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Sample records for mould rapid infiltration

  1. Anti-stiction coating of PDMS moulds for rapid microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    ), which resulted in an anti-stiction layer for the improved release after PDMS casting. The deposition of FDTS on an O2 plasma-activated surface of PDMS produced a reproducible and well-performing anti-stiction monolayer of fluorocarbon, and we used the FDTS-coated moulds as micro-masters for rapid......In this paper, we report a simple and precise method to rapidly replicate master structures for fast microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A PDMS mould was surface-treated by vapour phase deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS...

  2. COMPARISON OF POLYJET PRINTING AND SILICON MOULDING AS RAPID PLASTIC MOULDING SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Singh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to compare two rapid molding (RM solutions, namely polyjet printing (PP and silicon molding (SM, for the manufacture of plastic components. The comparison has been made on the basis of dimensional accuracy (as per IT grades, mechanical properties (namely surface hardness, surface roughness and production cost. The comparison of the experimental results will serve as a yard stick for the further selection of processes for industrial applications.

  3. Effect of moulding sand on statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solution for zinc alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rupinder [Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana (India)

    2010-08-15

    The purpose of the present investigations is to study the effect of moulding sand on decreasing shell wall thickness of mould cavities for economical and statistically controlled hybrid rapid casting solutions (combination of three dimensional printing and conventional sand casting) for zinc alloys. Starting from the identification of component/ benchmark, technological prototypes were produced at different shell wall thicknesses supported by three different types of sands (namely: dry, green and molasses). Prototypes prepared by the proposed process are for assembly check purpose and not for functional validation of the parts. The study suggested that a shell wall with a less than recommended thickness (12mm) is more suitable for dimensional accuracy. The best dimensional accuracy was obtained at 3mm shell wall thickness with green sand. The process was found to be under statistical control

  4. Rapid preparation of ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings with magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tingzhong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-bonded investments have already been widely utilized in dental restoration and micro-casting of artistic products for its outstanding rapid setting and high strength. However, the rapid setting rate of investment slurry has up to now been a barrier to extend the use of such slurry in preparation of medium-sized ceramic moulds. This paper proposes a new process of rapid fabrication of magnesia-phosphate-bonded investment ceramic moulds for medium-sized superalloy castings utilizing bauxite and mullite as refractory aggregates. In order to determine the properties of magnesia-phosphate-bonded bauxite-mullite investments (MPBBMI, a series of experiments were conducted, including modification of the workable time of slurry by liquid(mL/powder(g(L/P ratio and addition of boric acid as retard agent and sodium tri-polyphosphate (STP as strengthening agent, and adjustment of bauxite (g/mullite(g(B/M ratio for mechanical strength. Mechanical vibration was applied to improve initial setting time and fluidity when pouring investment slurry; then an intermediate size ceramic mould for superalloy castings was manufactured by means of this rapid preparing process with MPBBMI material. The results showed that the MPBBMI slurry exhibits proper initial setting time and excellent fluidity when the L/P ratio is 0.64 and the boric acid content is 0.88wt.%. The fired specimens made from the MPBBMI material demonstrated adequate compression strength to withstand impact force of molten metal when the B/M ratio is 0.89 and the STP content is 0.92wt.%. The experimental results confirmed the feasibility of the proposed rapid fabricating process for medium-sized ceramic moulds with MPBBMI material by appropriate measures.

  5. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, K.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final quality of the cast tool. The best surface finish obtained for the cast die had arithmetic average roughness (Ra and mean average roughness (Rz respectively equal to 3.23m and 11.38m. In terms of dimensional accuracy, 82% of cast-die points coincided with the Computer Aided Design (CAD data, which is within the typical tolerances of sand cast products. The investigation shows that mould coating contributes slightly to the improvement of the cast tool surface finish. The study also found that the additive manufacturing of the sand mould was the chief factor responsible for the loss of dimensional accuracy. These findings indicate that machining will always be required to improve the surface finish and the dimensional accuracy of cast tools in RP sand moulds.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF SURFACE FINISH AND DIMENSIONAL ACCURACY OF TOOLS MANUFACTURED BY METAL CASTING IN RAPID PROTOTYPING SAND MOULDS

    OpenAIRE

    Nyembwe, K.; De Beer, D. J.; Van der Walt, J. G.; Bhero, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an initial assessment of the quality parameters of the surface finish and dimensional accuracy of tools made by metal casting in rapid prototyping (RP) sand moulds is undertaken. A case study from a local tool room, dealing with the manufacturing of an aluminium die for the lost wax process, is employed. Modern techniques, including surface roughness analysis and three dimensional scanning, are used to determine and understand how each manufacturing step influences the final qu...

  7. Rapid enumeration of low numbers of moulds in tea based drinks using an automated system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouichi; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Baba, Takashi; Amano, Norihide; Nasu, Masao

    2011-01-31

    Aseptically prepared cold drinks based on tea have become popular worldwide. Contamination of these drinks with harmful microbes is a potential health problem because such drinks are kept free from preservatives to maximize aroma and flavour. Heat-tolerant conidia and ascospores of fungi can survive pasteurization, and need to be detected as quickly as possible. We were able to rapidly and accurately detect low numbers of conidia and ascospores in tea-based drinks using fluorescent staining followed by an automated counting system. Conidia or ascospores were inoculated into green tea and oolong tea, and samples were immediately filtered through nitrocellulose membranes (pore size: 0.8 μm) to concentrate fungal propagules. These were transferred onto potato dextrose agar and incubated for 23 h at 28 °C. Fungi germinating on the membranes were fluorescently stained for 30 min. The stained mycelia were counted selectively within 90s using an automated counting system (MGS-10LD; Chuo Electric Works, Osaka, Japan). Very low numbers (1 CFU/100ml) of conidia or ascospores could be rapidly counted, in contrast to traditional labour intensive techniques. All tested mould strains were detected within 24h while conventional plate counting required 72 h for colony enumeration. Counts of slow-growing fungi (Cladosporium cladosporioides) obtained by automated counting and by conventional plate counting were close (r(2) = 0.986). Our combination of methods enables counting of both fast- and slow-growing fungi, and should be useful for microbiological quality control of tea-based and also other drinks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  9. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid identification of moulds and arthroconidial yeasts from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, João N; Sztajnbok, Jaques; da Silva, Afonso Rafael; Vieira, Vinicius Adriano; Galastri, Anne Layze; Bissoli, Leandro; Litvinov, Nadia; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro; Motta, Adriana Lopes; Rossi, Flávia; Benard, Gil

    2016-11-01

    Moulds and arthroconidial yeasts are potential life-threatening agents of fungemia in immunocompromised patients. Fast and accurate identification (ID) of these pathogens hastens initiation of targeted antifungal therapy, thereby improving the patients' prognosis. We describe a new strategy that enabled the identification of moulds and arthroconidial yeasts directly from positive blood cultures by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Positive blood cultures (BCs) with Gram staining showing hyphae and/or arthroconidia were prospectively selected and submitted to an in-house protein extraction protocol. Mass spectra were obtained by Vitek MS™ system, and identifications were carried out with in the research use only (RUO) mode with an extended database (SARAMIS™ [v.4.12] plus in-house database). Fusarium solani, Fusarium verticillioides, Exophiala dermatitidis, Saprochaete clavata, and Trichosporon asahii had correct species ID by MALDI-TOF MS analysis of positive BCs. All cases were related to critically ill patients with high mortality fungemia and direct ID from positive BCs was helpful for rapid administration of targeted antifungal therapy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of carbon fibres on the life cycle assessment of additively manufactured injection moulding inserts for rapid prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2017-01-01

    properties and lifetime. The additively manufactured inserts are compared to the standard materials steel, aluminium and brass. The investigated part of the production and prototyping phase considers the insert itself, the moulded part, and resulting waste material of the injection moulding process....

  12. A rapid screening-level method to optimize location of infiltration ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennemore, G G; Davis, A; Goss, L; Warrick, A W

    2001-01-01

    A rapid-screening technique was developed to identify lithologies that best disperse artificial recharge via surface infiltration and minimize effects on ground water chemistry. The technique prospectively evaluates basin infiltration rates and water chemistry influences by integrating geotechnical, hydraulic, and water quality data with column test data and numerical modeling. The technique was validated using field data collected from surface infiltration basins designed to recharge ground water pumped from the Pipeline pit gold mine in Nevada. Observed recharge rates at these infiltration sites correlated most significantly with depth to groundwater, with basins in coarse-grained lithologies performing better (0.45 to 0.85 m/day) than those with fine-grained layers ( 2000 mg/L) than coarse-grained soils (infiltration basins for a variety of lithologies. Sites for infiltration basins can be rapidly screened to include areas with greatest depth to groundwater and in coarsest alluvial sediments, and impact to ground water chemistry can be reliably predicted using computer modeling and column test results.

  13. Land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Martinez-Noguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays several parts of the world suffer from land subsidence. This setting of the earth surface occurs due to different factors such as earth quakes, mining activities, and gas, oil and water withdrawal. This research presents a numerical study of the influence of land subsidence caused by a single water extraction well and rapid water infiltration into structural soil discontinuities. The numerical simulation of the infiltration was based on a two-phase flow-model for porous media, and for the deformation a Mohr–Coulomb model was used. A two-layered system with a fault zone is presented. First a single water extraction well is simulated producing a cone-shaped (conical water level depletion, which can cause land subsidence. Land Subsidence can be further increased if a hydrological barrier as a result of a discontinuity, exists. After water extraction a water column is applied on the top boundary for one hours in order to represent a strong storm which produces rapid water infiltration through the discontinuity as well as soil deformation. Both events are analysed and compared in order to characterize deformation of both elements and to get a better understanding of the land subsidence and new fracture formations.

  14. Long-term reclaimed water application effects on phosphorus leaching potential in rapid infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Daniel R; Silveira, Maria L; O'Connor, George A; Wise, William R

    2011-09-01

    Rapid infiltration basins (RIBs) are effective tools for wastewater treatment and groundwater recharge, but continuous application of wastewater can increase soil P concentrations and subsequently impact groundwater quality. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the effects of reclaimed water infiltration rate and "age" of RIBs on soil P concentrations at various depths, and (2) estimate the degree (percentage) of sorption equilibrium reached between effluent P and soil attained during reclaimed water application to different RIBs. The study was conducted in four contrasting cells of a RIB system with up to a 25 year history of secondary wastewater application. Soil samples were collected from 0 to 300 cm depth at 30 cm intervals and analyzed for water extractable phosphorus (WEP) and oxalate extractable P, Al, and Fe concentrations. Water extractable P and P saturation ratio (PSR) values were generally greater in the cells receiving reclaimed water compared to control soils, suggesting that reclaimed water P application can increase soil P concentrations and the risk of P movement to greater depths. Differences between treatment and control samples were more evident in cells with longer histories of reclaimed water application due to greater P loading. Data also indicated considerable spatial variability in WEP concentrations and PSR values, especially within cells from RIBs characterized by fast infiltration rates. This occurs because wastewater-P flows through surface soils much faster than the minimum time required for sorption equilibrium to occur. Studies should be conducted to investigate soil P saturation at deeper depths to assess possible groundwater contamination.

  15. Rapid Chemical Vapor Infiltration of Silicon Carbide Minicomposites at Atmospheric Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroski, Kenneth; Poges, Shannon; Monteleone, Chris; Grady, Joseph; Bhatt, Ram; Suib, Steven L

    2018-02-07

    The chemical vapor infiltration technique is one of the most popular for the fabrication of the matrix portion of a ceramic matrix composite. This work focuses on tailoring an atmospheric pressure deposition of silicon carbide onto carbon fiber tows using the methyltrichlorosilane (CH 3 SiCl 3 ) and H 2 deposition system at atmospheric pressure to create minicomposites faster than low pressure systems. Adjustment of the flow rate of H 2 bubbled through CH 3 SiCl 3 will improve the uniformity of the deposition as well as infiltrate the substrate more completely as the flow rate is decreased. Low pressure depositions conducted at 50 Torr deposit SiC at a rate of approximately 200 nm*h -1 , while the atmospheric pressure system presented has a deposition rate ranging from 750 nm*h -1 to 3.88 μm*h -1 . The minicomposites fabricated in this study had approximate total porosities of 3 and 6% for 10 and 25 SCCM infiltrations, respectively.

  16. Micro Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Erik Michael; Johansen, Bjørn B.; Sørensen, Hans H.

    2000-01-01

    Microstructures were created in SiO2 wafers using RIE and KOH etching. The mould inserts was manufactured by Ni electroplating the wafers. Different types of microstructures were made in the mould; rows of quadratic columns, rows of pyramids and of pyramid stumps. The structures (from the SiO2...

  17. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    The strength of nanoparticulate enabled microdevices and components is directly related to the interfacial control between particles and the flaws introduced as these particles come together to form the device or component. One new application for micro-scale or meso-scale (10's microm to 100's microm) devices is surgical instruments designed to enter the body, perform a host of surgeries within the body cavity, and be extracted with no external incisions to the patient. This new concept in surgery, called natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), requires smaller and more functional surgical tools. Conventional processing routes do not exist for making these instruments with the desired size, topology, precision, and strength. A process, called lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF), was developed to satisfy this need. A tetragonally stabilized zirconia polycrystalline material (3Y-TZP) is a candidate material for this process and application because of its high strength, chemical stability, high elastic modulus, and reasonably high toughness for a ceramic. Modern technical ceramics, like Y-TZP, are predicated on dense, fine grained microstructures and functional mesoscale devices must also adhere to this standard. Colloid and interfacial chemistry was used to disperse and concentrate the Y-TZP nanoparticles through a very steep, yet localized, potential energy barrier against the van der Waals attractive force. The interparticle interaction energies were modeled and compared to rheological data on the suspension. At high concentrations, the suspension was pseudoplastic, which is evidence that a structure was formed within the suspension that could be disrupted by a shearing force. The LM-RIF process exploits this rheological behavior to fill mold cavities created by photolithography. The premise of the LM-RIF process is to process the particulate material into a dense ceramic body while the unsintered mesoscale parts are supported en masse

  18. A method for rapid testing of the photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of herbicides by leaf disk infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Bielecki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for rapid detection of photosynthesis inhibitors in low concentration (0.25-1.25 ppm was developed. The experiments were performed on disks cut from young bean leaves. The disks were infiltrated with solutions of the tested compounds and placed at the bottom of a crystallizer containing an acidic sodium carbonate solution and then illuminated. The toxicity of the tested substance was measured as the number of disks corning to the surface. It was found that linuron, monolinuron, metoksuron, atrazine and prometrine inhibited floating of the disks, whereas 2,4,5-T, MCPA and chlorpropham gave no effect. This confirms the specificity of the test which is appropriate for determining the phytotoxicity of typical photosynthesis inhibitors.

  19. Rapid evaluation technique to differentiate mushroom disease-related moulds by detecting microbial volatile organic compounds using HS-SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radványi, Dalma; Gere, Attila; Jókai, Zsuzsa; Fodor, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyse microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) of mushroom disease-related microorganisms. Mycogone perniciosa, Lecanicillum fungicola var. fungicola, and Trichoderma aggressivum f. europaeum species, which are typically harmful in mushroom cultivation, were examined, and Agaricus bisporus (bisporic button mushroom) was also examined as a control. For internal standard, a mixture of alkanes was used; these were introduced as the memory effect of primed septa in the vial seal. Several different marker compounds were found in each sample, which enabled us to distinguish the different moulds and the mushroom mycelium from each other. Monitoring of marker compounds enabled us to investigate the behaviour of moulds. The records of the temporal pattern changes were used to produce partial least squares regression (PLS-R) models that enabled determination of the exact time of contamination (the infection time of the media). Using these evaluation techniques, the presence of mushroom disease-related fungi can be easily detected and monitored via their emitted MVOCs.

