical advice on the management of eye problems in mountainous and remote areas. Snow blindness and minor injuries, such as conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies, could immobilize a person and put him or her at risk of other injuries. Blunt or penetrating trauma can result in the loss of sight in the eye; this may be preventable if the injury is managed properly. In almost all cases of severe eye trauma, protecting the eye and arranging an immediate evacuation are necessary. The most common eye problems, however, are due to ultraviolet light and high altitude. People wearing contact lenses and with previous history of eye diseases are more vulnerable. Any sight-threatening eye problem or unexplained visual loss at high altitude necessitates descent. Wearing appropriate eye protection, such as sunglasses with sidepieces and goggles with polarized or photochromic lenses, could prevent most of the common eye problems in mountaineering.

  7. Water levels in periodically measured wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1981-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, J.H.; Stephens, D.M.; Luckey, R.R.; Baldwin, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report contains data on groundwater levels beneath Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas, Nye County, Nevada. In addition to new data collected since 1983, the report contains data that has been updated from previous reports, including added explanations of the data. The data was collected in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy to help that agency evaluate the suitability of the area of storing high-level nuclear waste. The water table in the Yucca Mountain area occurs in ash-flow and air-fall tuff of Tertiary age. West of the crest of Yucca Mountain, water level altitudes are about 775 m above sea level. Along the eastern edge and southern end of Yucca Mountain, the potentiometric surface generally is nearly flat, ranging from about 730 to 728 m above sea level. (USGS)

  8. Map Showing Geology and Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer Catchment Area, Northern Bexar County, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Amy R.; Blome, Charles D.; Faith, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Rock units forming the Edwards and Trinity aquifers in northern Bexar County, Texas, are exposed within all or parts of seven 7.5-minute quadrangles: Bulverde, Camp Bullis, Castle Hills, Helotes, Jack Mountain, San Geronimo, and Van Raub. The Edwards aquifer is the most prolific ground-water source in Bexar County, whereas the Trinity aquifer supplies water for residential, commercial, and industrial uses for areas north of the San Antonio. The geologic map of northern Bexar County shows the distribution of informal hydrostratigraphic members of the Edwards Group and the underlying upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone. Exposures of the Glen Rose Limestone, which forms the Trinity aquifer alone, cover approximately 467 km2 in the county. This study also describes and names five informal hydrostratigraphic members that constitute the upper member of the Glen Rose Limestone; these include, in descending order, the Caverness, Camp Bullis, Upper evaporite, Fossiliferous, and Lower evaporite members. This study improves our understanding of the hydrogeologic connection between the two aquifers as it describes the geology that controls the infiltration of surface water and subsurface flow of ground water from the catchment area (outcropping Trinity aquifer rocks) to the Edwards water-bearing exposures.

  9. Astronomical Site Survey for Mountain Wumingshan Area in Western Sichuan Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, N.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Western-China Astronomical Site Survey project, we utilize the Geographic Information System (GIS) for the collection of long-term data, in order to investigate and study the Wumingshan (WMS) mountain and its surrounding areas for their geography, geology, climate, meteorology, social and demographic trends. Data analysis results show that the WMS mountain is located in the eastern fold belt of the Tibet Plateau--the typical region of the Hengduan Mountains, which leads to its large elevation, gently trended ridge, and stable geological structure. The highest altitude above the sea level at the WMS is more than 5000 m, but there are population settlements nearby with the low altitude of only 2000-3000 m, which are important for realizing low-level cost logistics conditions for the future headquarter or logistic base. Earthquake landslides and other geological disasters were rarely recorded. The other facts are such as the dry and clean atmosphere, the sparse vegetation, the semi-dry-state land, the perennial prevailing southwest wind, the rain-less winter, and the relatively short rainy-season summer, the location in the heartland of the large Shangri-La, no records of dust storms and the other inclement weather, low cloud coverage, the stability of wind direction, the small wind speed, the high possibility of clear sky, the far distance away from the developed areas in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, and Tibet Autonomous Region, the sparsely populated people, the slowly developed economy, the peaceful and stable social environment, etc. Specially, in recent years, with the development of the local tourist resources, the traffic conditions in Daocheng have been significantly improved. With high quality highway maintenance and daily air transport capacity, the transportation of land and aviation is rarely interrupted due to snowing, which often happens in high plateau regions. Therefore, the WMS area possesses the potential conditions to establish the future

  10. Effects of Urbanization on Landscape Patterns in a Mountainous Area: A Case Study in the Mentougou District, Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We explored the process of urbanization in a mountainous area to seek a sustainable urbanization strategy. Previous urbanization research has mainly focused on flat terrain and coastal areas, and urbanization in mountainous areas remains poorly understood. This study integrated geographic information systems, remote sensing, and statistical analysis to quantify landscape patterns dynamics in response to urbanization, with a case study of Mentougou District in Beijing, China from 1985 to 2014. We found that the total built-up area increased along with the population and economic indicators. The built-up area increased by one-third over the study period, with 73.38% of the increase from converted cropland and 12.22% from converted orchard. The urban expansion area was concentrated in the plain sub-region (<200 m elevation, comprising 68.85% of the expansion area. The landscape patterns varied over this period. For the whole region, the low mountain sub-region and the high mountain sub-region, landscape patterns gradually became more heterogeneous and fragmented, but they showed the opposite trend in the plain sub-region. None of the urbanization indicators (population, economic and built-up land area were significantly correlated with landscape metrics for the whole region, but they were significantly correlated in the plain sub-region. The impacts of urbanization on landscape patterns were mainly focused on the plain sub-region, and the effects in the low mountain and high mountain sub-regions were weak. Future urban development in mountainous areas should focus on the protection of cropland and local industries as part of a sustainable development strategy for the whole region.

  11. Cross-scale analysis of the region effect on vascular plant species diversity in southern and northern European mountain ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lenoir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region to quantify four diversity components: (i total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity, (ii number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity, (iii pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity and (iv number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity. We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity

  12. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains geographical boundary information for National Park Service properties, wildlife refuges, and other management areas in Guam and the Northern...

  13. An econometric analysis of residential consumption of fuelwood in a mountainous prefecture of Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabatzis, G.; Malesios, Ch.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy source of increasing importance, especially since the energy policies of countries today are largely focused on renewable energy. It is a renewable energy source with significant potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society, both for developing and developed countries around the world. One very important source of biomass is wood and fuelwood in particular. This article aims at providing an empirical analysis of household fuelwood consumption and the determinants of the choice to use the specific energy for heating and cooking in a district of Northern Greece. In the current empirical analysis several household fuelwood consumption models are employed, such as GLM, Tobit and Heckman regression-based techniques. The results show that household sociological and economical characteristics as well as more general environmental issues are suitable to explain differences towards fuelwood consumption for space heating and cooking. We additionally evaluate the household fuelwood consumption for heating through the statistical analyses conducted. - Highlights: ► In this study we provide an empirical analysis of household fuel wood consumption. ► Determinants of the choice of specific energy for heating/cooking in Northern Greece are examined. ► Several household fuelwood consumption models are employed (GLM, Tobit and Heckman). ► Household's sociological/economical characteristics are suitable to explain fuel wood consumption. ► Also more general environmental issues explain differences towards fuel wood consumption.

  14. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  15. Geohydrologic reconnaissance of Lake Mead National Recreation Area; Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study is a geohydrologic reconnaissance of about 170 square miles in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area from Las Vegas Wash to Opal Mountain, Nevada. The study is one of a series that describes the geohydrology of the recreation area and that indentifies areas where water supplies can be developed. Precipitation in this arid area is about 5 inches per year. Streamflow is seasonal and extremely variable except for that in the Colorado River, which adjoins the area. Pan evaporation is more than 20 times greater than precipitation; therefore, regional ground-water supplies are meager except near the Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave. Large ground-water supplies can be developed near the river and lakes, and much smaller supplies may be obtained in a few favorable locations farther from the river and lakes. Ground water in most of the areas probably contains more than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids, but water that contains less than 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids can be obtained within about 1 mile of the lakes. Crystalline rocks of metamorphic, intrusive and volcanic origin crop out in the area. These rocks are overlain by conglomerate and mudstone of the Muddy Creek Formation, gravel and conglomerate of the older alluvium, and sand and gravel of the Chemehuevi Formation and younger alluvium. The crystalline rocks, where sufficiently fractured, yield water to springs and would yield small amounts of water to favorably located wells. The poorly cemented and more permeable beds of the older alluvium, Chemehuevi Formation, and younger alluvium are the better potential aquifers, particularly along the Colorado River and Lakes Mead and Mohave. Thermal springs in the gorge of the Colorado River south of Hoover Dam discharge at least 2,580 acre-feet per year of water from the volcanic rocks and metamorphic and plutonic rocks. The discharge is much greater than could be infiltrated in the drainage basin above the springs

  16. High Resolution Forecasting System for Mountain area based on KLAPS-WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ji Min; Rang Kim, Kyu; Lee, Seon-Yong; Kang, Wee Soo; Park, Jong Sun; Yi, Chae Yeon; Choi, Young-jean; Park, Eun Woo; Hong, Soon Sung; Jung, Hyun-Sook

    2013-04-01

    This paper reviews the results of recent observations and simulations on the thermal belt and cold air drainage, which are outstanding in local climatic phenomena in mountain areas. In a mountain valley, cold air pool and thermal belt were simulated with the Weather and Research Forecast (WRF) model and the Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System (KLAPS) to determine the impacts of planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes and topography resolution on model performance. Using the KLAPS-WRF models, an information system was developed for 12 hour forecasting of cold air damage in orchard. This system was conducted on a three level nested grid from 1 km to 111 m horizontal resolution. Results of model runs were verified by the data from automated weather stations, which were installed at twelve sites in a valley at Yeonsuri, Yangpyeonggun, Gyeonggido to measure temperature and wind speed and direction during March to May 2012. The potential of the numerical model to simulate these local features was found to be dependent on the planetary boundary layer schemes. Statistical verification results indicate that Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) PBL scheme was in good agreement with night time temperature, while the no-PBL scheme produced predictions similar to the day time temperature observation. Although the KLAPS-WRF system underestimates temperature in mountain areas and overestimates wind speed, it produced an accurate description of temperature, with an RMSE of 1.67 ˚C in clear daytime. Wind speed and direction were not forecasted well in precision (RMSE: 5.26 m/s and 10.12 degree). It might have been caused by the measurement uncertainty and spatial variability. Additionally, the performance of KLAPS-WRF was performed to evaluate for different terrain resolution: Topography data were improved from USGS (United States Geological Survey) 30" to NGII (National Geographic Information Institute) 10 m. The simulated results were quantitatively compared to observations and

  17. Northern protected areas will become important refuges for biodiversity tracking suitable climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berteaux, Dominique; Ricard, Marylène; St-Laurent, Martin-Hugues; Casajus, Nicolas; Périé, Catherine; Beauregard, Frieda; de Blois, Sylvie

    2018-03-15

    The Northern Biodiversity Paradox predicts that, despite its globally negative effects on biodiversity, climate change will increase biodiversity in northern regions where many species are limited by low temperatures. We assessed the potential impacts of climate change on the biodiversity of a northern network of 1,749 protected areas spread over >600,000 km 2 in Quebec, Canada. Using ecological niche modeling, we calculated potential changes in the probability of occurrence of 529 species to evaluate the potential impacts of climate change on (1) species gain, loss, turnover, and richness in protected areas, (2) representativity of protected areas, and (3) extent of species ranges located in protected areas. We predict a major species turnover over time, with 49% of total protected land area potentially experiencing a species turnover >80%. We also predict increases in regional species richness, representativity of protected areas, and species protection provided by protected areas. Although we did not model the likelihood of species colonising habitats that become suitable as a result of climate change, northern protected areas should ultimately become important refuges for species tracking climate northward. This is the first study to examine in such details the potential effects of climate change on a northern protected area network.

  18. Revised stratigraphy of the Permian Bainmedart coal measures, northern Prince Charles Mountains, east Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLoughlin, S.; Drinnan, A.N. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic. (Australia). School of Botany

    1997-05-01

    The Bainmedart Coal Measures constitute the middle portion of the Permian-Triassic Amery Group, which represents the only substantial Palaeozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary succession exposed in eastern Antarctica outside the Transantarctic Mountains. The coal measures overlie alluvial fan deposits of the Radok Conglomerate and are conformably overlain by the dominantly fluviatile Flagstone Bench Formation. The coal measures were deposited within alluvial settings dominated by north to northeasterly flowing, low-sinuosity rivers chiefly confined to broad, fault-bounded, valleys of the Lambert Graben, a major late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic failed rift system. Both climatic and local tectonic factors are considered to have been the major influences on the pattern of coal measure sedimentation. Recent mapping has identified a much greater thickness of sediments within the coal measures than had been inferred previously. The Bainmedart Coal Measures are formally subdivided into six members. In ascending stratigraphic order these are: Dart Fields Conglomerate Member ({lt} 3m thick), Toploje Member (300 m thick), Dragons Teeth Member (15-25 m thick), Glossopteris Gully Member (670 m thick), Grainer Member (350 m thick), acid McKinnon Member (530 m thick).

  19. Vegetation Diversity Quality in Mountainous Forest of Ranu Regulo Lake Area, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehan Ramdani Hariyati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study vegetation diversity quality in mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo Lake area in Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park (TNBTS, East Java. Field observation was carried out by vegetation analysis using sampling plots of 25x25 m2 for trees, 5x5 m2 for poles, 1x1 m2 for ground surface plants. Community structure of each lake side was determined by calculating vegetation's density, basal area, frequency, important value and stratification of species. While vegetations diversity was estimated by taxa richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, and rate of endemism. Each lake side forests were compared by Morisita community similarity index. Data were tabulated by Microsoft Excel 2007. The result showed that based on existed vegetation, mountainous forest surrounding Ranu Regulo Lake consisted of four ecosystems, i.e. heterogenic mountainous forest, pine forest, acacia forest and bushes. Bushes Area has two types of population, edelweiss and Eupatorium odoratum invaded area. Vegetation diversity quality in heterogenic mountainous forest of Ranu Regulo TNBTS was the highest, indicated by its multi-stratification to B stratum trees of 20-30m high. Heterogenic mountainous forest’s formation was Acer laurinum and Acmena accuminatissima for trees, Chyatea for poles. Taxa richness was found 59 species and 30 families, while the others were found below 28 species and 17 families. Diversity Index of heterogenic mountainous forest is the highest among others for trees is 2.31 and 3.24 for poles and second in bushes (H=3.10 after edelweiss ecosystem (H=3.39. Highest rate of endemism reached 100% for trees in heterogenic mountainous forest, 87% for poles in edelweiss area and 89% for bushes also in heterogenic mountainous forest. Trees, poles and herbs most similarity community showed by pine and acacia forest. Based on those five characters, vegetation diversity quality in Ranu Regulo Lake area was medium for heterogenic mountainous

  20. Zonation of High Disaster Potential Communities for Remote Mountainous Areas in Southern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yie-Ruey; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chang, Chwen-Ming; Chen, Jing-Wen; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lu, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Hui-Wen

    2017-04-01

    About three-quarters of Taiwan are covered by hillside areas. Most of the hillside regions in Taiwan are sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are fragile and highly weathered. In recent years, human development coupled with the global impact of extreme weather, typhoons and heavy rains have caused the landslide disasters and leaded to human causalities and properties loss. The landslides also endanger the major public works and almost make the overall industrial economic development and transport path overshadowed by disasters. Therefore, this research assesses the exploration of landslide potential analysis and zonation of high disaster potential communities for remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan. In this study, the time series of disaster records and land change of remote mountainous areas in southern Taiwan are collected using techniques of interpretation from satellite images corresponding to multi-year and multi-rainfall events. To quantify the slope hazards, we adopt statistical analysis model to analyze massive data of slope disasters and explore the variance, difference and trend of influence factors of hillside disaster; establish the disaster potential analysis model under the climate change and construct the threshold of disaster. Through analysis results of disaster potential assessment, the settlement distribution with high-risk hazard potential of study area is drawn with geographic information system. Results of image classification show that the values of coefficient of agreement for different time periods are at high level. Compared with the historical disaster records of research areas, the accuracy of predicted landslide potential is in reasonable confidence level. The spatial distribution of landslide depends on the interaction of rainfall patterns, slope and elevation of the research area. The results also show that the number and scale of secondary landslide sites are much larger than those of new landslide sites after rainfall

  1. Recreational potential as an indicator of accessibility control in protected mountain forest areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz DUDEK

    2017-01-01

    The article presents research findings related to recreational use of forests located in protected mountainous areas with forestage of over 80%.The study was designed to identify recreational potential of the Carpathian national parks (Bieszczady National Park,Babia Góra National Park,Gorce National Park and Magura National Park;southern Poland) and to compare these findings with the actual number of visitors.The information received on the recreational potential of parks is important from the point of view of protection of natural resources and the financial situation of the parks.The calculated ratio may be an effective tool of management for park administration,that allows to reconcile statutory social and protective functions of national parks.The study determined the recreational potential of the forests with the use of recreational valorisation method designed for areas with varied terrain,and the evaluated factors included the stands of trees with their habitat and land relief.The permissible number of national park visitors,expressed as manhour/ha/year ranges from 19.31 in Bieszczady National Park (BG:19° 35′ E,49° 35′ N) to 32.06 in in Bieszczady National Park (B:22° 40′ E,49° 10′ N).In 3 out of 4 investigated parks,Magnra National Park (M:21°25′ E,49° 30′ N),Gorce National Park (G:20° 10′ E,49° 35′ N),B) recreation carrying capacity was not exceeded,whether or not the strictly protected area is taken into account.Only in BG was the recreation carrying capacity exceeded by nearly 24%,or by 85% if the strictly protected area is excluded from tourism-related exploitation.The presented procedure for monitoring access to mountain forests in national parks,from the viewpoint of natural resources conservation,can be applied in other mountainous areas covered with forests and exposed to tourist and recreational traffic,and in forests facing particular risk of recreational damage,e.g.in urban and suburban forests growing in areas

  2. Plants and animals diversity in Buqaty Mountain Area (BMA in Hamadan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buqaty Mountain Area (BMA is regarded as one of the genetic reserves of Hamadan province in Iran. BMA is highly important regarding variety of plant and animal species, but limited research work has been performed in this area in the field of biodiversity. Identifying the unique ecologic talents and capabilities and aesthetics of BMA is the most important objective of this study. This research was conducted during 2010 through 2011 in BMA to identify various plant and animal species through documentary and also direct field observations. With direct referring to the various regions of the studied area, plant samples were collected from different slope position and transported to field laboratory units. Sampling was made for every 20 meters increase in the height of area. Animal species of the area were identified too. Based on the results, about 44 valuable plant species, 45 species of birds as well as 7 species of mammals have been identified in BMA. It is recommended that the area be declared an A prohibited hunting area by Department of Environment (DoE of Iran for the conservation of flora and fauna in the study area.

  3. Poverty targeting and income impact of subsidised credit on accessed households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Xuan Luan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the data of 1338 rural households in the Northern Mountainous Region of Vietnam to examine the extent to which subsidised credit targets the poor and its impacts. Principal Component Analysis and Propensity Score Matching were used to evaluate the depth of outreach and the income impact of credit. To address the problem of model uncertainty, the approach of Bayesian Model Average applied to the probit model was used. Results showed that subsidised credit successfully targeted the poor households with 24.10% and 69.20% of clients falling into the poorest group and the three bottom groups respectively. Moreover, those who received subsidised credit make up 83% of ethnic minority households. These results indicate that governmental subsidies are necessary to reach the poor and low income households, who need capital but are normally bypassed by commercial banks. Analyses also showed that ethnicity and age of household heads, number of helpers, savings, as well as how affected households are by shocks were all factors that further explained the probability at which subsidised credit has been assessed. Furthermore, recipients obtained a 2.61% higher total income and a 5.93% higher farm income compared to non-recipients. However, these small magnitudes of effects are statistically insignificant at a 5% level. Although the subsidised credit is insufficient to significantly improve the income of the poor households, it possibly prevents these households of becoming even poorer.

  4. What Factors Encourage Intrafamily Farm Succession in Mountain Areas? Evidence From an Alpine Valley in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cavicchioli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family farming plays a vital role in mountain areas. Its survival is related to multiple factors, including intrafamily farm succession. This study examined data on apple-producing family farms in an Italian Alpine valley, trying to identify which factors foster or discourage intrafamily succession and to what extent they do this, both at the farm level and from the potential successor's viewpoint. To do so, various farm, farmer, and individual characteristics were analyzed using probabilistic regression. We found that intrafamily succession was more likely when the farm was managed by a woman (+20% with a high school diploma (+13% who had at least 1 child with specialized education in agriculture (+27% and when farm sales had increased in recent years (+25%. We also found that a child's willingness to take over the family farm decreases as the number of farm children increases and when the child is a female with a high school diploma; however, the likelihood that children will take over the family business rises as farmer education level and work experience increase. These findings, while mixed, suggest that women play a key role in keeping family farming alive in mountain areas, along with education of family members, improved marketability of agricultural products, and in general, competitiveness and profitability of the family farm.

  5. [Effect of agroforestry model on inhibition of Oncomelania snails in plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Hua; Tang, Guo-Yong; Liu, Fang-Yan; Li, Kun

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of agroforestry models on the inhibition of Oncomelania snails in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province. The experimental field was established at Sanying Village of Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, where the "Flourishing Forest and Controlling Snails Project" was implemented. Different drought crops (alfalfa, vegetables, broad bean, garlic, lettuce, celery, green onions, and wheat) were intercropped under walnut forest in experimental groups, and the crops were not intercropped under walnut forest in a control group. The growth of forest, the change of snails and short-term income of residents were investigated. Agroforestry models promoted the forestry growth and effectively inhibited the growth of snails. There was a little snail in one of the experimental group that forest was intercropped with alfalfa (the occurrence rate of frames with living snails was 3.33%, the average density of living snails was 0.004/0.1 m2, and the declining rates were both 50.00%). The snails were not found in other intercropped models. The income of residents in the experimental groups increased (900-6 800 Yuan per year) compared with that in the control group. The model of walnut forest intercropped with crops not only has the obvious effect on inhibition of snails, but also has good economic and ecological benefits in the plateau mountainous area of Yunnan Province.

  6. First stage of INTRAMAP: INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Damaske

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRAMAP (INtegrated Transantarctic Mountains and Ross Sea Area Magnetic Anomaly Project is an international effort to merge the magnetic data acquired throughout the "Ross Sea Antarctic Sector" (south of 60°S between 135°-255°E including the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM, the Ross Sea, Marie Byrd Land, and the Pacific coast, and also to begin the compilation efforts for new data over the Wilkes Basin. This project is a component of the continental scale Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP. The first stage of INTRAMAP addresses the analysis and merging of GITARA (1991-1994 and GANOVEX (1984 aeromagnetic surveys together with ground magnetic data (1984-1989. The combined data sets cover an area of approximately 30 km2 over Victoria Land and adjacent Ross Sea. Map and profile gridding were implemented to integrate the data sets. These approaches are studied for improving existing strategies to adopt for the whole magnetic compilation effort. The final microlevelled grid that we produce is a new tool for regional interpretation of the main tectonic and geologic features of this sector of Antarctica.

  7. Nitrogen enrichment in runoff sediments as affected by soil texture in Beijing mountain area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Zhihan; Liu, Baoyuan; Zeng, Xianqin; Fu, Suhua; Lu, Bingjun

    2014-02-01

    Enrichment ratio (ER) is widely used in nonpoint source pollution models to estimate the nutrient loss associated with soil erosion. The objective of this study was to determine the ER of total nitrogen (ERN) in the sediments eroded from the typical soils with varying soil textures in Beijing mountain area. Each of the four soils was packed into a 40 by 30 by 15 cm soil pan and received 40-min simulated rainfalls at the intensity of 90 mm h(-1) on five slopes. ERN for most sediments were above unity, indicating the common occurrence of nitrogen enrichment accompanied with soil erosion in Beijing mountain area. Soil texture was not the only factor that influenced N enrichment in this experiment since the ERN for the two fine-textured soils were not always lower. Soil properties such as soil structure might exert a more important influence in some circumstances. The selective erosion of clay particles was the main reason for N enrichment, as implied by the significant positive correlation between the ER of total nitrogen and clay fraction in eroded sediments. Significant regression equations between ERN and sediment yield were obtained for two pairs of soils, which were artificially categorized by soil texture. The one for fine-textured soils had greater intercept and more negative slope. Thus, the initially higher ERN would be lower than that for the other two soils with coarser texture once the sediment yield exceeded 629 kg ha(-1).

  8. Potential postwildfire debris-flow hazards: a prewildfire evaluation for the Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas, central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Anne C.; Haas, Jessica R.; Miller, Lara W.; Scott, Joe H.; Thompson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can drastically increase the probability of debris flows, a potentially hazardous and destructive form of mass wasting, in landscapes that have otherwise been stable throughout recent history. Although there is no way to know the exact location, extent, and severity of wildfire, or the subsequent rainfall intensity and duration before it happens, probabilities of fire and debris-flow occurrence for different locations can be estimated with geospatial analysis and modeling efforts. The purpose of this report is to provide information on which watersheds might constitute the most serious, potential, debris-flow hazards in the event of a large-scale wildfire and subsequent rainfall in the Sandia and Manzano Mountains. Potential probabilities and estimated volumes of postwildfire debris flows in the unburned Sandia and Manzano Mountains and surrounding areas were estimated using empirical debris-flow models developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in combination with fire behavior and burn probability models developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service. The locations of the greatest debris-flow hazards correlate with the areas of steepest slopes and simulated crown-fire behavior. The four subbasins with the highest computed debris-flow probabilities (greater than 98 percent) were all in the Manzano Mountains, two flowing east and two flowing west. Volumes in sixteen subbasins were greater than 50,000 square meters and most of these were in the central Manzanos and the western facing slopes of the Sandias. Five subbasins on the west-facing slopes of the Sandia Mountains, four of which have downstream reaches that lead into the outskirts of the City of Albuquerque, are among subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings. The bulk of the remaining subbasins in the 98th percentile of integrated relative debris-flow hazard rankings are located along the highest and steepest slopes of the Manzano Mountains. One

  9. Mineral resources of the South Mccullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area, Clark County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, E.; Anderson, J.L.; Barton, H.N.; Jachens, R.C.; Podwysocki, M.H.; Brickey, D.W.; Close, T.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a study of 19,558 acres of the South McCullough Mountains Wilderness Study Area. The study area contains no identified mineral resources and has no areas of high mineral resource potential. However, five areas that make up 20 percent of the study area have a moderate potential either for undiscovered silver, gold, lead, copper, and zinc resources in small vein deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; for tungsten and copper in small- to medium-size vein deposits; or for silver and gold in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits. Six areas that makeup 24 percent of the study area have an unknown resource potential either for gold, silver, lead, and copper in small vein deposits; for gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and arsenic in small vein or breccia-pipe deposits; for lanthanum and other rare-earth elements, uranium, thorium, and niobium in medium-size carbonatite bodies and dikes; or for tungsten and copper in small vein deposits

  10. Hydrology of area 52, Rocky Mountain coal province Wyoming, Colorado, Idaho, and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowham, H.W.; Peterson, D.A.; Larson, L.R.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Ringen, B.H.; Mora, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to characterize the hydrology of drainage basins within coal provinces, nationwide. Area 52 (in the Rocky Mountain Coal Province) includes the Green River Basin upstream from the Yampa River, and the Bear River upstream from the Bear Lake - a total of 23,870 sq mi. Area 52 contains over 3 billion tons of strippable coal, most of which is located in the arid and semiarid plains. The report represents a summary of results of the water resources investigations of the U.S. Geological Survey, carried out in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies. More than 40 individual topics are discussed in a brief text that is accompanied by maps, graphs, photographs, and other illustrations. Primary topics in the report are: general features, resources and economy, surface-water quantity and quality, and groundwater. (USGS)

  11. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12, 1989-91, Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Water levels have been measured in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, since 1981 in order to gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow system in the area. Water levels in wells J-11 and J-12 have been periodically measured using calibrated reeled steel tapes since 1989, however, calculation of water-level altitude was not possible prior to 1993 due to missing reference elevations. These elevations were determined in 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-11 ranged from 732.09 to 732.40 meters and the mean water-level altitude was 732.19 meters. During 1989-91, water-level altitudes for well J-12 ranged from 727.84 to 728.03 meters, and the mean water-level altitude was 727.95 meters

  12. Small wastewater treatment plants in mountain areas: combination of septic tank and biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunoir, S; Philip, H; Rambaud, A

    2007-01-01

    Research work has been carried out for more than 20 years by Eparco and the University of Montpellier (France) on the application of biological wastewater treatment processes for small communities. This research has led to a new process which is particularly suitable for remote populations, taking into account several specificities such as as the seasonal fluctuations in the population, the accessibility of the site, the absence of a power supply on site, the reduced area of land available and the low maintenance. Thus, the process, which combines a septic tank operating under anaerobic conditions and a biological aerobic filter, is a solution for wastewater treatment in mountain areas. This paper presents the process and three full-scale applications in the region of the Alps.

