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Sample records for mound plant miamisburg

  1. Environmental assessment for Mound Plant decontamination and decommissioning projects, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for seven decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) projects at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, that have not been previously addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Mound Facility (June 1979). Based on the information presented in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  2. Environmental survey preliminary report, Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Plant, conducted August 18 through 29, 1986. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the Mound Plant. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at the Mound Plant, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey found no environmental problems at the Mound Plant that represent an immediate threat to human life. The environmental problems identified at the Mound Plant by the Survey confirm that the site is confronted with a number of environmental problems which are by and large a legacy from past practices at a time when environmental problems were less well understood. Theses problems vary in terms of their magnitude and risk, as described in this report. Although the sampling and analysis performed by the Mound Plant Survey will assist in further identifying environmental problems at the site, a complete understanding of the significance of some of the environmental problems identified requires a level of study and characterization that is beyond the scope of the Survey. Actions currently under way or planned at the site, particularly the Phase II activities of the Comprehensive Environmental Analysis and Response Program (CEARP) as developed and implemented by the Albuquerque Operations Office, will contribute toward meeting this requirement. 85 refs., 24 figs., 20 tabs.

  3. Safe shutdown of Defense Program facilities at the Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, H.F.; Bantz, P.D.; Luthy, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mound Plant was one of several production sites in the US Department of Energy's Defense Programs (DP) Weapons Complex. As a result of the downsizing of the weapons program, certain operations at Mound are being transferred to other DOE sites and the DP buildings at Mound are being shutdown. The objectives of the program are to reduce the hazardous and financial liabilities to DOE and to foster the reuse of facilities for economic development. The overall program is described. The process began with the categorization of excess DP buildings into three groups depending on their anticipated future use. The draft DOE/EM-60 Acceptance Criteria were used to develop a detailed shutdown checklist as the foundation of the process. The overall program budget, schedule, ad options for disposition of materials and components is presented. Accomplishments in FY94 and FY95 are described. By the end of FY95, all excess energetic materials and components, all excess chemicals (from non-radiation areas) and significant amounts of radioactive materials have been removed from the site. By the end of FY95, 47 of the 72 buildings in the program have been taken through all ten of the draft EM-60 acceptance criteria. Lessons learned, based on experience at Mound to date, are summarized

  4. Accelerated Clean-up of the United States Department of Energy, Mound Nuclear Weapons Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehew, J.G.; Bradford, J.D.; Cabbil, C.C.

    2006-01-01

    CH2M HILL is executing a performance-based contract with the United States Department of Energy to accelerate the safe closure of the nuclear facilities at the former Mound plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. The contract started in January 2003 with a target completion date of March 31, 2006. Our accelerated baseline targets completion of the project 2 years ahead of the previous baseline schedule, by spring 2006, and for $200 million less than previous estimates. This unique decommissioning and remediation project is located within the City of Miamisburg proper and is designed for transfer of the property to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse. The project is being performed with the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation and their tenants co-located on the site creating significant logistical, safety and stakeholder challenges. The project is also being performed in conjunction with the United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency under the Mound 2000 regulatory cleanup process. The project is currently over 95% complete. To achieve cleanup and closure of the Mound site, CH2M HILL's scope includes: - Demolition of 64 nuclear, radiological and commercial facilities - Preparation for Transfer of 9 facilities (including a Category 2 nuclear facility) to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse - Removal of all above ground utility structures and components, and preparation for transfer of 9 utility systems to Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation - Investigation, remediation, closure, and documentation of all known Potential Release Sites contaminated with radiological and chemical contamination (73 identified in original contract) - Storage, characterization, processing, packaging and shipment of all waste and excess nuclear materials - Preparation for Transfer of the 306 acre site to the

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  7. An aerial radiological survey of the EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies and surrounding area, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio, during the period of June 9--24, 1989. The purpose of the 41-square-kilometer (16-square-mile) survey was to document the terrestrial gamma environment of the plant and surrounding area. In addition, ground-based exposure rate measurements and soil samples were obtained to support the aerial data. An exposure rate contour map at 1 meter above ground level was.constructed from the gamma data and overlaid on an aerial photograph and map of the area. Exposure rates measured in the area typically ranged from 9 to 11 microroentgens per hour (μR/h)

  8. Environmental assessment for commercialization of the Mound Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In November 1993 US DOE decided to phase out operations at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, with the goal of releasing the site for commercial use. The broad concept is to transform the plant into an advanced manufacturing center with the main focus on commercializing products and other technology. DOE proposes to lease portions of the Mound Plant to commercial enterprises. This Environmental Impact statement has a finding of no significant impact in reference to such action

  9. Aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Mound Facility, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out by helicopter over an area centered on Mound Facility, a 180 acre area adjacent to the southern edge of the city of Miamisburg, Ohio. This survey was part of an effort to document background radiation levels around nuclear processing and handling facilities owned or contracted by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Survey activities were conducted and performed by EG and G for the DOE. Wright-Patterson Air Force Base served as the survey base of operations. During the survey, gamma ray data were collected over a 12.3 km 2 area by flying an east-west grid of lines spaced 61 m apart, flying slowly over several selected areas, and hovering over several spots of interest. The processed data indicated that the on-site radioactivity was primarily due to radionuclides currently being handled or processed at the Facility, and that lesser activity could be attributed to previously handled or processed nuclear materials. Off-site data showed the radioactivity to be that only due to naturally occurring radionuclides

  10. Independent technical review of the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report documents an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the facilities, organizations, plans, and activities required to transition particular elements of the Mound Plant from Defense Program (DP) funded operation as appropriate either to community developed reuse or safe deactivation leading to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The review was conducted at the request of the Dr. Willis Bixby, Deputy Assistant Secretary, U.S. Department of Energy EM-60, Office of Facility Transition and Management and is a consensus of the nine member ITR Team. Information for the review was drawn from documents provided to the ITR Team by the Miamisburg Area Office (MB) of the DOE, EG&G, the City of Miamisburg, and others; and from presentations, discussions, interviews, and facility inspections at the Mound Plant during the weeks of March 14 and March 28, 1994. During the week of April 25, 1994, the ITR Team met at Los Alamos, New Mexico to develop consensus recommendations. A presentation of the core recommendations was made at the Mound Plant on May 5, 1994. This is an independent assessment of information available to, and used by, the Mound Plant personnel. Repetition of the information is not meant to imply discovery by the ITR Team. Team members, however, acting as independent reviewers, frequently assess the information from a perspective that differs significantly from that of the Mound Plant personnel. The report is based on information obtained and conditions observed during the March 1994 review interval. The ITR process and normal site work often initiate rapid, beneficial changes in understanding and organization immediately following the review. These changes frequently alter conditions observed during the review, but the report does not address changes subsequent to the review interval.

  11. Mound site environmental monitoring report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform the public about the impact of Mound operations on the population and the environment. Mound is a government-owned facility operated by EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This integrated production, development, and research site performs work in support of DOE's weapon and energy related programs, with emphasis on explosive, nuclear and energy technologies. The Mound Plant, named after the Miamisburg Indian Mound adjacent to the site, comprises 120 buildings on 124 hectares (306 acres) of land in Miamisburg, Ohio, approximately 16 km (10 mi) southwest of Dayton. The Great Miami River, which flows through the city of Miamisburg, dominates the landscape of the five-county region surrounding Mound. The river valley is highly industrialized. The rest of the region is predominately farm land dotted with light industry and small communities. The climate is moderate. The geologic record preserved in the rocks underlying Mound indicates that the area has been relatively stable since the beginning of the Paleozoic Era more than 500 million years ago. No buildings at Mound are located in a floodplain or in areas considered wetlands. Included in the report are the following: perspective on radiation; radionuclide releases from Mound; Dose limites; doses from Mound Operations; Results of the environmental Monitoring Program; Ground water monitoring program; environmental restoration program; quality assurance for environmental data

  12. Mound Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.R.; Tullis, M.S.; Paulick, R.P.; Roush, L.L.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) is to describe the environmental monitoring and surveillance programs in place at Mound. The Plan is required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE, 1990). The programs described in the EMP are required by the DOE 5400 Order series and by the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environment Surveillance (DOE 1991a), referred to as the Regulatory Guide throughout this Plan

  13. Transition and Closeout of the Former DOE Mound Plant Site: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, C. P.; Marks, M. L.; Smiley, S.L.; Gallaher, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) manages the Miamisburg Closure Project (MCP) by cleaning up the Mound site, located in Miamisburg, Ohio, to specific environmental standards, conveying all excess land parcels to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation, and transferring all continuing DOE post-closure responsibilities to the Office of Legacy Management (LM). Presently, the EM cleanup contract of the Mound site with CH2M Hill Mound Inc. is scheduled for completion on March 31, 2006. LM manages the Mound transition efforts and also post-closure responsibilities at other DOE sites via a contract with the S.M. Stoller Corporation. The programmatic transfer from EM to LM is scheduled to take place on October 1, 2006. The transition of the Mound site has required substantial integration and coordination between the EM and LM. Several project management principles have been implemented to help facilitate the transfer of programmatic responsibility. As a result, several lessons learned have been identified to help streamline and improve integration and coordination of the transfer process. Lessons learned from the Mound site transition project are considered a work in progress and have been summarized according to a work breakdown structure for specific functional areas in the transition schedule. The functional areas include program management, environmental, records management, information technology, property management, stakeholder and regulatory relations, procurement, worker pension and benefits, and project closeout. Specific improvements or best practices have been recognized and documented by the Mound transition team. The Mound site is one of three major cleanup sites within the EM organization scheduled for completion in 2006. EM, EM cleanup contractor, LM, and LM post-closure contractor have identified lessons learned during the transition and closure of the Mound site. The transition effort from

  14. Temperature fluctuations inside savanna termite mounds: Do size and plant shade matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndlovu, M; Pérez-Rodríguez, A

    2018-05-01

    Mound building termites are key ecosystem engineers of subtropical savanna regions. Mounds allow termites to maintain suitable conditions for termite reproduction and food cultivation ('fungus gardens'). We studied how the internal mound temperature of Macrotermes natalensis, a dominant mound-building termite of the subtropical savanna of southern Africa, responds to a number of environmental variables. We used general additive mixed models (GAMM) to determine how external temperature, mound size (volume) and the amount of vegetation shade affects mound internal temperature over a 24-h period. Internal mound temperature varied daily following changes of the external temperature, although the range of variation was much smaller. Active termite mounds maintained a higher internal temperature than inactive ones, and mound activity reinforced the positive effect of mound size and moderated the negative effect of vegetation shade on internal temperatures. In turn, external temperature fluctuations equally affected active and inactive mounds. Large mounds maintained near optimal internal temperatures compared to smaller sized mounds. We therefore conclude that termite mound size is a stronger determinant of internal mound temperature stability compared to plant shade cover. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient dynamics and plant assemblages of Macrotermes falciger mounds in a savanna ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvengwi, Justice; Ndagurwa, Hilton G. T.; Nyenda, Tatenda; Mbiba, Monicah

    2016-10-01

    Termites through mound construction and foraging activities contribute significantly to carbon and nutrient fluxes in nutrient-poor savannas. Despite this recognition, studies on the influence of termite mounds on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in sub-tropical savannas are limited. In this regard, we examined soil nutrient concentrations, organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization in incubation experiments in mounds of Macrotermes falciger and surrounding soils of sub-tropical savanna, northeast Zimbabwe. We also addressed whether termite mounds altered the plant community and if effects were similar across functional groups i.e. grasses, forbs or woody plants. Mound soils had significantly higher silt and clay content, pH and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), organic carbon (C), ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) than surrounding soils, with marginal differences in phosphorus (P) and sodium (Na) between mounds and matrix soils. Nutrient enrichment increased by a factor ranging from 1.5 for C, 4.9 for Mg up to 10.3 for Ca. Although C mineralization, nitrification and nitrification fraction were similar between mounds and matrix soils, nitrogen mineralization was elevated on mounds relative to surrounding matrix soils. As a result, termite mounds supported unique plant communities rich and abundant in woody species but less diverse in grasses and forbs than the surrounding savanna matrix in response to mound-induced shifts in soil parameters specifically increased clay content, drainage and water availability, nutrient status and base cation (mainly Ca, Mg and Na) concentration. In conclusion, by altering soil properties such as texture, moisture content and nutrient status, termite mounds can alter the structure and composition of sub-tropical savanna plant communities, and these results are consistent with findings in other savanna systems suggesting that increase in soil clay content, nutrient status and associated changes in the plant

  16. Plant Mounds as Concentration and Stabilization Agents for Actinide Soil Contaminants in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Shafer; J. Gommes

    2009-02-03

    Plant mounds or blow-sand mounds are accumulations of soil particles and plant debris around the base of shrubs and are common features in deserts in the southwestern United States. An important factor in their formation is that shrubs create surface roughness that causes wind-suspended particles to be deposited and resist further suspension. Shrub mounds occur in some plant communities on the Nevada Test Site, the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR), including areas of surface soil contamination from past nuclear testing. In the 1970s as part of early studies to understand properties of actinides in the environment, the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) examined the accumulation of isotopes of Pu, 241Am, and U in plant mounds at safety experiment and storage-transportation test sites of nuclear devices. Although aerial concentrations of these contaminants were highest in the intershrub or desert pavement areas, the concentration in mounds were higher than in equal volumes of intershrub or desert pavement soil. The NAEG studies found the ratio of contaminant concentration of actinides in soil to be greater (1.6 to 2.0) in shrub mounds than in the surrounding areas of desert pavement. At Project 57 on the NTTR, 17 percent of the area was covered in mounds while at Clean Slate III on the TTR, 32 percent of the area was covered in mounds. If equivalent volumes of contaminated soil were compared between mounds and desert pavement areas at these sites, then the former might contain as much as 34 and 62 percent of the contaminant inventory, respectively. Not accounting for radionuclides associated with shrub mounds would cause the inventory of contaminants and potential exposure to be underestimated. In addition, preservation of shrub mounds could be important part of long-term stewardship if these sites are closed by fencing and posting with administrative controls.

  17. Do Epigeal Termite Mounds Increase the Diversity of Plant Habitats in a Tropical Rain Forest in Peninsular Malaysia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrot, Lydia; Du, Yanjun; Rahman Kassim, Abdul; Rejmánek, Marcel; Harrison, Rhett D.

    2011-01-01

    The extent to which environmental heterogeneity can account for tree species coexistence in diverse ecosystems, such as tropical rainforests, is hotly debated, although the importance of spatial variability in contributing to species co-existence is well recognized. Termites contribute to the micro-topographical and nutrient spatial heterogeneity of tropical forests. We therefore investigated whether epigeal termite mounds could contribute to the coexistence of plant species within a 50 ha plot at Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. Overall, stem density was significantly higher on mounds than in their immediate surroundings, but tree species diversity was significantly lower. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that location on or off mounds significantly influenced species distribution when stems were characterized by basal area. Like studies of termite mounds in other ecosystems, our results suggest that epigeal termite mounds provide a specific microhabitat for the enhanced growth and survival of certain species in these species-rich tropical forests. However, the extent to which epigeal termite mounds facilitate species coexistence warrants further investigation. PMID:21625558

  18. Contributions of gopher mound and casting disturbances to plant community structure in a Cascade Range meadow complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Case; C.B. Halpern; S.A. Levin

    2013-01-01

    Pocket gophers (Geomyidae) are major agents of disturbance in North American grasslands. Gopher mounds bury existing plants and influence community structure through various mechanisms. However, in mountain meadows that experience winter snowpack, gophers also create winter castings, smaller tube-shaped deposits, previously ignored in studies of plant–gopher...

  19. Focused risk assessment: Mound Plant, Miami-Erie Canal Operable Unit 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.R.; Dunning, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    In 1969, an underground waste line at Mound Plant ruptured and released plutonium-238 in a dilute nitric acid solution to the surrounding soils. Most of the acid was neutralized by the native soils. The plutonium, which in a neutral solution is tightly sorbed onto clay particles, remained within the spill area. During remediation, a severe storm eroded some of the contaminated soil. Fine grained plutonium-contaminated clay particles were carried away through the natural drainage courses to the remnants of the Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to Mound Plant, and then into the Great Miami River. This focused risk assessment considers exposure pathways relevant to site conditions, including incidental ingestion of contaminated soils, ingestion of drinking water and fish, and inhalation of resuspended soils and sediments. For each potential exposure pathway, a simplified conceptual model and exposure scenarios have been used to develop conservative estimates of potential radiation dose equivalents and health risks. The conservatism of the dose and risk estimates provides a substantive margin of safety in assuring that the public health is protected

  20. Interactive effects of soil-dwelling ants, ant mounds and simulated grazing on local plant community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Olff, H.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between aboveground vertebrate herbivores and subterranean yellow meadow ants (Lasius flavus) can drive plant community patterns in grassland ecosystems. Here, we study the relative importance of the presence of ants (L. flavus) and ant mounds under different simulated grazing regimes

  1. Preparation of substituting seaweed field mounds accompanying site preparation for No.3 plant in Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Oshima, Teruhiko; Fujisaki, Yuichi; Saeki, Taketoshi

    1987-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. is constructing No.3 plant adjacently to No.1 and No.2 plants in operation in Ikata Nuclear Power Station. In the coastal area of Iyo-nada, many seaweed fields are distributed, which are important biologically and for fishery. In the works of site preparation for No.3 plant, a part of the site is created by reclamation of sea area, therefore the natural seaweed fields in the area disappear. From the viewpoint of various circumstances and environment preservation, it was decided to create about 60,000 m 2 of seaweed field mounds on the seabed around the site as the substitute for disappearing natural seaweed fields. The Seaweed Field Study Group composed of the men of learning and experience was organized to obtain the guidance on the possibility of creating artificial seaweed fields, the techniques for creation and the effect on environment accompanying the creation of mounds. The creation works were started in October, 1985, and are in progress smoothly utilizing effectively the stones and rocks cut in the site preparation works. The topographic and geological features, sea conditions, the present state of seaweed fields, the experiment on creating artificial seaweed fields, the design and construction of mounds and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. Project Management Approach to Transition of the Miamisburg Closure Project From Environmental Cleanup to Post-Closure Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, C.P.; Marks, M.L.; Smiley, S.L.; Gallaher, D.M.; Williams, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) used a project management approach to transition the Miamisburg Closure Project from cleanup by the Office of Environmental Management (EM) to post-closure operations by the Office of Legacy Management (LM). Two primary DOE orders were used to guide the site transition: DOE Order 430.1B, Real Property Asset Management, for assessment and disposition of real property assets and DOE Order 413.3, Program and Project Management for Acquisition of Capital Assets, for project closeout of environmental cleanup activities and project transition of post-closure activities. To effectively manage these multiple policy requirements, DOE chose to manage the Miamisburg Closure Project as a project under a cross-member transitional team using representatives from four principal organizations: DOE-LM, the LM contractor S.M. Stoller Corporation, DOE-EM, and the EM contractor CH2M Hill Mound Inc. The mission of LM is to manage the Department's post-transition responsibilities and long-term care of legacy liabilities and to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment for cleanup sites after the EM has completed its cleanup activities. (authors)

  3. 75 FR 24753 - The Walker Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, OH; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,471] The Walker Auto Group... Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, Ohio, was based on the finding that the subject firm did not shift abroad... of the subject firm should be eligible for TAA because the Walker Auto Group, Inc., Miamisburg, Ohio...

  4. Mound technology for isolation of decommissioned NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovkin, S.V.; Tutunina, E.V.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of NPPs' decommissioning calls for immediate attention. Today the most socially acceptable solution is green lawn, but due to the difficulty of this option, alternative solutions are being developed as well. The authors believe that the option is isolation of shut-down NPPs in-situ by covering them with layers of inert materials, resulting in the formation of a mound. In this case the reactor building itself becomes a repository that holds solid radioactive wastes generated over the time of unit operation. Spent fuel is to be shipped out of the site. A layer of inert materials several meters thick guarantees secure protection against ionising radiation and unauthorised access to the structures in isolation. The structures inside the mound are also inaccessible to ground waters. The green mound concept is considered as well as the mound backfilling technology which excludes collapse under the weight of inert materials that form the mound. It is pointed out that never-completed Voronezh nuclear heating plant is the optimal object for field-testing of the suggested technology [ru

  5. Mound facility physical characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonne, W.R.; Alexander, B.M.; Cage, M.R.; Hase, E.H.; Schmidt, M.J.; Schneider, J.E.; Slusher, W.; Todd, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a baseline physical characterization of Mound`s facilities as of September 1993. The baseline characterizations are to be used in the development of long-term future use strategy development for the Mound site. This document describes the current missions and alternative future use scenarios for each building. Current mission descriptions cover facility capabilities, physical resources required to support operations, current safety envelope and current status of facilities. Future use scenarios identify potential alternative future uses, facility modifications required for likely use, facility modifications of other uses, changes to safety envelope for the likely use, cleanup criteria for each future use scenario, and disposition of surplus equipment. This Introductory Chapter includes an Executive Summary that contains narrative on the Functional Unit Material Condition, Current Facility Status, Listing of Buildings, Space Plans, Summary of Maintenance Program and Repair Backlog, Environmental Restoration, and Decontamination and Decommissioning Programs. Under Section B, Site Description, is a brief listing of the Site PS Development, as well as Current Utility Sources. Section C contains Site Assumptions. A Maintenance Program Overview, as well as Current Deficiencies, is contained within the Maintenance Program Chapter.

  6. The Bahrain Burial Mound Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2007-01-01

    the majority of burial mounds have been removed to make way for roads and housing, and in this process about 8000 mounds have been excavated; of these only c. 265 have been published. In 2006 the Bahrain Directorate for Culture & National Heritage and Moesgaard Museum decided on a collaborative project...... process of linking relevant information to the mounds have been initiated in the course of which excavation data of individual monument is being fed into a relational database. Our preliminary study of the digital maps of the mound cemeteries has revealed an abundance of interesting patterns...... that immediately gave rise to puzzling new questions that will direct the future explorations of the project. Of particular interest is a distinctive new type of elite monuments situated to the south of the so-called Royal Mounds in the centre of the island. The newly discovered type of mounds apparently reflect...

  7. Analysis of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mettam, J.D.; Allsop, N.W.H.; Bonafous, P.

    Working Group 12 was set up to consider the analysis of rubble mound breakwaters with a view to achieving a better understanding of safety aspects. The working group decided to develop the practical application of risk analysis in the design of rubble mound breakwaters by using partial coefficien...

  8. Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Z., Liu

    1995-01-01

    The RMBFM-Project (Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes) is sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under the Contract MAS-CT92- 0042, with the objective of contributing to the development of rational methods for the design of rubble mound breakwate...

  9. How Termite Mounds Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Saurabh; Yaghoobian, Neda

    2017-11-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae that are extensively found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and south East Asia are one species of termites that collectively build massive, uninhabited, complex structures. These structures, which are much larger than the size of an individual termite, effectively use natural wind and solar energies and the energy embodied in colony's metabolic activity to maintain the necessary condition for termite survival. These mounds enclose a subterranean nest, where the termite live and cultivate fungus, as well as a complex network of tunnels consisting of a large, vertically oriented central chimney, surface conduits, and lateral connectives that connect the chimney and the surface conduits. In this study, we use computational modeling to explore the combined interaction of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity with the external turbulent wind and solar radiation to investigate the physical principles and fundamental aero-thermodynamics underlying the controlled and stable climate of termite mounds. Exploitation of natural resources of wind and solar energies in these natural systems for the purpose of ventilation will lead to new lessons for improving human habitats conditions.

  10. Further investigations of plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed including the canal and ponds in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Groves, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a preliminary investigation of Pu in aquatic organisms of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio. Data are presented on the Pu content of aquatic biota from the canal and ponds located adjacent to the Mound Laboratory. These areas have elevated levels of 238 Pu in the water and sediments as the result of a past incident. Radiochemical analysis of biota sampled both upstream and downstream from the effluent pipe of Mound Laboratory showed that plants collected downstream of the laboratory concentrate more 238 Pu than the plants located upstream by two to three orders of magnitude. Activities of 238 Pu in background samples are unexpectedly high and may be attributed to contamination. Activities of fallout 239 , 240 Pu in the plants from upstream and downstream were approximately the same

  11. 2011 Mound Site Groundwater Plume Rebound Exercise and Follow-Up - 13440

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [Mound Site Manager, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Cato, Rebecca; Lupton, Greg [S.M. Stoller Company, contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Mound Site facility near Miamisburg, Ohio, opened in 1948 to support early atomic weapons programs. It grew into a research, development, and production facility performing work in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) weapons and energy programs. The plant was in operation until 1995. During the course of operation, an onsite landfill was created. The landfill was located over a finger of a buried valley aquifer, which is a sole drinking water source for much of the Miami Valley. In the 1980's, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were discovered in groundwater at the Mound site. The site was placed on the National Priorities List on November 21, 1989. DOE signed a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Federal Facility Agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. The agreement became effective in October 1990. The area that included the landfill was designated Operational Unit 1 (OU-1). In 1995, a Record of Decision was signed that called for the installation and operation of a pump and treatment (P and T) system in order to prevent the VOCs in OU-1 groundwater from being captured by the onsite water production wells. In addition to the P and T system, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed in 1997 to accelerate removal of VOCs from groundwater in the OU-1 area. The SVE system was successful in removing large amounts of VOCs and continued to operate until 2007, when the amount of VOCs removed became minimal. A rebound study was started in February 2003 to determine how the groundwater system and contaminants would respond to shutting down the P and T system. The rebound test was stopped in February 2004 because predetermined VOC threshold concentrations were exceeded down-gradient of the landfill. The P and T and SVE systems were restarted after the termination of the rebound test. In 2006, the remediation of the Mound site was

  12. The hydrology and preservation condition in the flat topped burial mound Klangshøj at Vennebjerg in Vendsyssel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Henriksen, Peter Steen; Kristensen, Jeppe Ågård

    2016-01-01

    Klangshøj is a flat-topped burial mound similar to the Royal Jelling mounds, although smaller. The myths tell that a well has existed on top of the mound as at Jelling and a spring had flown at the base of the mound. In order to verify the myths and a similar hydrology in Klangshøj as found...... borings, where undecomposed plant remnants, occasionally greenish, were observed. A 14C-dating showed that the mound was built in the Viking Age. The hydrology in Klangshøj is the same as in the Jelling mounds, with a permeable bioturbation zone covering almost impermeable, distinct sod layers. This form...

  13. Food preferences and mound-building behaviour of the mound-building mice Mus spicilegus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Michaela; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Hoi, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, handling time in terms of harvesting and transport time should be optimized, particularly when the risk of predation is high. Thus, it is not clear whether food selected by hoarding animals reflects their food preference due to intrinsic features of the food type, e.g. size, caloric or lipid content, or whether the food type selected is a compromise that also considers the handling time required for harvesting and transport. We investigate this question in relation to food hoarding behaviour in mound-building mice. In autumn, mound-building mice Mus spicilegus collect seeds and other plant material and cover it with soil. Such above-ground storage is quite unusual for rodents. Here, we investigated whether there is a relationship between the seed species preferred as building materials and those preferred for food. We conducted a seed preference test using three most collected weed species for mound building. Controlling factors like food availability or predation risk, mice prefer Setaria spp. as food, although Amaranthus spp. and Chenopodium spp. were preferentially harvested and stored. By including the availability of the three species, our experimental results were confirmed, namely, a clear preference for Setaria spp. Also, handling time and seed size revealed to influence plant choice.

  14. Are termite mounds biofilters for methane? - Challenges and new approaches to quantify methane oxidation in termite mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauer, Philipp A.; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Bristow, Mila; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2015-04-01

    Methane emissions from termites contribute around 3% to global methane in the atmosphere, although the total source estimate for termites is the most uncertain among all sources. In tropical regions, the relative source contribution of termites can be far higher due to the high biomass and relative importance of termites in plant decomposition. Past research focused on net emission measurements and their variability, but little is known about underlying processes governing these emissions. In particular, microbial oxidation of methane (MOX) within termite mounds has rarely been investigated. In well-studied ecosystems featuring an oxic matrix above an anoxic methane-producing habitat (e.g. landfills or sediments), the fraction of oxidized methane (fox) can reach up to 90% of gross production. However, conventional mass-balance approaches to apportion production and consumption processes can be challenging to apply in the complex-structured and almost inaccessible environment of a termite mound. In effect, all field-based data on termite-mound MOX is based on one study that measured isotopic shifts in produced and emitted methane. In this study a closed-system isotope fractionation model was applied and estimated fox ranged from 10% to almost 100%. However, it is shown here that by applying an open-system isotope-pool model, the measured isotopic shifts can also be explained by physical transport of methane alone. Different field-based methods to quantify MOX in termite mounds are proposed which do not rely on assumptions of physical gas transport. A simple approach is the use of specific inhibitors for MOX, e.g. difluoromethane (CH2F2), combined with chamber-based flux measurements before and after their application. Data is presented on the suitability of different inhibitors and first results of their application in the field. Alternatively, gas-tracer methods allow the quantification of methane oxidation and reaction kinetics without knowledge of physical gas

  15. Sulphur Extraction at Bryan Mound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Carolyn L [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lord, Anna C. Snider [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Bryan Mound caprock was subjected to extens ive sulphur mining prior to the development of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Undoubtedl y, the mining has modified the caprock integrity. Cavern wells at Bryan Mound have been subject to a host of well integr ity concerns with many likely compromised by the cavernous capro ck, surrounding corrosive environment (H 2 SO 4 ), and associated elevated residual temperatures al l of which are a product of the mining activities. The intent of this study was to understand the sulphur mining process and how the mining has affected the stability of the caprock and how the compromised caprock has influenced the integrity of the cavern wells. After an extensiv e search to collect pert inent information through state agencies, literature sear ches, and the Sandia SPR librar y, a better understanding of the caprock can be inferred from the knowledge gaine d. Specifically, the discovery of the original ore reserve map goes a long way towards modeling caprock stability. In addition the gained knowledge of sulphur mining - subs idence, superheated corrosive wa ters, and caprock collapse - helps to better predict the post mi ning effects on wellbore integrity. This page intentionally left blank

  16. The giant Mauritanian cold-water coral mound province: Oxygen control on coral mound formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienberg, Claudia; Titschack, Jürgen; Freiwald, André; Frank, Norbert; Lundälv, Tomas; Taviani, Marco; Beuck, Lydia; Schröder-Ritzrau, Andrea; Krengel, Thomas; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2018-04-01

    The largest coherent cold-water coral (CWC) mound province in the Atlantic Ocean exists along the Mauritanian margin, where up to 100 m high mounds extend over a distance of ∼400 km, arranged in two slope-parallel chains in 400-550 m water depth. Additionally, CWCs are present in the numerous submarine canyons with isolated coral mounds being developed on some canyon flanks. Seventy-seven Uranium-series coral ages were assessed to elucidate the timing of CWC colonisation and coral mound development along the Mauritanian margin for the last ∼120,000 years. Our results show that CWCs were present on the mounds during the Last Interglacial, though in low numbers corresponding to coral mound aggradation rates of 16 cm kyr-1. Most prolific periods for CWC growth are identified for the last glacial and deglaciation, resulting in enhanced mound aggradation (>1000 cm kyr-1), before mound formation stagnated along the entire margin with the onset of the Holocene. Until today, the Mauritanian mounds are in a dormant state with only scarce CWC growth. In the canyons, live CWCs are abundant since the Late Holocene at least. Thus, the canyons may serve as a refuge to CWCs potentially enabling the observed modest re-colonisation pulse on the mounds along the open slope. The timing and rate of the pre-Holocene coral mound aggradation, and the cessation of mound formation varied between the individual mounds, which was likely the consequence of vertical/lateral changes in water mass structure that placed the mounds near or out of oxygen-depleted waters, respectively.

  17. COCARDE: new view on old mounds - an international network of carbonate mound research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Foubert, A.; Vertino, A.; van Rooij, D.; Spezzaferri, S.; Henriet, J.-P.; Dullo, W.-C.; Cocarde Science Community

    2012-04-01

    Carbonate mounds are important contributors of life in different settings, from warm-water to cold-water environments, and throughout geological history. Research on modern cold-water coral carbonate mounds over the last decades made a major contribution to our overall understanding of these particular sedimentary systems. By looking to the modern carbonate mound community with cold-water corals as main framework builders, some fundamental questions could be addressed, until now not yet explored in fossil mound settings. The international network COCARDE (http://www.cocarde.eu) is a platform for exploring new insights in carbonate mound research of recent and ancient mound systems. The aim of the COCARDE network is to bring together scientific communities, studying Recent carbonate mounds in midslope environments in the present ocean and investigating fossil mounds spanning the whole Phanerozoic time, respectively. Scientific challenges in modern and ancient carbonate mound research got well defined during the ESF Magellan Workshop COCARDE in Fribourg, Switzerland (21.-24.01.2009). The Special Volume Cold-water Carbonate Reservoir systems in Deep Environments - COCARDE (Marine Geology, Vol. 282) was the major outcome of this meeting and highlights the diversity of Recent carbonate mound studies. The following first joint Workshop and Field Seminar held in Oviedo, Spain (16.-20.09.2009) highlighted ongoing research from both Recent and fossil academic groups integrating the message from the industry. The field seminar focused on mounds from the Carboniferous platform of Asturias and Cantabria, already intensively visited by industrial and academic researchers. However, by comparing ancient, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic mound systems of Cantabria with the Recent ones in the Porcupine Seabight, striking similarities in their genesis and processes in mound development asked for an integrated drilling campaign to understand better the 3D internal mound build-up. The

  18. Thermoregulation and ventilation of termite mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, Judith

    2003-05-01

    Some of the most sophisticated of all animal-built structures are the mounds of African termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae, the fungus-growing termites. They have long been studied as fascinating textbook examples of thermoregulation or ventilation of animal buildings. However, little research has been designed to provide critical tests of these paradigms, derived from a very small number of original papers. Here I review results from recent studies on Macrotermes bellicosus that considered the interdependence of ambient temperature, thermoregulation, ventilation and mound architecture, and that question some of the fundamental paradigms of termite mounds. M. bellicosus achieves thermal homeostasis within the mound, but ambient temperature has an influence too. In colonies in comparably cool habitats, mound architecture is adapted to reduce the loss of metabolically produced heat to the environment. While this has no negative consequences in small colonies, it produces a trade-off with gas exchange in large colonies, resulting in suboptimally low nest temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. Along with the alteration in mound architecture, the gas exchange/ventilation mechanism also changes. While mounds in the thermally appropriate savannah have a very efficient circular ventilation during the day, the ventilation in the cooler forest is a less efficient upward movement of air, with gas exchange restricted by reduced surface exchange area. These results, together with other recent findings, question entrenched ideas such as the thermosiphon-ventilation mechanism or the assumption that mounds function to dissipate internally produced heat. Models trying to explain the proximate mechanisms of mound building, or building elements, are discussed.

  19. Crater Mound Formation by Wind Erosion on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, L. J.; Kite, E. S.; Michaels, T. I.

    2018-01-01

    Most of Mars' ancient sedimentary rocks by volume are in wind-eroded sedimentary mounds within impact craters and canyons, but the connections between mound form and wind erosion are unclear. We perform mesoscale simulations of different crater and mound morphologies to understand the formation of sedimentary mounds. As crater depth increases, slope winds produce increased erosion near the base of the crater wall, forming mounds. Peak erosion rates occur when the crater depth is ˜2 km. Mound evolution depends on the size of the host crater. In smaller craters mounds preferentially erode at the top, becoming more squat, while in larger craters mounds become steeper sided. This agrees with observations where smaller craters tend to have proportionally shorter mounds and larger craters have mounds encircled by moats. If a large-scale sedimentary layer blankets a crater, then as the layer recedes across the crater it will erode more toward the edges of the crater, resulting in a crescent-shaped moat. When a 160 km diameter mound-hosting crater is subject to a prevailing wind, the surface wind stress is stronger on the leeward side than on the windward side. This results in the center of the mound appearing to "march upwind" over time and forming a "bat-wing" shape, as is observed for Mount Sharp in Gale crater.

  20. Diurnal respiration of a termite mound

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-11-01

    Many species of fungus-harvesting termites build largely empty, massive mound structures which protrude from the ground above their subterranean nests. It has been long proposed that the function of these mounds is to facilitate exchange of heat, humidity, and respiratory gases; this would give the colony a controlled climate in which to raise fungus and brood. However, the specific mechanism by which the mound achieves ventilation has remained a topic of debate, as direct measurement of internal air flows has remained difficult. By directly measuring these elusive, tiny flows with a custom sensor, we find that the mound architecture of the species Odontotermes obesus takes advantage of daily oscillations in ambient temperature to drive convection and gas transport. This contradicts previous theories, which point to internal metabolic heating and external wind as driving forces. Our result, a novel example of deriving useful work from a fluctuating scalar parameter, should contribute to better understanding insect swarm construction and possible development in passive human architecture, both of which have been spurred by previous research on termites. We acknowledge support from HFSP.

  1. Aerodynamics of Ventilation in Termite Mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailoor, Shantanu; Yaghoobian, Neda; Turner, Scott; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    Fungus-cultivating termites collectively build massive, complex mounds which are much larger than the size of an individual termite and effectively use natural wind and solar energy, as well as the energy generated by the colony's own metabolic activity to maintain the necessary environmental condition for the colony's survival. We seek to understand the aerodynamics of ventilation and thermoregulation of termite mounds through computational modeling. A simplified model accounting for key mound features, such as soil porosity and internal conduit network, is subjected to external draft conditions. The role of surface flow conditions in the generation of internal flow patterns and the ability of the mound to transport gases and heat from the nursery are examined. The understanding gained from our study could be used to guide sustainable bio-inspired passive HVAC system design, which could help optimize energy utilization in commercial and residential buildings. This research is supported by a seed Grant from the Environment, Energy Sustainability and Health Institute of the Johns Hopkins University.

  2. Stochastic Design of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    The paper presents a level III reliability method from which the armour layer of rubble mound breakwaters can be designed, so that the total costs of construction price and expected maintaince expenses are minimized. Since the physics of the wave-structure interaction are not yet fully understood...

  3. Slumping of brine mounds : bounds on behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philips, J.R.; Duijn, van C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Two modifications of the approximate analysis of interface motion during two-fluid density-driven flows of De Josselin de Jong (Proc. Euromech., 143: 75–82, 1981) are applied to the slumping of finite two-dimensional and axisymmetric brine mounds. Both lead to simple similarity solutions. One

  4. Greener management practices - ash mound reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, S.L.; Shyam, A.K.; Soni, R. [National Thermal Power Corp. Ltd., New Delhi (India)

    2002-12-01

    The dry ash handling system at Dadri has been pioneered for the first time in India by the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC). The system is similar to that at the Drax power station in England. The paper reports the successful experimental trials carried out on vegetation of temporary ash mounds to assess the growth potential of local herbs, shrubs, trees and grasses directly on ash with no soil cover or fertiliser. These were extended to trials directly on the available (completed) mound surfaces. The grass Cynodon dactylon germinated well as did seeds of tree species including the Casurarina and Eucalyptus. It is hoped that efforts at Dadri will ultimately transform the ash into a productive and self sustaining ecosystem, as leaf fall adds additional organic material and the weathering process continues. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Optimized design for heavy mound venturi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Futang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The venturi scrubber is one of the most efficient gas cleaning devices for removal of contaminating particles in industrial flue-gas purification processes. The velocity of the gas entering the scrubber is one of the key factors influencing its dust-removal efficiency. In this study, the shapes of the heavy mound and tube wall are optimized, allowing the girth area to become linearly adjustable. The resulting uniformity of velocity distribution is verified numerically.

  6. Iron microbial communities in Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, F.; De Ridder, C.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Gillan, D.

    2001-01-01

    The Belgian Frasnian carbonate mounds occur in three stratigraphic levels in an overall backstepping succession. Petit-Mont and Arche Members form the famous red and grey “marble” exploited for ornamental stone since Roman times. The evolution and distribution of the facies in the mounds is thought to be associated with ecologic evolution and relative sea-level fluctuations. Iron oxides exist in five forms in the Frasnian mounds; four are undoubtedly endobiotic organized structures: (1) micro...

  7. Influence of soil pedological properties on termite mound stability

    OpenAIRE

    Jouquet, Pascal; Guilleux, N.; Caner, L.; Chintakunta, S.; Ameline, M.; Shanbhag, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of soil properties on the density and shape of epigeous fungus-growing termite nests in a dry deciduous forest in Karnataka, India. In this environment, Odontotermes obesus produces cathedral shaped mounds. Their density, shape (height and volume) and soil physicochemical properties were analyzed in ferralsol and vertisol environments. No significant difference was observed in O. obesus mound density (n = 2.7 mound ha(-1) on average in the vertisol and fe...

  8. Mound site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, L.R.

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform the public about the impact of Mound operations on the population and the environment. Mound is a government-owned facility operated by EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This integrated production, development, and research site performs work in support of DOE's weapon and energy related programs, with emphasis on explosive, nuclear and energy technologies

  9. Facies architecture and diagenesis of Belgian Late Frasnian carbonate mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Boulvain, Frédéric

    2001-01-01

    Late Frasnian Petit-Mont Member carbonate mounds occur in the southern pail of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Philippeville Anticline (SW Belgium). These mounds are 30 to 80 m thick and 100 to 250 m in diameter. They are embedded in shale, nodular shale and argillaceous limestone. Based on facies mapping of 14 buildups and related off-mound sediments, these mounds typically started from below the photic and storm wave base zones and builtup into shallow water environments. Above an argill...

  10. Hydraulic Response of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    , which was not actually identifed as a white spot, but still there was room for big improvements. Rear slope stability and wave re ection has been discussed brie y. The conventional rubble mound breakwater has been investigated for many decades. Anyhow, there is still room for improvements in some areas...... experimental test programme with berm breakwaters, has not only resulted in an enormous amount of overtopping data, but also establishment of a design formula to calculate average overtopping discharges. Further, the test programme led to an improved design rule for front side stability of berm breakwaters...

  11. Solar-powered ventilation of African termite mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocko, Samuel A; King, Hunter; Andreen, David; Bardunias, Paul; Turner, J Scott; Soar, Rupert; Mahadevan, L

    2017-09-15

    How termite mounds function to facilitate climate control is still only partially understood. Recent experimental evidence in the mounds of a single species, the south Asian termite Odontotermes obesus , suggests that the daily oscillations of radiant heating associated with diurnal insolation patterns drive convective flow within them. How general this mechanism is remains unknown. To probe this, we consider the mounds of the African termite Macrotermes michaelseni , which thrives in a very different environment. By directly measuring air velocities and temperatures within the mound, we see that the overall mechanisms and patterns involved are similar to that in the south Asian species. However, there are also some notable differences between the physiology of these mounds associated with the temporal variations in radiant heating patterns and CO 2 dynamics. Because of the difference between direct radiant heating driven by the position of the sun in African conditions, and the more shaded south Asian environments, we see changes in the convective flows in the two types of mounds. Furthermore, we also see that the south Asian mounds show a significant overturning of stratified gases, once a day, while the African mounds have a relatively uniform concentration of CO 2 Overall, our observations show that despite these differences, termite architectures can harness periodic solar heating to drive ventilation inside them in very different environments, functioning as an external lung, with clear implications for human engineering. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Are pre-crater mounds gas-inflated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibman, Marina; Kizyakov, Alexandr; Khomutov, Artem; Dvornikov, Yury; Babkina, Elena; Arefiev, Stanislav; Khairullin, Rustam

    2017-04-01

    Gas-emission craters (GEC) on Yamal peninsula, which occupied minds of researches for the last couple of years since first discovered in 2014, appeared to form on the place of specifically shaped mounds. There was a number of hypotheses involving pingo as an origin of these mounds. This arouse an interest in mapping pingo thus marking the areas of GEC formation risk. Our field research allows us to suggest that remote-sensing-based mapping of pingo may result in mix up of mounds of various origin. Thus, we started with classification of the mounds based on remote-sensing, field observations and survey from helicopter. Then we compared indicators of mounds of various classes to the properties of pre-crater mounds to conclude on their origin. Summarizing field experience, there are three main mound types on Yamal. (1) Outliers (remnant hills), separated from the main geomorphic landform by erosion. Often these mounds comprise polygonal blocks, kind of "baydzherakh". Their indicators are asymmetry (short gentle slope towards the main landform, and steep slope often descending into a small pond of thermokarst-nivation origin), often quadrangle or conic shape, and large size. (2) Pingo, appear within the khasyrei (drain lake basin); often are characterized by open cracks resulting from expansion of polygonal network formed when re-freezing of lake talik prior to pingo formation; old pingo may bear traces of collapse on the top, with depression which differs from the GEC by absence of parapet. (3) Frost-heave mounds (excluding pingo) may form on deep active layer, reducing due to moss-peat formation and forming ice lenses from an active layer water, usually they appear in the drainage hollows, valley bottoms, drain-lake basins periphery. These features are smaller than the first two types of mounds. Their tops as a rule are well vegetated. We were unable to find a single or a set of indicators unequivocally defining any specific mound type, thus indicators of pre

  13. Partial Safety Factors for Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.; Christiani, E.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the failure modes formulated in the various subtasks calibration of partial safety factors are described in this paper. The partial safety factors can be used to design breakwaters under quite different design conditions, namely probabilities of failure from 0.01 to 0.4, design...... lifetimes from 20 to 100 years and different qualities of wave data. A code of practice where safety is taken into account using partial safety factors is called a level I code. The partial safety factors are calibrated using First Order Reliability Methods (FORM, see Madsen et al. [1]) where...... in section 3. First Order Reliability Methods are described in section 4, and in section 5 it is shown how partial safety factors can be introduced and calibrated. The format of a code for design and analysis of rubble mound breakwaters is discussed in section 6. The mathematical formulation of the limit...

  14. Mound's decommissioning experience, tooling, and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Elswick, T.C.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Monsanto Research Corporation (MRC), which operates Mound for the Department of Energy (DOE), has been decommissioning radioactively contaminated facilities since 1949. We are currently decommissioning three plutonium-238 contaminated facilities (approximately 50,000 ft 2 ) that contained 1100 linear ft of gloveboxes; 900 linear ft of conveyor housing; 2650 linear ft of dual underground liquid waste lines; and associated contaminated piping, services, equipment, structures, and soil. As of June 1982, over 29,000 Ci of plutonium-238 have been removed in waste and scrap residues. As a result of the current and previous decommissioning projects, valuable experience has been gained in tooling and techniques. Special techniques have been developed in planning, exposure control, contamination control, equipment removal, structural decontamination, and waste packaging

  15. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  16. Stability Of Rubble Mound Breakwaters Using High Density Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Beck, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    The present paper discusses the effect of mass density on stability of rubble mound breakwaters. A short literature review of existing knowledge is give to establish a background for the ongoing research. Furthermore, several model tests are described in which the stability of rubble mound...... breakwaters with armour stones of different densities are investigated. The results from the model test are discussed with respect to application and further research....