  20. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Moulds in food spoilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Ole; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Thrane, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    There is an increasing knowledge and understanding of the role played by moulds in food spoilage. Especially the discovery of mycotoxin production in foods has highligh-ted the importance of moulds in food quality. It is, however, only within the last 5-10 years that major progresses have been made...... the associated or critical funga and has been shown to consist of less than 10 species. In this paper the associated funga is described for the following foods: Citrus and pomaceous fruits, potato and yam tubers, onions, rye, wheat, rye bread, cheese and fermented sausages and whenever possible the selective...

  2. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  3. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  4. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  5. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qinglin; Xu, Wenlai; Yan, Zhijiao; Qian, Lei

    2018-04-04

    A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI) system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO₃) to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO₃ to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO₃ had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO₃ in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the shortcut

  6. Effect of Potassium Chlorate on the Treatment of Domestic Sewage by Achieving Shortcut Nitrification in a Constructed Rapid Infiltration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinglin Fang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A constructed rapid infiltration (CRI system is a new type of sewage biofilm treatment technology, but due to its anaerobic zone it lacks the carbon sources and the conditions for nitrate retention, and its nitrogen removal performance is very poor. However, a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process presents distinctive advantages, as it saves oxygen, requires less organic matter, and requires less time for denitrification compared to conventional nitrogen removal methods. Thus, if the shortcut nitrification–denitrification process could be applied to the CRI system properly, a simpler, more economic, and efficient nitrogen removal method will be obtained. However, as its reaction process shows that the first and the most important step of achieving shortcut nitrification–denitrification is to achieve shortcut nitrification, in this study we explored the feasibility to achieve shortcut nitrification, which produces nitrite as the dominant nitrogen species in effluent, by the addition of potassium chlorate (KClO3 to the influent. In an experimental CRI test system, the effects on nitrogen removal, nitrate inhibition, and nitrite accumulation were studied, and the advantages of achieving a shortcut nitrification–denitrification process were also analysed. The results showed that shortcut nitrification was successfully achieved and maintained in a CRI system by adding 5 mM KClO3 to the influent at a constant pH of 8.4. Under these conditions, the nitrite accumulation percentage was increased, while a lower concentration of 3 mM KClO3 had no obvious effect. The addition of 5mM KClO3 in influent presumably inhibited the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB, but inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB was so strong that it resulted in a maximum nitrite accumulation percentage of up to over 80%. As a result, nitrite became the dominant nitrogen product in the effluent. Moreover, if the

  7. Two Component Injection Moulding for Moulded Interconnect Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    component (2k) injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge. This book searches for the technical difficulties associated...... with the process and makes attempts to overcome those challenges. In search of suitable polymer materials for MID applications, potential materials are characterized in terms of polymer-polymer bond strength, polymer-polymer interface quality and selective metallization. The experimental results find the factors...... which can effectively control the quality of 2k moulded parts and metallized MIDs. This book presents documented knowledge about MID process chains, 2k moulding and selective metallization which can be valuable source of information for both academic and industrial users....

  8. Monitoring and modeling very large, rapid infiltration using geophysics during the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J.; Macy, J. P.; Callegary, J. B.; Lopez, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    In March and April 2014, an unprecedented experiment released over 100x106 cubic meters (81,000 acre-feet) of water from Morelos Dam into the normally-dry lower Colorado River below Yuma, Arizona, USA. More than half of the water released from Morelos Dam infiltrated within the limitrophe reach, a 32-km stretch between the Northern U.S.-Mexico International Boundary and the Southern International Boundary, a distance of just 32 river-kilometers. To characterize the spatial and temporal extent of infiltration, scientists from the US Geological Survey, Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Baja California, and Universidad Autónoma de Baja California carried out several geophysical surveys. Frequency-domain electromagnetic transects throughout the limitrophe reach showed that the subsurface comprised exclusively sandy material, with little finer-grained material to impede or otherwise influence infiltration. Direct current resistivity clearly imaged the rising water table near the stream channel. Both techniques provide valuable parameterization and calibration information for a surface-water/groundwater interaction model currently in development. Time-lapse gravity data were collected at 25 stations to expand the monitoring well network and provide storage-coefficient information for the groundwater model. Despite difficult field conditions, precise measurements of large gravity changes showed that changes in groundwater storage in the upper reach of the study area, where groundwater levels were highest, were constrained to the near vicinity of the river channel. Downstream near the Southern International Boundary, however, groundwater storage increased substantially over a large area, expanding into the regional aquifer that supplies irrigation water to surrounding agriculture.

  9. Computational design of mould sprue for injection moulding thermoplastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muralidhar Lakkanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To injection mould polymers, designing mould is a key task involving several critical decisions with direct implications to yield quality, productivity and frugality. One prominent decision among them is specifying sprue-bush conduit expansion as it significantly influences overall injection moulding; abstruseness anguish in its design criteria deceives direct determination. Intuitively designers decide it wisely and then exasperate by optimising or manipulating processing parameters. To overwhelm that anomaly this research aims at proposing an ideal design criteria holistically for all polymeric materials also tend as a functional assessment metric towards perfection i.e., criteria to specify sprue conduit size before mould development. Accordingly, a priori analytical criterion was deduced quantitatively as expansion ratio from ubiquitous empirical relationships specifically a.k.a an exclusive expansion angle imperatively configured for injectant properties. Its computational intelligence advantage was leveraged to augment functionality of perfectly injecting into an impression gap, while synchronising both injector capacity and desired moulding features. For comprehensiveness, it was continuously sensitised over infinite scale as an explicit factor dependent on in-situ spatio-temporal injectant state perplexity with discrete slope and altitude for each polymeric character. In which congregant ranges of apparent viscosity and shear thinning index were conceived to characteristically assort most thermoplastics. Thereon results accorded aggressive conduit expansion widening for viscous incrust, while a very aggressive narrowing for shear thinning encrust; among them apparent viscosity had relative dominance. This important rationale would certainly form a priori design basis as well diagnose filling issues causing several defects. Like this the proposed generic design criteria, being simple would immensely benefit mould designers besides serve

  10. Protoplast isolation, transient transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts and improved Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc infiltration of Phaseolus vulgaris: tools for rapid gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Blanco, Lourdes; Arellano, Elizabeth S; Lara, Miguel

    2016-06-24

    Phaseolus vulgaris is one of the most extensively studied model legumes in the world. The P. vulgaris genome sequence is available; therefore, the need for an efficient and rapid transformation system is more imperative than ever. The functional characterization of P. vulgaris genes is impeded chiefly due to the non-amenable nature of Phaseolus sp. to stable genetic transformation. Transient transformation systems are convenient and versatile alternatives for rapid gene functional characterization studies. Hence, the present work focuses on standardizing methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple tissues and transient transformation protocols for rapid gene expression analysis in the recalcitrant grain legume P. vulgaris. Herein, we provide methodologies for the high-throughput isolation of leaf mesophyll-, flower petal-, hypocotyl-, root- and nodule-derived protoplasts from P. vulgaris. The highly efficient polyethylene glycol-mannitol magnesium (PEG-MMG)-mediated transformation of leaf mesophyll protoplasts was optimized using a GUS reporter gene. We used the P. vulgaris SNF1-related protein kinase 1 (PvSnRK1) gene as proof of concept to demonstrate rapid gene functional analysis. An RT-qPCR analysis of protoplasts that had been transformed with PvSnRK1-RNAi and PvSnRK1-OE vectors showed the significant downregulation and ectopic constitutive expression (overexpression), respectively, of the PvSnRK1 transcript. We also demonstrated an improved transient transformation approach, sonication-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation (SAAT), for the leaf disc infiltration of P. vulgaris. Interestingly, this method resulted in a 90 % transformation efficiency and transformed 60-85 % of the cells in a given area of the leaf surface. The constitutive expression of YFP further confirmed the amenability of the system to gene functional characterization studies. We present simple and efficient methodologies for protoplast isolation from multiple P

  11. Two component micro injection moulding for moulded interconnect devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    2008-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) contain huge possibilities for many applications in micro electro-mechanical-systems because of their capability of reducing the number of components, process steps and finally in miniaturization of the product. Among the available MID process chains, two...... component injection moulding is one of the most industrially adaptive processes. However, the use of two component injection moulding for MID fabrication, with circuit patterns in the sub-millimeter range, is still a big challenge at the present state of technology. The scope of the current Ph.D. project...... and a reasonable adhesion between them. • Selective metallization of the two component plastic part (coating one polymer with metal and leaving the other one uncoated) To overcome these two main issues in MID fabrication for micro applications, the current Ph.D. project explores the technical difficulties...

  12. Optimisation of multi-layer rotationally moulded foamed structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, A. J.; McCourt, M. P.; Kearns, M. P.; Martin, P. J.; Cunningham, E.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-layer skin-foam and skin-foam-skin sandwich constructions are of increasing interest in the rotational moulding process for two reasons. Firstly, multi-layer constructions can improve the thermal insulation properties of a part. Secondly, foamed polyethylene sandwiched between solid polyethylene skins can increase the mechanical properties of rotationally moulded structural components, in particular increasing flexural properties and impact strength (IS). The processing of multiple layers of polyethylene and polyethylene foam presents unique challenges such as the control of chemical blowing agent decomposition temperature, and the optimisation of cooling rates to prevent destruction of the foam core; therefore, precise temperature control is paramount to success. Long cooling cycle times are associated with the creation of multi-layer foam parts due to their insulative nature; consequently, often making the costs of production prohibitive. Devices such as Rotocooler®, a rapid internal mould water spray cooling system, have been shown to have the potential to significantly decrease cooling times in rotational moulding. It is essential to monitor and control such devices to minimise the warpage associated with the rapid cooling of a moulding from only one side. The work presented here demonstrates the use of threaded thermocouples to monitor the polymer melt in multi-layer sandwich constructions, in order to analyse the cooling cycle of multi-layer foamed structures. A series of polyethylene skin-foam test mouldings were produced, and the effect of cooling medium on foam characteristics, mechanical properties, and process cycle time were investigated. Cooling cycle time reductions of 45%, 26%, and 29% were found for increasing (1%, 2%, and 3%) chemical blowing agent (CBA) amount when using internal water cooling technology from ˜123°C compared with forced air cooling (FAC). Subsequently, a reduction of IS for the same skin-foam parts was found to be 1%, 4

  13. A stone mould from Klinovac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-piece stone mould that reached the National Museum at Vranje in 1966 had been recovered from a depth of about one meter at the site known as Tri Kruške (Three Pear-trees, the village of Klinovac. The site is situated on a river terrace on the right bank of the Krševica River some 15 kilometers south of Vranje. The mould was carved out of metamorphic rock from the class of schist, more exactly, of greenschist (with chlorite and mica as its constituent minerals that is widespread in the area, which geologically belongs to the upper (Vlasina complex of the Serbian-Macedonian mass. The mould was intended for casting four kinds of bronze weapons: three chisels and a winged axe. More sensitive as dating evidence, the winged axe (Ärmchenbeil may be broadly dated to the last three centuries of the second millennium BC. The type is geographically related with the Aegean, while its northernmost findspot so far is Pobit Kamak in northern Bulgaria. The chisels cast in this mould do not have direct analogies, although many hoards of similar tools have been registered in Croatia, Romania and Central Europe. Apparently the mould was made by a local workshop and from the locally available raw material. The possible activity of local workshops in the above mentioned period has already been presumed by scholars, and the Klinovac mould constitutes yet another corroboration of the hypothesis. Nevertheless its Aegean origin should not be ruled out completely, because cultural contacts between the Late Bronze Age population inhabiting the region and their southern neighbours seem quite certain, as evidenced by Mycenaean pottery discovered on the site of Resulja at Lučani near Bujanovac.

  14. Mould thermal monitoring: a window on the mould

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normanton, A.S.; Hewitt, P.N.; Hunter, N.S.; Scoones, D.; Harris, B.

    2004-07-01

    Corus R, D and T at Teesside Technology Centre has developed over a number of years a mould thermal monitoring (MTM) system based on an array of thermocouples in the mould copper plates. The system is installed on the Corus slab casters in the UK, on slab casters at Outokumpu (UK), Sidmar (Belgium) and Kosice (Slovakia) and, at the time of the 4th European Continuous Casting Conference, was also on the medium thickness slab caster at Tuscaloosa (USA), which was sold to Nucor in 2004. The MTM system was also under development on the thin slab caster at Trico (USA) before plant closure (subsequently bought by Nucor), and aspects are currently being developed on the Corus DSP (direct sheet plant) thin slab caster at IJmuiden (The Netherlands). While a prime function is detection and prevention of sticker type breakouts, the MTM system allows real time assessment of thermal conditions, provides a valuable input for online grading and, most important, enables modifications to mould powder practices to be assessed. The present paper briefly outlines recent developments to the MTM system and presents examples of the use of the system to assist mould powder developments. (author)

  15. Mould growth on building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fog Nielsen, K.

    Mould growth in buildings is associated with adverse health effects among the occupants of the building. However actual growth only occurs in damp and water-damaged materials, and is an increasing problem in Denmark, due to less robust constructions, inadequate maintenance, and too little...

  16. Rate of solidification of aluminium casting in varying wall thickness of cylindrical metallic moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of final casting mainly depends on the rate of solidification as rapid solidification produces fine grains structures with better mechanical properties. The analysis of heat transfer during the casting and solidification of aluminium alloy as well as the experimental investigation of the rate of solidification in varying thicknesses of cylindrical metallic mould was carried out. The temperature variation with time of the casting was recorded from which cooling curves were obtained for the determination of solidification time of the cast. The results showed that as the cylindrical mould thickness increases the solidification time decreases due to the chilling effect of the mould.

  17. CAE applications in a thermoforming mould design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marjuki, AR; Mohd Ghazali, FA; Ismail, N M; Sulaiman, S; Mohd Khairuddin, I; Majeed, Anwar P P A; Jaafar, AA; Basri, S; Mustapha, F

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of honeycomb layer is a critical step for successful fabrications of thermoformed based sandwiched structures. This paper deals with an initial investigation on the rapid manufacturing process of corrugated sheet with 120° dihedral angles. Time history of local displacements and thickness, assuming viscous dominated material model for a 1mm thick thermoformable material, was computed by using ANSYS ® Polyflow solver. The quality of formed surfaces was evaluated for selection of mould geometry and assessment of two common variants of thermoforming process. Inadequate mesh refinement of a membrane elements produces satisfactorily detailing and incomplete forming. A perfectly uniform material distribution was predicted using drape forming process. However, the geometrical properties of vacuum formed part are poorly distributed and difficult to control with increasing inflation volumes. Details of the discrepancies and the contributions of the CAE tool to complement traditional trial and error methodology in the process and design development are discussed. (paper)

  18. Examination of injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of the different injection moulding parameters and storing methods on injection moulded thermoplastic maize starch (TPS. The glycerol and water plasticized starch was processed in a twin screw extruder and then with an injection moulding machine to produce TPS dumbbell specimens. Different injection moulding set-ups and storing conditions were used to analyse the effects on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Investigated parameters were injection moulding pressure, holding pressure, and for the storage: storage at 50% relative humidity, and under ambient conditions. After processing the mechanical and shrinkage properties of the manufactured TPS were determined as a function of the ageing time. While conditioning, the characteristics of the TPS changed from a soft material to a rigid material. Although this main behaviour remained, the different injection moulding parameters changed the characteristics of TPS. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed the changes in the material on ageing.