  13. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  14. What is the impact of altitude on energy demand? A step towards developing specialized energy policy for mountainous areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.

    2014-01-01

    Specific strategies for the energy sector should be a central part of a sustainable mountain policy. However, there is a lack of research on the energy issues of mountainous areas and specialized energy policy measures cannot be effectively supported. The determination of the energy demand in mountainous areas, which is an essential step in the direction of developing mountain energy policy, is analyzed in this paper. Greece has been selected as a case study. The results show that altitude is the decisive factor affecting degree-days and energy needs, within the geographical range of Greece. It is proved that the thermal, as well as the total energy demand are significantly increased in mountain settlements. The annual energy expenditure of a typical residence lying at an altitude of 1000 m proved to be 85% higher than the corresponding cost at sea level. This makes mountainous populations vulnerable to energy poverty. It is also proved that the subsidy policy for heating oil, in Greece, cannot alleviate energy poverty. The results of the present study can be utilized in the direction of re-designing the present policy and this is a completely necessary step for creating a sustainable policy for mountainous areas, in general. - Highlights: • The altitude’s influence on degree-days and energy needs in Greece was quantified. • Altitude affects heating degree-days 3.5 times more intensely than latitude in Greece. • A typical home has two times more thermal needs at 800 m than at sea-level in Greece. • The subsidy policy for heating oil is inadequate for Greek mountainous territories. • More than 85% of the households located over 800 m are energy poor in Greece

  15. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-01-01

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area

  16. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  17. Geothermal constraints on enrichment of boron and lithium in salt lakes: An example from a river-salt lake system on the northern slope of the eastern Kunlun Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongbing; Chen, Jun; Rao, Wenbo; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Huifang

    2012-06-01

    Some rivers on the northern slope of the eastern Kunlun Mountains in the Qaidam Basin, China, show very high concentrations of boron and lithium. Correspondingly, the salt lakes fed by these rivers show an unusual enrichment of boron and lithium, and become an important economic resource. The origin of boron and lithium has long been debated. The aim of this study is to analyze the water chemistry and hydrogen and oxygen isotopic composition of river water to understand the unusual enrichment of boron and lithium in the salt lakes of the Qaidam Basin. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope data show that the source of river water in the winter and summer originates from the Kunlun Mountain ice and snow melt water, respectively. The water chemistry shows that boron and lithium contents are high but little variable with seasons in the Nalenggele River and Wutumeiren River waters. By contrast, other rivers have much lower lithium and boron contents. Moreover, the contents of B3+ and Li+ in the river loads or bed sands show little difference amongst the rivers. This indicates that removal by adsorption or input by surface rock weathering is not the main controlling factor of the B3+ and Li+ variation in the rivers. Rivers with high B3+ and Li+ content are chemically similar to geothermal waters in the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the source area of the Nalenggele River is located in a collision zone of the Kunlun Mountains and Altun Mountains. Large and deep faults can serve as conduits for geothermal fluids. Thus, deep geothermal waters in the source area can easily migrate to the surface and discharge as springs feeding the rivers. They are an important source of B3+ and Li+ to the rivers. The abnormally high contents of B3+ and Li+ in the Nalenggele and Wutumeiren Rivers also suggest that the geothermal source area may be a future target for boron and lithium resources.

  18. 76 FR 66629 - Establishment of the Pine Mountain-Cloverdale Peak Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... explains. The petition states that local growers report that Pine Mountain vineyards are naturally free of.... Southern storms often stall over Pine Mountain and the Mayacmas range, dropping more rain than in other..., and very well to excessively well-drained. Also, these mountain soils include large amounts of sand...

  19. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C. [eds.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  20. Radon in groundwater and dose estimation for inhabitants in spas of the Sudety Mountains area, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Dorda, J.; Zipper, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The highest average radon concentrations in water are found in the Sudety mountains area, located in the south-western part of Poland. This region is known for its beautiful hiking routes, clean environment and also a large number of natural water springs. Some of underground waters with mineralization of more than 1 g/l are mineral waters. Others contain elements with specific medicinal properties and they are called medicinal waters. Among them are radon enriched waters with radon activity equal to at least 74 Bq/l. Waters chosen for investigations were collected in 24 health resorts and towns of the Sudety mountains. Water samples were periodically collected from 118 springs over a period of 10 years. Most of these waters are mineral medicinal waters and are used for treatment for patients and tourists. 16 intakes are treated by inhabitants as drinking water for everyday use. Among them, 6 intakes are used in water supply systems for several buildings in some spas. The goal of our study was to determine the activity concentration of radon in underground spring water consumed by inhabitants and tourists and to calculate annual effective doses due to this radionuclide consumption and inhalation. Measurements of radon were performed with the use of the liquid scintillation technique

  1. Native American interpretation of cultural resources in the area of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffle, R.W.; Evans, M.J.; Harshbarger, C.L.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents the location and interpretation of Native American cultural resources on or near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This work builds on the archaeological reconnaissance and identifications of cultural resources by the Desert Research Institute (for a summary, see Pippin and Zerga, 1983; Pippin, 1984). Interpretations provided by Native American Indian people are not intended to refute other scientific studies, such as botanical, wildlife, and archaeological studies. Rather, they provide additional hypotheses for future studies, and they provide a more complete cultural understanding of the Yucca Mountain area. Representatives of sixteen American Indian tribes identified the cultural value of these resources as part of a consultation relationship with the US Department of Energy (DOE). This interim report is to be used to review research procedures and findings regarding initial consultation with the sixteen tribes, in-depth interviews with tribal elders, and findings from the first on-site visit with representatives of the sixteen tribes. As additional information is collected, it will be reviewed separately. An annual report will integrate all findings. 44 refs., 58 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Analysis of Influential Factors Associated with the Smoking Behavior of Aboriginal Schoolchildren in Remote Taiwanese Mountainous Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Peng, Wu-Der; Yen, Yea-Yin; Chen, Ted; Hu, Chih-Yang; Shi, Hon-Yi; Lee, Chien-Hung; Chen, Fu-Li; Lin, Pi-Li

    2012-01-01

    Background: A disparity in smoking behavior exists between the general and minority populations residing in Taiwan's mountainous areas. This study analyzed individual and environmental factors associated with children's smoking behavior in these areas of Taiwan. Methods: In this school-based study, data on smoking behavior and related factors for…

  3. Mineral resource potential map of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon roadless areas, Inyo and Mono counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Blakely, Richard J.; Rains, Richard L.; Schmauch, Steven W.

    1983-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines and prospects, the mineral resource potential for gold, silver, lead, zinc, tungsten, and barite of the Blanco Mountain and Black Canyon Roadless Areas is judged to be low to moderate, except for one local area that has high potential for gold and tungsten resources.

  4. Solar power and the possibility of socio-economic development in the remote and mountainous areas of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainutdinova, Kh. K.; Lutpullaev, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of socio-economic development in remote and mountainous areas of Uzbekistan in the context of using solar energy on the grounds of the past experience of different countries is discussed in this article. The obstacles to using solar energy in remote areas and the approaches to overcoming them are described. (authors)

  5. Multiple Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Richard J.; Graymer, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    With the exception of Los Angeles, perhaps no urban area in the United States is more at risk from landsliding, triggered by either precipitation or earthquake, than the San Francisco Bay region of northern California. By January each year, seasonal winter storms usually bring moisture levels of San Francisco Bay region hillsides to the point of saturation, after which additional heavy rainfall may induce landslides of various types and levels of severity. In addition, movement at any time along one of several active faults in the area may generate an earthquake large enough to trigger landslides. The danger to life and property rises each year as local populations continue to expand and more hillsides are graded for development of residential housing and its supporting infrastructure. The chapters in the text consist of: *Introduction by Russell W. Graymer *Chapter 1 Rainfall Thresholds for Landslide Activity, San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California by Raymond C. Wilson *Chapter 2 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 3 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven Sobieszczyk *Chapter 4 Landslide Hazard Modeled for the Cities of Oakland, Piedmont, and Berkeley, Northern California, from a M=7.1 Scenario Earthquake on the Hayward Fault Zone by Scott B. Miles and David K. Keefer *Chapter 5 Synthesis of Landslide-Hazard Scenarios Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike The plates consist of: *Plate 1 Susceptibility to Deep-Seated Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Richard J. Pike, Russell W. Graymer, Sebastian Roberts, Naomi B. Kalman, and Steven Sobieszczyk *Plate 2 Susceptibility to Shallow Landsliding Modeled for the Oakland-Berkeley Area, Northern California by Kevin M. Schmidt and Steven

  6. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  7. Experiences on the development of a Community Based Early Warning System for mountain risks in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Sterlacchini, Simone; de Amicis, Mattia; Fontana, Michele; Trozzi, Arianna; Frigerio, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the European project Mountain Risks (http://mountain-risks.eu/), one of the projects currently developed is a methodology to integrate risk management and evacuation emergency plans, focused on prevention as a key element for disaster risk reduction, applied in the Mountain Community Valtellina of Tirano, an area recurrently affected by several mountain hazards. Taking into account the actual state of disaster risk reduction initiatives in the study area, including the existence of a real time emergency plan based on GIS (Geographical Information Systems), DSS (Decision Support Systems), and ICT (Information & Communication Technology), but knowing the lack involvement of the general community in any of the preparation activities developed until the present and the lack of divulgation of the current emergency plan, it was decided that the methodology that could better adapt to the actual conditions of the study area would be a non structural Community Based Early Warning System (CBEWS). A CBEWS has been recognized by institutions as the UN and the INSDR, as an effective and important strategy for disaster risk reduction. This strategy is broadly used especially in developing countries and has proved its effectiveness in many disasters crisis all over the world. In spite of that, possibly for political and social reasons, there are really few applications of CBEWS in developed countries which has made the elaboration of this research project a particularly difficult process due to the lack of previous references with similar conditions to the one in the study area. Difficulties related to any multidisciplinary work which also involves the general community have been faced during the development of the project such as the differences in language (both the technical jargon of the different disciplines and the native language), time restrictions, the process of learning and adapting to different social structures, the process of contacting several

  8. [Responses of boreal forest landscape in northern Great Xing'an Mountains of Northeast China to climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Na; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Liang, Yu

    2012-12-01

    With the combination of forest landscape model (LANDIS) and forest gap model (LINKAGES), this paper simulated the effects of climate change on the boreal forest landscape in the Great Xing'an Mountains, and compared the direct effects of climate change and the effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape. The results showed that under the current climate conditions and fire disturbances, the forest landscape in the study area could maintain its dynamic balance, and Larix gmelinii was still the dominant tree species. Under the future climate and fire disturbances scenario, the distribution area of L. gmelinii and Pinus pumila would be decreased, while that of Betula platyphylla, Populus davidiana, Populus suaveolens, Chosenia arbutifolia, and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica would be increased, and the forest fragmentation and forest diversity would have an increase. The changes of the forest landscape lagged behind climate change. Climate warming would increase the growth of most tree species except L. gmelinii, while the increased fires would increase the distribution area of P. davidiana, P. suaveolens, and C. arbutifolia and decrease the distribution area of L. gmelinii, P. sylvestris var. mongolica, and P. pumila. The effects of climate warming-induced fires on the forest landscape were almost equal to the direct effects of climate change, and aggravated the direct effects of climate change on forest composition, forest landscape fragmentation, and forest landscape diversity.

  9. Developing Information Technology for Vocational Education in Contiguous Destitute Areas Significance, Problems, and Countermeasures: The Case of the Wuling Mountain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    Using the Wuling Mountain area as a case study, the authors discuss the significance as well as five problems of developing information technology for vocational education in contiguous destitute areas. Recommendations are provided at the end of the article. [Translated by Michelle LeSourd.

  10. Analysis of wind energy potential for agriculture pump in mountain area Aceh Besar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Fuadi, Zahrul

    2017-06-01

    In this study, the potential of wind power for agricultural pump driver in Saree mountainous area of Aceh Besar is analyzed. It is found that the average usable wind speed is 6.41 m/s, which is potential to produce 893.96 Watt of electricity with the wind turbine rotor diameter of 3 m. This energy can be used to drive up to 614 Watt of water pump with static head of 20 m to irrigate 19 hectare of land, 7 hours a day. HOMER analysis indicated the lowest simulated NPC value of USD 10.028 with CoE of USD 0.717 kWh. It is also indicated that the wind has potential to produce 3452 kWh/year with lifetime of 15 years.

  11. Water levels in continuously monitored wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1985--88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckey, R.R.; Lobmeyer, D.H.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Water levels have been monitored hourly in 15 wells completed in 23 depth intervals in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada. Water levels were monitored using pressure transducers and were recorded by data loggers. The pressure transducers were periodically calibrated by raising and lowering them in the wells. The water levels were normally measured at approximately the same time that the transducers were calibrated. Where the transducer output appeared reasonable, it was converted to water levels using the calibrations and manual water- level measurements. The amount of transducer output that was converted to water levels ranged from zero for several intervals to about 98 percent for one interval. Fourteen of the wells were completed in Tertiary volcanic rocks and one well was completed in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. Each well monitored from one to four depth intervals. Water-level fluctuation caused by barometric pressure changes and earth tides were observed

  12. isotopic chronological study on gold-stibium deposits in Bayinbuluke area of Tianshan mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fuwen; Li Huaqin

    2003-01-01

    Several gold-stibium deposits have recently been found in Bayinbuluke area of Tianshan Mountains, such as the Dashankou gold deposit and Chahansala stibium deposit. isotopic chronological study of mineralization show that the fluid inclusion Rb-Sr isochron age for gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and pyrite-limonite-quartz veins from the Dashankou gold mine are 354 ± 8.1 Ma (2 σ) and 344 ± 21 Ma (2 σ), respectively. The two ages are consistent in test errors, indicating the gold deposit was formed in early Carboniferous and related to regional shearing; the fluid inclusion Rb-Sr isochron age for quartz-stibnite veins and quartz-tetrahedrite-bismuthinite-stibnite veins from the Chahansala stibium mine is 257 ± 23 Ma (2 σ), indicating the deposit was formed during the late Hercynian-Early Indosinian Period and related to intracontinental deformation. (authors)

  13. Geologic framework and Cenozoic evolution of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K.F. Jr.; Spengler, R.W.; Myers, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. The purpose of this paper is to outline aspects of the geology and tectonics of the area which bear on its suitability as a waste repository. The repository is to be excavated from a non-lithophysal zone within the lower part of the Paintbrush Tuff. Revised estimates of the thickness of this zone indicate that the lower, down-dip extremity of the planned repository could be raised by as much as 130 m, thus reducing the grade within the repository and increasing the distance to the water table below. We note that because of the closely spaced fracturing and low in-situ stresses within the repository block, lateral support of fractured rock is likely to be poor. 30 refs., 5 figs

  14. Engineering report on the drilling in the Spor Mountain area of Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    The Spor Mountain Drilling Project was conducted by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. This project consisted of 30 drill holes, ranging in depth from 372 feet (113.39 m) to 2,525 feet (769.62 m). A total of 33,143 feet (10,101.99 m) were drilled, of which 11,579 feet (3,529.28 m) were cored. The objective of the project was to test the continuity of uranium bearing host rocks, including the Beryllium Tuff and Yellow Chief sandstones, in several geologically favorable areas of the Thomas Range. This project began June 22, 1978, and continued through May 1979 with final site restoration and cleanup

  15. MAPPING ERODED AREAS ON MOUNTAIN GRASSLAND WITH TERRESTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND OBJECT-BASED IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mayr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Alps as well as in other mountain regions steep grassland is frequently affected by shallow erosion. Often small landslides or snow movements displace the vegetation together with soil and/or unconsolidated material. This results in bare earth surface patches within the grass covered slope. Close-range and remote sensing techniques are promising for both mapping and monitoring these eroded areas. This is essential for a better geomorphological process understanding, to assess past and recent developments, and to plan mitigation measures. Recent developments in image matching techniques make it feasible to produce high resolution orthophotos and digital elevation models from terrestrial oblique images. In this paper we propose to delineate the boundary of eroded areas for selected scenes of a study area, using close-range photogrammetric data. Striving for an efficient, objective and reproducible workflow for this task, we developed an approach for automated classification of the scenes into the classes grass and eroded. We propose an object-based image analysis (OBIA workflow which consists of image segmentation and automated threshold selection for classification using the Excess Green Vegetation Index (ExG. The automated workflow is tested with ten different scenes. Compared to a manual classification, grass and eroded areas are classified with an overall accuracy between 90.7% and 95.5%, depending on the scene. The methods proved to be insensitive to differences in illumination of the scenes and greenness of the grass. The proposed workflow reduces user interaction and is transferable to other study areas. We conclude that close-range photogrammetry is a valuable low-cost tool for mapping this type of eroded areas in the field with a high level of detail and quality. In future, the output will be used as ground truth for an area-wide mapping of eroded areas in coarser resolution aerial orthophotos acquired at the same time.

  16. SALVEREMO, an automatic system for the search and rescue in the wilderness and mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Roberto; Allasia, Walter; Bianchi, Luca; Licata, Enrico; Duranti, Pierluigi; Molino, Andrea; Bagalini, Enea; Sagliocco, Sergio; Scarafia, Simone; Prinetto, Paolo; Airofarulla, Giuseppe; Carelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    SALVEREMO project aims at designing and prototyping an innovative system for searching and rescuing individuals (especially hikers and mountaineers) who got lost or in peril in wilderness or mountain areas. It makes use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) equipped with a sensor suite specifically selected according to the requirements identified involving alpine rescuers and government officials. The peculiarity of the proposed solution is the exploitation and integration of the special skill and expertise coming from different competence fields. It will dramatically decrease the searching time in the wilderness and remote areas off the beaten tracks, providing rescuers and operators with a decision support system increasing successful results and reducing rescue missions costs. The system benefits from the adoption of a scaled-down Base Transceiver Station (BTS) embarked in the payload sensor suite of a small RPAS that can be carried in a back pack of rescuers. A Software Defined Radio (SDR) board implementing the BTS protocol stack has been integrated in a complex sensor suite made up of open processing boards and camera devices. Moreover computer vision (CV) algorithms for real time pattern detection and image enhancements have been investigated for assisting the rescuers during the searching operations. An easy-to-use ground station application has been developed for speeding up the overall mission accomplishment. Aknowledgement SALVEREMO project is a research project co-funded by Regione Piemonte according to the call for proposal POR F.E.S.R. 2007/2013, "Linea di attività I.1.3-Innovazione e PMI - Polo della Meccatronica e dei Sistemi Avanzati di Produzione". The authors want to thank "Il Soccorso Alpino Italiano" for the invaluable support for establishing operative requirements.

  17. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND SEDIMENTOLOGY OF UNION GLACIER AREA, ELLSWORTH MOUNTAINS, OCCIDENTAL ANTARCTICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa do Couto Silva Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The work aims to investigate the geomorphological and sedimentological aspects of Union Glacier area (79°45’00’’S; 82°30’00’’W, southern sector of Ellsworth Mountains. Geomorphological cartography based on 15 m ASTER (2010 satellite imagery and field works were carried out during the Brazilian expedition (2011/2012 enabled the identification of morainic formations: ice-cored hummock moraines, supraglacial moraines, and recession moraines in the interior of the valleys. With the exception of the latter one, all types of moraines have been developed on the blue-ice areas. The evidence for paleo wet-based glacial conditions is reconstructed from a range of geomorphological record, including exposed abrasion marks, striations and glaciotectonic deformation. This type of deformation is represented by lee sides of oversteepening bedrock promontories which follow the tributaries of glaciers ice flow. Glacial sediments were collected from the moraines for granulometric and morphometric analyses. They show the prevalence of sandy gravel and sand texture, low quantity of fine fractions, and absence of attributes such as striated and faceted clasts, which indicate, on the other side, low-sediment transport capacity from the ice sheet bottom. It is inferred that the moraine debris are originated from local sources. Weathering action and constant katabatic winds are possibly the major agents of transport and alteration of the exposed sediments. The geomorphological features reveal an ancient thicker ice sheet, and sedimentary characteristics of the morainic formations reveal a latter thinner ice sheet in this sector of Ellsworth Mountains.

  18. Study on Net Primary Productivity over Complicated Mountainous Area based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, X.; Shen, H.; Li, X.; Gan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous area hosts approximately a quarter of the global land surface, with complex climate and ecosystem conditions. More knowledge about mountainous ecosystem could highly advance our understanding of the global carbon cycle and climate change. Net Primary Productivity (NPP), the biomass increment of plants, is a widely used ecological indicator that can be obtained by remote sensing methods. However, limited by the defective characteristic of sensors, which cannot be long-term with enough spatial details synchronously, the mountainous NPP was far from being understood. In this study, a multi-sensor fusion framework was applied to synthesize a 1-km NPP series from 1982 to 2014 in mountainous southwest China, where elevation ranged from 76m to 6740m. The validation with field-measurements proved this framework greatly improved the accuracy of NPP (r=0.79, prun-off. What is more, it was indicated that the NPP variation showed three distinct stages at the year break-point of 1992 and 2002 over the region. The NPP in low-elevation area varied almost triple more drastic than the high-elevation area for all the three stages, due to the much greater change rate of precipitation. In summary, this study innovatively conducted a long-term and accurate NPP study on the not understood mountainous ecosystem with multi-source data, the framework and conclusions will be beneficial for the further cognition of global climate change.

  19. Origin and implications of a thrust-bound gypsiferous unit along the western edge of Jabal Sumeini, northern Oman Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David J. W.; Ali, Mohammed Y.; Searle, Michael P.

    2018-04-01

    The Oman Mountains comprise a series of thrust sheets of Neo-Tethyan oceanic rocks that were emplaced onto the Arabian continental margin during obduction of the Semail Ophiolite during the Late Cretaceous. Three separate groups of anomalous gypsiferous bodies intrude the allochthonous units along faults over a distance of about 150 km in the Hawasina Window, Jabal Qumayrah and Jabal Sumeini. The bodies at Jabal Sumeini form a band about 4 km long and up to 100 m wide along a late-stage thrust that restacks the allochthon over a post-emplacement Maastrichtian-Palaeogene sedimentary succession. The gypsum shows evidence of flow-folding and contains numerous clasts and rafts of a range of quartzose sandstones, but with only a minor component from carbonates from the Neo-Tethyan Sumeini Group in the hanging-wall. Palaeogene limestones from the footwall succession are essentially absent. Strontium isotope ratios are high and intersect with the open ocean-water reference curve for the Late Cambrian-Ordovician and Late Miocene-Pliocene. They are also noticeably higher than the ratios from the two other gypsiferous outcrop areas in the Oman Mountains and from outcrops of Ediacaran-Early Cambrian salt domes in central Oman. However, the regional stratigraphy points towards a source of the gypsum from either an Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group salt basin or from the Lower Fars Formation (Early-Middle Miocene), and derivation of the sandstone clasts and rafts from thick Lower Palaeozoic clastic sequences. The discrepancy with the ages inferred from the strontium isotope data can be attributed to deposition of the gypsum in restricted conditions not in equilibrium with the prevailing ocean water. Two models are presented, for an Ediacaran-Early Cambrian and an Early-Middle Miocene source. While the latter cannot be wholly discounted, the stratigraphic and structural context point more strongly towards an Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group source of the gypsum. This was

  20. Performance and evaluation of a coupled prognostic model TAPM over a mountainous complex terrain industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaios, Vasileios N.; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G.; Albanis, Triantafyllos A.; Sakkas, Vasileios; Garas, Stelios

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric modeling is considered an important tool with several applications such as prediction of air pollution levels, air quality management, and environmental impact assessment studies. Therefore, evaluation studies must be continuously made, in order to improve the accuracy and the approaches of the air quality models. In the present work, an attempt is made to examine the air pollution model (TAPM) efficiency in simulating the surface meteorology, as well as the SO2 concentrations in a mountainous complex terrain industrial area. Three configurations under different circumstances, firstly with default datasets, secondly with data assimilation, and thirdly with updated land use, ran in order to investigate the surface meteorology for a 3-year period (2009-2011) and one configuration applied to predict SO2 concentration levels for the year of 2011.The modeled hourly averaged meteorological and SO2 concentration values were statistically compared with those from five monitoring stations across the domain to evaluate the model's performance. Statistical measures showed that the surface temperature and relative humidity are predicted well in all three simulations, with index of agreement (IOA) higher than 0.94 and 0.70 correspondingly, in all monitoring sites, while an overprediction of extreme low temperature values is noted, with mountain altitudes to have an important role. However, the results also showed that the model's performance is related to the configuration regarding the wind. TAPM default dataset predicted better the wind variables in the center of the simulation than in the boundaries, while improvement in the boundary horizontal winds implied the performance of TAPM with updated land use. TAPM assimilation predicted the wind variables fairly good in the whole domain with IOA higher than 0.83 for the wind speed and higher than 0.85 for the horizontal wind components. Finally, the SO2 concentrations were assessed by the model with IOA varied from 0

  1. The potential vulnerability of the Namib and Nama Aquifers due to low recharge levels in the area surrounding the Naukluft Mountains, SW Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambinda, Winnie N.; Mapani, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    The Naukluft Mountains in the Namib Desert are a high rainfall-high discharge area. It sees increased stream-, spring-flow as well as waterfalls during the rainy season. The mountains are a major resource for additional recharge to the Namib and Nama aquifers that are adjacent to the mountains. This paper aimed to highlight the potential vulnerability of the aquifers that surround the Naukluft Mountain area; if the strategic importance of the Naukluft Karst Aquifer (NKA) for bulk water supply becomes necessary. Chloride Mass Balance Method (CMBM) was applied to estimate rainfall available for recharge as well as actual recharge thereof. This was applied using chloride concentration in precipitation, borehole and spring samples collected from the study area. Groundwater flow patterns were mapped from hydraulic head values. A 2D digital elevation model was developed using Arc-GIS. Results highlighted the influence of the NKA on regional groundwater flow. This paper found that groundwater flow was controlled by structural dip and elevation. Groundwater was observed to flow predominantly from the NKA to the south west towards the Namib Aquifer in two distinct flow patterns that separate at the center of the NKA. A distinct groundwater divide was defined between the two flow patterns. A minor flow pattern from the northern parts of the NKA to the north east towards the Nama Aquifer was validated. Due to the substantial water losses, the NKA is not a typical karst aquifer. While the project area receives an average rainfall of 170.36 mm/a, it was estimated that 1-14.24% (maximum 24.43 mm/a) rainfall was available for recharge to the NKA. Actual recharge to the NKA was estimated to be less than 1-18.21% (maximum 4.45 mm/a) reflecting the vast losses incurred by the NKA via discharge. This paper concluded that groundwater resources of the NKA were potentially finite. The possibility of developing the aquifer for bulk water supply would therefore drastically lower recharge

  2. Groundwater regimes and isotopic studies, Ranger mine area, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Green, D C

    1986-12-01

    Three types of groundwater occur in the area of the Ranger mine. Type A groundwater occurs in the loose sands and gravels occupying the present day stream channels, Type B in the weathering profile and Type C occurs in relatively fresh fractured bedrock occupying open fractures and other cavities. The three types of groundwater can be distinguished both chemically and isotopically. Light stable isotope data suggest that most early rains are lost by evapotranspiration and have no imprint on the groundwater. Later in the wet season, the ground is saturated and groundwater recharge occurs on a regional scale. This younger groundwater sits on the older waters. Mixing is probably minimal as before any large scale mixing could occur, most younger waters are lost by evapotranspiration. Stable isotope data suggest that Type B groundwater in certain areas has some connection with evaporated surface water bodies. Stable isotope measurements for the pollution monitoring bores around the tailings dam do not indicate any connection with the polluted pond waters at the time of sample collection.