  17. Termite mounds harness diurnal temperature oscillations for ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L

    2015-09-15

    Many species of millimetric fungus-harvesting termites collectively build uninhabited, massive mound structures enclosing a network of broad tunnels that protrude from the ground meters above their subterranean nests. It is widely accepted that the purpose of these mounds is to give the colony a controlled microclimate in which to raise fungus and brood by managing heat, humidity, and respiratory gas exchange. Although different hypotheses such as steady and fluctuating external wind and internal metabolic heating have been proposed for ventilating the mound, the absence of direct in situ measurement of internal air flows has precluded a definitive mechanism for this critical physiological function. By measuring diurnal variations in flow through the surface conduits of the mounds of the species Odontotermes obesus, we show that a simple combination of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity allows the mounds to use diurnal ambient temperature oscillations for ventilation. In particular, the thin outer flutelike conduits heat up rapidly during the day relative to the deeper chimneys, pushing air up the flutes and down the chimney in a closed convection cell, with the converse situation at night. These cyclic flows in the mound flush out CO2 from the nest and ventilate the colony, in an unusual example of deriving useful work from thermal oscillations.

  18. Mortality among workers at the Mound Facility: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.D.; Galke, W.A.

    1991-04-01

    Mortality among 4,697 white males who were employed at the Mound Facility between 1943 and 1979 was compared with expected mortality based on US white male death rates. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of 96 were observed for both all causes and all cancers. SMRs for digestive cancers and unintentional injuries were significantly less than 100. No SMR was significantly greater than 100 for these workers. A significantly elevated lung cancer SMR was observed for the subcohort of workers employed from 1943--1959, a period during which polonium-210 was processed at the plant. To determine the potential impact of wartime selection factors, this time period was further divided into two periods, 1943--1945 and 1946--1959. In the 1943--1945 period, the SMR for lung cancer was 204 (90% CI = 140, 290), while in the later period the lung cancer SMR was 105 (90% CI = 77, 140). Similar results were observed for all causes, all cancers, cancers of the rectum, nonmalignant respiratory diseases, and all injuries for which the SMRs were elevated during the wartime period but were not elevated after the war. Additional analyses considering workers hired in the period 1960--1979, during which plutonium-238 was processed at the facility, yielded little information. Generally, a strong healthy worker effect was observed and was attributed to the limited follow-up time and small numbers of deaths among this subcohort. 22 refs., 9 tabs

  19. Monsanto Mound Laboratory tritium waste control technology development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixel, J.C.; Kershner, C.J.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1975-01-01

    Over the past four years, implementation of tritium waste control programs has resulted in a 30-fold reduction in the gaseous tritium effluents from Mound Laboratory. However, to reduce tritium waste levels to the ''as low as practicable'' guideline poses problems that are beyond ready solution with state-of-the-art tritium control technology. To meet this advanced technology need, a tritium waste control technology program was initiated. Although the initial thrust of the work under this program was oriented toward development of gaseous effluent treatment systems, its natural evolution has been toward the liquid waste problem. It is thought that, of all the possible approaches to disposal of tritiated liquid wastes, recovery offers the greatest advantages. End products of the recovery processes would be water detritiated to a level below the Radioactivity Concentration Guide (RCG) or detritiated to a level that would permit safe recycle in a closed loop operation and enriched tritium. The detritiated water effluent could be either recycled in a closed loop operation such as in a fuel reprocessing plant or safely released to the biosphere, and the recovered tritium could be recycled for use in fusion reactor studies or other applications

  20. Geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements using termite mound materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Yu; Ohno, Tetsuji; Hoshino, Mihoko; Shin, Ki-Cheol; Murakami, Hiroyasu; Tsunematsu, Maiko; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-12-01

    The Blockspruit fluorite prospect, located in North West State of the Republic of South Africa, occurs within an actinolite rock zone that was emplaced into the Kenkelbos-type granite of Proterozoic age. There are a large number of termite mounds in the prospect. For geochemical prospecting for rare earth elements (REEs), in total, 200 samples of termite mound material were collected from actinolite rock and granite zones in the prospect. Geochemical analyses of these termite mound materials were conducted by two methods: portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Comparison of the two methods broadly indicates positive correlations of REEs (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y), in particular Y and La having a strong correlation. As the result of modal abundance analyses, the actinolite rock at surface mainly consists of ferro-actinolite (89.89 wt%) and includes xenotime (0.26 wt%) and monazite (0.21 wt%) grains as REE minerals. Termite mound materials from actinolite rock also contain xenotime (0.27 wt%) and monazite (0.41 wt%) grains. In addition, termite mound materials from the actinolite rock zone have high hematite and Fe silicate contents compared to those from granite zone. These relationships suggest that REE minerals in termite mound materials originate form actinolite rock. Geochemical anomaly maps of Y, La, and Fe concentrations drawn based on the result of the portable XRF analyses show that high concentrations of these elements trend from SW to NE which broadly correspond to occurrences of actinolite body. These results indicate that termite mounds are an effective tool for REE geochemical prospection in the study area for both light REEs and Y, but a more detailed survey is required to establish the distribution of the actinolite rock body.

  1. Sorptive removal of arsenate using termite mound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fufa, Fekadu; Alemayehu, Esayas; Lennartz, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Long-term consumption of arsenic results in severe and permanent health damages. The aim of the study was to investigate arsenate (As(V)) sorption capacity of termite mound (TM), containing mainly silicon, aluminum, iron and titanium oxides, under batch adsorption setup. The pattern of As(V) removal with varying contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose, As(V) concentration and competing anions was investigated. Dissolution of the adsorbent was insignificant under the equilibrium conditions. Equilibrium was achieved within 40 min of agitation time. Kinetic data of As(V) adsorption followed well the pseudo-second order equation (R(2) > 0.99). High As(V) removal efficiency (∼ 99%) was observed over a pH range ∼ 3-∼ 10, which is of great importance in the practical application. The Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms well described (R(2) > 0.99, χ(2) ∼ 0.05) the equilibrium As(V) adsorption, giving a coefficient of adsorption 1.48 mg(1-1/n)L(1/n)/g and a saturation capacity 13.50 mg/g respectively. The obtained value of mean sorption energy (EDR = 13.32 kJ/mol) suggested the chemisorption mechanism of As(V) adsorption on TM. The removal of As(V) was significantly decreased in the presence of phosphate ions. The As(V) loaded adsorbent was successfully regenerated using NaOH solution with insignificant loss of metals. Therefore, the results of the study demonstrated that TM could be considered as a promising adsorbent for the treatment of As(V) in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of fire on soil mounds and surface roughness in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Esque, Todd C.; Bedford, David R.; Bond, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in arid land management centers on understanding the long-term effects of fire on desert ecosystems. To assess the effects of fire on surface topography, soil roughness, and vegetation, we used terrestrial (ground-based) LiDAR to quantify the differences between burned and unburned surfaces by creating a series of high-resolution vegetation structure and bare-earth surface models for six sample plots in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, Arizona. We find that 11 years following prescribed burns, mound volumes, plant heights, and soil-surface roughness were significantly lower on burned relative to unburned plots. Results also suggest a linkage between vegetation and soil mounds, either through accretion or erosion mechanisms such as wind and/or water erosion. The biogeomorphic implications of fire-induced changes are significant. Reduced plant cover and altered soil surfaces from fire likely influence seed residence times, inhibit seed germination and plant establishment, and affect other ecohydrological processes.

  3. Markers of Soil Organic Matter Transformation in Permafrost Peat Mounds of Northeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, A. V.; Knoblauch, C.; Yakovleva, E. V.; Kaverin, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    For the paleoreconstruction of permafrost peat mounds and the identification of plant communities participating in the formation of peat, the contents of n-alkanes (C20-C33) have been determined, and relative changes in the stable isotope compositions of carbon and nitrogen and the C/N ratio have been analysed. Several indices ( CPI alkanes, P aq, P wax) have been calculated to assess the degree of decomposition of the peats studied and the contributions of different plant species to their formation. It has been found that shortand long-chain n-alkanes are concentrated in high-moor peat, while medium-chain alkanes are typical for transitional peat. Integrated analysis of the studied markers has shown that the botanical and material composition of peat, anaerobic conditions of bog formation, and permafrost play an important role in the preservation of organic carbon in permafrost peat mounds. Alternation of plant associations is the main reason for changes in n-alkane concentrations, C/N ratios, and δ13C values.

  4. Distribution of 238Pu and 239240Pu in aquatic macrophytes from a midwestern watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Alberts, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    Aquatic macrophytes were collected in the Great Miami River, Ohio, above and below Miamisburg and in the canal and ponds, near the Mound Laboratory, which contain sediments of a high activity (approximately 10 3 to 10 6 times) relative to the river sediments. Macrophytes collected in the river below Miamisburg have higher activities of 238 Pu than those collected from above the city. Macrophytes from the canal and ponds contain high specific activities of 238 Pu and 239 , 240 Pu with the exception of cattails grown in the ponds. Concentration factors are reported and discussed with reference to possible modes of plutonium accumulation and distribution within the plants

  5. Innovative rubble mound breakwaters for overtopping wave energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicinanza, Diego; Contestabile, Pasquale; Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck

    2014-01-01

    to the sea through turbines. Wave loadings and average wave overtopping rate at the rear side of the rubble mound breakwater and in the front reservoir are discussed on the basis of physical 2-D model tests carried out at Aalborg University (DK). The experiments have been analyzed and compared with results...... from model tests and wave load design formulae by Nørgaard et al. (2013) for traditional rubble mound crown walls. The existing prediction methods seem unable to predict the hydraulic performances and loadings on the front reservoir and thus new prediction formulae are proposed based on the new...

  6. Design And Construction Of Mounds For Breakwaters And Coastal Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Barends, F.B.J.; Brebner, A.

    Design and construction of mound breakwaters has during the last 5 to 10 years entered a new era. The major reason for that is the realization of problems encountered as it became necessary to erect port structures on more exposed shores and in deeper waters. As a consequence of that the P.I.A.N....... they were exposed to. The following sections discuss the stability of mound breakwaters, reasons for failure and design principles. A number of major failures are mentioned specifically. In each case an attempt has been made to explore and explain the reason for the failure....

  7. 2014 Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Well Integrity Grading Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Barry L; Lord, David; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven R.; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa L. (FFPO); Wynn, Karen (FFPO); Checkai, Dean (FFPO); Osborne, Gerad (FFPO); Moore, Darryl (FFPO)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Bryan Mound Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. The grading included consideration of all 47 wells at the Bryan Mound site, with each well receiving a separate grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The factors and grading framework used here are the same as those used in developing similar well remediation and monitoring priorities at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site.

  8. Shallow water mud-mounds of the Early Devonian Buchan Group, East Gippsland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosolini, A.-M. P.; Wallace, M. W.; Gallagher, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Lower Devonian Rocky Camp Member of the Murrindal Limestone, Buchan Group of southeastern Australia consists of a series of carbonate mud-mounds and smaller lagoonal bioherms. The Rocky Camp mound is the best exposed of the mud-mounds and has many characteristics in common with Waulsortian (Carboniferous) mounds. Detailed paleoecological and sedimentological studies indicate that the mound initially accumulated in the photic zone, in contrast to most of the previously recorded mud-mounds. Five facies are present in the mud-mound: a Dasycladacean Wackestone Facies at the base of the mound represents a moderate energy, shallow water bank environment within the photic zone. A Crinioidal Wackestone Facies was deposited in a laterally equivalent foreslope setting. A Poriferan-Crinoidal Mudstone Facies developed in a quiet, deeper water, lee-side mound setting associated with a minor relative sea-level rise. A Stromatoporoid-Coralline Packstone Facies in the upper part of the mound deposited in a high-energy, fair-weather wave base, mound-front environment. The crest of the mound is represented by a Crinoidal-Receptaculitid Packstone Facies indicative of a moderate-energy mound-top environment in the photic zone, sheltered by the mound-front stromatoporoid-coral communities. A mound flank facies is present on the southern side of the mound and this consists of high-energy crinoidal grainstones. Mud-mound deposition was terminated by a transgression that deposited dark gray, fossil-poor marl of the overlying Taravale Formation. The Rocky Camp mound appears to have originated in shallow water photic zone conditions and grew into a high-energy environment, with the mound being eventually colonized by corals and stromatoporoids. The indications of a high-energy environment during later mound growth (growth form of colonial metazoans and grainstones of the flanking facies) suggest that the micrite in the mound was autochthonous and implies the presence of an energy

  9. Contact area calculation between elastic solids bounded by mound rough surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G

    In this work, we investigate the influence of mound roughness on the contact area between elastic bodies. The mound roughness is described by the r.m.s. roughness amplitude w, the average mound separation Lambda, and the system correlation length xi. In general, the real contact area has a complex

  10. Radiocarbon dating of large termite mounds of the miombo woodland of Katanga, DR Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erens, Hans; Boudin, Mathieu; Mees, Florias; Dumon, Mathijs; Mujinya, Basile; Van Strydonck, Mark; Baert, Geert; Boeckx, Pascal; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1, ~5 m high, ~15 m in diameter). The time it takes for these mounds to attain this size is still largely unknown. In this study, the age of four of these mounds is determined by 14C-dating the acid-insoluble organic carbon fraction of samples taken along the central vertical axis of two active and two abandoned mounds. The age sequence in the active mounds is erratic, but the results for the abandoned mounds show a logical increase of 14C-age with depth. The ages measured at 50 cm above ground level were 2335 - 2119 cal yr BP for the large abandoned mound (630 cm high), and 796 - 684 cal yr BP for the small abandoned mound (320 cm high). Cold-water-extractable organic carbon (CWEOC) measurements combined with spectroscopic analysis revealed that the lower parts of the active mounds may have been contaminated with recent carbon that leached from the active nest. Nonetheless, this method appears to provide reliable age estimates of large, abandoned termite mounds, which are older than previously estimated. Furthermore, historical mound growth rates seem to correspond to past temperature changes, suggesting a relation between past environmental conditions and mound occupancy. Keywords : 14C, water-extractable carbon, low-temperature combustion

  11. Monthly fluctuation of termite caste proportions (Isoptera) within fire ant mounds (hymenoptera: formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Shelton; J.T. Vogt; Marla J. Tanley; Arthur G. Appel

    2003-01-01

    Monthly abundance and caste proportions of subterranean termites (Reticulitennes spp.) inhabiting red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) mounds were recorded during 1999 and 2000 from a relatively undisturbed forest edge in Tuskegee, Alabama. Temperature data were also recorded at these mounds; mean air, soil, and mound temperatures followed a sine model over...

  12. Stability of termite mound populations in a variable environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of all the climatic variables in the environment of termites in southern Kenya, only rainfall shows marked seasonality and unpredictability. But despite the great variability in rainfall patterns, the populations of termite mounds of various species in three well-separated study areas remained remarkably constant over a period ...

  13. Post Earthquack Slope Stability Analysis of Rubble Mound Breakwater

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Moradi; Amir Mahmoudzadeh; Yahya Rahim Safavi

    2017-01-01

    Rubble mound breakwaters are structures built mainly of quarried rock. Generally armourstone or artificial concrete armour units are used for the outer armour layer,which should protect the structure againist wave attack. Armour stones and concrete armoure unites in this outer layer are usually placed with care to obtain effective interlocking and consequently better stability .

  14. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; de Walle, Bjorn Van; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full-scale wave run-up measurements have been carried out on the Zeebrugge rubble mound breakwater in the frame of the EU-funded OPTICREST project. Wave run-up has been measured by a run-up gauge and by a so-called spiderweb system. The dimensionless wave run-up value Ru2%Hm0 measured in Zeebrugg...

  15. Mathematical Model for Prediction of Flexural Strength of Mound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mound soil-cement blended proportions were mathematically optimized by using scheffe's approach and the optimization model developed. A computer program predicting the mix proportion for the model was written. The optimal proportion by the program was used prepare beam samples measuring 150mm x 150mm ...

  16. Measuring damage in physical model tests of rubble mounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Rosa-Santos, Paulo; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco; Lemos, Rute; Mendonça, A.; Juana Fortes, C

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies novel ways to evaluate armour damage in physical models of coastal structures. High-resolution damage data for reference rubble mound breakwaters obtained under the HYDRALAB+ joint-research project are analysed and discussed. These tests are used to analyse the way to describe

  17. Beads from Inhumation Rite Burials of Gnezdovo Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrova Olga P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The beads from 33 inhumation burials at Gnezdovo burial mound are examined in the article. The beads (total 367 were crafted from stretched tube (258, stretched stick (3, winding (45, press molding (2 pcs., welding (2 pcs., and mosaic beads (9 pcs.. The burial mound contains virtually no broken beads, including the settlement's most common yellow glass beads. Besides glass beads, cornelian, crystal, amber and faience beads have been registered among the burial mound material, as well as beads crafted with metal. Apart from beads, grave inventories contained a series of pendants with a bead strung on a wire ring. The considered complexes contain five pendants of this type. Besides Gnezdovo, similar pendants have been discovered in Kiev, Timerev, Pskov and Vladimir barrows. A comparison between bead sets from Gnezdovo and Kiev burial mounds allows to conclude that the general composition and occurrence frequency of beads is identical for these burials. At the same time, beads crafted with rock crystal, cornelian and metal are more frequently discovered in Kiev inhumations.

  18. Estimating Groundwater Mounding in Sloping Aquifers for Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Kacimov, Anvar; Al-Maktoumi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Design of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) for augmentation of groundwater resources often lacks detailed data, and simple diagnostic tools for evaluation of the water table in a broad range of parameters are needed. In many large-scale MAR projects, the effect of a regional aquifer base dip cannot be ignored due to the scale of recharge sources (e.g., wadis, streams, reservoirs). However, Hantush's (1967) solution for a horizontal aquifer base is commonly used. To address sloping aquifers, a new closed-form analytical solution for water table mound accounts for the geometry and orientation of recharge sources at the land surface with respect to the aquifer base dip. The solution, based on the Dupiuit-Forchheimer approximation, Green's function method, and coordinate transformations is convenient for computing. This solution reveals important MAR traits in variance with Hantush's solution: mounding is limited in time and space; elevation of the mound is strongly affected by the dip angle; and the peak of the mound moves over time. These findings have important practical implications for assessment of various MAR scenarios, including waterlogging potential and determining proper rates of recharge. Computations are illustrated for several characteristic MAR settings. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Rainfall and soil properties influence termite mound abundance and height: A case study with Odontotermes obesus (Macrotermitinae) mounds in the Indian Western Ghats forests

    OpenAIRE

    Kabbaj, Meyssoun; Sundararaj, Ramachandran; Jouquet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Several fungus-growing termite species build mounds, or termitaria, that are conspicuous features of African and Asian landscapes. Studies of the genus Macrotermes in Africa have established that their mounds provide an environment buffered against extremes of temperature and humidity, as well as protection from predators, and are correspondingly modified in composition. However, no studies are available in the specific context of the Asian continent where termite mounds are also abundant. He...

  20. Rainfall and soil properties influence termite mound abundance and height : a case study with Odontotermes obesus (Macrotermitinae) mounds in the Indian Western Ghats forests

    OpenAIRE

    Shanbhag, R. R.; Kabbaj, M.; Sundararaj, R.; Jouquet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Several fungus-growing termite species build mounds, or termitaria, that are conspicuous features of African and Asian landscapes. Studies of the genus Macrotermes in Africa have established that their mounds provide an environment buffered against extremes of temperature and humidity, as well as protection from predators, and are correspondingly modified in composition. However, no studies are available in the specific context of the Asian continent where termite mounds are also abundant. He...

  1. Termite Mounds Effects on Soil Properties in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Termites have peculiar activities in the soil, inducing significant changes in the soil properties. The objective of this study was to assess physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter to evaluate the effect of termite activity and termite mounds on the soil. Two toposequences were selected and divided in slope thirds (shoulder, backslope, and footslope. In each of these, four termite mounds were selected. Samples were taken from the soils and termite mounds (top, center, and base along with a variety of termites for identification. Analyses were carried out for physical, soil texture, and chemical properties, as well as for particle size and chemical fractioning of organic matter. The species Cornitermes cumulans was found in all mounds. Soil with termite mound presented higher clay content, acidity, and Al3+ content. Phosphorus contents differed considerably between mound material and soil. Sum of bases and cation exchange capacity of the soil were higher in mounds, and differed within the mounds, according to the sampling height. Total organic carbon and particulate carbon content were highest at the mound base. A marked disparity was observed between the contents of humic substances in the mounds and surrounding soil, with humin fraction differences in distinct topographic position. The high nutrient contents detected in the termite mounds confirm the importance of termites in concentrating nutrients.

  2. Ecological feedbacks. Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climatic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonachela, Juan A; Pringle, Robert M; Sheffer, Efrat; Coverdale, Tyler C; Guyton, Jennifer A; Caylor, Kelly K; Levin, Simon A; Tarnita, Corina E

    2015-02-06

    Self-organized spatial vegetation patterning is widespread and has been described using models of scale-dependent feedback between plants and water on homogeneous substrates. As rainfall decreases, these models yield a characteristic sequence of patterns with increasingly sparse vegetation, followed by sudden collapse to desert. Thus, the final, spot-like pattern may provide early warning for such catastrophic shifts. In many arid ecosystems, however, termite nests impart substrate heterogeneity by altering soil properties, thereby enhancing plant growth. We show that termite-induced heterogeneity interacts with scale-dependent feedbacks to produce vegetation patterns at different spatial grains. Although the coarse-grained patterning resembles that created by scale-dependent feedback alone, it does not indicate imminent desertification. Rather, mound-field landscapes are more robust to aridity, suggesting that termites may help stabilize ecosystems under global change. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Struvite for composting of agricultural wastes with termite mound: Utilizing the unutilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Das, Kuntal

    2015-01-01

    Although, compost is the store house of different plant nutrients, there is a concern for low amount of major nutrients especially nitrogen content in prepared compost. The present study deals with preparation of compost by using agricultural wastes with struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) along with termite mound. Among four composting mixtures, 50kg termite mound and 2.5kg struvite with crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65kg; soybean: 354.59kg; potato: 357.67kg and mustard: 373.19kg) and cow dung (84.90kg) formed a good quality compost within 70days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 21.59, 3.98 and 34.6gkg(-1), respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the composts. The four composts formed two (pit 1, pit 2 and pit 3, pit 4) different groups. Two principal components expressed more than 97% of the total variability. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted two homogeneous groups of composts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IODP Expedition 307 Drills Cold-Water Coral Mound Along the Irish Continental Margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Williams

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the past decade, oceanographic and geophysical surveys along the slope of the Porcupine Seabight off the southwestern continental margin of Ireland have identified upwards of a thousand enigmatic mound-like structures (Figs. 1 and 2. The mounds of the Porcupine Seabight rise from the seafl oor in water depths of 600–900 m and formimpressive conical bodies several kilometers wide and up to 200 m high. Although a few mounds such as Thérèse Mound and Galway Mound are covered by a thriving thicket of coldwater corals, most mound tops and fl anks are covered by dead coral rubble or are entirely buried by sediment (De Mol et al., 2002; Fig. 2, Beyer et al., 2003. Lophelia pertusa (Fig.3 and Madrepora oculata are the most prominent cold-water corals growing without photosynthetic symbionts. The widespread discovery of large and numerous coral-bearing banks and the association of these corals with the mounds have generated signifi cant interest as to the composition, origin and development of these mound structures.Challenger Mound, in the Belgica mound province, has an elongated shape oriented along a north-northeast to south-southwest axis and ispartially buried under Pleistocene drift sediments. In high-resolution seismic profiles the mounds appear to root on an erosion surface (van Rooij et al., 2003. During IODP Expedition307 the Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight was drilled with the goal of unveiling the origin and depositional processes withinthese intriguing sedimentary structures. Challenger Mound, unlike its near neighbors the Thérèse and Galway mounds, has little to no livecoral coverage and, therefore, was chosen as the main target for drilling activities, so that no living ecosystem would be disturbed.

  5. Wave Induced Loading and Stability of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue

    conducting model tests very large variability in e.g. the degree of stability is observed. This background motivated the investigations conducted in the present study. The objective was to investigate and clarify which wave parameters are important for the hydraulic stability of the armour layer on typical...... rubble mound breakwaters. Furthermore, it was intended to quantify the influence on the stability of each parameter. Focus was put on the wave induced loading on single armour stones and the relation to the stability. Based on existing literature the state of physical understanding of the processes...... and the stability were investigated. At Aalborg University model tests with an idealized model of a rubble mound breakwater were conducted and formed the basis for a detailed parametric investigation of the wave induced loading. Based on analyses of the experimental data wave-force models were derived containing...

  6. Mound cyclone incinerator. Volume I. Description and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingler, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    The Mound cyclone incinerator was developed to fill a need for a simple, relaible incinerator for volume reduction of dry solid waste contaminated with plutonium-238. Although the basic design of the incinerator is for batch burning of solid combustible waste, the incinerator has also been adapted to volume reduction of other waste forms. Specialized waste feeding equipment enables continuous burning of both solid and liquid waste, including full scintillation vials. Modifications to the incinerator offgas system enable burning of waste contaminated with isotopes other than plutonium-238. This document presents the design and performance characteristics of the Mound Cyclone Incinerator for incineration of both solid and liquid waste. Suggestions are included for adaptation of the incinerator to specialized waste materials

  7. Temporal variability in shell mound formation at Albatross Bay, northern Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Holdaway

    Full Text Available We report the results of 212 radiocarbon determinations from the archaeological excavation of 70 shell mound deposits in the Wathayn region of Albatross Bay, Australia. This is an intensive study of a closely co-located group of mounds within a geographically restricted area in a wider region where many more shell mounds have been reported. Valves from the bivalve Tegillarca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758 were dated. The dates obtained are used to calculate rates of accumulation for the shell mound deposits. These demonstrate highly variable rates of accumulation both within and between mounds. We assess these results in relation to likely mechanisms of shell deposition and show that rates of deposition are affected by time-dependent processes both during the accumulation of shell deposits and during their subsequent deformation. This complicates the interpretation of the rates at which shell mound deposits appear to have accumulated. At Wathayn, there is little temporal or spatial consistency in the rates at which mounds accumulated. Comparisons between the Wathayn results and those obtained from shell deposits elsewhere, both in the wider Albatross Bay region and worldwide, suggest the need for caution when deriving behavioural inferences from shell mound deposition rates, and the need for more comprehensive sampling of individual mounds and groups of mounds.

  8. Landward Distribution of Wave Overtopping for Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2006-01-01

    Overtopping data from seven model test projects has been analyzed with respect to the landward spatial distribution of the overtopping discharge. In total more than 1000 overtopping tests have been analysed and a formula derived for prediction of the landward distribution of overtopping behind...... rubble mound structures with a super structure. The analysis led to the conclusion that although the overtopping discharge, for identical wave heights, decreases with increasing wave steepness, then the maximum travel distance increases with increasing wave steepness....

  9. Feasibility of a Mound-designed transportable calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.F.; Fellers, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of operating a Mound twin resistance bridge calorimeter outside a temperature-controlled water bath was demonstrated. An existing calorimeter was retrofit with two additional jackets through which water was transferred from an external reservoir. Comparison of test results collected before and after the retrofit indicated that the calorimeter performance was not degraded by this modification. Similarly designed calorimeters have potential applications in laboratories where equipment space is limited for inspectors who are required to transport their assay instrumentation

  10. Implementation of linear bias corrections for calorimeters at Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, Mound has generally made relative bias corrections as part of the calibration of individual calorimeters. The correction made was the same over the entire operating range of the calorimeter, regardless of the magnitude of the range. Recently, an investigation was performed to check the relevancy of using linear bias corrections to calibrate the calorimeters. The bias is obtained by measuring calibrated plutonium and/or electrical heat standards over the operating range of the calorimeter. The bias correction is then calculated using a simple least squares fit (y = mx + b) of the bias in milliwatts over the operating range of the calorimeter in watts. The equation used is B i = B 0 + (B w * W m ), where B i is the bias at any given power in milliwatts, B 0 is the intercept (absolute bias in milliwatts), B w is the slope (relative bias in milliwatts per watt), and W m is the measured power in watts. The results of the study showed a decrease in the random error of bias corrected data for most of the calorimeters which are operated over a large wattage range (greater than an order of magnitude). The linear technique for bias correction has been fully implemented at Mound and has been included in the Technical Manual, ''A Measurement Control Program for Radiometric Calorimeters at Mound'' (MD-21900)

  11. Manipulation/Extraction of Adatom on a Mound: AG(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, H.

    2004-01-01

    We present results of an extensive study of the manipulation/extraction of an atom from a small Ag mound on Ag(111) using a Ag tip. Molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular static (MS) simulations were carried out using interaction potentials from the embedded atom method. In order to evaluate the manipulation capabilities of the tip, we first examine in detail the characteristics of the energy landscape in the absence of the tip. We find that the energy barrier for the extraction of the Ag atom, either through lateral (sliding downwards) or through vertical (climbing upwards) diffusion, to be about 0.3 eV. We show that the presence of the tip lowers the energy barrier for both lateral and vertical diffusion. We find that when the tip is above the edge of the mound (at a height of 2.43 A A from the Ag atom) the barrier for diffusion drops to 0.032 eV for lateral and 0.18 eV for vertical manipulation. We discuss the effect of the tip shape and geometry on the energetics, and present a detailed explanation of how the adatom is extracted from a mound in good agreement with experimental observations

  12. Soil Physical and Chemical Properties in Epigeal Termite Mounds in Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana de Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We characterized soil physical and chemical properties and soil organic matter in epigeal termite mounds in pastures to evaluate the changes promoted by termites in comparison to an adjacent area. We selected seven active epigeal termite mounds in the municipality of Seropédica, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from top, center and base positions of each mound, at 0.50 and 1.50 m distance from the base of the mound. We identified individuals of the genus Embiratermes, Velocitermes, and Orthognathotermes. The humin fraction predominated over the humic and fulvic acid fractions both in mounds and adjacent soil. The amount of organic matter and the mineral fractions (mineral-associated organic carbon - MOC varied among builder species. The studied chemical attributes point to a higher concentration of nutrients in the mounds than in the adjacent soil.

  13. Use of termite mounds in geochemical exploration in North Ethiopia [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Fassil

    2004-09-01

    The geochemistry of the termite mounds was studied in lower Giba River basin, Kolla Tambien district, northern Ethiopia to show that they are useful in searching for metals. Specimens from the termite mounds and parent materials were collected to quantify gold, silver, copper, zinc, cobalt, manganese, iron and nickel. The results of the geochemical analysis of the samples indicated that these metals exist both in the termite mound and the parent material in the surrounding area. Correlation analysis shows that termite mounds and the parent materials are positively correlated for gold ( r = 0.75∗), copper ( r = 0.77∗), silver ( r = 0.56∗) and manganese ( r = 0.72). This positive correlation leads to the conclusion that there is a direct relation between the concentration of metals in termite mound and the parent rocks. Termite mounds can therefore be used as tools in exploring for these metals.

  14. Environmental assessment of coal waste mounds in Japan using remote sensing techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A J; Gotoh, K; Aoyama, K; Aoki, S [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Department of Geography and Anthropology

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on the application of remote sensing techniques to the study of coal waste mounds. The situation at the coal waste mounds in Fukuoka, Japan is cited. Guidelines on film parameters, photographic keys and tasks required to inventory, monitor and manage coal waste mounds in Japan are addressed. Application of photogrammetry, remote sensing, aerial photography and satellite imagery techniques in monitoring spoil banks is reviewed. Applicability of the techniques is discussed. 24 refs.

  15. SPATIAL VARIABILITY AND VITALITY OF EPIGEOUS TERMITE MOUNDS IN PASTURES OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Santana Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Epigeous termite mounds are frequently observed in pasture areas, but the processes regulating their population dynamics are poorly known. This study evaluated epigeous termite mounds in cultivated grasslands used as pastures, assessing their spatial distribution by means of geostatistics and evaluating their vitality. The study was conducted in the Cerrado biome in the municipality of Rio Brilhante, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In two pasture areas (Pasture 1 and Pasture 2, epigeous mounds (nests were georeferenced and analyzed for height, circumference and vitality (inhabited or not. The area occupied by the mounds was calculated and termite specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. The spatial distribution pattern of the mounds was analyzed with geostatistical procedures. In both pasture areas, all epigeous mounds were built by the same species, Cornitermes cumulans. The mean number of mounds per hectare was 68 in Pasture 1 and 127 in Pasture 2, representing 0.4 and 1 % of the entire area, respectively. A large majority of the mounds were active (vitality, 91 % in Pasture 1 and 84 % in Pasture 2. A “pure nugget effect” was observed in the semivariograms of height and nest circumference in both pastures reflecting randomized spatial distribution and confirming that the distribution of termite mounds in pastures had a non-standard distribution.

  16. Biogeochemical study of termite mounds: a case study from Tummalapalle area of Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arveti, Nagaraju; Reginald, S; Kumar, K Sunil; Harinath, V; Sreedhar, Y

    2012-04-01

    Termite mounds are abundant components of Tummalapalle area of uranium mineralization of Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh, India. The systematic research has been carried out on the application of termite mound sampling to mineral exploration in this region. The distribution of chemical elements Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Co, Cr, Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, and U were studied both in termite soils and adjacent surface soils. Uranium accumulations were noticed in seven termite mounds ranging from 10 to 36 ppm. A biogeochemical parameter called "Biological Absorption Coefficient" of the termite mounds indicated the termite affected soils contained huge amounts of chemical elements than the adjacent soils.

  17. Variability of soil properties within large termite mounds in South Katanga, DRC - origins and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Boeckx, Pascal; Baert, Geert; Mees, Florias; Van Ranst, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The miombo woodlands of South Katanga (D.R. Congo) are characterized by a high spatial density of large conic termite mounds built by Macrotermes falciger (3 to 5 ha-1). With an average height of 5.05 m and diameter of 14.88 m, these are some of the largest biogenic structures in the world. The mound material is known to differ considerably from the surrounding Ferralsols. Specifically, mound material exhibits a finer texture, higher CEC and exchangeable basic cation content, lower organic matter content, and an accumulation of phosphorous, nitrate and secondary carbonates. However, as demonstrated by the present study, these soil properties are far from uniform within the volume of the mound. The termites' nesting and foraging activity, combined with pedogenic processes over extended periods of time, generates a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological conditions in different parts of the mound. Analysis of samples taken along a cross-section of a large active mound allowed generating contour plots, thus visualizing the variability of soil properties within the mound. The central columns of three other mounds were sampled to confirm apparent trends. The contour plots show that the mounds comprise four functional zones: (i) the active nest, found at the top; (ii) an accumulation zone , in more central parts of the mound; (iii) a dense inactive zone, surrounding the accumulation zone and consisting of accumulated erosion products from former active nests; and (iv) the outer mantle, characterized by intense varied biological activity and by a well-developed soil structure. Intermittent leaching plays a key role in explaining these patterns. Using radiocarbon dating, we found that some of these mounds are at least 2000 years old. Their current size and shape is likely the result of successive stages of erosion and rebuilding, in the course of alternating periods of mound abandonment and recolonization. Over time, termite foraging combined with limited leaching

  18. Geophysical Survey of Poverty Point UNESCO World Heritage Site Mound A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, W.; Bourke, J. R.; De Smet, T.; Nikulin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Poverty Point is an UNESCO World Heritage Site located in northern Louisiana, known for its six earthwork ridges and mounds of archeological significance. The largest of these earthworks and most significant feature on the site, Mound A is over 70 feet (21 m) high and 640 feet (200 m) long. To construct this mound, it would have taken about 16 million basket loads of dirt which weight approximately 50 lbs. each (23 kg). The current archeological theory describing the construction of Mound A states it was built in three months at most, with some suggesting construction times as short as a month, but beyond this not much else is known about Mound A or Poverty Point. The pace of Mound A's construction has been used as evidence to support the idea that there was a central leader directing its construction and that the population inhabiting the site was more socio-politically complex than previous hunter-gatherer populations in North America. Evidence of heterogeneity and stratigraphic layering, however, is an indication of a slow mound construction over centuries by a relatively egalitarian hunter-gather society. A greater understanding of the construction style and timeline for the construction of Mound A will lead to a greater understanding to the site, its people their lifestyles. Mound Builders have been known to cap mounds they have built if they were to be built in stages so if Mound A was built in stages it is likely capped with some more dense material than the dirt surrounding it. To better understand the construction history of Mound A we collected photogrammetry, seismic reflection, ground-penetrating radar, frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction, resistivity, and magnetometry data over the mound. The seismic data had a normal moveout correction, it was stacked and migrated. Additionally, with the application of quadcopter-based photogrammetry a three-dimensional digital model of Mound A was developed to display and assist in further understanding and

  19. Morphology and spatial patterns of Macrotermes mounds in the SE Katanga, D.R. Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Mees, Florias; Erens, Hans; Baert, Geert; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The spatial distribution patterns and morphological characteristics of Macrotermes falciger mounds were investigated in the Lubumbashi area, D.R. Congo. Examination of the spatial patterns of M. falciger mounds on high resolution satellite images reveals a mean areal number density of 2.9 ± 0.4 mounds ha-1. The high relative number of inactive mounds in the region, along with their regular distribution pattern, suggests that current termite mound occurrences are largely palaeostructures. Mound positions in the habitat are consistent with intraspecific competition rather than soil and substrate characteristics as controlling factor. Detailed morphological description of five deep termite-mound profiles (~7 m height/depth) shows that carbonate pedofeatures are present in all studied profiles, in contrast to the control soils. They mainly occur in the form of soft powdery masses, nodules and coatings on ped faces, all clearly pedogenic. Carbonate coatings occur mainly between 1 m above the soil surface and 1 m below that level in all mound profiles. Carbonate nodules do show a different distribution pattern at each site. Furthermore, when the studied profiles are considered to represent a toposequence, the stone layer occurs at greater depth in topographically low areas compared to crest and slope positions, which is mainly conditioned by erosion. The clay content of epigeal mounds increases from the summit to the toe slope, which can be largely related to differences in parent material. The Mn-Fe oxide concentrations occurring in all studied termite mound profiles reflect a seasonally high perched water table beneath the mound, which is more pronounced at the lower slope positions.

  20. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a {open_quotes}floor{close_quotes} of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief.

  1. Characteristics and origin of Earth-mounds on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullis, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Earth-mounds are common features on the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The mounds are typically round or oval in plan view, <0.5 m in height, and from 8 to 14 m in diameter. They are found on flat and sloped surfaces, and appear less frequently in lowland areas. The mounds have formed on deposits of multiple sedimentary environments. Those studied included alluvial gravel terraces along the Big Lost River (late Pleistocene/early Holocene age), alluvial fan segments on the flanks of the Lost River Range (Bull Lake and Pinedale age equivalents), and loess/slopewash sediments overlying basalt flows. Backhoe trenches were dug to allow characterization of stratigraphy and soil development. Each mound has features unique to the depositional and pedogenic history of the site; however, there are common elements to all mounds that are linked to the history of mound formation. Each mound has a open-quotes floorclose quotes of a sediment or basement rock of significantly different hydraulic conductivity than the overlying sediment. These paleosurfaces are overlain by finer-grained sediments, typically loess or flood-overbank deposits. Mounds formed in environments where a sufficient thickness of fine-grained sediment held pore water in a system open to the migration to a freezing front. Heaving of the sediment occurred by the growth of ice lenses. Mound formation occurred at the end of the Late Pleistocene or early in the Holocene, and was followed by pedogenesis. Soils in the mounds were subsequently altered by bioturbation, buried by eolian deposition, and eroded by slopewash runoff. These secondary processes played a significant role in maintaining or increasing the mound/intermound relief

  2. An Alternative Stability Equation For Rock Armoured Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tue; Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    Rubble mound breakwaters are by far the most common type of breakwater, the importance of which is clearly reflected in the vast amount of published research. Especially, the hydraulic stability of the main armour layer has been studied in order to obtain reliable design equations. It should...... equations and model test results still exists. When turning toward prototype the situation is even worse. With the objective to reduce some of the variability an alternative approach based on force considerations is presented. The paper will describe a new stability equation for rock armoured slopes derived...

  3. Calibration for plutonium-238 lung counting at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, F.K.

    1976-01-01

    The lung counting facility at Mound Laboratory was calibrated for making plutonium-238 lung deposition assessments in the fall of 1969. Phoswich detectors have been used since that time; however, the technique of calibration has improved considerably. The current technique of calibrating the lung counter is described as well as the method of error analysis and determination of the minimum detectable activity. A Remab hybrid phantom is used along with an attenuation curve which is derived from plutonium loaded lungs and ground beef absorber measurements. The errors that are included in an analysis as well as those that are excluded are described. The method of calculating the minimum detectable activity is also included

  4. Prey and mound disassembly, manipulation and transport by fire ant collectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Bahnisikha; Monaenkova, Daria; Goodisman, Michael A.; Goldman, Daniel

    Fire ants inhabit subterranean nests covered by a hemispherical mound of soil permeated by narrow ( 1 body length diameter) tunnels. Fire ants can use their mound for long-term food storage [Gayahan &Tschinkel, J. Insect Sci.,2008]. Since mound tunnels are narrow, we expect that in addition to prey manipulation, mound reconfiguration could also be an important aspect of the food storage strategy. Ant colonies collected from wild were allowed to build nests in containers filled with clay soil in the laboratory. These colonies were offered diverse prey embedded with lead markers, including mealworms, crickets and shrimp. Ant-prey-soil interactions on the nest surface were recorded using overhead video and subsurface using x-ray imaging. Individual ants involved in prey storage exhibited three distinct behaviors: prey maneuvering, prey dissection and mound reconfiguration. Small prey (e.g. mealworms) were collectively carried intact into the mound through a tunnel, and then disassembled within the mound. Larger prey (e.g. shrimp) were dismantled into small pieces above the surface and carried to mound tunnels. The bodies of hard medium-sized prey (e.g. crickets) were buried after limb removal and then disassembled and moved into tunnels. Soil reconfiguration occurred in all cases.

  5. Formation and Control of Self-Sealing High Permeability Groundwater Mounds in Impermeable Sediment: Implications for SUDS and Sustainable Pressure Mound Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. J. Antia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A groundwater mound (or pressure mound is defined as a volume of fluid dominated by viscous flow contained within a sediment volume where the dominant fluid flow is by Knudsen Diffusion. High permeability self-sealing groundwater mounds can be created as part of a sustainable urban drainage scheme (SUDS using infiltration devices. This study considers how they form, and models their expansion and growth as a function of infiltration device recharge. The mounds grow through lateral macropore propagation within a Dupuit envelope. Excess pressure relief is through propagating vertical surge shafts. These surge shafts can, when they intersect the ground surface result, in high volume overland flow. The study considers that the creation of self-sealing groundwater mounds in matrix supported (clayey sediments (intrinsic permeability = 10–8 to 10–30 m3 m–2 s–1 Pa–1 is a low cost, sustainable method which can be used to dispose of large volumes of storm runoff (<20→2,000 m3/24 hr storm/infiltration device and raise groundwater levels. However, the inappropriate location of pressure mounds can result in repeated seepage and ephemeral spring formation associated with substantial volumes of uncontrolled overland flow. The flow rate and flood volume associated with each overland flow event may be substantially larger than the associated recharge to the pressure mound. In some instances, the volume discharged as overland flow in a few hours may exceed the total storm water recharge to the groundwater mound over the previous three weeks. Macropore modeling is used within the context of a pressure mound poro-elastic fluid expulsion model in order to analyze this phenomena and determine (i how this phenomena can be used to extract large volumes of stored filtered storm water (at high flow rates from within a self-sealing high permeability pressure mound and (ii how self-sealing pressure mounds (created using storm water infiltration can be used to

  6. Summary review of Mound Facility's experience in decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the current concrete decontamination work at Mound Facility involves surfaces that are contaminated with plutonium-238. Approximately 60,000 sq. ft. of concrete floors will have to be decontaminated in Mound's current Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project. Although most of these surfaces are partially protected by a barrier (tile or paint), contaminated water and acid have penetrated these barriers. The technique for decontaminating these floors is desribed. The initial cleaning of the floor involes standard water and detergent. Acids are not used in cleaning as they tend to drive the contamination deeper into the concrete surface. Next, the floor tile is manually removed inside a temporary enclosure under negative and filtered ventilation. Finally, layers of contaminated concrete are mechanically removed inside the ventilated enclosure. The suspected depth and surface area of contamination determines the type of mechanical tool used. In summary, several generic methods of concrete decontamination can be utilized: chemical, such as water, detergent, acids, paint remover, strippable paints, etc.; rotary using sanders, grinders, scarifiers, etc.; impact such as pressure washers (hydrolasers), particle blasters, scabblers, needlers, spallers, paving and rock breakers, ram hoes, etc. The particular method used depends on several factors: surface and area involved; depth of contamination; cost and availability of equipment; usage safety and radiological control; and waste generated

  7. Behaviour and Ecological Impacts of Termites: Fecundity Investigations in Mounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wako Sutuma Edessa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A radical study was conducted on the behaviour and ecological impacts of termites in Haru District of Western Oromia, Ethiopia. It was aimed at investigating the natural behaviour, fecundity in mounds, ecological impacts and recommending possible solutions to termite problems. Four mounds in different sites were vertically dug down to display the profile of the queen, soldiers, workers, number of laid eggs, nymphs and colonies of termites. On an average, termite queens of the study site may lay about 25 eggs per minute, 36, 000 eggs per day and 13, 140, 000 eggs annually. The fourth queen was unearthed to study the structure, size, number of ovaries and fecundity. It was examined that the death of a queen does not affect the colony, because four small queens are formed and one of them becomes the queen of queens and replaced the dead queen promptly. Accordingly, termites are found to be one of the most destructive agents of our ecosystems and their management requests careful and biological control methods. As a result, the negative effect of termites outweighs the positive effect of termites so that minimising the population size is important for human beings.

  8. "Magnetic" termite mound surfaces are oriented to suit wind and shade conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklyn, Peter M

    1992-09-01

    The termites Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis construct remarkable meridional or "magnetic" mounds in northern Australia. These mounds vary geographically in mean orientation in a manner that suggests such variation is an adaptive response to local environmental conditions. Theoretical modelling of solar irradiance and mound rotation experiments show that maintenance of an eastern face temperature plateau during the dry season is the most likely physical basis for the mound orientation response. Subsequent heat transfer analysis shows that habitat wind speed and shading conditions also affect face temperature gradients such as the rate of eastern face temperature change. It is then demonstrated that the geographic variation in mean mound orientation follows the geographic variation in long-term wind speed and shading conditions across northern Australia such that an eastern face temperature plateau is maintained in all locations.