  19. Scanning probe lithography for nanoimprinting mould fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Gang; Xie Guoyong; Zhang Yongyi; Zhang Guoming; Zhang Yingying; Carlberg, Patrick; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a rational fabrication method for nanoimprinting moulds by scanning probe lithography. By wet chemical etching, different kinds of moulds are realized on Si(110) and Si(100) surfaces according to the Si crystalline orientation. The structures have line widths of about 200 nm with a high aspect ratio. By reactive ion etching, moulds with patterns free from the limitation of Si crystalline orientation are also obtained. With closed-loop scan control of a scanning probe microscope, the length of patterned lines is more than 100 μm by integrating several steps of patterning. The fabrication process is optimized in order to produce a mould pattern with a line width about 10 nm. The structures on the mould are further duplicated into PMMA resists through the nanoimprinting process. The method of combining scanning probe lithography with wet chemical etching or reactive ion etching (RIE) provides a resistless route for the fabrication of nanoimprinting moulds

  20. Surface Micro Topography Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2005-01-01

    The surface micro topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical and technical reasons. The quality of replication of mould surface topography onto the plastic surface depends among other factors on the process conditions. A study of this relationship has been...... carried out with rough EDM (electrical discharge machining) mould surfaces, a PS grade, and by applying established three-dimensional topography parameters. Significant quantitative relationships between process parameters and topography parameters were established. It further appeared that replication...

  1. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C., E-mail: weber@ikv-aachen.de [Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T. [Surface Engineering Institute (IOT), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Steger, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology (ILT), Aachen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  2. Dynamic Double Curvature Mould System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Christian Raun; Kristensen, Mathias Kræmmergaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes a concept for a reconfigurable mould surface which is designed to fit the needs of contemporary architecture. The core of the concept presented is a dynamic surface manipulated into a given shape using a digital signal created directly from the CAD drawing of the design....... This happens fast, automatic and without production of waste, and the manipulated surface is fair and robust, eliminating the need for additional, manual treatment. Limitations to the possibilities of the flexible form are limited curvature and limited level of detail, making it especially suited for larger...

  3. A proper strategy for combating mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Cedric

    2014-02-01

    managing director of Mycologia & Mould Worx, MSc, B.(Env. Sci.), TAE40110, examines the topic of mould exposure in healthcare facilities, and the associated duty of care for hospital facility managers and engineers. The article, published here in slightly adapted form, also focuses on the need for additional training of key personnel on the risks associated with exposure to environmental microbial contamination.

  4. Moulding of Sub-micrometer Surface Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2006-01-01

    The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim.......The experiments strongly suggest that the possibility to injection mould sub-micrometer surface structures in polymers mainly relates to the forces originating from the adhesive energy between polymer and shim....

  5. Surface Microstructure Replication in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    2005-01-01

    topography is transcribed onto the plastic part through complex mechanisms. This replication however, is not perfect, and the replication quality depends on the plastic material properties, the topography itself, and the process conditions. This paper describes and discusses an investigation of injection...... moulding of surface microstructures. Emphasis is put on the ability to replicate surface microstructures under normal injection moulding conditions, notably with low cost materials at low mould temperatures. The replication of surface microstructures in injection moulding has been explored...... for Polypropylene at low mould temperatures. The process conditions were varied over the recommended process window for the material. The geometry of the obtained structures was analyzed. Evidence suggests that step height replication quality depends linearly on structure width in a certain range. Further...

  6. Injection moulding for macro and micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    used for macro products but with the ages it is going deep into the micro areas having machine and process improvements. Extensive research work on injection moulding is going on all over the world. New ideas are flowing into the machines, materials and processes. The technology has made significant......The purpose of the literature survey is to investigate the injection moulding technology in the macro and micro areas from the basic to the state-of-the-art recent technology. Injection moulding is a versatile production process for the manufacturing of plastic parts and the process is extensively...

  7. Demoulding force in micro-injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports an experimental study that investigates part demoulding behavior in micro injection moulding (MIM) with a focus on the effects of pressure (P) and temperature (T) on the demoulding forces. Demoulding of a microfluidics part is conducted and the four processing parameters of melt...... temperature (Tb), mould temperature (Tm), holding pressure (Ph) and injection speed (Vi) are analysed. The result using different combinations of process parameters were used to identify the best processing conditions in regards to demoulding forces when moulding micro parts....

  8. Process Condition Monitoring of Micro Moulding Using a Two-plunger Micro Injection Moulding Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Guerrier, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The influence of micro injection moulding (µIM) process parameters (melt and mould temperature, piston injection speed and stoke length) on the injection pressure was investigated using Design of Experiments. Direct piston injection pressure measurements were performed and data collected using...... a micro injection moulding machine equipped with a two-pluger injection unit. Miniaturized dog-bone shaped speciments on polyoxymethylene (POM) were moulded over a wide range of processing cpnditions in order to characterize the process and assess its capability. Experimental results obtained under...

  9. Mould Design and Material selection for Film Insert Moulding of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhner, Timo; Senkbeil, S.; Olesen, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mould design for an injection moulding (IM) process for the production of a methanol container for the use in small, passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) systems, which are intended to be used in behind-the-ear hearing aid systems. One of the crucial properties...... for the production of containers with different venting area and location of the venting holes and the use of different membrane thicknesses by using the same mould. Mould design and material selection are presented....

  10. Developments in the implantation of moulding tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.; Delves, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    The process of surface hardening by the ion implantation of nitrogen has proved to be remarkably effective for the treatment of moulds, and indeed the whole range of screws, nozzles, sprue bushes, etc., as well as dies for injection moulding or extrusion of filled plastics. Implantation equipment, based upon our designs, is now available commercially. Corrosion and pitting of moulds can be reduced by a new ionic treatment known as ion beam mixing. A thin coating of protective material, such as chromium on silicon, is bombarded with ions so as to mix or key it to the mould surface. Alternatively, hydrocarbon vapour can be cracked on to the metal surface to form a tenacious and protective carbon film. Industrial applications for this novel process are now being sought. (author)

  11. Dilatometric examination of moulds with plaster binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning thermal expansion of moulding materials with plaster binder have been performed for two mixture compositionsof Authors’ own design, as well as for the material used in jewellery industry under the Prima-Cast trade name, and for ThermoMold 1200moulding material. The results of dilatometric examinations of these materials, carried out within the temperature range from about 20°Cto 650°C by means of the DA-3 automatic dilatometer, have been compared. An analysis of this comparison has revealed that it is thematrix composition which is decisive for the magnitude of dimensional changes of moulds, and that applying components which do notexhibit polymorphic transformations reduces dimensional changes of a mould during its thermal treatment.

  12. Geometric accuracy of wax bade models manufactured in silicon moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the test results of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models manufactured in silicon moulds in the Rapid Tooling process, with the application of the Vacuum Casting technology. In batch production casting waxes are designed for the manufacture of models and components of model sets through injection into a metal die. The objective of the tests was to determine the possibility of using traditional wax for the production of casting models in the rapid prototyping process. Blade models made of five types of casting wax were measured. The definition of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models makes it possible to introduce individual modifications aimed at improving their shape in order to increase the dimensional accuracy of blade models manufactured in the rapid prototyping process.

  13. Surface micro topography replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf

    Thermoplastic injection moulding is a widely used industrial process that involves surface generation by replication. The surface topography of injection moulded plastic parts can be important for aesthetical or technical reasons. With the emergence of microengineering and nanotechnology additional...... importance of surface topography follows. In general the replication is not perfect and the topography of the plastic part differs from the inverse topography of the mould cavity. It is desirable to be able to control the degree of replication perfection or replication quality. This requires an understanding...... of the physical mechanisms of replication. Such understanding can lead to improved process design and facilitate in-line process quality control with respect to surface properties. The purpose of the project is to identify critical factors that affect topography replication quality and to obtain an understanding...

  14. Cavity Pressure Behaviour in Micro Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2010-01-01

    as well as with the filling of the cavity by the polymer melt. In this paper, two parameters derived from cavity pressure over time (i.e. pressure work). The influence of four µIM parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, injection speed, aand packing pressure) on the two pressure-related outputs...... has been investigated by moulding a micro fluidic component on three different polymers (PP, ABS, PC) using the design of experiment approach. Similar trends such as the effects of a higher injection speed in decreasing the pressure work and of a lower temperature in decreasing pressure rate have been......Process monitoring of micro injection moulding (µIM) is of crusial importance to analyse the effect of different parameter settings on the process and to assess its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide useful information directly connected with the dyanmics of the process...

  15. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  16. Precision moulding of polymer micro components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido

    2008-01-01

    The present research work contains a study concerning polymer micro components manufacturing by means of the micro injection moulding (µIM) process. The overall process chain was considered and investigated during the project, including part design and simulation, tooling, process analysis, part...... optimization, quality control, multi-material solutions. A series of experimental investigations were carried out on the influence of the main µIM process factors on the polymer melt flow within micro cavities. These investigations were conducted on a conventional injection moulding machine adapted...... to the production of micro polymer components, as well as on a micro injection moulding machine. A new approach based on coordinate optical measurement of flow markers was developed during the project for the characterization of the melt flow. In-line pressure measurements were also performed to characterize...

  17. Micro-powder injection moulding of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeep, B.

    2007-12-01

    For He-cooled Divertors as integral components of future fusion power plants, about 300000 complex shaped tungsten components are to be fabricated. Tungsten is the favoured material because of its excellent properties (high melting point, high hardness, high sputtering resistance, high thermal conductivity). However, the material's properties cause major problems for large scale production of complex shaped components. Due to the resistance of tungsten to mechanical machining, new fabrication technologies have to be developed. Powder injection moulding as a well established shaping technology for a large scale production of complex or even micro structured parts might be a suitable method to produce tungsten components for fusion applications but is not yet commercially available. The present thesis is dealing with the development of a powder injection moulding process for micro structured tungsten components. To develop a suitable feedstock, the powder particle properties, the binder formulation and the solid load were optimised. To meet the requirements for a replication of micro patterned cavities, a special target was to define the smallest powder particle size applicable for micro-powder injection moulding. To investigate the injection moulding performance of the developed feedstocks, experiments were successfully carried out applying diverse cavities with structural details in micro dimension. For debinding of the green bodies, a combination of solvent debinding and thermal debinding has been adopted for injection moulded tungsten components. To develop a suitable debinding strategy, a variation of the solvent debinding time, the heating rate and the binder formulation was performed. For investigating the thermal consolidation behaviour of tungsten components, sinter experiments were carried out applying tungsten powders suitable for micro-powder injection moulding. First mechanical tests of the sintered samples showed promising material properties such as a

  18. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  19. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the...

  20. Micromilling of hardened tool steel for mould making applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    geometries as those characterizing injection moulding moulds. The realization of the micromilling process in connection with hardened tool steel as workpiece material is particularly challenging. The low strength of the miniaturized end mills implies reduction and accurate control of the chip load which...... wear. This paper presents the micromilling process applied to the manufacturing of micro injection moulding moulds in hardened tool steel, presenting experimental evidence and possible solutions to the above-mentioned issues....

  1. Determination of thermal conductivity in foundry mould mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Solenički

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For a thorough understanding of the behaviour of foundry mould mixtures, a good knowledge of thermal properties of mould materials is needed. Laboratory determination of thermal conductivity of mould mixtures enables a better control over scabbing defects which are a major problem in green sand mould mixtures. A special instrument has been designed for that purpose and it is described in this work.

  2. Mycotoxigenic and proteolytic potential of moulds associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the 33 moulds isolated from 20 samples of wood-smoked Chlamydoselachus anguincus (shark-fish) 20 isolates were capable of producing metabolites toxic to fertile Hubbard Golden Comet (Niger chick) eggs. Aspergillus and Pencillium isolates were the predominant moulds. Other toxigenic moulds isolated were ...

  3. ELECTROCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR OBTAINING MOULDS FOR SOLES OF SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia LUCA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents contributions in the designing of some electrochemical technologiesfor the manufacturing of the moulds used in the footwear soles obtaining. There are presented a fewmethods for the moulds obtaining, using electro-deposit processes. There are presented thetechnological phases of the obtaining process of the electrolytes and electrodes preparing and thetechnological stages of the moulds manufacturing.

  4. Investigation of the pressure generated in the mould cavity during polyurethane integral skin foam moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An industrial scale measuring system was set up to investigate the pressure arising in the mould cavity during polyurethane integral skin foaming. The system is able to measure the pressure arising in the mould cavity and the pressure distribution using a piezoresistive pressure sensor. The pressure distribution was measured at 18 points along the mould surface at constant production parameters. Then six production parameters, which affect the pressure, were investigated in detail with the Taguchi method of experimental design. The results of the design were processed by ANOVA (analysis of variance. Three major influencing parameters were estimated by regression analysis. Finally an equation was developed to give a good estimation to the pressure arising in the mould cavity.

  5. Effect of pressure in mould on the mould cavity filling in Lost Foam process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the analysis of the influence of the pressure in mould on manufacture process of castings by the Lost Foam method wasintroduced. In particular, numerical simulation results of effect of pressure in mould on pouring rate, gas gap pressure and gas gap sizewere analyzed. For simulating investigations of the Lost Foam process introduced mathematical model of the process was used. In thismodel in detail was described and derived equation relating to the changes of the gas pressure in the gas gap. The mathematical description uses the equation of gas state and the equation of Darcy’s rate of filtration. Presented studies indicated, that with decrease of pressure in mould the pouring rate increased and the gas pressure in gas gap and gas gap size decreased. For pressures in mould from the range of 20÷100 kPa, pouring rates achieved values from 30÷3 cm/s respectively.

  6. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by .... Stop watch-used to indicate the exact time the mould has remained in the press before wood .... There is abundance of saw dust the source of which is the ... Madison, Wisconsin: Wiley Interscience. Usoro, H. S. ...

  7. Flexible Mould for Precast Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Christian Raun; Kristensen, Mathias Kræmmergaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a digitally controlled mou Id that forms a double curved and fair surface directly from the digital CAD model. The primary motivation for the development of the mould is to reduce the cost of constructing double curved, cast elements for architecture...

  8. Wood Flour Moulding Technology: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intent of this article is to demonstrate how wood waste called sawdust or wood flour can be transformed by plastic moulding machine into items of economic value. Wood flour is wood reduced to very fine particle form. It can be waste product from saw mills, wood working plants or produced from selected dry wood by ...

  9. Mould insert fabrication of a single-mode fibre connector alignment structure optimized by justified partial metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissmann, Markus; Barié, Nicole; Guttmann, Markus; Schneider, Marc; Kolew, Alexander; Besser, Heino; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Hofmann, Andreas; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2015-01-01

    For mass production of multiscale-optical components, microstructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents made of a thermoplastic polymer. Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as x-ray lithography or deep proton writing. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. An alternative manufacturing method of moulding tools has been developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This article describes a mould insert fabrication and a new replication process for self-centring fibre alignment structures for low loss field installable single-mode fibre connectors, developed and fabricated by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in collaboration with TE Connectivity. These components are to be used in fibre-to-the-home networks and support the deployment and maintenance of fibre optic links. The special feature of this particular fibre connector is a self-centring fibre alignment, achieved by means of a through hole with deflectable cantilevers acting as micro-springs. The particular challenge is the electroforming of through holes with a centre hole diameter smaller than 125 µm. The fibre connector structure is prototyped by deep proton writing in polymethylmethacrylate and used as a sacrificial part. Using joining, physical vapour deposition and electroforming technology, a negative copy of the prototyped connector is transferred into nickel to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are a rapid and economical fabrication of moulding tools with high-precision microstructures and a long tool life. With these moulding tools low-cost mass production is possible. We present the manufacturing chain we have established. Each individual manufacturing step of the mould insert fabrication will be shown in this report. The

  10. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.mlynek@tul.cz; Knobloch, Roman, E-mail: roman.knobloch@tul.cz [Department of Mathematics, FP Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Srb, Radek, E-mail: radek.srb@tul.cz [Institute of Mechatronics and Computer Engineering Technical University of Liberec, Studentska 2, 461 17 Liberec, The Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  11. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-01-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article

  12. The effect of internal mould water spray cooling on rotationally moulded polyethylene parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Mark P.; Kearns, Mark P.; Martin, Peter J.