  3. Some geophysical and geological studies of the Tanzawa Mountains. [Nakagawa Hot Spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minakami, T; Matsuda, T; Hiraga, S; Horai, K I; Sugita, M

    1964-11-01

    Joints and zeolite-veins in both metamorphic rocks and quartz diorite exposed along the Nakagawa River were studied. Fractures with zeolite-veins are most developed in three areas, the Nakagawa hot spring area, Hokizawa, and Higashizawa. They follow two prevailing directions: N--S with minor right-lateral displacement and N60/sup 0/E with minor left-lateral displacement. The two fractures should represent a conjugate set that was produced by stress with maximum principal axis of N30/sup 0/E-S30/sup 0/W. Distribution and prevailing directions of fractures are illustrated. Geothermal gradients are measured in two newly opened boreholes, at the Nakagawa hot spring area and Higashizawa. The geothermal gradients are 12.60 +- 0.48/sup 0/C/100m at the Nakagawa hot spring and 5.55 +- 0.24/sup 0/C/100m at Higashizawa. Temperature-depth relationships in the two boreholes are given. Seismic observation was made at the Higashizawa. In five days 43 shocks were recorded, of which 20 are thought to have occurred 2 to 20km from the observation station, that is, in and very near the Tanzawa mountains. None have shallower hypocenters than 2 km in depth.

  4. Assessing wildfire exposure in the Wildland-Urban Interface area of the mountains of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argañaraz, J P; Radeloff, V C; Bar-Massada, A; Gavier-Pizarro, G I; Scavuzzo, C M; Bellis, L M

    2017-07-01

    Wildfires are a major threat to people and property in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) communities worldwide, but while the patterns of the WUI in North America, Europe and Oceania have been studied before, this is not the case in Latin America. Our goals were to a) map WUI areas in central Argentina, and b) assess wildfire exposure for WUI communities in relation to historic fires, with special emphasis on large fires and estimated burn probability based on an empirical model. We mapped the WUI in the mountains of central Argentina (810,000 ha), after digitizing the location of 276,700 buildings and deriving vegetation maps from satellite imagery. The areas where houses and wildland vegetation intermingle were classified as Intermix WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km 2 and wildland vegetation cover > 50%), and the areas where wildland vegetation abuts settlements were classified as Interface WUI (housing density > 6.17 hu/km 2 , wildland vegetation cover planning aimed at reducing wildfire risk in WUI communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geographic, geologic, and hydrologic summaries of intermontane basins of the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendy, Eloise; Tresch, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report combines a literature review with new information to provide summaries of the geography, geology, and hydrology of each of 32 intermontane basins in western Montana. The summary of each intermontane basin includes concise descriptions of topography, areal extent, altitude, climate, 1990 population, land and water use, geology, surface water, aquifer hydraulic characteristics, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality. If present, geothermal features are described. Average annual and monthly temperature and precipitation are reported from one National Weather Service station in each basin. Streamflow data, including the drainage area, period of record, and average, minimum, and maximum historical streamflow, are reported for all active and discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging stations in each basin. Monitoring-well data, including the well depth, aquifer, period of record, and minimum and maximum historical water levels, are reported for all long-term USGS monitoring wells in each basin. Brief descriptions of geologic, geophysical, and potentiometric- surface maps available for each basin also are included. The summary for each basin also includes a bibliography of hydrogeologic literature. When used alone or in conjunction with regional RASA reports, this report provides a practical starting point for site-specific hydrogeologic investigations.

  6. Analysis of turbulence characteristics over the northern Tibetan Plateau area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. S.; Ma, Y. M.; Ma, W. Q.; Hu, Z. Y.; Ishikawa, H.; Su, Z. B.; Sun, G. L.

    2006-07-01

    Based on CATOP/Tibet [Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP) Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CA-IMP) on the Tibetan Plateau) turbulent data collected at the Bujiao (BJ) site of the Nagqu area, the turbulent structure and transportation characteristics in the near surface layer during summer are analyzed. The main results show that the relationship between the normalized standard deviation of 3D wind speed and stability satisfies the similarity law tinder both unstable and stable stratifications. The relations of normalized standard deviation of temperature and specific humidity to stability only obey the "-1/3 power law." tinder unstable conditions. In the case of stable stratifications, their relations to stability are dispersing. The sensible heat dominates in the dry period, while in the wet period, the latent heat is larger than the sensible heat.

  7. Erosion and Sedimentation from the Bagley Fire, Eastern Klamath Mountains, Northern CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente, J. A.; Bachmann, S.; Mai, C.; Mikulovsky, R.; Mondry, Z. J.; Rust, B.; Young, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Bagley Fire burned about 19,000 hectares on the Shasta-Trinity National Forest in the late summer of 2012, with soil burn severities of 11% high, 19% moderate and 48% low. Two strong storms in November and December followed the fire. The first storm had a recurrence interval of about 2 years, and generated runoff with a return interval of 10-25 years, causing many road stream crossing failures in parts of the fire. The second storm had a recurrence interval of 25-50 years, and initiated more severe erosion throughout the fire area. Erosional processes were dominated by sheet, rill and gully erosion, and landslides were uncommon. A model predicted high potential for debris flows, but few were documented, and though most stream channels exhibited fresh scour and deposition, residual deposits lacked boulder levees or other evidence of debris flow. Rather, deposits were stratified and friable, suggesting a sediment laden flood flow rather than debris flow origin. The resulting sediment was rich in gravel and finer particles, and poor in larger rock. Soil loss was estimated at 0.5-5.6 cm on most hillslopes. A high resolution DEM (LiDAR) was used to measure gullies, small landslides, and stream scour, and also to estimate sedimentation in Squaw Creek, and Shasta Lake. A soil erosion model was used to estimate surface erosion. Total erosion in the Squaw Creek watershed was estimated at 2.24 million metric tons, which equates to 260 metric tons/hectare. Of this, about 0.89 million metric tons were delivered to the stream system (103 metric tons/hectare). Nearly half of this sediment, 0.41 million metric tons, was temporarily stored in the Squaw Creek channel, and around 0.33 million metric tons of fine sediment were carried into Shasta Lake. Squaw Creek also delivered about 0.17 million metric tons of sand, gravel and cobbles to the lake. This estimate is very tenuous, and was made by measuring the volume of a delta in Shasta Lake from a tributary to Squaw Creek and

  8. Automated Monitoring of Carbon Fluxes in a Northern Rocky Mountain Forest Indicates Above-Average Net Primary Productivity During the 2015 Western U.S. Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, J.; Hudiburg, T. W.

    2016-12-01

    As global temperatures rise in the 21st century, "hotter" droughts will become more intense and persistent, particularly in areas which already experience seasonal drought. Because forests represent a large and persistent terrestrial carbon sink which has previously offset a significant proportion of anthropogenic carbon emissions, forest carbon cycle responses to drought have become a prominent research concern. However, robust mechanistic modeling of carbon balance responses to projected drought effects requires improved observation-driven representations of carbon cycle processes; many such component processes are rarely monitored in complex terrain, are modeled or unrepresented quantities at eddy covariance sites, or are monitored at course temporal scales that are not conducive to elucidating process responses at process time scales. In the present study, we demonstrate the use of newly available and affordable automated dendrometers for the estimation of intra-seasonal Net Primary Productivity (NPP) in a Northern Rocky Mountain conifer forest which is impacted by seasonal drought. Results from our pilot study suggest that NPP was restricted by mid-summer moisture deficit under the extraordinary 2015 Western U.S. drought, with greater than 90% off stand growth occurring prior to August. Examination of growth on an inter-annual scale, however, suggests that the study site experienced above-average NPP during this exceptionally hot year. Taken together, these findings indicate that intensifying mid-summer drought in regional forests has affected the timing but has not diminished the magnitude of this carbon flux. By employing automated instrumentation for the intra-annual assessment of NPP, we reveal that annual NPP in regional forests is largely determined before mid-summer and is therefore surprisingly resilient to intensities of seasonal drought that exceed normal conditions of the 20th century.

  9. Summer atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban and rural areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chen; Li Wei; Chen Jiwei; Wang Hongqijie; Li Tongchao; Shen Guofeng; Shen Huizhong; Huang Ye; Wang Rong; Wang Bin; Zhang Yanyan; Tang Jianhui; Liu Wenxin; Wang Xilong; Tao Shu

    2012-01-01

    High levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been extensively reported in urban areas and at e-waste recycling sites in coastal China. However, data are scarce in northern China and are not available in rural areas at all. In addition, it is often believed that air concentrations in rural areas are lower than those in urban areas without distinguishing rural residential areas and open fields. In this study, air samples were collected at 17 sites covering urban and rural (residential and open field) areas in northern China using active samplers. With BDE-209 dominated in all congeners, the average concentrations of BDE-209 (41 ± 72 pg/m 3 ) and other 13 PBDEs (16 ± 12 pg/m 3 ) were significantly lower than those found in south China, such as in Guangzhou or Hong Kong. On average, the total PBDE concentrations at the urban sites were 2.2 and 2.9 times of those at the rural residential and field sites, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Concentration of PBDEs at each site of the studied area. Highlights: ► High levels of PBDEs with BDE-209 domination were detected in air in northern China. ► PBDE concentrations in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in rural open fields. ► Proportions of BDE-209 in urban areas were higher than those in rural areas. ► PBDE concentrations were correlated to local population density and Gross Domestic Production. - In northern China, PBDEs in air in rural residential areas were significantly higher than those in open fields.

  10. Composition of Solid Waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a Mountain Region Undergoing Rapid Urbanization in Northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the generation and composition of waste in rural areas worldwide. The present study analyzed the composition of solid waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a rural mountain region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is presently experiencing a rapid rate of urbanization due to tourism development. The solid wastes here are generated by the municipality collecting waste from residential, commercial, institutional and recreational areas, the military from a training camp and a few non-governmental private companies from their camps and hotels. The whole load from each of the three sources was manually segregated each month from June 2013 – May 2014. The results indicated that plastic is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the municipality and accounts for 26.7%, followed by paper (17.9% and then food (14.4%. Food is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the military and private companies and accounts for 36.5% and 45.5% respectively. Management issues associated with solid waste are briefly considered. The study concluded that the municipality should implement an improved system for the collection of plastic waste and initiate a system for recycling it; the military and private companies should reduce the quantities of food waste by improved planning and management of the catering services.

  11. Estimating aboveground tree biomass for beetle-killed lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Paul Evangelista; Nathaniel Anderson; Anthony Vorster; Hee Han; Krishna Poudel; Robert Sturtevant

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has affected millions of hectares of conifer forests in the Rocky Mountains. Land managers are interested in using biomass from beetle-killed trees for bioenergy and biobased products, but they lack adequate information to accurately estimate biomass in stands with heavy mortality. We...

  12. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  13. [Applications of 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in landscape pattern analysis of mountainous area at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chao; Qi, Wei; Li, Le; Sun, Yao; Qin, Tian-Tian; Wang, Na-Na

    2012-05-01

    Landscape pattern indices are the commonly used tools for the quantitative analysis of landscape pattern. However, the traditional 2D landscape pattern indices neglect the effects of terrain on landscape, existing definite limitations in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns in mountains areas. Taking the Qixia City, a typical mountainous and hilly region in Shandong Province of East China, as a case, this paper compared the differences between 2D and 3D landscape pattern indices in quantitatively describing the landscape patterns and their dynamic changes in mountainous areas. On the basis of terrain structure analysis, a set of landscape pattern indices were selected, including area and density (class area and mean patch size), edge and shape (edge density, landscape shape index, and fractal dimension of mean patch), diversity (Shannon's diversity index and evenness index) , and gathering and spread (contagion index). There existed obvious differences between the 3D class area, mean patch area, and edge density and the corresponding 2D indices, but no significant differences between the 3D landscape shape index, fractal dimension of mean patch, and Shannon' s diversity index and evenness index and the corresponding 2D indices. The 3D contagion index and 2D contagion index had no difference. Because the 3D landscape pattern indices were calculated by using patch surface area and surface perimeter whereas the 2D landscape pattern indices were calculated by adopting patch projective area and projective perimeter, the 3D landscape pattern indices could be relative accurate and efficient in describing the landscape area, density and borderline, in mountainous areas. However, there were no distinct differences in describing landscape shape, diversity, and gathering and spread between the 3D and 2D landscape pattern indices. Generally, by introducing 3D landscape pattern indices to topographic pattern, the description of landscape pattern and its dynamic

  14. Topography and Data Mining Based Methods for Improving Satellite Precipitation in Mountainous Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Topography is a significant factor influencing the spatial distribution of precipitation. This study developed a new methodology to evaluate and calibrate the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA products by merging geographic and topographic information. In the proposed method, firstly, the consistency rule was introduced to evaluate the fitness of satellite rainfall with measurements on the grids with and without ground gauges. Secondly, in order to improve the consistency rate of satellite rainfall, genetic programming was introduced to mine the relationship between the gauge rainfall and location, elevation and TMPA rainfall. The proof experiment and analysis for the mean annual satellite precipitation from 2001–2012, 3B43 (V7 of TMPA rainfall product, was carried out in eight mountainous areas of China. The result shows that the proposed method is significant and efficient both for the assessment and improvement of satellite precipitation. It is found that the satellite rainfall consistency rates in the gauged and ungauged grids are different in the study area. In addition, the mined correlation of location-elevation-TMPA rainfall can noticeably improve the satellite precipitation, both in the context of the new criterion of the consistency rate and the existing criteria such as Bias and RMSD. The proposed method is also efficient for correcting the monthly and mean monthly rainfall of 3B43 and 3B42RT.

  15. Analyzing Spatial Behavior of Backcountry Skiers in Mountain Protected Areas Combining GPS Tracking and Graph Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Taczanowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mountain protected areas (PAs aim to preserve vulnerable environments and at the same time encourage numerous outdoor leisure activities. Understanding the way people use natural environments is crucial to balance the needs of visitors and site capacities. This study aims to develop an approach to evaluate the structure and use of designated skiing zones in PAs combining Global Positioning System (GPS tracking and analytical methods based on graph theory. The study is based on empirical data (n = 609 GPS tracks of backcountry skiers collected in Tatra National Park (TNP, Poland. The physical structure of the entire skiing zones system has been simplified into a graph structure (structural network; undirected graph. In a second step, the actual use of the area by skiers (functional network; directed graph was analyzed using a graph-theoretic approach. Network coherence (connectivity indices: β, γ, α, movement directions at path segments, and relative importance of network nodes (node centrality measures: degree, betweenness, closeness, and proximity prestige were calculated. The system of designated backcountry skiing zones was not evenly used by the visitors. Therefore, the calculated parameters differ significantly between the structural and the functional network. In particular, measures related to the actually used trails are of high importance from the management point of view. Information about the most important node locations can be used for planning sign-posts, on-site maps, interpretative boards, or other tourist infrastructure.

  16. Use of digital Munsell color space to assist interretation of imaging spectrometer data: Geologic examples from the northern Grapevine Mountains, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, F. A.; Knepper, D. H., Jr.; Clark, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques using Munsell color transformations were developed for reducing 128 channels (or less) of Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data to a single color-composite-image suitable for both visual interpretation and digital analysis. Using AIS data acquired in 1984 and 1985, limestone and dolomite roof pendants and sericite-illite and other clay minerals related to alteration were mapped in a quartz monzonite stock in the northern Grapevine Mountains of California and Nevada. Field studies and laboratory spectral measurements verify the mineralogical distributions mapped from the AIS data.

  17. Integrating Extensive Livestock and Soil Conservation Policies in Mediterranean Mountain Areas for Recovery of Abandoned Lands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. A Long-Term Research Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2018-01-01

    Land abandonment is a global issue with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Abandoned Mediterranean croplands start a process of secondary succession that is initially colonized by grasslands, shrubs and forest. In Mediterranean mountain areas, the process is very slow, so the

  18. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-20

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  19. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic radiative forcing to mass loss of Northern Hemisphere mountain glaciers and quantifying their uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Nakano, Kazunari; Zhang, Yong; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanoue, Masahiro; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2016-07-01

    Observational evidence indicates that a number of glaciers have lost mass in the past. Given that glaciers are highly impacted by the surrounding climate, human-influenced global warming may be partly responsible for mass loss. However, previous research studies have been limited to analyzing the past several decades, and it remains unclear whether past glacier mass losses are within the range of natural internal climate variability. Here, we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to observed and reconstructed mass losses as well as multi-model general circulation model (GCM) simulations of mountain glacier mass to detect and attribute past glacier mass changes. An 8,800-year control simulation of glaciers enabled us to evaluate detectability. The results indicate that human-induced increases in greenhouse gases have contributed to the decreased area-weighted average masses of 85 analyzed glaciers. The effect was larger than the mass increase caused by natural forcing, although the contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to decreases in mass varied at the local scale. We also showed that the detection of anthropogenic or natural influences could not be fully attributed when natural internal climate variability was taken into account.

  20. Ecological restoration and recovery in the wind-blown sand hazard areas of northern China: relationship between soil water and carrying capacity for vegetation in the Tengger Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, XingRong; Zhang, ZhiShan; Tan, HuiJuan; Gao, YanHong; Liu, LiChao; Wang, XingPing

    2014-05-01

    The main prevention and control area for wind-blown sand hazards in northern China is about 320000 km(2) in size and includes sandlands to the east of the Helan Mountain and sandy deserts and desert-steppe transitional regions to the west of the Helan Mountain. Vegetation recovery and restoration is an important and effective approach for constraining wind-blown sand hazards in these areas. After more than 50 years of long-term ecological studies in the Shapotou region of the Tengger Desert, we found that revegetation changed the hydrological processes of the original sand dune system through the utilization and space-time redistribution of soil water. The spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water was significantly related to the dynamics of the replanted vegetation for a given regional precipitation condition. The long-term changes in hydrological processes in desert areas also drive replanted vegetation succession. The soil water carrying capacity of vegetation and the model for sand fixation by revegetation in aeolian desert areas where precipitation levels are less than 200 mm are also discussed.

  1. Forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using general model-based decomposition for polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nghia Pham; Zou, Bin; Cai, Hongjun; Wang, Chengyi

    2014-01-01

    The estimation of forest parameters over mountain forest areas using polarimetric interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PolInSAR) images is one of the greatest interests in remote sensing applications. For mountain forest areas, scattering mechanisms are strongly affected by the ground topography variations. Most of the previous studies in modeling microwave backscattering signatures of forest area have been carried out over relatively flat areas. Therefore, a new algorithm for the forest height estimation from mountain forest areas using the general model-based decomposition (GMBD) for PolInSAR image is proposed. This algorithm enables the retrieval of not only the forest parameters, but also the magnitude associated with each mechanism. In addition, general double- and single-bounce scattering models are proposed to fit for the cross-polarization and off-diagonal term by separating their independent orientation angle, which remains unachieved in the previous model-based decompositions. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated with simulated data from PolSARProSim software and ALOS-PALSAR spaceborne PolInSAR datasets over the Kalimantan areas, Indonesia. Experimental results indicate that forest height could be effectively estimated by GMBD.

  2. Geomorphology, denudation rates, and stream channel profiles reveal patterns of mountain building adjacent to the San Andreas fault in northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Stephen B.; Hilley, George E.; Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Yokelson, Intan N.

    2017-01-01

    Relative horizontal motion along strike-slip faults can build mountains when motion is oblique to the trend of the strike-slip boundary. The resulting contraction and uplift pose off-fault seismic hazards, which are often difficult to detect because of the poor vertical resolution of satellite geodesy and difficulty of locating offset datable landforms in active mountain ranges. Sparse geomorphic markers, topographic analyses, and measurement of denudation allow us to map spatiotemporal patterns of uplift along the northern San Andreas fault. Between Jenner and Mendocino, California, emergent marine terraces found southwest of the San Andreas fault record late Pleistocene uplift rates between 0.20 and 0.45 mm yr–1 along much of the coast. However, on the northeast side of the San Andreas fault, a zone of rapid uplift (0.6–1.0 mm yr–1) exists adjacent to the San Andreas fault, but rates decay northeastward as the coast becomes more distant from the San Andreas fault. A newly dated 4.5 Ma shallow-marine deposit located at ∼500 m above sea level (masl) adjacent to the San Andreas fault is warped down to just 150 masl 15 km northeast of the San Andreas fault, and it is exposed at just 60–110 masl to the west of the fault. Landscape denudation rates calculated from abundance of cosmogenic radionuclides in fluvial sediment northeast of, and adjacent to, the San Andreas fault are 0.16–0.29 mm yr–1, but they are only 0.03–0.07 mm yr–1 west of the fault. Basin-average channel steepness and the denudation rates can be used to infer the erosive properties of the underlying bedrock. Calibrated erosion rates can then be estimated across the entire landscape using the spatial distribution of channel steepness with these erosive properties. The lower-elevation areas of this landscape that show high channel steepness (and hence calibrated erosion rate) are distinct from higher-elevation areas with systematically lower channel steepness and denudation rates

  3. Research regarding agro-tourism stage in Apuseni Mountains area and capitalize of traditional products through this

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Most studies have shown that rural tourism combined with rural resources and traditional products would be an important "tool" for revitalizing the rural economy, and that they should be essential components of the rural economy development strategy, desirable goal for Apuseni Mountains. A great part of the localities from this area are great keeper of traditions. If on the customs and traditions we put the mountain natural resources and specific traditional products results a valuable tourist product that could local increase revenue and attract young people in rural areas. Many rural areas have a potentially remarkable natural and cultural history, and those who developed the required tourist infrastructure (boarding/private farms, and realized tourist opportunity and have used it with success.

  4. Joint use of multi-orbit high-resolution SAR interferometry for DEM generation in mountainous area

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Houjun; Liao, Mingsheng; Balz, Timo; Wang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    SAR interferometry has long been regarded as an effective tool for wide-area topographic mapping in hilly and mountainous areas. However, quality of InSAR DEM product is usually affected by atmospheric disturbances and decorrelation-induced voids, especially for data acquired in repeat-pass mode. In this paper, we proposed an approach for improved topographic mapping by optimal fusion of multi-orbit InSAR DEMs with correction of atmospheric phase screen (APS). An experimental study with highresolution TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed datasets covering a mountainous area was carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Validation with a reference DEM of scale 1:50,000 indicated that vertical accuracy of the fused DEM can be better than 5 m.

  5. Joint use of multi-orbit high-resolution SAR interferometry for DEM generation in mountainous area

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lu

    2014-07-01

    SAR interferometry has long been regarded as an effective tool for wide-area topographic mapping in hilly and mountainous areas. However, quality of InSAR DEM product is usually affected by atmospheric disturbances and decorrelation-induced voids, especially for data acquired in repeat-pass mode. In this paper, we proposed an approach for improved topographic mapping by optimal fusion of multi-orbit InSAR DEMs with correction of atmospheric phase screen (APS). An experimental study with highresolution TerraSAR-X and COSMO-SkyMed datasets covering a mountainous area was carried out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Validation with a reference DEM of scale 1:50,000 indicated that vertical accuracy of the fused DEM can be better than 5 m.

  6. Environmental assessment overview, Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendations of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 3 figs

  7. Livestock system as a mitigation measure of a wind farm in a mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoniotto Guidobono Cavalchini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns a mountain territory, bordering Liguria, Piemonte, Lombardia and Emilia, where a high power 151 MW wind farm, with 42 tower of 3.6 MW power, has been proposed. As a measure of environmental mitigation, the realization of a livestock system of a herd of sucker cows pasturing in the wind farm areas is proposed. This has implications for environmental maintenance, employment in a territory gradually losing its population, and for tourism. The study, having focused on those aspects that reduce landscape impact and carrying out an analysis of the individual areas to evaluate forage resources and the different pastoral indexes, identifies the maximum sustainable load of animals (335 UBA/ha in the current conditions of neglect. So, some measures to improve and increase sustainable herds have been proposed and examined. The operations include: stone removal; light harrowing; overseeding; creation of fodder reserves for periods of shortage; and grazing will be managed by taking turns. Based on the results of two other studies, both previous tests carried out on site, encourage us to think that we will be able to increase the maximum sustainable seasonal load for the current situation by more than 50%. This means a herd of 500 UBA equal to a gross PLV, for the grazing period of 180 days, of 400,000 and so guarantee an adequate income to 3-4 UL (labor unit, and of 650,000/year in case the chain is completed during the winter months in structures located in the valley. In this case, the PLV obtained could assure income to 6-7 employees, which would be extremely important for the socio-economic conditions of the valley; in consideration of the induced activities- meat processing, marketing and tourism facilities- which could be made available. Experimental tests of the technical improvements described will be carried out in the next season.

  8. Role of New Nature Reserve in Assisting Endangered Species Conservation - Case Study of Giant Pandas in the Northern Qionglai Mountains, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Pei Guan

    Full Text Available The creation of nature reserves is the most direct way to save endangered species populations and their habitat. Development of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca nature reserve network in China was initiated in the 1960s, though the effort to create new reserves boomed considerably after the year 2000. Given this rapid development of protected areas in panda habitats, and the potential conflicting interests between conservation administrations and local economic development, it is essential to assess the role of new nature reserves in the overall giant panda conservation effort and reserve network. We utilized data from national giant panda surveys conducted in 2000 and 2012 to compare the size, spatial use, and distribution of panda populations, as well as the habitat suitability and connectivity in the Northern Qionglai Mountains between the two survey years. Our results show that although the total giant panda population in the study area did not change remarkably, local changes did occur. Most notably, the population in Wolong Nature Reserve declined by 27.3% (N = 39 and the population in Caopo Nature Reserve increased by 71.4% (N = 29 over the 12-year study period. We also found habitat suitability and availability decreased in both Wolong (12.4% and Caopo (7.4%, but that the relative density of giant pandas declined (19.2% and increased (84.6% at each site, respectively. The distance between centers of high IUA were more distant in 2012 (14.1±1.9km than that in 2000 (6.1±0.9km; t = -7.4, df = 5, p = 0.001, showing a scattered spatial pattern. Habitat availability decreased by 42% within the corridor between the two reserves, however panda occurrences in the corridor increased 24.6%. Compared to the total number of encounters, the proportion of the corridor increased 45.76%. Our results show the importance and success of the newly established Caopo to the conservation of giant pandas, and how crucial it is to identify and repair

  9. Precision and accuracy of manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, 1988--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Water-level measurements have been made in deep boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada, since 1983 in support of the US Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain Project, which is an evaluation of the area to determine its suit-ability as a potential storage area for high-level nuclear waste. Water-level measurements were taken either manually, using various water-level measuring equipment such as steel tapes, or they were taken continuously, using automated data recorders and pressure transducers. This report presents precision range and accuracy data established for manual water-level measurements taken in the Yucca Mountain area, 1988--90

  10. Atmospheric mercury in Changbai Mountain area, northeastern China II. The distribution of reactive gaseous mercury and particulate mercury and mercury deposition fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qi; Feng, Xinbin; Lu, Julia; Zheng, Wei; Song, Xinjie; Li, Ping; Han, Shijie; Xu, Hao

    2009-08-01

    Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particulate mercury (Hgp) concentrations in ambient air from a remote site at Changbai Mountain area in northeastern China were intermittently monitored from August 2005 to July 2006 totaling 93 days representing fall, winter-spring and summer season, respectively. Rainwater and snow samples were collected during a whole year, and total mercury (THg) in rain samples were used to calculate wet depositional flux. A throughfall method and a model method were used to estimate dry depositional flux. Results showed mean concentrations of RGM and Hgp are 65 and 77 pg m(-3). Compared to background concentrations of atmospheric mercury species in Northern Hemisphere, RGM and Hgp are significantly elevated in Changbai area. Large values for standard deviation indicated fast reactivity and a low residence time for these mercury species. Seasonal variability is also important, with lower mercury levels in summer compared to other seasons, which is attributed to scavenging by rainfall and low local mercury emissions in summer. THg concentrations ranged from 11.5 to 15.9 ng L(-1) in rainwater samples and 14.9-18.6 ng L(-1) in throughfall samples. Wet depositional flux in Changbai area is calculated to be 8.4 microg m(-2) a(-1), and dry deposition flux is estimated to be 16.5 microg m(-2) a(-1) according to a throughfall method and 20.2 microg m(-2) a(-1) using a model method.