  9. Stable isotope and 14C study of biogenic calcrete in a termite mound, Western Cape, South Africa, and its palaeoenvironmental significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Alastair J.; Midgley, Jeremy J.; Harris, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Late Quaternary terrestrial climate records from the semi-arid zone of the Western Cape of South Africa are rare. However, palaeoenvironmental information may be inferred from ancient termite mounds of the region. Calcrete lenses in these mounds have δ 13C and δ 18O values that show systematic changes with radiocarbon dates, which range from 33,629-36,709 to 21,676-23,256 cal yr BP. These dates confirm that these heuweltjies had been present in the landscape since the last glacial period. The decrease in δ 13C and δ 18O from 33,629-36,709 to 21,676-23,256 cal yr BP indicates that climate information is recorded by the calcretes. It is suggested that a progressive decline in air temperature and an increase in moisture availability, and a decline in abundance of C 4 or CAM plants, occurred in the region during the time heuweltjie calcite precipitated.

  10. Innovative rubble mound breakwaters for wave energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contestabile, Pasquale; Vicinanza, Diego; Iuppa, Claudio; Cavallaro, Luca; Foti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new Wave Energy Converter named Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC) which consists of a rubble mound breakwater with a front reservoir designed with the aim of capturing the wave overtopping in order to produce electricity. The energy is extracted via low head turbines, using the difference in water levels between the reservoir and the mean sea water level. The new design should be capable of adding a revenue generation function to a breakwater while adding cost sharing benefits due to integration. The design can be applied to harbour expansions, existing breakwater maintenance or upgrades due to climate change for a relatively low cost, considering the breakwater would be built regardless of the inclusion of a WEC [it

  11. The occurrence and development of peat mounds on King George Island (Maritime Antarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On King George Island, South Shetlands Islands, a type of peat formation has been discovered which has not previously been reported from the Antarctic. These formations are in shape of mounds up to 7x 15 m in area, with a peat layer of about I m thick. About twenty five cm below the surface there is a layer of permanently frozen peat. The mounds are covered by living mosses (Polytrichum alpinum and Drepanocladus uncinatus, Antarctic hair grass (Deschampsia antarctica and lichens. Erosion fissures occurring on the surface are evidence of contemporary drying and cessation of the mound's growth. The initial phase of the development of the mounds began with a community dominated by Calliergidium austro-stramineum and Deschampsia antarctica, and their further development has been due to peat accumulation formed almost entirely by Calliergidium. The location of the mounds is near a penguin rookery, which clearly conditioned the minerotrophic character of these formations, as compared with the "moss peat banks" formed by Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Polytrichum al-pestre. Moreover, the peat mounds differ from the latter in several ways, e.g. rate of growth and floristic composition. Radiocarbon dating of peat from the base of one mound gave an age of 4090±60 years B.P. This suggests that the age of the tundra on King George Island is about 5000-4000 years.

  12. Methane oxidation by termite mounds estimated by the carbon isotopic composition of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Atsuko; Inoue, Tetsushi; Kirtibutr, Nit; Abe, Takuya

    1998-12-01

    Emission rates and carbon isotope ratios of CH4, emitted by workers of termites, and of CH4, emitted from their mounds, were observed in a dry evergreen forest in Thailand to estimate the proportion of CH4 oxidized during emission through the mound. The δ13C of CH4 emitted from a termite mound (-70.9 to -82.4‰) was higher than that of CH4 emitted by workers in the mound (-85.4 to -97. l‰). Using a fractionation factor (a = 0.987) for oxidation of CH4 which was obtained in the incubation experiment, an emission factor defined as (CH4 emitted from a termite mound/CH4 produced by termites) was calculated. The emission factor obtained in each termite mound was nearly zero for Macrotermes (fungus-growing termites), of which the nest has a thick soil wall and subterrannean termites, and 0.17 to 0.47 for Termitinae (small-mound-making termites). Global CH4 emission by termites was estimated on the basis of the CH4 emission rates by workers and termite biomass with the emission factors. The calculated result was 1.5 to 7.4 Tg/y (0.3 to 1.3% of total source), which is considerably smaller than the estimate by the IPCC [1994].

  13. Upper Silurian reef mounds on a shallowing carbonate ramp, Devon Island, Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, O A [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada); Graf, G C [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1992-03-01

    Near Gascoyne Inlet, the topmost Douro and lowermost Barlow Inlet formations record overall upward shallowing from ramp to shallow shelf conditions. This transitional sequence contains bioherms of various sizes, from small isolated reef mounds 1-2 m across to larger, compound reef mounds over 50 m thick and 60 m across, as well as distictive inter- and pre-reef mound facies. The larger reef mounds show stages intermediate in character between those in sponge-dominated reef mounds of the Douro Formation and in larger stromatoporoid-crinoid dominated reefs in the Barlow Inlet Formation. Three principal reef mounds developed in turn. An initial partly lithified lime mudstone, containing scattered corals and apparently relict sponge-cryptomicrobial fabrics, developed on sheets of oncolitic storm debris in mainly low energy conditions between storm and fairweather wave bases. With gradual shallowing and progressively higher energy conditions above fairweather wave base, a middle facies of coral- and crinoid-rich mudstone developed. An abrupt deepening restored conditions of low energy, and the ensuing upper facies of the reef mounds is more varied, comprising sparsely fossiliferous and locally fenestral lime mudstones, patchy coral bafflestone and bindstone, coarse encrinites and substantially culminating stromatoporoid bindstone. 36 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Layered hydrothermal barite-sulfide mound field, East Diamante Caldera, Mariana volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; de Ronde, Cornel E. J.; Koski, Randolph A.; Ditchburn, Robert G.; Mizell, Kira; Tamura, Yoshihiko; Stern, Robert J.; Conrad, Tracey; Ishizuka, Osamu; Leybourne, Matthew I.

    2014-01-01

    East Diamante is a submarine volcano in the southern Mariana arc that is host to a complex caldera ~5 × 10 km (elongated ENE-WSW) that is breached along its northern and southwestern sectors. A large field of barite-sulfide mounds was discovered in June 2009 and revisited in July 2010 with the R/V Natsushima, using the ROV Hyper-Dolphin. The mound field occurs on the northeast flank of a cluster of resurgent dacite domes in the central caldera, near an active black smoker vent field. A 40Ar/39Ar age of 20,000 ± 4000 years was obtained from a dacite sample. The mound field is aligned along a series of fractures and extends for more than 180 m east-west and >120 m north-south. Individual mounds are typically 1 to 3 m tall and 0.5 to 2 m wide, with lengths from about 3 to 8 m. The mounds are dominated by barite + sphalerite layers with the margins of each layer composed of barite with disseminated sulfides. Rare, inactive spires and chimneys sit atop some mounds and also occur as clusters away from the mounds. Iron and Mn oxides are currently forming small (caldera, mineralization resulted from focused flow along small segments of linear fractures rather than from a point source, typical of hydrothermal chimney fields. Based on the mineral assemblage, the maximum fluid temperatures were ~260°C, near the boiling point for the water depths of the mound field (367–406 m). Lateral fluid flow within the mounds precipitated interstitial sphalerite, silica, and Pb minerals within a network of barite with disseminated sulfides; silica was the final phase to precipitate. The current low-temperature precipitation of Fe and Mn oxides and silica may represent rejuvenation of the system.

  15. Formation of Burial Mounds of the Sarmatian Time in the Basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Korobkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the formation of the burial mounds in the basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai river in the Sarmatian period. Most of the burial mounds of the region begin to form in the Bronze Age and continue to function throughout the early, middle and early late-Sarmatian periods. Most of the burial mounds were located on the watersheds and above-flood terraces of different levels. All of them are characterized by same principles of planning, barrows in them are stretched in a chain in the natural form of the terrace on which the burial mound was built. The territories developed already in the Bronze Age were chosen for creating mounds in the early Sarmatian period. The main part of them is concentrated on a small section landplot of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai river. During the Middle Sarmatian period, the main part of barrows were also located in the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai, but represented 2 plots. One of these plots continues to use large burial mounds of the previous period, and the other one undergoes the creation of small barrow groups consisting usually of two-three barrows containing the richest burials of the region with the “classical” set of Middle Sarmatian features. In the late Sarmatian period, as well as in the previous stages of the Sarmatian culture, the burial mounds of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai continue to be used, which cease to function no later than at the first half of the 3rd century AD. But the territory of actively used burial mounds changes, and the main complexes of that time concentrate in the upper reaches, where new burial mounds are created and continue to function until the end of the Sarmatian era.

  16. Ant and termite mound coinhabitants in the wetlands of Santo Antonio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Diehl

    Full Text Available This paper reports on ant and termite species inhabiting the mounds (murundus found in three wetland sites in Santo Antonio da Patrulha. Ants and termites were found in 100% of the mounds of two sites and in 20% of those in the third site. Colonies of Camponotus fastigatus were found inhabiting all the mounds, while colonies of Brachymyrmex sp., Linepithema sp., Pheidole sp., and/or Solenopsis sp. were collected in less than 30% of the mounds. In the mounds of the three sites, colonies of Anoplotermes sp. and/or Aparatermes sp. termites were found together with the ant colonies. Another cohabiting termite species, Cortaritermes sp., was found only in the mounds of one site. The results suggest that C. fastigatus is the species building the mounds, with the other species, whether ants or termites, being the inquilines.

  17. Ant and termite mound coinhabitants in the wetlands of Santo Antonio da Patrulha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, E; Junqueira, L K; Berti-Filho, E

    2005-08-01

    This paper reports on ant and termite species inhabiting the mounds (murundus) found in three wetland sites in Santo Antonio da Patrulha. Ants and termites were found in 100% of the mounds of two sites and in 20% of those in the third site. Colonies of Camponotus fastigatus were found inhabiting all the mounds, while colonies of Brachymyrmex sp., Linepithema sp., Pheidole sp., and/or Solenopsis sp. were collected in less than 30% of the mounds. In the mounds of the three sites, colonies of Anoplotermes sp. and/or Aparatermes sp. termites were found together with the ant colonies. Another cohabiting termite species, Cortaritermes sp., was found only in the mounds of one site. The results suggest that C. fastigatus is the species building the mounds, with the other species, whether ants or termites, being the inquilines.

  18. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted

  19. Shrub mound formation and stability on semi-arid slopes in the Northern Negev Desert of Israel: A field and simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, E.; Temme, A.J.A.M.; Veldkamp, A.; Boeken, B.; Jongmans, A.G.; Breemen, van N.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In semi-arid areas vegetation is scarce and often dominated by individual shrubs on raised mounds. The processes of formation of these mounds are diverse and still debated. Often, shrub mound formation is directly related to the formation of vegetation patterns, thereby assuming that shrub mound

  20. Stability of Monolithic Rubble Mound Breakwater Crown Walls Subjected to Impulsive Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Harck; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the validity of a simple onedimensional dynamic analysis as well as a FEM model to determine the sliding of a rubble mound breakwater crown wall. The evaluation is based on a case example with real wave load time series and displacements measured from two-dimensional physical...... model tests. The outcome is a more reliable evaluation of the applicability of simple dynamic calculations for the estimation of sliding distances of rubble mound superstructures. This is of great practical importance since many existing rubble mound crown walls are subjected to increasing wave loads...

  1. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivilay Sengdeaune

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. Methods The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Results Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound-1 year-1 on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. Conclusion It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  2. Indigenous utilization of termite mounds and their sustainability in a rice growing village of the central plain of Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Shuichi; Koyama, Yusaku; Kokubo, Mika; Matsushita, Yuichi; Adachi, Yoshinao; Sivilay, Sengdeaune; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Oba, Shinya

    2011-08-18

    The objective of this study was to investigate the indigenous utilization of termite mounds and termites in a rain-fed rice growing village in the central plain of Laos, where rice production is low and varies year-to-year, and to assess the possibility of sustainable termite mound utilization in the future. This research was carried out from 2007 to 2009. The termites were collected from their mounds and surrounding areas and identified. Twenty villagers were interviewed on their use of termites and their mounds in the village. Sixty-three mounds were measured to determine their dimensions in early March, early July and middle to late November, 2009. Eleven species of Termitidae were recorded during the survey period. It was found that the villagers use termite mounds as fertilizer for growing rice, vegetable beds and charcoal kilns. The villagers collected termites for food and as feed for breeding fish. Over the survey period, 81% of the mounds surveyed increased in volume; however, the volume was estimated to decrease by 0.114 m3 mound(-1) year(-1) on average due to several mounds being completely cut out. It was concluded that current mound utilization by villagers is not sustainable. To ensure sustainable termite utilization in the future, studies should be conducted to enhance factors that promote mound restoration by termites. Furthermore, it will be necessary to improve mound conservation methods used by the villagers after changes in the soil mass of mounds in paddy fields and forests has been measured accurately. The socio-economic factors that affect mound utilization should also be studied.

  3. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Jamali

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the

  4. The relationships between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. The contribution of CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds to the total CH4 and CO2 emissions from termite mounds and soil in CO2-e was less than 1%. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux; however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in the past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for mound CH4 flux and 3-fold for mound CO2 flux. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but

  5. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da...

  6. LBA-ECO ND-04 Termite Mound and Soil Characterization, Amazonas, Brazil: 1999-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports the results of a comprehensive study of mound building termites at the Embrapa research station in the Distrito Agropecuario da SUFRAMA,...

  7. Archaeological mounds as analogs of engineered covers for waste disposal sites: Literature review and progress report. [Appendix contains bibliography and data on archaeological mounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatters, J C; Gard, H A

    1991-09-01

    Closure caps for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are typically designed as layered earthen structures, the composition of which is intended to prevent the infiltration of water and the intrusion of the public into waste forms. Federal regulations require that closure caps perform these functions well enough that minimum exposure guidelines will be met for at least 500 years. Short-term experimentation cannot mimic the conditions that will affect closure caps on the scale of centuries, and therefore cannot provide data on the performance of cap designs over long periods of time. Archaeological mounds hundreds to thousands of years old which are closely analogous to closure caps in form, construction details, and intent can be studied to obtain the necessary understanding of design performance. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a review and analysis of archaeological literature on ancient human-made mounds to determine the quality and potential applicability of this information base to assessments of waste facility design performance. A bibliography of over 200 English-language references was assembled on mound structures from the Americas, Europe, and Asia. A sample of these texts was read for data on variables including environmental and geographic setting, condition, design features, construction. Detailed information was obtained on all variables except those relating to physical and hydrological characteristics of the mound matrix, which few texts presented. It is concluded that an extensive amount of literature and data are available on structures closely analogous to closure caps and that this information is a valuable source of data on the long-term performance of mounded structures. Additional study is recommended, including an expanded analysis of design features reported in the literature and field studies of the physical and hydraulic characteristics of different mound designs. 23 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. A methodology for the analysis of damage progression in rubble mound breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Campos Duque, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, risk based designs as well as reliable rehabilitation and maintenance strategies are essential when dealing with coastal structures. In this sense, the probability of failure due to instability of the armour layer is one of the main issues in rubble mound breakwaters, and so is improving the knowledge on its deterioration rate. Both stability and damage progression on rubble mound breakwaters have been studied for more than 80 years, using different approaches, under regular/irregul...

  9. Active hydrothermal and non-active massive sulfide mound investigation using a new multiparameter chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, C.; Wu, G.; Qin, H.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Investigation of active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound are studied recently. However, there is still lack of in-situ detection method for the non-active massive sulfide mound. Even though Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) and Electric Self-potential (SP) methods are good, they both are labour, time and money cost work. We proposed a new multiparameter chemical sensor method to study the seafloor active hydrothermal mound as well as non-active massive sulfide mound. This sensor integrates Eh, S2- ions concentration and pH electrochemical electrodes together, and could found chemical change caused by the active hydrothermal vent, even weak chemical abnormalities by non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound which MARP and CTD sometimes cannot detect. In 2012, the 1st Leg of the Chinese 26th cruise, the multiparameter chemical sensor was carried out with the deepsea camera system over the Carlsberg Ridge in Indian Ocean by R/V DAYANGYIHAO. It was shown small Eh and S2- ions concentration abnormal around a site at Northwest Indian ridge. This site was also evidenced by the TV grab. In the 2nd Leg of the same cruise in June, this chemical sensor was carried out with TEM and SP survey system. The chemical abnormalities are matched very well with both TEM and SP survey results. The results show that the multiparameter chemical sensor method not only can detect active hydrothermal mound, but also can find the non-active massive sulfide hydrothermal mound.

  10. Bacterial density and community structure associated with aggregate size fractions of soil-feeding termite mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, S; Nazaret, S; Chotte, J L; Brauman, A

    2004-08-01

    The building and foraging activities of termites are known to modify soil characteristics such as the heterogeneity. In tropical savannas the impact of the activity of soil-feeding termites ( Cubitermes niokoloensis) has been shown to affect the properties of the soil at the aggregate level by creating new soil microenvironments (aggregate size fractions) [13]. These changes were investigated in greater depth by looking at the microbial density (AODC) and the genetic structure (automated rRNA intergenic spacer analysis: ARISA) of the communities in the different aggregate size fractions (i.e., coarse sand, fine sand, coarse silt, fine silt, and dispersible clays) separated from compartments (internal and external wall) of three Cubitermes niokoloensis mounds. The bacterial density of the mounds was significantly higher (1.5 to 3 times) than that of the surrounding soil. Within the aggregate size fractions, the termite building activity resulted in a significant increase in bacterial density within the coarser fractions (>20 mum). Multivariate analysis of the ARISA profiles revealed that the bacterial genetic structures of unfractionated soil and soil aggregate size fractions of the three mounds was noticeably different from the savanna soil used as a reference. Moreover, the microbial community associated with the different microenvironments in the three termite mounds revealed three distinct clusters formed by the aggregate size fractions of each mound. Except for the 2-20 mum fraction, these results suggest that the mound microbial genetic structure is more dependent upon microbial pool affiliation (the termite mound) than on the soil location (aggregate size fraction). The causes of the specificity of the microbial community structure of termite mound aggregate size fractions are discussed.

  11. Plutonium, americium, and uranium in blow-sand mounds of safety-shot sites at the Nevada Test Site and the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Gilbert, R.O.; Wireman, D.L.; Brady, D.N.; Fowler, E.B.

    1977-01-01

    Blow-sand mounds or miniature sand dunes and mounds created by burrowing activities of animals were investigated by the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) to determine the influence of mounds on plutonium, americium, and uranium distributions and inventories in areas of the Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range. Those radioactive elements were added to the environment as a result of safety experiments of nuclear devices. Two studies were conducted. The first was to estimate the vertical distribution of americium in the blow-sand mounds and in the desert pavement surrounding the mounds. The second was to estimate the amount or concentration of the radioactive materials accumulated in the mound relative to the desert pavement. Five mound types were identified in which plutonium, americium, and uranium concentrations were measured: grass, shrub, complex, animal, and diffuse. The mount top (that portion above the surrounding land surface datum), the mound bottom (that portion below the mound to a depth of 5 cm below the surrounding land surface datum), and soil from the immediate area surrounding the mound were compared separately to determine if the radioactive elements had concentrated in the mounds. Results of the studies indicate that the mounds exhibit higher concentrations of plutonium, americium, and uranium than the immediate surrounding soil. The type of mound does not appear to have influenced the amount of the radioactive material found in the mound except for the animal mounds where the burrowing activities appear to have obliterated distribution patterns

  12. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, José; Suarez Jimenez, Luz Elena; Adame Montoya, Kisay Lorena; Juilleret, Jérôme; McKey, Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940’s, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5–5 m) and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m). This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth) varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form ‘towers’ above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development. PMID:27168157

  13. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zangerlé

    Full Text Available The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940's, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5-5 m and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m. This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form 'towers' above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development.

  14. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerlé, Anne; Renard, Delphine; Iriarte, José; Suarez Jimenez, Luz Elena; Adame Montoya, Kisay Lorena; Juilleret, Jérôme; McKey, Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940's, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5-5 m) and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m). This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth) varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form 'towers' above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development.

  15. Zonation of Microbial Communities by a Hydrothermal Mound in the Atlantis II Deep (the Red Sea)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong; Li, Jiang Tao; He, Li Sheng; Yang, Bo; Gao, Zhao Ming; Cao, Hui Luo; Batang, Zenon B.; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    In deep-sea geothermal rift zones, the dispersal of hydrothermal fluids of moderately-high temperatures typically forms subseafloor mounds. Major mineral components of the crust covering the mound are barite and metal sulfides. As a result of the continental rifting along the Red Sea, metalliferous sediments accumulate on the seafloor of the Atlantis II Deep. In the present study, a barite crust was identified in a sediment core from the Atlantis II Deep, indicating the formation of a hydrothermal mound at the sampling site. Here, we examined how such a dense barite crust could affect the local environment and the distribution of microbial inhabitants. Our results demonstrate distinctive features of mineral components and microbial communities in the sediment layers separated by the barite crust. Within the mound, archaea accounted for 65% of the community. In contrast, the sediments above the barite boundary were overwhelmed by bacteria. The composition of microbial communities under the mound was similar to that in the sediments of the nearby Discovery Deep and marine cold seeps. This work reveals the zonation of microbial communities after the formation of the hydrothermal mound in the subsurface sediments of the rift basin.

  16. Molluskan fauna in two shell mounds in the State of Parana coast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Vasconcellos Gernet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The shell mounds are artificial formations consisting mostly of mollusk shells used in the feeding of the prehistoric peoples which inhabited our coast. These sites are found throughout the Brazilian coast, and hundreds of them were cataloged in the State of Paraná since the 1940s. The fragility of these sites, their importance as evidences of our prehistoric period, and its abrupt disappearance, justify the need for new researches which contribute to contextualize and draw up plans to preserve this heritage. The works related to the molluskan fauna found in the shell mounds are restricted to refer to the most common species and, sometimes, just their popular names. A greater knowledge on these prehistoric inhabitants’ diet allows a better understanding of ancient natural ecosystems. The survey of mollusks was carried out in the shell mounds Guaraguaçu and Boguaçu, in the towns of Pontal do Parana and Guaratuba, respectively, and performed through visual inspection, reading of specialized bibliography and comparison to previous works on the fauna of the shell mounds in the State of Parana coast. Altogether, 29 species were observed in the shell mound Guaraguaçu and 17 species were observed in the shell mound Boguaçu, resulting in a total of 31 species.

  17. Towards the Automatic Detection of Pre-Existing Termite Mounds through UAS and Hyperspectral Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandino, Juan; Wooler, Adam; Gonzalez, Felipe

    2017-09-24

    The increased technological developments in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) combined with artificial intelligence and Machine Learning (ML) approaches have opened the possibility of remote sensing of extensive areas of arid lands. In this paper, a novel approach towards the detection of termite mounds with the use of a UAV, hyperspectral imagery, ML and digital image processing is intended. A new pipeline process is proposed to detect termite mounds automatically and to reduce, consequently, detection times. For the classification stage, several ML classification algorithms' outcomes were studied, selecting support vector machines as the best approach for their role in image classification of pre-existing termite mounds. Various test conditions were applied to the proposed algorithm, obtaining an overall accuracy of 68%. Images with satisfactory mound detection proved that the method is "resolution-dependent". These mounds were detected regardless of their rotation and position in the aerial image. However, image distortion reduced the number of detected mounds due to the inclusion of a shape analysis method in the object detection phase, and image resolution is still determinant to obtain accurate results. Hyperspectral imagery demonstrated better capabilities to classify a huge set of materials than implementing traditional segmentation methods on RGB images only.

  18. Zonation of Microbial Communities by a Hydrothermal Mound in the Atlantis II Deep (the Red Sea)

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong

    2015-10-20

    In deep-sea geothermal rift zones, the dispersal of hydrothermal fluids of moderately-high temperatures typically forms subseafloor mounds. Major mineral components of the crust covering the mound are barite and metal sulfides. As a result of the continental rifting along the Red Sea, metalliferous sediments accumulate on the seafloor of the Atlantis II Deep. In the present study, a barite crust was identified in a sediment core from the Atlantis II Deep, indicating the formation of a hydrothermal mound at the sampling site. Here, we examined how such a dense barite crust could affect the local environment and the distribution of microbial inhabitants. Our results demonstrate distinctive features of mineral components and microbial communities in the sediment layers separated by the barite crust. Within the mound, archaea accounted for 65% of the community. In contrast, the sediments above the barite boundary were overwhelmed by bacteria. The composition of microbial communities under the mound was similar to that in the sediments of the nearby Discovery Deep and marine cold seeps. This work reveals the zonation of microbial communities after the formation of the hydrothermal mound in the subsurface sediments of the rift basin.

  19. Zonation of Microbial Communities by a Hydrothermal Mound in the Atlantis II Deep (the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available In deep-sea geothermal rift zones, the dispersal of hydrothermal fluids of moderately-high temperatures typically forms subseafloor mounds. Major mineral components of the crust covering the mound are barite and metal sulfides. As a result of the continental rifting along the Red Sea, metalliferous sediments accumulate on the seafloor of the Atlantis II Deep. In the present study, a barite crust was identified in a sediment core from the Atlantis II Deep, indicating the formation of a hydrothermal mound at the sampling site. Here, we examined how such a dense barite crust could affect the local environment and the distribution of microbial inhabitants. Our results demonstrate distinctive features of mineral components and microbial communities in the sediment layers separated by the barite crust. Within the mound, archaea accounted for 65% of the community. In contrast, the sediments above the barite boundary were overwhelmed by bacteria. The composition of microbial communities under the mound was similar to that in the sediments of the nearby Discovery Deep and marine cold seeps. This work reveals the zonation of microbial communities after the formation of the hydrothermal mound in the subsurface sediments of the rift basin.

  20. Automatic Modelling of Rubble Mound Breakwaters from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, M.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; González-Jorge, H.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2015-08-01

    Rubble mound breakwaters maintenance is critical to the protection of beaches and ports. LiDAR systems provide accurate point clouds from the emerged part of the structure that can be modelled to make it more useful and easy to handle. This work introduces a methodology for the automatic modelling of breakwaters with armour units of cube shape. The algorithm is divided in three main steps: normal vector computation, plane segmentation, and cube reconstruction. Plane segmentation uses the normal orientation of the points and the edge length of the cube. Cube reconstruction uses the intersection of three perpendicular planes and the edge length. Three point clouds cropped from the main point cloud of the structure are used for the tests. The number of cubes detected is around 56 % for two of the point clouds and 32 % for the third one over the total physical cubes. Accuracy assessment is done by comparison with manually drawn cubes calculating the differences between the vertexes. It ranges between 6.4 cm and 15 cm. Computing time ranges between 578.5 s and 8018.2 s. The computing time increases with the number of cubes and the requirements of collision detection.

  1. Photogrammetric analysis of rubble mound breakwaters scale model tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rodrigues

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to develop a photogrammetric method in order to obtain arobust tool for damage assessment and quantification of rubble-mound armour layers during physicalscale model tests. With the present work, an innovative approach based on a reduced number ofdigital photos is proposed to support the identification of affected areas. This work considers twosimple digital photographs recording the instants before and after the completion of the physicaltest. Mathematical techniques were considered in the development of the procedures, enabling thetracking of image differences between photos. The procedures were developed using an open-sourceapplication, Scilab, nevertheless they are not platform dependent. The procedures developed enablethe location and identity of eroded areas in the breakwater armour layer, as well as the possibilityof quantifying them. This ability is confirmed through the calculation of correlation coefficients ineach step of the search for the more damaged area. It is also possible to make an assessment of themovement of armour layer units.

  2. Mound Laboratory tritium environmental study: 1976--1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kershner, C.J.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of an extensive investigation of tritium in the aquifer underlying the Mound Facility site, an unusual behavior was noted for a beta-emitting radionuclide contaminant present in the environs of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal adjacent to the laboratory site. The soil contaminant was determined to be tritium, of which 90% was in the form of a relatively stable or bound species that was not readily exchangeable with the free water in the soil. (Bound-to-exchangeable transfer half-time was found to be approximately 3 yr.) The contamination was found to be concentrated within two feet of the surface in the center of the canal channel and near the Facility site drainage ditch and canal confluence. In order to characterize the contaminant and to assess its potential for reaching the aquifer, an analysis program and study were initiated in September 1976. The results and findings from the first phase of this work which was completed in February 1977 are the subject of this report

  3. Wave Run-up on the Zeebrugge Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Rouck, Julien; Van de Walle, Björn; Troch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A clear difference between full-scale wave run-up measurements and small-scale model test results had been noticed during a MAST II project. This finding initiated a thorough study of wave run-up through the European MAST III OPTICREST project. Full-scale measurement have been carried out...... on the Zeebrugge rubble mound breakwater. This breakwater has been modeled in three laboratories: two 2D models at a scale of 1:30 and one 3D model at a scale of 1:40 have been buildt at Flanders Hydraulics (Belgium), at Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain), and at Aalborg University (Denmark). Wave run......-up has been measured by a digital run-up gauge. This gauge has proven to measure wave run-up more accurately than the traditional wire gauge. Wave spectra measured in Zeebrugge have been reproduced in the laboratories. Results of small-scale model tests and full-scale measurements results have been...

  4. Neutron dosimetry program at Mound - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winegardner, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Mound personnel neutron dosimetry program utilizes TLD albedo technology. The neutron dosimeter design incorporates a two-element spectrometer for site-specific neutron quality determination and empirical application of field neutron calibration factors. Design elements feature two Li(6)F (TLD- 600) chips for neutron detection and one Li(7)F (TLD-700) chip for gamma compensation of the TLD- 600 chips. One TLD-600 chip is Cadmium shielded on the front side of the dosimeter, the other is Cadmium shielded from the back side. Tin filters are placed opposite of the Cadmium shield on each of the TLD-600 chips and on both sides of the TLD-700 chip for symmetrically equivalent gamma absorption characteristics. Neutron quality determination is accomplished by the albedo neutron-to- incident thermal neutron response ratio above the Cadmium cutoff. This front Cadmium shielded-to-back Cadmium shielded response ratio, compensated for the presence of gamma radiation, provides the basis for neutron energy calibration via the albedo response curve

  5. Efficiency of fipronil in the control of the mound-building termite, Nasutitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Melo Fo, Reinaldo M.; Veiga, Antônio F.S.L.

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of fipronil was evaluated in field conditions at different dosages and two formulations, against Nasutitermes sp. (isopteran: Termitidae) in sugarcane (Sccharum sp.). Termite mounds were indentified, measured and drilled until cellulosic chamber to allow insecticide application. Nine treatments were tested with ten replications in a completely randomized design and each termite mound considered as an experimental unit. after 50 days the termite mounds were opened and the mortal...

  6. Differences between bacterial communities in the gut of a soil-feeding termite (Cubitermes niokoloensis) and its mounds

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Saliou; Hamelin, J.; Ndiaye, Farma; Assigbetse, Komi; Aragno, M.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Brauman, Alain

    2007-01-01

    In tropical ecosystems, termite mound soils constitute an important soil compartment covering around 10% of African soils. Previous studies have shown (S. Fall, S. Nazaret, J. L. Chotte, and A. Brauman, Microb. Ecol. 28:191-199, 2004) that the bacterial genetic structure of the mounds of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes niokoloensis) is different from that of their surrounding soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the specificity of bacterial communities within mounds with respect ...

  7. Elimination of the Mound-Building Termite, Nasutitermes exitiosus (Isoptera: Termitidae) in South-Eastern Australia Using Bistrifluron Bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry A; Mcclintock, Charles

    2015-12-01

    Bistrifluron, a benzoylphenylurea compound, was evaluated for efficacy against Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), a mound-building species in southern Australia. Bistrifluron bait (trade name Xterm) was delivered as containerized pellets inserted into plastic feeding stations implanted in the sides of mounds-60 g for bistrifluron bait-treated mounds and 120 g of blank bait for untreated mounds. Termites actively tunneled in the gaps between pellets and removed bait from the canisters. All five treated mounds were eventually eliminated, and all five untreated mounds remained active at the end of the trial. Four of the five treated mounds were considered dead and excavated after 26 wk, but there were earlier signs of mound distress-reduced repair of experimental casement damage and reduced activity in bait canisters by 22 wk and reduced internal mound temperature after 11 wk. One treated mound showed activity in the bait station right through until almost the end of the trial (47 wk), but excavation at 49 wk showed no further activity in the mound. The five untreated colonies removed on average 97% of blank bait offered, while the five treated colonies removed on average 39.1% of bait offered. There was a wide variation in temperature profiles of mounds (up to 15°C for both minimum and maximum internal temperatures), from the beginning of the trial and even before the effects of baiting were evident. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Porcupine Bank Canyon coral mounds: oceanographic and topographic steering of deep-water carbonate mound development and associated phosphatic deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmetzhanov, A.; Monteys, X.; Ivanov, M.

    2012-06-01

    The head of a canyon system extending along the western Porcupine Bank (west of Ireland) and which accommodates a large field of giant carbonate mounds was investigated during two cruises (INSS 2000 and TTR-13). Multibeam and sidescan sonar data (600-1,150 m water depth) suggest that the pre-existing seabed topography acts as a significant factor controlling mound distribution and shape. The mounds are concentrated along the edges of the canyon or are associated with a complex fault system traced around the canyon head, comprising escarpments up to 60 m high and several km long. The sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis of numerous types of authigenic deposits was guided by sidescan sonar and video recordings. Calcite-cemented biogenic rubble was observed at the top and on the flanks of the carbonate mounds, being associated with both living and dead corals ( Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and occasional Desmophyllum cristagalli). This can plausibly be explained by dissolution of coral debris facilitated by strong currents along the mound tops and flanks. In turn, the dissolved carbon is recycled and precipitated as interstitial micrite. Calcite, dolomite and phosphatic hardgrounds were identified in samples from the escarpment framing the eastern part of the survey area. The laterally extensive phosphatic hardgrounds represent a novel discovery in the region, supplying hard substrata for the establishment of new coral colonies. Based on existing knowledge of regional oceanographic conditions, complemented with new CTD measurements, it is suggested that water column stratification, enhanced bottom currents, and upwelling facilitate the deposition of organic matter, followed by phosphatisation leading to the formation of phosphate-glauconite deposits. The occurrence of strong bottom currents was confirmed by means of video observations combined with acoustic and sampling data, providing circumstantial evidence of fine- to medium-grained sand

  9. Permanent groundwater storage in basaltic dyke fractures and termite mound viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mège, Daniel; Rango, Tewodros

    2010-04-01

    Many basaltic dykes of the Ethiopian flood basalt province are observed in the northwestern Ethiopian lowlands. In this area, the termites preferentially build their epigeous mounds on the top of dolerite dykes. The relationship between termite mounds and dykes is investigated from the analysis of their distribution along one of these dykes, of thickness 2-5 m, that we could follow over 2000 m. Termite mounds are periodically spaced (mean distance 63 m, R2 = 0.995), and located exclusively where the topographic relief of the dyke is not more than 2 m above the surrounding area. From these observations and from the geological context, a hydrological circuit model is proposed in which (1) dykes are preferential conduits for groundwater drainage during the rainy season due to pervasive jointing, (2) during the dry season, the portion of the dyke forming a local topographic relief area dries up more quickly than the surroundings, the elevation difference between the dyke summit and the surroundings being a factor restricting termite mound development. For dyke topographic relief >2 m, drying is an obstacle for maintaining the appropriate humidity for the termite colony life. Periodic termite mound spacing is unlikely to be related to dyke or other geological properties. It is more likely related to termite population behaviour, perhaps to clay shortage, which restricts termite population growth by limiting the quantity of building material available for mound extension, and triggers exploration for a new colonization site that will be located along the dyke at a distance from the former colony that may be controlled by the extent of the zone covered by its trail pheromones. This work brings out the importance of dykes in channelling and storing groundwater in semiarid regions, and shows that dykes can store groundwater permanently in such settings even though the dry season is half the year long. It contributes also to shedding light on water supply conditions

  10. Comparison of two carbonate mound sequences in the Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation, west Texas and southern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The El Paso Formations consists of four members, in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose McKelligon and Padre. Mounds in the McKelligon Member exposed in the southern Franklin Mountains were described by Toomey (1970). Most of these mounds are small but one large one is 5.8 m thick and about 13.7 m long in outcrop. The mound rock is chiefly bioclastic wackestone with minor packstone and boundstone. The varied fauna contains echinoderms, sponges and spicules, gastropods, trilobites, digitate algae, Nuia, Girvanella, Pulchrilamina, Calathium, and minor brachiopods and cephalopods. Intraclastic, bioclastic grainstone fills channels cut in the mounds. Similar, but smaller and less spectacular mounds occur in the McKelligon Member in the Florida, Big Hatchet, and Caballo Mountains, Lone Mountain, Cooke's Range, and elsewhere in southwestern New Mexico. A second type of mound is common in the upper part of the Hitt Canyon Member in the Cooke's Range, Red Hills, Caballo and Big Hatchet Mountains. These mounds also are typically small but one in the Red Hills is 13.7 m thick and about 30 m long in outcrop. The mound complex is about 75-80% SH-C and LLH-C stromatolite boundstone and bioclastic wackestone. The remaining 20-25% is bioclastic packstone and grainstone between the SH-C stromatolites and filling channels cut in the mound complex. The limited fauna contains small fragments of echinoderms, gastropods, trilobites, spicules, and Nuia.

  11. The relationship between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesley, S. J.; Hutley, L. B.; Fest, B.; Arndt, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    1. We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of Northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. 2. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a CO2-e basis, annual CH4 flux estimates from termite mounds were 5- to 46-fold smaller than the concurrent annual CO2 flux estimates. Differences between annual soil CO2 and soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes were even greater, soil CO2 fluxes being almost three orders of magnitude greater than soil CH4 (CO2-e) fluxes at site. 3. There were significant relationships between mound CH4 flux and mound CO2 flux, enabling the prediction of CH4 flux from measured CO2 flux, however, these relationships were clearly termite species specific. 4. We also observed significant relationships between mound flux and gas concentration inside mound, for both CH4 and CO2, and for all termite species, thereby enabling the prediction of flux from measured mound internal gas concentration. However, these relationships were also termite species specific. Using the relationship between mound internal gas concentration and flux from one species to predict mound fluxes from other termite species (as has been done in past) would result in errors of more than 5-fold for CH4 and 3-fold for CO2. 5. This study highlights that CO2 fluxes from termite mounds are generally more than one order of magnitude greater than CH4 fluxes. There are species-specific relationships between CH4 and CO2 fluxes from a~mound, and between the inside mound concentration of a gas and the mound flux emission of the same gas, but these relationships vary greatly among termite species. Consequently, there is no generic relationship that will allow for the prediction of CH4 fluxes from termite mounds of all species.

  12. The long term sustainability of Mound Springs in South Australia : implications for olympic dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, G.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Mound Springs of South Australia are unique groundwater discharge features of the Great Artesian Basin, a deep regigonal groundwater system that covers over one-fifth of the Australia continent. They are the principal sources of water in the arid and semi-arid inland heart of Australia, and have great ecological, scientific, anthropological and economic significance. Excessive development of the Great Artesian Basin over the past century by European activity has seen an overall decline in the flows from the mound springs, and recent development of the water supply borefields for the WMC Olympic Dam Operations copper-uranium mine in the midst of the most important spring groups has exacerbated this problem. A review of the history of the borefields, an analysis of the impacts on the mound springs, and future recommendations for protection of the springs is presented. (orig.)

  13. Geochemical characteristics and early diagenesis of recent carbonate mound sediments in the Gulf of Cadiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaekers, Helen; Foubert, Anneleen; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Swennen, Rudy

    2010-05-01

    Cold-water coral carbonate mounds occur in patches along the continental margin of the North Atlantic Ocean, from northern Norway down to Mauretania. Recent research has been focused on carbonate mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz, especially along the Moroccan margin. The Pen Duick, the Renard and the Vernadsky carbonate mound provinces in the Gulf of Cádiz are only some of the mound provinces which have been the subject of several recent research projects (Foubert et al., 2008; Wienberg et al., 2009). No living scleractinians could be found on top of those carbonate mounds. During cruise 64PE284 of RV Pelagia, gravity cores have been taken through carbonate mounds in the Carbonate Mound Provinces (CMP) SE of Yuma mud volcano and N of Meknes mud volcano. These cores have been analysed by several methods such as Magnetic Susceptibility (MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) to determine the geochemical characteristics of carbonate mounds, which can be used to quantify the effects of early diagenetic processes which may have altered the palaeo-environmental characteristics of the carbonate mounds. Dating has been done with 14C and U/Th methods pointing to mound growth phases being restricted to glacial periods. XRF and ICP-OES measurements give both qualitative and quantitative data of the chemical composition of the core. The main elements that have been analysed are Ca, Si, Fe, Sr, Al, K, Mg, Ti. According to the trend they follow, they can be devided in two groups, representative for the two encountered fraction types. These two fraction types (biogenic carbonate-rich fraction and terrigenous silicate-rich fraction) can be coupled to interglacial/glacial palaeo-environmental conditions. XRD measurements give an overview of the mineralogical composition of the cores. Thin sections, analysed by cathodeluminescence and classical optical petrography, and micro-CT scans are used to

  14. Analysis of cavern stability at the Bryan Mound SPR site.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Sobolik, Steven Ronald

    2009-04-01

    This report presents computational analyses that simulate the structural response of caverns at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound site. The cavern field comprises 20 caverns. Five caverns (1, 2, 4, and 5; 3 was later plugged and abandoned) were acquired from industry and have unusual shapes and a history dating back to 1946. The other 16 caverns (101-116) were leached according to SPR standards in the mid-1980s and have tall cylindrical shapes. The history of the caverns and their shapes are simulated in a 3-D geomechanics model of the site that predicts deformations, strains, and stresses. Future leaching scenarios due to oil drawdowns using fresh water are also simulated by increasing the volume of the caverns. Cavern pressures are varied in the model to capture operational practices in the field. The results of the finite element model are interpreted to provide information on the current and future status of subsidence, well integrity, and cavern stability. The most significant result in this report is relevant to caverns 1, 2, and 5. The caverns have non-cylindrical shapes and have potential regions where the surrounding salt may be damaged during workover procedures. During a workover the normal cavern operating pressure is lowered to service a well. At this point the wellhead pressures are atmospheric. When the workover is complete, the cavern is repressurized. The resulting elastic stresses are sufficient to cause tension and large deviatoric stresses at several locations. With time, these stresses relax to a compressive state due to salt creep. However, the potential for salt damage and fracturing exists. The analyses predict tensile stresses at locations with sharp-edges in the wall geometry, or in the case of cavern 5, in the neck region between the upper and lower lobes of the cavern. The effects do not appear to be large-scale, however, so the only major impact is the potential for stress-induced salt falls in cavern 5, potentially leading to

  15. Cold-water coral mounds on the Pen Duick Escarpment, Gulf of Cadiz: The MiCROSYSTEMS project approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rooij, D.; Blamart, D.; De Mol, L.; Mienis, F.; Pirlet, H.; Wehrmann, L. M.; Barbieri, R.; Maignien, L.; Templer, S. P.; de Haas, H.; Hebbeln, D.; Frank, N.; Larmagnat, S.; Stadnitskaia, A.; Stivaletta, N.; van Weering, T.; Zhang, Y.; Hamoumi, N.; Cnudde, V.; Duyck, P.; Henriet, J.-P.; The MiCROSYSTEMS MD 169 Shipboard Party

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a case study of three cold-water coral mounds in a juvenile growth stage on top of the Pen Duick Escarpment in the Gulf of Cadiz; Alpha, Beta and Gamma mounds. Although cold-water corals are a common feature on the adjacent cliffs, mud volcanoes and open slope, no actual living

  16. Functional traits of trees on and off termite mounds : Understanding the origin of biotically-driven heterogeneity in savannas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plas, F.; Howison, R.; Reinders, J.; Fokkema, W.; Olff, H.

    Questions In African savannas, Macrotermes termites contribute to small-scale heterogeneity by constructing large mounds. Operating as islands of high nutrient and water availability and low fire frequency, these mounds support distinct, diverse communities of trees that have been shown to be highly

  17. Spatial patterns and morphology of termite (Macrotermes falciger) mounds in the upper Katanga, D.R. Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mujinya, B.B.; Adam, M.Y.O.; Mees, F.; Bogaert, J.; Vranken, I.; Erens, H.; Baert, G.; Ngongo, M.; Ranst, van E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution patterns and morphological characteristics of Macrotermes falciger mounds in the peri-urban zone of Lubumbashi, D.R. Congo. Spatial patterns of mounds were assessed using high-resolution satellite images for 24 plots of variable size (3 to 27 ha). Soil

  18. Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Webb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012. Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g. Measures of colony decline—mound repair capability and internal core temperature—did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring–summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring–summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy.

  19. Elimination of Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) (Blattodea: Rhinotemitidae) Colonies Using Bistrifluron Bait Applied through In-Ground Bait Stations Surrounding Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Garry

    2017-09-12

    The efficacy of bistrifluron termite bait was evaluated using in-ground bait stations placed around Coptotermes lacteus mounds in south-eastern Australia during late summer and autumn (late February to late May 2012). Four in-ground bait stations containing timber billets were placed around each of twenty mounds. Once sufficient numbers of in-ground stations were infested by termites, mounds were assigned to one of four groups (one, two, three or four 120 g bait canisters or 120 to 480 g bait in total per mound) and bait canisters installed. One mound, nominally assigned treatment with two canisters ultimately had no termite interception in any of the four in-ground stations and not treated. Eighteen of the remaining 19 colonies were eliminated by 12 weeks after bait placement, irrespective of bait quantity removed (range 43 to 480 g). Measures of colony decline-mound repair capability and internal core temperature-did not accurately reflect the colony decline, as untreated colonies showed a similar pattern of decline in both repair capability and internal mound core temperature. However, during the ensuing spring-summer period, capacity to repair the mound was restored in untreated colonies and the internal core temperature profile was similar to the previous spring-summer period which indicated that these untreated colonies remained healthy.