    2018-05-01

    The conventional method of cooling during the rotational moulding process is through the use of forced air. During the cooling phase of a typical rotomoulding cycle, large volumes of high velocity room temperature air are forced across the outside of the rotating rotomoulding tool to encourage cooling of the metal mould and molten polymer. Since no cooling is applied to the inside of the mould, the inner surface of the polymer (polyethylene) cools more slowly and will have a tendency to be more crystalline and the polyethylene will have a higher density in this region. The side that cools more quickly (in contact with the inside mould wall) will be less crystalline, and will therefore have a lower density. The major consequence of this difference in crystallinity will be a buildup of internal stresses producing warpage and excessive shrinkage of the part with subsequent increased levels of scrap. Therefore excessive cooling on the outside of the mould should be avoided. One consequence of this effect is that the cooling time for a standard rotationally moulded part can be quite long and this has an effect on the overall economics of the process in terms of part manufacture. A number of devices are currently on the market to enhance the cooling of rotational moulding by introducing a water spray to the inside of the rotomoulding during cooling. This paper reports on one such device 'Rotocooler' which during a series of initial industrial trials has been shown to reduce the cycletime by approximately 12 to 16%, with minimal effect on the mechanical properties, leading to a part which has less warpage and shrinkage than a conventionally cooled part.

  13. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  14. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  15. Warpage analysis in injection moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, M. H. N.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was concentrated on the effects of process parameters in plastic injection moulding process towards warpage problem by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software for the simulation. In this study, plastic dispenser of dental floss has been analysed with thermoplastic material of Polypropylene (PP) used as the moulded material and details properties of 80 Tonne Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine also has been used in this study. The variable parameters of the process are packing pressure, packing time, melt temperature and cooling time. Minimization of warpage obtained from the optimization and analysis data from the Design Expert software. Integration of Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Center Composite Design (CCD) with polynomial models that has been obtained from Design of Experiment (DOE) is the method used in this study. The results show that packing pressure is the main factor that will contribute to the formation of warpage in x-axis and y-axis. While in z-axis, the main factor is melt temperature and packing time is the less significant among the four parameters in x, y and z-axes. From optimal processing parameter, the value of warpage in x, y and z-axis have been optimised by 21.60%, 26.45% and 24.53%, respectively.

  16. Best practice strategies for validation of micro moulding process simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Franco; Tosello, Guido; Whiteside, Ben

    2009-01-01

    are the optimization of the moulding process and of the tool using simulation techniques. Therefore, in polymer micro manufacturing technology, software simulation tools adapted from conventional injection moulding can provide useful assistance for the optimization of moulding tools, mould inserts, micro component...... are discussed. Recommendations regarding sampling rate, meshing quality, filling analysis methods (micro short shots, flow visualization) and machine geometry modelling are given on the basis of the comparison between simulated and experimental results within the two considered study cases.......Simulation programs in polymer micro replication technology are used for the same reasons as in conventional injection moulding. To avoid the risks of costly re-engineering, the moulding process is simulated before starting the actual manufacturing process. Important economic factors...

  17. A characteristic of design solutions for flask moulding lines

    OpenAIRE

    Fedoryszyn, A.

    2007-01-01

    Moulding machines used in manufacture of moulds from synthetic bentonite sands constitute basic equipment of mechanised stands, work centres, and production lines. In the present article, a short characteristic of this equipment was given, basing on the generally accepted criteria of classification taking into consideration novel design solutions and principles of cooperation between individual sub-assemblies. Moulding equipment offered by domestic producers was described with emphasis put on...

  18. Conditions for mould growth on typical interior surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Eva B.; Andersen, Birgitte; Rode, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Prediction of the risk for mould growth is an important parameter for the analysis and design of the hygrothermal performance of building constructions. However, in practice the mould growth does not always follow the predicted behavior described by the mould growth models. This is often explained...... by uncertainty in the real conditions of exposure. In this study, laboratory experiments were designed to determine mould growth at controlled transient climate compared to growth at constant climate. The experiment included three building materials with four different surface treatments. The samples were...

  19. Improving the accuracy of micro injection moulding process simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido; Islam, Aminul

    and are therefore limited in the capability of modelling the polymer flow in micro cavities. Hence, new strategies for comprehensive simulation models which provide more precise results open up new opportunities and will be discussed. Modelling and meshing recommendations are presented, leading to a multi......Process simulations in micro injection moulding aim at the optimization and support of the design of the mould, mould inserts, the plastic product, and the process. Nevertheless, dedicated software packages for micro injection moulding are not available. They are developed for macro plastic parts...

  20. Verification and optimization of HDR surface mould brachytherapy plans using GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film: the ideal geometric case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolewski, Matthew; Haque, Mamoon

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Surface mould brachytherapy is used to treat superficial cancers due to conformal dose distributions and rapid dose fall-off with depth. In this work, we determine the effect of varying catheter number and prescription distance on dose distributions for surface mould plans using radiochromic film. Eight surface mould plans were generated using PLATO BPS (Version 14.3.2). Measurements were taken with Gafchromic EBT2 film over depths of 5-30 mm with an Ir-192 HDR source. Films were scanned using an Epson Expression 10000 XL flatbed scanner and analysed using RIT 113 software. The EBT2 films showed good agreement with an average difference of 2.8% compared to the planning system. The dose gradient in the interval ranging ±5 mm from the prescription point showed an 80% increase from the plan with maximum catheters (II) to the minimum (3). The size and extent of local dose maxima increased when fewer catheters were used. Increasing prescription distance decreased the dose gradient with a 20% reduction in dose occurring 4 mm superficially to the prescription point when prescription distance increased from 5 to 20 mm. Gafchromic EBT2 was used successfully to evaluate surface mould brachytherapy plans and is a useful tool for dose verification checks. High dose regions ne,u' to the catheter plane can be reduced by using a larger number of catheters and the prescription distance should be adjusted as a function of treatment depth varied by mould thickness.

  1. Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Dragica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.

  2. A 2D modeling approach for fluid propagation during FE-forming simulation of continuously reinforced composites in wet compression moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Christian; Dörr, Dominik; Henning, Frank; Kärger, Luise

    2018-05-01

    Wet compression moulding (WCM) provides large-scale production potential for continuously fiber reinforced components as a promising alternative to resin transfer moulding (RTM). Lower cycle times are possible due to parallelization of the process steps draping, infiltration and curing during moulding (viscous draping). Experimental and theoretical investigations indicate a strong mutual dependency between the physical mechanisms, which occur during draping and mould filling (fluid-structure-interaction). Thus, key process parameters, like fiber orientation, fiber volume fraction, cavity pressure and the amount and viscosity of the resin are physically coupled. To enable time and cost efficient product and process development throughout all design stages, accurate process simulation tools are desirable. Separated draping and mould filling simulation models, as appropriate for the sequential RTM-process, cannot be applied for the WCM process due to the above outlined physical couplings. Within this study, a two-dimensional Darcy-Propagation-Element (DPE-2D) based on a finite element formulation with additional control volumes (FE/CV) is presented, verified and applied to forming simulation of a generic geometry, as a first step towards a fluid-structure-interaction model taking into account simultaneous resin infiltration and draping. The model is implemented in the commercial FE-Solver Abaqus by means of several user subroutines considering simultaneous draping and 2D-infiltration mechanisms. Darcy's equation is solved with respect to a local fiber orientation. Furthermore, the material model can access the local fluid domain properties to update the mechanical forming material parameter, which enables further investigations on the coupled physical mechanisms.

  3. Sampling And Identifying Of Mould In The Library Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Suriani Ngah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing concern over mould and fungi infestations on library building, little has been reported in the literature on the development of an objective tool and criteria for measuring and characterising the mould and fungi. In this paper, an objective based approach to mould and fungi growth assessment using various sampling techniques and its identification using microscopic observation are proposed. This study involved three library buildings of Higher Institution Educational in Malaysia for data collection purpose and study of mould growth. The mould sampling of three libraries was collected using Coriolis air sampler, settling plate air sampling using Malt Extract Agar (MEA, IAQ MOLD Alexeter IAQ-Pro Asp/Pen® Test and swab sampling techniques. The IAQ MOLD Alexeter IAQ-Pro Asp/Pen® Test and traditional method technique identified various mould species immediately on the site, and the microscopic observation identifies common types of the mould such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Stachybotrys’s. The sample size and particular characteristics of each library will result in the mould growth pattern and finding.

  4. Two-component micro injection moulding for hearing aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    . The moulding machine was a state-of-the-art 2k micro machine from DESMA. The fabricated micro part was a socket house integrated with a sealing ring for the receiver-in-canal hearing instrument. The test performed on the demonstrator showed the potential of the 2k moulding technology to be able to solve some...

  5. Advances in precision machining and moulding technology bring design opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendening, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Machining of materials for medical applications has moved to a new level of precision. In parallel with this, moulding technology has improved through the increased use of sensors in moulds, enhanced design simulation and processes such as micromoulding. This article examines the opportunities offered by these developments and includes examples of mass produced parts that demonstrate the new capabilities useful to product designers.

  6. Characterization of moulds associated with processed garri stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of moulds associated with processed white and yellow garri stored at ambient temperature for 40 days was investigated. The moulds isolated from white garri (%) were: Aspergillus spp 35.3, Penicillium spp 23.53, Fusarium spp 2.94, Mucor spp 17.65, Alternaria spp 5.88, Cladosporium sp 2.94 and ...

  7. Compression and Injection Moulding of Nano-Structured Polymer Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pranov, Henrik; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2006-01-01

    In our research we investigate the non-isothermal replication of complex nano and micro surface structures in injection and compression moulding.......In our research we investigate the non-isothermal replication of complex nano and micro surface structures in injection and compression moulding....

  8. Optimization of injection moulding process parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, optimal injection moulding conditions for minimum shrinkage during moulding of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) were obtained by Taguchi method. The result showed that melting temperature of 190OC, injection pressure of 55 MPa, refilling pressure of 85 MPa and cooling time of 11 seconds gave ...

  9. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM....

  10. Modeling and Optimization of Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Sand Mould System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chate G. R.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical bonded resin sand mould system has high dimensional accuracy, surface finish and sand mould properties compared to green sand mould system. The mould cavity prepared under chemical bonded sand mould system must produce sufficient permeability and hardness to withstand sand drop while pouring molten metal through ladle. The demand for improved values of permeability and mould hardness depends on systematic study and analysis of influencing variables namely grain fineness number, setting time, percent of resin and hardener. Try-error experiment methods and analysis were considered impractical in actual foundry practice due to the associated cost. Experimental matrices of central composite design allow conducting minimum experiments that provide complete insight of the process. Statistical significance of influencing variables and their interaction were determined to control the process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA test was conducted to validate the model statistically. Mathematical equation was derived separately for mould hardness and permeability, which are expressed as a non-linear function of input variables based on the collected experimental input-output data. The developed model prediction accuracy for practical usefulness was tested with 10 random experimental conditions. The decision variables for higher mould hardness and permeability were determined using desirability function approach. The prediction results were found to be consistent with experimental values.

  11. Infiltration SuDS Map

    OpenAIRE

    Dearden, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Infiltration SuDS are sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) that allow surface water to infiltrate to the ground. Examples include soakaways, infiltration basins, infiltration trenches and permeable pavements. Before planning to install Infiltration SuDS, the suitability of the ground should be assessed. The British Geological Survey has developed a bespoke Infiltration SuDS Map that enables a preliminary assessment of the suitability of the ground for infiltration SuDS. Th...

  12. Investigation of field temperature in moulds of foamed plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pawlak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plaster moulds used in precision foundry are characterized by a very low permeability which, in the case of classic plaster moulds, equals to about 0,01÷0,02 m2/(MPa·s. One of the most effective methods for increasing the permeability is a foaming treatment. Another characteristic feature of plaster is its very good insulating power which has influence on the process of solidification and cooling of a cast and also on a knock-out property. This insulating power is a function of thermophysical properties of plaster which, in turn, depend mainly on the mineralogical composition of the mould material, its bulk density as well as on the temperature of the pouring alloy. In the case of a foamed plaster mould an increase of the degree of foaming increases its porosity which causes a change in its thermophysical properties, thereby increasing susceptibility of the mass to overheating. The susceptibility of the plaster layer surrounding the cast to overheating is favorable because it makes it easier to knock-out of the cast by immersing the hot mould in cold water. Thermal and phase tensions that are created during this process cause fast destruction of plaster. This paper describes our investigations aimed at the determination of the dependence of the mould temperature field on the time of the cast stay in the mould, as recorded in a process of an unsteady heat flow. The determined data were planned to be used for estimation of the technological properties of the plaster mould. The tests were carried out using the plaster α-Supraduro and Alkanol XC (foaming agent. The test mould had a diameter of Ø 120 mm with centrally situated mould cavity of Ø 30 mm. Plaster moulds with a degree of foaming 20; 32,5 and 45% and comparatively from non-foaming plaster were tested and their temperatures were measured at the distance x=2; 9; 21; 25;27; 30 mm from the mould cavity within 25 min. Analysis of the results leads to the conclusion, that the highest

  13. Bond strength investigation of two shot moulded polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul

    This report on the project “Bond strength investigation of two shot moulded polymers” has been submitted for fulfilling the requirements for the course “Experimental Plastic Technology – 42234” at IPL-DTU. Two shot moulding is a classic manufacturing process to combine two different polymers...... in a single product and it is getting more and more importance day by day. One of the biggest challenges of two shot moulding is to achieve a reasonably good bonding between two polymers. The purpose of this project is to investigate the effects of different process, material and machine parameters...... on the bond strength of two shot moulded polymers. For the experiments two engineering polymers (PS and ABS) were used. After all the experimental work, several parameters were found which could effectively control the bond strength of two shot moulded polymers. This report also presents different aspects...

  14. Advances in Physarum machines sensing and computing with Slime mould

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to Slime mould Physarum polycephalum, which is a large single cell capable for distributed sensing, concurrent information processing, parallel computation and decentralized actuation. The ease of culturing and experimenting with Physarum makes this slime mould an ideal substrate for real-world implementations of unconventional sensing and computing devices The book is a treatise of theoretical and experimental laboratory studies on sensing and computing properties of slime mould, and on the development of mathematical and logical theories of Physarum behavior. It is shown how to make logical gates and circuits, electronic devices (memristors, diodes, transistors, wires, chemical and tactile sensors) with the slime mould. The book demonstrates how to modify properties of Physarum computing circuits with functional nano-particles and polymers, to interface the slime mould with field-programmable arrays, and to use Physarum as a controller of microbial fuel cells. A unique multi-agent model...