  11. Metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial strains isolated from northern areas of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaheer, A.; Latif, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere plays a key role in the maintenance of sustainable agricultural system. In this study, samples were obtained from northern areas of Pakistan. Thirty bacterial strains were isolated, purified, characterized biochemically and subjected to the metabolic fingerprinting by performing nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, protease, indole acetic acid (IAA) production, antibiotic susceptibility and heavy metal resistance test, lead acetate assay for the H2S production. Strains showing distinct characteristics were further characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and characterized as Bacillus pumilus (KT273321), Acinetobacter baumanii (KT273323), Acinetobacter junii (KT273324), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KT273325), Bacillus circulans (KT273326) and Bacillus cereus (KT273327). As most of the strains show positive results for resistance against heavy metals, phosphate solubilization, nitrogen fixation, IAA production, and so these strains might be utilized for the removal of heavy metals from the ecosystem as well as biofertilizer in agriculture lands of northern areas. (author)

  12. Endophytic fungi associated with Ziziphus species from mountainous area of Oman and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAIFELDIN A.F. EL-NAGERABI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El-Nagerabi SAF, Elshafie AE, AlKhanjari SS. 2013. Endophytic fungi associated with Ziziphus species from mountainous area of Oman and new records. Biodiversitas 14: 10-16. Ziziphus species of the family Rhamnaceae grow extensively in arid and semi-arid regions. It is possible that the endophytic fungi associated with this plant might enhance the host resistance to the environmental impacts. The endophytic fungal population inhabiting the healthy leaves of Z. spina-christi and Z. hajanensis plants were determined from April 2008 to October 2011. The endophytic fungal communities varied between the two species, and 45 fungal species, 18 sterile mycelia and 12 yeasts were isolated from Z. spina-christi, whereas 35 fungi, 11 sterile mycelia and 5 yeasts were recovered from Z. hajanensis indicating tissue and species-specificity and without any seasonal variation among the endophytes. These endophytes are new to Ziziphus plants and 45 species are new to the mycoflora of Oman, whereas 27 species are new to Arabian Peninsula. The genus Alternaria was the most prevalent (19-81% followed by Aspergillus (19-78%, Rhizopus stolonifer (78%, Mycelia sterilia (69%, yeasts (47%, Cladosporium (11-56%, Drechslera (14-53%, Curvularia (8-50%, Fusarium (6-33%, Ulocladium (41-31%, Penicillium (3-22%, Alysidium resine (11%, Trichocladium (6-11%, Anguillospora longissima, Bactrodesmium rahmii, Catenularia (8%, Helminthosporium sorghi (7%, Dendryphiella infuscans (6%, Hansfordia biophila (3-6%, Arthrinium, Dissophora, and Phoma sorghina (3%. The recovery of many fungal isolates, morphologically various sterile mycelia and yeasts suggests the high biodiversity of the endophytes invading these plants with strong evidence for future isolation of numerous fungal species through adopting more advanced molecular and DNA identification methods.

  13. Analysis of microseismic signals and temperature recordings for rock slope stability investigations in high mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Occhiena

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The permafrost degradation is a probable cause for the increase of rock instabilities and rock falls observed in recent years in high mountain areas, particularly in the Alpine region. The phenomenon causes the thaw of the ice filling rock discontinuities; the water deriving from it subsequently freezes again inducing stresses in the rock mass that may lead, in the long term, to rock falls. To investigate these processes, a monitoring system composed by geophones and thermometers was installed in 2007 at the Carrel hut (3829 m a.s.l., Matterhorn, NW Alps. In 2010, in the framework of the Interreg 2007–2013 Alcotra project no. 56 MASSA, the monitoring system has been empowered and renovated in order to meet project needs.

    In this paper, the data recorded by this renewed system between 6 October 2010 and 5 October 2011 are presented and 329 selected microseismic events are analysed. The data processing has concerned the classification of the recorded signals, the analysis of their distribution in time and the identification of the most important trace characteristics in time and frequency domain. The interpretation of the results has evidenced a possible correlation between the temperature trend and the event occurrence.

    The research is still in progress and the data recording and interpretation are planned for a longer period to better investigate the spatial-temporal distribution of microseismic activity in the rock mass, with specific attention to the relation of microseismic activity with temperatures. The overall goal is to verify the possibility to set up an effective monitoring system for investigating the stability of a rock mass under permafrost conditions, in order to supply the researchers with useful data to better understand the relationship between temperature and rock mass stability and, possibly, the technicians with a valid tool for decision-making.

  14. Final Program Report for 2010-2012: Monitoring and evaluation for conserving biological resources of the Spring Mountains National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen J. Solem; Burton K. Pendleton; Casey Giffen; Marc Coles-Ritchie; Jeri Ledbetter; Kevin S. McKelvey; Joy Berg; Jim Menlove; Carly K. Woodlief; Luke A. Boehnke

    2013-01-01

    The Spring Mountains National Recreation Area (SMNRA) includes approximately 316,000 acres of National Forest System (NFS) lands managed by the Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest in Clark and Nye Counties, Nevada (see fig. 1-1). The Spring Mountains have long been recognized as an island of endemism, harboring flora and fauna found nowhere else in the world. Conservation...

  15. How much are the protected areas worth to the tourism sector? Maramureş mountains case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Popa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available : This paper is a starting point for communicating information that proves that biodiversity and ecosystem services can be priced and have a market in the tourism sector. The data were collected and interpreted starting from a baseline situation and value; business as usual (BAU and sustainable ecosystem management (SEM scenarios applied on Maramureş Mountains Natural Park bring the idea of additional value added by SEM. Thus, the paper is supporting the funding decision of protected areas management.

  16. The characteristics of heat flow in the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Wan, Zhifeng; Wang, Xianqing; Sun, Yuefeng; Xia, Bin

    2016-12-01

    Marine heat flow is of great significance for the formation and occurrence of seabed oil, gas and gas hydrate resources. Geothermal gradient is an important parameter in determining the thickness of the hydrate stability zone. The northern slope of the South China Sea is rich in gas hydrate resources. Several borehole drilling attempts were successful in finding hydrates in the Shenhu area, while others were not. The failures demand further study on the distribution regularities of heat flow and its controlling effects on hydrate occurrence. In this study, forty-eight heat flow measurements are analyzed in the Shenhu gas hydrate drilling area, located in the northern South China Sea, together with their relationship to topography, sedimentary environment and tectonic setting. Canyons are well developed in the study area, caused mainly by the development of faults, faster sediment supply and slumping of the Pearl River Estuary since the late Miocene in the northern South China Sea. The heat flow values in grooves, occurring always in fault zones, are higher than those of ridges. Additionally, the heat flow values gradually increase from the inner fan, to the middle fan, to the external fan subfacies. The locations with low heat flow such as ridges, locations away from faults and the middle fan subfacies, are more conducive to gas hydrate occurrence.

  17. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  18. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  19. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  20. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2–0.3 Bq/L and 2–7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1–0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below

  1. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2-0.3 Bq/L and 2-7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1-0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below the

  2. Petrogenesis of Cretaceous shoshonitic rocks in the northern Wuyi Mountains, South China: A result of the roll-back of a flat-slab?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu-Xian; Li, Xian-Hua; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Potassic magmatism is commonly linked to post-/late-orogenic environments, such as foundering or convection thinning of continental lithosphere. Their petrogenesis is crucial for constraining the chemical and physical properties of the remnant sub-continental lithospheric mantle. Here we report new SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages, whole rock geochemical results and Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotope data from four potassic plutons (the Da'an, Yingcheng, Zixi and Honggong plutons) in the northern Wuyi Mountains, South China. SHRIMP U-Pb zircon analyses indicate that these potassic rocks formed at 139-126 Ma. They are characterized by high SiO2 (56-73%) and K2O (3.8-6.7%), with a K2O/Na2O ratio of 2.18-2.04, plotting within the field of high-SiO2 shoshonites. Their ISr and εNd(t) values vary from 0.7077 to 0.7162 and - 5.66 to - 10.52, respectively. The initial zircon εHf(t) values range from 2.3 to - 13.1, corresponding to TDM modal ages between 707 and 1330 Ma. These geochemical and isotope characteristics indicate that these shoshonites derived from a subduction-modified ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle, and then underwent significantly fractional crystallization of K-feldspar, plagioclase, and accessory minerals, such as apatite and Fe-Ti oxides during magma ascent. We interpret that asthenospheric mantle upwelling (caused by eastward roll-back of a flat-slab?) triggered partial melting of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle to result in the Early Cretaceous shoshonitic magmatism in the northern Wuyi Mountains. An integration of our new results with compiled data from the interior of the South China Block reveals that the arc-like geochemical signature is confined to the Wuyi Mountains region, but becomes little or even invisible toward inland in South China. This implies that the far-field effects of the early Mesozoic subduction only reached the Wuyi Mountains, ca. 500 km away from the trench, consistent with flat or shallow subduction models.

  3. Roost tree selection by northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) maternity colonies following prescribed fire in a Central Appalachian Mountains hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua B. Johnson; John W. Edwards; W. Mark Ford; J. Edward Gates

    2009-01-01

    Following decades of fire suppression in eastern forests, prescribed fire as a tool to restore or enhance oak (Quercus spp.)-dominated communities is gaining widespread acceptance in the Appalachian Mountains and elsewhere. However, the interactions of fire with biotic components such as wildlife that might be impacted by prescribed fire are poorly...

  4. Quality, Safety and Patient Centered Care--A Dream Come True in the Mountains of Northern Pakistan. An Award winning project of "2015 Quality, Safety & Patient Centered Care Award" at, Chicago USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassani, Kashif; Essani, Rozina Roshan; Abbas, Syed Nadeem Husain

    2016-01-01

    Northern Pakistan remains very challenging terrain due to harsh weather all year round presenting an infrastructura, human resource and supply chain challenge of its own. Many times the facility had to move to different locations on emergency and ad hoc basis due to landslides, earthquakes affecting continuity of care. Providing quality healthcare to often resource constraint hard-to-reach areas has always been AKHS,P's unique forte. Breaking barriers for catchment population to access quality healthcare, AKHS,P embarked on an initiative of implementing, achieving and sustaining ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management System international standards certification. This article shares the unique experience of AKHS,P in achieving and sustaining ISO 9001:2008 International Quality Management System Certification. After untiring efforts and the hard work of ground staff; AKHS,P achieved ISO 9001:2008 International Quality Management System Certification as well as 1st Surveillance Audit which itself proved that AKHS,P sustained quality systems and ensured continuous quality improvement in the Mountains of Northern Pakistan.

  5. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water years 1993--94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1996-09-01

    The Yucca Mountain area is being evaluated by the US Department of Energy for its suitability to store high-level nuclear waste in a mined, underground repository. Hydrologic data are being collected by the US Geological Survey throughout a 150 Km{sup 2} study area about 15- Km northwest of Las Vegas in southern Nevada for site characterization studies. Ongoing hydrologic studies are investigating atmospheric precipitation, stream-flow, movement of water through the unsaturated zone, movement of water through the saturated zone, and paleohydrology. This study at Fortymile Wash involves some components of each of these studies. Fortymile Wash is an ephemeral stream near Yucca Mountain with tributaries draining the east side of Yucca Mountain and then forming a distributary system in the Amargosa Desert. An objective of the study is to determine the amount of recharge from Fortymile Wash to the ground-water flow system that has been proposed. Understanding the ground-water flow system is important because it is a possible mechanism for radionuclide migration from the repository to the accessible environment. An adequate understanding of the ground-water flow system is necessary for an evaluation of the safety issues involved in siting the potential repository.

  6. Frequency of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis c antibodies in apparently healthy blood donors in northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, M.; Naeem, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the frequency of HBsAg and anti HCV among the potential blood donors belonging to Northern areas.A total of 8949 apparently healthy blood donors, belonging to Northern areas were screened for HBsAg and anti-HCV by rapid method.Overall sero-positivity of HBsAg was 3.66% and anti-HCV 1.35%. The result indicates that frequency of HBsAg is more than anti-HCV in Northern areas. (author)

  7. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  8. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986-2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to expl...

  9. The tectonic and stratigraphic history of the Cardaño area, Cantabrian mountains, Northwest Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van J.

    1965-01-01

    The Devonian and Carboniferous rock-sequence in the Cantabrian Mountains is developed in two different facies which are separated by an E-W tectonic line, the León Line, and called the Leonide and Palentian facies, respectively to the S and N. The Leonide facies is widely exposed throughout the

  10. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada; Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guideline for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EA), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as of five sites suitable for characterization.

  11. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE`s General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  12. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  13. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada research and development area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guideline for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EA), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that it is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as of five sites suitable for characterization

  14. Environmental assessment: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada as one of nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The site is in the Great Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. To determine their suitability, the Yucca Mountain site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Yucca Mountain site is not disqualified under the guidelines. The DOE has also found that is is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Yucca Mountain site as one of five sites suitable for characterization

  15. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  16. National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

  17. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  18. Oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area (RARE II), Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This map presents an analysis of the oil and gas resources of the Cheat Mountain Further Planning Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  19. Maps showing mines, quarries, prospects, and exposures in the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area, Randolph County, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behum, Paul T.; Hammack, Richard W.

    1981-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine their mineral resource potential. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Cheat Mountain Roadless Area in the Monongahela National Forest, Randolph County, West Virginia. The area was designated as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  20. Do breeding phase and detection distance influence the effective area surveyed for northern goshawks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, A.M.; Andersen, D.E.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    Broadcast surveys using conspecific calls are currently the most effective method for detecting northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) during the breeding season. These surveys typically use alarm calls during the nestling phase and juvenile food-begging calls during the fledgling-dependency phase. Because goshawks are most vocal during the courtship phase, we hypothesized that this phase would be an effective time to detect goshawks. Our objective was to improve current survey methodology by evaluating the probability of detecting goshawks at active nests in northern Minnesota in 3 breeding phases and at 4 broadcast distances and to determine the effective area surveyed per broadcast station. Unlike previous studies, we broadcast calls at only 1 distance per trial. This approach better quantifies (1) the relationship between distance and probability of detection, and (2) the effective area surveyed (EAS) per broadcast station. We conducted 99 broadcast trials at 14 active breeding areas. When pooled over all distances, detection rates were highest during the courtship (70%) and fledgling-dependency phases (68%). Detection rates were lowest during the nestling phase (28%), when there appeared to be higher variation in likelihood of detecting individuals. EAS per broadcast station was 39.8 ha during courtship and 24.8 ha during fledgling-dependency. Consequently, in northern Minnesota, broadcast stations may be spaced 712m and 562 m apart when conducting systematic surveys during courtship and fledgling-dependency, respectively. We could not calculate EAS for the nestling phase because probability of detection was not a simple function of distance from nest. Calculation of EAS could be applied to other areas where the probability of detection is a known function of distance.

  1. Population genetic structure and demographic history of the freshwater crab Potamon elbursi (Brachyura: Potamidae from the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Keikhosravi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrographically separated populations of the freshwater crab Potamon elbursi Pretzmann, 1976 were genetically investigated to assess their local diversity and to reconstruct the possible role of Quaternary glaciations in shaping current diversity in the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. A total of 61 specimens from six rivers were collected from the two different drainage systems of the Alborz Mountains, Namak Lake and the South Caspian watershed. A comparative analysis of a partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene revealed relatively high overall haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. In four populations, there is no association between the haplotype network and the geographical separation between drainages, whereas the remaining two populations consist of private haplotypes. Gene flow among rivers was estimated using pairwise differences of Φst; in almost all cases gene flow was significantly restricted, regardless of association to a particular river system. Surprisingly, the only exception was the pairwise comparison of two distant rivers belonging to different drainages; this lack of differentiation may be attributed to incomplete lineage sorting or secondary introduction events. The mismatch distribution analysis, together with the shape of the haplotype network and the nucleotide and haplotype diversity indices, indicates that the studied metapopulation show the signature of recent population bottlenecks followed by demographic or spatial expansion and dating back to Pleistocene climatic fluctuations. 

  2. The polycyclic Lausche Volcano (Lausitz Volcanic Field) and its message concerning landscape evolution in the Lausitz Mountains (northern Bohemian Massif, Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Erik; Büchner, Jörg; Tietz, Olaf; Mrlina, Jan

    2017-09-01

    The Tertiary Lausitz Volcanic Field covers a broad area encompassing parts of Eastern Saxony (Germany), Lower Silesia (Poland) and North Bohemia (Czech Republic). Volcanism was predominantly controlled by the volcano-tectonic evolution of the Ohře Rift and culminated in the Lower Oligocene. This paper deals with the highest volcano of this area, the Lausche Hill (792.6 m a.s.l.) situated in the Lausitz Mountains. We offer a reconstruction of the volcanic edifice and its eruptive history. Its complex genesis is reflected by six different eruption styles and an associated petrographic variety. Furthermore, the Lausche Volcano provides valuable information concerning the morphological evolution of its broader environs. The remnant of an alluvial fan marking a Middle Paleocene-Lower Eocene (62-50 Ma) palaeo-surface is preserved at the base of the volcano. The deposition of this fan can be attributed to a period of erosion of its nearby source area, the Lausitz Block that has undergone intermittent uplift at the Lausitz Overthrust since the Upper Cretaceous. The Lausche Hill is one of at least six volcanoes in the Lausitz Mountains which show an eminent low level of erosion despite their Oligocene age and position on elevated terrain. These volcanoes are exposed in their superficial level which clearly contradicts their former interpretation as subvolcanoes. Among further indications, this implies that the final morphotectonic uplift of the Lausitz Mountains started in the upper Lower Pleistocene ( 1.3 Ma) due to revived subsidence of the nearby Zittau Basin. It is likely that this neotectonic activity culminated between the Elsterian and Saalian Glaciation ( 320 ka). The formation of the low mountain range was substantially controlled by the intersection of the Lausitz Overthrust and the Ohře Rift.

  3. Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: examples from the Northern Forest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monz, Christopher A.; Marion, Jeffrey L.; Goonan, Kelly A.; Manning, Robert E.; Wimpey, Jeremy; Carr, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Mountain summits present a unique challenge to manage sustainably: they are ecologically important and, in many circumstances, under high demand for recreation and tourism activities. This article presents recent advances in the assessment of resource conditions and visitor disturbance in mountain summit environments, by drawing on examples from a multiyear, interdisciplinary study of summits in the northeastern United States. Primary impact issues as a consequence of visitor use, such as informal trail formation, vegetation disturbance, and soil loss, were addressed via the adaption of protocols from recreation ecology studies to summit environments. In addition, new methodologies were developed that provide measurement sensitivity to change previously unavailable through standard recreation monitoring protocols. Although currently limited in application to the northeastern US summit environments, the methods presented show promise for widespread application wherever summits are in demand for visitor activities.

  4. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  5. Natural regeneration of deforested areas dominated by Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn located in the serra da mantiqueira mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Cristina Ribeiro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was set out with the objective of analyzing successional process in areas which are deforested and dominated by Pteridium aquilinum in the Serra da Mantiqueira mountain range, by researching the natural regeneration of shrub and tree species and evaluating both disturbance history and the edaphic conditions on the natural regeneration community. This research investigated two abandoned pasture areas in Bocaina de Minas county exposed to natural regeneration intervals ranging from six years (area named 6A to twenty years (area named 20A. The inventory occurred from sixty plots of 10 m², where all samples surveyed were between 0.15 m and 3 m high. All samples were identified and both the diameter in ground level and total height of the specimens were measured. The survey totaled 1,159 samples and 53 species. Melastomataceae was registered with the highest species richness and the highest specimen abundance. The two sampled areas showed species composition differences, with Jaccard similarity coefficient equal to 3.7%. The canonical correspondence analysis showed the correlations between natural regeneration stratum and non-labile phosphorus and clay in the 6A area. On the other hand, the 20A area showed correlations between plant regeneration and the K, P, Ca²+, Al³+ levels, with higher pH levels, and with the sum of exchangeable bases. In addition, the vegetation surveyed in area 20A was correlated with higher Pteridium population density. The results showed that the dominance of Pteridium aquilinum leads to successional process under inhibition, in which the ferns act negatively on the richness and abundance of shrub populations. It was also confirmed the Pteridium's affinity to steep areas, mainly in higher altitudes, where the soil is acid, as well as its preference to disturbed areas. Moreover, we highlight the fragilities of the mountain environments and the importance of preserving natural vegetation, as well as the bracken

  6. Analytical results and sample locality map for rock, stream-sediment, and soil samples, Northern and Eastern Coloado Desert BLM Resource Area, Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Harley D.; Chaffee, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In 1996-1998 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a geochemical study of the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) 5.5 million-acre Northern and Eastern Colorado Desert Resource Area (usually referred to as the NECD in this report), Imperial, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, southeastern California (figure 1). This study was done in support of the BLM's Coordinated Management Plan for the area. This report presents analytical data from this study. To provide comprehensive coverage of the NECD, we compiled and examined all available geochemical data, in digital form, from previous studies in the area, and made sample-site plots to aid in determining where sample-site coverage and analyses were sufficient, which samples should be re-analyzed, and where additional sampling was needed. Previous investigations conducted in parts of the current study area included the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program studies of the Needles and Salton Sea 1? x 2? quadrangles; USGS studies of 12 BLM Wilderness Study Areas (WSAs) (Big Maria Mountains, Chemehuevi Mountains, Chuckwalla Mountains, Coxcomb Mountains, Mecca Hills, Orocopia Mountains, Palen-McCoy, Picacho Peak, Riverside Mountains, Sheephole Valley (also known as Sheep Hole/Cadiz), Turtle Mountains, and Whipple Mountains); and USGS studies in the Needles and El Centro 1? x 2? quadrangles done during the early 1990s as part of a project to identify the regional geochemistry of southern California. Areas where we did new sampling of rocks and stream sediments are mainly in the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range and in Joshua Tree National Park, which extends into the west-central part of the NECD, as shown in figure 1 and figure 2. This report contains analytical data for 132 rock samples and 1,245 stream-sediment samples collected by the USGS, and 362 stream-sediment samples and 189 soil samples collected during the NURE program. All samples are from the Northern and Eastern Colorado

  7. 2010 Northern San Francisco Bay Area Lidar: Portions of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Solano, and Sonoma Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of northern San Francisco Bay, California. The project area consists of approximately 437 square miles...

  8. Site characterization plan: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Volume 9, Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    This site characterization plan (SCP) has been developed for the candidate repository site at Yucca Mountain in the State of Nevada. The SCP includes a description of the Yucca Mountain site (Chapters 1-5), a conceptual design for the repository (Chapter 6), a description of the packaging to be used for the waste to be emplaced in the repository (Chapter 7), and a description of the planned site characterization activities (Chapter 8). The schedules and milestones presented in Sections 8.3 and 8.5 of the SCP were developed to be consistent with the June 1988 draft Amendment to the DOE`s Mission Plan for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The five month delay in the scheduled start of exploratory shaft construction that was announced recently is not reflected in these schedules.

  9. REMOTE MATERIAL HANDLING IN THE YUCCA MOUNTAIN WASTE PACKAGE CLOSURE CELL AND SUPPORT AREA GLOVEBOX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.M. Croft; S.M. Allen; M.W. Borland

    2005-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Waste Package Closure System (WPCS) cells provide for shielding of highly radioactive materials contained in unsealed waste packages. The purpose of the cells is to provide safe environments for package handling and sealing operations. Once sealed, the packages are placed in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Closure of a typical waste package involves a number of remote operations. Those involved typically include the placement of matched lids onto the waste package. The lids are then individually sealed to the waste package by welding. Currently, the waste package includes three lids. One lid is placed before movement of the waste package to the closure cell; the final two are placed inside the closure cell, where they are welded to the waste package. These and other important operations require considerable remote material handling within the cell environment. This paper discusses the remote material handling equipment, designs, functions, operations, and maintenance, relative to waste package closure

  10. Unintended de-marketing manages visitor demand in Greater Blue Mountains World Heritage Area

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Shelley; Hardiman, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    Kotler and Levy (1971, p.76) introduced the term ‘de-marketing’, defined as ‘that aspect of marketing that deals with discouraging customers in general or a certain class of customers in particular on either a temporary or permanent basis’. Subsequently, Groff (1998) interpreted the concept in the context of parks and recreation administration. Recently, Armstrong and Kern (2011) used the concept to underpin their investigation of visitor demand management within the Greater Blue Mountains Wo...

  11. GIS-based analysis of tourist impact in mid-mountain protected natural area, Gorce National Park, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2010-05-01

    Many of the middle mountain areas are especially valuable due to high bio- and geo-diversity. Therefore, this areas are often protected by law in form of National or Landscape Park, as well as Natura 2000 Network. Moreover, mountain areas usually attract significant amount of tourist. Hence, environment is subject to combination of different forces including human impact (tourism, forest management, pasture) as well as natural processes. Usually areas with low environmental resiliency are, simultaneously, very valuable from ecological point of view and attractive as tourist regions. Hiking, biking and horse riding on the tourist trails are one of the basic forms of exploration of protected areas. Apart from a tourist function, trails have a significant ecological role - they limit walking to prepared paths and prevent dispersing of visitors. Thus the terrains, which for ecological reasons have to be excluded from direct human impact, are isolated. On the other hand using of tourist trials can have negative effect on the environment. The most important manifestation of this type of impacts is destroying of plant cover by trampling and running over. It leads to expose of a bare soil and, in consequence, to initialize and accelerate of natural erosion process. Improperly using of tourist trails and forest roads may lead to develop of gullies and significant degradation of environment. Hence, reasonable management of tourist activities, forestry and pasture is necessary for sustainable development in the mid-mountain areas. Study of tourist impact together with the assessment of susceptibility of the environment to degradation can be very helpful for planning and conservation activities. Analysis of spatial data within geographic information system (GIS) supply a very useful tool for estimating, modeling and establishing the relationships between tourist impact and environmental resiliency. This study presents implementation of the GIS analysis within one of the Polish

  12. Abundance, distribution and conservation status of Siberian ibex, Marco Polo and Blue sheep in Karakoram-Pamir mountain area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate abundance, distribution, structure and conservation status of three major ungulate species viz., Capra sibirica, Pseudois nayaur and Ovis ammon polii, in the Karakoram-Pamir mountain area between China and Pakistan. Results showed that the entire study area had a scattered but worthwhile population of Siberian ibex, Blue sheep and Marco Polo sheep, except Khunjerab Pass, Koksil-Pateshek and Barkhun areas of Khunjerab National Park (KNP. Large groups of Blue sheep were sighted in Shimshal and Barkhun valleys (KNP but it did not show up in the Muztagh part of Taxkorgan Nature Reserve (TNR in China. Despite scarcity of natural vegetation and extreme climate, estimated abundance of ibex and Marco Polo sheep was not different from that in Protected Areas of Nepal, China, and India, except for Blue sheep. Marco Polo sheep, Blue sheep and Snow leopard roam across international borders among China, Pakistan and other adjacent countries. Illegal hunting and poaching, removal of natural vegetation for fodder and firewood, and over grazing of pastures by livestock were main habitat issues whereas, border fencing for security reasons, has been a major impediment restricting free movement of the wildlife across international borders. A science based conservation and development strategy is proposed to restore viable wildlife populations and maintain ecological flows of Karakoram Pamir Mountains to benefit both the wild species and the local human communities.

  13. Collaborative Measurement of Performance of Jointly Managed Protected Areas in Northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Stacey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Responsibility for the management of many protected areas in the Northern Territory, Australia, is shared between the management agency and the aboriginal owners of that land. We describe (1 the creation and types of indicators developed by partners in a participatory process to measure management effectiveness, (2 the assessment method used to monitor progress, and (3 the results of the first cycle of evaluations in four jointly managed parks. Although each pilot park area has distinctive features, we were able to identify a set of twelve common indicators that were applied across the four park areas. The agreed indicators, which were scored using a color scale to indicate level of achievement, were primarily concerned with process rather than outcome, with particular emphasis on the strength of social relationships. Thus, there were indicators that assessed performance in governance and decision making, application and interpretation of cultural heritage and traditional ecological knowledge, expansion of social capital, human and financial resources, and visitors, with little emphasis on the biophysical outcomes of the management. The emphasis on the quality of the process of joint management was thought to indicate that the relationship between the joint management partners was relatively new, with trust only starting to develop. We discuss opportunities and difficulties for replication and adaptation of indicators to all jointly managed parks in the Northern Territory.

  14. Lithics in Neolithic Northern Greece: territorial perspectives from an off-obsidian area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Kourtessi-Philippakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available C. Renfrew’s research in the Aegean at the beginning of the 1970’s and his hypothesis on the diffusion of obsidian from the island of Milos greatly influenced views of Greek Prehistory. Further lithic studies, especially in the Southern Aegean, have served to further confirmation the prevalence of obsidian in this area during the Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to areas such as Northern Greece that are situated on the periphery of the Melian obsidian domain, where local materials occur in connection with imported ones from the North and South. With the aid of various examples from major Neolithic sites, we will discuss the question of procurement strategies in association with the reduction sequences of each material in use in this region, and outline trends of territorial organization among Neolithic farmers in the area.