  20. Pre-Columbian landscape impact and agriculture in the Monumental Mound region of the Llanos de Moxos, lowland Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Bronwen S.; Dickau, Ruth; Mayle, Francis E.; Soto, J. Daniel; Iriarte, José

    2013-09-01

    We present a multiproxy study of land use by a pre-Columbian earth mounds culture in the Bolivian Amazon. The Monumental Mounds Region (MMR) is an archaeological sub-region characterized by hundreds of pre-Columbian habitation mounds associated with a complex network of canals and causeways, and situated in the forest-savanna mosaic of the Llanos de Moxos. Pollen, phytolith, and charcoal analyses were performed on a sediment core from a large lake (14 km2), Laguna San José (14°56.97'S, 64°29.70'W). We found evidence of high levels of anthropogenic burning from AD 400 to AD 1280, corroborating dated occupation layers in two nearby excavated habitation mounds. The charcoal decline pre-dates the arrival of Europeans by at least 100 yr, and challenges the notion that the mounds culture declined because of European colonization. We show that the surrounding savanna soils were sufficiently fertile to support crops, and the presence of maize throughout the record shows that the area was continuously cultivated despite land-use change at the end of the earth mounds culture. We suggest that burning was largely confined to the savannas, rather than forests, and that pre-Columbian deforestation was localized to the vicinity of individual habitation mounds, whereas the inter-mound areas remained largely forested.

  1. Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.; Mohn, C.; Rengstorf, A.; Grehan, A.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWCs) form large mounds on the seafloor that are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea, but it remains enigmatic how CWCs can thrive in this food-limited environment. Here, we infer from model simulations that the interaction between tidal currents and CWC-formed mounds induces

  2. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgana Camacho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis.

  3. Nutritional and Microbial Parameters of Earthworm Cast, Termite Mound and Surrounding Bulk Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Sadao; Nishi, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    A comparative analysis of nutritional and microbial parameters was conducted on two types of biogenetic structures of earthworm cast (8.7 cm in height, 7 casts/1m×1m) formed by litter eating Pheretima sp., and mound (64 cm in height, 1.0 mounds/10m×50m) built by fungus growing termite, Macrotermes gilvus, and compared to the surrounding bulk soil as control in the tropical monsoon forest in Cu Chi National Park of Viet Nam. The proportion of the sand in the earthworm cast was higher than in t...

  4. Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique and the paleoparasitological analysis of sambaqui (shell mound) sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Morgana; Pessanha, Thaíla; Leles, Daniela; Dutra, Juliana MF; Silva, Rosângela; de Souza, Sheila Mendonça; Araujo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Parasite findings in sambaquis (shell mounds) are scarce. Although the 121 shell mound samples were previously analysed in our laboratory, we only recently obtained the first positive results. In the sambaqui of Guapi, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, paleoparasitological analysis was performed on sediment samples collected from various archaeological layers, including the superficial layer as a control. Eggs of Acanthocephala, Ascaridoidea and Heterakoidea were found in the archaeological layers. We applied various techniques and concluded that Lutz's spontaneous sedimentation technique is effective for concentrating parasite eggs in sambaqui soil for microscopic analysis. PMID:23579793

  5. A Preliminary Study on Elimination of Colonies of the Mound Building Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) Using a Chlorfluazuron Termite Bait in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Partho Dhang

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of a chlorfluazuron termite bait in eliminating colonies of the termite species Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen) was evaluated under field conditions. Three active termite mounds were chosen for this study, two acted as test mounds and the other as the control. Four In-Ground Stations (IGS) were installed around each mound. Interception occurred almost immediately in all the stations, which were subsequently baited. The control mound was fed a bait matrix lacking the active ingred...

  6. Physiological and biogeochemical traits of bleaching and recovery in the mounding species of coral Porites lobata: implications for resilience in mounding corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Levas

    Full Text Available Mounding corals survive bleaching events in greater numbers than branching corals. However, no study to date has determined the underlying physiological and biogeochemical trait(s that are responsible for mounding coral holobiont resilience to bleaching. Furthermore, the potential of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as a source of fixed carbon to bleached corals has never been determined. Here, Porites lobata corals were experimentally bleached for 23 days and then allowed to recover for 0, 1, 5, and 11 months. At each recovery interval a suite of analyses were performed to assess their recovery (photosynthesis, respiration, chlorophyll a, energy reserves, tissue biomass, calcification, δ(13C of the skeletal, δ(13C, and δ(15N of the animal host and endosymbiont fractions. Furthermore, at 0 months of recovery, the assimilation of photosynthetically acquired and zooplankton-feeding acquired carbon into the animal host, endosymbiont, skeleton, and coral-mediated DOC were measured via (13C-pulse-chase labeling. During the first month of recovery, energy reserves and tissue biomass in bleached corals were maintained despite reductions in chlorophyll a, photosynthesis, and the assimilation of photosynthetically fixed carbon. At the same time, P. lobata corals catabolized carbon acquired from zooplankton and seemed to take up DOC as a source of fixed carbon. All variables that were negatively affected by bleaching recovered within 5 to 11 months. Thus, bleaching resilience in the mounding coral P. lobata is driven by its ability to actively catabolize zooplankton-acquired carbon and seemingly utilize DOC as a significant fixed carbon source, facilitating the maintenance of energy reserves and tissue biomass. With the frequency and intensity of bleaching events expected to increase over the next century, coral diversity on future reefs may favor not only mounding morphologies but species like P. lobata, which have the ability to utilize heterotrophic

  7. Differences between bacterial communities in the gut of a soil-feeding termite (Cubitermes niokoloensis) and its mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Saliou; Hamelin, Jérôme; Ndiaye, Farma; Assigbetse, Komi; Aragno, Michel; Chotte, Jean Luc; Brauman, Alain

    2007-08-01

    In tropical ecosystems, termite mound soils constitute an important soil compartment covering around 10% of African soils. Previous studies have shown (S. Fall, S. Nazaret, J. L. Chotte, and A. Brauman, Microb. Ecol. 28:191-199, 2004) that the bacterial genetic structure of the mounds of soil-feeding termites (Cubitermes niokoloensis) is different from that of their surrounding soil. The aim of this study was to characterize the specificity of bacterial communities within mounds with respect to the digestive and soil origins of the mound. We have compared the bacterial community structures of a termite mound, termite gut sections, and surrounding soil using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and cloning and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments. DGGE analysis revealed a drastic difference between the genetic structures of the bacterial communities of the termite gut and the mound. Analysis of 266 clones, including 54 from excised bands, revealed a high level of diversity in each biota investigated. The soil-feeding termite mound was dominated by the Actinobacteria phylum, whereas the Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla dominate the gut sections of termites and the surrounding soil, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a distinct clustering of Actinobacteria phylotypes between the mound and the surrounding soil. The Actinobacteria clones of the termite mound were diverse, distributed among 10 distinct families, and like those in the termite gut environment lightly dominated by the Nocardioidaceae family. Our findings confirmed that the soil-feeding termite mound (C. niokoloensis) represents a specific bacterial habitat in the tropics.

  8. Estimating total 239240Pu in blow-sand mounds of two safety-shot sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.O.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A study for estimating the total amount (inventory) of 239 240 Pu in blow-sand mounds at two safety-shot sites (Area 13-Project 57 on the Nellis Air Force Base and Clean Slate 3 on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada) is described. The total amount in blow-sand mounds at these two sites is estimated to be 5.8 +- 1.3 (total +- standard error) and 10.6 +- 2.5 curies, respectively. The total 239 240 Pu in mounds plus desert pavement areas, both to a depth of 5 cm below desert pavement level, is estimated to be 39 +- 5.7 curies at the Project 57 site and 36 +- 4.8 curies at Clean Slate 3. These estimates are compared with the somewhat higher estimates of 46 +- 9 and 37 +- 5.4 curies reported that pertain to only the top 5 cm of mounds and desert pavement. The possibility is discussed that these differences are due to sampling variability arising from the skewed nature of plutonium concentrations, particularly near ground zero

  9. Stable isotope sales; Mound Facility customer and shipment summaries, FY 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwe, A.H. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A listing is given of Mound Facility's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1977. Purchasers are listed alphabeticaly and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers

  10. Parallel evolution of mound-building and grass-feeding in Australian nasute termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Daej A; Namyatova, Anna; Evans, Theodore A; Cameron, Stephen L; Yeates, David K; Ho, Simon Y W; Lo, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    Termite mounds built by representatives of the family Termitidae are among the most spectacular constructions in the animal kingdom, reaching 6-8 m in height and housing millions of individuals. Although functional aspects of these structures are well studied, their evolutionary origins remain poorly understood. Australian representatives of the termitid subfamily Nasutitermitinae display a wide variety of nesting habits, making them an ideal group for investigating the evolution of mound building. Because they feed on a variety of substrates, they also provide an opportunity to illuminate the evolution of termite diets. Here, we investigate the evolution of termitid mound building and diet, through a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of Australian Nasutitermitinae. Molecular dating analysis indicates that the subfamily has colonized Australia on three occasions over the past approximately 20 Myr. Ancestral-state reconstruction showed that mound building arose on multiple occasions and from diverse ancestral nesting habits, including arboreal and wood or soil nesting. Grass feeding appears to have evolved from wood feeding via ancestors that fed on both wood and leaf litter. Our results underscore the adaptability of termites to ancient environmental change, and provide novel examples of parallel evolution of extended phenotypes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Timing of mounding for bambara groundnut affects crop development and yield in a rainfed tropical environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouedrago, Mahama; M'bi, Bertin Zagre; Liu, Fulai

    2013-01-01

    -ecological zone of Burkina Faso were conducted. Yield data confirm the findings from a drier part of Burkina Faso; i.e., mounding of bambara groundnut should not be carried out around the time of flowering. In a semi-arid area, such as Sudan–Sahel agro-ecological zone and with germplasm maturing within 90 days...

  12. Construction, Maintenance and Repair as Elements in Rubble Mound Breakwater Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Rietveld, C.F.W.

    Very often rubble mound breakwater designs seem to be a result only of stability considerations corresponding to design wave conditions. Designers tend to put too little emphasis on practical problems related to construction, maintenance and repair. As is discussed in the paper due consideration...... of these problems Ieeds to a more economical design in terms of lower total costs during the structural lifetime....

  13. On the Choice of Structure and Layout of Rubble Mound Breakwater Heads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maciñeira, Enrique; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2006-01-01

     The paper discusses the various functional, environmental and structural conditions to consider related to the choice of breakwater head type. Results from hydraulic model tests of rubble mound and caisson head solutions for the new deep water port at Punto Langosteira, La Coruña, Spain, are pre...

  14. Stable isotope sales: Mound Laboratory customer and shipment summaries, FY-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1976-01-01

    A listing is given of Mound Laboratory's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1975. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers

  15. Stable isotope sales: Mound Facility customer and shipment summaries, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwe, A.H. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A listing is given of Mound Facility's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for Fiscal Year 1981. Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers

  16. Cultural Symbolism behind the Architectural Design of Mounds Park All-Nations Magnet School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pewewardy, Cornell; May, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    The architectural design of Mounds Park All-Nations Magnet School (St. Paul, Minnesota) incorporates cultural symbols representing the Native American worldview and Medicine Wheel Circle beliefs, as well as design elements from aboriginal housing styles, and colors and sculptured elements that reinforce the relationship of nature to building. (SV)

  17. Antarctic Mirabilite Mounds as Mars Analogs: The Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Sun, Tao; Niles, Paul B.; Harvey, Ralph P.; Bish, David L.; Tonui, Eric

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed, based on geomorphic and geochemical arguments, that subsurface water has played an important role in the history of water on the planet Mars [1]. Subsurface water, if present, could provide a protected and long lived environment for potential life. Discovery of gullies [2] and recurring slopes [3] on Mars suggest the potential for subsurface liquid water or brines. Recent attention has also focused on small (the mid to high latitudes on the surface of Mars which may be caused by eruptions of subsurface fluids [4, 5]. We have identified massive but highly localized Na-sulfate deposits (mirabilite mounds, Na2SO4 .10H2O) that may be derived from subsurface fluids and may provide insight into the processes associated with subsurface fluids on Mars. The mounds are found on the end moraine of the Lewis Cliffs Ice Tongue (LCIT) [6] in the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica, and are potential terrestrial analogs for mounds observed on the martian surface. The following characteristics distinguish LCIT evaporite mounds from other evaporite mounds found in Antarctic coastal environments and/or the McMurdo Dry Valleys: (1) much greater distance from the open ocean (approx.500 km); (2) higher elevation (approx.2200 meters); and (3) colder average annual temperature (average annual temperature = -30 C for LCIT [7] vs. 20 C at sea level in the McMurdo region [8]. Furthermore, the recent detection of subsurface water ice (inferred as debris-covered glacial ice) by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [9] supports the use of an Antarctic glacial environment, particularly with respect to the mirabilite deposits described in this work, as an ideal terrestrial analog for understanding the geochemistry associated with near-surface martian processes. S and O isotopic compositions.

  18. Giant polygons and mounds in the lowlands of Mars: signatures of an ancient ocean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Allen, Carlton C

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the hypothesis that the well-known giant polygons and bright mounds of the martian lowlands may be related to a common process-a process of fluid expulsion that results from burial of fine-grained sediments beneath a body of water. Specifically, we hypothesize that giant polygons and mounds in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae are analogous to kilometer-scale polygons and mud volcanoes in terrestrial, marine basins and that the co-occurrence of masses of these features in Chryse and Acidalia may be the signature of sedimentary processes in an ancient martian ocean. We base this hypothesis on recent data from both Earth and Mars. On Earth, 3-D seismic data illustrate kilometer-scale polygons that may be analogous to the giant polygons on Mars. The terrestrial polygons form in fine-grained sediments that have been deposited and buried in passive-margin, marine settings. These polygons are thought to result from compaction/dewatering, and they are commonly associated with fluid expulsion features, such as mud volcanoes. On Mars, in Chryse and Acidalia Planitiae, orbital data demonstrate that giant polygons and mounds have overlapping spatial distributions. There, each set of features occurs within a geological setting that is seemingly analogous to that of the terrestrial, kilometer-scale polygons (broad basin of deposition, predicted fine-grained sediments, and lack of significant horizontal stress). Regionally, the martian polygons and mounds both show a correlation to elevation, as if their formation were related to past water levels. Although these observations are based on older data with incomplete coverage, a similar correlation to elevation has been established in one local area studied in detail with newer higher-resolution data. Further mapping with the latest data sets should more clearly elucidate the relationship(s) of the polygons and mounds to elevation over the entire Chryse-Acidalia region and thereby provide more insight into this

  19. Dynamic environments of fungus-farming termite mounds exert growth-modulating effects on fungal crop parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Lakshya; Ramesh, Priya B; Borges, Renee M

    2018-03-01

    This study investigated for the first time the impact of the internal mound environment of fungus-growing termites on the growth of fungal crop parasites. Mounds of the termite Odontotermes obesus acted as (i) temperature and relative humidity (RH) 'stabilisers' showing dampened daily variation and (ii) 'extreme environments' exhibiting elevated RH and CO 2 levels, compared to the outside. Yet, internal temperatures exhibited seasonal dynamics as did daily and seasonal CO 2 levels. During in situ experiments under termite-excluded conditions within the mound, the growth of the crop parasite Pseudoxylaria was greater inside than outside the mound, i.e., Pseudoxylaria is 'termitariophilic'. Also, ex situ experiments on parasite isolates differing in growth rates and examined under controlled conditions in the absence of termites revealed a variable effect with fungal growth decreasing only under high CO 2 and low temperature conditions, reflecting the in situ parasite growth fluctuations. In essence, the parasite appears to be adapted to survive in the termite mound. Thus the mound microclimate does not inhibit the parasite but the dynamic environmental conditions of the mound affect its growth to varying extents. These results shed light on the impact of animal-engineered structures on parasite ecology, independent of any direct role of animal engineers. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Preliminary Study on Termite Mound Soil as Agricultural Soil for Crop Production in South West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It is a popular belief of the people in the Southern region of Nigeria that a land infested with termite usually brings prosperity to the land owner regardless of the type of its usage. Therefore, the present study assessed termite mounds soil properties which are important to crop production. Two soil samples were collected and their physical and chemical properties determined in accordance with American Public Health Association (APHA, 2005. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The textural classes showed that the termite mound soil was sand clay loam while the surrounding soil was clay loam. This results revealed that: Termites’ activity induced significant chemical changes in the soil possible due to the materials used in building their nests. There was increase the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, Potassium, calcium and magnesium higher in the termite’s mounds, while the micro-nutrients (zinc, iron and copper except sulphur and manganese lower in the soil infested by termites. There were significant differences (p ≥ 0.05 between termite mound soil and surrounding soil. It showed highly positive correlation between termite mound and surrounding soil (r= 0.92. The concentration of the soil properties around the termite mound are within the range of soil nutrients suitable for arable crop production. Termite mound soil is recommended to be used as an alternative to local farmers who cannot afford to buy expensive inorganic fertilizers.

  1. Fluxes of CH4 and CO2 from soil and termite mounds in south Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    The contribution of West African savanna ecosystems to global greenhouse gas budgets is highly uncertain. In this study we quantified soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes in the southwest of Burkina Faso from June to September 2005 and from April to September 2006 at four different agricultural fields planted with sorghum (n = 2), cotton, and peanut and at a natural savanna site with termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds. During the rainy season both CH4 uptake and CH4 emission were observed in the savanna, which was on average a CH4 source of 2.79 and 2.28 kg CH4-C ha-1 a-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The crop sites were an average CH4 sink of -0.67 and -0.70 kg CH4-C ha-1 a-1 in the 2 years, without significant seasonal variation. Mean annual soil respiration ranged between 3.86 and 5.82 t CO2-C ha-1 a-1 in the savanna and between 2.50 and 4.51 t CO2-C ha-1 a-1 at the crop sites. CH4 emission from termite mounds was 2 orders of magnitude higher than soil CH4 emissions, whereas termite CO2 emissions were of the same order of magnitude as soil CO2 emissions. Termite CH4 and CO2 release in the savanna contributed 8.8% and 0.4% to the total soil CH4 and CO2 emissions, respectively. At the crop sites, where termite mounds had been almost completely removed because of land use change, termite fluxes were insignificant. Mound density-based upscaling of termite CH4 fluxes resulted in a global termite CH4 source of 0.9 Tg a-1, which corresponds to 0.15% of the total global CH4 budget of 582 Tg a-1, hence significantly lower than those obtained previously by biomass-based calculations. This study emphasizes that land use change, which is of high relevance in this region, has particularly affected soil CH4 fluxes in the past and might still do so in the future.

  2. Sub-kilometre (intra-crater) mounds in Utopia Planitia, Mars: character, occurrence and possible formation hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Richard J.; Conway, Susan J.; Pearce, Geoffrey D.; Costard, François; Séjourné, Antoine

    2013-08-01

    At the middle latitudes of Utopia Planitia (˜35-45°N; ˜65-101°E) hundreds of small-sized mounds located in sub-kilometre impact craters dot the landscape. Their shape varies from circular to crescentic and their height ranges from ˜10 to 50 m. Often, metre to decametre pitting is observed, as is metres-thick banding or stratification. Mound albedo is relatively high, i.e. ˜0.16. The plain's terrain in the region, previously linked to the latitude-dependent mantle (LDM) of ice-dust, displays pitting and albedo similar to the small intra-crater mounds. Some workers have suggested that the mounds and the plain's terrain share a common ice-dust origin. If so, then scrutinising the mounds could provide analogical insight on the key geological characteristics and spatial distribution of the LDM itself. Other workers have hypothesised that the mounds are eroded sedimentary landforms or periglacial mounds underlain by a perennial ice-core (closed-system pingos). In this article we develop and then discuss each of the three mound-hypotheses in a much more substantial manner than has been done hitherto. Towards this end we use high-resolution images, present a detailed regional-map of mound distribution and establish a regional platform of topographical analysis using MOLA data superposed on a large-scale CTX mosaic. Although the ice-dust hypothesis is consistent with some observations and measurements, we find that a (loess-based) sedimentary hypothesis shows greater plausibility. Of the three hypotheses evaluated, the pingo or periglacial one is the weakest.

  3. Application of 5700.6B, quality assurance, to ES and H programs: Mound's approach and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Quality Assurance has always been integral to Mound's production and support operations. Weapons material and other designated material for WR programs are processed and controlled per the requirements of DOE/AL Quality Control Policy QC-1. Mound's non-WR activities, such as siting, design, construction, testing, operation, maintenance, development and production of materials, components, and systems, and acquisition of research and technology data are to be processed and controlled per the requirements of AL Order 5700.6. This paper presents an overview of the entire Quality Assurance Program at Mound and specifically addresses Mound's formal application of Quality Assurance to our comprehensive Environmental, Safety and Health (ES and H) Programs. 4 figures, 1 table

  4. Methane fluxes from the mound-building termite species of North Australian savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, H.; Livesely, S. J.; Arndt, S. K.; Dawes-Gromadzki, T.; Cook, G. D.; Hutley, L.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are estimated to contribute 3-19% to the global methane emissions. These estimates have large uncertainties because of the limited number of field-based studies and species studied, as well as issues of diel and seasonal variation. We measured methane fluxes from four common mound-building termite species (Microcerotermes nervosus, n=26; M. serratus, n=4; Tumulitermes pastinator, n=5; and Amitermes darwini, n=4) in tropical savannas near Darwin in the Northern Territory, Australia. Methane fluxes from replicated termite mounds were measured in the field using manual chambers with fluxes reported on a mound volume basis. Methane flux was measured in both wet and dry seasons and diel variation was investigated by measuring methane flux every 4 hours over a 24 hour period. Mound temperature was measured concurrently with flux to examine this relationship. In addition, five M. nervosus mounds removed from the field and incubated under controlled temperature conditions over a 24 hour period to remove the effect of varying temperature. During the observation campaigns, mean monthly minimum and maximum temperatures for February (wet season) were 24.7 and 30.8°C, respectively, and were 20.1 to 31.4 °C in June (dry season). Annual rainfall in 2008 for Darwin was 1970.1 mm, with a maximum of 670 mm falling in February and no rain in May and June. Methane fluxes were greatest in the wet season for all species, ranging from 265.1±101.1 (T. pastinator) to 2256.6±757.1 (M. serratus) µg CH4-C/m3/h. In the dry season, methane fluxes were at their lowest, ranging from 10.0±5.5 (T. pastinator) to 338.0±165.9 (M. serratus) µg CH4-C/m3/h. On a diel basis, methane fluxes were smallest at the coolest time of the day (~0700 hrs) and greatest at the warmest (~1400 hrs) for all species, and for both wet and dry seasons. Typical diel variation in flux from M. serratus dominated mounds ranged from 902.6±261.9 to 1392.1±408.1 µg CH4-C/m3/h in wet season and 99.6±57.4 to

  5. Some recent changes in tritium handling and control at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1976-01-01

    Significant reductions in tritium effluents and personnel exposures at Mound Laboratory have been made during the past 5 yr. Yearly effluents are less than 3 percent of former levels and personnel exposures have been reduced by a factor of 300. Several recent changes which have contributed to these reductions include lowered tritium levels in gloveboxes, and the efficiency and capacity of Mound's new effluent removal system. Personnel exposures have been reduced dramatically by changing to precious metal catalytic converters or oxidizers for use with the glovebox gas purification system. Unlike some former systems using hot copper or proprietary reactants for oxygen removal, a catalyst provides very effective removal of both oxygen and tritium. Both oxygen and tritium can be monitored and, if necessary, increments of hydrogen in argon can be added until the oxygen level is brought down to the desired value

  6. Stable isotope sales: Mound Laboratory customer and shipment summaries, FY 1976 and FY 1976A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruwe, A.H. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A listing is given of Mound Laboratory's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for fiscal years 1976 and 1976A (the period July 1, 1975 through September 30, 1976). Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers

  7. Including the influence of waves in the overall slope stability analysis of rubble mound breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Mollaert, J.; Tavallali, A.

    2016-01-01

    An offshore breakwater is designed for the construction of a LNG-terminal. For the slope stability analysis of the rubble mound breakwater the existing and the extreme wave climate are considered. Pore water pressure variations exist in the breakwater and its permeable foundation. A wave trough combined with the moment of maximum wave run-up results in a decrease and increase of the pore water pressure, respectively. Therefore, the wave actions have on overall effect on the slope stability of...

  8. Stable isotope sales: Mound Laboratory customer and shipment summaries, FY 1976 and FY 1976A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruwe, A.H. Jr. (comp.)

    1977-06-06

    A listing is given of Mound Laboratory's sales of stable isotopes of noble gases, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine, and sulfur for fiscal years 1976 and 1976A (the period July 1, 1975 through September 30, 1976). Purchasers are listed alphabetically and are divided into domestic and foreign groups. A cross-reference index by location is included for domestic customers. Cross-reference listings by isotope purchased are included for all customers.

  9. Three-dimensional architecture and development of Danianbryozoan mounds at Limhamn, south-west Sweden, usingground-penetrating radar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Schack von Brockdorff, A.; Bjerager, Morten Gustav Erik

    2009-01-01

    in the Limhamn limestone quarry, south-west Sweden, obtained from combined reflected ground-penetrating radar signals and outcrop analysis provide new information about the architecture and growth development of such mounds. The mounds are composed of bryozoan limestone and dark-grey to black flint bands which...... outline mound geometries. Ground-penetrating radar data sections are collected over a 120 m by 60 m grid of data lines with trace spacing of 0·25 m, providing a depth penetration of 7 to 12 m and a vertical resolution of ca 0·30 m. The ground-penetrating radar images outline the geometry of the internal...... layering of the mounds which, typically, have widths and lengths of 30 to 60 m and heights of 5 to 10 m. Mound architecture and growth show great variability in the ground-penetrating radar images. Small-scale mound structures with a palaeorelief of only a few metres may constitute the basis for growth...

  10. Effects of Erosion from Mounds of Different Termite Genera on Distinct Functional Grassland Types in an African Savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, Cleo M; Cromsigt, Joris P G M; Mpanza, Nokukhanya; Olff, Han

    A key aspect of savannah vegetation heterogeneity is mosaics formed by two functional grassland types, bunch grasslands, and grazing lawns. We investigated the role of termites, important ecosystem engineers, in creating high-nutrient patches in the form of grazing lawns. Some of the ways termites can contribute to grazing lawn development is through erosion of soil from aboveground mounds to the surrounding soil surface. This may alter the nutrient status of the surrounding soils. We hypothesize that the importance of this erosion varies with termite genera, depending on feeding strategy and mound type. To test this, we simulated erosion by applying mound soil from three termite genera ( Macrotermes , Odontotermes , and Trinervitermes ) in both a field experiment and a greenhouse experiment. In the greenhouse experiment, we found soils with the highest macro nutrient levels (formed by Trinervitermes ) promoted the quality and biomass of both a lawn ( Digitaria longiflora ) and a bunch ( Sporobolus pyramidalis ) grass species. In the field we found that soils with the highest micro nutrient levels (formed by Macrotermes ) showed the largest increase in cover of grazing lawn species. By linking the different nutrient availability of the mounds to the development of different grassland states, we conclude that the presence of termite mounds influences grassland mosaics, but that the type of mound plays a crucial role in determining the nature of the effects.

  11. The influence of insecticides and vegetation in structuring Formica mound ant communities (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Maine lowbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Beth; Drummond, Francis A

    2013-04-01

    Assessing the influence of new, reduced-risk insecticides on natural enemies within agroecosystems is essential to developing integrated pest management strategies. Three species of mound-building Formica ants are abundant throughout Maine lowbush blueberry fields (Formica exsectoides Forel, F. glacialis Wheeler, and F. ulkei Emery). All three species have been described in the literature as predaceous, with research demonstrating that F. exsectoides preys on major pest insects of lowbush blueberry. The objectives of this study were to determine the impact of common-use and newly introduced insecticides on Formica sp. ant communities in lowbush blueberry fields. Laboratory assays indicated that the commonly applied insecticide phosmet is toxic to F. exsectoides, even after 8 d of field weathering (P insecticides, such as acetamiprid, had little effect on survival of all three species. Abundance of each species in the field varied with lowbush blueberry pesticide-use strategy and amount of nonblueberry vegetation. Both F. exsectoides and F. glacialis were most abundant in organic fields; however, overall F. glacialis was the most abundant in fields of all management types. Field surveys support laboratory results suggesting that phosmet is highly toxic to these species and influences their spatial pattern. Manipulation of the crop to conserve natural enemies in lowbush blueberry is difficult because the crop is not planted; therefore, we must look closely at the incorporation of low toxicity insecticides with natural enemies to efficiently control pest insects.

  12. The nest growth of the neotropical mound-building termite, Cornitermes cumulans: a micromorphological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosarinsky, Marcela I

    2011-01-01

    The nests of Cornitermes cumulans K. (Isoptera: Termitidae), a very common termite in South American grasslands, display notable morphological transformations during the development of the colony. Young colonies inhabit small subterranean nests that develop into large, conspicuous, epigean mounds, inhabited by very populous colonies. Those macromorphological transformations are accompanied by micromorphological changes occurring gradually in the nest walls. The micromorphological changes during nest development described in the present study expand on previous macromorphological descriptions by explaining the re-organization of the soil components during nest growth. In subterranean nests, walls are composed of piles of lensshaped aggregates of soil material, each one surrounded by a thin organic coating. As the nest grows, mound walls are constructed by disassembling this first lenticular structure and rearranging the materials in a new fabric, where sand grains are loosely distributed among soil microaggregates of organic matter and clay. This is also a temporary construction, because the walls of large nests are composed of a porous mass of sands densely cemented with organic matter and clay in the mound, and a compact mass of the same components in the floor.

  13. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liphanov Nicolay А.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov. The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: China (A.V. Komar, D.G. Savinov, B. Totev, Pelevina, Central Asia (V.G. Kotov, V.E. Flyorova, India (N.A. Fonyakova. According to the author, this image has no apparent iconographic parallels in the traditions of these regions. Such analogues are found in the art of the Mediterranean where the ancient images of various mythological creatures exist alongside the image of the sea dragon “ketos” which later became part of the Christian tradition. The appearance of this monster in the images of the first half – middle of the 1st millennium A.D. is practically identical to the dragons from Shilovka burial mound. According to the author, certain impact on the formation of the considered dragon image was made by Iranian art.

  14. Bryan Mound InSAR Analysis U.S. Strategic petroleum Reserve.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Anna C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) is a stockpile of emergency crude oil to be tapped into if a disruption in the nation's oil supply occurs. The SPR is comprised of four salt dome sites. Subsidence surveys have been conducted either annually or biennially at all four sites over the life of the program. Monitoring of surface behavior is a first line defense to detecting possible subsurface cavern integrity issues. Over the life of the Bryan Mound site, subsidence rates over abandoned Cavern 3 have continuously been the highest at the site. In an effort to try and understand the subsurface dynamics, specifically over Bryan Mound Cavern 3, historic interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data was acquired and processed by TRE Altamira. InSAR involves the processing of multiple satellite synthetic aperture radar scenes acquired across the same location of the Earth's surface at different times to map surface deformation. The analysis of the data has the ability to detect millimeters of motion spanning days, months, year and decades, across specific sites. The intent in regards to the Bryan Mound site was (1) to confirm the higher subsidence rates recorded over abandoned Cavern 3 indicated by land survey and (2) understand the regional surface behavior. This report describes the InSAR analysis results, how those results compare to the historical collection of land survey data, and what additional information the data has provided towards understanding the response recorded at the surface.

  15. Slope Stability Estimation of the Kościuszko Mound in Cracow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrana, Bogumił; Pietrzak, Natalia

    2015-06-01

    In the paper, the slope stability problem of the Kościuszko Mound in Cracow, Poland is considered. The slope stability analysis was performed using Plaxis FEM program. The outer surface of the mound has complex geometry. The slope of the cone is not uniform in all directions, on the surface of the cone are pedestrian paths. Due to its complicated geometry it was impossible to do computing by Plaxis input pre-procesor. The initial element mesh was generated using Autodesk Autocad 3D and next it was updated by Plaxis program. The soil parameters were adopted in accordance with the detailed geological soil testing performed in 2012. Calculating model includes geogrids. The upper part was covered by MacMat geogrid, while the lower part of the Mound was reinforced using Terramesh Matt geogrid. The slope analysis was performed by successives reduction of φ /c parameters. The total multiplayer ΣMsf is used to define the value of the soil strength parameters. The article presents the results of slope stability before and after the rainfall during 33 days of precipitation in flood of 2010.

  16. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  17. Grainstones and cementstone mounds: The Trogkofel summit section (Lower Permian, Carnic Alps, Austria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, M.; Sanders, D.; Krainer, K.

    2009-04-01

    In the Carnic Alps, Austria, an Artinskian succession 400 m thick of shallow-water bioclastic limestones and of mounds composed of ?Archaeolithophyllum, Archaeolithoporella and abundant fibrous cementstone (after former aragonite) records deposition along a "grainstone-dominated" platform margin. The section was taken along the route through the east-facing cliff of Trogkofel. The Trogkofel Limestone (Artinskian pro parte) is excellently exposed and preserved the most complete along this route, but no section has hitherto been logged. The total thickness of the Trogkofel Limestone probably is about 550 meters; the summit section comprises its upper 400 meters. The section consists mainly of shallow-water bioclastic limestones (grainstones, packstones, rudstones) intercalated with cementstone mounds. Both the bioclastic limestones and the mounds typically are thick-bedded to, more commonly, unbedded. Throughout the section, intervals a few tens of meters in thickness dominated by bioclastic limestones change vertically with intervals dominated by cementstone mounds. Up-section, no clear-cut trend with respect to prevalent facies, mean depositional water depth, and energy index is obvious. Furthermore, no lime-muddy, meter-scale peritidal cycles, and no teepee structures and no pisolite levels were identified; thin intervals of fenestral lime mudstones and/or of cryptmicrobially-laminated limestones are very rare. The bioclastic limestones commonly weather out unstratified, or show subhorizontal stratification or, more rarely, low-angle cross-stratification. In the upper 100 meters of section, grainstones to fine-grained rudstones rich in keystone vugs are prevalent. The cementstone mounds comprise intervals up to a few meters in thickness; the biogenic component is characterized by foliose crusts pertaining to ?Archaeolithophyllum hidensis and Archaeolithoporella, overgrown by Tubiphytes and fenestrate bryozoans. The ?Archaeolithophyllum-Archaeolithoporella crusts

  18. Survival and growth of restored Piedmont riparian forests as affected by site preparation, planting stock, and planting aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelsea M. Curtis; W. Michael Aust; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm

    2015-01-01

    Forest mitigation sites may have poor survival and growth of planted trees due to poor drainage, compacted soils, and lack of microtopography. The effects of five replications of five forestry mechanical site preparation techniques (Flat, Rip, Bed, Pit, and Mound), four regeneration sources (Direct seed, Bare root, Tubelings, and Gallon), and three planting aids (None...

  19. Models of formation and activity of spring mounds in the mechertate-chrita-sidi el hani system, eastern Tunisia: implications for the habitability of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essefi, Elhoucine; Komatsu, Goro; Fairén, Alberto G; Chan, Marjorie A; Yaich, Chokri

    2014-08-28

    Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH) system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early) to the islet ("island") stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i) the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii) the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii) indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common features on Mars

  20. Models of Formation and Activity of Spring Mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani System, Eastern Tunisia: Implications for the Habitability of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhoucine Essefi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spring mounds on Earth and on Mars could represent optimal niches of life development. If life ever occurred on Mars, ancient spring deposits would be excellent localities to search for morphological or chemical remnants of an ancient biosphere. In this work, we investigate models of formation and activity of well-exposed spring mounds in the Mechertate-Chrita-Sidi El Hani (MCSH system, eastern Tunisia. We then use these models to explore possible spring mound formation on Mars. In the MCSH system, the genesis of the spring mounds is a direct consequence of groundwater upwelling, triggered by tectonics and/or hydraulics. As they are oriented preferentially along faults, they can be considered as fault spring mounds, implying a tectonic influence in their formation process. However, the hydraulic pressure generated by the convergence of aquifers towards the surface of the system also allows consideration of an origin as artesian spring mounds. In the case of the MCSH system, our geologic data presented here show that both models are valid, and we propose a combined hydro-tectonic model as the likely formation mechanism of artesian-fault spring mounds. During their evolution from the embryonic (early to the islet (“island” stages, spring mounds are also shaped by eolian accumulations and induration processes. Similarly, spring mounds have been suggested to be relatively common in certain provinces on the Martian surface, but their mode of formation is still a matter of debate. We propose that the tectonic, hydraulic, and combined hydro-tectonic models describing the spring mounds at MCSH could be relevant as Martian analogs because: (i the Martian subsurface may be over pressured, potentially expelling mineral-enriched waters as spring mounds on the surface; (ii the Martian subsurface may be fractured, causing alignment of the spring mounds in preferential orientations; and (iii indurated eolian sedimentation and erosional remnants are common

  1. A Preliminary Study on Elimination of Colonies of the Mound Building Termite Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen Using a Chlorfluazuron Termite Bait in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partho Dhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a chlorfluazuron termite bait in eliminating colonies of the termite species Macrotermes gilvus (Hagen was evaluated under field conditions. Three active termite mounds were chosen for this study, two acted as test mounds and the other as the control. Four In-Ground Stations (IGS were installed around each mound. Interception occurred almost immediately in all the stations, which were subsequently baited. The control mound was fed a bait matrix lacking the active ingredient. Stations were re-baited every 2 weeks for 10–12 weeks until bait consumption ceased in the test mounds. The mounds were left undisturbed for four more weeks before being destructively sampled. The desiccated remains of workers, soldiers, late instars and queen were found upon sampling the treated mounds. A few live termites were located in one treated mound but were darkly pigmented indicating bait consumption. The control mound remained healthy and did not show any visible sign of negative impact. The bait successfully suppressed or eliminated both M. gilvus colonies within 16 weeks from commencement of feeding.

  2. Long-term baited lander experiments at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaleye, Marc; Duineveld, Gerard; Bergman, Magda; van den Beld, Inge

    2017-11-01

    A long-term lander employing a baited camera system was developed to study temporal variation in the presence of scavenging fish and invertebrates at a cold-water coral community on Galway Mound (Belgica Mound Province, NE Atlantic). The camera system was tested during two successful long-term deployments for periods of 6 and 12 months respectively. The baited system, consisting of two separate video cameras with infrared lights and a bait dispenser with 24 bait positions, recorded more than 15,500 clips of 17 s, regularly spread over both periods. New bait, consisting of sardines in oil, was offered at regular time intervals, and attracted scavengers over the whole period of deployment, and especially the crab Chaceon affinis did still eat from it till the end of the deployments. However, the attractiveness for some scavengers, i.e. amphipods, diminished quite quickly. In addition to invertebrate scavengers, namely C. affinis, two other crab species, amphipods, a shrimp and a starfish, also 7 species of fish were recorded near the bait, of which Lepidion eques was by far the most common. Though there was no concrete evidence for seasonal patterns, the observations showed substantial temporal variation in the abundance of several species, especially the crabs C. affinis and Bathynectes maravigna and the fish Phycis blennoides. It is concluded that long-term deployments of such a baited camera system can produce novel data. For instance such a system could be employed for monitoring impacts of disturbances on the deep-sea floor (e.g. mining), as we infer that mobile scavengers will be among the first organisms to show a visible reaction to any chemically and physically (noise, vibrations) alteration of the environment similar to a mine canary.

  3. Expediting the commercial disposal option: Low-level radioactive waste shipments from the Mound Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, S.; Rothman, R.

    1995-12-31

    In April, Envirocare of Utah, Inc., successfully commenced operation of its mixed waste treatment operation. A mixed waste which was (a) radioactive, (b) listed as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and (c) prohibited from land disposal was treated using Envirocare`s full-scale Mixed Waste Treatment Facility. The treatment system involved application of chemical fixation/stabilization technologies to reduce the leachability of the waste to meet applicable concentration-based RCRA treatment standards. In 1988, Envirocare became the first licensed facility for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material. In 1990, Envirocare received a RCRA Part B permit for commercial mixed waste storage and disposal. In 1994, Envirocare was awarded a contract for the disposal of DOE mixed wastes. Envirocare`s RCRA Part B permit allows for the receipt, storage, treatment, and disposal of mixed wastes that do not meet the land-disposal treatment standards of 40 CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) 268. Envirocare has successfully received, managed, and disposed of naturally occurring radioactive material, low-activity radioactive waste, and mixed waste from government and private generators.

  4. Ft-Ir Spectroscopic Analysis of Potsherds Excavated from the First Settlement Layer of Kuriki Mound, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Murat; Isik, Iskender; Cereci, Sedat; Issi, Ali; Genc, Elif

    The region covering Southeastern Anatolia takes place in upper Mesopotamia, so it has numerous cultural heritages due to its witness to various social movements of different civilizations in ancient times. Kuruki Mound is located on the junction point of Tigris River and Batman Creek, near Oymatas village which is almost 15 km to Batman, Turkey. The mound is dated back to Late Chalcolithic. Archaeological excavations are carried out on two hills named as “Kuriki Mound-1” and “Kuriki Mound-2” in which 4-layer and 2-layer settlements have been revealed, respectively. This region will be left under the water by the reservoir lake of Ilısu Dam when its construction is completed. Thus, characterization of ancient materials such as potsherds, metals and skeleton ruins should be rapidly done. In this study, 12 potsherds excavated from Layer-1 (the first settlement layer after the surface) in Kuriki Mound-2 were investigated by FT-IR spectrometry. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used as complementary techniques in order to expose chemical and mineralogical/phase contents, respectively. Obtained results showed that the potteries have been produced with calcareous clays and they include moderate amounts of MgO, K2O, Na2O and Fe2O3 in this context. Additionally, high temperature phases have also been detected with XRD analyses in some samples.

  5. Greenhouse gas exchange in West African savanna ecosystems - how important are emissions from termite mounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, C.; Brüggemann, N.

    2012-04-01

    Savannas cover large areas of the Earth's surface and play an important role in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In this study, we present the soil-atmosphere exchange of N2O, CH4, and CO2 during two field campaigns throughout the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at a natural savanna site that was not subject to human disturbances except for annual burning, and four agricultural sites planted with sorghum (n=2), cotton and peanut in Burkina Faso. The annual N2O emission of the nature reserve site amounted to 0.52 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2005 and to 0.67 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2006, whereas the calculated average annual N2O release of the crop sites was only 0.19 and 0.20 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. As a result of a temporal up-scaling approach, a lower bound of annual N2O release could be given for two fertilized sorghum plots, that is, 0.83 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for a highly fertilized plot and 0.44 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 for a moderately fertilized plot. During the rainy season both CH4 uptake in the range of up to 20 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1 as well as CH4 emission up to 300 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1 were observed at the nature reserve site, which was on average a CH4 source of 87.4 and 30.8 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1 in 2005 and 2006, respectively. All crop sites were on average weak CH4 sinks without significant seasonal variation. Uptake rates ranged between 2.5 and 8.7 μg CH4-C m-2 h-1. Occasionally very low net CH4 emission was observed after heavy rainfall events. Mean annual CH4 rates could be estimated to 2.48 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 and -0.68 kg CH4-C ha-1 yr-1 for the nature reserve site and the crop sites, respectively. Trace gas emissions from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds that were almost exclusively found at the nature reserve were one order of magnitude higher for N2O and CO2, and two orders of magnitude higher for CH4 than soil emissions of the respective trace gas. Termite N2O, CH4 and CO2 release at the nature reserve contributed only 3.2%, 8.1% and

  6. Excavation and aggregation as organizing factors in de novo construction by mound-building termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben; Bardunias, Paul; Turner, J Scott; Nagpal, Radhika; Werfel, Justin

    2017-06-14

    Termites construct complex mounds that are orders of magnitude larger than any individual and fulfil a variety of functional roles. Yet the processes through which these mounds are built, and by which the insects organize their efforts, remain poorly understood. The traditional understanding focuses on stigmergy, a form of indirect communication in which actions that change the environment provide cues that influence future work. Termite construction has long been thought to be organized via a putative 'cement pheromone': a chemical added to deposited soil that stimulates further deposition in the same area, thus creating a positive feedback loop whereby coherent structures are built up. To investigate the detailed mechanisms and behaviours through which termites self-organize the early stages of mound construction, we tracked the motion and behaviour of major workers from two Macrotermes species in experimental arenas. Rather than a construction process focused on accumulation of depositions, as models based on cement pheromone would suggest, our results indicated that the primary organizing mechanisms were based on excavation. Digging activity was focused on a small number of excavation sites, which in turn provided templates for soil deposition. This behaviour was mediated by a mechanism of aggregation, with termites being more likely to join in the work at an excavation site as the number of termites presently working at that site increased. Statistical analyses showed that this aggregation mechanism was a response to active digging, distinct from and unrelated to putative chemical cues that stimulate deposition. Agent-based simulations quantitatively supported the interpretation that the early stage of de novo construction is primarily organized by excavation and aggregation activity rather than by stigmergic deposition. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

    We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

  8. An examination of recharge mound decay and fossil gradients in arid regional sedimentary basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    In many of the vast arid sedimentary basins of the world, groundwater gradients exist that appear to be anomalous in the context of the probable modern recharge potential. The possibility that such gradients are in fact remnant fossil conditions representing the decay of ancient recharge mounds is examined. An example of decay condition is represented using a resistor-network analogue model in which the time control is based on 14 C ages. The decay hypothesis is found to be plausible with realistic aquifer characteristics but a non-homogeneous flow is indicated from the 14 C data. (author)

  9. Scour at the round head of a rubble-mound breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    1997-01-01

    This study complements the investigation on scour around the head of a breakwater, reported in the companion paper where the case of vertical-wall breakwater was considered, The present study deals with the case of rubble-mound breakwater. Two key mechanisms with regard to the scour processes......, and the acceleration due to gravity, g, appears to be the main governing parameter regarding the breaker-induced scour. The scour depth increases with increasing values of these parameters. The conventional stone protection is investigated in the study. An empirical formula is developed for the extent...

  10. Mesopotamian ceramics from the burial mounds of Bahrain, c.2250–1750 BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2011-01-01

    in Mesopotamia’s interaction with the populations of the ‘Lower Sea’. The first import horizon is comprised of a vessel type found exclusively in the scattered mounds of Early Type which pre-date the rise of the Dilmun ‘state’ proper. The distribution of these vessels outside their areas of production...... demonstrates how they circulated widely in a network elsewhere considered to reflect the orbit of Mesopotamia’s late third-millennium ‘Magan trade’. Here it is consequently concluded that this particular type represents an important fossile directeur of the ‘Magan trade’ and pre-Dilmun florescence. The vessels...