  15. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  16. Application of microwaves for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, investigation results of microwave heating application for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores made of moulding sands with thermosetting resins are presented. It was found that waste shell cores or shell moulds left after casting, separated from moulding sand, can be effectively incinerated. It was evidenced that microwave heating allows effective control of this process and its results. Incineration of waste moulds and cores made of commercial grades of resin-coated moulding sand using microwave heating was found to be an effective way of their utilisation. It was determined that the optimum burning time of these wastes (except those insufficiently disintegrated and not mixed with an activating agent is maximum 240 s at the used magnetron power of 650 W. It was noticed that proper disintegration of the wastes and use of suitable additives to intensify the microwave heating process guarantee significant reduction of the process time and its full stabilisation. Application of microwave heating for incinerating waste shell moulds and cores ensure substantial and measurable economic profits due to shorter process time and lower energy consumption.

  17. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, M; Bobek, J; Habr, J; Běhálek, L; Šafka, J; Nováková, I

    2016-01-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO 2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO 2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO 2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses. (paper)

  18. The Use of Particulate Injection Moulding for Fabrication of Sports and Leisure Equipment from Titanium Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Ewart

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced materials such as metal alloys, carbon fibre composites and engineered polymers have improved athlete performances in all sporting applications. Advances in manufacturing has enabled increases in design complexity and the ability to rapidly prototype bespoke products using additive manufacturing also known as 3D printing. Another recent fabrication method widely used by medical, electronics and armaments manufacturers is particulate injection moulding. This process uses exact quantities of the required material, in powder form, minimising resource and energy requirements in comparison to conventional manufacturing techniques. The process utilises injection moulding techniques and tooling methods developed and used in the plastics industry. It can produce highly complex component geometries with excellent repeatability and reduced cost where volume manufacturing is required. This is especially important when considering materials such as titanium that are not only expensive in comparison to other metals but are difficult to process by regular machining and fabrication methods. This work presents a review of titanium use in the sporting sector with a focus on sporting devices and equipment. It also proposes that the sports engineering sector could increase performance and enable improvements in safety by switching to design methods appropriate to processing via the particulate injection moulding route.

  19. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  20. Galactomyces geotrichum - moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygier, Anna; Myszka, Kamila; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances and wastewater treatment. It has also been found to have potential for biofuel production. In addition to this, G. geotrichum can be applicable in two further major areas: agriculture and health protection.

  1. Best practice strategies for validation of micro moulding process simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Franco; Tosello, Guido; Whiteside, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The use of simulation for injection moulding design is a powerful tool which can be used up-front to avoid costly tooling modifications and reduce the number of mould trials. However, the accuracy of the simulation results depends on many component technologies and information, some of which can...... be easily controlled or known by the simulation analyst and others which are not easily known. For this reason, experimental validation studies are an important tool for establishing best practice methodologies for use during analysis set up on all future design projects. During the validation studies......, detailed information about the moulding process is gathered and used to establish these methodologies. Whereas in routine design projects, these methodologies are then relied on to provide efficient but reliable working practices. Data analysis and simulations on preliminary micro-moulding experiments have...

  2. Bond strength of two component injection moulded MID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2006-01-01

    Most products of the future will require industrially adapted, cost effective production processes and on this issue two-component (2K) injection moulding is a potential candidate for MID manufacturing. MID based on 2k injection moulded plastic part with selectively metallised circuit tracks allows...... the two different plastic materials in the MID structure require good bonding between them. This paper finds suitable combinations of materials for MIDs from both bond strength and metallisation view-point. Plastic parts were made by two-shot injection moulding and the effects of some important process...... the integration of electrical and mechanical functionalities in a real 3D structure. If 2k injection moulding is applied with two polymers, of which one is plateable and the other is not, it will be possible to make 3D electrical structures directly on the component. To be applicable in the real engineering field...

  3. Optimization of Injection Moulding Process Parameters in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    https://www.ajol.info/index.php/jasem ... Cooling time was found to be the factor with most significant effect on ... Keywords: High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Injection Moulding, Process .... value of shrinkage behavior is expected to be.

  4. Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-02-16

    Feb 16, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 1. Commentary: Magic with moulds: Meiotic and mitotic crossing over in Neurospora inversions and duplications. Durgadas P Kasbekar. Volume 31 Issue 1 March 2006 pp 3-4 ...

  5. Comparison of test methods for mould growth in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonderup, Sirid; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Knudsen, Sofie Marie

    2016-01-01

    renovation needs. This is of importance when hidden surface testing would require destructive measures and subsequent renovation. After identifying available methods on the Danish market for assessing mould growth in dwellings, a case study was conducted to test the usefulness of the methods in four......The purpose of this work is to compare a range of test methods and kits for assessing whether a building structure is infested by mould fungi. A further purpose of this work is to evaluate whether air-based methods for sampling fungal emissions provide information qualifying decisions concerning...... methods measure different aspects relating to mould growth and vary in selectivity and precision. The two types of air samples indicated low levels of mould growth, even where the results of the other methods indicated high to moderate growth. With methods based on culture and DNA testing some differences...

  6. Yield stress distribution in injection-moulded glassy polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, W.M.H.; Kanters, M.J.W.; Engels, T.A.P.; Govaert, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology for structural analysis simulations is presented that incorporates the distribution of mechanical propertiesalong the geometrical dimensions of injection-moulded amorphous polymer products. It is based on a previously developedmodelling approach, where the thermomechanical history

  7. Are motorways rational from slime mould's point of view?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamatzky, A.; Akl, S.; Alonso-Sanz, R.; van Dessel, W.; Ibrahim, Z.; Ilachinski, A.; Jones, J.; Kayem, A.V.D.M.; Martínez, G.J.; de Oliveira, P.; Prokopenko, M.; Schubert, T.; Sloot, P.; Strano, E.; Yang, X.-S.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the results of our experimental laboratory approximation of motorway networks with slime mould Physarum polycephalum. Motorway networks of 14 geographical areas are considered: Australia, Africa, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Germany, Iberia, Italy, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, UK

  8. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle array by microinjection moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, K. L.; Xu, Yan; Kang, Chunlei; Liu, H.; Tam, K. F.; Ko, S. M.; Kwan, F. Y.; Lee, Thomas M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A method of producing sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays using microinjection moulding is presented in this paper. Unlike traditional approaches, three mould inserts were used to create the sharp tips of the microneedles. Mould inserts with low surface roughness were fabricated using a picosecond laser machine. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedles 500 µm in height were fabricated using a microinjection moulding machine developed by the authors’ group. In addition, the strength of the microneedle was studied by simulation and penetration experiments. Results show that the microneedles can penetrate into skin, delivering liquid successfully without any breakage or severe deformation. Techniques presented in this paper can be used to fabricate sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays massively with low cost.

  9. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle array by microinjection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, K L; Xu, Yan; Kang, Chunlei; Liu, H; Tam, K F; Ko, S M; Kwan, F Y; Lee, Thomas M H

    2012-01-01

    A method of producing sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays using microinjection moulding is presented in this paper. Unlike traditional approaches, three mould inserts were used to create the sharp tips of the microneedles. Mould inserts with low surface roughness were fabricated using a picosecond laser machine. Sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedles 500 µm in height were fabricated using a microinjection moulding machine developed by the authors’ group. In addition, the strength of the microneedle was studied by simulation and penetration experiments. Results show that the microneedles can penetrate into skin, delivering liquid successfully without any breakage or severe deformation. Techniques presented in this paper can be used to fabricate sharp tipped plastic hollow microneedle arrays massively with low cost. (paper)

  10. Replication of micro structured surface by injection moulding of PEEK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Sørensen, Søren

    A micro-structured Ni insert was investigated for PEEK injection moulding. The micro features are circular holes 4 μm in diameter and 2 μm deep, with a 2 μm edge-to-edge distance. 6000 moulding cycles was operated. Half of the insert was coated by 200nm CrN. PEEK parts produced by the coated side...

  11. Measuring autogenous strain of concrete with corrugated moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2008-01-01

    A reliable technique to quantify autogenous strain is a prerequisite to numerical modeling in stress calculations for high performance concrete. The introducing of a special kind of corrugated tube mould helps to transforming volume strain measurement into liner strain measurement in horizontal...... direction for fluid concrete, which not only realizes the continuous monitoring of the autogenous shrinkage since casting, but also effectively eliminates the disturbance resulting from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint on measuring results. Based on this measuring technique, this paper...

  12. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haloi, A.K.; Ditchfield, M.; Pennington, A.; Philips, R.

    2006-01-01

    Although there are multiple case reports and small series concerning facial infiltrative lipomatosis, there is no composite radiological description of the condition. Radiological evaluation of facial infiltrative lipomatosis using plain film, sonography, CT and MRI. We radiologically evaluated four patients with facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Initial plain radiographs of the face were acquired in all patients. Three children had an initial sonographic examination to evaluate the condition, followed by MRI. One child had a CT and then MRI. One child had abnormalities on plain radiographs. Sonographically, the lesions were seen as ill-defined heterogeneously hypoechoic areas with indistinct margins. On CT images, the lesions did not have a homogeneous fat density but showed some relatively more dense areas in deeper parts of the lesions. MRI provided better delineation of the exact extent of the process and characterization of facial infiltrative lipomatosis. Facial infiltrative lipomatosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis of vascular or lymphatic malformation when a child presents with unilateral facial swelling. MRI is the most useful single imaging modality to evaluate the condition, as it provides the best delineation of the exact extent of the process. (orig.)

  13. Report on converging insert moulding with µ-IM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    moulding with µ-IM  Task 5.2.1 and COTECH demonstrator: guide line for 5PRC production based on the concept of Task 5.2.1 Information and results provided by this deliverable will be directly used for one of the COTECH demonstrators production which will call for convergent insert moulding with µ......Task 5.2.1 deals with the technical feasibility of converging the state-of-the-art µ IM process with insert moulding to offer a wide range of multi-material µ components. The main objective of this deliverable is to summarize state-of-the-art information and to make the guideline needed...... for the convergence. In particular the following aspects are summed up in the deliverable:  Need for converging insert moulding with µ-IM  Objectives and expected outcome from task 5.2.1  State-of-the-art micro insert moulding and different scenario of micro insert moulding  Challenges ahead of converging insert...

  14. Development and characterisation of injection moulded, all-polypropylene composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kmetty

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, all-polypropylene composites (all-PP composites were manufactured by injection moulding. Prior to injection moulding, pre-impregnated pellets were prepared by a three-step process (filament winding, compression moulding and pelletizing. A highly oriented polypropylene multifilament was used as the reinforcement material, and a random polypropylene copolymer (with ethylene was used as the matrix material. Plaque specimens were injection moulded from the pellets with either a film gate or a fan gate. The compression moulded sheets and injection moulding plaques were characterised by shrinkage tests, static tensile tests, dynamic mechanical analysis and falling weight impact tests; the fibre distribution and fibre/matrix adhesion were analysed with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that with increasing fibre content, both the yield stress and the perforation energy significantly increased. Of the two types of gates used, the fan gate caused the mechanical properties of the plaque specimens to become more homogeneous (i.e., the differences in behaviour parallel and perpendicular to the flow direction became negligible.

  15. Urban Stormwater Infiltration Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geldof, Govert; Jacobsen, Per; Fujita, Shoichi

    1994-01-01

    In urban areas there are many problems with water management: combined sewer overflows, peak flows, man-induced droughts, consolidation of the soil, damage from frost penetration, etc. It is preferable to look at all these problems in relation to each other, according the concept of integrated...... water management. This paper focuses on the possibilities for urban stormwater infiltration. The results of three studies are presented. The first study concerns the flooding of the Shirako River in Tokyo. It is shown that with the help of stormwater infiltration the floods can be reduced remarkably....... The second study concerns combined sewer overflows and the discharge from treatment plants for catchments in Denmark and the Netherlands. When looking at the total yearly discharge from the combined sewer and the treatment plant, it is shown that infiltration is more effective than detention. The third study...

  16. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls. (orig.) [de

  17. Thermally induced atomic diffusion at the interface between release agent coating and mould substrate in a glass moulding press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Jun; Fukase, Yasushi [Toshiba Machine Co., Ltd, Ooka 2068-3, Numazu-Shi, Shizuoka-Ken, 410-8510 (Japan); Yan Jiwang; Zhou Tianfeng; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto, E-mail: yanjw@pm.mech.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba 6-6-01, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-06-01

    In a glass moulding press (GMP) for refractive/diffractive hybrid lenses, to improve the service life of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) plated moulds, it is necessary to control the diffusion of constituent elements from the mould into the release agent coating. In this study, diffusion phenomena of constituents of Ni-P plating are investigated for two types of release agent coatings, iridium-platinum (Ir-Pt) and iridium-rhenium (Ir-Re), by cross-sectional observation, compositional analysis and stress measurements. The results show that Ni atoms in the plating layer flow from regions of compressive stress to regions of tensile stress. In the case of the Ir-Pt coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is promoted from the grain boundaries between the Ni and Ni{sub 3}P phases in the plating towards the surface of the Ir-Pt coating. However, in the Ir-Re coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is suppressed because the diffusion coefficient of Ni in the Ir-Re alloy is smaller than that in the Ir-Pt alloy, although the stress state is similar in both cases. By controlling the diffusion of Ni atoms, the use of Ir-Re alloy as a release agent coating for Ni-P plated moulds is expected to lead to a high degree of durability.

  18. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Taboryski, Rafael; Wolff, Anders; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Poulsen, Carl Esben

    2014-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is desirable when developing products. One example of such a product is all-polymer, passive flow controlled lab-on-a-chip systems that are preferential when developing low-cost disposable chips for point-of-care use. In this paper we investigate the following aspects of going from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test structures. (2) Numerical modelling of the microvalve burst pressures. Numerical modelling of burst pressures is challenging due to its non-equilibrium nature. We have implemented and tested the level-set method modified with a damped driving term and show that the introduction of the damping term leads to numerically robust results with limited computational demands and a low number of iterations. Numerical and simplified analytical results are validated against the experimental results. We find that injection moulding and ultrasonic welding are effective for chip production and that the experimental burst pressures could be estimated with an average accuracy of 5% using the presented numerical model. (paper)

  19. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified.

  20. CONTRIBUTIONS TO DIVERSIFY SOLES MOULDS THAT FORMS DIRECTLY ON FACES SHOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Cozmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical moulds which are currently used for forming the soles directly on the uppers, allow obtaining one sole model. One mould for each foot is made, and at least one mould for each size number in the size number series. To manufacture one single sole model in the sizes series an average set of 16 moulds are needed. Changing the model implies the entire production of a new set of moulds. Therefore, a large diversification of the soles requires the manufacturing a quantity of moulds sets equal with the quantity of sole models. In this paper are presented solutions to obtain more cavity shapes in the same mould, through the use of modular interchangeable pieces. The moulds with versatile cavities have the same functional characteristics as the moulds with unique cavities, are usable on the same type of machines and can be used independently or together with the classical moulds. A brief analysis on the technological processes for manufacturing moulds with versatile cavities reveals a significant lowering of the manufacturing time for moulds in which will be obtained other sole models. This is due to the fact that some of the mould parts are reused. In conclusion, the producers that chose this type of moulds can launch on the market new models in a shorter time and at lower prices.