  15. Ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in WZD area of northern Guizhou province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tao

    2017-12-01

    The ore-forming fluid system of bauxite in Wuchuan-Zheng,an-Daozhen (short for WZD) Area of northern Guizhou Province was studied from the perspective of deposit formation mechanism. It was discovered that ore-forming fluids were mainly effective for transporting and leaching during the formation of bauxite. The means of transport mainly included colloidal transport, suspended transport and gravity flow transport. In the course of their leaching, fluids had a range of chemical reactions, as a result of which elements such as silicon and iron migrated downwards. In this process, properties of fluids changed as well.

  16. Status of external breath functions of the Northern Kazakhstan residents from a uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajnabekova, B.A.; Mukhambetov, D.D.; Sutyusheva, G.R.; Braun, M.A.; Sarzhanova, A.N.; Rutenko, N.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is the external breath functions status in population of the Northern Kazakhstan uranium-miming areas. During the obtained data analysis it was revealed, that the indexes both the volume forced breathing-out behind the first wall and the vital lung capacity were low in residents are living at the mines more than 10 years, than in ones are living less than 10 years. The obtained data could not evidencing about reliable influence of low ionizing radiation dose on the bronchus permeability indexes. Presumably, that a possible reason for the reveled breath functions destabilization formation is the dust factor action

  17. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-10-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project ''Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)'' for the eighteen month period of January 1, 1987 to June 10, 1988. This final report was preceded by the final report for the initial six month period, July 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986 (submitted on January 25, 1987, and revised in June 1987.) Quaternary Tectonics, Geochemical, Mineral Deposits, Vulcanic Geology, Seismology, Tectonics, Neotectonics, Remote Sensing, Geotechnical Assessments, Geotechnical Rock Mass Assessments, Basinal Studies, and Strong Ground Motion

  18. Evaluation of the geologic relations and seismotectonic stability of the Yucca Mountain Area Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a summary of progress for the project open-quotes Evaluation of the Geologic Relations and Seismotectonic Stability of the Yucca Mountain Area, Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Investigation (NNWSI).close quotes A similar report was previously provided for the period of 1 October 1993 to 30 September 1994. The report initially covers the activities of the General Task and is followed by sections that describe the progress of the other ongoing Tasks which are listed below. Task 1: Quaternary Tectonics Task 3: Mineral Deposits, Volcanic Geology Task 4: Seismology Task 5: Tectonics Task 8: Basinal Studies

  19. A new vision of the intracontinental evolution of the eastern Kunlun Mountains, Northern Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, W.-M.; Zhang, X.-T.; Dong, J.-Q.; Tang, Y.-H.; Yu, F.-S.; Wang, S.-C.

    2003-01-01

    Based on apatite fission track ages (FTA) of 41 samples collected from a south-north transect of the eastern Kunlun mountains, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China, this paper shows that (1) the FTA in different blocks increases with the distance from the South-Kunlun fault and Mid-Kunlun faults, respectively, indicating the control of the main faults on the tectonic evolution of this region; and (2) the thermal histories are characterized by slow cooling from ∼160 deg. C to ∼80 deg. C at ∼240 to ∼20 Ma, followed by rather rapid cooling to surface temperatures

  20. Hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters in Chaves geothermal area (northern Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aires-Barros, Luis; Marques, Jose Manuel; Graca, Rui Cores; Matias, Maria Jose [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lab. de Mineralogia e Petrologia (LAMPIST), Lisboa (Portugal); Weijden, Cornelis H. van der; Kreulen, Rob [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Eggenkamp, Hermanus Gerardus M. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Geochemistry, Utrecht (Netherlands); Reading Univ., Postgraduate Research Inst. for Sedimentology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    1998-02-01

    In order to update the geohydrologic characterisation of Chaves geothermal area, coupled isotopic and chemical studies have been carried out on hot and cold CO{sub 2}-rich mineral waters discharging, in northern Portugal, along one of the major regional NNE-trending faults (the so-called Verin-Chaves-Penacova Depression). Based upon their location, and chemical and isotopic composition, the analysed waters can be divided into two groups. The northern group belongs to the HCO{sub 3}/Na/CO{sub 2}-rich type, and consists of the hot spring waters of Chaves and the cold spring waters of Vilarelho da Raia. The {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values show that these waters are of meteoric origin. The lack of an {sup 18}O shift indicates that there is no evidence of water/rock interaction at high temperatures. The southern group includes the cold spring waters of Campilho/Vidago and Sabroso/Pedras Salgadas. Their chemistry is similar to that of the northern group but their heavier {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values could be attributed to different recharge altitudes. Mixing between deep mineralised waters and dilute superficial waters of meteoric origin might explain the higher {sup 3}H activity found in the Vidago and Pedras Salgadas mineral waters. Alternatively, they could be mainly related to shallow underground flowpaths. The {delta}{sup 13}C values support a deep-seated origin for the CO{sub 2}. The {delta}{sup 37}Cl is comparable in all the mineral waters of the study areas, indicating a common origin of Cl. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios in waters seem to be dominated by the dissolution of plagioclases or granitic rocks. (Author)

  1. Simulation of ozone formation at different elevations in mountainous area of Hong Kong using WRF-CMAQ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N; Guo, H; Jiang, F; Ling, Z H; Wang, T

    2015-02-01

    Field measurements were simultaneously conducted at a mountain (Mt.) site (Tai Mao Shan, TMS) and an urban site (Tsuen Wan, TW) at the foot of the Mt. TMS in Hong Kong. An interesting event with consecutive high-ozone (O₃) days from 08:00 on 28 Oct. to 23:00 on 03 Nov., 2010 was observed at Mt. TMS, while no such polluted event was found at the foot of the mountain. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) models were used to understand this event. Model performance evaluation showed that the simulated meteorological parameters and air pollutants were well in agreement with the observations. The index of agreement (IOA) of temperature, relative humidity, wind direction and wind speed were 0.93, 0.83, 0.46 and 0.60, respectively. The multi-day high O₃ episode at Mt. TMS was also reasonably reproduced (IOA=0.68). Horizontally, the photochemical processes determined the O₃ levels in southwestern Pearl River Delta (PRD) and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), while in eastern and northern PRD, the O₃ destruction was over the production during the event. Vertically, higher O₃ values at higher levels were found at both Mt. TMS and TW, indicating a vertical O₃ gradient over Hong Kong. With the aid of the process analysis module, we found positive contribution of vertical transport including advection and diffusion to O₃ mixing ratios at the two sites, suggesting that O₃ values at lower locations could be affected by O₃ at higher locations via vertical advection and diffusion over Hong Kong. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Local and Surrounding Threats to the Protected Area Network in a Biodiversity Hotspot: The Hengduan Mountains of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Liu, Guohua; Li, Zongshan; Wang, Hao; Zeng, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) not only serve as refuges of biodiversity conservation but are also part of large ecosystems and are vulnerable to change caused by human activity from surrounding lands, especially in biodiversity hotspots. Assessing threats to PAs and surrounding areas is therefore a critical step in effective conservation planning. We apply a threat framework as a means of quantitatively assessing local and surrounding threats to different types of PAs with gradient buffers, and to main ecoregions in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot of southwest China. Our findings show that national protected areas (NPAs) have lower and significantly lower threat values (pprotected areas (PPAs) and other protected areas (OPAs), respectively, which indicates that NPAs are lands with a lower threat level and higher levels of protection and management. PAs have clear edge effects, as the proportion of areas with low threat levels decline dramatically in the 5-kilometer buffers just outside the PAs. However, NPAs suffered greater declines (58.3%) than PPAs (34.8%) and OPAs (33.4%) in the 5-kilometer buffers. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found between the size of PAs and the proportion of areas with low threat levels that they contained in both PAs and PA buffers (p<0.01). To control or mitigate current threats at the regional scale, PA managers often require quantitative information related to threat intensities and spatial distribution. The threat assessment in the Hengduan Mountain Hotspot will be useful to policy makers and managers in their efforts to establish effective plans and target-oriented management strategies.

  3. Measured and modelled local wind field over a frozen lake in a mountainous area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedman, A.S.; Bergstroem, H.; Hoegstroem, U. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-03-01

    The study is a follow-up of a previous paper and concentrates on two very characteristic flow regimes: forced channeling, where the driving geostrophic wind and the lake axis are roughly aligned, and pressure-driven channeling or gap winds, which are characterized by a geostrophic wind direction more or less perpendicular to the lake axis. Both situations produce winds along the main axis of the lake. In the forced channeling case the wind direction varies insignificantly with height and the wind speed increases monotonically with height. The gap wind flow, which can give supergeostrophic speed, is restricted to the lowest 500 m above the lake surface, drops in speed to near zero just above that layer, changing to an across-wind direction higher up. Gap winds are found to require slightly stable stratification for their existence; strong stability forces the flow to go round the mountains rather than over, and neutral conditions give a turbulent wake in the lee of the mountains. The gap wind starts at any occasion as a sudden warm front approaching from either of the two along-lake directions (115 or 295 degrees). It is argued that the relative warmth of the `gap wind air` is due to air originally flowing at mountain top height across the lake axis being gradually turned and accelerated along the synoptic pressure gradient while descending. The strongly sheared layer at the top of the gap wind region is dynamically highly unstable, giving rise to vertically coherent variations in wind speed and direction which appear to be triggered by gravity waves. When the driving geostrophic wind is high enough, the disturbed region reaches all the way down to the ground surface. Then periods with strong turbulence and low mean wind alternate with pronounced gap winds on typically a 10 minute scale. 11 refs, 18 figs

  4. Factors influencing happiness of the grandmothers raising grandchildren in rural areas of Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Powwattana, Arpaporn

    2013-12-01

    To study the factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 400 grandmothers, aged 50-79 years, who raised their grandchildren in the rural areas of Northern Thailand. Participants were selected by cluster sampling. Data were collected through a structured interview from April to July 2009 and analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient, and Multiple regression analysis. Nearly half (46.8%) of grandmothers raising grandchildren had high level of happiness, followed by moderate level (40.4%) and low level (12.8%). The factors, which significantly influenced the happiness of the grandmothers, were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p-value happiness of the grandmothers by 48.1%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of happiness among grandmothers. The factors influencing happiness of grandmothers raising grandchildren were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote happiness of grandmothers, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the grandmother's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  5. Invertebrate fauna (Coleoptera, Collembola, Diplopoda, Isopoda collected in the karst areas of the Aninei - Locvei Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Giurginca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors identified 132 species of invertebrates (14 Oniscidea, 25 Diplopoda,31 Collembola and 62 Coleoptera recently sampled (2001–2006 from the soil and subterranean (MSS and caves environments from the Banat Mountains. Some new,rare and endemic species are discussed. The seasonal changes of the species diversity in the superficial subterranean environments at 0.5 to 1 m in depth are for the first time presented for the Reşiţa – Moldova Nouă synclinorium. The characteristic and preferential species for the mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS, belonging to the analyzed taxa, are identified.

  6. Diagnosis of inconsistencies in multi-year gridded precipitation data over mountainous areas and related impacts on hydrologic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, N.; Smith, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    It is common for the error characteristics of long-term precipitation data to change over time due to various factors such as gauge relocation and changes in data processing methods. The temporal consistency of precipitation data error characteristics is as important as data accuracy itself for hydrologic model calibration and subsequent use of the calibrated model for streamflow prediction. In mountainous areas, the generation of precipitation grids relies on sparse gage networks, the makeup of which often varies over time. This causes a change in error characteristics of the long-term precipitation data record. We will discuss the diagnostic analysis of the consistency of gridded precipitation time series and illustrate the adverse effect of inconsistent precipitation data on a hydrologic model simulation. We used hourly 4 km gridded precipitation time series over a mountainous basin in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California from October 1988 through September 2006. The basin is part of the broader study area that served as the focus of the second phase of the Distributed Model Intercomparison Project (DMIP-2), organized by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To check the consistency of the gridded precipitation time series, double mass analysis was performed using single pixel and basin mean areal precipitation (MAP) values derived from gridded DMIP-2 and Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data. The analysis leads to the conclusion that over the entire study time period, a clear change in error characteristics in the DMIP-2 data occurred in the beginning of 2003. This matches the timing of one of the major gage network changes. The inconsistency of two MAP time series computed from the gridded precipitation fields over two elevation zones was corrected by adjusting hourly values based on the double mass analysis. We show that model

  7. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  8. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bassi

    Full Text Available Wolves (Canis lupus in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010 collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species' current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts.

  9. Geochemical survey maps of the wildernesses and roadless areas in the White Mountains National Forest, Coos, Grafton, and Carroll counties, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, F.C.; Howd, F.H.; Domenico, J.A.; Nakagawa, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Wilderness Act (Public Law 88-577, September 3, 1964) and related acts require the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines to survey certain areas on Federal lands to determine what mineral values, if any, may be present. Results must be made available to the public and be submitted to the President and the Congress. This report presents the results a geochemical survey of the Great Gulf and Presidential Range-Dry River Wilderness Areas; the Dartmouth Range, Wild River, Pemigewasset, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Wolf-Gordon Pond, Jobildunk, Carr Mountain, Sandwich Range, and the Dry River Extention (2 parcels) Roadless Areas; and the intervening and immediately surrounding areas in the White Mountain National Forest, Coos, Grafton, and Carroll Counties, New Hampshire. The Great Gulf Wilderness was established when the Wilderness Act was passed in 1964, and the Presidential Range-Dray Wiver Wilderness was established by Public Law 93-622, January 3, 1975. The Dartmouth Range, Wild River, Pemigewasset, Kinsman Mountain, Mount Wolf-Gordon Pond, Carr Mountain, and Jobildunk areas were classified as a further planning area during the Second Roadless Area Review and Evaluation (RARE II) by the U.S. Forest Service, January 1979.

  10. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs.

  11. Thermoluminescence dating of soils in a semi-arid environment, Yucca Mountain area, Southern Nevada, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahan, S.A.; Paces, J.B.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1995-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is currently being investigated as a potential nuclear waste repository. Because radionuclides must be isolated over a ten to several hundred thousand year time span, an assessment of the performance depends in part on accurate reconstruction of the Quaternary geologic and hydrologic history of the mountain. Reliable geochronology in an oxidizing environment dominated by coarse-grained, clastic surficial deposits has become a central issue for several studies including paleoseismic reconstruction, determination of rates of erosion and deposition, and the history of regional water-table fluctuations documented by ground-water discharge deposits. Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of polymineralic silt fractions in a variety of surface deposits has become an important component of the Quaternary dating strategy, along with uranium-series disequilibrium dating of secondary carbonate and opaline silica, and to a lesser extent, radiocarbon dating of carbonate components. Although the complex mineralogy of these materials contributes to greater amounts of scatter in their TL response relative to typical quartzofeldspathic loess and dune deposits, the derived ages are reproducible, consistent with internal stratigraphy, and generally concordant with other available geochronology

  12. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain site, Nevada Reserch and Development Area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-12-01

    To help the public better understand both the SCP and the site characterization program, the DOE has prepared this overview and the SCP Public Handbook. The overview presents summaries of selected topics covered in the SCP; it is not a substitute for the SCP. The organization of the overview is similar to that of the SCP itself, with brief descriptions of the Yucca Mountain site, the repository, and the containers in which the waste would be packaged, followed by a discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. This overview is intended primarily for those persons who want to understand the general scope and basis of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed without spending the time necessary to become familiar with all of the technical details presented in the SCP. For the readers of the SCP, the overview will be useful as a general guide to the plan. The SCP Public Handbook is a short document that contains brief descriptions of the SCP process and the contents of the SCP. It also explains how the public can submit comments on the SCP and lists the libraries and reading rooms at which the SCP is available. 9 refs., 18 tabs

  13. Preliminary Nearshore Sedimentation Rate Analysis of the Tuungane Project Northern Mahale Conservation Area, Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiley, R. A.; McGlue, M. M.; Yeager, K. M.; Soreghan, M. J.; Lucas, J.; Kimirei, I.; Mbonde, A.; Limbu, P.; Apse, C.

    2017-12-01

    The combined effects of climate change, overfishing, and sediment pollution are altering Lake Tanganyika's littoral fisheries in profoundly negative ways. One method for conserving critical fish resources and safeguarding biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika is by establishing small-scale nearshore protected zones, which can be administrated by lakeshore villagers organized into beach management units (BMUs). Each BMU endeavors to manage offshore "no-catch" protected zones, prohibit the use of illegal fishing gear, and promote sustainable agriculture that abates erosion in the lake watershed, in order to mitigate sediment pollution in the lake. We adopted a limnogeological approach to assist in characterizing the littoral zone associated with BMUs in the northern Mahale region of Lake Tanganyika (Tanzania), a critical conservation area for the Nature Conservancy's Tuungane Project (https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/africa/wherewework/tuungane-project.xml). We hypothesized that BMUs with heavy onshore agricultural activity would experience relatively high offshore sedimentation rates, due to enhanced sediment-laden runoff in the wet season. Such changes are predicted to alter benthic substrates and degrade habitat available for fish spawning. We mapped bathymetry and sediment types along a 29 km2 area of the littoral zone using high-resolution geophysical tools, and assessed short-term sedimentation rates using sediment cores and radionuclide geochronology (210Pb). Initial results from 210Pb analyses show that sedimentation rates at the mud-line ( 85-100 m water depth) are relatively slow but spatially variable in the northern Mahale area. Offshore of the Kalilani village BMU, linear sedimentation rates are 0.50 mm/yr. By contrast, sedimentation rates offshore from the Igualula village BMU are 0.90-1.30 mm/yr. Higher sedimentation rates near Igualula are consistent with greater sediment inputs from the nearby Lagosa River and its watershed, which has been

  14. The Last Glacial Maximum in the Northern European loess belt: Correlations between loess-paleosol sequences and the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Römer, Wolfgang; Klasen, Nicole; Pirson, Stéphane; Schulte, Philipp; Zeeden, Christian; Sirocko, Frank; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The D1 project of the CRC 806 "Our way to Europe" focusses on Central Europe as a destination of modern human dispersal out of Africa. The paleo-environmental conditions along the migration areas are reconstructed by loess-paleosol sequences and lacustrine sediments. Stratigraphy and luminescence dating provide the chronological framework for the correlation of grain size and geochemical data to large-scale climate proxies like isotope ratios and dust content of Greenland ice cores. The reliability of correlations is improved by the development of precise age models of specific marker beds. In this study, we focus on the (terrestrial) Last Glacial Maximum of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial which is supposed to be dominated by high wind speeds and an increasing aridity. Especially in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), this period is linked to an extensive erosion event. The disconformity is followed by an intensive cryosol formation. In order to support the stratigraphical observations from the field, luminescence dating and grain size analysis were applied on three loess-paleosol sequences along the northern European loess belt to develop a more reliable chronology and to reconstruct paleo-environmental dynamics. The loess sections were compared to newest results from heavy mineral and grain size analysis from the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains) and correlated to NGRIP records. Volcanic minerals can be found in the Dehner Maar core from a visible tephra layer at 27.8 ka up to ~25 ka. They can be correlated to the Eltville Tephra found in loess section. New quartz luminescence ages from Romont (Belgium) surrounding the tephra dated the deposition between 25.0 + 2.3 ka and 25.8 + 2.4 ka. In the following, heavy minerals show an increasing importance of strong easterly winds during the second Greenland dust peak (~24 ka b2k) correlating with an extensive erosion event in the LRE. Luminescence dating on quartz bracketing the following soil formation yielded ages of

  15. An Analysis of Rural Household Livelihood Change and the Regional Effect in a Western Impoverished Mountainous Area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuansheng Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking Longnan, in the western Qinling Mountains region of Gansu province, China, as our study area, and using the Sixth National Population Census alongside household survey data, we analyze changes in household livelihoods, and consequent regional effects, following the instigation of the “Grain for Green” program in 1999. Our results show rural livelihood changes with respect to natural assets (e.g., reduction of arable land, planting structure changes, human assets (e.g., labor quality improvement, fluidity of population, financial assets (e.g., income channels widening, income increasing, physical assets (e.g., optimized production tools, and social assets (e.g., information network development, increased outreach opportunities. We suggest that increased household livelihoods play an important role in improving land space utilization efficiency, resource conservation and use, and the ecological environment. However, owing to the natural environment, there are also some problems, such as “hollows” in rural production and living spaces, as well as local environmental degradation. To address these issues, regions such as the western, mountainous, impoverished area of our study should establish a policy of using ecosystems, as well as agriculture, for development in order to improve household livelihoods, build an efficient spatial structure, and providing support for the creation of a resource-saving societal system.

  16. Values of Deploying a Compact Polarimetric Radar to Monitor Extreme Precipitation in a Mountainous Area: Mineral County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, B. L.; Kirstetter, P. E.; Yu, T. Y.; Busto, J.; Speeze, T.; Dennis, J.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation in mountainous regions can trigger flash floods and landslides especially in areas affected by wildfire. Because of the small space-time scales required for observation, they remain poorly observed. A light-weighted X-band polarimetric radar can rapidly respond to the situation and provide continuous rainfall information with high resolution for flood forecast and emergency management. A preliminary assessment of added values to the operational practice in Mineral county, Colorado was performed in Fall 2014 and Summer 2015 with a transportable polarimetric radar deployed at the Lobo Overlook. This region is one of the numerous areas in the Rocky Mountains where the WSR-88D network does not provide sufficient weather coverage due to blockages, and the limitations have impeded forecasters and local emergency managers from making accurate predictions and issuing weather warnings. High resolution observations were collected to document the precipitation characteristics and demonstrate the added values of deploying a small weather radar in such context. The analysis of the detailed vertical structure of precipitation explain the decreased signal sampled by the operational radars. The specific microphysics analyzed though polarimetry suggest that the operational Z-R relationships may not be appropriate to monitor severe weather over this wildfire affected region. Collaboration with the local emergency managers and the National Weather Service shows the critical value of deploying mobile, polarimetric and unmanned radars in complex terrain. Several selected cases are provided in this paper for illustration.

  17. The simulation of surface fire spread based on Rothermel model in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain (Jilin, China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Jin, Hui; Zhao, Ying; Fan, Yuguang; Qin, Liwu; Chen, Qinghong; Huang, Liya; Jia, Xiang; Liu, Lijie; Dai, Yuhong; Xiao, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The forest-fire not only brings great loss to natural resources, but also destructs the ecosystem and reduces the soil fertility, causing some natural disasters as soil erosion and debris flow. However, due to the lack of the prognosis for forest fire spreading trend in forest fire fighting, it is difficult to formulate rational and effective fire-fighting scheme. In the event of forest fire, achieving accurate judgment to the fire behavior would greatly improve the fire-fighting efficiency, and reduce heavy losses caused by fire. Researches on forest fire spread simulation can effectively reduce the loss of disasters. The present study focused on the simulation of "29 May 2012" wildfire in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain. Basic data were retrieved from the "29 May 2012" wildfire and field survey. A self-development forest fire behavior simulated program based on Rothermel Model was used in the simulation. Kappa coefficient and Sørensen index were employed to evaluate the simulation accuracy. The results showed that: The perimeter of simulated burned area was 4.66 km, the area was 56.47 hm2 and the overlapped burned area was 33.68 hm2, and the estimated rate of fire spread was 0.259 m/s. Between the simulated fire and actual fire, the Kappa coefficient was 0.7398 and the Sørensen co-efficient was 0.7419. This proved the application of Rothermel model to conduct fire behavior simulation in windthrow meadow was feasible. It can achieve the goal of forecasting for the spread behavior in windthrow area of Changbai Mountain. Thus, our self-development program based on the Rothermel model can provide a effective forecast of fire spread, which will facilitate the fire suppression work.

  18. Nature and continuity of the Sundance Fault, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Day, Warren C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the detailed geologic mapping (1:2,400 scale) that was performed in the northern part of the potential nuclear waste repository area at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine the nature and extent of the Sundance Fault zone and to evaluate structural relations between the Sundance and other faults

  19. Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, Michal; Márton, Emő; Oszczypko, Nestor; Vojtko, Rastislav; Hók, Jozef; Králiková, Silvia; Plašienka, Dušan; Klučiar, Tomáš; Hudáčková, Natália; Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta

    2017-08-01

    The data on the Neogene geodynamics, palaeogeography, and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (ALCAPA Mega-unit) are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The proposed concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Miocene development of the Outer Carpathians reflects the vanishing subduction of the residual oceanic and/or thinned continental crust. A compression perpendicular to the front of the orogenic system led to the closing of residual flysch troughs and to accretionary wedge growth, as well as to the development of a foredeep on the margin of the European Platform. Docking of the Outer Western Carpathians accretionary wedge, together with the Central Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain, was accompanied by stretching of the overriding microplate. An orogen parallel and perpendicular extension was associated with the opening and subsidence of the Early and Middle Miocene hinterland (back-arc) basin system that compensated counter-clockwise rotations of the individual crustal fragments of ALCAPA. The Late Miocene development relates to the opening of the Pannonian Basin System. This process was coupled with common stretching of both ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia Mega-units due to the pull exerted by subduction rollback in front of the Eastern Carpathians. The filling up of the hinterland basin system was associated with thermal subsidence and was followed by the Pliocene tectonic inversion and consequent erosion of the basin system margins, as well as part of the interior.

  20. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, K.F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO 3 , NH 3 , SO 4 , and PO 4 . The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation

  1. Climate change and the development of mountain areas: what do we need to know and for what types of action?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Richard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is today a reality at both the international and more local levels. Recent studies have focussed mainly on analysing the consequences of climate change. The present article seeks to examine and qualify the impact of climate change in the mountain areas of the Alps. A first line of enquiry concerns the changing level of danger in the mountain environment. Are mountain areas becoming more dangerous and, if so, in terms of what types of risks and to what degree? However, adopting an approach based on an analysis of natural hazards and their dynamics in response to climate change cannot ignore the economic activities and types of development that already exist in these areas. In this respect, the tourism economy is predominant in mountain regions. Its durability and vitality undoubtedly constitute a priority for local actors. It is not surprising therefore that the latter have set up strategies for adapting to climate change. For planners and decision-makers to ensure integrated approaches in dealing with climate change, it is important that the complex links between natural risks and the types of development in mountain areas are better understood, which calls for a more detailed analysis of the environment in terms of territorial vulnerability.Le changement climatique est aujourd’hui une réalité au niveau international comme à celui des territoires locaux. Les travaux récents mettent préférentiellement l’accent sur l’analyse des conséquences du changement climatique. Cet article se propose de questionner et de qualifier l’impact du changement climatique dans les territoires montagnards des Alpes. Un premier axe de réflexion concerne l’évolution de la dangerosité de la montagne. Une montagne plus dangereuse se profile-t-elle ? Selon quels types de risques et avec quelles intensités ? Cependant, l’approche des risques naturels et de leur dynamique face au changement climatique ne saurait occulter le type d

  2. Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Matthew J.; Hanson, Richard E.; Girty, Gary H.; Girty, Melissa S.; Harwood, David S.

    1998-01-01

    The northernmost occurrences of extensive, glaciated exposures of the Sierra Nevada batholith occur in the Donner Lake-Cisco Grove area of the northern Sierra Nevada. The plutonic rocks in this area, which are termed here the Castle Valley plutonic assemblage, crop out over an area of 225 km2 and for the most part are shown as a single undifferentiated mass on previously published geological maps. In the present work, the plutonic assemblage is divided into eight separate intrusive units or lithodemes, two of which each consist of two separate plutons. Compositions are dominantly granodiorite and tonalite, but diorite and granite form small plutons in places. Spectacular examples of comb layering and orbicular texture occur in the diorites. U-Pb zircon ages have been obtained for all but one of the main units and range from ~120 to 114 Ma, indicating that the entire assemblage was emplaced in a narrow time frame in the Early Cretaceous. This is consistent with abundant field evidence that many of the individual phases were intruded penecontemporaneously. The timing of emplacement correlates with onset of major Cretaceous plutonism in the main part of the Sierra Nevada batholith farther south. The emplacement ages also are similar to isotopic ages for gold-quartz mineralization in the Sierran foothills west of the study area, suggesting a direct genetic relationship between the voluminous Early Cretaceous plutonism and hydrothermal gold mineralization.