  11. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Operable Unit-1 Landfill Miamisburg Closure Project, Miamisburg, OH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of the independent verification survey were to confirm that remedial actions have been effective in meeting established release criteria and that documentation accurately and adequately describes the current radiological and chemical conditions of the MCP site

  12. Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan and Decision Document for the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an Interim Measure/Interim Remedial Action (IM/IRA) at the 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas (Operable Unit No. 2) at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). This MIRA is to be conducted to provide information that will aid in the selection and design of final remedial actions at OU2 that will address removal of suspected free-phase volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination. The Plan involves investigating the removal of residual free-phase VOCs by in situ vacuum-enhanced vapor extraction technology at 3 suspected VOC source areas within OU2. VOC-contaminated vapors extracted from the subsurface would be treated by granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and discharged. The Plan also includes water table depression, when applicable at the test sites, to investigate the performance of vapor extraction technology in the saturated zone. The Plan provides for treatment of any contaminated ground water recovered during the IM/IRA at existing RFP treatment facilities. The proposed MVIRA Plan is presented in the document entitled ''Proposed Subsurface Interim Measures/Interim Remedial Action Plan/Environmental Assessment and Decision Document, 903 Pad, Mound, and East Trenches Areas, Operable Unit No. 2, '' dated 20 March 1992. Information concerning the proposed Subsurface IM/IRA was presented during a DOE Quarterly Review meeting held on 07 April 1992 and a public meeting held on 07 May 1992, at the Marriott Hotel in Golden, Colorado. The Responsiveness Summary presents DOE's response to all comments received at the public meeting, as well as those mailed to date to DOE during the public comment period

  13. Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Karline; Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Grehan, Anthony; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-10-01

    Cold-water corals (CWCs) form large mounds on the seafloor that are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea, but it remains enigmatic how CWCs can thrive in this food-limited environment. Here, we infer from model simulations that the interaction between tidal currents and CWC-formed mounds induces downwelling events of surface water that brings organic matter to 600-m deep CWCs. This positive feedback between CWC growth on carbonate mounds and enhanced food supply is essential for their sustenance in the deep sea and represents an example of ecosystem engineering of unparalleled magnitude. This ’topographically-enhanced carbon pump’ leaks organic matter that settles at greater depths. The ubiquitous presence of biogenic and geological topographies along ocean margins suggests that carbon sequestration through this pump is of global importance. These results indicate that enhanced stratification and lower surface productivity, both expected consequences of climate change, may negatively impact the energy balance of CWCs.

  14. EG ampersand G Mount Plant, December 1990 and January 1991, D ampersand D soil box sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred eighty-two (682) containers of soil were generated at Mound Plant between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of the excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites; these areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building Area. The soils from these areas are part of the Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. These containers of soil are currently in storage at Mound Plant. The purpose of this sampling and analysis was to demonstrate that the D ampersand D soils comply with the waste acceptance requirements of the NTS, as presented In Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements (DOE 1988). The sealed waste packages, constructed of wood or metal, are currently being stored In Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound Plant. For additional historical information concerning the D ampersand D soils, Including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data see the Sampling and Analysis Plan for Mound Plant D ampersand D Soils Packages (EG ampersand G 1991)

  15. Phylogeography of an Australian termite, Amitermes laurensis (Isoptera, Termitidae), with special reference to the variety of mound shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Masato; Isagi, Yuji; Tsubota, Hiromi; Jacklyn, Peter; Bowman, David M J S

    2007-01-01

    In northern Australia, the debris-feeding termite Amitermes laurensis builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds in the northern part of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land, where their habitats are seasonally flooded, and small dome shaped mounds in the southeastern part of Cape York Peninsula, where their habitats are well-drained. Phylogeographic analyses were conducted in 238 individuals from 30 populations using the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) gene. DNA sequences of 50 haplotypes were used to construct NJ, MP and ML trees. Phylogenetic trees for 16 Amitermes species showed monophyly of A. laurensis and the variation of A. laurensis mounds did not strongly correspond to the intraspecific phylogeny. It was observed that mounds with the same shape were constructed by phylogenetically different groups under similar environmental conditions and different mounds shapes were built by phylogenetically closely related groups under the different environmental conditions. Thus, phylogenetically close groups of A. laurensis, in different habitats, may adapt to environmental conditions by constructing different mound shapes. We also investigated the phylogeographic structure of A. laurensis. The significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances indicated isolation by distance, reflecting restricted dispersal ability of alates. Although the overall genetic structure of A. laurensis showed isolation by distance, we also identified two exceptions: (i) secondary contacts of genetically divergent lineages in southern Cape York Peninsula, and (ii) low genetic differences between geographically separated populations of Cape York Peninsula and Arnhem Land. Therefore, the phylogeography of A. laurensis may reflect continuous gene flow restricted to short distances and past changes of gene flow associated with the fluctuation of environmental conditions accompanying the changing sea levels in the Quaternary.

  16. Origin and Formation of Giant Mounds in Lake Ladoga (Russia) from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromig, R.; Lebas, E.; Krastel, S.; Averes, T.; Wagner, B.; Melles, M.; Fedorov, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the framework of the German-Russian project `PLOT - Paleolimnological Transect' (for an overview of the project see Gromig et al., this meeting), a pilot seismic survey was carried out in Lake Ladoga (Russia) in late summer 2013. In total, 1500 km of seismic reflection profiles have been acquired using a mini-GI gun and a 32-channel seismic streamer. The high-resolution of the seismic data allows us to document in detail the sedimentary processes that occurred in the lake during the preglacial and postglacial history. The seismic stratigraphic architecture of the lake shows, from top to bottom, acoustically well-stratified Holocene muds overlaying rather transparent postglacial varves. These sediment successions are usually bordered by a hard reflector underneath, which may represent coarse-grained sediments or a till. The nature of the material composing the uppermost units have been tied to coring information from core Co1309, which was retrieved during the same survey. Of particular interest, are the single to composite, giant (kilometer-scale) mounds directly overlying the hard reflector. Internal architecture of the mounds reveals a complex formation history, with mound types showing significant structural deformation of different degrees; and other mound types showing a central deformation area, which strongly contrasts with the titled reflections or undisturbed stratification visible at the edges. The deepest seismic unit underlying the mounds is characterized by well-bedded, tilted reflectors in the southeastern part of the lake, while clear synclines are identified in the northwestern part of the lake. An erosional truncation separates the deepest unit from the overlying ones. In the work presented here, we focus on the understanding of the origin and the formation of the giant mounds with respect to the glacial history of Lake Ladoga.

  17. The distribution, abundance, and the effects of fire on mound building termites (Trinervitermes and Cubitermes spp., Isoptera: Termitidae) in northern guinea savanna West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzie, John A H

    1986-11-01

    Termite mound densities in typical guinea savanna, Detarium, and grassland (boval) habitats in northern guinea savanna were determined by random quadratting of 2-3 sites in each habitat (100, 10x10 m quadrats per habitat). Dominant species in guinea savanna were T. geminatus (46 mounds ha -1 ) and T. oeconomus (21 mounds ha -1 ), in Detarium T. geminatus (59 mounds ha -1 ) and C. curtatus (45 mounds ha -1 ) and in boval C. curtatus (72 mounds ha -1 ) and T. geminatus (22 mounds ha -1 ). Only C. curtatus densities and total densities differed significantly between sites within habitats, but all species differed significantly in abundance between habitats. The composition of each community was related to general environment but no particular environmental variable was shown to be a major determinant of termite distribution. Evidence for the limitation of termite populations was obtained from indirect evidence of competition between colonies in Detarium, and by experimental manipulation of fire regimes in the typical guinea savanna habitat. Harvester termites increased four-five fold over two years in fire-protected plots as a result of increased food supplies. Total termite densities in the fire-protected community equilibrated to the new population density (100 mounds ha -1 ) after only two-three years.

  18. Prospects of Coir Fibre as Reinforcement in Termite Mound Clay Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinyemi Banjo A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study is to develop an appropriate environmental friendly building material that would be sourced, obtained locally and used for construction of structures at a low cost by using termite mound soil, reinforced with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%. and 4% coir fibres. Physical and mechanical tests were conducted on the different composition samples after curing. The particle size distribution showed that clay had the largest percentage with a moisture content of 3.53%, specific gravity of 2.0, liquid limit of 30.5% and plastic limit value of 25.4. The compressive strength test showed a decrease with increase in fibre content from 1% upward, modulus of rupture test showed that increase in fibre content leads to a corresponding increase in rupture while the modulus of elasticity test showed that from 3% to 4% fibre content, a decrease in the elasticity occurred. It can be concluded that low fibre inclusion into compressed termite mound brick is feasible if fibre content do not exceed 2% and thus can be used for both load and non-loading bearing structures.

  19. Composting of cow dung and crop residues using termite mounds as bulking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Das, Sampa; Boruah, R K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports the suitability of termite mounds as a bulking agent for composting with crop residues and cow dung in pit method. Use of 50 kg termite mound with the crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65 kg; soybean: 354.59 kg; potato: 357.67 kg and mustard: 373.19 kg) and cow dung (84.90 kg) formed a good quality compost within 70 days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 20.19, 3.78 and 32.77 g kg(-1) respectively with a bulk density of 0.85 g cm(-3). Other physico-chemical and germination parameters of the compost were within Indian standard, which had been confirmed by the application of multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate contrast analysis. Principal component analysis was applied in order to gain insight into the characteristic variables. Four composting treatments formed two different groups when hierarchical cluster analysis was applied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Remediation workers' exposure assessment feasibility study at the Department of Energy's Mound Site: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.W.; Back, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), subsequent to the implementation of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Health and Human Services, conducts a program of independent occupational and environmental research studies with funding from DOE. This document on the DOE Mound site represents the second background site document prepared for the development of the NIOSH project entitled: Exposure Assessment of Hazardous Waste (HW), Decontamination (De), Dismantlement (Di), and Clean Up Workers (CW). The purpose of this document is to assemble information relevant to Remediation Workers performing HW, De, Di, and CW task activities at the DOE Mound site addressing four primary objectives. The objectives are: identification of Remediation Workers performing HW, De, Di, and CW task activities anticipated or in progress from the recent past through the next five to 10 years; demographic definition of the workforce performing these activities; identification of the technologies in use or proposed to be used (including considerations regarding health and safety impact upon the workforce); and assembly of summary information for potential chemical, mixed, and radiological contaminant exposure that may be encountered during these processes

  1. Mound-ACT*DE*CONSM feasibility study. Phase 2: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    A portion of the abandoned Miami-Erie Canal paralleling the Greater Miami River receives the runoff and storm-water discharge from Mound Laboratory. In 1969, a low-level plutonium leak contaminated sediment as far away as 1.5 mi from the Mound site along the old canal system. An estimated one million cubic feet of sediment requires remediation. The technology being evaluated for the remediation of the low-level plutonium-238 contamination of the sediment involves two processes: washing the sediments with ACT*DE*CON SM solution to dissolve the contaminant, followed by extraction of the solution and processing with the MAG*SEP SM process to concentrate the contaminant and allow reuse of the ACT*DE*CON SM solution. The processes are being optimized for pilot-scale and field demonstration. Phase 2 of the project primarily involved identification at the laboratory scale of the optimal ACT*DE*CON SM formulation, identification of the ion-exchanger and MAG*SEP SM particles, verification of the plutonium mobility in the treated soil, and evaluation of other process parameters according to a series of tasks

  2. Diversity And Abundance Of Deep-Water Coral Mounds In The Straits Of Florida: A Result of Adaptability To Local Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, T. B.; Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G.; Viggiano, D. A.; Rosenberg, A.; Reed, J. K.

    2007-12-01

    To improve the understanding of the Florida-Bahamas deep-water coral mound ecosystem, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) surveys were conducted on five coral mound fields throughout the Straits of Florida (three sites at the base of slope of Great Bahama Bank (GBB), one in the middle of the Straits (MS) and one at the base of the Miami Terrace (MT)) in water depths of 590 to 860 m. The AUV provides high-resolution bathymetric maps, sub-bottom profiles and oceanographic data. The AUV survey sites were subsequently groundtruthed via sample collection and video transects, using the Johnson Sealink submersible. Contrary to previous surveys, we found a high diversity in coral mound morphology between sites separated by 15 to 80 km. The MT site is characterized by sinusoidal coral mound ridges, while the MS site contains densely clustered small coral mounds. Meanwhile, mounds of the GBB region are better developed, with some individual mounds reaching up to 90 m in height. Benthic coverage of live corals also differs between sites; the GBB sites are characterized by mounds densely covered by large thickets of live corals, while small thickets of mostly dead corals dominate the MT and MS sites. Several environmental factors may explain these differences. For example, bottom current patterns change between sites. The MT and the MS sites have a unidirectional regime (southward or northward flow, respectively), whereas the GBB sites have a tidal current regime. Sedimentation patterns as depicted by sub-bottom profiles also vary between the sites; coral mounds in the GBB area appear to receive higher sediment input, which can significantly enhance mound growth rates as the reef framework baffles and traps mobile sediments. However, coral mounds that cannot keep-up with the sedimentation rate are buried. Therefore, in the high sedimentation areas of GBB, flourishing live coral mounds are limited to elevated positions (i.e. plateaus, ridges crests) where sediment accumulation

  3. Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sang Kil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls ( 1 γv = 1. Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

  4. Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kil Park

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls (γν = 1. Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

  5. Elimination of field colonies of a mound-building termite Globitermes sulphureus (Isoptera: Termitidae) by bistrifluron bait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jalaludin, Nur Atiqah; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-04-01

    The efficacy of Xterm, which contains 1% bistrifluron, in the form of cellulose bait pellets was evaluated for its efficacy in eradicating field colonies of the mound-building termite Globitermes sulphureus (Haviland) (Isoptera: Termitidae). The termite mounds were dissected at the end of the experiment to determine whether the colonies were eliminated. By approximately 2 mo postbaiting, the body of termite workers appeared marble white, and mites were present on the body. The soldier-worker ratio increased drastically in the colonies, and the wall surface of the mounds started to erode. Colony elimination required at least a 4-mo baiting period. Mound dissection revealed wet carton materials (food store) that were greatly consumed and overgrown by fast-growing fungi. Decaying cadavers were scattered all over the nests. On average, 84.1 +/- 16.4 g of bait matrix (68.9 +/- 13.4%, an equivalent of 841 +/- 164 mg of bistrifluron) was consumed in each colony. Moreover, we found that a mere 143 mg of bistrifluron was sufficient to eliminate a colony of C. sulphureus.

  6. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  7. Mapping of Cold-Water Coral Carbonate Mounds Based on Geomorphometric Features: An Object-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Diesing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral reefs are rich, yet fragile ecosystems found in colder oceanic waters. Knowledge of their spatial distribution on continental shelves, slopes, seamounts and ridge systems is vital for marine spatial planning and conservation. Cold-water corals frequently form conspicuous carbonate mounds of varying sizes, which are identifiable from multibeam echosounder bathymetry and derived geomorphometric attributes. However, the often-large number of mounds makes manual interpretation and mapping a tedious process. We present a methodology that combines image segmentation and random forest spatial prediction with the aim to derive maps of carbonate mounds and an associated measure of confidence. We demonstrate our method based on multibeam echosounder data from Iverryggen on the mid-Norwegian shelf. We identified the image-object mean planar curvature as the most important predictor. The presence and absence of carbonate mounds is mapped with high accuracy. Spatially-explicit confidence in the predictions is derived from the predicted probability and whether the predictions are within or outside the modelled range of values and is generally high. We plan to apply the showcased method to other areas of the Norwegian continental shelf and slope where multibeam echosounder data have been collected with the aim to provide crucial information for marine spatial planning.

  8. Computer aided optimum design of rubble-mound breakwater cross-sections : Manual of the RUMBA computer package, release 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, W.

    1989-01-01

    The computation of the optimum rubble-mound breakwater crosssection is executed on a micro-computer. The RUMBA computer package consists of two main parts: the optimization process is executed by a Turbo Pascal programme, the second part consists of editing functions written in AutoLISP. AutoLISP is

  9. An electric and electromagnetic geophysical approach for subsurface investigation of anthropogenic mounds in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzi, Veronica; Tapete, Deodato; Cappuccini, Luca; Fanti, Riccardo

    2016-11-01

    Scientific interest in mounds as geomorphological features that currently represent topographic anomalies in flat urban landscapes mainly lies on the understanding of their origin, either purely natural or anthropogenic. In this second circumstance, another question is whether traces of lost buildings are preserved within the mound subsurface and can be mapped as remnants testifying past settlement. When these landforms have been modified in centuries for civilian use, structural stability is a further element of concern. To address these issues we applied a geophysical approach based on a very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) technique and two-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (2D-ERT) and integrated it with well-established surface survey methods within a diagnostic workflow of structural assessment. We demonstrate the practical benefits of this method in the English Cemetery of Florence, Italy, whose mixed nature and history of morphological changes are suggested by archival records. The combination of the two selected geophysical techniques allowed us to overcome the physical obstacles caused by tomb density and to prevent interference from the urban vehicular traffic on the geophysical signals. Eighty-two VLF-EM profiles and five 2D-ERTs were collected to maximise the spatial coverage of the subsurface prospection, while surface indicators of instability (e.g., tomb tilt, location, and direction of ground fractures and wall cracks) were mapped by standard metric survey. High resistive anomalies (> 300 and 400 Ωm) observed in VLF-EM tomographies are attributed to remnants of the ancient perimeter wall that are still buried along the southern side of the mound. While no apparent correlation is found between the causes of tomb and ground movements, the crack pattern map supplements the overall structural assessment. The main outcome is that the northern portion of the retaining wall is classed with the highest hazard rate. The impact of this

  10. Geoarchaeological research on Bronze Age settlement mounds in the Kolkheti lowlands at the Black Sea coast of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laermanns, Hannes; Heisterkamp, Arne; Kirkitadze, Giorgi; Elashvili, Mikheil; Verheul, Jan; Kelterbaum, Daniel; Helmut, Brückner

    2016-04-01

    0.0.1 Situated between the Rivers Enguri in the north and Khobistsqali in the south, more than 20 settlement mounds (local name Dikhagudzuba), identified by field survey and remote sensing techniques, give evidence of a densely populated landscape in the coastal lowlands of eastern Georgia during the Bronze Age. While the existing chronology of these mounds is based on ceramic evidence obtained during a previous archaeological research, only limited information is available on their internal architecture and their palaeoenvironmental context, and the chronology of the different layers is as yet lacking. 0.0.2 Within the framework of a geoarchaeological research project, we carried out eleven vibracores on and in direct vicinity of three of the most prominent mounds, situated close to the villages of Orulu and Ergeta. Based on these sediment cores, our study aims at (i) establishing a chronostratigraphical framework for the settlements based on radiocarbon dating; (ii) reconstructing possible phases and gaps of occupation; and (iii) identifying the environmental conditions during the time of their existence. Geochemical and sedimentological analyses were carried out to decipher element contents (XRF), granulometry, and organic contents (LOI, C/N) of sediment samples, supporting the interpretation of the mounds' stratigraphical evolution and related human occupation. The three investigated settlement mounds are similar in dimension and stratigraphy, and different settlement layers could be identified in each of them. The 14C age estimates indicate that their formation occurred during the second half of the 3rd and the first half of the 2nd millennium BC, thus confirming the archaeological interpretation of their Bronze Age origin. Based on the granulometric and geochemical data, palaeoenvironmental conditions in the vicinity of the settlements were dominated by fluvial processes.

  11. The hill forts and castle mounds in Lithuania: interaction between geodiversity and human-shaped landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skridlaite, Grazina; Guobyte, Rimante; Satkunas, Jonas

    2015-04-01

    Lithuania is famous for its abundant, picturesque hill forts and castle mounds of natural origin. In Lithuania as well as in whole Europe the fortified hills were used as the society dwelling place since the beginning of the Late Bronze Age. Their importance increased when Livonian and Teutonic Orders directed a series of military campaigns against Lithuania with the aim of expansion of Christianity in the region at the end of 1st millennium AD, and they were intensively used till the beginning of the 15th c. when most of them were burned down during fights with the Orders or just abandoned due to the changing political and economical situation. What types of the geodiversity were used for fortified dwellings? The choice in a particular area depended on a variety of geomorphology left behind the retreating ice sheets. High spots dominating their surroundings were of prime interest. In E and SE Lithuania, the Baltic Upland hills marking the eastern margin of the last Weichselian glacier hosted numerous fortified settlements from the end of 2nd millennium BC to the Medieval Ages (Narkunai, Velikuskes etc). In W Lithuania, plateau-like hills of the insular Samogitian Upland had been repeatedly fortified from the beginning of 1st millennium AD to the 14th century (Satrija, Medvegalis etc). Chains of hill forts and castle mounds feature the slopes of glaciofluvial valleys of Nemunas, Neris and other rivers where the slopes were dissected by affluent rivulets and ravines and transformed into isolated, well protected hills (Kernave, Punia, Veliuona etc). Peninsulas and headlands formed by the erosion of fluvial and lacustrine deposits were used in the lowlands, e.g. in central and N Lithuania (Paberze, Mezotne etc). How much the landscape was modified for defense purposes? Long-term erosion and overgrowing vegetation damaged the former fortified sites, however some remains and the archeological excavations allowed their reconstruction. The fortified Bronze Age settlements

  12. Termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory: a final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, W.R.; Kokenge, B.R.; Marsh, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    The report describes and highlights the more important factors associated with the termination of the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building at Mound Laboratory. As a result, a written record of the more important techniques and procedures is now available for reference by others involved in similar termination efforts. Included in this report is a description of the organizational units that were used in this effort along with a description of their responsibilities. A general description of the SM Building and a discussion of the more relevant procedures and equipment that were used are also presented. In addition, pertinent Health Physics information, such as personnel exposure, final wipe levels in the terminated facility, and assays of the structure, are provided. Based on the experience gained from this project, recommendations were made regarding the design of future radioactive material handling facilities so that when they are ultimately terminated the effort can be accomplished more efficiently

  13. Diagenesis of silica-rich mounded chalk, the Coniacian Arnager Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus Madsen, Heine; Stemmerik, Lars; Surlyk, Finn

    2010-01-01

    The Coniacian Arnager Limestone Formation is exposed on the Danish island of Bornholm in the Baltic Sea. It is composed of mound-bedded siliceous chalk, and X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy indicate a content of 30-70% insoluble minerals, including authigenic opal-CT, quartz......, clinoptilolite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, and barite. Opal-CT and clinoptilolite are the most common and constitute 16-53% and 2-9%, respectively. The content of insoluble minerals varies laterally bothwithinthemounds and inplanar beds, and the opal-CT content varies by up to 10% vertically. Themounds...... precipitation of opal-CT. The opal-CT formed at temperatures around 17°C, the precipitation lowered the silica activity and the Si/Al ratio of the pore water, resulting in precipitation of clinoptilolite, feldspar and smectite. Calcite formed synchronouslywith the latest clinoptilolite.Minoramounts of quartz...

  14. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahim, Faszly; Hanifah, Sharina Abu [School of Environmental Scieces and Natural Resources Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration.

  15. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji; Rahim, Faszly; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration

  16. Characterization of magnetic material in the mound-building termite Macrotermes gilvus in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esa, Mohammad Faris Mohammad; Rahim, Faszly; Hassan, Ibrahim Haji; Hanifah, Sharina Abu

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic material such as magnetite are known as particles that respond to external magnetic field with their ferromagnetic properties as they are believed contribute to in responding to the geomagnetic field. These particles are used by terrestrial animals such as termites for navigation and orientation. Since our earth react as giant magnetic bar, the magnitude of this magnetic field present by intensity and direction (inclination and direction). The magnetic properties and presence of magnetite in termites Macrotermes gilvus, common mound-building termite were tested. M. gilvus termites was tested with a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer VSM to determine the magnetic properties of specimen. The crushed body sample was characterized with X-Ray Diffraction XRD to show the existent of magnetic material (magnetite) in the specimens. Results from VSM indicate that M. gilvus has diamagnetism properties. The characterization by XRD shows the existent of magnetic material in our specimen in low concentration.

  17. Optimal reproduction strategies in two species of mound-building termites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David A; Ivers, David J; Evans, Theodore A; Myerscough, Mary R

    2008-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model for food collection and production of workers and nymphs in 2 species of mound building termites. We maximise the number of nymphs (reproductives) produced by each colony over its lifetime with respect to the proportion of eggs that hatch as nymphs as opposed to workers. The results predict that food storage has a very important influence on the pattern of nymph and worker production. Food storage affects the part of the year that nymph production dominates, whether nymphs and workers are produced at the same time or not, and the existence of a final phase in the colony's life when a very large number of nymphs but no workers are produced.

  18. Flow and Turbulence at Rubble-Mound Breakwater Armor Layers under Solitary Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the flow and turbulence at the armor layer of rubble-mound breakwaters during wave action. The study focused on the details of the flow and turbulence in the armor layer and on the effect of the porous core on flow and stability....... To isolate the processes involved with the flow in the porous core, experiments were conducted with increasing complexity. Specifically, three parallel experiments were performed including (1) an impermeable smooth breakwater slope, (2) an impermeable breakwater slope with large roughness elements added...... to the breakwater, and (3) a porous breakwater where the porous core was added below the breakwater front. One breakwater slope of 1:1.5 was applied. In this paper the focus is on the details of a single sequence of wave approach, run-up, and rundown. To isolate this sequence the experiments were performed applying...

  19. Battle Mound: Exploring space, place, and history of a Red River Caddo community in southwest Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Duncan Paul

    This research is a synthesis of archaeogeophysical and archaeohistorical data collected from the Battle Mound site (3LA1). Using these data, this research seeks to understand how the site is organized in terms of architectural variability and how differential use areas, such as domestic or community space, can be compared to ethnographic and archaeological data concerning Caddo community structure and landscape use. The research is formulated around three research questions related to spatial organization and settlement patterning, intrasite behavioral practices, and Caddo culture history. Results show that an examination at multiple scales of resolution can inform about the spatial organization and settlement patterning of Caddo communities and how these underlying principles that define space have endured or been modified over time. It also proposes a new intrasite model that can be productively tested with geophysical methods and the mapping of the distribution of features within large village areas.

  20. Behavior of plutonium-238 solutions in the soil and hydrology system at Mound Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Because plutonium is a potentially hazardous material, extensive precautions have been exercised since Pu operations began at Mound Laboratory to carefully maintain strict control of the Pu and to prevent significant amounts from entering the environment. These precautions include elaborate facility and equipment design criteria, scientific expertise, experience, personnel training, management and operational control systems, and environmental monitoring. In spite of these precautions, in early 1974, core samples from area waterways collected and analyzed showed that 238 Pu concentrations in the sediment of certain waterways adjacent to the site were above the baseline levels expected ( 238 Pu deposits presented no immediate hazard to the general population in the area as indicated by the air and water concentrations which were well within accepted Radioactivity Concentration Guides (RCG) for 238 Pu. Data are presented from an investigation of the extent of the contamination, the source of Pu, how it was transported and deposited in waterways, and potential hazards of these deposits to the general public

  1. Dig-face monitoring during excavation of a radioactive plume at Mound Laboratory, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josten, N.E.; Gehrke, R.J.; Carpenter, M.V.

    1995-12-01

    A dig-face monitoring system consists of onsite hardware for collecting information on changing chemical, radiological, and physical conditions in the subsurface soil during the hazardous site excavation. A prototype dig-face system was take to Mount Laboratory for a first trial. Mound Area 7 was the site of historical disposals of 232 Th, 227 Ac, and assorted debris. The system was used to monitor a deep excavation aimed at removing 227 Ac-contaminated soils. Radiological, geophysical, and topographic sensors were used to scan across the excavation dig-face at four successive depths as soil was removed. A 3-D image of the contamination plumes was developed; the radiation sensor data indicated that only a small portion of the excavated soil volume was contaminated. The spatial information produced by the dig-face system was used to direct the excavation activities into the area containing the 227 Ac and to evaluate options for handling the separate 232 Th plume

  2. An overview of plutonium-238 decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) projects at Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.H.; Davis, W.P.; Draper, D.G.; Geichman, J.R.; Harris, J.C.; Jaeger, R.R.; Sohn, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Mound is currently decontaminating for restricted reuse and/or decommissioning for conditional release four major plutonium-238 contaminated facilities that contained 1700 linear feet of gloveboxes and associated equipment and services. Several thousand linear feet of external underground piping, associated tanks, and contaminated soil are being removed. Two of the facilities contain ongoing operations and will be reused for both radioactive and nonradioactive programs. Two others will be completely demolished and the land area will become available for future DOE building sites. An overview of the successful techniques and equipment used in the decontamination and decommissioning of individual pieces of equipment, gloveboxes, services, laboratories, sections of buildings, entire buildings, and external underground piping, tanks, and soil in a highly populated residential area is described and pictorially presented

  3. The beneficial role of rubble mound coastal structures on seawater oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Daniil

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial role of rubble mound coastal structures on oxygenation under the effect of waves is discussed, based on analytical considerations and experimental data from laboratory experiments with permeable and impermeable structures. Significant oxygenation of the wave-protected area was observed as a result of horizontal transport through the permeable structure. A two-cell model describing the transport of dissolved oxygen (DO near a rubble mound breakwater structure was developed and used for the determination of the oxygen transfer coefficients from the experimental data. Oxygen transfer through the air–water interface is considered a source term in the transport equation and the oxygen flux through the structure is taken into account. The mass transport equations for both sides of the structure are solved analytically in terms of time evolution of DO concentration. The behaviour of the solution is illustrated for three different characteristic cases of initial conditions. The oxygen transfer through the air-water interface in the wave-influenced area increases the DO content in the area; the resulting oxygen flux through the structure is discussed. The analytical results depend on the initial conditions, the oxygen transfer coefficient and the exchange flow rate through the structure. Experiments with impermeable structures show that air water oxygen transfer in the harbour area is negligible in the absence of waves. In addition the ratio of the horizontal DO flux to the vertical flux into the seaward side tends towards a constant value, independent of the initial conditions.Key words: Oceanography: physical (air-sea interactions; surface waves and tides

  4. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, J.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States)

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  5. Critiques of the seismic hypothesis and the vegetation stabilization hypothesis for the formation of Mima mounds along the western coast of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Burnham, Jennifer L. Horwath; Perron, J. Taylor

    2016-09-01

    A recent paper published in Geomorphology by Gabet et al. (2014) presents the results of a numerical model supporting the hypothesis that burrowing mammals build Mima mounds - small, densely packed hillocks found primarily in the western United States. The model is based on field observations and produces realistic-looking mounds with spatial distributions similar to real moundfields. Alternative explanations have been proposed for these Mima mounds, including formation by seismic shaking and vegetation-controlled erosion and deposition. In this short communication, we present observations from moundfields in the coastal states of the western U.S. that are incompatible with these alternative theories.

  6. The giant cold-water coral mound as a nested microbial/metazoan system: physical, chemical, biological and geological picture (ESF EuroDiversity MiCROSYSTEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriet, J. P.; Microsystems Team

    2009-04-01

    The MiCROSYSTEMS project under the ESF EUROCORES EuroDiversity scheme is a holistic and multi-scale approach in studying microbial diversity and functionality in a nested microbial/metazoan system, which thrives in deep waters: the giant cold-water coral mound. Studies on prolific cold-water coral sites have been carried out from the canyons of the Bay of Biscay to the fjords of the Norwegian margin, while the Pen Duick carbonate mound province off Morocco developed into a joint natural lab for studying in particular the impact of biogeochemical and microbial processes on modern sedimentary diagenesis within the reef sediments, in complement to the studies on I0DP Exp. 307 cores (Challenger Mound, off Ireland). Major outcomes of this research can be summarized as follows. • IODP Exp. 307 on Challenger Mound had revealed a significant prokaryotic community both within and beneath the carbonate mound. MiCROSYSTEMS unveils a remarkable degree of compartmentalization in such community from the seawater, the coral skeleton surface and mucus to the reef sediments. The occurrence of such multiple and distinct microbial compartments associated with cold-water coral ecosystems promotes opportunities for microbial diversity in the deep ocean. • New cases of co-habitation of cold-water corals and giant deep-water oysters were discovered in the Bay of Biscay, which add a new facet of macrofaunal diversity to cold-water coral reef systems. • The discovery of giant, ancient coral graveyards on the Moroccan mounds not only fuels the debate about natural versus anthropogenic mass extinction, but these open frameworks simultaneously invite for the study of bio-erosion and early diagenesis, in particular organo-mineralization, and of the possible role and significance of these thick, solid rubble patches in 3D mound-building and consolidation. • The assessment of the carbonate budget of a modern cold-water coral mound (Challenger Mound) reveals that only 33 to 40 wt % of

  7. Do Mound Disturbance and Bait Placement Affect Bait Removal and Treatment Efficacy in Red Imported Fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Different Seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing P. Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides empirical evidence that disturbing mound immediately before application, as opposed to label recommendation, did not reduce foraging activity of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, except for about 10-min delay in foraging. Despite the delayed foraging, there was no significant difference in the amount of baits foraged between disturbed and undisturbed colonies. Eventually, >96% of the baits were foraged, with the maximum removal occurred by 2 and 3 h, respectively, in summer and spring trial. The fastest and great amount of bait removal 1 h post-treatment occurred to baits placed on mound, followed by 0.18–0.3-m from mound base, and the slowest 1.08–1.2-m from mound base. All treatment gave 100% control 1 mo later, regardless of the season, without colony relocation or new colony invasion in the test plots.

  8. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  9. The relationship between termite mound CH4/CO2 emissions and internal concentration ratios are species specific

    OpenAIRE

    B. Fest; S. K. Arndt; L. B. Hutley; S. J. Livesley; H. Jamali

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of CH4 and CO2 fluxes from soil and termite mounds at four different sites in the tropical savannas of northern Australia near Darwin and assessed different methods to indirectly predict CH4 fluxes based on CO2 fluxes and internal gas concentrations. The annual flux from termite mounds and surrounding soil was dominated by CO2 with large variations among sites. On a carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) basis, annual CH4 flux estimate...

  10. Experimental Study of Wave Field Around the Outer Part of a Rubble Mound Roundhead Solution for the new Port of La Coruña at Punto Langosteira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Pedersen, Thomas Schmidt

    The wave agitation in the port and at the entrance to the port depends on the length of the outer part of the breakwater (west of the spur breakwater) and on the type of structure, e.g. caissons or rubble mound. In the present study is investigated the wave field around a rubble mound head armoured...... port basin and berths. The calibrated numerical model can then be used for the study of the optimum length and type of the outer breakwater structure....

  11. The Influence of Slope and Shelf Contour Currents On The Growth Pattern of A Cold-water Coral Mound Population Along The Margins of The Rockall Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readman, P. W.; O'Reilly, B. M.; Shannon, P. M.; Jacob, A. W. B.

    The importance of bottom currents along the shelf and slope regions of northeast At- lantic basin margins in controlling sediment transport patterns and the development of carbonate mound ecosystems is now well recognised. The detailed structure of one such large carbonate mound population has been resolved along the western margin of the Porupine Bank west of Ireland with deep-tow (TOBI) sidescan. The mounds which comprise the population are circular to elliptical in shape, 50 - 850 m across and up to about 200 m high. Large scale sedimentary bedforms at 800 m water depth are inferred from backscatter zonation produced by strong NE-flowing contour currents. Streamlining effects control the shape of the mounds as they become more elliptical as their size increases. The frequency distribution follows a general power law which is determined by the biological growth rate of the mounds and the rate at which they colonise the substrate. At first bottom currents aid mound growth until they become so large that hydraulic drag forces retard their growth. In the recent past (late Pleistocene to present) if the number of mounds colonising the slope has increased exponentially with time while their growth rate slowed in response to fluid form drag forces, the observed population curve can be recovered. A model for evolution of the population predicts that these increased forces slow biological growth and cause a sharp fall-off in the number of mounds, also in agreement with observation. Correlation with late Pleistocene and Holocene climatic change suggests that the population is either very robust and relatively insensitive to major environmental change along the continental slope such as a change in current regime, or that the factors controlling its develop- ment were stable over large time intervals. This project was undertaken on behalf of the Irish Petroleum Infrastructure Programme.

  12. Discernibility of Burial Mounds in High-Resolution X-Band SAR Images for Archaeological Prospections in the Altai Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Balz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Altai Mountains are a heritage-rich archaeological landscape with monuments in almost every valley. Modern nation state borders dissect the region and limit archaeological landscape analysis to intra-national areas of interest. Remote sensing can help to overcome these limitations. Due to its high precision, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data can be a very useful tool for supporting archaeological prospections, but compared to optical imagery, the detectability of sites of archaeological interest is limited. We analyzed the limitations of SAR using TerraSAR-X images in different modes. Based on ground truth, the discernibility of burial mounds was analyzed in different SAR acquisition modes. We show that very-high-resolution TerraSAR-X staring spotlight images are very well suited for the task, with >75% of the larger mounds being discernible, while in images with a lower spatial resolution only a few large sites can be detected, at rates below 50%.

  13. Rubble-mound breakwater armour units displacement analysis by means of digital images processing methods in scale models

    OpenAIRE

    Courela, J.M.; Carvalho, R.; Lemos, R.; Fortes, C. J. E. M.; Leandro, J.

    2015-01-01

    Rubble-mound structures are commonly used for coastal and port protection and needs a properly design as well as inspection and maintenance during its lifetime. The design of such breakwaters usually requires a physical scale model to be tested under different irregular incident wave and tide conditions in order to evaluate its hydraulic and structural behaviour, namely the stability of the proposed design. Armour units displacement and fall analysis in physical models are then a ...

  14. A Preliminary Study on Termite Mound Soil as Agricultural Soil for Crop Production in South West, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Omofunmi, O. E.; Kolo, J. G.; Alli, A. A.; Ojo, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    It is a popular belief of the people in the Southern region of Nigeria that a land infested with termite usually brings prosperity to the land owner regardless of the type of its usage.  Therefore, the present study assessed termite mounds soil properties which are important to crop production. Two soil samples were collected and their physical and chemical properties determined in accordance with American Public Health Association (APHA, 2005). Data were analyzed using descriptive stati...

  15. Radiological surveillance of members of the public during earthmoving activities in the area of the Ciemat mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Navarro, N.; Gasco, C.; Ortiz, M. T.; Quinones, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the year 2012 was undertaken excavation and earthwork of the mound. The lands of this area contained remains sterile uranium mining and therefore concentrations of natural radionuclides higher than natural radioactive background activity. In order to assess the radiological impact on the public, was a theoretical evaluation of the dose inhaled that would get a person who remained in the vicinity during the making of the work. (Author)

  16. Wave Overtopping over Crown Walls and Run-up on Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Kolos Armour under Random Waves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Arunjith; S.A. Sannasiraj; V. Sundar

    2013-01-01

    The design of rubble mound structures like breakwaters and seawalls are influenced by the wave run-up and overtopping over them. The above phenomena largely depend on the type of the armour units as they directly interact with the incident waves. The hydrodynamic characteristics of various concrete armour units have been established by several researchers. A new armour block, ‘Kolos’, a modified version of Dolos, is considered in this study for a detailed investigation. An attempt is made to ...

  17. Termite mounds as hot spots of nitrous oxide emissions in South-Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brümmer, Christian; Papen, Hans; Wassmann, Reiner; Brüggemann, Nicolas

    2009-05-01

    Despite a considerable knowledge of the significant role of termites in the global methane budget, very little is known about their contribution to the global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget. Release of N2O from termite (Cubitermes fungifaber) mounds was measured at a natural savanna site in the southwest of Burkina Faso from May to September 2006. Termite N2O emissions were around 20 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the end of the dry season, and up to two orders of magnitude higher than N2O emissions from the surrounding termite-free soil after the onset of the rainy season. The average N2O emission rate from termite mounds during the observation period was 204 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1, and termite mounds contributed 3.0% to total N2O emissions from this savanna ecosystem. However, in other tropical terrestrial ecosystems with other termite species and/or higher termite density this share might be significantly higher.

  18. Origin of mounds in the Pantanal wetlands: An integrated approach between geomorphology, pedogenesis, ecology and soil micromorphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calderari de Oliveira Junior

    Full Text Available Vegetated mounds are an important geomorphological feature of the Pantanal, where the influence of floods dictates not only hydropedological processes, but also the distribution and ecology of the flora and fauna. This work aimed to identify factors and processes that influence the formation and spatial distribution of the mounds, which are commonly associated with termite activity. In order to characterize pedological processes, macro and micro morphological descriptions, satellite image interpretation, dating of the sandy sedimentary material using OSL and carbon dating using 14C AMS were carried out. This dating of the materials indicates that the sediments in which the soils were formed were deposited during the Pleistocene, while the carbonates are from the Holocene. The basin-like format of the laminar structures suggests that part of the more clayey material was deposited in lacustrine environments. The more humid climate in the Holocene intensified argilluviation, which at an advanced stage, led to a more pronounced textural gradient, reducing drainage and leading to ferrolysis and thickening of the E horizon. Besides pedogenic processes, more erosive flooding during the Holocene began reducing and rounding the landscape's more elevated structures (paleolevees. In the final stage, these structures were occupied by termites to shelter from flooding. Thereafter, the bio-cementation action of the termite nests has increased the resistance of the vegetated mounds to processes of erosion.

  19. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Stalder

    Full Text Available Cold-water coral (CWC ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago. However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents.

  20. Origin of mounds in the Pantanal wetlands: An integrated approach between geomorphology, pedogenesis, ecology and soil micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Junior, Jairo Calderari; Beirigo, Raphael Moreira; Chiapini, Mariane; do Nascimento, Alexandre Ferreira; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Vidal-Torrado, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Vegetated mounds are an important geomorphological feature of the Pantanal, where the influence of floods dictates not only hydropedological processes, but also the distribution and ecology of the flora and fauna. This work aimed to identify factors and processes that influence the formation and spatial distribution of the mounds, which are commonly associated with termite activity. In order to characterize pedological processes, macro and micro morphological descriptions, satellite image interpretation, dating of the sandy sedimentary material using OSL and carbon dating using 14C AMS were carried out. This dating of the materials indicates that the sediments in which the soils were formed were deposited during the Pleistocene, while the carbonates are from the Holocene. The basin-like format of the laminar structures suggests that part of the more clayey material was deposited in lacustrine environments. The more humid climate in the Holocene intensified argilluviation, which at an advanced stage, led to a more pronounced textural gradient, reducing drainage and leading to ferrolysis and thickening of the E horizon. Besides pedogenic processes, more erosive flooding during the Holocene began reducing and rounding the landscape's more elevated structures (paleolevees). In the final stage, these structures were occupied by termites to shelter from flooding. Thereafter, the bio-cementation action of the termite nests has increased the resistance of the vegetated mounds to processes of erosion.

  1. Modelling effects of tree population dynamics, tree throw and pit-mound formation/diffusion on microtopography over time in different forest settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Gallaway, J.; Chaikina, O.

    2011-12-01

    Herein we conduct a followup investigation to an earlier research project in which we developed a numerical model of tree population dynamics, tree throw, and sediment transport associated with the formation of pit-mound features for Hawk Creek watershed, Canadian Rockies (Gallaway et al., 2009). We extend this earlier work by exploring the most appropriate transport relations to simulate the diffusion over time of newly-formed pit-pound features due to tree throw. We combine our earlier model with a landscape development model that can incorporate these diffusive transport relations. Using these combined models, changes in hillslope microtopography over time associated with the formation of pit-mound features and their decay will be investigated. The following ideas have motivated this particular study: (i) Rates of pit-mound degradation remain a source of almost complete speculation, as there is almost no long-term information on process rates. Therefore, we will attempt to tackle the issue of pit-mound degradation in a methodical way that can guide future field studies; (ii) The degree of visible pit-mound topography at any point in time on the landscape is a joint function of the rate of formation of new pit-mound features due to tree death/topple and their magnitude vs. the rate of decay of pit-mound features. An example of one interesting observation that arises is the following: it appears that pit-mound topography is often more pronounced in some eastern North American forests vs. field sites along the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rockies. Why is this the case? Our investigation begins by considering whether pit-mound decay might occur by linear or nonlinear diffusion. What differences might arise depending on which diffusive approach is adopted? What is the magnitude of transport rates associated with these possible forms of transport relations? We explore linear and nonlinear diffusion at varying rates and for different sizes of pit-mound pairs using a

  2. Electron spin resonance dating of shells from the sambaqui (shell mound) Capelinha, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, A.; Figuty, L.; Baffa, O.

    2006-01-01

    Capelinha is a fluvial sambaqui (Brazilian Shell Mound) located in the Ribeira Valley in the State of Sao Paulo that is being studied. It is one of the oldest sambaquis located along a river dated so far in this region. The use of ESR to date other shells stimulated our group to apply this method to the Capelinha site. Shells from land snails (Megalobulimus sp.) obtained in two levels of excavations were analyzed; one of them was in contact with a skeleton that was dated by C-14. The archaeological doses obtained were (8.05±0.07) Gy and (9.50±0.03) Gy. Since the last site was previously dated by C-14 (Beta -Analytics, Beta 153988) giving: 8860 +/- 60 years BP (conventional age) and 10180 to 9710 years BP (calibrated age), the archaeological dose found for this shell was used to determine the local rate of (0.93 to 0.98) mGy/year, that aggress with other surveys done in the region. Using this dose rate the age of the second shell was found to be 8.14 to 8.73 ky BP that agrees with the stratigraphy of the site. (author)

  3. PRELIMINARY BIOGEOCHEMICAL DATA ON MICROBIAL CARBONATOGENESIS IN ANCIENT EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS (KESS-KESS MOUNDS, MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO GUIDO

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian Kess-Kess mounds, cropping out in the Hamar Laghdad Ridge (SE Morocco, provide a useful case-study for understanding the relationships between the microbial metabolic activities and micrite precipitation in an extreme environment. Very fine dark and white wrinkled laminae record microbial activity and the geochemistry of the organic matter allows the  characterization of the source organisms. The biogeochemical characterization of extracted organic matter was performed through the functional group analyses by FT-IR Spectroscopy. FT-IR parameters indicate a marine origin and low thermal evolution for the organic material. The organic matter is characterized by the presence of stretching ?C=C vibrations attributable to alkene and/or unsaturated carboxylic acids. Preliminary analysis with GC-MS provides evidence for an autochthonous (

  4. Perturbation of baseline thermal stress in the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansalone, K.H.F.

    1995-01-01

    Full-capacity loading of heat sources into the Mound 9516 Shipping Package primary containment vessel (PCV) results in temperature gradients which are symmetric, due to the axisymmetry of the package design. Concern over the change in thermal gradients (and therefore, stress) in the PCV due to sub-capacity loading led to the analytical examination of this phenomenon. The PCVs are cylindrical in shape and are loaded into the package such that they and all containment components are concentrically arranged along a common longitudinal axis. If the design full-capacity loading of the PCVs in this package assumes the axisymmetric (or more precisely, cyclicly symmetric) arrangement of its heat-producing contents, then sub-capacity loading implies that in many cases, the load arrangement could be asymmetric with respect to the longitudinal axis. It is then feasible that the departure from heat load axisymmetry could perturb the nominal thermal gradients so that thermally-induced stress within the PCV might increase to levels deemed unacceptable. This study applies Finite Element analysis (FEA) to the problem and demonstrates that no such unacceptable thermal stress increase occurs in the PCV material due to the asymmetric arrangement of contents. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program: Restoration Design Challenges for Topographic Mounds, Channel Outlets, and Reed Canarygrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diefenderfer, Heida L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Borde, Amy B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinks, Ian A. [Columbia Land Trust, Vancouver, WA (United States); Cullinan, Valerie I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zimmerman, Shon A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The purpose of this study was to provide science-based information to practitioners and managers of restoration projects in the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) regarding aspects of restoration techniques that currently pose known challenges and uncertainties. The CEERP is a program of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), Portland District, in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service and five estuary sponsors implementing restoration. The estuary sponsors are Columbia Land Trust, Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce, Cowlitz Tribe, Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. The scope of the research conducted during federal fiscal year 2015 included three aspects of hydrologic reconnection that were selected based on available scientific information and feedback from restoration practitioners during project reviews: the design of mounds (also called hummocks, peninsulas, or berms); the control of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinaceae); and aspects of channel network design related to habitat connectivity for juvenile salmonids.