  1. Decline and infiltrated lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Arboleda Casas, Felipe; Duarte, Monica; Triana Harker, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the decline and infiltrated lung in a patient of 45 years, with diagnosis of arthritis rheumatoid from the 43 years, asymptomatic, without treatment, married, of the 15 to the 35 years of 3 to 10 cigarettes daily, she refers of 7 months of evolution episodes of moderate dyspnoea with exercises and dry cough with occasional mucous expectoration between others

  2. Diffuse infiltrative cardiac tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Gurpreet S; Kothari, Shyam S

    2011-01-01

    We present the cardiac magnetic resonance images of an unusual form of cardiac tuberculosis. Nodular masses in a sheet-like distribution were seen to infiltrate the outer myocardium and pericardium along most of the cardiac chambers. The lesions showed significant resolution on antitubercular therapy

  3. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Poulsen, Carl Esben; Østergaard, Peter Friis

    2014-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is desirable when developing products. One example of such a product is all-polymer, passive flow controlled lab-on-a-chip systems that are preferential when developing low-cost disposable chips for point-of-care use. In this paper we investigate the following aspects of going...... from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test...... structures. (2) Numerical modelling of the microvalve burst pressures. Numerical modelling of burst pressures is challenging due to its non-equilibrium nature. We have implemented and tested the level-set method modified with a damped driving term and show that the introduction of the damping term leads...

  4. Experimental investigation on shrinkage and surface replication of injection moulded ceramic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Giannekas, Nikolaos; Marhöfer, David Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic moulded parts are increasingly being used in advanced components and devices due to their unprecedented material and performance attributes. The surface finish, replication quality and material shrinkage are of immense importance for moulded ceramic parts intended for precision applications....... The current paper presents a thorough investigation on the process of ceramic moulding where it systematically characterizes the surface replication and shrinkage behaviours of precision moulded ceramic components. The test parts are moulded from Catamold TZP-A which is Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2 having widespread...... distribution for the moulded ceramic parts is presented....

  5. Influence of the reclamation method of spent moulding sands on the possibility of creating favourable conditions for gases flow in a mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations concerning the influence of the applied sand matrix (fresh sand, reclaim on the properties of moulding sands used for production of large dimensional castings (ingot moulds, ladles, are presented in the hereby paper. The performed investigations were aimed at determining the influence of various reclamation methods of spent moulding sands on the quality of the obtained reclaimed material. Moulding sands were prepared on the fresh quartz matrix as well as on sand matrices obtained after various reclamation methods. The selected moulding sand parameters were tested (strength, permeability, grindability, ignition losses, pH reactions. It can be stated, on the basis of the performed investigations, that the kind of the applied moulding sand matrix is of an essential meaning from the point of view of creating conditions minimising formation of large amounts of gases and their directional migration in a casting mould.

  6. The first report on mushroom green mould disease in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatvani, Lóránt; Sabolić, Petra; Kocsubé, Sándor; Kredics, László; Czifra, Dorina; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Kaliterna, Joško; Ivić, Dario; Đermić, Edyta; Kosalec, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    Green mould disease, caused by Trichoderma species, is a severe problem for mushroom growers worldwide, including Croatia. Trichoderma strains were isolated from green mould-affected Agaricus bisporus (button or common mushroom) compost and Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) substrate samples collected from Croatian mushroom farms. The causal agents of green mould disease in the oyster mushroom were T. pleurotum and T. pleuroticola, similar to other countries. At the same time, the pathogen of A. bisporus was exclusively the species T. harzianum, which is different from earlier findings and indicates that the range of mushroom pathogens is widening. The temperature profiles of the isolates and their hosts overlapped, thus no range was found that would allow optimal growth of the mushrooms without mould contamination. Ferulic acid and certain phenolic compounds, such as thymol showed remarkable fungistatic effect on the Trichoderma isolates, but inhibited the host mushrooms as well. However, commercial fungicides prochloraz and carbendazim were effective agents for pest management. This is the first report on green mould disease of cultivated mushrooms in Croatia.

  7. Process Factors Influence on Cavity Pressure Behavior in Microinjection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C. A.; Dimov, S. S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    about the filling behavior of different polymer melts. In this paper, a pressure sensor mounted inside a tool cavity was employed to analyse maximum cavity pressure, pressure increase rate during filling and pressure work. The influence of four mu IM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature......Process monitoring of microinjection moulding (mu IM) is of crucial importance when analysing the effect of different parameter settings on the process and then in assessing its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide valuable information about the process dynamics and also......, injection speed, and packing pressure on these three pressure-related process parameters was investigated. A design of experiment study was conducted by moulding a test part, a microfluidic component, in three different polymer materials, PP, ABS, and PC. The results show a similar process behavior for all...

  8. Potentially pathogenic, pathogenic, and allergenic moulds in the urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of soil mould populations that can compromise the human immune system was evaluated in experimental plots located at different distances (100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 m from the main source of pollution - the Podgorica Aluminum Plant. Soil samples were collected in July and October 2008 from three different plot zones at a depth of 0-10 cm. The count of potentially pathogenic, keratinolytic and allergenic (melaninogenic moulds was assessed, which can significantly contribute to both diagnosis and prophylaxis. The count of medically important moulds was higher in the urban soil than in the unpolluted (control soil. Their count decreased with increasing distance from the main pollution source (PAP. Their abundance in the soil was considerably higher in autumn than in spring.

  9. Normalization in Lie algebras via mould calculus and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Thierry; Sauzin, David

    2017-11-01

    We establish Écalle's mould calculus in an abstract Lie-theoretic setting and use it to solve a normalization problem, which covers several formal normal form problems in the theory of dynamical systems. The mould formalism allows us to reduce the Lie-theoretic problem to a mould equation, the solutions of which are remarkably explicit and can be fully described by means of a gauge transformation group. The dynamical applications include the construction of Poincaré-Dulac formal normal forms for a vector field around an equilibrium point, a formal infinite-order multiphase averaging procedure for vector fields with fast angular variables (Hamiltonian or not), or the construction of Birkhoff normal forms both in classical and quantum situations. As a by-product we obtain, in the case of harmonic oscillators, the convergence of the quantum Birkhoff form to the classical one, without any Diophantine hypothesis on the frequencies of the unperturbed Hamiltonians.

  10. Two-component microinjection moulding for MID fabrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2010-01-01

    Moulded interconnect devices (MIDs) are plastic substrates with electrical infrastructure. The fabrication of MIDs is usually based on injection moulding, and different process chains may be identified from this starting point. The use of MIDs has been driven primarily by the automotive sector......, but recently, the medical sector seems more and more interested. In particular, the possibility of miniaturisation of three-dimensional components with electrical infrastructure is attractive. The present paper describes possible manufacturing routes and challenges of miniaturised MIDs based on two...

  11. Free-form nanostructured tools for plastic injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafka, Jan; Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Lam, Yee Cheong

    realized and successfully transferred to plastic parts during injection moulding.As an example, we present theory and results regarding the imprint of pillar nanostructures on a semi-spherical mold surface, followed by injection molding of the same. The deformation of the flexible stamp is characterized...... by measurement of inter-pillar distance on various points on the sphere, and compared to predictions provided by a geometrical model. Moulded plastic parts show good replication of the pillar structure.There are various practical advantages to the new process: the application of the coating is possible on both...

  12. Process Optimization for Injection Moulding of Passive Microwave Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Steffen G.; Mueller, Tobias; Santos Machado, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    The demand for micro components has increased during the last decade following the overall trend towards miniaturization. Injection moulding is the favoured technique for the mass manufacturing of micro components or larger parts with micro-structured areas due to its ability to cost effectively ...... algorithm for modelling, the influence of different moulding parameters on the final part quality was assessed. Firstly a process model and secondly a quality model has been calculated. The results shows that part quality can be controlled by monitoring characteristic numbers....

  13. The estimation of harmfulness for environment of moulding sand with biopolymer binder based on polylactide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major-Gabryś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article takes into consideration technological and ecological aspects of IV generation moulding sands. Investigations concerning anapplication of biopolymer materials as binders for moulding sands are presented in the paper. These investigations are the continuation ofexaminations related to applications of various biopolymers as binding agents and to the properties of the moulding sands with biopolymerbinders. In the paper there are the researches concerning analyzing gases emitted from moulding sands during heating.

  14. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, P.; Walther, Jens Honore

    2015-01-01

    casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding process. In the present work a mould chamber with “ribs” at the walls is chosen as a baseline geometry...

  15. Double-curved precast concrete elements : Research into technical viability of the flexible mould method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    The production of precast, concrete elements with complex, double-curved geometry is expensive due to the high costcosts of the necessary moulds and the limited possibilities for mould reuse. Currently, CNC-milled foam moulds are the solution applied mostly in projects, offering good aesthetic

  16. Gas-assisted injection moulding: adding two components and moveable inserts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neerincx, P.E.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Gas assisted injection moulding (GAIM) is a technique that is successfully used for compensating shrinkage during injection moulding of thick walled but still accurate products with low levels of internal stresses and frozen-in orientation. In this study the authors apply GAIM in moulding 28 mm

  17. Inner centering in parting line area of injection mould using side locks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2017-01-01

    Injection moulding is characterized by high precision requirements. In particular, the demands regarding the mould plates alignment are in order of few micro meters. This research introduces a methodology to measure the misalignment in injection moulding. Eddy current sensors are used in the system...

  18. Emission of organic compounds from mould and core binders used for casting iron, aluminium and bronze in sand moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels Skat; Crepaz, Rudolf; Eggert, Torben

    2010-01-01

    compositions were tested. A test method that provides uniform test conditions is described. The method can be used as general test method to analyse off gasses from binders. Moulds containing a standard size casting were produced and the amount and type of organic compounds resulting from thermal degradation...... of binders was monitored when cast iron, bronze and aluminium was poured in the moulds. Binder degradation was measured by collecting off gasses in a specially designed ventilation hood at a constant flow rate. Samples were taken from the ventilation system and analysed for hydrocarbons and CO content...

  19. Inhibition of growth and mycotoxins formation in moulds by marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... extracts (chloroform, hexane and methanol) had no activity on the microbial growth. Mycotoxins formation in Aspergillus flavus was inhibited by the ethanolic extracts at the concentration of 5%. Key Words: Algae, antimicrobial, minimal inhibitory concentration, moulds. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 71-75 ...

  20. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  1. Micro-MID Manufacturing By Two-Shot Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    a specific MID process chain is used for micro products, many technical challenges are encountered which would not be problems for macro scale products. This paper investigates on a specific MID process chain (two shot moulding) and discusses the technical difficulties associated with the production process...

  2. C-stop production by micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    of engineering micro product which integrate many features like beam snapfit, annular snapfit, hinge connection, filter grid, house, lid etc in a single product. All the features are in micro dimensional scale and manufactured by single step of injection moulding. This presentation will cover industrial...

  3. The computation of properties of injection-moulded products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, L.F.A.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Meijer, H.E.H.

    1995-01-01

    Injection moulding is a flexible production technique for the manufacture of complex shaped, thin walled polymer products that require minimal finishing. During processing, the polymer experiences a complex deformation and temperature history that affects the final properties of the product. In a

  4. Injection Moulding of Plastic Parts with Surface Microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2003-01-01

    structures with heights of 9 µm and aspect ratios from 0.2 to 1. For topographical characterisation a confocal laser scanning microscope was used. The injection moulding process conditions were varied over the recommended process window for the material, and the process was analysed using commercial...

  5. Effect of increased manganese addition and mould type on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effect of increased manganese addition and mould type on the slurry erosion characteristics of .... slurry erosion data in the form of bar diagrams for 5M24 and 10M24 ... being bigger in size with higher austenite retention and the attendant ...

  6. Quality of topographical micro replication in injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bariani, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    The quality of tool-to-part rough surface topography replication in injection moulding has been investigated. Quantitative descriptors suitable for detecting process conditions induced topography changes have been identified using a statistical criterion. The experimental work is based on a tool ...

  7. Binder Development for Metal Injection Moulding: A CSIR Perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the CSIR’s progress and challenges concerning the development of a wax-based binder system suitable for metal injection moulding (MIM). It reports on a consolidation study wherein different widely used wax-based feedstock...

  8. Wood working: planing and moulding in the last frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls

    2007-01-01

    Planing and moulding is an important step in the value-added manufacture of wood products, and recent advances in Alaska have been noteworthy. Just a few years ago, most planing occurred on simple shop planers, producing lumber for retail sale or for wood working uses such as cabinet stock. Currently there are at least 26 planers and 13 moulders in-production at...

  9. Exploring Value-Added Options - Opportunities in Mouldings and Millwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The millwork industry, which includes manufacture of doors, windows, stair parts, blinds, mouldings, picture frame material, and assorted trim, can be a lucrative value-added opportunity for sawmills. Those entering the value-added millwork market often find that it is a great opportunity to generate greater profits from upper grades and utility species, such as yellow...

  10. Immunological and biochemical characterization of extracellular polysaccharides of mucoralean moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de G.A.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the characterization is described of the antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) from moulds belonging to the order of Mucorales. Detailed knowledge of the structure of these epitopes allows for further development of a new generation of

  11. Closed-Loop Tension Control System for Injection Moulding Machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When the mould unit is full, this drive keeps transporting filament materials without proper control. This project developed a closed loop feedback tension control system and it is to replace servo motor drive system for the transportation of filament and it demonstrated a new technological advancement and the theory of ...

  12. On the epoxy moulding compound aging effect on package reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noijen, S.P.M.; Engelen, R.A.B.; Martens, J.; Opran, A.; Sluis, van der O.

    2009-01-01

    Most semi-conductor devices are encapsulated by epoxy moulding compound (EMC) material. Even after curing at the prescribed temperature and time in accordance with the supplier's curing specifications often the product is not yet 100% fully cured. As a consequence, the curing process of a product

  13. Mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of Sufu Pehtze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, B.; Kuijpers, F.A.; Thanh, N.V.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in China and Vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. The final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several

  14. Accurate characterisation of post moulding shrinkage of polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, L. C.; De Chiffre, L.; González-Madruga, D.

    2015-01-01

    The work deals with experimental determination of the shrinkage of polymer parts after injection moulding. A fixture for length measurements on 8 parts at the same time was designed and manufactured in Invar, mounted with 8 electronic gauges, and provided with 3 temperature sensors. The fixture w...

  15. Air Flow and Gassing Potential in Micro-injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffithsa, C.A.; Dimova, S.S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    valuable information about the process dynamics and also about the filling of a cavity by a polymer melt. In this paper, a novel experimental set-up is proposed to monitor maximum air flow and air flow work as an integral of the air flow over time by employing a MEMS gas sensor mounted inside the mould...

  16. Characterisation of demoulding parameters in micro‑injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C.A.; Tosello, Guido; Dimov, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    on the process factors that affect parts’ quality. Using a Cyclic Olefin Copolyme (COC) microfluidics demonstrator, the demoulding performance was studied as a function of four process parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure and injection speed), employing the design of experiment...

  17. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R 2  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Selected parameters of moulding sands for designing quality control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks owe their popularity to the fact thatthey are convenient tools, which can be utilised in a wide scope of problems. They are capable of reflecting complex functions. Especiallytheir non-linearity should be emphasised. They are gaining wider and wider application in the foundry industry, among others, to controlmelting processes in cupolas and arc furnaces, designing castings and supply systems, control of moulding sands treatments, prediction ofproperties of cast alloys as well as selecting die casting.An attempt of the application neural networks to the quality control of moulding sands with bentonite is presented in the paper. This isa method of assessing the suitability of moulding sands by finding correlations in between individual parameters, by means of artificialneural network systems. The presented investigations were performed with the application of the Statistica 8.0 program.The investigations were aimed at the selection of the proper kind of a neural network for prediction a sand moistness on the bases ofcertain moulding sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility and friability. These parameters – determined as sand moistness functions - were introduced as initial parameters.Application of the Statistica program allowed for an automatic selection of the most suitable network for the reflection of dependencies and interactions existing among the proposed parameters. The best results were obtained for unidirectional multi-layer perception network (MLP. The neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters was determined, which allowed to reject not important parameters when constructing the network.