  3. Habitat selection by female northern pintails wintering in the Grassland Ecological Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Gilmer, David S.; Jarvis, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    To determine relative importance of habitats available in the Grassland Ecological Area (GEA) to wintering female northern pintails, Anas acuta, we studied habitat use relative to availability (i.e., habitat selection) in the GEA during September through March, 1991-94 for 196 Hatch-Year (HY) and 221 After-Hatch-Year (AHY) female pintails that were radio tagged during August-early October in the GEA (n = 239), other San Joaquin Valley areas (n = 132), or other Central Valley areas (n = 46). Habitat availability and use varied among seasons and years, but pintails always selected shallow and, except on hunting days, open habitats. Swamp timothy, Heleochloa schoenoides, marsh was the most available, used, and selected habitat. Watergrass, Echinochloa crusgalli, marsh in the GEA was used less than available at night in contrast to previous studies in other SJV areas. Preferred late-winter habitats were apparently lacking in the GEA, at least relative to in the Sacramento Valley and Delta where most pintails moved to in December each year. Impacts on pintails of the increasing practice of managing marshes for increased emergent vegetation to attract other species should be monitored. Shallow, open habitats that produce seeds and invertebrates available to pintails in late winter would help maintain pintail abundance in the GEA.

  4. Radargrammetric DSM generation in mountainous areas through adaptive-window least squares matching constrained by enhanced epipolar geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuting; Zhang, Lu; Balz, Timo; Luo, Heng; Liao, Mingsheng

    2018-03-01

    Radargrammetry is a powerful tool to construct digital surface models (DSMs) especially in heavily vegetated and mountainous areas where SAR interferometry (InSAR) technology suffers from decorrelation problems. In radargrammetry, the most challenging step is to produce an accurate disparity map through massive image matching, from which terrain height information can be derived using a rigorous sensor orientation model. However, precise stereoscopic SAR (StereoSAR) image matching is a very difficult task in mountainous areas due to the presence of speckle noise and dissimilar geometric/radiometric distortions. In this article, an adaptive-window least squares matching (AW-LSM) approach with an enhanced epipolar geometric constraint is proposed to robustly identify homologous points after compensation for radiometric discrepancies and geometric distortions. The matching procedure consists of two stages. In the first stage, the right image is re-projected into the left image space to generate epipolar images using rigorous imaging geometries enhanced with elevation information extracted from the prior DEM data e.g. SRTM DEM instead of the mean height of the mapped area. Consequently, the dissimilarities in geometric distortions between the left and right images are largely reduced, and the residual disparity corresponds to the height difference between true ground surface and the prior DEM. In the second stage, massive per-pixel matching between StereoSAR epipolar images identifies the residual disparity. To ensure the reliability and accuracy of the matching results, we develop an iterative matching scheme in which the classic cross correlation matching is used to obtain initial results, followed by the least squares matching (LSM) to refine the matching results. An adaptively resizing search window strategy is adopted during the dense matching step to help find right matching points. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated using

  5. Summer Temperature Extremes in the Northern Rockies: A Tree-Ring-Based Reconstruction (1670-2014) from the Bighorn Mountains, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, A.; Alfaro-Sanchez, R.; Belmecheri, S.; Moore, D. J.; Trouet, V.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic climate change has caused global temperatures to rise in recent decades. Temperatures at the regional scale are influenced by various factors including topography, atmospheric circulation, and seasonality that superimpose year-to-year variability on this global warming trend. Here, we develop a tree-ring based summer temperature reconstruction for the northern Rockies in order to investigate the drivers of the year-to-year temperature variability in this region. For this purpose, we sampled 10 sites in the semi-arid Bighorn Mountains, WY and developed two tree-ring width chronologies for differing elevations. The high elevation Picea engelmannii chronology (>2,630m) is positively correlated with July temperature variability, whereas the low elevation (<2,580m) chronology - consisting of Pinus contorta, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Pinus albicaulis - is sensitive to summer precipitation and negatively correlated with June and July temperatures. A reconstruction based on a combination of the two chronologies explains 30% of the variance in regional June and July temperatures over the instrumental period, covers the period 1670-2014, and is representative for the central United States and southern Canada region. Our reconstruction shows significantly lower summer temperatures in the year following the 16 largest tropical eruptions from 1670 to the present. The reconstruction further captures the high summer temperatures during the 1930s dust bowl era and shows a steep increase in variance in the late 20th century. Enhanced late 20th century variance has also been detected in climate and ecosystem dynamics in the Northeast Pacific, which suggests an impact of an amplified meridional flow on northern Rockies summer temperatures.

  6. Isotopic and chemical studies of geothermal waters of Northern Areas in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dildar Hussain, S; Ahmad, M; Akram, W; Sajjad, M I [Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan); Gonfiantini, R [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Isotope Hydrology Section; Tasneem, M A

    1995-02-01

    Northern Areas is one of the major thermal fields of Pakistan with more than two dozen known hot springs having discharge temperature ranging from 35 deg. C to 94 deg. C. Isotopic and chemical techniques applied to study the geothermal fields show that thermal waters are of meteoric origin and can be classified as Na-HCO{sub 3}, Na-SO{sub 4} and mixed type on the basis of their chemical contents. At some places cooling of thermal waters seems to be due to steam separation whereas mixing with fresh cold water is prominent at the remaining sites. The temperatures estimated by isotopic and chemical geothermometers for the two major fields i.e. Tatta Pani and Murtazabad are 83-257 deg. C and 65-296 deg. C respectively. (author). 24 refs, 11 figs, 3 tabs.

  7. Environmental risk of oil spills in Northern Areas[Pollution abatement in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoell, Espen

    2006-07-01

    The presentation discusses consequences and risks for the environment of oil spills and other pollution factors in the northern areas particularly in the north of Norway and the Barents Sea. Various environmental risk analysis are also discussed. The main conclusions are: Environmental risk for Obelix: The environmental risk is very low. The environmental risk for Obelix is less than 21% of Hydro's acceptance criteria for minor damage. The environmental risk is acceptable. DNV: The contingency planned for Obelix (barrier 1 and 2) will reduce the environmental risk further by approx. 60%, date: 2006-01-13. Question: Hydro Oil and Energy. Does the oil industry reach other conclusions than the national research institutes does for the Management Plan of the Barents Sea. The underlying studies (of the management plan) mainly consider the consequences of worst case events. Full rate (3000 m3/d), long duration (60 days). Blowout occurring at the worst time and place. They assume that consequences experienced by shipwreck accidents in the coastal zone are relevant also for offshore discharges. They do not consider: The probability for the worst case blowout to occur. The probability for the worst case consequences to be realized. The probability for less serious impact. The probable impact distribution. Overall conclusion: Environmental Risk of oil and gas activities in Lofoten and the Barents Sea Based on: 1) 40 years of experience in the Norwegian sector. 2) World leading risk reduction technology. 3) Systematic and thorough methods for analysis of environmental risk. 4) Several environmental risk analyses for Barents Sea and Lofoten drilling operations, indicating acceptable risk levels. 5) Recent ERA for Goliath drilling indicating similar low risk levels. 6) Well functioning contingency systems. We conclude that the environmental risk of oil and gas activities in the northern areas is low and acceptable to the Norwegian society. The environmental risk due to oil

  8. Hydrochemical and environmental isotope analysis of groundwater and surface water in a dry mountain region in Northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Carina; Dame, Juliane; Nüsser, Marcus

    2018-05-08

    This case study examines the geological imprint and land use practices on water quality in the arid Huasco Valley against the backdrop of ongoing water conflicts surrounding competing demands for agriculture and mining. The study is based on a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of monthly surface and bi-monthly groundwater quality samples measured during the Chilean summer of 2015/16. Additional information on source regions and river-groundwater interactions were collected using stable water isotopes. Regarding the geological impact on water quality, high concentrations of Ca 2+ , SO 4 2- and HCO 3 - indicate a strong influence of magmatic rocks, which constitute this high mountain basin, on the hydrochemistry. Piper and Gibbs-diagrams revealed that all samples show a homogenous distribution dominated by rock-water interactions. Measured NO 3 - concentrations in surface water are generally low. However, groundwater aquifers exhibit higher concentrations. Mn is the only heavy metal with elevated concentrations in surface water, which are possibly related to mining activities. The results illustrate that both surface and groundwater can be classified as suitable for irrigation. In addition, groundwater has been found to be suitable as drinking water. High similarities in isotopic signatures indicate a strong connection between surface and groundwater. Isotopic analyses suggest a strong influence of evaporation. This combined approach of hydrogeochemical and isotopic analysis proved to be a helpful tool in characterizing the catchment and can serve as a basis for future sustainable water management.

  9. The Metamorphic Rocks-Hosted Gold Mineralization At Rumbia Mountains Prospect Area In The Southeastern Arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasria Hasria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in Indonesia gold exploration activities  are not only focused along volcanic-magmatic belts, but also starting to shift along metamorphic and sedimentary terrains. The study area is located in Rumbia mountains, Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This paper is aimed to describe characteristics of alteration and ore mineralization associated  with metamorphic rock-related gold deposits.  The study area is found the placer and  primary gold hosted by metamorphic rocks. The gold is evidently derived from gold-bearing quartz veins hosted by Pompangeo Metamorphic Complex (PMC. These quartz veins are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Rumbia Mountains. The quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, irregular vein, segmented and  relatively massive and crystalline texture with thickness from 1 cm to 15.7 cm. The wallrock are generally weakly altered. Hydrothermal alteration types include sericitization, argillic, inner propylitic, propylitic, carbonization and carbonatization. There some precious metal identified consist of native gold and ore mineralization including pyrite (FeS2, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, hematite (Fe2O3, cinnabar (HgS, stibnite (Sb2S3 and goethite (FeHO2. The veins contain erratic gold in various grades from below detection limit <0.0002 ppm to 18.4 ppm. Based on those characteristics, it obviously indicates that the primary gold deposit present in the study area is of orogenic gold deposit type. The orogenic gold deposit is one of the new targets for exploration in Indonesia

  10. Subpixel Snow-covered Area Including Differentiated Grain Size from AVIRIS Data Over the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R.; Calvin, W. M.; Harpold, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Mountain snow storage is the dominant source of water for humans and ecosystems in western North America. Consequently, the spatial distribution of snow-covered area is fundamental to both hydrological, ecological, and climate models. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were collected along the entire Sierra Nevada mountain range extending from north of Lake Tahoe to south of Mt. Whitney during the 2015 and 2016 snow-covered season. The AVIRIS dataset used in this experiment consists of 224 contiguous spectral channels with wavelengths ranging 400-2500 nanometers at a 15-meter spatial pixel size. Data from the Sierras were acquired on four days: 2/24/15 during a very low snow year, 3/24/16 near maximum snow accumulation, and 5/12/16 and 5/18/16 during snow ablation and snow loss. Previous retrieval of subpixel snow-covered area in alpine regions used multiple snow endmembers due to the sensitivity of snow spectral reflectance to grain size. We will present a model that analyzes multiple endmembers of varying snow grain size, vegetation, rock, and soil in segmented regions along the Sierra Nevada to determine snow-cover spatial extent, snow sub-pixel fraction and approximate grain size or melt state. The root mean squared error will provide a spectrum-wide assessment of the mixture model's goodness-of-fit. Analysis will compare snow-covered area and snow-cover depletion in the 2016 year, and annual variation from the 2015 year. Field data were also acquired on three days concurrent with the 2016 flights in the Sagehen Experimental Forest and will support ground validation of the airborne data set.

  11. Investigation of remote sensing geology in the northern Anxi area of Gansu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wenhan

    1993-07-01

    The study of 1 : 50,000 remote sensing geology survey and prognosis of gold (uranium) mineralization in the area of northern Anxi of Gansu province has been completed. The synthetical remote sensing and multi-source information compounding technologies, such as land-satellites TM and MSS images, airborne color infrared photography and infrared ray scanning digital images, are used in the study. On the basis of information enhancement and extraction of remote-sensing images, using the theory of remote sensing to explore mineral deposits and the field investigations, many achievements have been reached, such as applications of synthetical remote sensing technology, fundamental study of geology, prognosis of gold (uranium) minerals and 1 : 50,000 remote-geologic mapping. 21 mineral resource maps and geologic maps are obtained. Nearly one thousand of altered rock zones are interpreted and found. 71 new gold anomaly hydrothermal alteration zones and 23 gold mineralized places are discovered (maximum Au 71 x 10 -6 ). 17 minerogeneration prospective areas, 67 gold-ore searching targets and favorable areas of uranium mineralization are identified. It gives important materials for searching new mines

  12. Conservation, spillover and gene flow within a network of Northern European marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Brockstedt Olsen Huserbråten

    Full Text Available To ensure that marine protected areas (MPAs benefit conservation and fisheries, the effectiveness of MPA designs has to be evaluated in field studies. Using an interdisciplinary approach, we empirically assessed the design of a network of northern MPAs where fishing for European lobster (Homarusgammarus is prohibited. First, we demonstrate a high level of residency and survival (50% for almost a year (363 days within MPAs, despite small MPA sizes (0.5-1 km(2. Second, we demonstrate limited export (4.7% of lobsters tagged within MPAs (N = 1810 to neighbouring fished areas, over a median distance of 1.6 km out to maximum 21 km away from MPA centres. In comparison, median movement distance of lobsters recaptured within MPAs was 164 m, and recapture rate was high (40%. Third, we demonstrate a high level of gene flow within the study region, with an estimated F ST of less than 0.0001 over a ≈ 400 km coastline. Thus, the restricted movement of older life stages, combined with a high level of gene flow suggests that connectivity is primarily driven by larval drift. Larval export from the MPAs can most likely affect areas far beyond their borders. Our findings are of high importance for the design of MPA networks for sedentary species with pelagic early life stages.

  13. Characterization of an abandoned pastoral area in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenti G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of an investigation carried out within the research project "Study and improvement of woods and shrubbery derived from abandoned agricultural areas" (RiSelvItalia Project. Changes occurred in the past 50 years in the pastoral area of S. Paolo in Alpe (Appennino Romagnolo, Northern Apennines, Italy were described on the grounds of photo-interpretation of three sets of aerial photos (1955, 1976, 1997. A high reduction of the surface of sowable lands and pastures (from 80% to 33% was pointed out, together with an increase of shrubbery (from 5% to 18% and woods (from 0 to 42%. The characterization of woods, shrubbery and pastures was performed through structural transects and phyto-sociological investigations. Thus it was possible to reconstruct the dynamic series of vegetation, from grasslands belonging to the association Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (Festuco-Brometea to woods referable to the association Aceri obtusati-quercetum cerridis (Querco-Fagetea. Investigations on meadows revealed also a good quality of pastures, not only in open grasslands (mean pastoral value - VP - of 30, but even in partially shrubby areas (VP 21. Some guidelines for a multi-purpose exploitation of the site are suggested, taking into account not only economic aspects, but also the conservation of environment and landscape.

  14. Wind and wildlife in the Northern Great Plains: identifying low-impact areas for wind development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Fargione

    Full Text Available Wind energy offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions while increasing energy independence and bolstering economic development. However, wind energy has a larger land footprint per Gigawatt (GW than most other forms of energy production and has known and predicted adverse effects on wildlife. The Northern Great Plains (NGP is home both to some of the world's best wind resources and to remaining temperate grasslands, the most converted and least protected ecological system on the planet. Thus, appropriate siting and mitigation of wind development is particularly important in this region. Steering energy development to disturbed lands with low wildlife value rather than placing new developments within large and intact habitats would reduce impacts to wildlife. Goals for wind energy development in the NGP are roughly 30 GW of nameplate capacity by 2030. Our analyses demonstrate that there are large areas where wind development would likely have few additional impacts on wildlife. We estimate there are ∼1,056 GW of potential wind energy available across the NGP on areas likely to have low-impact for biodiversity, over 35 times development goals. New policies and approaches will be required to guide wind energy development to low-impact areas.

  15. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronco, G.; Ciccone, G.; Mirabelli, D.; Troia, B.; Vineis, P.

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  16. Occupation and lung cancer in two industrialized areas of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, G; Ciccone, G; Mirabelli, D; Troia, B; Vineis, P

    1988-03-15

    A population-based case-control study on lung cancer was conducted in 2 industrialized areas of northern Italy. Cases (126) were all males who died from lung cancer between 1976 and 1980. Controls (384) were a random sample of males dying from other causes during the same period. Jobs held during working life have been analyzed according to a list of occupations already known to be causally associated with lung cancer (list A) and a list of occupations suspected of being so (list B). Attributable risk percentages in the population for occupations included in either list A or B were about 36% and 12% in the 2 areas. Welders or workers in industries in which welding is common showed elevated odds ratios: 2.9 for welders (95% CI 0.9-9.8); 4.9 (1.1-22.9) for structural metal workers; 11.4 (2.6-49.9) for workers in structural metal production. Other job categories associated with lung cancer included: electricians and workers in electrical machine production, woodworkers (in furniture or cabinet making, but not in carpentry or joinery) and cleaning services. Smoking did not seem to exert a substantial confounding effect. Attributable risk percentages for tobacco smoking were about 78% and 76% in the population of the 2 areas.

  17. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-01-01

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area

  18. Spatial and sectoral planning support to sustainable territorial and tourism development of protected mountain areas in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting point for easier resolution of conflicts between conservation and development should be the application of the concept of protected areas of natural heritage as social-ecological systems. This is also the precondition for attainment of strategic planning coordination for protected mountain areas (PMA. The objective of the paper is to provide the insight into the effectiveness of strategic planning support - spatial and sectoral planning - to sustainable territorial and tourism development of PMA in Serbia. The study area comprises Kopaonik and Đerdap National Parks, and Stara Planina Nature Park. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of strategic planning for PMA by means of analysis and evaluation of spatial plans, Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA and sector plans in tourism for the study area. The effectiveness of spatial planning is checked based on the analysis and evaluation of sustainability of zoning and land-use regimes, and of tourism development proposed by spatial plans for the study area. The conclusion is that it is necessary to apply holistic approach to sector planning for nature conservation and tourism development, and to apply SEA for tourism planning as well. Reduction of the spatial coverage of PMA and spatial differentiation of protected zones from the ones planned for intensive development is recommended.

  19. Potential effects of climate change on riparian areas, wetlands, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems in the Blue Mountains, Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A. Dwire

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Riparian areas, wetlands, and groundwater-dependent ecosystems, which are found at all elevations throughout the Blue Mountains, comprise a small portion of the landscape but have high conservation value because they provide habitat for diverse flora and fauna. The effects of climate change on these special habitats may be especially profound, due to altered snowpack and hydrologic regimes predicted to occur in the near future. The functionality of many riparian areas is currently compromised by water diversions and livestock grazing, which reduces their resilience to additional stresses that a warmer climate may bring. Areas associated with springs and small streams will probably experience near-term changes, and some riparian areas and wetlands may decrease in size over time. A warmer climate and reduced soil moisture could lead to a transition from riparian hardwood species to more drought tolerant conifers and shrubs. Increased frequency and spatial extent of wildfire spreading from upland forests could also affect riparian species composition. The specific effects of climate change will vary, depending on local hydrology (especially groundwater, topography, streamside microclimates, and current conditions and land use. Keywords: Climate change, Groundwater-dependent ecosystems, Riparian areas, Springs, Wetlands

  20. Effects of Climate Change on Cultural Resources in the Northern Rockies Region [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl M. Davis

    2018-01-01

    People have inhabited the Northern Rocky Mountains of the United States since the close of the last Pleistocene glacial period, some 14,000 years B.P. (Fagan 1990; Meltzer 2009). Evidence of this ancient and more recent human occupation is found throughout the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (USFS) Northern Region and the Greater Yellowstone Area,...

  1. Recent invasion of the mountain birch Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa above the treeline due to climate change: genetic and ecological study in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, C; Palmé, A E; Felber, F

    2007-01-01

    Mountain birch, Betula pubescens ssp. tortuosa, forms the treeline in northern Sweden. A recent shift in the range of the species associated with an elevation of the treeline is commonly attributed to climate warming. Using microsatellite markers, we explored the genetic structure of populations along an altitudinal gradient close to the treeline. Low genetic differentiation was found between populations, whereas high genetic diversity was maintained within populations. High level of gene flow compensated for possible losses of genetic diversity at higher elevations and dissipated the founding effect of newly established populations above the treeline. Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed low spatial genetic structure within populations because of extensive gene flow. At the treeline, significant genetic structure within the juvenile age class at small distances did not persist in the adult age class, indicating recent expansion of young recruits due to the warming of the climate. Finally, seedling performance above the treeline was positively correlated with parameters related to temperature. These data confirm the high migration potential of the species in response to fluctuating environmental conditions and indicate that it is now invading higher altitudes due to the recent warming of the climate.

  2. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  3. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  4. Site characterization plan overview: Yucca Mountain Site, Nevada Research and Development Area, Nevada: Consultation Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The consultation draft of the site characterization plan is a lengthy document that describes in considerable detail the program that will be conducted to characterize the geologic, hydrologic, and other conditions relevant to the suitability of the site for a repository. The overview presented here consists of brief summaries of important topics covered in the consultation draft of the site-characterization plan; it is not a substitute for the site-characterization plan. The arrangement of the overview is similar to that of the plan itself, with brief descriptions of the disposal system -- the site, the repository, and the waste package -- preceding the discussion of the characterization program to be carried out at the Yucca Mountain site. It is intended primarily for the management staff of organizations involved in the DOE's repository program -- staff who might wish to understand the general scope of the site-characterization program, the activities to be conducted, and the facilities to be constructed rather than the technical details of site characterization. 22 figs., 1 tab

  5. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    Full Text Available Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  6. Soil types effect on grape and wine composition in Helan Mountain area of Ningxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types--aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine.

  7. Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G.; Glover, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft

  8. Soil Types Effect on Grape and Wine Composition in Helan Mountain Area of Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Sun, Quan; Chang, Qingrui

    2015-01-01

    Different soil types can significantly affect the composition of wine grapes and the final wine product. In this study, the effects of soil types on the composition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes and wine produced in the Helan Mountains were evaluated. Three different representative soil types—aeolian, sierozem and irrigation silting soil were studied. The compositions of grapes and wines were measured, and in addition, the weights of 100-berry samples were determined. The grapes that grown on the aeolian and sierozem soils matured sooner than those grown on the irrigation silting soil. The highest sugar content, total soluble solids content, sugar to acid ratio and anthocyanin content were found in the grapes that grown on the aeolian soil. The wine produced from this soil had improved chroma and tone and higher-quality phenols. The grapes grown on the sierozem soil had the highest total phenol and tannin contents, which affected the wine composition. The grapes grown on the irrigation silting soil had higher acidities, but the remaining indices were lower. In addition, the grapes grown on the aeolian soil resulted in wines with better chroma and aroma. The sierozem soil was beneficial for the formation of wine tannins and phenols and significantly affected the wine composition. The quality of the grapes from the irrigation silting soil was relatively low, resulting in lower-quality wine. PMID:25706126

  9. Investigation of trace uranium content in rock phosphate ore samples from Kurun-Uro area, Nuba Mountains, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Abdel Majid Abdel Galil Mohammed

    1999-07-01

    This investigation was carried out mainly to test the trace uranium level content in rock phosphate, which was used as a low cost fertilizer. Two types of rock phosphate were examined, namely, Kurun and Uro rocks from Nuba Mountains in the Southern Kurdufan province, Sudan.This area has a high background natural radioactivity. Moreover, it contains a rock phosphate zone lying between J. Kurun and Uro. The work included analytical methods carried out for thr rock phosphate samples using spectrophotometric and X-ray fluorescence techniques. The results obtained were compared with the data from literature and they showed a good agreement.The data was statistically analyzed to compare the results by the two techniques. The results of uranium content determined by the two analytical methods were significantly similar.The instrumental analysis revealed that different. Uranium content in the rocks phosphate samples of Uro type was found to be 1.6 times higher than Kurun type. (Author)

  10. Recognition of strong earthquake-prone areas (M ≥ 6.0) within mountain belts of Central Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, Alexander I.; Soloviev, Alexander A.; Panza, Giuliano F.; Aoudia, Abdelkrim

    2003-06-01

    Within mountain belts of Central Europe we identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning method. Some of the delineated nodes host the crustal M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes. To identify all nodes where earthquakes with M ≥ 6.0 may occur, we have employed the pattern-recognition algorithm CORA- 3. The recognized seismogenic nodes are characterized by the contrast in neotectonic movements and by an increased fragmentation of the crust at depth. The results obtained indicate a high seismic potential for the studied area and provide important information for seismic hazard assessment: a number of nodes where strong events have not occurred so far, have been recognized prone to large earthquakes. (author)

  11. Does localized recharge occur at a discharge area within the ground-water flow system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, J.B.; Kroitoru, L.; Ronen, D.; Magaritz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies done in 1984, at a central site on Franklin Lake playa (also known as Alkali Flat, a major discharge area of the ground-water flow system that includes Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the potential site of a high-level nuclear-waste repository) yield limited hydraulic-head and hydrochemical data from a 3-piezometer nest which indicated a slightly downward hydraulic gradient (-0.02) and decreasing concentration of dissolved solids with increasing depth. Hydraulic-head measurements in June, 1989 made at the piezometer nest showed a substantially larger downward gradient (-0.10) and a 0. 83-meter higher water level in the shallowest piezometer (3.29 meters deep), indicating the possibility of localized recharge. during the period of September-November, 1989, a multilevel sampler was used to obtain detailed hydrochemical profiles of the uppermost 1. 5 m of the saturated zone

  12. Spectrophotometric determination of trace uranium in phosphate ore samples from kurum and uro areas, Nuba mountains, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A. A.; Ali, A. H.; Altayeb, M. A. H.

    2004-01-01

    A method was proposed for the spectrophotometric determination of uranium content in phosphate ores. the method is based on the use of nitrogen (v) acid for leaching the rock, and treatment with ammonium carbonate solution, whereby uranium (Vi) is kept in solution as its carbonate complex. The ion-exchange technique was used for the recovery of uranium. Uranium was determined spectrophotometrically by measurement of the absorbance of the yellow uranium (Vi)-8-hydroxyquinolate complex at λ 425 nm. The procedure was used for the determination of trace uranium content in 30 phosphate ore samples collected from Kurun and Uro areas in Nuba mountains in Sudan. X-ray fluorescence technique was employed for the assessment of the method used. The spectrophotometric method results show a high similarity with those obtained by XRF technique. This agreement indicates that the procedure proposed here has been successfully applied for the determination of uranium in phosphate ores. (Author)

  13. Chemical composition of ground water and the locations of permeable zones in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, L.V.; Robison, J.H.; Blankennagel, R.K.; Ogard, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    Ten wells in the Yucca Mountain area of southern Nevada have been sampled for chemical analysis. Samples were obtained during pumping of water from the entire well bore (composite sample) and in one instance by pumping water from a single isolated interval in well UE-25b number 1. Sodium is the most abundant cation and bicarbonate the most abundant anion in all water samples. Although the general chemical compositions of individual samples are similar, there are significant differences in uncorrected carbon-14 age and in inorganic and stable-isotope composition. Flow surveys of seven wells performed using iodine-131 as a tracer indicate that ground-water production is usually from one or more discrete zones of permeability. 7 references, 12 figures, 1 table

  14. PM10 modeling in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) by using multivariate adaptive regression splines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Paulino José García; Antón, Juan Carlos Álvarez; Vilán, José Antonio Vilán; García-Gonzalo, Esperanza

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research work is to build a regression model of the particulate matter up to 10 micrometers in size (PM10) by using the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) technique in the Oviedo urban area (Northern Spain) at local scale. This research work explores the use of a nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) which has the ability to approximate the relationship between the inputs and outputs, and express the relationship mathematically. In this sense, hazardous air pollutants or toxic air contaminants refer to any substance that may cause or contribute to an increase in mortality or serious illness, or that may pose a present or potential hazard to human health. To accomplish the objective of this study, the experimental dataset of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3) and dust (PM10) were collected over 3 years (2006-2008) and they are used to create a highly nonlinear model of the PM10 in the Oviedo urban nucleus (Northern Spain) based on the MARS technique. One main objective of this model is to obtain a preliminary estimate of the dependence between PM10 pollutant in the Oviedo urban area at local scale. A second aim is to determine the factors with the greatest bearing on air quality with a view to proposing health and lifestyle improvements. The United States National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) establishes the limit values of the main pollutants in the atmosphere in order to ensure the health of healthy people. Firstly, this MARS regression model captures the main perception of statistical learning theory in order to obtain a good prediction of the dependence among the main pollutants in the Oviedo urban area. Secondly, the main advantages of MARS are its capacity to produce simple, easy-to-interpret models, its ability to estimate the contributions of the input variables, and its computational efficiency. Finally, on the basis of

  15. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-02-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 and UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN {number_sign}92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and UE-29 a{number_sign}2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a{number_sign}2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN {number_sign}91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells.