  6. Beaufort Sea deep-water gas hydrate recovery from a seafloor mound in a region of widespread BSR occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Patrick E.; Pohlman, John W.; Lorenson, T.D.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate was recovered from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea slope north of Camden Bay in August 2010 during a U.S. Coast Guard Cutter Healy expedition (USCG cruise ID HLY1002) under the direction of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Interpretation of multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected in 1977 by the USGS across the Beaufort Sea continental margin identified a regional bottom simulating reflection (BSR), indicating that a large segment of the Beaufort Sea slope is underlain by gas hydrate. During HLY1002, gas hydrate was sampled by serendipity with a piston core targeting a steep-sided bathymetric high originally thought to be an outcrop of older, exposed strata. The feature cored is an approximately 1100m diameter, 130 m high conical mound, referred to here as the Canning Seafloor Mound (CSM), which overlies the crest of a buried anticline in a region of sub-parallel compressional folds beneath the eastern Beaufort outer slope. An MCS profile shows a prominent BSR upslope and downslope from the mound. The absence of a BSR beneath the CSM and occurrence of gas hydrate near the summit indicates that free gas has migrated via deep-rooted thrust faults or by structural focusing up the flanks of the anticline to the seafloor. Gas hydrate recovered from near the CSM summit at a subbottom depth of about 5.7 meters in a water depth of 2538 m was of nodular and vein-filling morphology. Although the hydrate was not preserved, residual gas from the core liner contained >95% methane by volume when corrected for atmospheric contamination. The presence of trace C4+hydrocarbons (extrusion contributing to the development of the mound. Blister-like inflation of the seafloor caused by formation and accumulation of shallow hydrate lenses is also a likely factor in CSM growth. Pore water analysis shows the sulfate-methane transition to be very shallow (0-1 mbsf), also supporting an active high-flux interpretation. Pore water with chloride concentrations as low as 160 m

  7. Rainfall induced groundwater mound in wedge-shaped promontories: The Strack-Chernyshov model revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacimov, A. R.; Kayumov, I. R.; Al-Maktoumi, A.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical solution to the Poisson equation governing Strack's discharge potential (squared thickness of a saturated zone in an unconfined aquifer) is obtained in a wedge-shaped domain with given head boundary conditions on the wedge sides (specified water level in an open water body around a porous promontory). The discharge vector components, maximum elevation of the water table in promontory vertical cross-sections, quantity of groundwater seeping through segments of the wedge sides, the volume of fresh groundwater in the mound are found. For acute angles, the solution to the problem is non-unique and specification of the behaviour at infinity is needed. A ;basic; solution is distinguished, which minimizes the water table height above a horizontal bedrock. MODFLOW simulations are carried out in a finite triangular island and compare solutions with a constant-head, no-flow and ;basic; boundary condition on one side of the triangle. Far from the tip of an infinite-size promontory one has to be cautious with truncation of the simulated flow domains and imposing corresponding boundary conditions. For a right and obtuse wedge angles, there are no positive solutions for the case of constant accretion on the water table. In a particular case of a confined rigid wedge-shaped aquifer and incompressible fluid, from an explicit solution to the Laplace equation for the hydraulic head with arbitrary time-space varying boundary conditions along the promontory rays, essentially 2-D transient Darcian flows within the wedge are computed. They illustrate that surface water waves on the promontory boundaries can generate strong Darcian waves inside the porous wedge. Evaporation from the water table and sea-water intruded interface (rather than a horizontal bed) are straightforward generalizations for the Poissonian Strack potential.

  8. Volume reduction of low-level, combustible, transuranic waste at Mound Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.H.; Doty, J.W.; Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Luthy, D.F.

    Low-level combustible waste (<100 nCi per g of waste) generated during plutonium-238 processing is collected and stored in 55-gallon (200-liter) drums. The composition of this waste is approximately 32 wt % paper, 46% plastic, 16% rubber and cloth, and 6% metal. Treatment of this waste is initiated by burning in the Mound Cyclone Incinerator, which consists of a burning chamber, deluge tank, venturi scrubber and blower. During the two years of operating the Cyclone Incinerator, experiments have been performed on particle distribution throughout the system using various mixtures of feed material. Measurements were taken at the incinerator outlet, after the spray tank, and after the venturi scrubber. An average emission of 0.23 g of particles per kg of feed at the venturi outlet was determined. The distribution of chlorine from the combustion of polyvinyl chloride was studied. Analyses of the off-gas and scrubber solution show that approximately 75 wt % of the chlorine was captured by the scrubber solution and approximately 17 wt % remained in the off-gas after the venturi scrubber. Measurements of the amount of NO/sub chi/ present in the off-gas were also made during the chloride studies. An average of approximately 200 ppM NO/sub chi/ was produced during each incineration run. Immobilization of the incinerator ash is being studied with regard to long-term behavior of the product. The immobilization matrix which looks most promising is ash mixed with Portland 1A cement in a 65/35 wt % ash-to-cement ratio. This matrix exhibits good mechanical properties while maintaining a maximum volume reduction

  9. Litter-forager termite mounds enhance the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Acacia holosericea A. Cunn. Ex G. Don and Scleroderma dictyosporum isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Assikbetse, Komi; Ramanankierana, Heriniaina; Kisa, Marija; Thioulouse, Jean; Lepage, Michel

    2006-05-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that the termite mounds of Macrotermes subhyalinus (MS) (a litter-forager termite) were inhabited by a specific microflora that could enhance with the ectomycorrhizal fungal development. We tested the effect of this feeding group mound material on (i) the ectomycorrhization symbiosis between Acacia holosericea (an Australian Acacia introduced in the sahelian areas) and two ectomycorrhizal fungal isolates of Scleroderma dictyosporum (IR408 and IR412) in greenhouse conditions, (ii) the functional diversity of soil microflora and (iii) the diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads. The results showed that the termite mound amendment significantly increased the ectomycorrhizal expansion. MS mound amendment and ectomycorrhizal inoculation induced strong modifications of the soil functional microbial diversity by promoting the multiplication of carboxylic acid catabolizing microorganisms. The phylogenetic analysis showed that fluorescent pseudomonads mostly belong to the Pseudomonads monteillii species. One of these, P. monteillii isolate KR9, increased the ectomycorrhizal development between S. dictyosporum IR412 and A. holosericea. The occurrence of MS termite mounds could be involved in the expansion of ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and could be implicated in nutrient flow and local diversity.

  10. Classification of burial rituals of the cemeteries without burial mounds in regions of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedashkovsky Leonard F.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to analysis of burial rituals of the Golden Horde cemeteries without burial mounds in surroundings of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement. 51 burials (19.9% of total number in mausoleums or in crypts can be attributed as burials of the Golden Horde aristocracy. In the graves found without burial mounds the most wide-spread were of western, south-western and north-western (which could be considered as azimuth deviation from western orientations (they comprise 94.9% of all burials, which are peculiar to the majority of the urban Muslim population of the Golden Horde. However it must be considered that 56 from these burials (21.9% of total number are burials of necropolis of the population of Old Russian settlement of the Vodyanskoe site. Comparing the aristocratic (in mausoleums and crypts burials without burial mounds in the Lower Volga, it is possible conclude that their percentage was significantly higher in the region of the Tsarevskoe settlement, than in other regions; these data allow to assume here the greatest density of residence of settled elite of the Golden Horde. The smallest share of Muslim burials in coffins in the Lower Volga (44.9% and the maximal one of burials with grave goods (13.6% recorded in the region of the Tsarevskoe site. Burial grounds in the region of the Tsarevskoe ancient settlement were in vicinity of the settlements, that is clearly testified about the degree of territorial closeness of cemeteries of settled population of the Golden Horde with urban and rural settlements of the considered period.

  11. Technical note: Rapid image-based field methods improve the quantification of termite mound structures and greenhouse-gas fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Nauer

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Termite mounds (TMs mediate biogeochemical processes with global relevance, such as turnover of the important greenhouse gas methane (CH4. However, the complex internal and external morphology of TMs impede an accurate quantitative description. Here we present two novel field methods, photogrammetry (PG and cross-sectional image analysis, to quantify TM external and internal mound structure of 29 TMs of three termite species. Photogrammetry was used to measure epigeal volume (VE, surface area (AE and mound basal area (AB by reconstructing 3-D models from digital photographs, and compared against a water-displacement method and the conventional approach of approximating TMs by simple geometric shapes. To describe TM internal structure, we introduce TM macro- and micro-porosity (θM and θμ, the volume fractions of macroscopic chambers, and microscopic pores in the wall material, respectively. Macro-porosity was estimated using image analysis of single TM cross sections, and compared against full X-ray computer tomography (CT scans of 17 TMs. For these TMs we present complete pore fractions to assess species-specific differences in internal structure. The PG method yielded VE nearly identical to a water-displacement method, while approximation of TMs by simple geometric shapes led to errors of 4–200 %. Likewise, using PG substantially improved the accuracy of CH4 emission estimates by 10–50 %. Comprehensive CT scanning revealed that investigated TMs have species-specific ranges of θM and θμ, but similar total porosity. Image analysis of single TM cross sections produced good estimates of θM for species with thick walls and evenly distributed chambers. The new image-based methods allow rapid and accurate quantitative characterisation of TMs to answer ecological, physiological and biogeochemical questions. The PG method should be applied when measuring greenhouse-gas emissions from TMs to avoid large errors from inadequate shape

  12. Cold-seep-driven carbonate deposits at the Central American forearc: contrasting evolution and timing in escarpment and mound settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, V.; Augustin, N.; Kutterolf, S.; Schmidt, M.; Eisenhauer, A.; Garbe-Schönberg, D.; Weinrebe, W.

    2014-10-01

    Continuous surface cores of cold-seep carbonates were recovered offshore Pacific Nicaragua and Costa Rica from 800 to 1,500-m water depths (Meteor 66/3) in order to decipher their evolution and methane enriched fluid emanation in contrasting geological settings. Cores from the mounds Iguana, Perezoso, Baula V and from the Jaco Scarp escarpment were used for a multi-method approach. For both settings aragonite was revealed as dominant authigenic carbonate phase in vein fillings and matrix cementation, followed by Mg-calcite as second most abundant. This common precipitation process of CaCO3 polymorphs could be ascribed as indirectly driven by chemical changes of the advecting pore water due to anaerobic oxidation of methane. A more direct influence of seep-related microbial activity on the authigenic mineral assemblage in both settings is probably reflected by the observed minor amounts of dolomite and a dolomite-like CaMg carbonate (MgCO3 ~ 42 %). δ13C data of Jaco Scarp samples are significantly lower (-43 to -56 ‰ PDB) than for mound samples (-22 to -36 ‰ PDB), indicating differences in fluid composition and origin. Noteworthy, δ18O values of Scarp samples correlate most closely with the ocean signature at their time of formation. Documenting the archive potential, a high resolution case study of a mound core implies at least 40 changes in fluid supply within a time interval of approximately 14 ky. As most striking difference, the age data indicate a late-stage downward-progressing cementation front for all three mound cap structures (approx. 2-5 cm/ky), but a significantly faster upward carbonate buildup in the bulging sediments on top of the scarp environment (approx. 120 cm/ky). The latter data set leads to the hypothesis of chemoherm carbonate emplacement in accord with reported sedimentation rates until decompression of the advective fluid system, probably caused by the Jaco Scarp landslide and dating this to approximately 13,000 years ago.

  13. On the anomalous concentrations of uranium in sediments from hydrothermal mounds. A geochemical roll-type mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernat, M.; Benhassaine, A.

    1987-01-01

    Sediments close to the nontronite formations of hydrothermal mounds often show anomalously high concentrations of uranium. This is frequently interpreted as being due to seeping of low temperature U bearing hydrothermal water through the basal basalt and into the overlying sediments. But we think that this phenomenon is the consequence of leaching of the sediment by hydrothermal water initially depleted in uranium. The migration of U is favoured by the pH of these water which dissolve the iron oxides and hydroxides giving Fe +++ ions in solution. The location and strength of the formed U anomalies are controlled by geochemical and hydrodynamicals factors. 22 refs [fr

  14. Two Catacombs of Late Sarmatian Time From Pashkovsky Burial Mound no. 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limberis Natalya Yuryevna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with two burials from the Kuban basin region excavated in Pashkovsky burial mound no. 2 belonging to Maeotian Pashkovskoe ancient settlement. The burials were made in catacombs of similar construction and orientation. The narrow grave entrances and grave chambers are situated in-line. The grave chambers of the catacombs adjoin one other that probably was the reason for plunder of a little earlier burial no. 2. There were the complete horse skeleton, the cow skull and the sheep chap in the grave entrance ofthe catacomb no. 2. A skeleton of a man (about 50 years old was in extended supine position diagonally across the grave chamber, his scull had SSW orientation. Grave goods found near the buried man include the gray-clay bowl and the mug-jar, the iron spearhead, the long sword and the dagger, the bit with wheel-shaped cheek-pieces, the sickle, the knives and the shoe buckles, the glass bead, the chalk rock bead, the bronze buckle and fibula. The catacomb no. 2 plundered in ancient times situated north-ward of the first one, the southern border of the grave chamber is partially cutted by catacomb no. 1. In the grave entrance of the catacomb no. 1 there were the remains of the horse skeleton and the sheep skull. Grave goods scattered in grave chamber included the gray-clay bowl, pieces of chalk, the bronze ring, fragments of the iron buckle, rod, hasp, silver temple ring, bronze escutcheon for the box lock, the iron snap-up loop and fragments of silver flacon with a cover. Late Sarmatian burial rites and grave goods give evidence of the belonging these burials to spokesmen of the equestrian order. The chronological range of the burials stays within terms from the second half of 2nd to the middle of 3rd century A.D. The lower date of the catacomb no. 1 turns toward the end of the 2nd century A.D., the upper date is limited by the first half of the 3rd century A.D. The catacomb no. 2 is stratigraphically older. The eques status of

  15. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the Department's plutonium storage. Volume II, part 7: Mound working group assessment team report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This is the report of a visit to the Mound site by the Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) to assess plutonium vulnerabilities. Purposes of the visit were: to review results of the site's self assessment of current practices for handling and storing plutonium; to conduct an independent assessment of these practices; to reconcile differences and assemble a final list of vulnerabilities; to calculate consequences and probability for each vulnerability; and to issue a report to the Working Group. This report, representing completion of the Mound visit, will be compiled along with those from all other sites with plutonium inventories as part of a final report to the Secretary of Energy

  16. Evaluation of brine disposal from the Bryan Mound site of the strategic petroleum reserve program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Robert J.; Chittenden, Jr, Mark E.; Harper, Jr, Donald E.; Kelly, Jr, Francis J.; Loeblich, Laurel A.; McKinney, Larry D.; Minello, Thomas J.; Park, E. Taisoo; Randall, Robert E.; Slowey, J. Frank

    1981-01-01

    On March 10, 1980, the Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began leaching the Bryan Mound salt dome and discharging the resulting brine into the coastal waters off Freeport, Texas. During the months of March and April, a team of scientists and engineers from Texas A and M University conducted an intensive environmental study of the area surrounding the diffuser site. A pipeline has been laid from the Bryan Mound site to a location 12.5 statute miles (20 km) offshore. The last 3060 ft (933 m) of this pipeline is a 52-port diffuser through which brine can be discharged at a maximum rate of 680,000 barrels per day. Initially, 16 ports were open which permitted a maximum discharge rate of 350,000 barrels per day and a continuous brine discharge was achieved on March 13, 1980. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of the project team during the intensive postdisposal study period of March and April, 1980. The major areas of investigation are physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and data management.

  17. Reliability Evaluation of a Concrete Crown Wall on a Rubble Mound Breakwater considering Sliding Failure, Overturning and Rupture Failure of the Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Sørensen, Jørgen S.; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1994-01-01

    and rupture failure in the rubble mound are taken into account. The method of probabilistic foundation stability analysis is presented by the example of a translation slip failure involving kinematically correct slip surfaces and failure zones in friction based soil. A conventional static quasi-static...

  18. Maize Storage in Termite Mound Clay, Concrete, and Steel Silos in the Humid Tropics: Comparison and Effect on Bacterial and Fungal Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the functional suitability of using the readily-available termite mound clay (TMC) for grain silo construction in comparison to conventional reinforced concrete (RC) and galvanized steel (GS) silos for maize storage in the humid tropics. The extent to which temperature and r...

  19. Performance evaluation of termite-mound clay, concrete and steel silos for the storage of maize grains in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadequate storage facilities have contributed to severe maize postharvest losses in many developing countries. This study determined the potential of termite mound clay (TMC), a readily-available material in Nigeria, as a construction material for storage silos. The performance of the TMC silo was ...

  20. High-Resolution Topographic Analyses of Mounds in Southern Acidalia Planitia, Mars: Implications for Possible Mud Volcanism in Submarine and Subaerial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryodo Hemmi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A northern ocean of Mars is still debated and, if it existed, it may have accompanied valley networks and/or outflow channels, which may have led to the emplacement of a large amount of water to the northern lowlands during the Noachian and/or Hesperian times. However, it is unclear how and under what conditions (submarine or subaerial geologic features such as mounds and giant polygons formed in the northern lowlands. The densely-distributed mounds in Chryse and Acidalia Planitia, >1000 km-wide basins of the northern plains, were suggested to be ancient mud volcanoes formed in an aqueous setting, which is controversial (i.e., mud vs. igneous and submarine vs. subaerial. However, these mounds have not been quantitatively well characterized, particularly with respect to their detailed topography. Here we generated forty digital elevation models (DEMs with resolution of up to 1 m/pixel from High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE stereo image pairs, and we accurately measured the morphometric parameters of ~1300 mounds within the southern part of the Acidalia basin. Their heights and diameters resulted in good accordance with those of mud and igneous volcanoes in submarine/subaerial settings on Earth. Maximum depths of their source reservoirs vary from ~30 to ~450 m for a subaqueous setting and from ~110 to ~860 m for a subaerial setting, both of which are consistent with fluid expulsion from the ~100–4500 m-thick flood deposits (Vastitas Borealis Formation, VBF. On the basis of the morphometric values, we estimated rheological properties of materials forming the mounds and found them consistent with a mud flow origin, which does not rule out an igneous origin. The conditions of possible submarine mud or igneous volcanoes may have harbored less hazardous environments for past life on Mars than those on an ocean-free surface.

  1. Geotechnical Failure of a Concrete Crown Wall on a Rubble Mound Breakwater Considering Sliding Failure and Rupture Failure of Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1995-01-01

    Sliding and rupture failure in the rubble mound are considered in this paper. In order to describe these failure modes the wave breaking forces have to be accounted for. Wave breaking forces on a crown wall are determined from Burcharth's wave force formula Burcharth (1992). Overtopping rates...... are calculated for a given design by Bradbury et al. (1988a,b) and compared to acceptable overtopping rates, prior to a determininstic design. The method of foundation stability analysis is presented by the example of a translation slip failure involving kinematically correct slip surfaces and failure zones...... in friction based soil. Rupture failure modes for a crown wall with a plane base and a crown wall with an extended leg on the seaward side will be formulated. The failure modes are described by limit state functions. This allows a deterministic analysis to be performed....

  2. The Guaymas Basin hiking guide to hydrothermal mounds, chimneys and microbial mats: complex seafloor expressions of subsurface hydrothermal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eTeske

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal mats, mounds and chimneys of the southern Guaymas Basin are the surface expression of complex subsurface hydrothermal circulation patterns. In this overview we document the most frequently visited features of this hydrothermal area with photographs, temperature measurements, and selected geochemical data; many of these distinct habitats await characterization of their microbial communities and activities. Microprofiler deployments on microbial mats and hydrothermal sediments show their steep geochemical and thermal gradients at millimeter-scale vertical resolution. Mapping these hydrothermal features and sampling locations within the southern Guaymas Basin suggest linkages to underlying shallow sills and heatflow gradients. Recognizing the inherent spatial limitations of much current Guaymas Basin sampling calls for a wider survey of the entire spreading region.

  3. Wave Overtopping over Crown Walls and Run-up on Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Kolos Armour under Random Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arunjith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of rubble mound structures like breakwaters and seawalls are influenced by the wave run-up and overtopping over them. The above phenomena largely depend on the type of the armour units as they directly interact with the incident waves. The hydrodynamic characteristics of various concrete armour units have been established by several researchers. A new armour block, ‘Kolos’, a modified version of Dolos, is considered in this study for a detailed investigation. An attempt is made to establish empirical relationships for the estimation of wave overtopping discharges over crown wall and run-up on Kolosarmoured slope exposed to random wave from the results of a comprehensive experimental program. Further, the results are compared with that of a tested section with natural rocks as armour layer and with that of other investigators.

  4. Field test of plutonium and thorium contaminated clay soils from the Mound Site using the ACT*DE*CON Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.O.; Swift, N.A.; Church, R.H.; Neff, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    A treatability test was run during the summer and fall of 1997 to demonstrate the effectiveness of ACT*DE*CON for removing plutonium and thorium from the clay soils around Mound. ACT*DE*CON is a proprietary solution patented by Selentec. The process utilized a highly selective dissolution of the contaminants by the use of a chemical wash. The pilot scale process involved pretreatment of the soil in an attrition scrubber with ACT*DE*CON solution. This blended solution was then passed through a counter-current extraction chamber where additional contact with ACT*DE*CON solution occurred, followed by a rinse cycle. During this process sand was added to aid contact of the solution with the soil particles. The sand is removed during the rinse step and reused. The chelating agent is separated from the contaminant and recycled back into the process, along with the reverse osmosis permeate. The resulting solution can be further treated to concentrate the contaminant. Three different types of environmental soils were tested -- plutonium and thorium contaminated soils with the natural clay content, and plutonium contaminated soils with a high percentage of fine clay particles. The goal of these tests was to reduce the plutonium levels from several hundreds of pCi/g to between 25 and 75 pCi/g and the thorium from a couple hundred pCi/g to less than 5 pCi/g. The results of these four tests are presented along with a discussion of the operating parameters and the lessons learned relating to full scale implementation at Mound as well as other potential applications of this process

  5. Conservation and restoration of archaeological textiles from the disturbed Altai burial mounds of the early Iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbekova Dana Kyrymovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the experience of scientific-restoration laboratory “Ostrov Krym” of the conservation and restoration of archaeological textiles from disturbed mounds of the IV–III centuries BC, located in the Kazakh Altai. The specialists of the laboratory participate in field works, carrying out the extraction of large blocks/monoliths with findings, using methods of forming blocks developed in practice. Two methods are considered aimed on conservation of textiles recovered from excavation blocks, depending on their content. The first method is a sequential splitting of the block into its components with random set of fragments of organic material. The process of stratification of the conglomerate as well as the stabilization of the separated fragments and their identification is described. During the reconstruction of the textiles the well-preserved analogs of synchronous Altai burial mounds located on the territory of Russia and Mongolia have been used. Examples of reconstruction the pieces of felt are represented. The second method consists in preservation of the blocks without dissection. It is applied in case of their content has been considered as specific independent complex. The process of conservation is shown by the case-study of the fifth set, extracted from the excavation with the remains of the horse in the wet state. Conservation of dissimilar materials (fabric, felt, vegetable stuffing pillows, a tree with the metallic remains in the form of conglomerate has been carried out similarly to the conservation of wet archaeological wood. The block stabilization has been made in the wet state with a gradual replacement of the soil solution by consolidator.

  6. Interdisciplinary landscape research in a medieval mound in one of the oldest Dutch towns, Vlaardingen, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Tim; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van Dasselaar, Marcel

    2013-04-01

    In Medieval times the city of Vlaardingen (the Netherlands) was strategically located on the confluence of three rivers, the Meuse, the Merwede and the Vlaarding. A church of early 8th century was already located here. In a short period of time Vlaardingen developed into an international trading place, the most important place in the former county of Holland. Starting from the 11th century the river Meuse threatened to flood the settlement, and as a reaction to it inhabitants started to raise the surface. This resulted eventually in an enormous mound, surface: 200 by 250 meter, built up in a four to five meter thick sequence of clay and manure in which organic rests of former occupation are extremely well preserved, e.g. wooden posts, mesh walls, but also leather objects. Early 2002 graves were found in the city centre, dating 1000-1050, in which not only the wooden coffins, but also the straw that covered the deceased. In human teeth DNA appeared to be well preserved, classified as the oldest in the nation, turning the church hill into a large database of human DNA. To secure the future of this vulnerable soil archive currently an extensive interdisciplinary research (mechanical drilling, grain size, TGA, archeological remains, osteology, hydrology, dating methods, micromorphology, microfauna, molluscs, diatoms) has started in 2011 to gain knowledge on the internal structure of the mound as well as on the well-preserved nature of the archaeological evidence. In this presentation the results of this large-scale project are demonstrated in a number of cross-sections with interrelated geological and archaeological stratification. Results of GSA (including end-member analysis EMMA), TGA, XRF and micromorphology analyses are presented. Distinction between natural and anthropogenic layering is made on the occurrence of chemical elements phosphor and potassium. Results of this research are also applied in the construction of the 3D model of the subsurface (this session

  7. Implementation of Enhanced Attenuation at the DOE Mound Site OU-1 Landfill: Accelerating Progress and Reducing Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooten, Gwendolyn [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Cato, Rebecca [Navarro Research and Engineering; Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC

    2016-03-06

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Legacy Management, Mound, Ohio, Site, chlorinated organic contaminants (cVOCs) originating from the former solid-waste landfill have impacted groundwater in Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The baseline groundwater remedy was groundwater pump and treat (P&T). Since the source materials have been removed from the landfill, the Mound core team, which consists of DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio EPA, and other stakeholders, is assessing the feasibility of switching from the active P&T remedy to a passive attenuation-based remedy. Toward this end, an enhanced attenuation (EA) strategy based on the creation of structured geochemical zones was developed. This EA strategy addresses the residual areas of elevated cVOCs in soil and groundwater while minimizing the rebound of groundwater concentrations above regulatory targets (e.g., maximum contaminant levels [MCLs]) and avoiding plume expansion while the P&T system is turned off. The EA strategy has improved confidence and reduced risk on the OU-1 groundwater transition path to monitored natural attenuation (MNA). To better evaluate the EA strategy, DOE is conducting a field demonstration to evaluate the use of edible oils to enhance the natural attenuation processes. The field demonstration is designed to determine whether structured geochemical zones can be established that expedite the attenuation of cVOCs in the OU-1 groundwater. The EA approach at OU-1 was designed based on “structured geochemical zones” and relies on groundwater flow through a succession of anaerobic and aerobic zones. The anaerobic zones stimulate relatively rapid degradation of the original solvent source compounds (e.g., cVOCs such as tetrachloroethene [PCE] and trichloroethene [TCE]). The surrounding aerobic areas encourage relatively rapid degradation of daughter products (such as dichloroethene [DCE] and vinyl chloride [VC]) as well as enhanced cometabolism of TCE resulting from

  8. GROWTH OF PASSION FRUIT SEEDLINGS ACCORDING TO BORON AND TERMITES MOUND NEST MATERIAL FERTILIZING CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE MARACUJAZEIRO EM FUNÇÃO DE ADUBAÇÃO À BASE DE BORO E MATERIAL DE CUPINZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Estevão Marchetti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available For producing passion fruit seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to the plant nutritional status, whose information about fertilizing with micronutrients such as boron are still scarce for tropical regions where fruit growing is increasing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of boron (B rates and termites mound nest material on growth components and concentration of B on yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. shoots, in a Red Distrophic Latosol. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x4 factorial scheme, with five B doses (0 mg dm-3, 0.25 mg dm-3, 0.50 mg dm-3, 0.75 mg dm-3, and 1.00 mg dm-3 and four termites mound nest material rates (0 g dm-3, 25 g dm-3, 50 g dm-3, and 75 g dm-3, with four replications, totaling 80 experimental units. The experimental unit was composed of pots with up to 700 cm3 samples. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The highest values for shoot dry matter yield, plant height, leaf area, stem diameter, and SPAD reading are obtained by a joint application of the maximum termites mound nest material dose and between the two highest B rates. The termites mound nest material was little effective as a B source to influence upon the growth components of passion fruit plants. The B concentrations on the yellow passion fruit shoots, for all termites mound nest material rates, decreased with the increases in the B rates applied.

    KEY-WORDS: Passiflora edulis; borate fertilizing; organic fertilizing.

    Na produção de mudas de maracujazeiro, deve-se atentar para o estado nutricional das plantas, cujas informações, quanto à adubação com micronutrientes como o boro, ainda são escassas para as regiões tropicais onde a fruticultura está se expandindo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de boro (B e de material do cartão de cupinzeiro

  9. Discovery of Widespread Biogenic Methane Emissions and Authigenic Carbonate Mound-like Structures at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, S.; Loubrieu, B.; Scalabrin, C.; Ehrhold, A.; Gautier, E.; Ruffine, L.; Pierre, C.; Battani, A.; Le Bouffant, N.; Berger, L.

    2014-12-01

    Fishery acoustic surveys conducted in the Bay of Biscay (1998-2012) and dedicated to monitoring and predicting pelagic ecosystem evolution reveal numerous active seeps on the Aquitaine Shelf, east of the shelf break (Dupré et al. 2014). Seafloor and water column acoustic investigation with the use of ship-borne multibeam echosounder in 2013 (Gazcogne1 marine expedition) confirmed the presence of numerous (> 3000) persistent and widespread gas emission sites at water depths ranging from ~140 to 180 m. These fluid emissions are associated at the seafloor with high backscatter subcircular small-scale mounds, on average less than 2 m high and a few meters in diameter. Near-bottom visual observations and samplings were conducted with the ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) Victor (Gazcogne2 expedition). The whole mounds cover an area of ~200 km2 of the seabed, and are by-products of gas seepage, i.e. methane-derived authigenic carbonates. The spatial distribution of the seeps and related structures, based on water column acoustic gas flares and high backscatter seabed patches, appears to be relatively broad, with a North-South extension of ~80 km across the Parentis Basin and the Landes High, and a West-East extension along a few kilometers wide on the shelf, up to 8 km. Gas bubbles sampled at in situ conditions are principally composed of biogenic methane, possibly originated from Late Pleistocene deposits. The volume of methane emitted into the water column is abundant i) with an average gas flux varying locally from 0.035 to 0.37 Ln/min and ii) with regard to the time needed for the precipitation of the authigenic carbonates identified both at the seabed and in the upper most sedimentary column. The GAZCOGNE study is co-funded by TOTAL and IFREMER as part of the PAMELA (Passive Margin Exploration Laboratories) scientific project. ReferenceDupré, S., Berger, L., Le Bouffant, N., Scalabrin, C., and Bourillet, J.-F., 2014. Fluid emissions at the Aquitaine Shelf (Bay of

  10. HYFLUX: Satellite Exploration of Natural Hydrocarbon Seeps and Discovery of a Methane Hydrate Mound at GC600

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Pineda, O. G.; MacDonald, I. R.; Shedd, W.; Zimmer, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of natural hydrocarbon seeps is important to improve our understanding of methane flux from deeper sediments to the water column. In order to quantify natural hydrocarbon seep formations in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, a set of 686 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images was analyzed using the Texture Classifying Neural Network Algorithm (TCNNA), which processes SAR data to delineate oil slicks. This analysis resulted in a characterization of 396 natural seep sites distributed in the northern GOM. Within these sites, a maximum of 1248 individual vents where identified. Oil reaching the sea-surface is deflected from its source during transit through the water column. This presentation describes a method for estimating locations of active oil vents based on repeated slick detection in SAR. One of the most active seep formations was detected in MMS lease block GC600. A total of 82 SAR scenes (collected by RADARSAT-1 from 1995 to 2007) was processed covering this region. Using TCNNA the area covered by each slick was computed and Oil Slicks Origins (OSO) were selected as single points within detected oil slicks. At this site, oil slick signatures had lengths up to 74 km and up to 27 km^2 of area. Using SAR and TCNNA, four active vents were identified in this seep formation. The geostatistical mean centroid among all detections indicated a location along a ridge-line at ~1200m. Sea truth observations with an ROV, confirmed that the estimated location of vents had a maximum offset of ~30 m from their actual locations on the seafloor. At the largest vent, a 3-m high, 12-m long mound of oil-saturated gas hydrate was observed. The outcrop contained thousands of ice worms and numerous semi-rigid chimneys from where oily bubbles were escaping in a continuous stream. Three additional vents were found along the ridge; these had lower apparent flow, but were also plugged with gas hydrate mounds. These results support use of SAR data for precise delineation of active seep

  11. Towards a Social History of Archaeology: The Case of the Excavators of Early Iron Age Burial Mounds in Southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Müller-Scheessel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available While the general history of archaeology has received a growing interest lately1, these efforts still lack a common research-guiding agenda. Furthermore, most of the studies still concentrate on biographies and event history. The embedding of archaeology in the structures and conditions of its time is still a kind of terra incognita. The few well known publications (e. g. Hudson 1981; Kristiansen 1981; Patterson 1986; 1995 emphasize the gap only more. The lack of a significant amount of literature especially on the social history of archaeology is all the more surprising as the early interest in archaeology shows a clear social bias: archaeology was (and still is? a recreational activity for the educated and the well-off. While Hudson’s book in particular is very readable, it is clearly meant to provide only a very broad picture. Along with the other publications mentioned above it is now somewhat dated; the lack of recent works on this topic thus highlight the lack of interest in the social history of archaeology even more.2 However, this essay does not deal with this deplorable fact, but seeks to present some ‘hard’ data on only one, albeit important activity of early archaeological excavations, particularly those of burial mounds. Its focus is on Southern Germany and on graves from the early Iron Age.3

  12. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022.

  13. Environmental assessment of the brine pipeline replacement for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Bryan Mound Facility in Brazoria County, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0804, for the proposed replacement of a deteriorated brine disposal pipeline from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Bryan Mound storage facility in Brazoria County, Texas, into the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, the ocean discharge outfall would be moved shoreward by locating the brine diffuser at the end of the pipeline 3.5 miles offshore at a minimum depth of 30 feet. The action would occur in a floodplain and wetlands; therefore, a floodplain/wetlands assessment has been prepared in conjunction with this EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 USC. 4321, et seg.). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). This FONSI also includes a Floodplain Statement of Findings in accordance with 10 CFR Part 1022

  14. Actinobacteria from Termite Mounds Show Antiviral Activity against Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus, a Surrogate Model for Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Aiello Padilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from termite-associated bacteria were evaluated for in vitro antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV. Two bacterial strains were identified as active, with percentages of inhibition (IP equal to 98%. Both strains were subjected to functional analysis via the addition of virus and extract at different time points in cell culture; the results showed that they were effective as posttreatments. Moreover, we performed MTT colorimetric assays to identify the CC50, IC50, and SI values of these strains, and strain CDPA27 was considered the most promising. In parallel, the isolates were identified as Streptomyces through 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Specifically, CDPA27 was identified as S. chartreusis. The CDPA27 extract was fractionated on a C18-E SPE cartridge, and the fractions were reevaluated. A 100% methanol fraction was identified to contain the compound(s responsible for antiviral activity, which had an SI of 262.41. GC-MS analysis showed that this activity was likely associated with the compound(s that had a peak retention time of 5 min. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new information for antiviral research using natural sources, demonstrate the antiviral potential of Streptomyces chartreusis compounds isolated from termite mounds against BVDV, and lay the foundation for further studies on the treatment of HCV infection.

  15. Sonar atlas of caverns comprising the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume 3, Bryan Mound Site, Texas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Lord, Anna Snider

    2007-09-01

    Downhole sonar surveys from the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been modeled and used to generate a four-volume sonar atlas, showing the three-dimensional geometry of each cavern. This volume 3 focuses on the Bryan Mound SPR site, located in southeastern Texas. Volumes 1, 2, and 4, respectively, present images for the Bayou Choctaw SPR site, Louisiana, the Big Hill SPR site, Texas, and the West Hackberry SPR site, Louisiana. The atlas uses a consistent presentation format throughout. The basic geometric measurements provided by the down-cavern surveys have also been used to generate a number of geometric attributes, the values of which have been mapped onto the geometric form of each cavern using a color-shading scheme. The intent of the various geometrical attributes is to highlight deviations of the cavern shape from the idealized cylindrical form of a carefully leached underground storage cavern in salt. The atlas format does not allow interpretation of such geometric deviations and anomalies. However, significant geometric anomalies, not directly related to the leaching history of the cavern, may provide insight into the internal structure of the relevant salt dome.

  16. Transition of microbiological and sedimentological features associated with the geochemical gradient in a travertine mound in northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Chiya; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Okumura, Tomoyo; Takashima, Chizuru; Harijoko, Agung; Kano, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Modern travertines, carbonate deposits in Ca-rich hydrothermal water with high pCO2, often display a changing environment along the water path, with corresponding variability in the microbial communities. We investigated a travertine-bearing hot spring at the Blue Pool in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The thermal water of 62 °C with high H2S (200 μM) and pCO2 ( 1 atm) developed a travertine mound 70 m wide. The concentrations of the gas components H2S and CO2, decrease immediately after the water is discharged, while the dissolved oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation increase in the downstream direction. Responding to the geochemical gradient in the water, the surface biofilms change color from white to pink, light-green, dark-green, and brown as the water flows from the vent; this corresponds to microbial communities characterized by chemolithoautotrophs (Halothiobacillaceae), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), Anaerolineaceae, and co-occurrence of green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexales)-Cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales), respectively. In an environment with a certain level of H2S (> 1 μM), sulfur digestion and anoxygenic photosynthesis can be more profitable than oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria. The precipitated carbonate mineral consists of aragonite and calcite, with the proportion of aragonite increasing downstream due to the larger Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratio in the water or the development of thicker biofilm. Where the biofilm is well developed, the aragonite travertines often exhibit laminated structures that were likely associated with the daily metabolism of these bacteria. The microbiological and sedimentological features at the Blue Pool may be the modern analogs of geomicrobiological products in the early Earth. Biofilm of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria had the potential to form ancient stromatolites that existed before the appearance of cyanobacteria.

  17. Sampling and analysis plan for Mount Plant D ampersand D soils packages, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    There are currently 682 containers of soils in storage at Mound Plant, generated between April 1 and October 31, 1990 as a result of excavation of soils containing plutonium-238 at two ongoing Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program sites. These areas are known as Area 14, the waste transfer system (WTS) hillside, and Area 17, the Special Metallurgical (SM) Building area. The soils from these areas are part of Mound Plant waste stream number AMDM-000000010, Contaminated Soil, and are proposed for shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. The sealed waste packages, constructed of either wood or metal, are currently being stored in Building 31 and at other locations throughout the Mound facility. At a meeting in Las Vegas, Nevada on October, 26, 1990, DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE-NV) and NTS representatives requested that the Mound Plant D ampersand D soils proposed for shipment to NTS be sampled for Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) constituents. On December 14, 1990, DOE-NV also requested that additional analyses be performed on the soils from one of the soils boxes for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), particle size distribution, and free liquids. The purpose of this plan is to document the proposed sampling and analyses of the packages of D ampersand D soils produced prior to October 31, 1990. In order to provide a thorough description of the soils excavated from the WTS and SM areas, sections 1.1 and 1.2 provide historical Information concerning the D ampersand D soils, including waste stream evaluations and past sampling data

  18. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado''. Optimizing development of highly heterogeneous reservoirs where porosity and permeability vary in unpredictable ways due to facies variations can be challenging. An important example of this is in the algal mounds of the Lower and Upper Ismay reservoirs of the Paradox Basin in Utah and Colorado. It is nearly impossible to develop a forward predictive model to delineate regions of better reservoir development, and so enhanced recovery processes must be selected and designed based upon data that can quantitatively or qualitatively distinguish regions of good or bad reservoir permeability and porosity between existing well control. Recent advances in seismic acquisition and processing offer new ways to see smaller features with more confidence, and to characterize the internal structure of reservoirs such as algal mounds. However, these methods have not been tested. This project will acquire cutting edge, three-dimensional, nine-component (3D9C) seismic data and utilize recently-developed processing algorithms, including the mapping of azimuthal velocity changes in amplitude variation with offset, to extract attributes that relate to variations in reservoir permeability and porosity. In order to apply advanced seismic methods a detailed reservoir study is needed to calibrate the seismic data to reservoir permeability, porosity and lithofacies. This will be done by developing a petrological and geological characterization of the mounds from well data; acquiring and processing the 3D9C data; and comparing the two using advanced pattern recognition tools such as neural nets. In addition, should the correlation prove successful, the resulting data will be evaluated from the perspective of

  19. Growth of gas hydrate mounds and gas chimneys of the eastern margin of Japan Sea as revealed by MBES, SSS and SBP of AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.; Satoh, M.; Hiromatsu, M.; Tomaru, H.; Machiyama, H.

    2010-12-01

    A series of PC, ROV and SCS surveys to study the origin and evolution of gas hydrate systems along the eastern margin of Japan Sea have identified a number of shallow GH accumulations on the mounds, 300m to 500m in diameter and 30m to 40m high, on the Umitaka spur and Joetsu knoll in Joetsu basin with the WD of 880m to 1200m (Matsumoto et al., 2005; 2009). All of the hydrate mounds develop on gas chimneys as recognized by seismic profiles, and some are associated with gigantic methane plumes, 600m to 700m high. Multi Beam Echo Sounder (MBES), Side Scan Sonar (SSS) and Sub-Bottom Profiler (SBP) of AUV Urashima have revealed ultra-high resolution topographic features and subsurface structures of the mounds and adjacent areas during the JAMSTEC YK10-08 cruise, July 2010. AUV Urashima ran over the spur and knoll at 50m to 80m above seafloor at a cruising speed of 2.4 knots. MBES and SSS mosaics demonstrate two types of mounds. One is a low swell with smooth surface and weak reflectance, while the other is characterized by rough and uneven topographic features with strong SSS images due to incrustation by methane-induced carbonate concretions and gas hydrates. SBP provides clear stratigraphic and structural relations down to 50mbsf to 80mbsf and recognizes three stratigraphic units as I: upper massive unit (5-10m thick), II: middle evenly bedded unit (15-25m thick) and III: lower slightly bedded unit (> 15-25m thick). Gas chimneys grow up toward the seafloor through Units III, II, and I. When the ceiling of gas chimney stays within Unit III or II, the mound above the chimney is either low swell or nearly flat, while the swell grows up higher when the ceiling reaches to Unit I or the seafloor. Eventually, the ceiling breaks through the seafloor and protrudes to form GH mound up to 40m to 50m high, and then start to decay probably due to mechanical collapse and chemical dissolution of gas hydrates. The ceiling of gas chimneys is often represented by high amplitude, uneven

  20. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claisse, Jeremy T; Pondella, Daniel J; Love, Milton; Zahn, Laurel A; Williams, Chelsea M; Bull, Ann S

    2015-01-01

    When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth) or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes). "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders) on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  1. Impacts from Partial Removal of Decommissioned Oil and Gas Platforms on Fish Biomass and Production on the Remaining Platform Structure and Surrounding Shell Mounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T Claisse

    Full Text Available When oil and gas platforms become obsolete they go through a decommissioning process. This may include partial removal (from the surface to 26 m depth or complete removal of the platform structure. While complete removal would likely eliminate most of the existing fish biomass and associated secondary production, we find that the potential impacts of partial removal would likely be limited on all but one platform off the coast of California. On average 80% of fish biomass and 86% of secondary fish production would be retained after partial removal, with above 90% retention expected for both metrics on many platforms. Partial removal would likely result in the loss of fish biomass and production for species typically found residing in the shallow portions of the platform structure. However, these fishes generally represent a small proportion of the fishes associated with these platforms. More characteristic of platform fauna are the primarily deeper-dwelling rockfishes (genus Sebastes. "Shell mounds" are biogenic reefs that surround some of these platforms resulting from an accumulation of mollusk shells that have fallen from the shallow areas of the platforms mostly above the depth of partial removal. We found that shell mounds are moderately productive fish habitats, similar to or greater than natural rocky reefs in the region at comparable depths. The complexity and areal extent of these biogenic habitats, and the associated fish biomass and production, will likely be reduced after either partial or complete platform removal. Habitat augmentation by placing the partially removed platform superstructure or some other additional habitat enrichment material (e.g., rock boulders on the seafloor adjacent to the base of partially removed platforms provides additional options to enhance fish production, potentially mitigating reductions in shell mound habitat.

  2. Offshore oceanographic and environmental monitoring services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Volume I. Appendices. Annual report for the Bryan Mound Site, September 1982-August 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1984-03-01

    The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began leaching the Bryan Mound salt dome and discharging brine into the coastal waters offshore of Freeport, Texas on March 10, 1980. This report describes the findings of a team of Texas A and M University scientists and engineers who have conducted a study to evaluate the effects of the Bryan Mound brine discharge on the marine environment. The study addresses the areas of physical oceanography, analysis of the discharge plume, water and sediment quality, nekton, benthos and data management. It focuses on the period from September 1982 through August 1983. The ambient physical environment and its temporal and spatial variability were studied by means of continuously recording in situ current/conductivitiy/temperature meters and twelve, one-day synoptic hydrographic cruises. The quarterly water and sediment quality data show a small increase in salinity, sodium and chloride ions occurs in the bottom waters and sediment pore waters near the diffuser relative to those values measured at stations farther away. Data from the brine plume study for this reporting study show the largest areal extent within the +1 o/oo above ambient salinity contour was 40.0 km/sup 2/ which occurred on August 11, 1983. It appears that brine disposal at Bryan Mound has had neglible if any influence on the nekton community surrounding the diffuser. The benthic quarterly data from 26 stations, including 7 collections made after the diffuser outflow rate was increased to 1,000,000 barrels/day, show the total numbers of species at the diffuser station were higher than most other nearfield stations as well as many farfield stations in both the pre- and post-1,000,000 barrels/day brine flow periods. 138 references, 175 figures, 53 tables.