  20. Effects of moulding and environmental conditions on the mechanical and surface properties of injection moulded santoprene rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Ruby, Tobias M.; Jessen, Rikke L.

    the electronics inside from environmental hazards. The sealing ring is injection moulded in Santoprene-a thermoplastic vulcanizate consisting of Polypropelene and highly vulcanized EPDM rubber. The scope of the project was therefore to investigate the properties of Santoprene and make an immediate evaluation...

  1. Suitability of a South African silica sand for three-dimensional printing of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, Kasongo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of three-dimensional printing (3DP to metal casting include, among other things, the direct manufacturing of foundry moulds and cores in refractory materials such as silica sand. The main properties of silica sand that are essentially related to the traditional moulding and core-making processes are: size distribution, clay content, pH, acid demand, and refractoriness. The silica sand used for 3DP must also be appropriately selected for the layer-based manufacturing process involved in 3DP. Properties such as grain size distribution, grain surface morphology, angularity, flowability, and recoating abilities have a particular importance when determining sand suitability. Because of these extra requirements, only a limited range of available foundry silica sands can be used for 3DP processes. The latter situation explains the scarcity and high cost of suitable silica sands, thus contributing to the relatively high operational costs of the 3DP processes for the production of sand moulds and cores. This research paper investigates the suitability of a locally-available silica sand for use in a Voxeljet VX1000 3DP machine. The local silica sand was assessed and compared with an imported silica sand recommended by the manufacturer of 3DP equipment in terms of foundry characteristics and recoating behaviour. The study shows that, despite the differences between the characteristics of the two silica sands, the local sand could be considered a suitable alternative to imported sand for rapid sand casting applications.

  2. Elasticity of Moulding Sands – a Method of Reducing Core Cracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobosz St. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on mechanical properties of self hardening moulding sands with furfuryl and alkyd binders. Elasticity as a new parameter of moulding sands is investigated. With the use of presented testing equipment, it is possible to determine force kinetics and deformation of moulding sand in real time. The need for this kind of study comes from the modern casting industry. New foundries can be characterized with high intensity of production which is correlated with high level of mechanization and automatization of foundry processes. The increasingly common use of manipulators in production of moulds and cores can lead to generation of new types of flaws, caused by breakage in moulds and cores which could occur during mould assembly. Hence it is required that moulds and cores have high resistance to those kinds of factors, attributing it with the phenomenon of elasticity. The article describes the theoretical basis of this property, presents methods of measuring and continues earlier research.

  3. DEEP INFILTRATING ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Ribič-Pucelj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis is not considered a unified disease, but a disease encompassing three differ- ent forms differentiated by aetiology and pathogenesis: peritoneal endometriosis, ovarian endometriosis and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. The disease is classified as DIE when the lesions penetrate 5 mm or more into the retroperitoneal space. The estimated incidence of endometriosis in women of reproductive age ranges from 10–15 % and that of DIE from 3–10 %, the highest being in infertile women and in those with chronic pelvic pain. The leading symptoms of DIE are chronic pelvic pain which increases with age and correlates with the depth of infiltration and infertility. The most important diagnostic procedures are patient’s history and proper gynecological examination. The diagnosis is confirmed with laparoscopy. DIE can affect, beside reproductive organs, also bowel, bladder and ureters, therefore adi- tional diagnostic procedures must be performed preopertively to confirm or to exclude the involvement of the mentioned organs. Endometriosis is hormon dependent disease, there- fore several hormonal treatment regims are used to supress estrogen production but the symptoms recurr soon after caesation of the treatment. At the moment, surgical treatment with excision of all lesions, including those of bowel, bladder and ureters, is the method of choice but requires frequently interdisciplinary approach. Surgical treatment significantly reduces pain and improves fertility in inferile patients. Conclusions: DIE is not a rare form of endometriosis characterized by chronic pelvic pain and infertility. Medical treatment is not efficient. The method of choice is surgical treatment with excision of all lesions. It significantly reduces pelvic pain and enables high spontaneus and IVF preg- nacy rates.Therefore such patients should be treated at centres with experience in treatment of DIE and with possibility of interdisciplinary approach.

  4. Sealing of polymer micro-structures by over-moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingaard, Mathias; Christiansen, Jesper de Claville

    2012-01-01

    A concept for sealing of polymer micro-structures by over-moulding with polystyrene was devised and investigated by both experiments and simulations. The depth to which the melt filled the structure, i.e. a groove in the surface of the insert, before solidification was compared with results from...... simulations by computational fluid dynamics software. In both experiments and simulations, there was clearly an increase of filling depth with groove width and, especially for wide grooves, with injection temperature. In the simulations, changes in prescribed heat transfer coefficient had the largest effect...... on filling depth in the narrowest grooves. Around the experimental groove widths, there was good agreement between experiments and simulations. It was concluded that sealing by over-moulding is feasible if the depth/width ratio of the structure is large enough which in this paper is larger than six, i.e. up...

  5. Assessment of Mould Growth for Library Buildings in Tropical Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngah Abdul Wahab S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempt to give a brief insight into the importance of studying mould growth in library building that relates to human health and causes of material deterioration to library materials. It’s significant to conduct this research because no similar study has carried out for a library building in Malaysia. Recent literature on the topics reviews to gain insight into developing a theoretical framework and research method. Likewise, the study also supports through pilot study questionnaires with 30 respondents from two different university libraries. The finding revealed to further investigation and mould growth assessment to be conducted that useful in protecting library materials and users health effects through environmental control.

  6. Development and Evaluation of Mould for Double Curved Concrete Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Christian Raun; Kristensen, Mathias Kræmmergaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    freeform concrete formwork are available, and more are being developed [1-4]. The common way of producing moulds for unique elements today is to manufacture one mould for each unique element using CNC milling in cheaper materials, but since the method is still labour intensive and produces a lot of waste......Complex freeform architecture is one of the most striking trends in contemporary architecture. Architecture differs from traditional target industries of CAD/CAM technology in many ways including aesthetics, statics, structural aspects, scale and manufacturing technologies. Designing a piece...... of freeform architecture in a CAD program is fairly easy, but the translation to a real piece of architecture can be difficult and expensive and as traditional production methods for free-form architecture prove costly, architects and engineers are forced to simplify designs. Today, methods for manufacturing...

  7. Mould growth prediction by computational simulation on historic buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Krus, M.; Kilian, R.; Sedlbauer, K.

    2007-01-01

    Historical buildings are often renovated with a high expenditure of time and money without investigating and considering the causes of the damages. In many cases historic buildings can only be maintained by changing their usage. This change of use may influence the interior climate enormously. To assess the effect on the risk of mould growth on building parts or historic monuments a predictive model has been developed recently, describing the hygrothermal behaviour of the spore. It allows for...

  8. Moulded Pulp Manufacturing: Overview and Prospects for the Process Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Saxena, Prateek; Meijer, Ellen Brilhuis

    2017-01-01

    Eco-friendly packaging such as moulded pulp products have gained commercial importance in the recent years. However, it remains a greatly under-researched area, and there is an arising need to consolidate the best practices from research and industry in order to increase its implementation....... Moreover, based on the latest research in the field, an innovative drying technique that utilizes concepts derived from impulse drying is presented, and the implementation of this process technology is discussed....

  9. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    OpenAIRE

    M. Dziuba; M. Cholewa

    2008-01-01

    In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of c...

  10. Application of Microwaves for Binder Content Assessment in Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of preliminary examinations on possibility of determining binder content in traditional moulding sands with the microwave method. The presented measurements were carried-out using a special stand, the so-called slot line. Binder content in the sandmix was determined by measurements of absorption damping Ad and insertion losses IL of electromagnetic wave. One of main advantages of the suggested new method of binder content measurement is short measuring time.

  11. Quality control of injection moulded micro mechanical parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Quality control of micro components is an increasing challenge. Smaller mechanical parts are characterized by smaller tolerance to be verified. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of micro injection moulded components selected from an industrial application. These parts are measured...... using an Optical Coordinate Measuring Machine (OCMM), which guarantees fast surface scans suitable for in line quality control. The uncertainty assessment of the measurements is calculated following the substitution method. To investigate the influence parameters in optical coordinate metrology two...

  12. MAIN PROBLEMS OF MOULDING OF SILUMINS. WAYS OF SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problems of silumin’ moulding are connected with insufficient modifying of casting structure, their considerable inclination to gas porosity, difficult to remove nonmetallic inclusions and these features are shown in the article. Protection of liquid silumin from influence of the air atmosphere; use of crucibles from aluminum oxide; refinement of fusion from nonmetallic inclusions and application of the accelerated hydrogen hardening of castings were used to solve these problems, as it is shown in the article.

  13. Diffuse infiltrative lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1984-01-01

    The authors discuss their approach to the diagnosis and management of patients with DILD. Gallium scans play a central role in this process. Not only do they help them decide whom to biopsy, but also where to biopsy. The scans can be used for the early detection of disease in a high-risk population, for following the progression and regression of disease, for the regulation of medication, and for the evaluation of therapy. Bronchoalveolar lung lavage appears to be equally sensitive. However, patients are less willing to undergo repeated fiberoptic bronchoscopies than lung scans. Both tests may prove useful, one complementing the other. Gallium imaging has also been utilized by the authors in select patients with questionable diffuse lung infiltrates roentgenographically or with a normal chest roentgenogram, chronic respiratory symptoms, and abnormal pulmonary function studies. An abnormal gallium lung scan in these clinical situations helps them select which patients have a diffuse active pulmonary process meriting transbronchial biopsies. This has proven to be of particular value in the management of older patients

  14. Moulds and indoor air quality - a man-made problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langvad, Finn

    2002-01-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s, many house owners in Norway, in order to save energy, insulated their houses by injecting torn-up mineral wool into the entire cavity of the wall. This made the house warmer to live in, but it also created serious condensation problems followed by rot and mould. The extensive use of gypsum boards is also alarming. If gypsum becomes really wet because of a water leakage, it becomes a ticking bomb from the micro-biologic point of view as it provides growth conditions for some of the most dangerous indoor mould fungi known, the Stachybotrys chart arum. The article discusses the danger of this fungus and surveys some of the ways that mould affect human health. There is at present no definition of a normal number of fungus spores per unit volume of air. But the following principles can be taken as guidelines: (1) The concentration of spores indoor must be lower than outdoors. Otherwise extra spores have been generated in the house. (2) The species composition of the air must be approximately the same indoors and outdoors

  15. Two underestimated threats in food transportation: mould and acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, S; Pankoke, I; Klus, K; Schmitt, K; Stephan, U; Wöllenstein, J

    2014-06-13

    Two important parameters are often neglected in the monitoring of perishable goods during transport: mould contamination of fresh food and the influence of acceleration or vibration on the quality of a product. We assert the claim that it is necessary to focus research on these two topics in the context of intelligent logistics in this opinion paper. Further, the technical possibilities for future measurement systems are discussed. By measuring taste deviations, we verified the effect on the quality of beer at different vibration frequencies. The practical importance is shown by examining transport routes and market shares. The general feasibility of a mobile mould detection system is established by examining the measurement resolution of semiconductor sensors for mould-related gases. Furthermore, as an alternative solution, we present a concept for a miniaturized and automated culture-medium-based system. Although there is a lack of related research to date, new efforts can make a vital contribution to the reduction of losses in the logistic chains for several products.

  16. Production of press moulds by plasma spray forming process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, Y.; Myakota, I.; Polyakov, S.

    2001-01-01

    Plasma spray forming process for production of press moulds which are used for manufacture of articles from plastics was developed. The press moulds were produced by plasma spraying of Cu-Al-Fe-alloy powder on surface of a master model. The master models were made from non-metallic materials with heat resistance below 70 C (wood, gypsum etc). Double cooling system which provides for a control of surface model temperature and quenching conditions of sprayed material was designed. It made possible on the one hand to support model surface temperature below 70 C and on the other hand to provide for temperature conditions of martensite transformation in Cu-Al-system with a fixation of metastable ductile α + β 1 -phase. This allowed to decrease residual stresses in sprayed layer (up to 0,5-2,5 MPa), to increase microhardness of the coating material (up to 1200-1800 MPa) and its ductility (σ B = 70-105 MPa, δ = 6-12 %). This plasma spray forming process makes possible to spray thick layers (5-20 mm and more) without their cracking and deformation. The process is used for a production of press moulds which are applied in shoes industry, for fabrication of toys, souvenirs etc. (author)

  17. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma into skeletal muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, W.; Braunschweig, R.; Reiser, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Muenchen (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Skeletal muscle is one of the most unusual sites of metastasis from any malignancy. We report a patient with rapidly progressive contractures due to metastatic infiltration of a carcinoma of unknown origin into the skeletal muscle. This 61-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of rapidly evolving, painful restriction of mobility of his right arm and his legs. Computed tomography showed diffuse metastatic nodules in all muscles, particularly in the hip abductors. Muscle biopsy revealed extensive infiltration of the muscle with carcinoma cells. (orig.) With 4 figs., 21 refs.

  19. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Jelínková, V.; Němcová, R.; Tesař, Miroslav; Vogel, T.; Císlerová, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2010), s. 11898 ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2010. 02.05.2010-07.05.2010, Wienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : soil hydraulic conductivity * infiltration * infiltration ring Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology

  20. Evaluation of the viscoelastic behaviour and glass/mould interface friction coefficient in the wafer based precision glass moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    -placements, internal diameter and thickness of the rings are measured during the tests. Viscoelastic andstructural relaxation behaviour of the glass are implemented into the ABAQUS FEM software through aFORTRAN material subroutine (UMAT) and the FE model is validated with a sandwich seal test. Then, byFE simulation...... of the ring compression test and comparison of the experimental creep with the simulatedone in an iterative procedure, viscoelastic parameters of the glass material are characterized. Finally,interfacial glass/mould friction coefficients at different temperatures are determined through FEM basedfriction...... curves combined with experimental data points. The obtained viscoelastic parameters and inter-facial friction coefficients can later be employed for prediction of the final shape/size as well as the stressdistribution in the glass wafer during a real wafer based precision glass moulding process. © 2014...

  1. The scope of application of incremental rapid prototyping methods in foundry engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stankiewicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the scope of application of selected incremental Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of manufacturing casting models, casting moulds and casts. The Rapid Prototyping methods (SL, SLA, FDM, 3DP, JS are predominantly used for the production of models and model sets for casting moulds. The Rapid Tooling methods, such as: ZCast-3DP, ProMetalRCT and VoxelJet, enable the fabrication of casting moulds in the incremental process. The application of the RP methods in cast production makes it possible to speed up the prototype preparation process. This is particularly vital to elements of complex shapes. The time required for the manufacture of the model, the mould and the cast proper may vary from a few to several dozen hours.

  2. Infiltration Variability in Agricultural Soil Aggregates Caused by Air Slaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenkova, L.; Urik, M.

    2018-04-01

    This article reports on variation in infiltration rates of soil aggregates as a result of phenomenon known as air slaking. Air slaking is caused by the compression and subsequent escape of air captured inside soil aggregates during water saturation. Although it has been generally assumed that it occurs mostly when dry aggregates are rapidly wetted, the measurements used for this paper have proved that it takes place even if the wetting is gradual, not just immediate. It is a phenomenon that contributes to an infiltration variability of soils. In measuring the course of water flow through the soil, several small aggregates of five agricultural soils were exposed to distilled water at zero tension in order to characterize their hydraulic properties. Infiltration curves obtained for these aggregates demonstrate the effect of entrapped air on the increase and decrease of infiltration rates. The measurements were performed under various moisture conditions of the A-horizon aggregates using a simple device.