  16. Selected hydrologic data from Fortymile Wash in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, water year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Precipitation totals of 245 and 210 mm were measured at UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 and UE-29 UZN number-sign 92 respectively, during the 1992 water year, October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Approximately ninety percent of the precipitation fell during the period December 27 to April 2. Localized streamflow was generated in the Fortymile Wash drainage basin during the February 12-15, 1992 and March 31, 1992 precipitation, and infiltrated into the streambed materials. The streamflow went across the UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 neutron-access borehole location and within several meters of the UE-29 UZN number-sign 92 location. Neutron logging in these boreholes showed increases in the volumetric water content of the unsaturated alluvium and indicated streamflow infiltrated to a depth of approximately 5 meters. The volumetric water content in the upper 5 meters then gradually decreased during the remaining part of the water year. Ground-water levels rose over one meter in wells UE-29 a number-sign 1 and UE-29 a number-sign 2, and one-half meter in neutron-access borehole LJE-29 UZN number-sign 91 following the streamflows. Water level declines of 0.5 meter in UE-29 a number-sign 1 and rises of 0.2 meter in UE-29 a number-sign 2 and 0.1 meter in UE-29 UZN number-sign 91 coincided with a June 29, 1992 earthquake at the Little Skull Mountain, located approximately 27 kilometers southeast of the wells

  17. Application of geochemical exploration in the Kap Franklin Area, Northern East Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzendorf, H.; Friedrich, G.H.W.; Koensler, W.; Steenfelt, A.

    1978-02-01

    More than 800 stream sediments, soil, seepage soil and water samples collected during the field seasons of 1974 and 1975 in the Kap Franklin area, northern East Greenland, were analysed for K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe by radioisotope energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence, and for U by delayed-neutron counting. Samples were also analysed for V, Cu, Zn and Pb by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Areas with known mineralization are outlined by anomalous Zn and Pb contents in stream sediments and soils. A predominantly mechanical dispersion mechanism is deduced from the similarity in the chemistry of bedrock, stream sediments and soils. Narrow dispersion halos following from this observation suggest that dense sampling procedures are required. The usefulness of Cu, Zn and Pb water geochemistry is not proved. There is reasonable agreement between a reconnaissance study and detailed investigations carried out in 1974 and 1975, respectively. The distribution patterns for Cu, Zn, Pb, and U were more clearly displayed by means of the detailed sampling, and the metal contents in stream sediments were found to decrease rapidly downstream. Soil and seepage soil sampling between tributaries was shown to be advantageous. A test of daily and weekly variations of Cu, Zn, and Pb in stream sediments of selected sampling sites demonstrated changes in the metal contents of generally less than 10 per cent. Data from soil samples in the Randboeldal clearly outline the extent of U mineralisation. There is good correlation between U, and Zn and Pb in both stream sediments and soil. (author)

  18. A study on groundwater infiltration in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Hideharu; Yamamoto, Yoichi; Maekawa, Keisuke; Hara, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    In the Horonobe area of northern Hokkaido, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been carrying out various hydrological observations to estimate the recharge rate. Subsurface earth temperature and soil moisture content have been observed at HGW-1 site (GL-0.7m to GL-2.3m, since 2005) and Hokushin Meteorological Station (GL-0.1m to GL-1.1m, since 2008). The results have revealed groundwater infiltration and recharge occurring throughout year, the shallow groundwater-infiltration velocity depending on the depth and the position of the Zero Flux Plane. For the estimation of boundary conditions in groundwater flow simulation, in this study, the shallow groundwater-flow system has been examined qualitatively on the basis of the variation of the subsurface earth temperature and the soil moisture content. In the future, it is necessary to quantitatively assess the shallow groundwater infiltration and recharge rate, the intermediate runoff, and the evapotranspiration based on the observed data of the weighing lysimeter, and the other measurement stations in the area. (author)

  19. Distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouras, A.; Katsoyiannis, I.; Voutsa, D.

    2007-01-01

    An integrate study aiming at the occurrence and distribution of arsenic in groundwater in the area of Chalkidiki, Northern Greece has been carried out. Groundwater samples from public water supply wells and private wells were analysed for arsenic and other quality parameters (T, pH, EC, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, HCO 3 , NO 3 , SO 4 , B, Fe, Mn). Arsenic showed high spatial variation; ranged from 0.001 to 1.840 mg/L. Almost 65% of the examined groundwaters exhibit arsenic concentrations higher than the maximum concentration limit of 0.010 mg/L, proposed for water intended for human consumption. Correlation analysis and principal component analysis were employed to find out possible relationships among the examined parameters and groundwater samples. Arsenic is highly correlated with potassium, boron, bicarbonate, sodium, manganese and iron suggesting common geogenic origin of these elements and conditions that enhance their mobility. Three groups of groundwater with different physicochemical characteristics were found in the study area: (a) groundwater with extremely high arsenic concentrations (1.6-1.9 mg/L) and high temperature (33-42 deg. C) from geothermal wells, (b) groundwater with relatively high arsenic concentrations (>0.050 mg/L), lower temperatures and relatively high concentrations of major ions, iron and manganese and, (c) groundwater with low arsenic concentrations that fulfil the proposed limits for dinking water

  20. Emerging feed markets for ruminant production in urban and peri-urban areas of Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlan, S P; Ayantunde, A A; Addah, W; Dei, H K; Karbo, N

    2018-01-01

    Feed shortage in urban and peri-urban areas has triggered the emergence of feed markets in Northern Ghana. These markets were surveyed at three locations (Tamale, Bolgatanga, and Wa markets) to determine types and prices of feedstuffs sold across seasons; early dry (November-January), late dry (February-April), early wet (May-July), and main wet (August-October). Semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Three samples of each feed type in the markets were bought from three different sellers per market in each season. The samples were oven dried to constant weight and price/kg DM of each feed determined. The total respondents were 169. Out of this number, 41% were feed sellers, 46% buyers, and 13% retailers. The feedstuffs found were crop residues (groundnut haulm and cowpea haulm), agro-industrial by-products (bran of maize, rice, and sorghum), fresh grasses (Rotteboellia cochinchinensis), and local browses (Ficus sp. and Pterocarpus erinaceous). Prices of feeds differed (P  0.05) in all seasons but that of crop residues were higher (P < 05) in early to late dry season than the wet season. Majority (90%) of respondents opined that the feed market will expand due to increasing number of livestock population in the peri-urban areas.

  1. Soil-Gas Radon Anomaly Map of an Unknown Fault Zone Area, Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udphuay, S.; Kaweewong, C.; Imurai, W.; Pondthai, P.

    2015-12-01

    Soil-gas radon concentration anomaly map was constructed to help detect an unknown subsurface fault location in San Sai District, Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand where a 5.1-magnitude earthquake took place in December 2006. It was suspected that this earthquake may have been associated with an unrecognized active fault in the area. In this study, soil-gas samples were collected from eighty-four measuring stations covering an area of approximately 50 km2. Radon in soil-gas samples was quantified using Scintrex Radon Detector, RDA-200. The samplings were conducted twice: during December 2014-January 2015 and March 2015-April 2015. The soil-gas radon map obtained from this study reveals linear NNW-SSE trend of high concentration. This anomaly corresponds to the direction of the prospective fault system interpreted from satellite images. The findings from this study support the existence of this unknown fault system. However a more detailed investigation should be conducted in order to confirm its geometry, orientation and lateral extent.

  2. Monitoring land use/land cover transformations from 1945 to 2007 in two peri-urban mountainous areas of Athens metropolitan area, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinis, Giorgos; Koutsias, Nikos; Arianoutsou, Margarita

    2014-08-15

    The aims of this study were to map and analyze land use/land cover transitions and landscape changes in the Parnitha and Penteli mountains, which surround the Athens metropolitan area of Attica, Greece over a period of 62 years. In order to quantify the changes between land categories through time, we computed the transition matrices for three distinct periods (1945-1960, 1960-1996, and 1996-2007), on the basis of available aerial photographs used to create multi-temporal maps. We identified systematic and stationary transitions with multi-level intensity analysis. Forest areas in Parnitha remained the dominant class of land cover throughout the 62 years studied, while transitional woodlands and shrublands were the main classes involved in LULC transitions. Conversely, in Penteli, transitional woodlands, along with shrublands, dominated the study site. The annual rate of change was faster in the first and third time intervals, compared to the second (1960-1996) time interval, in both study areas. The category level analysis results indicated that in both sites annual crops avoided to gain while discontinuous urban fabric avoided to lose areas. At the transition level of analysis, similarities as well as distinct differences existed between the two areas. In both sites the gaining pattern of permanent crops with respect to annual crops and the gain of forest with respect to transitional woodland/shrublands were stationary across the three time intervals. Overall, we identified more systematic transitions and stationary processes in Penteli. We discussed these LULC changes and associated them with human interference (activity) and other major socio-economic developments that were simultaneously occurring in the area. The different patterns of change of the areas, despite their geographical proximity, throughout the period of analysis imply that site-specific studies are needed in order to comprehensively assess the driving forces and develop models of landscape

  3. Climatology of summer midtropospheric perturbations in the US northern plains. Part II: large-scale effects of the Rocky Mountains on genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shih-Yu. [Iowa State University, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Ames, IA (United States); Utah State University, Utah Climate Center, Logan, UT (United States); Chen, Tsing-Chang [Iowa State University, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Ames, IA (United States); Takle, Eugene S. [Iowa State University, Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State University, Department of Agronomy, Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Propagating convective storms across the US northern plains are often coupled with preexisting midtropospheric perturbations (MPs) initiated over the Rocky Mountains. A companion study (Part I) notes that such MPs occur most commonly at 12 UTC (early morning) and 00 UTC (late afternoon). Using a regional reanalysis and a general circulation model (GCM), this study investigates how such a bimodal distribution of the MP frequency is formed. The results point to two possible mechanisms working together while each has a different timing in terms of maximum effect. The diurnal evolutions between the midtropospheric flows over the Rockies and over the Great Plains are nearly out-of-phase due to inertial oscillation. During the nighttime, the westerly flows at 700-500 mb over the Rockies intensify while flows at the same level over the Great Plains turn easterly. These two flows converge over the eastern Rockies and induce cyclonic vorticity through vortex stretching. After sunrise, the convergence dissipates and the cyclonic vorticity is redistributed by horizontal vorticity advection, moving it downstream. This process creates a climatological zonally propagating vorticity signal which, in turn, facilitates the early-morning MP genesis at 12 UTC. The analysis also reveals marked dynamic instability conducive to subsynoptic-scale disturbances in the midtroposphere over the Rockies. Strong meridional temperature gradients appear over the north-facing slopes of the Rockies due to terrain heating to the south and the presence of cooler air to the north. This feature, along with persistent vertical shear, creates a Charney-Stern type of instability (i.e. sign changes of the meridional potential vorticity gradient). Meanwhile, the development of terrain boundary layer reduces the Rossby deformation radius which, subsequently, enhances the likelihood for baroclinic short waves. Such effects are most pronounced in the late afternoon and therefore are supportive to the MP

  4. AHP 35: An Abandoned Mountain Deity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limusishiden (Li Dechun 李得春

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Lasizi are cairns where mountain deities dwell, and the same word also refers to the deities that dwell in these cairns. There are many lasizi in Tu areas in Huzhu Tu Autonomous County, Haidong Municipality, Qinghai Province. The most famous are: Chileb, located in the north part of both Danma Town and Donggou Township Durizang, located in the northern part of Wushi Town Lawa, located atop a mountain on the border between Danma Town and Wushi Town. The mountain is referred to as Lawa Lasizi. Lawa Village is located at the foot of Lawa Lasizi's west side, which is within Danma Town territory. Tughuan Village is located at the foot of Lawa Lasizi's east side, which belongs is within Wushi Town jurisdiction. Sughua, located atop a mountain on the border between Danma Town and Dongshan Township. The mountain is locally known as Sughua Lasizi. Qighaan Dawa Village is located at the foot of Sughua Lasizi's west side, which is part of Dongshan Township. Sughua Village is located at the foot of Sughua Lasizi's east side, which is part of belongs Danma Town. Walighuan, located atop a mountain in Hongyazigou Township and Sunduu, located on the border between Songduo and Bazha (two autonomous Tibetan townships in Huzhu County and Ledu Region. ...

  5. On the influence of topographic, geological and cryospheric factors on rock avalanches and rockfalls in high-mountain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fischer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the effects of changes in the high-mountain cryosphere on rockfalls and rock avalanches suggests a need for more knowledge about characteristics and distribution of recent rock-slope instabilities. This paper investigates 56 sites with slope failures between 1900 and 2007 in the central European Alps with respect to their geological and topographical settings and zones of possible permafrost degradation and glacial recession. Analyses of the temporal distribution show an increase in frequency within the last decades. A large proportion of the slope failures (60% originated from a relatively small area above 3000 m a.s.l. (i.e. 10% of the entire investigation area. This increased proportion of detachment zones above 3000 m a.s.l. is postulated to be a result of a combination of factors, namely a larger proportion of high slope angles, high periglacial weathering due to recent glacier retreat (almost half of the slope failures having occurred in areas with recent deglaciation, and widespread permafrost occurrence. The lithological setting appears to influence volume rather than frequency of a slope failure. However, our analyses show that not only the changes in cryosphere, but also other factors which remain constant over long periods play an important role in slope failures.

  6. Soil movements and surface erosion rates on rocky slopes in the mountain areas of the karst region of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. B.; Bai, X. Y.; Long, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The karst region of Southwest China with an area of 54 × 104 km2 is one of the largest karst areas in the world and experiences subtropical climate. Hill-depressions are common landforms in the mountain areas of this region. Downslope soil movement on the ground by surface water erosion and soil sinking into underground holes by creeping or pipe erosion are mayor types of soil movements on rocky carbonate slopes. The 137Cs technique was used to date the sediment deposits in six karst depressions, to estimate average surface erosion rates on slopes from their catchments. The estimates of soil loss rates obtained from this study evidenced considerable variability. A value of 1.0 t km-2 year-1 was obtained for a catchment under original dense karst forest, but the erosion rates ranged between 19.3 t km-2 year-1 and 48.7 t km-2 year-1 in four catchments under secondary forest or grasses, where the original forest cover had been removed in the Ming and Qing dynasties, several hundred years ago. The highest rate of 1643 t km-2 year-1 was obtained for a catchment underlain by clayey carbonate rocks, where the soil cover was thicker and more extensive than in the other catchments and extensive land reclamation for cultivation had occurred during the period 1979-1981, immediately after the Cultural Revolution.

  7. Common property organisations as actors in rural development: a case study of a mountain area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bassi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Consorzi Vicinali are common property organisations (CPOs located in a mountain area of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, in North East Italy. These CPOs have a long history of mutual assistance and collective use and management of local resources, thus contributing to a balanced development of the local community and territory. The research aimed at investigating whether these historical CPOs still have a relevant role to play in the development of local rural areas, and how they deal with the present needs and opportunities of these areas. Specifically, the robustness and viability of these organisations were analysed. The survey revealed some strengths and weaknesses of the Consorzi Vicinali. According to Ostrom’s design principles, the robustness is quite high. Nevertheless, this ability to maintain some desired characteristics despite internal and external fluctuations does not always match with a high viability, in terms of natural resource management, internal participation, creation of job opportunities especially for young people, and capacity to attract financial support. In fact, some Consorzi still act effectively in terms of the collective stewardship of rural resources. Whereas, others have the potential to adapt to new challenges and emerging needs, due to the deep rootedness and the sense of belonging of the local community to its territory. These are the strengths of all the Consorzi. The robustness and viability analyses used in a complementary way have been effective here in giving a more comprehensive description of CPOs and their (potential role in rural development.

  8. Using crowd-sourced photos to assess seasonal patterns of visitor use in mountain-protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Rossi, Sebastian Dario; Barros, Agustina; Pickering, Catherine; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2018-02-12

    Managing protected areas effectively requires information about patterns of visitor use, but these data are often limited. We explore how geotagged photos on Flickr, a popular photo-sharing social-media site, can generate hotspot maps and distribution models of temporal and spatial patterns of use in two mountain-protected areas of high conservation value. In Aconcagua Provincial Park (Argentina), two routes to the summit of Aconcagua were used in summer, but most visitors stayed close to the main road, using formal and informal walking trails and the Visitor Centre, while in winter, there was very limited visitation. In Kosciuszko National Park (Australia), alpine walking trails were popular in summer, but in winter, most visitors stayed in the lower altitude ski resorts and ski trails. Results demonstrate the usefulness of social-media data alone as well as a complement for visitor monitoring, providing spatial and temporal information for site-specific and park-level management of visitors and potential impacts in conservation areas.

  9. Why Gas Hydrate Occurrenced Over Topographic Highs in Shenhu Area Northern South China Sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Methane gas hydrate has been drilled by China Geological Survey in shenhu area northern south china sea in 2007 .Shenhu area is located in the middle-lower continental slope and 17 submarine canyons are incised into the shelf,gas hydrtae was observed in boreholes over topographic highs,but origin of the hydrate is controversial.Accumulation of gas hydrate is depending on temperature-pressure field and supply quantities of methane and some other factors,in the same depth of the shallow sediments there is the same press,so temperature field and supply quantities of methane become the most important factors.Lachenbruch(1968) calculated the topographic disturbance to geothermal gradients,in shenhu area consistent local variations were observed, notably low heat flow values over prominent topographic highs and high heat flow values over the flanks of the topographic highs. At some localities over a horizontal distance of 2.5 km, heat flow increased by as much as 50%, from typical values of 65 to 100 mW/m2 .Some vertical fractures were observed beneath topographic highs in previous studies.Based on the profile across borehole SH7,we designed four experiments:A,uniform distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;B,Uniform distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs;C,uneven distribution of heat flux with no vertical fractures;D,uneven distribution of heat flux with vertical fractures beneath geographic highs.According to previous studies,we restored Palaeobathymetry,abundance of organic matters, sandstone-madstone ratio ,porosity and permeability of each,and parameters of vertical fractures.The result of experiment D shows the similar distribution characteristic with the drilling result,so We believe that low heat flux and Vertical fractures are the most important factors . This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China(grant no. 41406080).

  10. Geologic Map of the House Rock Valley Area, Coconino County, Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, George H.; Priest, Susan S.

    2010-01-01

    This geologic map is a cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Bureau of Land Management, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Forest Service to provide a geologic database for resource management officials and visitor information services. This map was produced in response to information needs related to a proposed withdrawal of three segregated land areas near Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, from new hard rock mining activity. House Rock Valley was designated as the east parcel of the segregated lands near the Grand Canyon. This map was needed to provide connectivity for the geologic framework of the Grand Canyon segregated land areas. This geologic map of the House Rock Valley area encompasses approximately 280 mi2 (85.4 km2) within Coconino County, northern Arizona, and is bounded by longitude 111 degrees 37'30' to 112 degrees 05' W. and latitude 36 degrees 30' to 36 degrees 50' N. The map area is in the eastern part of the Arizona Strip, which lies within the southern Colorado Plateaus geologic province (herein Colorado Plateau). The Arizona Strip is the part of Arizona lying north of the Colorado River. The map is bound on the east by the Colorado River in Marble Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, on the south and west by the Kaibab National Forest and Grand Canyon National Game Preserve, and on the north by the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, the Paria Canyon Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness Area, and the Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. House Rock State Buffalo Ranch also bounds the southern edge of the map area. The Bureau of Land Management Arizona Field Office in St. George, Utah, manages public lands of the Vermilion Cliffs Natural Area, Paria Canyon - Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness and Vermilion Cliffs National Monument. The North Kaibab Ranger District in Fredonia, Arizona, manages U.S. Forest Service land along the west edge of the map area and House Rock State Buffalo Ranch

  11. Comparison of two down-scaling methods for climate study and climate change on the mountain areas in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, Marie; Page, Christian; Sanchez-Gomez, Emilia; Terray, Laurent; Deque, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Mountain regions are highly vulnerable to climate change and are likely to be among the areas most impacted by global warming. But climate projections for the end of the 21. century are developed with general circulation models of climate, which do not present a sufficient horizontal resolution to accurately evaluate the impacts of warming on these regions. Several techniques are then used to perform a spatial down-scaling (on the order of 10 km). There are two categories of down-scaling methods: dynamical methods that require significant computational resources for the achievement of regional climate simulations at high resolution, and statistical methods that require few resources but an observation dataset over a long period and of good quality. In this study, climate simulations of the global atmospheric model ARPEGE projections over France are down-scaled according to a dynamical method, performed with the ALADIN-Climate regional model, and a statistical method performed with the software DSClim developed at CERFACS. The two down-scaling methods are presented and the results on the climate of the French mountains are evaluated for the current climate. Both methods give similar results for average snowfall. However extreme events of total precipitation (droughts, intense precipitation events) are largely underestimated by the statistical method. Then, the results of both methods are compared for two future climate projections, according to the greenhouse gas emissions scenario A1B of IPCC. The two methods agree on fewer frost days, a significant decrease in the amounts of solid precipitation and an average increase in the percentage of dry days of more than 10%. The results obtained on Corsica are more heterogeneous but they are questionable because the reduced spatial domain is probably not very relevant regarding statistical sampling. (authors)

  12. The mountains influence on Turkey Climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensoy, Serhat

    2004-01-01

    Since the Black sea mountains at the north of the country and the Taurus mountains in the south lay parallel to the seashore and rise very sharply rain clouds can not penetrate to the internal part of the country. Rain clouds drops most of their water on the slopes opposite the sea. As rain clouds pass over the mountains and reach Central Anatolia they have no significant capability of rain. For this reason, the Central Anatolia does not have very much precipitation. The difference between the rates of precipitation on the inner and outer slopes seems to be effective on the expansion of plants. For example, there is a subtropical climate prevailing on the Black sea shore between Sinop and Batum where precipitation is more than 1000-2000 mm yearly. Going from Sinop to the mouth of the Sakarya River the rate of precipitation goes down to 800-1250 mm in a year. Running from the Sakarya River to the western area covering Thrace the climate seems to be continental, and in the area dominant plant cover is of the Mediterranean type. Since the succession of the mountains in Western Anatolia lay perpendicular to the seashore, rain clouds penetrate towards the inner regions for about 400 km. The continental climate with long, dry and summer affects this area. In the Eastern region of Anatolia, since the elevation of the mountains exceeds 2500-3000 m, valleys are disorderly scattered and located at high elevations, and the northern Black sea mountains and Caucasian mountains hold the rain clouds, the area is effected by the continental climate with long and very cold winters. Consequently precipitation at the lgdir River goes down to 300 mm while it is 500-800 mm in most of areas and 1000-1500 mm in some regions towards northern Mu and Bingol provinces. As mentioned above, high mountains, which hold rain clouds, surround the Central Anatolia, which has caused drought in this region. In the central Anatolia covering Afyon, Eski hir, Ankara, Qankiri, Qorum, Amasya, Kayseri

  13. Tourism in protected natural areas: Ecotourism of the Fruška Gora mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujko Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas can provide opportunities for multiple benefits: income generation and job creation, research and monitoring, for training in protected areas, recreation and tourism. The main objective of this paper is to present the identification, evaluation and use of indicators of sustainable tourism development in the National Park and to show that ecotourism is a sustainable and desirable form of tourism in protected areas. The main hypothesis of the work that went was to explore ways of managing sensitive Tourist destinations such as national parks, with quantitative and qualitative information as to what the future may increase the sustainability of ecotourism development in Serbia. One of the basic method that we have tried to get such data was the SWOT analysis.

  14. Cancellation of a wind farm project in an area covered by the Mountain law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    In April 2017 the court of appeal of Marseille (South-East France) had to deal with the cancellation request of a prefectorial order authorizing the building of 9 wind turbines. The court, after appraisal of the quality of the area in concern and of the landscape impacts this project should generate, considered that the project would effectively strongly impact the natural areas and thus has ordered the cancellation of the prefectorial order. This paper presents the explanatory statement and the conclusions of the judgement

  15. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  16. Isotope techniques to identify recharge areas of springs for rainwater harvesting in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli district, Uttarakhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivanna, K.; Tirumalesh, K.; Noble, J.; Joseph, T.B.; Singh, Gursharan; Joshi, A.P.; Khati, V.S.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental isotope techniques have been employed to identify the recharge areas of springs in India, in order to construct artificial recharge structures for rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation for their rejuvenation. A model project was taken up in the mountainous region of Gaucher area, Chamoli District, Uttarakhand for this purpose. The springs in this regions are seasonal and are derived from seepage waters flowing through the shallow weathered and fractured zone. The chemistry of high-altitude springs is similar to that of precipitation, whereas water-rock interactions contributes to increased mineralization in low-altitude springs. The stable isotopic variation in precipitation suggests that the altitude effect for Gaucher area is -0.55% for δ 18 O and -3.8% for δ 2 H per 100 m rise in altitude. Based on local geology, geomorphology, hydrochemistry and isotope information, the possible recharge areas inferred for valleys 1, 2 and 3 are located at altitudes of 1250, 1330 and 1020 m amsl respectively. Water conservation and recharge structures such as subsurface dykes, check bunds and contour trenches were constructed at the identified recharge areas in the respective valleys for controlling the subsurface flow, rainwater harvesting and groundwater augmentation respectively. As a result, during and after the following monsoon, the discharge rates of the springs not only increased significantly, but also did not dry up even during the dry period. The study shows that the isotope techniques can be effectively used in identifying recharge areas of springs in the Himalayan region. It also demonstrates the advantage of isotope techniques over conventional methods. (author)

  17. A Dense Small-Scale Seismic Network in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Northern Tanzania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, L.; Lombardo, L.; Rodriguez-Mustafa, M.; Mai, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    A temporary deployment consisting of sixteen broadband seismic stations is conducted for the first time in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA, Northern Tanzania), located at the boundary between the Tanzanian Craton and East African Rift. A deep knowledge of the faulting systems and tectonics of the area is needed to better understand the contribution of the synsedimentary faults to the deposition of the Olduvai and surrounding basins affecting the landscapes of the Homo Habilis first settlements. Complex fault systems have been mapped in the field but their connection, especially at depth, is not well known. A first batch of ten instruments was installed in June 2016. In June 2017 two stations were dismissed and a second batch of six stations was installed in new locations. The current network of fourteen stations will record until May 2018. Stations are equipped with Nanometrics Trillium Compact Posthole 120 s sensor and Centaur digitiser recording continuously at 200 Hz. The whole network covers 1400 km2 and station interspace ranges from 8 to 15 km. We analyse probabilistic power spectra densities of the seismic noise to obtain insights of its origin and test the performances of the stations. Although factories do not exist in the area and most of the stations are far from roads, ambient noise in the range 0.01 - 1 s is relatively high (between -120 dB and -100dB at 0.1 s) probably because of the abundance of livestock living in the NCA. Ambient noise in the period range 1 - 10 s (secondary microseisms) decreases from east to west. Although the main source of the microseisms is located in the Indian Ocean (east of the study area), a contribution from the low period tremors coming from the nearby active volcano Ol Doinyo Lengai (north-east of the study area) is expected. Whereas the longer period noise (10 - 100 s) is very low in the vertical component seismograms, it is higher than the high noise model in the horizontal components for most of the stations

  18. THE NEOPROTEROZOIC ISLAND-ARC ASSOCIATION OF THE MUKODEK GOLD-ORE FIELD, NORTHERN BAIKAL AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Vanin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosed volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite were studied in the Mukodek gold-ore field located in the Baikal-Muya belt in the Northern Baikal area, Russia. The Ushmukan suite shows interleaving of ortoschists which compositions are widely variable. Basalt-andesite-dacite series of normal alkalinity are the substrate of the studied metavolcanic rocks. Based on the set of geochemical characteristics, it is concluded that the rocks were formed in suprasubduction geodynamic conditions corresponding to a mature island arc. The proximity of the geological locations and the similarity of the geochemical characteristics of the volcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite and rocks of the Kelyan suite (Neoproterozoic, 823 Ma, which have similar compositions, give grounds to consider these two rock suites as age peers. Specific features of gold distribution through the Mukodek gold-ore field are analyzed. Industrial gold contents are recorded only in berezite-listvenite metasomatic rocks of the gold-quartz-sulfide formation which were formed on metavolcanic rocks of the Ushmukan suite. It is concluded that the volcanic rocks, which are specific of the island-arc setting, could be a source of gold for deposits in the Mukodek gold-ore field. 