  3. Ion exchange/adsorbent pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A decontamination of greater than 99% of the actinides and fission products contained in radioactive waste water can be obtained using ion exchange resins. A system for achieving this result is described in this paper. This ion exchange pilot-plant design is the culmination of five years of study of the decontamination of radioactive waste streams by ion exchange resins and other adsorbents at Mound. In order to maintain maximum flexibility of treatments, this pilot-plant design is a conceptual design with specific flows, resins, and column specifications, but with many optional features and no rigid equipment specifications. This flexibility allows the system to be amenable to almost any radioactive waste stream. Very specific designs can be constructed from this conceptual design for the treatment of any specific waste stream. Operating and capital costs are also discussed. 1 figure, 5 tables

  4. Efficient Low-pH Iron Removal by a Microbial Iron Oxide Mound Ecosystem at Scalp Level Run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grettenberger, Christen L; Pearce, Alexandra R; Bibby, Kyle J; Jones, Daniel S; Burgos, William D; Macalady, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of kilometers of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable among sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County, PA), first-order iron oxidation rates are 10 times greater than at other coal-associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate. Despite strong geochemical gradients, including a >10-fold change in the concentration of ferrous iron from 57.3 mg/liter at the emergence to 2.5 mg/liter at the base of the coal tailings pile, the bacterial community composition was nearly constant with distance from the spring outflow. Scalp Level Run contains many of the same taxa present in other AMD sites, but the community is dominated by two strains of Ferrovum myxofaciens , a species that is associated with high rates of Fe(II) oxidation in laboratory studies. IMPORTANCE Acid mine drainage pollutes more than 19,300 km of rivers and streams and 72,000 ha of lakes worldwide. Remediation is frequently ineffective and costly, upwards of $100 billion globally and nearly $5 billion in Pennsylvania alone. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation is more efficient than abiotic Fe(II) oxidation at low pH (P. C. Singer and W. Stumm, Science 167:1121-1123, 1970, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.167.3921.1121). Therefore, AMD bioremediation could harness microbial Fe(II) oxidation to fuel more-cost-effective treatments. Advances will require a deeper understanding of the ecology of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbial communities and the factors that control their distribution and rates of Fe(II) oxidation. We investigated bacterial communities that inhabit an AMD site with rapid Fe(II) oxidation and found that they were dominated by two

  5. Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc area of the Paradox Basin, UTE Mountain UTE Reservation, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe Hachey

    2007-01-01

    The goals of this project were: (1) To enhance recovery of oil contained within algal mounds on the Ute Mountain Ute tribal lands. (2) To promote the use of advanced technology and expand the technical capability of the Native American Oil production corporations by direct assistance in the current project and dissemination of technology to other Tribes. (3) To develop an understanding of multicomponent seismic data as it relates to the variations in permeability and porosity of algal mounds, as well as lateral facies variations, for use in both reservoir development and exploration. (4) To identify any undiscovered algal mounds for field-extension within the area of seismic coverage. (5) To evaluate the potential for applying CO 2 floods, steam floods, water floods or other secondary or tertiary recovery processes to increase production. The technical work scope was carried out by: (1) Acquiring multicomponent seismic data over the project area; (2) Processing and reprocessing the multicomponent data to extract as much geological and engineering data as possible within the budget and time-frame of the project; (3) Preparing maps and data volumes of geological and engineering data based on the multicomponent seismic and well data; (4) Selecting drilling targets if warranted by the seismic interpretation; (5) Constructing a static reservoir model of the project area; and (6) Constructing a dynamic history-matched simulation model from the static model. The original project scope covered a 6 mi 2 (15.6 km 2 ) area encompassing two algal mound fields (Towaoc and Roadrunner). 3D3C seismic data was to acquired over this area to delineate mound complexes and image internal reservoir properties such as porosity and fluid saturations. After the project began, the Red Willow Production Company, a project partner and fully-owned company of the Southern Ute Tribe, contributed additional money to upgrade the survey to a nine-component (3D9C) survey. The purpose of this upgrade

  6. Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc area of the Paradox Basin, UTE Mountain UTE Reservation, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Hachey

    2007-09-30

    The goals of this project were: (1) To enhance recovery of oil contained within algal mounds on the Ute Mountain Ute tribal lands. (2) To promote the use of advanced technology and expand the technical capability of the Native American Oil production corporations by direct assistance in the current project and dissemination of technology to other Tribes. (3) To develop an understanding of multicomponent seismic data as it relates to the variations in permeability and porosity of algal mounds, as well as lateral facies variations, for use in both reservoir development and exploration. (4) To identify any undiscovered algal mounds for field-extension within the area of seismic coverage. (5) To evaluate the potential for applying CO{sub 2} floods, steam floods, water floods or other secondary or tertiary recovery processes to increase production. The technical work scope was carried out by: (1) Acquiring multicomponent seismic data over the project area; (2) Processing and reprocessing the multicomponent data to extract as much geological and engineering data as possible within the budget and time-frame of the project; (3) Preparing maps and data volumes of geological and engineering data based on the multicomponent seismic and well data; (4) Selecting drilling targets if warranted by the seismic interpretation; (5) Constructing a static reservoir model of the project area; and (6) Constructing a dynamic history-matched simulation model from the static model. The original project scope covered a 6 mi{sup 2} (15.6 km{sup 2}) area encompassing two algal mound fields (Towaoc and Roadrunner). 3D3C seismic data was to acquired over this area to delineate mound complexes and image internal reservoir properties such as porosity and fluid saturations. After the project began, the Red Willow Production Company, a project partner and fully-owned company of the Southern Ute Tribe, contributed additional money to upgrade the survey to a nine-component (3D9C) survey. The purpose

  7. Temporal Characterization of Hydrates System Dynamics beneath Seafloor Mounds. Integrating Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Methods and In Situ Observations of Multiple Oceanographic Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Macelloni, Leonardo [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); D' Emidio, Marco [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Dunbar, John [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States); Higley, Paul [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This study was designed to investigate temporal variations in hydrate system dynamics by measuring changes in volumes of hydrate beneath hydrate-bearing mounds on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico, the landward extreme of hydrate occurrence in this region. Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) measurements were made contemporaneously with measurements of oceanographic parameters at Woolsey Mound, a carbonate-hydrate complex on the mid-continental slope, where formation and dissociation of hydrates are most vulnerable to variations in oceanographic parameters affected by climate change, and where changes in hydrate stability can readily translate to loss of seafloor stability, impacts to benthic ecosystems, and venting of greenhouse gases to the water-column, and eventually, the atmosphere. We focused our study on hydrate within seafloor mounds because the structurally-focused methane flux at these sites likely causes hydrate formation and dissociation processes to occur at higher rates than at sites where the methane flux is less concentrated and we wanted to maximize our chances of witnessing association/dissociation of hydrates. We selected a particularly well-studied hydrate-bearing seafloor mound near the landward extent of the hydrate stability zone, Woolsey Mound (MC118). This mid-slope site has been studied extensively and the project was able to leverage considerable resources from the team’s research experience at MC118. The site exhibits seafloor features associated with gas expulsion, hydrates have been documented at the seafloor, and changes in the outcropping hydrates have been documented, photographically, to have occurred over a period of months. We conducted observatory-based, in situ measurements to 1) characterize, geophysically, the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate and its temporal variability, and 2) contemporaneously record relevant environmental parameters (temperature, pressure, salinity, turbidity, bottom currents) to

  8. Fluid-chemical evidence for one billion years of fluid flow through Mesoproterozoic deep-water carbonate mounds (Nanisivik zinc district, Nunavut)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, K. E.; Turner, E. C.; Kontak, D. J.; Fayek, M.

    2018-02-01

    Ancient carbonate rocks commonly contain numerous post-depositional phases (carbonate minerals; quartz) recording successive diagenetic events that can be deciphered and tied to known or inferred geological events using a multi-pronged in situ analytical protocol. The framework voids of large, deep-water microbial carbonate seep-mounds in Arctic Canada (Mesoproterozoic Ikpiarjuk Formation) contain multiple generations of synsedimentary and late cement. An in situ analytical study of the post-seafloor cements used optical and cathodoluminescence petrography, SEM-EDS analysis, fluid inclusion (FI) microthermometry and evaporate mound analysis, LA-ICP-MS analysis, and SIMS δ18O to decipher the mounds' long-term diagenetic history. The six void-filling late cements include, in paragenetic order: inclusion-rich euhedral dolomite (ED), finely crystalline clear dolomite (FCD), hematite-bearing dolomite (HD), coarsely crystalline clear dolomite (CCD), quartz (Q), replacive calcite (RC) and late calcite (LC). Based on the combined analytical results, the following fluid-flow history is defined: (1) ED precipitation by autocementation during shallow burial (fluid 1; Mesoproterozoic); (2) progressive mixing of Ca-rich hydrothermal fluid with the connate fluid, resulting in precipitation of FCD followed by HD (fluid 2; also Mesoproterozoic); (3) precipitation of hydrothermal dolomite (CCD) from high-Ca and K-rich fluids (fluid 3; possibly Mesoproterozoic, but timing unclear); (4) hydrothermal Q precipitation (fluid 4; timing unclear), and (5) RC and LC precipitation from a meteoric-derived water (fluid 5) in or since the Mesozoic. Fluids associated with FCD, HD, and CCD may have been mobilised during deposition of the upper Bylot Supergroup; this time interval was the most tectonically active episode in the region's Mesoproterozoic to Recent history. The entire history of intermittent fluid migration and cement precipitation recorded in seemingly unimportant void

  9. The Gale Crater Mound in a Regional Geologic Setting: Comparison Study of Wind Erosion in Gale Crater and Within a 1000 KM Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapremont. A.; Allen, C.; Runyon, C.

    2014-01-01

    Gale is a Late Noachian/Early Hesperian impact crater located on the dichotomy boundary separating the southern highlands and the northern lowlands of Mars. NASA's Curiosity Rover is currently exploring Gale, searching for evidence of habitability early in Mars history. With an approximate diameter of 155 km, and a approx. 5 km central mound informally titled Mt. Sharp, Gale represents a region of geologic interest due to the abundance of knowledge that can be derived, through its sedimentary deposits, pertaining to the environmental evolution of Mars. This study was undertaken to compare wind erosional features in Gale Crater and within sediments in a 1000 km radial area. The ultimate objective of this comparison was to determine if or how Gale relates to the surrounding region.

  10. MULTICOMPONENT SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND CALIBRATION TO IMPROVE RECOVERY FROM ALGAL MOUNDS: APPLICATION TO THE ROADRUNNER/TOWAOC AREA OF THE PARADOX BASIN, UTE MOUNTAIN UTE RESERVATION, COLORADO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul La Pointe; Claudia Rebne; Steve Dobbs

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results made in fulfillment of contract DE-FG26-02NT15451, ''Multicomponent Seismic Analysis and Calibration to Improve Recovery from Algal Mounds: Application to the Roadrunner/Towaoc Area of the Paradox Basin, Ute Mountain Ute Reservation, Colorado'', for the Second Biennial Report covering the time period May 1, 2003 through October 31, 2003. During this period, the project achieved two significant objectives: completion of the acquisition and processing design and specifications 3D9C seismic acquisition and the 3D VSP log; and completion of the permitting process involving State, Tribal and Federal authorities. Successful completion of these two major milestones pave the way for field acquisition as soon as weather permits in the Spring of 2004. This report primarily describes the design and specifications for the VSP and 3D9C surveys

  11. Recommendations to the NRC for review criteria for alternative methods of low-level radioactive waste disposal: Task 2b: Earth-mounded concrete bunkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denson, R.H.; Bennett, R.D.; Wamsley, R.M.; Bean, D.L.; Ainsworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The US Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and US Army Engineer Division, Huntsville (HNDED) have developed general design criteria and specific design review criteria for the earth-mounded concrete bunker (EMCB) alternative method of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal. An EMCB is generally described as a reinforced concrete vault placed below grade, underneath a tumulus, surrounded by filter-blanket and drainage zones. The tumulus is covered over with a low permeability cover layer and top soil with vegetation. Eight major review criteria categories have been developed ranging from the loads imposed on the EMCB structure through material quality and durability considerations. Specific design review criteria have been developed in detail for each of the eight major categories. 63 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Independent Verification Survey Report for the Offsite Portion of the Potential Release Site-7 Abandoned Sanitary Line, Miamisburg Closure Project, Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, P.C.

    2008-01-01

    The ORISE objective was to confirm that the remedial action process implemented by the contractor was in accordance with the PRS-7 Work Package. Following removal of the sanitary line, the soil beneath the line would be sampled to determine if remediation was required (ARC 2007a).

  13. Conceptual design report for environmental, safety and health phase III FY-91 line item

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-09-01

    The Mound Facility (Mound), located in Miamisburg, Ohio, is a Department of Energy (DOE) development and production facility performing support work for DOE`s weapons and energy-related programs. EG&G Mound Applied Technologies (EG&G) is the Operating Contractor (OC) for this Government-Owned, Contractor-Operated (GOCO) facility. The work performed at Mound emphasizes nuclear energy and explosives technology. Mound is currently implementing an Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program designed to protect its employees, the public, and the environment from adverse effects caused by the facility`s activities. Design has been completed, and construction is in progress for Phase I of this multiphase program. Phase II has been submitted for fiscal year (FY) 89 funding and Phase IV is being submitted as an FY 92 line item. This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) addresses Phase III of the ES&H program.

  14. Geology and biology of the "Sticky Grounds," shelf-margin carbonate mounds, and mesophotic ecosystem in the eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, Stanley D.; Reed, John K.; Farrington, Stephanie; Harter, Stacey; Hine, Albert C.; Dunn, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Shelf-margin carbonate mounds in water depths of 116–135 m in the eastern Gulf of Mexico along the central west Florida shelf were investigated using swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom imaging, rock dredging, and submersible dives. These enigmatic structures, known to fisherman as the “Sticky Grounds”, trend along slope, are 5–15 m in relief with base diameters of 5–30 m, and suggest widespread potential for mesophotic reef habitat along the west Florida outer continental shelf. Possible origins are sea-level lowstand coral patch reefs, oyster reefs, or perhaps more recent post-lowstand biohermal development. Rock dredging recovered bioeroded carbonate-rock facies comprised of bored and cemented bioclastics. Rock sample components included calcified worm tubes, pelagic sediment, and oysters normally restricted to brackish nearshore areas. Several reef sites were surveyed at the Sticky Grounds during a cruise in August 2010 with the R/V Seward Johnson using the Johnson-Sea-Link II submersible to ground truth the swath-sonar maps and to quantify and characterize the benthic habitats, benthic macrofauna, fish populations, and coral/sponge cover. This study characterizes for the first time this mesophotic reef ecosystem and associated fish populations, and analyzes the interrelationships of the fish assemblages, benthic habitats and invertebrate biota. These highly eroded rock mounds provide extensive hard-bottom habitat for reef invertebrate species as well as essential fish habitat for reef fish and commercially/recreationally important fish species. The extent and significance of associated living resources with these bottom types is particularly important in light of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the northeastern Gulf and the proximity of the Loop Current. Mapping the distribution of these mesophotic-depth ecosystems is important for quantifying essential fish habitat and describing benthic resources. These activities can improve

  15. OCORRÊNCIA DE ESPÉCIES DE CUPINS DE MONTÍCULO EM PASTAGENS NO ESTADO DE GOIÁS THE OCCURRENCE OF MOUND-BUILDING TERMITE SPECIES IN PASTURES, IN GOIÁS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edinon Aguiar de Araújo

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo identificar as espécies e as áreas ocupadas por cupins de montículos nas pastagens, visando estabelecer estratégias de controle para cada região do Estado de Goiás. Foram realizados levantamentos em 133 municípios que apresentaram, em média, 72,68 cupinzeiros/ha, com um diâmetro médio de 83,02 cm. Foram identificados dezenove gêneros do inseto, sendo 58% das amostras representadas por Cornitermes snyderi, 13,85% por C. cumulans, 6,35% por Procornitermes araujoi, 3,77% por espécies do gênero Syntermes e o restante (15,74% por outras espécies de menor importância.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta; cupins; distribuição; pastagens.

    This study had the purpose of identifying species and occurrence areas of mound termites in Goiás, Brazil, in order to establish control strategies. The survey was done in 133 municipalities evaluating the number of mounds/ha and mean diameter of mounds. We found an average of 72.68 mound/ha with a mean diameter of 83.02 cm. Nineteen insect genera were identified. Of these, 58% were identified as Cornitermes snyderi, 13.85% as C. cumulans, 6.35% as Procornitermes araujoi, 3.77% as species of Syntermes, and 15.74% were considered of minor importance.

    KEY-WORDS: Insecta; termites; distribution; pastures.

  16. Alternative methods for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Task 2c: technical requirements for earth mounded concrete bunker disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.O.; Bennett, R.D.

    1985-10-01

    The study reported herein contains the results of Task 2c (Technical Requirements for Earth Mounded Concrete Bunker Disposal of Low-Level Radioactive Waste) of a four-task study entitled ''Criteria for Evaluating Engineered Facilities''. The overall objective of this study is to ensure that the criteria needed to evaluate five alternative low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal methods are available to potential license applicants. The earth mounded concrete bunker disposal alternative is one of several methods that may be proposed for disposal of low-level radioactive waste. The name of this alternative is descriptive of the disposal method used in France at the Centre de la Manche. Experience gained with this method at the Centre is described, including unit operations and features and components. Some improvements to the French system are recommended herein, including the use of previous backfill around monoliths and extending the limits of a low permeability surface layer. The applicability of existing criteria developed for near-surface disposal (10 CFR Part 61 Subpart D) to the earth mounded concrete bunker disposal method, as assessed in Task 1, are reassessed herein. With minor qualifications, these criteria were found to be applicable in the reassessment. These conclusions differ slightly from the Task 1 findings

  17. The Importance of Microtopography and Nurse Canopy for Successful Restoration Planting of the Slow-Growing Conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Bauhus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that, owing to a lack of seed trees, the natural rate of recovery of fire-disturbed bog forests previously dominated by the endemic and endangered conifer Pilgerodendron uviferum (D. Don Florin is extremely slow. Hence, increasing the number of seed trees in the landscape through restoration planting could remove the principal biotic filter, limiting recovery of these forests. Here, we analyzed how the success of restoration plantings may be improved through the choice or manipulation of microsites in P. uviferum forests on Chiloé Island in North Patagonia. For this purpose, we manipulated microtopography in water-logged sites in bogs (mounds, flat terrain, mineral soil and changed canopy conditions (gaps, semi-open, closed canopy in upland sites with better drainage. In bogs, there was no significant effect of microtopography on growth and survival of P. uviferum plantings. However, fluorescence measurements indicated lower stress in seedlings established on mounds. Seedlings in upland areas established beneath a nurse canopy had lower mortality and higher relative shoot growth, foliar nutrients, photosynthetic light use efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence values than those planted in the open. This indicates that seedlings of the slow growing P. uviferum can tolerate extremely wet conditions, yet suffer from stress when grown in the open. Here, the removal of canopy appeared to have also removed or reduced mycorrhizal networks for seedlings, leading to poorer nutrition and growth. Based on these results, recommendations for restoration plantings in highly degraded P. uviferum forests are presented.

  18. Hamacantha (Hamacantha) boomerang sp. nov. from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin, SW Atlantic, and redescription of H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882) (Hamacanthidae, Poecilosclerida, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Eduardo; Castello-Branco, Cristiana

    2014-01-08

    There are 22 species of Hamacantha registered from all over the world, and frequently from deep-waters, only two of which had previously been reported from the SW Atlantic. Here we describe a third species for this area, Hamacantha (H.) boomerang sp. nov., collected from deep-sea coral mounds at Campos Basin (off Rio de Janeiro state). We found oxeas 271-630 µm long, diancistras in three size classes, 125-155, 45-69 and 20-29 µm, and toxas, 58-82 µm. This is the only Hamacantha combining oxeas and toxas, but the latter are very rare. The species approaches the Caribbean H. (H.) schmidtii (Carter, 1882), where we observed oxeas 390-495 µm long, and diancistras in three size classes, 109-124,  44-54 and 26-41 μm, however toxas appear to be absent. Both species are clearly distinct by micrometric values, as well as the overall morphology of the smaller diancistras, distinct from the intermediate category in the new species, but quite similar in H. (H.) schmidtii. Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula approaches the new species very closely in microsclere dimensions and morphology, but is set apart by its styloid and smaller megascleres.

  19. Detecting Neolithic Burial Mounds from LiDAR-Derived Elevation Data Using a Multi-Scale Approach and Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guyot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR technology is widely used in archaeology and over the past decade has emerged as an accurate tool to describe anthropomorphic landforms. Archaeological features are traditionally emphasised on a LiDAR-derived Digital Terrain Model (DTM using multiple Visualisation Techniques (VTs, and occasionally aided by automated feature detection or classification techniques. Such an approach offers limited results when applied to heterogeneous structures (different sizes, morphologies, which is often the case for archaeological remains that have been altered throughout the ages. This study proposes to overcome these limitations by developing a multi-scale analysis of topographic position combined with supervised machine learning algorithms (Random Forest. Rather than highlighting individual topographic anomalies, the multi-scalar approach allows archaeological features to be examined not only as individual objects, but within their broader spatial context. This innovative and straightforward method provides two levels of results: a composite image of topographic surface structure and a probability map of the presence of archaeological structures. The method was developed to detect and characterise megalithic funeral structures in the region of Carnac, the Bay of Quiberon, and the Gulf of Morbihan (France, which is currently considered for inclusion on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As a result, known archaeological sites have successfully been geo-referenced with a greater accuracy than before (even when located under dense vegetation and a ground-check confirmed the identification of a previously unknown Neolithic burial mound in the commune of Carnac.

  20. Tool-use and tool-making by captive, group-living orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) at an artificial termite mound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2004-01-30

    The present study examined the use and making of tools to obtain foodstuffs in artificial-mound holes by five captive, group-living Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). Three adult orangutans frequently stripped leaves and twigs from a branch provided (tool-making), and then inserted the tool into a hole to obtain foodstuffs (tool-using). A 5-year-old female juvenile usually used the tools that adult orangutans had previously used, but rarely made tools herself. A 2-year-old male infant did not use any tools. The adult orangutans tend to leave one to several leaves at the top of the branch than to leave many leaves on the branch or to strip all leaves. It seemed likely that tools with appropriate leaves are easier to insert into holes and obtain more foodstuffs, compared with branches with many leaves or sticks without any leaves. When the orangutans were unable to insert a tool into a hole, they usually modified the tool and/or changed their tool-using technique, such as changing how they grasped the tool. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of the orangutan's behavioral flexibility regarding tool-use skills and hierarchical organization in food-processing techniques.

  1. Chemical characteristics of hydrothermal fluids from the TAG Mound of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in August 1994: Implications for spatial and temporal variability of hydrothermal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamo, Toshitaka; Chiba, Hitoshi; Masuda, Harue; Edmonds, Henrietta N.; Fujioka, Kantaro; Kodama, Yukio; Nanba, Hiromi; Sano, Yuji

    The TAG hydrothermal mound on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (26°08‧N, 44°50‧W) was revisited in August 1994 with the submersible Shinkai 6500 in order to characterize time-series fluid chemistry prior to the ODP drilling. Fluid samples were taken from both black smokers and white smokers. Si, pH, alkalinity, H2S, major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), major anions (Cl-, SO42-), and minor elements (Li, Sr, B, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br) as well as Sr isotope ratios were measured. We report the first Br/Cl ratios for the TAG hydrothermal fluids, showing no fractionation between Br and Cl during the fluid-rock interaction. This study shows small changes in composition of the black smoker fluids from the 1990 data (Edmond et al., 1995). Changes of pH, alkalinity, Fe, K, and 87Sr/86Sr values are suggestive of subsurface FeS precipitation and a decrease of water/rock ratio at a deeper reaction zone. Differences in chemical characteristics between the black and white smoker fluids were similarly observed as in 1990.

  2. Effect of climate changes in the holocene on the distribution of humic substances in the profile of forest-tundra peat mounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevich, R. S.; Beznosikov, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The molecular composition of humic substances in permafrost peatlands of the forest-tundra zone in northeastern European Russia has been characterized for the first time on the basis of systematic studies. Changes in the molar x(H): x(C) ratio along the peat profiles have been revealed, which is due to the activation of cryogenic processes in the upper part of the seasonally thawing layer, the natural selection of condensed humic molecules, and the botanical composition and degree of degradation of peat, which reflect the climatic features of the area in the Holocene. Dry-peat soils of mounds are worse heated during the summer period because of the buffering effect of moss litter, which results in a lower degree of condensation of humic and fulvic acid molecules in the peat horizons down to the permafrost table. Transformation of quantitative and qualitative parameters of specific organic compounds occurs at the permafrost boundary of peatlands, which can serve as an indicator of recent climate changes in high latitudes.

  3. Strategic petroleum reserve, Byran Mound Salt Dome, Brazoria County, Texas. Final environmental impact statement (final supplement to FEA FES 76/77-6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    On January 7, 1977, the Federal Energy Administration issued a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the development of the Bryan Mound salt dome as a storage site for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (FES 76/77-6). On October 1, 1977, the U.S. Department of Energy was created and the programs of the Federal Energy Administration were transferred to the new Department. As such, this final supplement is being issued by the Department of Energy. The salt dome is located in Brazoria County, Texas. Since the EIS was published, it has been determined that this arrangement would be inadequate to meet the long term requirements for filling and withdrawing oil at the site, although the disposal of brine to Dow Chemical would be utilized to the maximum extent possible. Therefore, on July 15, 1977, a Draft Supplement to FES 76/77-6 was issued addressing the environmental impacts of construction and operation of two types of brine disposal systems and a new water supply system. This final supplement addresses a brine injection well system and a water intake system. Construction of this new system component would cause temporary disruption to land use, water quality, air quality, and terrestrial and aquatic ecology. The new facilities would permanently change 17 acres of land from its present use. Operation of the systems would have relatively small, short-term impacts. Use of the brine surge pit could adversely affect air quality by emitting hydrocarbon vapors (maximum rate of 51.4 tons per year). Operation of the disposal wells would increase the salinity of an already saline aquifer. All operational impacts would be relatively minor and short-term, occurring only during periods of fill or withdrawal of the storage facility.

  4. The Role Of Land Use In Environmental Decision Making At Three DOE Mega-Cleanup Sites, Fernald, Rocky Flats, and Mound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewett, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  5. Distribution of 238Pu in tissues of fish from the canal in Miamisburg, Oho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The 238 Pu concentrations of varous tissues were measured for seven species of freshwater fish from an ecosystem containing elevated levels of 238 Pu. The highest levels of 238 Pu were found in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills, while the lowest levels were found in muscle tissue. A rapid uptake of 238 Pu was observed for hatchery bluegills introduced into this system. High plutonium concentrations in the gastrointestinal tracts and gills suggest that these organs are potential uptake sites. The presence of 238 Pu in certain tissues (liver, gonads, bone, and muscle) indicates that there is a translocation of 238 Pu from the uptake sites

  6. Growth of a Hydrate Mound in the Sea of Japan over 300 ka as Revealed by U-Th Ages of MDAC and by H2S Concentrations of Massive Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, R.; Snyder, G. T.; Hiruta, A.; Kakizaki, Y.; Huang, C. Y.; Shen, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    The geological and geophysical exploration of gas hydrate in the Sea of Japan has revealed that hydrates occur as thick massive deposits within gas chimneys which often give rise to pingo-like hydrate mounds on the seafloor. We examine one case in which LWD has demonstrated anomalous profiles including both very low natural gamma ray (<10 API) and high acoustic velocities (2.5 to 3.5 km/s) extending down to 120mbsf, the base of gas hydrate stability (BGHS)[1]. Both conventional and pressure coring have confirmed thick, massive deposits of pure-gas hydrates. Hydrates in the shallow subsurface (< 20mbsf) are characterized by high H2S concentrations corresponding to AOM-induced production of HS-. The deeper hydrates generally have negligible amounts of H2S, with occasional exceptions in which H2S is moderately high. These observations lead us to conclude that both the re-equilibration and growth of hydrates in high CH4 and low to zero H2S conditions has continued during burial, and that this ongoing growth is an essential processes involved in the development of massive hydrates in the Sea of Japan.Regardless of depth, the Japan Sea gas hydrates are closely associated with 13-C depleted, methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDACs). These MDACs are considered to have been formed at near-SMT depths as a response to increased alkalinity caused by AOM and, as such, MDACs are assumed to represent approximate paleo-seafloor at times of enhanced methane flux and intensive accumulation of gas hydrate in shallow subsurface. U-Th ages of MDACs collected from various depths in a mound-chimney system in central Joetsu Spur have revealed that the paleo-seafloor of 300 ka is presently situated at 30 to 55 mbsf within the gas chimney, in contrast to off-mound sites where it is situated at 100 mbsf. This suggests that at 300 ka the mound stood as a "hydrate-pingo" of 70 m high relative to the surrounding sea floor. At this time, the BGHS shoaled upwards 10m due to eustatic sea

  7. Evolved Gas Measurements Planned for the Lower Layers of the Gale Crater Mound with the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Franz, H.; McAdam, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Brunner, A.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    The lower mound strata of Gale Crater provide a diverse set of chemical environments for exploration by the varied tools of the Curiosity Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. Orbital imaging and spectroscopy clearly reveal distinct layers of hydrated minerals, sulfates, and clays with abundant evidence of a variety of fluvial processes. The three instruments of the MSL Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) investigation, the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), and the Gas Chromatograph (GC) are designed to analyze either atmospheric gases or volatiles thermally evolved or chemically extracted from powdered rock or soil. The presence or absence of organic compounds in these layers is of great interest since such an in situ search for this type of record has not been successfully implemented since the mid-70s Viking GCMS experiments. However, regardless of the outcome of the analysis for organics, the abundance and isotopic composition of thermally evolved inorganic compounds should also provide a rich data set to complement the mineralogical and elemental information provided by other MSL instruments. In addition, these evolved gas analysis (EGA) experiments will help test sedimentary models proposed by Malin and Edgett (2000) and then further developed by Milliken et al (2010) for Gale Crater. In the SAM EGA experiments the evolution temperatures of H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, or other simple compounds as the samples are heated in a helium stream to 1000C provides information on mineral types and their associations. The isotopic composition of O, H, C, and S can be precisely determined in several evolved compounds and compared with the present day atmosphere. Such SAM results might be able to test mineralogical evidence of changing sedimentary and alteration processes over an extended period of time. For example, Bibring et al (2006) have suggested such a major shift from early nonacidic to later acidic alteration. We will

  8. Evolved Gas Measurements Planned for the Lower Layers of the Gale Crater Mound with the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Brunner, Anna; McAdam, Amy; Franz, Heather; Conrad, Pamela; Webster, Chris; Cabane, Michel

    2009-01-01

    The lower mound strata of Gale Crater provide a diverse set of chemical environments for exploration by the varied tools of the Curiosity Rover of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission. Orbital imaging and spectroscopy clearly reveal distinct layers of hydrated minerals, sulfates, and clays with abundant evidence of a variety of fluvial processes. The three instruments of the MSL Sample Analysis at aMars (SAM) investigation, the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), the Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), and the Gas Chromatograph (GC) are designed to analyze either atmospheric gases or volatiles thermally evolved or chemically extracted from powdered rock or soil. The presence or absence of organic compounds in these layers is of great interest since such an in situ search for this type of record has not been successfully implemented since the mid-60s Viking GCMS experiments. However, regardless of the outcome of the analysis for organics, the abundance and isotopic composition of thermally evolved inorganic compounds should also provide a rich data set to complement the mineralogical and elemental information provided by other MSL instruments. In addition, these evolved gas analysis (EGA) experiments will help test sedimentary models proposed by Malin and Edgett (2000) and then further developed by Milliken et al (2010) for Gale Crater. In the SAM EGA experiments the evolution temperatures of H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, or other simple compounds as the samples are heated in a helium stream to 1000 C provides information on mineral types and their associations. The isotopic composition of O, H, C, and S can be precisely determined in several evolved compounds and compared with the present day atmosphere. Such SAM results might be able to test mineralogical evidence of changing sedimentary and alteration processes over an extended period of time. For example, Bibring et al (2006) have suggested such a major shift from early nonacidic to later acidic alteration. We will

  9. Design of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1992-01-01

    in terms of sizes and shapes is, however, not only dependent on the applied blasting technique but to a large extent on the type of rock and the degree of weathering. This creates very different discontinuity patterns which again determine the size and shape of the blocks. Also the strength and durability...... the construction stage. Anyway, it is seldom that a fair amount of rocks of mass larger than 10-15 t can be produced, even in good quality quarries. If heavier blocks are needed concrete armour units or vertical structures must be considered....

  10. Design of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1994-01-01

    in terms of sizes and shapes is, however, not only dependent on the applied blasting technique but to z: large extent on the type of rock and the degree of weathering. This creates very different discontinuity patterns which again determine the size and shape of the blocks. Also the strength and durability...

  11. Mound No. 24 of the Alebastrovo I Burial Ground and the Problem of Succession Among the Early Nomadic Cultures of the Southern Urals in the 6th – 4th and 3rd – 1st Centuries BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis V. Maryksin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on one of the burial mounds – Alebastrovo I, which is situated in the middle reaches of the Ural river. The analysis of the burial rite and grave goods reveals the combination of features peculiar of the culture of early nomads from the 6th to the 4th centuries BC and later features typical for the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. The collective nature of the burial in a large square pit (burial no. 2 relates to early features. Such burials are typical for the 5th and 4th centuries BC. But a dagger with a direct crosshair and a crescent-shaped pommel found in the burial belongs to the 3rd – 1st centuries BC. Findings of a mirror, a spoon and a whorl also deserve special attention. On formal grounds a mirror belongs to the type “Skripkin 1.6” – with a flat disk without roll and stick in the form of a triangular stem. They appeared in Sauromatian time, but were not widespread. Most of these mirrors refer to the turn of the eras – the first centuries AD. However, in our view the mirror from Alebastrovo I has the greatest similarity with the mirror disks of the so-called “musical” mirrors, which date back to the 2nd half of the 4th century BC. The bone spoon belongs to the type I, peculiar of the Sauromatian-time things of the 6th – 4th centuries BC. However, the pattern is similar to that on the handle of the bone products of later time – the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC. Clay whorl has a pattern in the form of 4 sectors, decorated with grooves and pits. Analogies are available on this ornament spindles from the 3rd – 2nd centuries BC of the Kara-Abyz culture in the Southern Urals. According to the set of attributes, this burial mound dated to the second half of the 3rd - 2nd centuries BC. The finds from this burial mound confirm the conclusion of the first explorer B. F. Zhelezchikov about continuity of the development of the early nomadic culture of this region in the 6th – 3rd centuries BC.

  12. Ensaios de combate ao cupim de monte Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (Isoptera, Termitidae Field tests for control of the mound-building termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832 (Isoptera, Termitidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A.M. Mariconi

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de combater o cupim de monte Cornitermes cumulans, importante espécie invasora, foram instalados dois campos experimentais. Experimento I: 60 ninhos foram escolhidos e medidos externamente. O ensaio constou de 6 tratamentos com 10 repetições: A abamectina (50 cm³ CE 1,8%; B silafluofem (200 cm³ CE 80%; C silafluofem (400 cm³ CE 80%; D fipronil (15g G 2%; E fipronil (20g G 2%; F clorpirifós (30g G 0,125%. Nos tratamentos A, B, C, as quantidades entre parênteses são da formulação comercial em 100 litros de água. Em D, E, F, são do granulado para cada ninho. Dos líquidos, usou-se um litro de calda por monte. A demolição dos montes deu-se após 103 dias da aplicação. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a abamectina e fipronil. Experimento II: Também neste ensaio os cupinzeiros foram 60, abrangendo 6 tratamentos com 10 repetições: A fipronil (l0g G 2%; B fipronil (15g G 2%; C bendiocarbe (20g G 0,1%; D bendiocarbe (20g G 0,5%; E imidaclopride (0,15g G 70%; F imidaclopride (0,30g G 70%. Em A, B, C, D, as quantidades de granulados são por ninho. Em E, F são de granulado dispersível em um litro de água, por ninho. A destruição dos cupinzeiros foi feita 148 e 149 dias após a aplicação. Os melhores resultados foram o fipronil e imidaclopride.Two field tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of several pesticides for the control of the mound termite pest in pastures. Experiment I: 60 mounds were selected and measured outside. There were 6 treatments with 10 replicátions: A abamectin (50 cm³ 1.8% EC; B silafluofen (200 cm³ 80% EC; C silafluofen (400 cm³ 80% EC; D fipronil (15g 2% G; E fipronil (20g 2% G; F chlorpirifos (30g 0.125% G. In A,B,C, the quantities between parenthesis are of the commercial formulation in 100 liters of water. In D,E,F, are of granular insecticides per mound. One liter of the liquids was used per nest. Demolition of the mounds were made 103 days after the application

  13. Origin of carbonate concretions from mud mounds in the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula); Origen de las concreciones carbonatadas de los monticulos de fango en el Golfo de Cadiz (SO Peninsula Iberica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejas, M.; Taberner, C.; Pueyo, J. J.; Giralt, S.; Mata, M. P.; Gibert, J. M. de; Diaz del Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz displays a number of structures that are associated with fluid circulation (mud volcanoes, mud mounds and pockmarks).This area has been used as natural laboratory for the sedimentological, bio- logical and biogeochemical studies of these environments. Analysis of the associated authigenic carbonates has been widely used as a proxy to yield insights into the circulation and chemical composition of these flu- ids. A study of carbonate concretions from the Iberico, Cornide and Arcos mud mounds in the Diasom Field was undertaken to better understand the origin and type of fluids from which these concretions precipitated. The concretions display varying morphologies, some of which correspond to bioturbation traces. X-ray dif- fractions revealed that these carbonate concretions are mainly composed of dolomite, Fe-rich dolomite, high magnesium calcite (HMC) and ankerite. The δ{sup 1}3 C values of carbonate minerals ranged between -48.3 and-10.9 V-PDB, which suggests that the main processes involved in their genesis are organic matter oxidation, bac- terial sulphate-reduction (BSR) and anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). The origin of the methane is main- ly thermogenic, and only few concretions yielded δ{sup 1}3C values lower than -40 V-PDB, suggesting oxidation of microbial methane. Fluids involved in the carbonate precipitation are interpreted as being related to gas hydrate destabilisation (δ{sup 18}O fluid-V-SMOW values higher than +2%) and, to a lesser extent, modified seawater enriched in {sup 18}O due to rock-water interaction. Nevertheless, the highest δ{sup 1}8O fluid-V-SMOW values suggest that the influence of other deep-seated fluids due to clay-mineral dehydration cannot be ruled out. (Author)

  14. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  15. Plant walkdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report covers the following: preparatory steps for performing plant walk-down; the objective of the first plant walk-down; plant walk-down procedures; earthquake screening evaluation; walk-down documentation; second plant walk-down. The following objectives concerning the plant walk-down(s) were achieved. The plant system configuration is verified in order to proceed with event tree and fault tree analyses. Systems interactions, other types of dependencies or plant unique features are identified. he safety related components that are judged to generically possess high capacities (i.e., larger than the earthquake review level) have been verified to contain no weaknesses. Further analyses needed to establish the capacities of remaining safety-related components are identified and necessary field data are obtained. Information on components is obtained to assist in HCLPF (fragility) evaluation and peer review of the seismic margin study

  16. Aquatic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, T. V.; Sand-Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between terre...... terrestrial and aquatic environments continues today and is very intensive along stream banks. In this chapter we describe the physical and chemical barriers to the exchange of plants between land and water.......Aquatic fl owering plants form a relatively young plant group on an evolutionary timescale. The group has developed over the past 80 million years from terrestrial fl owering plants that re-colonised the aquatic environment after 60-100 million years on land. The exchange of species between...

  17. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  18. Plant embryogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Sacco C.; Weijers, Dolf

    2017-01-01

    Land plants are called ‘embryophytes’ and thus, their collective name is defined by their ability to form embryos. Indeed, embryogenesis is a widespread phenomenon in plants, and much of our diet is composed of embryos (just think of grains, beans or nuts; Figure 1). However, in addition to embryos

  19. Halmokhoz fűződő történeti és hiedelemmondák a Közép-Tiszántúlon - Historical Legends and Superstitions about the Mounds of the Middle-Transtisza Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDE, Ádám

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The world of myths and legends about the mounds of the Great Hungarian Plain is unbelievably rich. This article discusses the ancient mounds (especially the ‘kurgans’ in the area of the Körös-Maros National Park Directorate and in the Transtisza Region of Csongrád County and in Békés County. The population of this area was always intrigued by questions about the mounds, such as what they hide inside or who they were built by. Human imagination has kept the mysterious stories alive, though many legends or details have been lost, deformed or transformed during the centuries. In spite of the fact that the oral tradition of the Ottoman era is full of mysterious elements, such as castles, tunnels, buried treasure, dragons, shaman-priests (‘táltos’ and witches, the stories were frequently based on historical facts. In the present article, the most beautiful and most interesting pieces of these myths are cited. Our aim was to present one or two examples of every myth-category, in order to give an overall picture about the folklore of the region. We quote most of these stories word for word, so as to honour the informants and the sources and to reveal the unique atmosphere of these tales.

  20. Air sparging/high vacuum extraction to remove chlorinated solvents in groundwater and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Gilliat, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    An air sparging and high vacuum extraction was installed as an alternative to a containment pump and treat system to reduce the long-term remediation schedule. The site is located at the DOE Mound facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, just south of Dayton. The air sparging system consists of 23 wells interspersed between 17 soil vapor extraction wells. The SVE system has extracted about 1,500 lbs of VOCs in five months. The air sparging system operated for about 6 weeks before shutdown due to suspected biochemical fouling. Technical data are presented on the operating characteristics of the system

  1. Plant Macrofossils

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and environmental change derived from plant remains large enough to be seen without a microscope (macrofossils), such as leaves, needles,...

  2. T Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Arguably the second most historic building at Hanford is the T Plant.This facility is historic in that it's the oldest remaining nuclear facility in the country that...

  3. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  4. Alien plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    No-one’s ever travelled to an extrasolar planet, or even observed one that we’re sure harbours life. But if plants do exist on such alien worlds, we can have fun speculating what form they might take.

  5. Plant simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    A simulator of a reactor plant of the present invention comprises a plurality of distributed computers, an indication processing section and an operation section. The simulation calculation functions of various kinds of plant models in the plant are shared by the plurality of computers. The indication processing section controls collection of data of the plant simulated by the computers and instructions of an operator. The operation section is operated by the operator and the results of operation are transmitted to the indication processing section, to conduct operation trainings and display the results of the simulation. Each of the computers and the indication processing portion are connected with each other by a network having a memory for common use. Data such as the results of calculation of plant models and various kinds of parameters of the plant required commonly to the calculators and the indication processing section are stored in the common memory, and adapted to be used by way of the network. (N.H.)

  6. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANTS ON DECAYING WOOD AND ON TREE-FALL DISTURBANCES IN FORESTS IN THE KARKONOSZE MTS (SUDETEN, SW POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Staniaszek-Kik

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Three invasive anthropophytes, i.e. two vascular plants Digitalis purpurea L. and Impatiens parviflora DC. as well as one moss Orthodontium lineare Schwägr, were recorded on decaying wood and tree-fall disturbances (pit-mound-root plate complex. It contributes only 1.9% to the flora of analyzed habitats (1.1% of moss flora, 2.9% of vascular plant flora and 3.5% of neophytes known in Sudeten Mts. They grew, sporadically and with a low frequency, on 3.5% of studied objects (on 3.1% of decaying logs and stumps and 5.6% of tree-fall disturbances in all types of forest communities in the area of Karkonosze National Park and in the vicinity. Nowadays, invasive neophytes do not pose a threat to diversity of endangered epixylic flora. Described habitats seem to be resistant to penetration by anthropophytes.

  7. Plant automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Sackett, J.I.; Dayal, Y.; Wagner, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes work at EBR-II in the development and demonstration of new control equipment and methods and associated schemes for plant prognosis, diagnosis, and automation. The development work has attracted the interest of other national laboratories, universities, and commercial companies. New initiatives include use of new control strategies, expert systems, advanced diagnostics, and operator displays. The unique opportunity offered by EBR-II is as a test bed where a total integrated approach to automatic reactor control can be directly tested under real power plant conditions

  8. Plant intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipavská, Helena; Žárský, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The concept of plant intelligence, as proposed by Anthony Trewavas, has raised considerable discussion. However, plant intelligence remains loosely defined; often it is either perceived as practically synonymous to Darwinian fitness, or reduced to a mere decorative metaphor. A more strict view can be taken, emphasizing necessary prerequisites such as memory and learning, which requires clarifying the definition of memory itself. To qualify as memories, traces of past events have to be not only stored, but also actively accessed. We propose a criterion for eliminating false candidates of possible plant intelligence phenomena in this stricter sense: an “intelligent” behavior must involve a component that can be approximated by a plausible algorithmic model involving recourse to stored information about past states of the individual or its environment. Re-evaluation of previously presented examples of plant intelligence shows that only some of them pass our test. “You were hurt?” Kumiko said, looking at the scar. Sally looked down. “Yeah.” “Why didn't you have it removed?” “Sometimes it's good to remember.” “Being hurt?” “Being stupid.”—(W. Gibson: Mona Lisa Overdrive) PMID:19816094

  9. PLANT DIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  10. Design of radioisotope power systems facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschenbaum, R.C.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems currently produced for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Special Applications by the Mound Laboratory at Miamisburg, Ohio, have been used in a variety of configurations by the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A forecast of fugure radioisotope power systems requirements showed a need for an increased production rate beyond the capability of the existing Mound Laboratory. Westinghouse Hanford Company is modifying the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to install the new Radioisotope Power Systems Facility for assembling future radioisotope power systems. The facility is currently being prepared to assemble the radioisotope thermoelectric generators required by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions for Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby in 1995 and Cassini, an investigation of Saturn and its moons, in 1996

  11. Stress tolerant plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Vicente; Iniesto Sánchez, Elisa; Irigoyen Miguel, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to transgenic plants and methods for modulating abscisic acid (ABA) perception and signal transduction in plants. The plants find use in increasing yield in plants, particularly under abiotic stress.

  12. Transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River system and other rivers in the southern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.; Salter, P.F.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of fallout Pu has been studied in the sediments and water of the Mississippi River and eight other rivers. Plutonium content of the sediments is related to grain size and Fe and Mn content. Rivers in human climates show relatively high organic carbon (3 to 4%) and high /sup 239,240)Pu content (36 to 131 dpm/kg) in their suspended sediments. Dissolved Pu is very low in all the rivers; distribution coefficients vary from 10 4 to 10 5 . The 238 Pu//sup 239,240/Pu ratios are low in all the river sediments (∼.06) except the Miami River in Ohio, where ratios as high as 99 were measured. The high ratios originate from the Mound Laboratory Pu processing plant at Miamisburg, Ohio, and can be traced downstream to the junction with the Ohio River. Mississippi River suspended sediment shows a continual decrease of /sup 239,240/Pu content over a 7 year time period. An exponential curve best-fit through the data predicts a half time of decrease equal to 4.3 years. The decrease in Pu content of river sediment results from several factors: cessation of atmospheric weapons testing; transport of Pu to deeper levels of soil profiles; storage of sediment in flood plains and behind dams; and dilution by erosion by older, prebomb soil material. The amount of fallout Pu now removed from the Mississippi River drainage basin to the ocean is 11% as a maximum estimate. Most the fallout Pu in the Mississippi drainage basin will remain on the continent unless there are major changes in erosion and sediment transport patterns in the basin itself. 56 references, 7 figures, 2 tables

  13. Late Maastrichtian chalk mounds, Stevns Klint, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Damholt, Tove; Surlyk, Finn

    2007-01-01

    that were largely biological and associated with benthic growth and sediment trapping of mainly bryozoans. Examples of end-member conditions are known from Haute Normandy, France and the lower Danian of Stevns Klint. The structures described here adds to the considerable complexity of depositional styles...

  14. The Permeability of Rubble Mound Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, A.F.; Burcharth, H. F.; Adel, H. den

    1992-01-01

    . A new series of tests designed to test for deviations from the Forchheimer equation and investigate the effects of material shape are described. While no evidence can be found to indicate a deviation from the Forchheimer equation a dependency of permeability and the surface roughness the material...

  15. Plant Host Finding by Parasitic Plants: A New Perspective on Plant to Plant Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much d...

  16. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Post-fire interactions between soil water repellency, soil fertility and plant growth in soil collected from a burned piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, Kaitlynn J.; Madsen, Matthew D.; Hopkins, Bryan G.; Bansal, Sheel; Anderson, Val J.; Eggett, Dennis L.; Roundy, Bruce A.

    2017-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment can increase nutrient resources in the plant-mound zone. After a fire, this zone is often found to be water repellent. This study aimed to understand the effects of post-fire water repellency on soil water and inorganic nitrogen and their effects on plant growth of the introduced annual Bromus tectorum and native bunchgrass Pseudoroegneria spicata. Plots centered on burned Juniperus osteosperma trees were either left untreated or treated with surfactant to ameliorate water repellency. After two years, we excavated soil from the untreated and treated plots and placed it in zerotension lysimeter pots. In the greenhouse, half of the pots received an additional surfactant treatment. Pots were seeded separately with B. tectorum or P. spicata. Untreated soils had high runoff, decreased soilwater content, and elevated NO3eN in comparison to surfactant treated soils. The two plant species typically responded similar to the treatments. Above-ground biomass and microbial activity (estimated through soil CO2 gas emissions) was 16.8-fold and 9.5-fold higher in the surfactant-treated soils than repellent soils, respectably. This study demonstrates that water repellency can influence site recovery by decreasing soil water content, promoting inorganic N retention, and impairing plant growth and microbial activity.

  18. LNG plant combined with power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, I; Kikkawa, Y [Chiyoda Chemical Engineering and Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-06-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs.

  19. LNG plant combined with power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, I.; Kikkawa, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The LNG plant consumers a lot of power of natural gas cooling and liquefaction. In some LNG plant location, a rapid growth of electric power demand is expected due to the modernization of area and/or the country. The electric power demand will have a peak in day time and low consumption in night time, while the power demand of the LNG plant is almost constant due to its nature. Combining the LNG plant with power plant will contribute an improvement the thermal efficiency of the power plant by keeping higher average load of the power plant, which will lead to a reduction of electrical power generation cost. The sweet fuel gas to the power plant can be extracted from the LNG plant, which will be favorable from view point of clean air of the area. (Author). 5 figs

  20. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: a new perspective on plant to plant communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mescher, Mark C; Runyon, Justin B; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-11-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-documented examples of plant-to-plant communication via volatiles, and the ecological significance of such interactions has been much debated. To date, nearly all studies of volatile-mediated interactions among plant species have focused on the reception of herbivore-induced volatiles by neighboring plants. We recently documented volatile effects in another system, demonstrating that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona uses volatile cues to locate its hosts. This finding may broaden the discussion regarding plant-to-plant communication, and suggests that new classes of volatile-meditated interactions among plant species await discovery.

  1. Ancient plant remains with special reference to buckthorn, Frangula alnus Mill., pyrenes from Dascyleum, Balıkesir, NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Oybak Dönmez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbonized plant remains recovered from the ancient city Dascyleum (Daskyleion in the province of Balıkesir in northwestern Turkey provide an outline of several phases of plant use in archaic, Hellenistic, and medieval times. At the study site, various crop plant remains of Near Eastern agriculture, including cereals (barley, Hordeum vulgare L. and bread/durum/rivet wheat, Triticum aestivum L. / T. durum Desf. / T. turgidum L. and pulses [bitter vetch, Vicia ervilia (L. Willd.; grass pea, Lathyrus sativus L. / L. cicera L.; fava bean, V. faba L.; and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.] were found. Drupaceous fruits and pyrenes of buckthorn (Frangula alnus Mill. were also found, probably representing dyes and/or medicines used by the inhabitants of the mound. Archaeometrical analyses of the ancient buckthorn pyrenes by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA provide chemical evidence for traces of ancient mordants remaining until the present day. Some of the pulse seed remains retrieved from the medieval layers at the study site were found to have been infested by bruchid beetles (Bruchidae.

  2. Plant host finding by parasitic plants: A new perspective on plant to plant communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Mescher; Justin B. Runyon; Consuelo M. De Moraes

    2006-01-01

    Plants release airborne chemicals that can convey ecologically relevant information to other organisms. These plant volatiles are known to mediate a large array of, often complex, interactions between plants and insects. It has been suggested that plant volatiles may have similar importance in mediating interactions among plant species, but there are few well-...

  3. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, France

    2000-01-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  4. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, France

    2000-07-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  5. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  6. Gender in Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What is the difference between plant sex and plant gender? Why does stress .... environmental sex determination is often predictable. Sunlit patches favour .... ensures that these self-incompatible plants receive cross-pollen only. i emporal ...

  7. Engineered Plants as Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, C

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the research was the creation of a model biosensing plant that could detect plant diseases and to characterize the utility of laser induced fluorescence imaging for detecting the inducible (LIFI) plant signal...

  8. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects.

  9. Plants get sick too!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many people may never have given consideration to plant health, plants can suffer from a wide range of diseases. These plant diseases are caused by micro-organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The audience will be introduced to short case studies of several plant diseases that m...

  10. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  11. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  12. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  13. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  14. Plant Research '75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Research is reported on stomatal regulation of the gas exchanges between plant and environment; inhibitory effects in flower formation; plant growth and development through hormones; hormone action; development and nitrogen fixation in algae; primary cell wall glycoprotein ectensin; enzymic mechanisms and control of polysaccharide and glycoprotein synthesis; molecular studies of membrane studies; sensory transduction in plants; regulation of formation of protein complexes and enzymes in higher plant cell and mechanism of sulfur dioxide toxicity in plants. (PCS)

  15. The role of multiple partners in a digestive mutualism with a protocarnivorous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Aline Hiroko; Vasconcellos-Neto, João; Romero, Gustavo Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    The protocarnivorous plant Paepalanthus bromelioides (Eriocaulaceae) is similar to bromeliads in that this plant has a rosette-like structure that allows rainwater to accumulate in leaf axils (i.e. phytotelmata). Although the rosettes of P. bromelioides are commonly inhabited by predators (e.g. spiders), their roots are wrapped by a cylindrical termite mound that grows beneath the rosette. In this study it is predicted that these plants can derive nutrients from recycling processes carried out by termites and from predation events that take place inside the rosette. It is also predicted that bacteria living in phytotelmata can accelerate nutrient cycling derived from predators. The predictions were tested by surveying plants and animals, and also by performing field experiments in rocky fields from Serra do Cipó, Brazil, using natural abundance and enriched isotopes of (15)N. Laboratory bioassays were also conducted to test proteolytic activities of bacteria from P. bromelioides rosettes. Analyses of (15)N in natural nitrogen abundances showed that the isotopic signature of P. bromelioides is similar to that of carnivorous plants and higher than that of non-carnivorous plants in the study area. Linear mixing models showed that predatory activities on the rosettes (i.e. spider faeces and prey carcass) resulted in overall nitrogen contributions of 26·5 % (a top-down flux). Although nitrogen flux was not detected from termites to plants via decomposition of labelled cardboard, the data on (15)N in natural nitrogen abundance indicated that 67 % of nitrogen from P. bromelioides is derived from termites (a bottom-up flux). Bacteria did not affect nutrient cycling or nitrogen uptake from prey carcasses and spider faeces. The results suggest that P. bromelioides derive nitrogen from associated predators and termites, despite differences in nitrogen cycling velocities, which seem to have been higher in nitrogen derived from predators (leaves) than from termites (roots

  16. PLANT BIOPRINTING: NOVEL PERSPECTIVE FOR PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhityo WICAKSONO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioprinting is a technical innovation that has revolutionized tissue engineering. Using conventional printer cartridges filled with cells as well as a suitable scaffold, major advances have been made in the biomedical field, and it is now possible to print skin, bones, blood vessels, and even organs. Unlike animal systems, the application of bioprinting in simple plant tissue cells is still in a nascent phase and has yet to be studied. One major advantage of plants is that all living parts are reprogrammable in the form of totipotent cells. Plant bioprinting may improve scientists’understanding of plant shape and morphogenesis, and could serve for the mass production of desired tissues or plants, or even the production of plant-based biomaterial for industrial uses. This perspectives paper explores these possibilities using knowledge on what is known about bioprinting in other biosystems.

  17. Biosystem of seaweed beds coexisting with power plants; Denryoku hatsudensho to kyoseisuru moba no seitaikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    Recently, seaweed beds on the coasts of Japan are decreasing rapidly, and it has been demanded that they should be restored. As one of the restoring methods, plans are investigated to utilize coast structures near power plants and wave absorbing dykes, which are artificial seaweed beds with dense seaweed forests and offer favorable areas for living creatures, for the purpose of building new seaweed beds and marine pastures. For seaweed bed building projects, it is necessary to show the economical effect of seaweed beds. Recently, absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphoric acid dissolved in the sea has been attracting attention as a role of seaweed beds. Creation of Zostera beds is a difficult enterprise. The mound creation of the seaweed bed at Ikata, Aichi Prefecture, Japan is successful because there is a good seaweed bed in the periphery which can supply sufficient seeds (spores) to the bed. With the development of the seaweed bed, a concrete block rocky beach reef was developed which is provided with a function of dwelling places for shells and lobsters. The Fishery Ministry is promoting a large scale ocean pasture plan on the coast of Japan with the target period of the 21st century, and extension of seaweed bed areas is considered to be the major project. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Plutonium Plant, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, J.S.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The journey of Indian nuclear fuel reprocessing started with the commissioning of Plutonium Plant (PP) at Trombay on 22"n"d January, 1965 with an aim to reprocess the spent fuel from research reactor CIRUS. The basic process chosen for the plant was Plutonium Uranium Reduction EXtraction (PUREX) process. In seventies, the plant was subjected to major design modifications and replacement of hardware, which later met the additional demand from research reactor DHRUVA. The augmented plutonium plant has been operating since 1983. Experience gained from this plant was very much helpful to design future reprocessing plant in the country

  19. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  20. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  1. Plant tissue culture techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Dieter Illg

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell and tissue culture in a simple fashion refers to techniques which utilize either single plant cells, groups of unorganized cells (callus or organized tissues or organs put in culture, under controlled sterile conditions.

  2. Plant Tissue Culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Plant tissue culture is a technique of culturing plant cells, tissues and organs on ... working methods (Box 2) and discovery of the need for B vita- mins and auxins for ... Kotte (Germany) reported some success with growing isolated root tips.

  3. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Ecology and the Environ- ment, Bengaluru as ... remaining plants, it is an abiotic agent (abiotic pollination), .... tion was slow until the origin of flowering plants and evolution of ..... Although pollination is generally a mutual interaction in a major-.

  4. Plant proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaxiola, Roberto A.; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H+) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react...

  5. Terrestrial plant methane production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Bruhn, Dan; Møller, Ian M.

    We evaluate all experimental work published on the phenomenon of aerobic methane (CH4) generation in terrestrial plants. We conclude that the phenomenon is true. Four stimulating factors have been observed to induce aerobic plant CH4 production, i.e. cutting injuries, increasing temperature...... the aerobic methane emission in plants. Future work is needed for establishing the relative contribution of several proven potential CH4 precursors in plant material....

  6. Plant aquaporins: roles in plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Santoni, Véronique; Maurel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. Here, we present comprehensive insights made on plant aquaporins in recent years, pointing to their molecular and physiological specificities with respect to animal or microbial counterparts. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations and various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport by aquaporins of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide or metalloids such as boric or silicic acid. The mechanisms that determine the gating and subcellular localization of plant aquaporins are extensively studied. They allow aquaporin regulation in response to multiple environmental and hormonal stimuli. Thus, aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation and nutrient transport in roots and leaves. They contribute to several plant growth and developmental processes such as seed germination or emergence of lateral roots. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant resistance to stresses. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Aquaporins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plants under dual attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Though immobile, plants are members of complex environments, and are under constant threat from a wide range of attackers, which includes organisms such as insect herbivores or plant pathogens. Plants have developed sophisticated defenses against these attackers, and include chemical responses

  8. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  9. Fundaments of plant cybernetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucconi, F

    2001-01-01

    A systemic approach is proposed for analyzing plants' physiological organization and cybernesis. To this end, the plant is inspected as a system, starting from the integration of crown and root systems, and its impact on a number of basic epigenetic events. The approach proves to be axiomatic and facilitates the definition of the principles behind the plant's autonomous control of growth and reproduction.

  10. Plant or Animal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

  11. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  12. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-10-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant Physiology in Greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004 Ep Heuvelink and Tijs Kierkels have been writing a continuing series of plant physiology articles for the Dutch horticultural journal Onder Glas and the international edition In Greenhouses. The book Plant Physiology in Greenhouses consists of 50 of their plant physiology articles. The

  14. Plants and people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn Lynch

    2012-01-01

    Salal! Salmonberries! Sword ferns! The Northwest is home to a great number of native plant species that humans have used for centuries. Sadly, many local children are unaware of the history and culture connecting people and plants. Yet, from the beginning of time, plants have provided us food, medicine, and material for clothing, shelter, transportation, decoration,...

  15. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  16. Plants of the Bayshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachle, Leo; And Others

    This field guide gives pictures and descriptions of plants that can be found along the San Francisco Bayshore, especially along the Hayward shoreline. The plants are divided into three categories, those of the mud-flat zone, the drier zone, and the levee zone. Eighteen plants are represented in all. The guide is designed to be used alone, with an…

  17. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  18. Plant Breeding Goes Microbial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Jousset, Alexandre

    Plant breeding has traditionally improved traits encoded in the plant genome. Here we propose an alternative framework reaching novel phenotypes by modifying together genomic information and plant-associated microbiota. This concept is made possible by a novel technology that enables the

  19. Plant innate immunity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plants are invaded by an array of pathogens of which only a few succeed in causing disease. The attack by others is countered by a sophisticated immune system possessed by the plants. The plant immune system is broadly divided into two, viz. microbial-associated molecular-patterns-triggered immunity (MTI) and ...

  20. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  1. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  2. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  3. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  4. Photochemical smog and plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, T.

    1974-07-01

    Surveys of plant damage due to photochemical smog are summarized. The components of smog which appear to be responsible for plant damage include ozone and peroxyacyl nitrates. Their phytotoxic effects are much greater than those due to sulfur oxides. Damage surveys since 1970 reveal the following symptoms appearing on herbaceous plants (morning glory, cocks comb, dahlia, knotweed, petunia, chickweed, Welsh onion, spinach, Chinese cabbage, chard, taro): yellowish-white leaf discoloration, white and brown spots on matured leaves, and silvering of the lower surfaces of young leaves. Symptoms which appear on arboraceous plants such as zelkova, poplar, ginkgo, planetree, rose mallow, magnolia, pine tree, and rhododendron include early yellowing and reddening, white or brown spots, and untimely leaf-fall. The above plants are now utilized as indicator plants of photochemical smog. Surveys covering a broad area of Tokyo and three other prefectures indicate that plant damage due to photochemical smog extends to relatively unpolluted areas.

  5. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max

    Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive......, and widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  6. Reassessing apoptosis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Martin; Williams, Brett; Li, Yurong; de Figueiredo, Paul; Wolpert, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Cell death can be driven by a genetically programmed signalling pathway known as programmed cell death (PCD). In plants, PCD occurs during development as well as in response to environmental and biotic stimuli. Our understanding of PCD regulation in plants has advanced significantly over the past two decades; however, the molecular machinery responsible for driving the system remains elusive. Thus, whether conserved PCD regulatory mechanisms include plant apoptosis remains enigmatic. Animal apoptotic regulators, including Bcl-2 family members, have not been identified in plants but expression of such regulators can trigger or suppress plant PCD. Moreover, plants exhibit nearly all of the biochemical and morphological features of apoptosis. One difference between plant and animal PCD is the absence of phagocytosis in plants. Evidence is emerging that the vacuole may be key to removal of unwanted plant cells, and may carry out functions that are analogous to animal phagocytosis. Here, we provide context for the argument that apoptotic-like cell death occurs in plants.

  7. Safe genetically engineered plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale e Biotecnologie Agroambientali e Zootecniche, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, Borgo XX giugno 74, 06121 Perugia (Italy)

    2007-10-03

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  8. Safe genetically engineered plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosellini, D; Veronesi, F

    2007-01-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work

  9. [Intoxications with plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Jacqueline; Reichert, Cornelia

    2009-05-01

    Ingestions of plants rarely lead to life-threatening intoxications. Highly toxic plants, which can cause death, are monkshood (Aconitum sp.), yew (Taxus sp.) and autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale). Lethal ingestions of monkshood and yew are usually suicides, intoxications with autumn crocus are mostly accidental ingestions of the leaves mistaken for wild garlic (Allium ursinum). Severe intoxications can occur with plants of the nightshade family like deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), angel's trumpet (Datura suaveolens) or jimsonweed (Datura stramonium). These plants are ingested for their psychoactive effects. Ingestion of plant material by children most often only causes minor symptoms or no symptoms at all, as children usually do not eat great quantities of the plants. They are especially attracted by the colorful berries. There are plants with mostly cardiovascular effects like monkshood, yew and Digitalis sp. Some of the most dangerous plants belong to this group. Plants of the nightshade family cause an anticholinergic syndrome. With golden chain (Laburnum anagyroides), castor bean (Ricinus communis) and raw beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) we see severe gastrointestinal effects. Autumn crocus contains a cell toxin, colchicine, which leads to multiorgan failure. Different plants are irritative or even caustic to the skin. Treatment is usually symptomatic. Activated charcoal is administered within one hour after ingestion (1 g/kg). Endoscopic removal of plant material can be considered with ingestions of great quantities of highly toxic plants. Administration of repeated doses of charcoal (1-2 g/h every 2-4 hours) may be effective in case of oleander poisoning. There exist only two antidotes: Anti-digoxin Fab fragments can be used with cardenolide glycoside-containing plants (Digitalis sp., Oleander). Physostigmine is the antidote for severe anticholinergic symptoms of the CNS. Antibodies against colchicine, having been developed in France, are not available at

  10. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  11. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  12. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Annual Plant Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , three dimensional structures and functions of each protein in a biological system. In plant science, the number of proteome studies is rapidly expanding after the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence, and proteome analyses of other important or emerging model systems and crop plants...... are in progress or are being initiated. Proteome analysis in plants is subject to the same obstacles and limitations as in other organisms, but the nature of plant tissues, with their rigid cell walls and complex variety of secondary metabolites, means that extra challenges are involved that may not be faced when...... analysing other organisms. This volume aims to highlight the ways in which proteome analysis has been used to probe the complexities of plant biochemistry and physiology. It is aimed at researchers in plant biochemistry, genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics who wish to gain an up-to-date insight...

  14. Towards plant wires

    OpenAIRE

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self...

  15. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  16. Late Palaeozoic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo

    2017-09-11

    Land plants are one of the major constituents of terrestrial ecosystems on Earth, and play an irreplaceable role in human activities today. If we are to understand the extant plants, it is imperative that we have some understanding of the fossil plants from the deep geological past, particularly those that occurred during their early evolutionary history, in the late Palaeozoic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  18. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  19. Towards plant wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2014-08-01

    In experimental laboratory studies we evaluate a possibility of making electrical wires from living plants. In scoping experiments we use lettuce seedlings as a prototype model of a plant wire. We approximate an electrical potential transfer function by applying direct current voltage to the lettuce seedlings and recording output voltage. We analyse oscillation frequencies of the output potential and assess noise immunity of the plant wires. Our findings will be used in future designs of self-growing wetware circuits and devices, and integration of plant-based electronic components into future and emergent bio-hybrid systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  1. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  2. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  3. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  4. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  6. Better Plants Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  7. Plant Glandular Trichomes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    landing on the plant. Glandular trichomes in catmint (Nepeta sp.) produce nepetalactone, closely related to the aphid sex pheromone, nepetalactol. Nepetalactone can be reduced to the corresponding nepetalactol. ... Plant glandular trichomes function either as repositories or releasing sites of various chemicals. Interest in ...

  8. Plants as green phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soler, R.; Harvey, J.A.; Bezemer, T.M.; Stuefer, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Plants can act as vertical communication channels or `green phones¿ linking soil-dwelling insects and insects in the aboveground ecosystem. When root-feeding insects attack a plant, the direct defense system of the shoot is activated, leading to an accumulation of phytotoxins in the leaves. The

  9. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  10. Redox signaling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Noctor, Graham

    2013-06-01

    Our aim is to deliver an authoritative and challenging perspective of current concepts in plant redox signaling, focusing particularly on the complex interface between the redox and hormone-signaling pathways that allow precise control of plant growth and defense in response to metabolic triggers and environmental constraints and cues. Plants produce significant amounts of singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of photosynthetic electron transport and metabolism. Such pathways contribute to the compartment-specific redox-regulated signaling systems in plant cells that convey information to the nucleus to regulate gene expression. Like the chloroplasts and mitochondria, the apoplast-cell wall compartment makes a significant contribution to the redox signaling network, but unlike these organelles, the apoplast has a low antioxidant-buffering capacity. The respective roles of ROS, low-molecular antioxidants, redox-active proteins, and antioxidant enzymes are considered in relation to the functions of plant hormones such as salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and auxin, in the composite control of plant growth and defense. Regulation of redox gradients between key compartments in plant cells such as those across the plasma membrane facilitates flexible and multiple faceted opportunities for redox signaling that spans the intracellular and extracellular environments. In conclusion, plants are recognized as masters of the art of redox regulation that use oxidants and antioxidants as flexible integrators of signals from metabolism and the environment.

  11. Cognition in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calvo, P.; Keijzer, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    To what extent can plants be considered cognitive from the perspective of embodied cognition? Cognition is interpreted very broadly within embodied cognition, and the current evidence for plant intelligence might find an important theoretical background here. However, embodied cognition does stress

  12. Invertebrates and Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell R. Haag; Robert J. Distefano; Siobhan Fennessy; Brett D. Marshall

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrates and plants are among the most ubiquitous and abundant macroscopic organisms in aquatic ecosystems; they dominate most habitats in both diversity and biomass and play central roles in aquatic food webs. Plants regulate and create habitats for a wide array of organisms (Cooke et al. 2005). Snail grazing and bivalve filtering profoundly alter habitats and...

  13. Modulating lignin in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  14. Recognizing Plant Defense Priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, Ainhoa; Flors, Victor; Heil, Martin; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Pieterse, Corné M J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113115113; Pozo, Maria J; Ton, Jurriaan; van Dam, Nicole M; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  15. Exotic invasive plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn Hull Sieg; Barbara G. Phillips; Laura P. Moser

    2003-01-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened by nonnative plant invasions that can cause undesirable, irreversible changes. They can displace native plants and animals, out-cross with native flora, alter nutrient cycling and other ecosystem functions, and even change an ecosystem's flammability (Walker and Smith 1997). After habitat loss, the spread of exotic species is...

  16. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Every plant requires mineral elements for growth. A mnemonic ... lar coils. More commonly, the hypha forms highly branched, .... stamps on the edible and poisonous mushrooms (Figure 2). One of the ... but these days dogs are used for truffle. 'hunting' . .... example is a non-chlorophyllous plant known as Indian pipe or.

  17. Dormancy in Plant Seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, H.W.M.; Finch-Savage, W.E.; Buitink, J.; Bolingue, W.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2010-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been studied intensely over the past decades and, at present, knowledge of this plant trait is at the forefront of plant biology. The main model species is Arabidopsis thaliana, an annual weed, possessing nondeep physiological dormancy. This overview presents the state-of-the-art

  18. Slavery in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabiri, S.; Rodenburg, J.; Ast, van A.; Bastiaans, L.

    2017-01-01

    The rain-fed lowland rice weed Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Rice Vampireweed) is a facultative root parasitic plant. Growth and reproduction of R. fistulosa benefit considerably from parasitism, but how this affects the host plant is not well established. We determined accumulation and partitioning of

  19. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  20. Plant diagnosis device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  1. Methylome evolution in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over

  2. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Tam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic, lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms.

  3. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  4. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  5. Caladium plant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enough to prevent normal speaking and swallowing. Home Care If the plant was eaten, wipe out the mouth with a ... to Expect at the Emergency Room Take the plant with you to the hospital, if possible. The health care provider will measure and monitor the person's vital ...

  6. Gold in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girling, C.A.; Peterson, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    Many plants have the ability to take up gold from the soil and to accumulate it in their tisssue. Advances have been made in understanding these processes to the point where their exploitation in the field of prospecting for gold appears practically feasible. Neutron activation analysis is used for the determination of the small quantities of gold in plants

  7. Recognizing plant defense priming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Medina, A.; Flors, V.; Heil, M.; Mauch-Mani, B.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Pozo, M.J.; Ton, J.; Van Dam, N.M.; Conrath, U.

    2016-01-01

    Defense priming conditions diverse plant species for the superinduction of defense, often resulting in enhanced pest and disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance. Here, we propose a guideline that might assist the plant research community in a consistent assessment of defense priming in

  8. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  9. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  10. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  11. Plants and fluorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garber, K

    1962-01-01

    A report is given about the contents of fluorine in soil and different plants. It is stated that spinach and several spice herbages are rich in fluorine (0.98 - 21.8 ppm) while in other plants are not more than 5 ppm maximum. An exception is found in Thea sinensis with 178 ppm and more. Tea is, therefore, a source of fluorine for contamination of the human body. An increase of the fluorine contents of plants by manuring with F-salts or mineral manure is possible but of long duration. Damage to plants by uptake of fluorine from soil as well as in a gaseous condition from the atmosphere are described. The rate of damage is related to the type of soil in which the plant is grown.

  12. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  13. Protein carbonylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ian Max; Havelund, Jesper; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of the current knowledge on protein carbonylation in plants and its role in plant physiology. It starts with a brief outline of the turnover and production sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants and the causes of protein carbonylation. This is followed...... by a description of the methods used to study protein carbonylation in plants, which is also very brief as the methods are similar to those used in studies on animals. The chapter also focuses on protein carbonylation in plants in general and in mitochondria and in seeds in particular, as case stories where...... specific carbonylated proteins have been identified. Protein carbonylation appears to accumulate at all stages of seed development and germination investigated to date. In some cases, such as seed aging, it is probably simply an accumulation of oxidative damage. However, in other cases protein...

  14. Plant control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masuo; Ono, Makoto.

    1995-01-01

    A plant control device comprises an intellectual instrumentation group for measuring a predetermined process amount, an intellectual equipment group operating in accordance with a self-countermeasure, a system information space for outputting system information, a system level monitoring and diagnosing information generalization section for outputting system information, a system level maintenance information generalization section for outputting information concerning maintenance, a plant level information space and a plant level information generalization section. Each of them determines a state of the plant autonomously, and when abnormality is detected, each of the intellectual instrumentation, equipments and systems exchange information with each other, to conduct required operations including operations of intellectual robots, as required. Appropriate countermeasures for gauges, equipments and systems can be conducted autonomously at a place where operators can not access to improve reliability of complicate operations in the working site, as well as improve plant safety and reliability. (N.H.)

  15. Plant abnormality inspection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a plant abnormality inspection device for conducting remote or automatic patrolling inspection in a plant and, more particularly, relates to such a device as capable of detecting abnormal odors. That is, the device comprises a moving device for moving to a predetermined position in the plant, a plurality of gas sensors for different kind of gases to be inspected mounted thereon, a comparator for comparing the concentration of a gas detected by the gas sensor with the normal gas concentration at the predetermined position and a judging means for judging the absence or presence of abnormality depending on the combination of the result of the comparison and deliverying a signal if the state is abnormal. As a result, a slight amount of gas responsible to odors released upon abnormality of the plant can be detected by a plurality of gas sensors for different kinds gases to rapidly and easily find abnormal portions in the plant. (I.S.)

  16. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)

  17. Manganese deficiency in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Jensen, Poul Erik; Husted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential plant micronutrient with an indispensable function as a catalyst in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII). Even so, Mn deficiency frequently occurs without visual leaf symptoms, thereby masking the distribution and dimension of the problem...... restricting crop productivity in many places of the world. Hence, timely alleviation of latent Mn deficiency is a challenge in promoting plant growth and quality. We describe here the key mechanisms of Mn deficiency in plants by focusing on the impact of Mn on PSII stability and functionality. We also address...... the mechanisms underlying the differential tolerance towards Mn deficiency observed among plant genotypes, which enable Mn-efficient plants to grow on marginal land with poor Mn availability....

  18. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  19. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-01

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate report

  20. Encapsulation plant at Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, Anders

    2007-08-15

    SKB has already carried out a preliminary study of an encapsulation plant detached from Clab (Central interim storage for spent fuels). This stand-alone encapsulation plant was named FRINK and its assumed siting was the above-ground portion of the final repository, irrespective of the repository's location. The report previously presented was produced in cooperation with BNFL Engineering Ltd in Manchester and the fuel reception technical solution was examined by Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (GNS) in Hannover and by Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) in Paris. This report is an update of the earlier preliminary study report and is based on the assumption that the encapsulation plant and also the final repository will be sited in the Forsmark area. SKB's main alternative for siting the encapsulation plant is next to Clab. Planning of this facility is ongoing and technical solutions from the planning work have been incorporated in this report. An encapsulation plant placed in proximity to any final repository in Forsmark forms part of the alternative presentation in the application for permission to construct and operate an installation at Clab. The main technical difference between the planned encapsulation plant at Clab and an encapsulation plant at a final repository at Forsmark is how the fuel is managed and prepared before actual encapsulation. Fuel reception at the encapsulation plant in Forsmark would be dry, i.e. there would be no water-filled pools at the facility. Clab is used for verificatory fuel measurements, sorting and drying of the fuel before transport to Forsmark. This means that Clab will require a measure of rebuilding and supplementary equipment. In purely technical terms, the prospects for building an encapsulation plant sited at Forsmark are good. A description of the advantages and drawbacks of siting the encapsulation plant at Clab as opposed to any final repository at Forsmark is presented in a separate

  1. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Final report, August 3, 1993 - September 15, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The ELECTROSORB reg-sign open-quotes Cclose quotes process is an electrokinetic process for decontaminating concrete. ELECTROSORB reg-sign open-quotes Cclose quotes uses a carpet-like extraction pad which is placed on the contaminated concrete surface. An electrolyte solution is circulated from a supporting module. This module keeps the electrolyte solution clean. The work is advancing through the engineering development stage with steady progress toward a full scale demonstration unit which will be ready for incorporation in the DOE Large Scale Demonstration Program by Summer 1997. A demonstration was carried out at the Mound Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio, in June 1996. Third party verification by EG ampersand G verified the effectiveness of the process. Results of this work and the development work that proceeded are described herein

  2. GPHS-RTG performance on the Galileo mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemler, R.J.; Cockfield, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Galileo spacecraft, launched in October, 1989, is powered by two General Purpose Heat source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTGs). These RTGs were designed, built, and tested by General Electric under contract from the Office of Special Applications of the Department of Energy (DOE). Isotope heat source installation and additional testing of these RTGs were performed at DOE's EG ampersand G Mound Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio. This paper provides a report on performance of the RTGs during launch and the early phases of the eight year Galileo mission.The effect of long term storage of the RTGs on power output, since the originally scheduled launch data in May, 1986, will be dicussed, including the effects of helium buildup and subsequent purging with xenon. The RTGs performed as expected during the launch transient, met all specified power requirements for Beginning of Mission (BOM), and continue to follow prediced performance characteristics during the first year of the Galileo mission

  3. Biofuelled heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Wennerstaal, L.; Zethraeus, B.; Johansson, Bert-Aake

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to serve as a basis to enable establishment and operation of small and medium-sized bio-fuel plants, district heating plants and local district heating plants. Furthermore, the purpose of this report is to serve as a guideline and basis when realizing projects, from the first concept to established plant. Taking into account all the phases, from selection of heating system, fuel type, selection of technical solutions, authorization request or application to operate a plant, planning, construction and buying, inspection, performance test, take-over and control system of the plant. Another purpose of the report is to make sure that best available technology is used and to contribute to continuous development of the technology. The report deals mainly with bio-fuelled plants in the effect range 0.3 to10 MW. The term 'plant' refers to combined power and heating plants as well as 'simpler' district heating plants. The last-mentioned is also often referred to as 'local heating plant'. In this context, the term bio fuel refers to a wide range of fuel types. The term bio fuel includes processed fractions like powders, pellets, and briquettes along with unprocessed fractions, such as by-products from the forest industry; chips and bark. Bio fuels also include straw, energy crops and cereal waste products, but these have not been expressly studied in this report. The report is structured with appendixes regarding the various phases of the projects, with the purpose of serving as a helping handbook, or manual for new establishment, helping out with technical and administrative advice and environmental requirements. Plants of this size are already expanding considerably, and the need for guiding principles for design/technology and environmental requirements is great. These guiding principles should comply with the environmental legislation requirements, and must contain advice and recommendations for bio fuel plants in this effect range, also in

  4. Populations in clonal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Tammisola

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Population phenomena in higher plants are reviewed critically, particularly in relation to clonality. An array of concepts used in the field are discussed. In contrast to animals, higher plants are modular in structure. Plant populations show hierarchy at two levels: ramets and genets. In addition, their demography is far more complicated, since even the direction of development of a ramet may change by rejuvenation. Therefore, formulae concerning animal populations often require modification for plants. Furthermore, at the zygotic stage, higher plants are generally less mobile than animals. Accordingly, their population processes tend to be more local. Most populations of plants have a genetic structure: alleles and genotypes are spatially aggregated. Due to the short-ranged foraging behaviour of pollinators, genetically non-random pollination prevails. A generalized formula for parent-offspring dispersal variance is derived. It is used to analyze the effect of clonality on genetic patchiness in populations. In self-compatible species, an increase in clonality will tend to increase the degree of patchiness, while in self-incompatible species a decrease may result. Examples of population structure studies in different species are presented. A considerable degree of genetic variation appears to be found also in the populations of species with a strong allocation of resources to clonal growth or apomictic seed production. Some consequences of clonality are considered from the point of view of genetic conservation and plant breeding.

  5. Experimental mutagenesis in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conger, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in directed or controlled mutagenesis with bacterial systems, the genetic resolving power of which is much greater than that of higher plants. The mutagen specificity in higher plants has been of great interest, and numerous results and observations have been reported. The advances in the culture of plant cells and tissues have created much interest concerning the possibility of inducing and recovering mutants at the cellular level. There are great problems including the failure to regenerate plants from cells in all but a few species. The genetic and cytogenetic instability in the culture of plant tissues is well known, and the most common nuclear change is polyploidy including aneuploidy. The degree of polyploidy increases with calluses or culture age. In rice, the frequency of aneuploidy is greater in the calluses derived from roots than those derived from stem internodes. Polyploid and/or self-incompatible plant species are not as amenable to conventional mutation breeding techniques as diploid, self-fertilizing species. Inducing mutations in somatic tissues creates the problem of chimeras. However, the new cultivars of highly heterozygous, outcrossing, self-incompatible species are produced by combining several different clones. The performance of the progeny of at least 4 generations removed from the polycross of the parent clones is the important factor, and a high amount of heterozygocity is tolerated within cultivars and even on the same plants. (Yamashita, S.)

  6. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  7. Physiology of woody plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hazewinkel, Michiel; Pallardy, Stephen G

    1996-01-01

    This completely revised classic volume is an up-to-date synthesis of the intensive research devoted to woody plants. Intended primarily as a text for students and a reference for researchers, this interdisciplinary book should be useful to a broad range of scientists from agroforesters, agronomists, and arborists to plant pathologists, ecophysiologists, and soil scientists. Anyone interested in plant physiology will find this text invaluable. Key Features * Includes supplementary chapter summaries and lists of general references * Provides a solid foundation of reference information * Thoroughly updated classic text/reference.

  8. Interelement correlations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, B.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of 25 elements in 4 plant species (Citrus aurantia, Brassica oleracea, Lycopersicon esculentum and Pinus strobus) were linearly correlated. For some element pairs (Ce-Fe, Ce-Ni, Ce-Sb, Ce-Sc, Ce-Zn, Fe-Sb, Fe-Sc, Fe-U, Fe-Zn, K-Cd, La-U, Ni-Sb, Sc-U and Sc-Zn) a high positive correlation coefficient (r = +1) was found. The element pairs Ca-Mg, Hg-U, Ni-Sr and Sr-Zn show a significant negative correlation (r = -1). Plants seem to process some constant interelement relations, independent of plant species. (orig.)

  9. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of {gamma}-ray. (author)

  10. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  11. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Lee, Byung Hun; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    2000-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as subsequent high doses of radiation or Phytophthora blight of pepper could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with different dose of γ-ray. (author)

  12. Nuclear power plants maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plants maintenance now appears as an important factor contributing to the competitivity of nuclea energy. The articles published in this issue describe the way maintenance has been organized in France and how it led to an actual industrial activity developing and providing products and services. An information note about Georges Besse uranium enrichment plant (Eurodif) recalls that maintenance has become a main data not only for power plants but for all nuclear industry installations. (The second part of this dossier will be published in the next issue: vol. 1 January-February 1989) [fr

  13. Optofluidics of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Psaltis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  14. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  15. Radiation hormesis in plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose γ-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of γ-ray

  16. Coal gasification plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-29

    The proposal concerns a stage in the process of cooling the synthetic gas produced in a coal gasification plant at temperatures above 900/sup 0/C. The purpose is to keep the convection heating surface of the subsequent waste heat plant free of dirt. According to the invention, the waste heat plant has a radiation area connected before it, on the heating surfaces of which the slack carried over solidifies. This radiation area has a hydraulic and thermal cleaning system, which can be raised or lowered in a water bath. The subclaims concern all the constructional characteristics of this cleaning system, which causes the solidified slack to crack.

  17. TOR signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexin, Daniel; Meyer, Christian; Robaglia, Christophe; Veit, Bruce

    2015-08-15

    Although the eukaryotic TOR (target of rapamycin) kinase signalling pathway has emerged as a key player for integrating nutrient-, energy- and stress-related cues with growth and metabolic outputs, relatively little is known of how this ancient regulatory mechanism has been adapted in higher plants. Drawing comparisons with the substantial knowledge base around TOR kinase signalling in fungal and animal systems, functional aspects of this pathway in plants are reviewed. Both conserved and divergent elements are discussed in relation to unique aspects associated with an autotrophic mode of nutrition and adaptive strategies for multicellular development exhibited by plants. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  18. Radiation hormesis in plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Song, Hi Sup; Lee, Young Keun; Cun, Ki Jung; Shin, In Chul; Lim, Young Taek

    1999-04-01

    This research was performed to investigate the effects of low dose {gamma}-ray radiation on the seed germination and the following physiological responses in vegetable crops. Special attention was focused on whether the resistance of vegetables against the unfavorable conditions of environment such as acid rain or soil types could be enhanced as an aspect of radiation hormesis. Analysis and characterization of antioxidant enzyme from plant culture cells and radiation tolerant of transformed plants from antioxidant enzyme (POD) were accomplished in the plant irradiated with difference dosage of {gamma}-ray.

  19. Nuclear power plant outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) controls nuclear power plant safety in Finland. In addition to controlling the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants, STUK also controls refuelling and repair outages at the plants. According to section 9 of the Nuclear Energy Act (990/87), it shall be the licence-holder's obligation to ensure the safety of the use of nuclear energy. Requirements applicable to the licence-holder as regards the assurance of outage safety are presented in this guide. STUK's regulatory control activities pertaining to outages are also described

  20. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Kelly D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Ganni, Venkatarao [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Knudsen, Peter N. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Casagranda, Fabio [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  1. Plant-soil feedbacks: role of plant functional group and plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortois, R.; Schröder-Georgi, T.; Weigelt, A.; van der Putten, W.H.; De Deyn, G.B.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF), plant trait and functional group concepts advanced our understanding of plant community dynamics, but how they are interlinked is poorly known. To test how plant functional groups (FGs: graminoids, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes) and plant traits relate to PSF, we grew

  2. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    known to improve plant growth in many ways when compared to ... roles in agricultural productivity. ... Sustainable agriculture: Sustainable agriculture involves the successful management of agricultural re- ... For the first time Kloepper et al.

  3. KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Hummel, R.; Oelmann, K.

    1986-01-01

    The KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is a real time engineering simulator based on the KWU computer programs used in plant transient analysis and licensing. The primary goal is to promote the understanding of the technical and physical processes of a nuclear power plant at an on-site training facility. Thus the KWU Nuclear Plant Analyzer is available with comparable low costs right at the time when technical questions or training needs arise. This has been achieved by (1) application of the transient code NLOOP; (2) unrestricted operator interaction including all simulator functions; (3) using the mainframe computer Control Data Cyber 176 in the KWU computing center; (4) four color graphic displays controlled by a dedicated graphic computer, no control room equipment; and (5) coupling of computers by telecommunication via telephone

  4. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  5. Ferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes ferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  6. Nonferrous Metal Processing Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes nonferrous metal processing plants in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  7. Plutonium Finishing Plant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Plutonium Finishing Plant, also known as PFP, represented the end of the line (the final procedure) associated with plutonium production at Hanford.PFP was also...

  8. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  9. Bituminization plant Jaslovske Bohunice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In this leaflet the principle of the bituminization plant for radioactive concentrate (the intermediate liquid radioactive waste generated during the NPP A1, V-1, V-2 operations) solidification used in the Bohunice Radwaste Treatment Centre (BSC RAO) is presented

  10. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  11. Biogas plants; Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the KRdL expert meeting at 30th October, 2012 in Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) New requirements on biomass conversion plants based on the Federal Nuisance Control Ordinance (Hans-Peter Ewens); (2) State of the art of the operation of biomass conversion plants (Christina Dornack); (3) Implementation of the regulation VDI 3475 sheet 4 (Markus Helm); (4) Handling of constraints of residents in the licensing procedure as well as during operation (Helmar Hentschke); (5) Explosion protection for biomass conversion plants considering the matters of immission control (Michael Faber); (6) Microbiological and epidemic-hygienic aspects of agricultural biomass conversion plants and their fermentation residues (Werner Philipp); (7) Emissions of climatic relevant gases at the biogas production (Jacqueline Daniel-Gromke); (8) State of the art in the biogas processing (Joachim Krassowski).

  12. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  13. Nuclear power plant decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaziz Yunus

    1986-01-01

    A number of issues have to be taken into account before the introduction of any nuclear power plant in any country. These issues include reactor safety (site and operational), waste disposal and, lastly, the decommissioning of the reactor inself. Because of the radioactive nature of the components, nuclear power plants require a different approach to decommission compared to other plants. Until recently, issues on reactor safety and waste disposal were the main topics discussed. As for reactor decommissioning, the debates have been academic until now. Although reactors have operated for 25 years, decommissioning of retired reactors has simply not been fully planned. But the Shippingport Atomic Power Plant in Pennysylvania, the first large scale power reactor to be retired, is now being decommissioned. The work has rekindled the debate in the light of reality. Outside the United States, decommissioning is also being confronted on a new plane. (author)

  14. Advanced stellarator power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies

  15. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  16. Fertilization in Flowering Plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ecology and the. Environment ... agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- .... the embryo sac are referred to as pollen-pistil interaction and play ..... evolutionary success of flowering plants when compared to other groups of ...

  17. Competition between herbage plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de C.T.; Bergh, van den J.P.

    1965-01-01

    Starting from work with annuals a model of competition between herbage plants is discussed. It is shown that their mutual interference can only be described adequately if they are grown in mixture and also in monoculture

  18. Photomorphogenesis in plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendrick, Richard E; Kronenberg, G. H. M

    1994-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ... VII VIII XXXI Part 1 Introduction 1. Introduction by Lars Olof Bjorn 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 A developing research field ... Plant vision...

  19. Reprocessing plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.G.; Leighton, C.; Millington, D.

    1989-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield site consists of a number of relatively self-contained activities carried out in separate plants across the site. The physical conditions and time scales applied in reprocessing and storage make it relatively benign. The potential for minor releases of radioactivity under fault conditioning is minimised by plant design definition of control procedures, training and supervision. The risks to both the general public and workforce are shown to be low with all the safety criteria being met. Normal operating conditions also have the potential for some occupational radiation exposure and the plant and workers are monitored continuously. Exposure levels have been reduced steadily and will continue to fall with plant improvements. (U.K.)

  20. International power plant business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohe, R.

    1986-03-03

    At the Brown Boveri press seminar 'Energy' in Baden-Baden Rainer Grohe, member of the Brown Boveri board, Mannheim, gave a survey of the activities on the international power plant market in recent years. He showed the vacuities which must be taken into account in this sector today. The drastic escalation of demands on power plant suppliers has lead not to a reduction of protagonists but to an increase. (orig.).