  19. Characterization of necrophagus entomofauna in a typical agricultural area in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Calzolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a checklist of Dipterans and Coleopterans accountable for carrion decay in the Po Valley (Italy, a contribution to the Forensic Entomology knowledge in Italy. Insects colonizing two pig carcasses in an agricultural area in Mezzani municipality (Parma, Northern Italy were sampled by pitfall traps and original Malaise-like traps, which allowed the sampling of a very relevant number of flying insects. A checklist of 57 taxa was obtained, of which 26 were considered of forensic importance. For the latter the arrival time of adult specimens on the carcasses was recorded, as an important parameter in minimum post mortem interval estimation. Dipterans (6141 specimens were the most common insects; the fastest specimens to detect and colonize the carcass belonged to the Calliphoridae family, while Fanniidae and Muscidae infested the carrion until completion of the skeletal stage. Coleopterans appeared later (308 adult specimens and 114 larvae were captured. Staphylinidae, Dermestidae, and Histeridae were the most common coleopterans sampled in this study.

  20. Attitudes Towards Forest Elephant Conservation Around a Protected Area in Northern Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicien Nsonsi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of local attitudes towards conservation can guide wildlife managers in the effective application of measurements to improve these perceptions. Here we conducted a quantitative questionnaire survey around a protected area in northern Congo surveying 314 households living in four villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park. We investigated the impact of the benefits of a conservation project (led by an international non-governmental organisation, the experience with human-elephant conflict and the respondents' socio-economic profile on local people's attitudes towards forest elephant conservation. Using multivariate analysis, we found overall positive attitudes towards elephant conservation with more positive answers in the village where a conservation project is based. Furthermore, people employed in the conservation project stated more positive attitudes compared to logging company employees famers, natural resource users and people conducting other jobs. Experience of human elephant conflict negatively impacted people's perceptions. Socio-economic variables, such as ethnic group, education level or salary category had relatively little impact on people's responses. Qualitative statements largely supported the questionnaire results. We discuss our results in the light of the limits of attitude surveys and suggest further investigations to identify the activities needed to foster positive attitudes for elephant conservation in all villages around the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park in partnership with the logging company.

  1. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  2. 78 FR 60690 - Establishment of the Moon Mountain District Sonoma County Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... rule; Treasury Decision. SUMMARY: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) establishes the... describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is...

  3. Groundwater Study of the Rocky Mountain Arsenal and Some Surrounding Area, 1974 - 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Table 3. From the sampling, Lake F was found to contain a l~er concentration of OCPD than that found in the groundwaters. In addition, very high copper...be the influent area to Lake F. (3) Reclamation of the groundwater for DIMP Is reco..ended. (4) Reclmatlon of OCPD frca, tli, groundwater appears

  4. Glade/woodland restoration in the St. Francis Mountain Bird Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Hasenbeck

    2007-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC), the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, the U.S. Forest Service, and American Bird Conservancy, share goals to restore and manage high quality glade, savanna, and woodland habitats within the Saint Francis Bird Conservation Area. The partnership endeavors to maintain and enhance an ecosystem with native glade and...

  5. Anatexis, hybridization and the modification of ancient crust: Mesozoic plutonism in the Old Woman Mountains area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.F.; Wooden, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A compositionally expanded array of granitic (s.l.) magmas intruded the > 2 Ga crust of the Old Woman Mountains area between 160 and 70 Ma. These magmas were emplaced near the eastern (inland) edge of the Jurassic/Cretaceous arcs of western North America, in an area where magma flux, especially during the Jurassic, was considerably lower than to the west. The Jurassic intrusives and over half of the Cretaceous intrusives are predominantly metaluminous and variable in composition; a major Cretaceous suite comprises only peraluminous monzogranite. Only the Jurassic intrusions show clear evidence for the presence of mafic liquids. All units, including the most mafic rocks, reveal isotopic evidence for a significant crustal component. However, none of the Mesozoic intrusives matches in isotopic composition either average pre-intrusion crust or any major unit of the exposed crust. Elemental inconsistencies also preclude closed system derivation from exposed crust. Emplacement of these magmas, which doubled the volume of the mid- to upper crust, did not dramatically change its elemental composition. It did, however, affect its Nd and especially Sr isotopic composition and modify some of the distinctive aspects of the elemental chemistry. We propose that Jurassic magmatism was open-system, with a major influx of mantle-derived mafic magma interacting strongly with the ancient crust. Mesozoic crustal thickening may have led to closed-system crustal melting by the Late Cretaceous, but the deep crust had been profoundly modified by earlier Mesozoic hybridization so that crustal melts did not simply reflect the original crustal composition. The clear evidence for a crustal component in magmas of the Old Woman Mountains area may not indicate any fundamental differences from the processes at work elsewhere in this or other magmatic arcs where the role of pre-existing crust is less certain. Rather, a compositionally distinctive, very old crust may simply have yielded a more

  6. Entrepreneurial Human Capital Accumulation and the Growth of Rural Businesses: A Four-Country Survey in Mountainous and Lagging Areas of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuras, Dimitris; Meccheri, Nicolas; Moreira, Manuel Belo; Rosell, Jordi; Stathopoulou, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the processes of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation and its impact on rural business growth. Data are derived from four surveys on rural businesses in mountainous and less favoured areas in Southern Europe. Formal pathways of entrepreneurial human capital accumulation refer to education and training, while informal…

  7. [Growth and developmental rhythm of Scrophularia ningpoensisin southwest middle mountain area of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue; Chen, Da-Xia; Li, Long-Yun; Yang, Xian; Song, Xu-Hong

    2014-10-01

    Plant samples were collected and investigated periodically. According to the growth of different parts and the characteristics of dry substance accumulation of Scrophularia ningpoensis, the development of S. ningpoensis could be divided into four stages: seeding stage, stem and leaf growth stage, expanding period of root tubers, and dry substance accumulation stage of root tuber. Leaf numbers of S. ningpoensis grew gradually from one at first to 370 at the final stage, main stem leaf were 50 pieces. Leaf size increasesed with the fastest growth at the stem and leaf growth stage, average daily increase amount was 225 cm2. By the middle of August, leaf size reached to 16,270 cm2. Leaf area indexrose sharply in the seeding stage, and remained above 8 among stem and leaf growth stage and expanding period of root tubers, and rapidly reduced to zero in the stage of dry substance accumulation of root tuber. Leaf area ratio has a tendency of obvious dropping. The net assimilation rate had a small change ranges, two small peak were seeding stage and dry substance accumulation of root tuber. The value of specific leaf area was higher in seeding stage, and in the earlier stage of dry substance accumulation of root tuber. Relative growth rate changed with large ranges, higher in seeding stage, rapid decrease in stem and leaf growth stage, rose in expanding period of root tubers, and declined again in the stage of dry substance accumulation of root tuber. Crop growth rate was higher in the first and last stages, and smaller in interim stage. The growth parameters of S. ningpoensis such as relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf area index, leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, crop growth rate changed along with the growth. The rule of dry matter accumulation was as follows: the dry matter increased slowly during the seeding stage and speeded up in the middle and late stages, and in dry substance accumulation of root tuber increased slower, the growth of dry matter all

  8. Geological research for hot spring resources in the Kanno-kawa area, Tsukui-machi, Tanzawa mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-03-01

    The Kanno-kawa area is mainly composed of the following geological units: miocene submarine pyroclastic formation and its associated augite dolerite sheets, quartz diorite intrusive, and hornblende andesite dykes. The Miocene pyroclastic rocks mainly consist of tuff, tuff breccia, and agglomerate of basaltic, andestic, and dacitic composition intercalated with subordinate amounts of conglomerate, sandstone, and siltstone beds. These rocks were divided into two lithological facies: basaltic and andestic tuff and tuff breccia facies and a facies of dacitic pumice tuff with characteristic white or gray spots of siliceous pumice (2 to 35 mm in diameter). These pyroclastic rocks suffered metamorphism mainly related to the intrusion of quartz diorite. The metamorphic rocks can be divided into the following four zones: amphibolite, actinolite hornfels, pumpellyite-prehnite, and zeolite. Probably during the late stage of the metamorphism, hornblende andesite intruded along sheared zones running from NE or NNE toward SW or SSW. Above noted Miocene pyroclastic rocks, quartz diorite, and hornblende andesite also suffered a hydrothermal alteration by which many zeolite bearing veins or networks were formed. Mineral waters of the Tanzawa mountains are believed to be related to the intrusion of quartz diorite, hornblende andesite, and formation of zeolite veins. In this respect, mineral water of highly alkaline nature can be expected by deep drilling of 600 to 1,000 m at some places such as Choja-goya and Hikage-zawa of the Kanno-kawa area.

  9. Effect of climatic change and afforestation on water yield in the Rocky Mountain Area of North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We studied effects of climatic variability and afforestation on water yield to make a quantitative assessment of the hydrological effects of afforestation on basin water yield in the Rocky Mountain Area of North China. Area of study: Seven typical forest sub-watersheds in Chaobai River watershed, located near Beijing’s Miyun Reservoir, were selected as our study object. Material and methods: Annual water yield model and Separate evaluation method were applied to quantify the respective contributions of changes in climate and different vegetation types on variations in runoff. Main results: Statistical analysis indicated precipitation did not vary significantly whereas the annual runoff decreased significantly in the past decades. Although forest increased significantly in the late 20th century, climatic variations have the strongest contribution to the reductions in runoff, with the average contribution reaching 63.24%, while the remainder caused by human activities. Afforestation has a more positive impact on the reduction in runoff, with a contribution of 65.5%, which was more than the grassland of 17.6% and the farmland of 16.9%. Research highlights: Compared to the impact of climatic change, we believe the large-scale afforestation may not be the main reason for the reductions in basin water yield.

  10. Slope Stability Assessment Using Trigger Parameters and SINMAP Methods on Tamblingan-Buyan Ancient Mountain Area in Buleleng Regency, Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nengah Sinarta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mapping of soil movement was examined by comparing an extension of the deterministic Soil Stability Index Mapping (SINMAP method, and an overlay method with trigger parameters of soil movement. The SINMAP model used soil parameters in the form of the cohesion value (c, internal friction angle (φ, and hydraulic conductivity (ks for the prediction of soil movement based on the factor of safety (FS, while the indirect method used a literature review and field observations. The weightings of soil movement trigger parameters in assessments were based on natural physical aspects: (1 slope inclination = 30%; (2 rock weathering = 15%; (3 geological structure = 20%; (4 rainfall = 15%; (5 groundwater potential = 7%; (6 seismicity = 3%; and (7 vegetation = 10%. The research area was located in the Buleleng district, in particular in the ancient mountain area of Buyan-Tamblingan, in the Sukasada sub-district. The hazard mapping gave a high and very high hazard scale. The SINMAP model gave a validation accuracy of 14.29%, while the overlay method with seven trigger parameters produced an accuracy of 71.43%. Based on the analysis of the very high and high hazard class and the validation of the landslide occurrence points, the deterministic method using soil parameters and water absorption gave a much lower accuracy than the overlay method with a study of soil motion trigger parameters.

  11. Comparison of saturated areas mapping methods in the Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulasová, A.; Beven, K. J.; Blažková, Š. D.; Řezáčová, Daniela; Cajthaml, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2014), s. 160-168 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/2045 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : mapping variable source areas * boot method * piezometers * vegetation mapping Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.486, year: 2014 http://147.213.145.2/vc_articles/2014_62_2_Kulasova_160.pdf

  12. Discriminating the quality of local pork from crossbred pork from extensive production of ethnic minorities in mountainous northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp C. Muth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Developing short food supply chains for products from local pig (Sus scrofa domesticus breeds may offer chances for smallholders in rural areas to participate in niche markets and obtain additional income. Because the authenticity and distinctness of products are crucial for establishing marketing, this study compared selected product characteristics of pork from the Vietnamese Ban breed with pork from crossbreds, each derived at their typical market weight and from their respective extensive and semi-extensive production environment; thus resembling the combination, the products are available for customers. Traditional Ban pork could be effectively discriminated from crossbred pork through cut dimensions, exemplified by the significantly reduced loin eye area (P<0.001, and by the significantly reduced backfat thickness (P<0.001. Also, marbling fat was significantly decreased in local pork (P<0.001, whereas differences in further meat quality parameters were rather weakly expressed. The significantly higher share of polyunsaturated fatty acids in loins of traditionally produced Ban pigs (P=0.003 could possibly result in a preferred nutritional value, but lower oxidative stability of the products. This study provides novel information to improve the marketing of specialty pork in Vietnam and comparable situations in the Southeast Asian Massif.

  13. Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Model Volcanic Hazard Risk Levels in Areas Surrounding the Copahue Volcano in the Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, A. M.; Weigel, A. M.; Rivas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Copahue is a stratovolcano located along the rim of the Caviahue Caldera near the Chile-Argentina border in the Andes Mountain Range. There are several small towns located in proximity of the volcano with the two largest being Banos Copahue and Caviahue. During its eruptive history, it has produced numerous lava flows, pyroclastic flows, ash deposits, and lahars. This isolated region has steep topography and little vegetation, rendering it poorly monitored. The need to model volcanic hazard risk has been reinforced by recent volcanic activity that intermittently released several ash plumes from December 2012 through May 2013. Exposure to volcanic ash is currently the main threat for the surrounding populations as the volcano becomes more active. The goal of this project was to study Copahue and determine areas that have the highest potential of being affected in the event of an eruption. Remote sensing techniques were used to examine and identify volcanic activity and areas vulnerable to experiencing volcanic hazards including volcanic ash, SO2 gas, lava flow, pyroclastic density currents and lahars. Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), EO-1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI), Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), ISS ISERV Pathfinder, and Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) products were used to analyze volcanic hazards. These datasets were used to create a historic lava flow map of the Copahue volcano by identifying historic lava flows, tephra, and lahars both visually and spectrally. Additionally, a volcanic risk and hazard map for the surrounding area was created by modeling the possible extent of ash fallout, lahars, lava flow, and pyroclastic density currents (PDC) for future eruptions. These model results were then used to identify areas that should be prioritized for disaster relief and evacuation orders.

  14. Low-Q structure beneath The Geysers area in the northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M.

    2010-12-01

    A large reservoir is located beneath The Geysers geothermal area, northern California. Seismic tomography revealed high-velocity (high-V) and low-Vp/Vs zones in the reservoir (Julian et al., 1996) and a decrease of Vp/Vs from 1991 to 1998 (Guasekera et al., 2003) due to withdrawal of steam from the reservoir. I build on these earlier studies by performing the attenuation tomography in this region to investigate the Q structure. The target region, 38.5-39.0°N and 122.5-123°W, covers The Geysers area. I use seismographs of Northern California Earthquake Data Center, which recorded 1235 earthquakes with magnitude larger than 2.0 and resolved focal mechanisms from 2002 to 2008. The band-pass filtered seismographs are analyzed for collecting the maximum amplitude data. Three kinds of Butterworth band-pass filters, such as 1-3, 3-7, and 7-15, correspond to the analysis of the Q structure for 2, 5, and 10 Hz, respectively. I use the P- and S-wave maximum amplitudes between the two seconds after the arrival of those waves in order to avoid the effects by coda. A total of 8980 P- and 1086 S-wave amplitude data for 949 earthquakes recorded at 48 stations are available for the analysis using the attenuation tomographic method (Zao et al., 1996). Extremely low-Qp and Qs zones are found at the northwestern (NW) of The Geysers area at sea level. These zones are consistent with the high-Vp and Vs and low-Vp/Vs zones located at the NW part of the reservoir. The low-Qs zone extends to the southeast (SE) and with approximately 15 km length and 5 km width and has another negative peak beneath the SE part of the reservoir. This low-Qs zone is also consistent with the high-Vp and Vs regions of the reservoir characterized by a low-Vp/Vs zone. However, Qp in the SE part is slightly high. Below sea level in The Geysers reservoir, there are a main greywacke layer and a felsite layer. Above sea level, there is a greenstone melange beneath the NW extremely low-Qp and Qs region and a

  15. K-Ar age of molybdenum mineralization in the east-central Kitakami Mountains, northern Honshu, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Shunso; Shibata, Ken; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1989-01-01

    Three K-Ar ages were determined on rocks and minerals from the mineralized areas in the east-central part of the Kitakami Cretaceous granitic terrain, where a Paleogene mineralization age was reported recently on molybdenite by the Re-Os method. The present result showed an early Cretaceous age of 114±4 Ma for the same molybdenite deposit. A rather large discrepancy was found between the Re-Os ages for molybdenite and the K-Ar and Rb-Sr ages for silicate minerals from the same ore deposits of Mesozoic-Cenozoic ages in the Circum-Pacific region, indicating that the Re-Os method needs further examination. (author)

  16. Prioritising watersheds on the basis of regional flood susceptibility and vulnerability in mountainous areas through the use of indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogelis, Carolina; Werner, Micha

    2013-04-01

    Settlements in peri-urban areas of many cities in mountainous areas such as in the Andes are susceptible to hazards such as flash floods and debris flows. Additionally these settlements are in many cases informal and thus vulnerable to such hazards, resulting in significant risk. Such watersheds are often quiet small, and generally there is little or no information from gauges to help characterise risk. To help identify watersheds in which flood management measures are to be targeted, a rapid assessment of risk is required. In this paper a novel approach is presented where indicators of susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to prioritize 106 mountain watersheds in Bogotá (Colombia). Variables recognized in literature to determine the dominant processes both in susceptibility and vulnerability to flash floods were used to construct the indicators. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flow events occurring. This was assessed through the use of an indicator composed of a morphometric indicator and a land use indicator. The former was constructed using morphological variables recognized in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows; the latter was constructed in terms of percentage of vegetation cover, urban area and bare soil. The morphometric indicator was compared with the results of a debris flow propagation algorithm to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation was carried out through the use of the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following previous identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the area-slope curve of the watersheds and empirical thresholds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with the energy the component found to best explain the

  17. An Introduction to camptonite lamprophyric dikes at Misho Mountains (Almas area - East Azarbaijan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen moayyed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Almas area in NW of the East Azarbaijan Province, is a part of the Soltaniye-Misho zone. The lamprophyric dikes crosscut the Kahar Formation. The principal minerals of these rocks are amphibole (amphibole phenocrysts are longer than 3 cm, biotite, pyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, apatite, calcite and chlorite with porphyritic texture. According to mineralogical and geochemical evidences, the studied lamprophyres are camptonite with alkaline nature. The plotted spider diagrams indicate that the studied lamprophyres are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREE and incompatible elements in comparison to heavy rare earth elements (HREE. The parent magma is probably generated from spinel lherzolite mantle with low rate partial melting.

  18. Assessment of planetary geologic mapping techniques for Mars using terrestrial analogs: The SP Mountain area of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.L.; Skinner, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Dohm, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We photogeologically mapped the SP Mountain region of the San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona, USA to evaluate and improve the fidelity of approaches used in geologic mapping of Mars. This test site, which was previously mapped in the field, is chiefly composed of Late Cenozoic cinder cones, lava flows, and alluvium perched on Permian limestone of the Kaibab Formation. Faulting and folding has deformed the older rocks and some of the volcanic materials, and fluvial erosion has carved drainage systems and deposited alluvium. These geologic materials and their formational and modificational histories are similar to those for regions of the Martian surface. We independently prepared four geologic maps using topographic and image data at resolutions that mimic those that are commonly used to map the geology of Mars (where consideration was included for the fact that Martian features such as lava flows are commonly much larger than their terrestrial counterparts). We primarily based our map units and stratigraphic relations on geomorphology, color contrasts, and cross-cutting relationships. Afterward, we compared our results with previously published field-based mapping results, including detailed analyses of the stratigraphy and of the spatial overlap and proximity of the field-based vs. remote-based (photogeologic) map units, contacts, and structures. Results of these analyses provide insights into how to optimize the photogeologic mapping of Mars (and, by extension, other remotely observed planetary surfaces). We recommend the following: (1) photogeologic mapping as an excellent approach to recovering the general geology of a region, along with examination of local, high-resolution datasets to gain insights into the complexity of the geology at outcrop scales; (2) delineating volcanic vents and lava-flow sequences conservatively and understanding that flow abutment and flow overlap are difficult to distinguish in remote data sets; (3) taking care to

  19. Water quality concerns due to forest fires: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) contamination of groundwater from mountain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilha, C; Carvalho, A; Guimarães, P; Espinha Marques, J

    2014-01-01

    Water quality alterations due to forest fires may considerably affect aquatic organisms and water resources. These impacts are cumulative as a result of pollutants mobilized from fires, chemicals used to fight fire, and postfire responses. Few studies have examined postfire transport into water resources of trace elements, including the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which are organic pollutants produced during combustion and are considered carcinogenic and harmful to humans. PAH are also known to adversely affect survival, growth, and reproduction of many aquatic species. This study assessed the effects of forest wildfires on groundwater from two mountain regions located in protected areas from north and central Portugal. Two campaigns to collect water samples were performed in order to measure PAH levels. Fifteen of 16 studied PAH were found in groundwater samples collected at burned areas, most of them at concentrations significantly higher than those found in control regions, indicating aquifer contamination. The total sum of PAH in burned areas ranged from 23.1to 95.1 ng/L with a median of 62.9 ng/L, which is one- to sixfold higher than the average level measured in controls (16.2 ng/L). In addition, in control samples, the levels of light PAH with two to four rings were at higher levels than heavy PAH with five or six rings, thus showing a different profile between control and burned sites. The contribution of wildfires to groundwater contamination by PAH was demonstrated, enabling a reliable assessment of the impacts on water quality and preparation of scientifically based decision criteria for postfire forest management practices.

  20. Variability and climate change trend in vegetation phenology of recent decades in the Greater Khingan Mountain area, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Tang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology has been used in studies as an indicator of an ecosystem’s responses to climate change. Satellite remote sensing techniques can capture changes in vegetation greenness, which can be used to estimate vegetation phenology. In this study, a long-term vegetation phenology study of the Greater Khingan Mountain area in Northeastern China was performed by using the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS normalized difference vegetation index version 3 (NDVI3g dataset from the years 1982–2012. After reconstructing the NDVI time series, the start date of the growing season (SOS, the end date of the growing season (EOS and the length of the growing season (LOS were extracted using a dynamic threshold method. The response of the variation in phenology with climatic factors was also analyzed. The results showed that the phenology in the study area changed significantly in the three decades between 1982 and 2012, including a 12.1-day increase in the entire region’s average LOS, a 3.3-day advance in the SOS and an 8.8-day delay in the EOS. However, differences existed between the steppe, forest and agricultural regions, with the LOSs of the steppe region, forest region and agricultural region increasing by 4.40 days, 10.42 days and 1.71 days, respectively, and a later EOS seemed to more strongly affect the extension of the growing season. Additionally, temperature and precipitation were closely correlated with the phenology variations. This study provides a useful understanding of the recent change in phenology and its variability in this high-latitude study area, and this study also details the responses of several ecosystems to climate change.

  1. Recent glacier mass balance and area changes in the Kangri Karpo Mountains from DEMs and glacier inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the influence of the Indian monsoon, the Kangri Karpo Mountains in the south-east of the Tibetan Plateau is in the most humid and one of the most important and concentrated regions containing maritime (temperate glaciers. Glacier mass loss in the Kangri Karpo is an important contributor to global mean sea level rise, and changes run-off distribution, increasing the risk of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs. Because of its inaccessibility and high labour costs, information about the Kangri Karpo glaciers is still limited. Using geodetic methods based on digital elevation models (DEMs derived from 1980 topographic maps from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM (2000 and from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (2014, this study has determined glacier elevation changes. Glacier area and length changes between 1980 and 2015 were derived from topographical maps and Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images. Results show that the Kangri Karpo contained 1166 glaciers with an area of 2048.50 ± 48.65 km2 in 2015. Ice cover diminished by 679.51 ± 59.49 km2 (24.9 ± 2.2 % or 0.71 ± 0.06 % a−1 from 1980 to 2015, although nine glaciers advanced. A glacierized area of 788.28 km2, derived from DEM differencing, experienced a mean mass loss of 0.46 ± 0.08 m w.e. a−1 from 1980 to 2014. Shrinkage and mass loss accelerated significantly from 2000 to 2015 compared to 1980–2000, consistent with a warming climate.

  2. Recent glacier mass balance and area changes in the Kangri Karpo Mountains from DEMs and glacier inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kunpeng; Liu, Shiyin; Jiang, Zongli; Xu, Junli; Wei, Junfeng; Guo, Wanqin

    2018-01-01

    Due to the influence of the Indian monsoon, the Kangri Karpo Mountains in the south-east of the Tibetan Plateau is in the most humid and one of the most important and concentrated regions containing maritime (temperate) glaciers. Glacier mass loss in the Kangri Karpo is an important contributor to global mean sea level rise, and changes run-off distribution, increasing the risk of glacial-lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Because of its inaccessibility and high labour costs, information about the Kangri Karpo glaciers is still limited. Using geodetic methods based on digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from 1980 topographic maps from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (2000) and from TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (2014), this study has determined glacier elevation changes. Glacier area and length changes between 1980 and 2015 were derived from topographical maps and Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images. Results show that the Kangri Karpo contained 1166 glaciers with an area of 2048.50 ± 48.65 km2 in 2015. Ice cover diminished by 679.51 ± 59.49 km2 (24.9 ± 2.2 %) or 0.71 ± 0.06 % a-1 from 1980 to 2015, although nine glaciers advanced. A glacierized area of 788.28 km2, derived from DEM differencing, experienced a mean mass loss of 0.46 ± 0.08 m w.e. a-1 from 1980 to 2014. Shrinkage and mass loss accelerated significantly from 2000 to 2015 compared to 1980-2000, consistent with a warming climate.

  3. Soil Organic δ13C Change Along a Vertical Gradient in the Northern Slop of Tianshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Wen-qiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC pool integrated the vegetation succession information from several years to thousands of years scales. It is an ideal tool to understand carbon isotope composition change and terrestrial ecosystem pathways. In this study, the Sangong river watershed was taken as a case. We had estimated the change of vegetation and soil organic along a vertical gradient using the carbon isotopic method, and analyzed the variations of mean SOC δ13C values with the annual precipitation, and researched the variations in SOC and δ13C values with profile depth in the study area. The results showed that the SOC δ13C decreased significantly with the increasing annual precipitation (R2=0.97 where the annual precipitation was less than 300 mm. When the annual precipitation was 300 mm~500 mm, the SOC δ13C was not significant changed with the increasing annual precipitation (R2=0.04. The enrichment effect of SOC δ13C with depth was significant in the sample site of pure C3 vegetation, that means lower layer SOC δ13C of profile was greater than the upper layer. The average difference of SOC δ13C between lower layer and upper layer was 1.01‰. The opposite trend of SOC δ13C was presented in the Desert and Shrubland sites. And that, the SOC δ13C value of upper layer closed to C4 vegetation source, and the lower layer closed to C3 vegetation source. Therefore, we can infer that the vegetation may have experienced from C3 to C4 in the sandy desert and terrene desert sites.

  4. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2008-12-01

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants, with respect to operation, life cycle, waste handling

  5. Floating nuclear power plants and associated technologies in the Northern areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2008-12-15

    Although floating nuclear power plants are not a new concept, all indications are that Russia, amongst other countries, has identified FNPP's (floating nuclear power plants) as one of a range of potential power solutions for both the domestic and international commercial market, utilising LCNPP's (low-capacity nuclear power plants). This focus on LCNPP's in general and LCNPP's in particular appears to be a key part of Russia's positioning of itself as a future leader in the global nuclear energy market. Given the fact that much of the support infrastructure for Russia's existing civilian nuclear fleet is located in the northern regions, the development of FNPP's as part of the nuclear industry is a matter of some interest to a number of countries including Norway. Although FNPP technology is not new, the business models being proposed to effectively commercialise FNPP's as a product on the international market are somewhat novel. This novelty may place FNPP's in a relatively grey area with respect to international laws and regulations. This situation is however also a product of recent developments and initiatives regarding the global nuclear industry and how it operates in the 21st century and the consideration of such business models by countries other than Russia means that it may not be unique to either FNPP's or Russia. A review of the available information indicates that FNPP's may be constructed, located and operated in the Russian Arctic region for a variety of purposes (civilian power/heat generation, resource extraction etc.) as well as being made available for export internationally for purposes such as desalination. Russia is and has been engaged in marketing of such systems to a wide range of potential customers. Information as to potential FNPP technologies is available from a range of sources which indicate a suite of potential designs that may be used in FNPP systems. The nature of these plants

  6. Uranium migration in a sedimentological phosphatic environment in Northern Palmyrides, Al-Awabed area, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2007-01-01

    In previously published research, a factor analysis approach has been applied to airborne spectrometric data of the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria. A model of four factors (F1-F4) has proven to be sufficient to represent