  3. Three dimensions thermal-mechanical model of the billet in continuous casting petal-like mould

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Wu Li; Cao Zhiqiang; Tingju, L; Wang Tongmin

    2012-01-01

    Petal-like mould is a novel mould which has been applied to the steel industry in recent years. The behavior of the petal-like billet in continuous casting mould plays an important role in designing mould. It is hard to be in situ measured during continuous casting, however, can be worked out by the way of numerical simulation. But the research about the model of the billet in petal-like mould is very little. A 3D finite-element model has been built to simulate the thermal and stress fields of the molten steel in petal-like mould in this paper. The dynamic thermal boundary condition and the effect of ferrostatic pressure have been considered in the model. The temperature and stress in the billet have been predicted by this model.

  4. Influence of Binding Rates on Strength Properties of Moulding Sands with the GEOPOL Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of moulding sands with an inorganic binder called GEOPOL, developed by the SAND TEAM Company are presented in the paper. Hardeners of various hardening rates are used for moulding sands with this binder. The main aim of investigations was determination of the influence of the hardening rate of moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder on technological properties of these sands (bending strength, tensile strength, permeability and grindability. In addition, the final strength of moulding sands of the selected compositions was determined by two methods: by splitting strength and shear strength measurements. No essential influence of the hardening rate on such parameters as: permeability, grindability and final strength was found. However, the sand in which the slowest hardener (SA 72 were used, after 1 hour of holding, had the tensile and bending strength practically zero. Thus, the time needed for taking to pieces the mould made of such moulding sand will be 1.5 - 2 hours.

  5. Effect of hardening methods of moulding sands with water glass on structure of bonding bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on influence of hardening methods on structure of bonding bridges in moulding sands with sodium water glass is presented.Moulding sands with addition of 2.5 % of binder with molar module 2.0 were hardened with CO2 and dried in traditional way or hardenedwith microwaves. It was proved that the hardening method affects structure of bonding bridges, correlating with properties of the hardened moulding sands. It was found that strength of the moulding sands hardened with microwaves for 4 min is very close to that measured after traditional drying at 110 °C for 120 min. So, application of microwave hardening ensures significant shortening of the process time to the value comparable with CO2 hardening but guaranteeing over 10-fold increase of mechanical properties. Analysis of SEM images of hardened moulding sands permitted explaining differences in quality parameters of moulding sands by connecting them with structure of the created bonding bridges.

  6. Isolation and identification mould micoflora inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on isolation and identification mould inhabiting plant leaf litter had been conducted. The objective of the study was to isolate and identify mould inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java. The mould isolation was based on washing and filtering with membrane isolation method. The result showed that 39 moulds generas with 55 species varians, one group identified in class level, and three groups of unidentified mould isolates had been isolated. Taxas distributions showed that there were endophyte and phytopatogen mould isolates had been isolated such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, and Coelomycetes. However, typical soil taxa and common saprobic fungi such as Aspergillus, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Trichoderma remain dominated the resulted isolates.

  7. An Experimental Investigation to Facilitate an Improvement in the Design of an Electromagnetic Continuous Casting Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintao Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An electromagnetic continuous casting mould designed is proposed with a non-uniform slit distribution structure. This design has aimed to reduce the number of slits so that the mould’s strength is enhanced, whilst maintaining a similar metallurgy effect. In this paper, the metallurgy effect for the designed mould is investigated through the magnetic field distribution along the casting direction, the uniformity feature in the vicinity of the meniscus region, the temperature variation of the molten alloy pool and the mould wall. The results show that the designed mould achieved a similar effect as compared to the original mould; however, the configuration is simplified. This research highlights the topic of mould structure optimization, which would enable the Electromagnetic continuous casting (EMCC technique to be utilized with greater ease by industry.

  8. Possibilities of utilizing used moulding and core sands by microwave treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Granat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a semi-industrial reactor designed for microwave utilization of waste moulds and cores made of moulding sandsprepared in furane resin technology. It was found that a possibility exists of effective incinerating this way prepared residues of coresseparated from moulding sands or waste moulds left after casting. The preliminary tests evidenced that microwave heating is an effectiveway of disposing waste moulding sands and the applied apparatus permits effective control of the microwave heating process. The special structure permitting rotations of charge material and proper selection of the generators working cycles guarantee significant speeding-up the process and its full stabilisation. Application of microwave heating for utilization of waste moulds and cores containing synthetic resins as binders ensures significant and measurable economical benefits resulting from shorter process time.

  9. Plasma sprayed coatings on mild steel split moulds for uranium casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.P.; Padmanaban, P.V.A.; Venkatramani, N.; Singh, S.P.; Saha, D.P.; Date, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    High velocity high temperature plasma jets are used to deposit metals and ceramics on metallic substrates for oxidation and corrosion protection applications. Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on metallic substrates are also used to prevent its reaction with molten metals. Metal-alumina duplex coatings on mild steel split moulds have been developed and successfully used for casting of uranium. Techno-economics of the coated moulds against the conventional graphite moulds are a major advantage. Mild steel moulds of 600 mm long and 75 mm in diameter have been plasma spray coated with alumina over a bond coat of molybdenum. In-plant tests showed an increase in number of castings per mould compared to the commonly used graphite moulds. (author)

  10. Pollution from Urban Stormwater Infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Weyer, G.; Berry, C.

    1994-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration in urban areas gives cause for concern with regard to the risk of soil and groundwater pollution. Compared with conventional storm drainage, infiltration introduces different and widely unknown conditions governing the impacts and the fate of the pollutants......, and it is therefore difficult to assess the overall environmental impact. This paper gives a state of the art assessment of the water quality aspects of stormwater infiltration and proposes ways of managing the inherent problems. The major stormwater pollution sources are highlighted and the different processes...

  11. Gases Emission From Surface Layers of Sand Moulds and Cores Stored Under the Humid Air Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of defects of castings made in sand moulds is caused by gases. There are several sources of gases: gases emitted from moulds, cores or protective coatings during pouring and casting solidification; water in moulding sands; moisture adsorbed from surroundings due to atmospheric conditions changes. In investigations of gas volumetric emissions of moulding sands amounts of gases emitted from moulding sand were determined - up to now - in dependence of the applied binders, sand grains, protective coatings or alloys used for moulds pouring. The results of investigating gas volumetric emissions of thin-walled sand cores poured with liquid metal are presented in the hereby paper. They correspond to the surface layer in the mould work part, which is decisive for the surface quality of the obtained castings. In addition, cores were stored under conditions of a high air humidity, where due to large differences in humidity, the moisture - from surroundings - was adsorbed into the surface layer of the sand mould. Due to that, it was possible to asses the influence of the adsorbed moisture on the gas volumetric emission from moulds and cores surface layers by means of the new method of investigating the gas emission kinetics from thin moulding sand layers heated by liquid metal. The results of investigations of kinetics of the gas emission from moulding sands with furan and alkyd resins as well as with hydrated sodium silicate (water glass are presented. Kinetics of gases emissions from these kinds of moulding sands poured with Al-Si alloy were compared.

  12. Galactomyces geotrichum – moulds from dairy products with high biotechnological potential

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Grygier; Kamila Myszka; Magdalena Rudzińska

    2017-01-01

    The article reviews the properties of the Galactomyces geotrichum species, the mould that is most important for the dairy industry. G. geotrichum mould has been isolated from milk, cheeses and alcoholic beverage. Its presence in food products makes it possible to obtain a characteristic aroma and taste, which corresponds to the needs and preferences of consumers. G. geotrichum plays an important role in ecology, where the mould is employed for the degradation of various hazardous substances a...

  13. Anomalous behaviors during infiltration into heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.; Bolster, D.; Voller, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    Flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media often exhibit anomalous behavior. A physical analog example is the uni-directional infiltration of a viscous liquid into a horizontal oriented Hele-Shaw cell containing through thickness flow obstacles; a system designed to mimic a gravel/sand medium with impervious inclusions. When there are no obstacles present or the obstacles form a multi-repeating pattern, the change of the length of infiltration F with time t tends to follow a Fickian like scaling, F ∼t1/2 . In the presence of obstacle fields laid out as Sierpinski carpet fractals, infiltration is anomalous, i.e., F ∼ tn, n ≠ 1/2. Here, we study infiltration into such Hele-Shaw cells. First we investigate infiltration into a square cell containing one fractal carpet and make the observation that it is possible to generate both sub (n 1/2) diffusive behaviors within identical heterogeneity configurations. We show that this can be explained in terms of a scaling analysis developed from results of random-walk simulations in fractal obstacles; a result indicating that the nature of the domain boundary controls the exponent n of the resulting anomalous transport. Further, we investigate infiltration into a rectangular cell containing several repeats of a given Sierpinski carpet. At very early times, before the liquid encounters any obstacles, the infiltration is Fickian. When the liquid encounters the first (smallest scale) obstacle the infiltration sharply transitions to sub-diffusive. Subsequently, around the time where the liquid has sampled all of the heterogeneity length scales in the system, there is a rapid transition back to Fickian behavior. An explanation for this second transition is obtained by developing a simplified infiltration model based on the definition of a representative averaged hydraulic conductivity.

  14. GTE blade injection moulding modeling and verification of models during process approbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, I. S.; Khaimovich, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The simulation model for filling the mould was developed using Moldex3D, and it was experimentally verified in order to perform further optimization calculations of the moulding process conditions. The method described in the article allows adjusting the finite-element model by minimizing the airfoil profile difference between the design and experimental melt motion front due to the differentiated change of power supplied to heating elements, which heat the injection mould in simulation. As a result of calibrating the injection mould for the gas-turbine engine blade, the mean difference between the design melt motion profile and the experimental airfoil profile of no more than 4% was achieved.

  15. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/{mu}L in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells.

  16. Eosinophilic infiltration in Korea: idiopathic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilia is defined as the presence of more than 500 eosinophils/μL in the peripheral blood, and may be accompanied by eosinophil infiltration in tissues. Focal eosinophilic infiltration in the lungs and liver is relatively common and is often associated with a parasitic infection, drug hypersensitivity, allergic diseases, collagen vascular diseased, and internal malignancies such as Hodgkin's disease, as well as cancer of the lung, stomach, pancreas or ovary. An eosinophilic abscess refers to a lesion of massive eosinophil infiltration and associated destroyed tissue, and an eosinophilic granuloma refers to a lesion consisting of central necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrates with numerous eosinophils, a number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, and a palisade of epithelioid histiocytes and/or giant cells

  17. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales. © 2014, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Automated Layup of Sheet Prepregs on Complex Moulds

    OpenAIRE

    Elkington, Michael P; Ward, Carwyn; Potter, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    A new two-stage method for the automated manufacture of high performance composites components is presented which aims to combine the capacity for forming complex shapes of Hand Layup with the speed of existing automated systems. In the first stage of the new process plies are formed into the approximate shape of the mould using a press mechanism. They are then passed onto a layup stage which uses multiple end effectors controlled by a single six axis robot to stick the plies down onto the mo...

  19. PROTVINO: Mass-production of scintillator tiles by injection moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The technique of the segmented sandwich-calorimeters with wavelength-shifting readout, especially its large-scale application in big detectors, requires enormous quantities of a cheap scintillator tiles of moderate dimensions (20 x 20 cm 2 ). Initial trials carried out in the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP), Protvino, Russia almost ten years ago showed that manufacturing such scintillator tiles was possible using an ordinary commercially-available granulated optical polystyrene, an existing technology of plastic dyeing, and a well-known process of the injection moulding, used to produce plastic goods (like buttons!)

  20. Investigation of over-moulded hybrid metal/polymer devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2006-01-01

    principles, in-process manufacturing technologies, as well as testing methodologies have to be established in order to be able to develop such integrated devices. In this paper an investigation of the bonding between miniaturized metal insert and a polymer matrix is presented. A special demonstrator...... was designed and manufactured by over-moulding and hot-embossing. The bonding strength between the insert and the plastic part was tested by means of a tensile test. A variety of parameters was studied in order to investigate their influence on the bonding: different polymeric and metallic materials, insert...

  1. Using special additions to preparation of the moulding mixture for casting steel parts of drive wheel type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using special additions to the execution of moulding mixtures for steel castings, drive wheel type. Critical analysis of moulding technology leads to the idea that most defects appear due to using improper moulding mixture. Using a improper moulding mixture leads to penetration of steel in moulding mixture, resulting in the formation of adherences, due to inadequate refractarity of the mould and core mixtures. Using only the unique mixture to the moulding leads to increasing consumption of new sand, respectively to the increase of price of piece. Acording to the dates registered in the industrial practice is necessary to use the special additions to obtain the moulding mixtures, carbonaceous materials respectively.

  2. Mechanical properties test and microstructure analysis of polyoxymethylene (POM) micro injection moulded standard parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Lucchetta, Giovanni; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    to factorial plans, in which the factors of interest were mould temperature, melt temperature and dimensional range of the specimen (i.e. macro and micro parts). Micro structure analysis was performed by means of plastography techniques and revealed that high mould and melt temperatures resulted on a thin skin...

  3. Additive manufacturing for the production of inserts for micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischkot, Michael; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2015-01-01

    The production of inserts for micro injection moulding using additive manufacturing technology has the potential to greatly improve the efficiency of pilot production and reduce overall time to market. In this work, Digital Light Processing (DLP) was used to produce micro injection moulding inserts...

  4. Replication of Micro pillars by PEEK injection moulding with CrN coated Ni tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Sørensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    A micro-structured nickel insert was investigatedfor polyether ether ketone (PEEK) injection moulding. Themicro-features were circular holes 4 μm in diameter and2 μm deep, with a 2-μm edge-to-edge distance. Six thousand moulding cycles were operated. Half of the insert was coatedby approximately...

  5. Report on best practice for improved μ-IM injection moulding simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, Franco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    Data analysis and simulations on micro-moulding experiments have been conducted. Micro moulding simulations have been executed taking into account actual processing conditions implementation in the software. Numerous aspects of the simulation set-up have been considered in order to improve the si...

  6. On the performance of micro injection moulding process simulations of TPE micro rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    , a case study based on the micro injection moulding process of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) micro rings (volume: 1.5 mm3, mass: 2.2 mg) for sensors application is treated. Injection moulding process simulations using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2016® were applied with the aim of accomplishing two main...

  7. Micro Injection Moulding High Accuracy Three-Dimensional Simulations and Process Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F.S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Data analysis and simulations of micro‐moulding experiments have been conducted. Micro moulding simulations have been executed by implementing in the software the actual processing conditions. Various aspects of the simulation set‐up have been considered in order to improve the simulation accurac...

  8. High Accuracy Three-dimensional Simulation of Micro Injection Moulded Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Costa, F. S.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Micro injection moulding (μIM) is the key replication technology for high precision manufacturing of polymer micro products. Data analysis and simulations on micro-moulding experiments have been conducted during the present validation study. Detailed information about the μIM process was gathered...

  9. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  10. Intracavitary mould brachytherapy in malignant tumors of the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, Edward; Blumenfeld, Israel; Cederbaum, Martin; Kuten, Abraham

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To integrate brachytherapy in the combined modality management of malignant tumors of the maxilla, as a means of increasing the radiotherapy dose to the tumor bed while avoiding high doses to the orbital contents. Materials and methods: Following a partial or total maxillectomy, a duplication of the interim surgical obturator was created using a wash of vinyl polysiloxane. This mould was used as a carrier for afterloading nylon catheters through which 192-Iridium seed-ribbons were inserted. Following brachytherapy, selected patients also received external beam irradiation. Results and discussion: After a median follow-up of 36 months, 9 out of 11 patients are alive and disease-free; 1 developed a local recurrence and another relapsed at another site in the oral cavity. Transient grade 1 - 2 mucositis at the implant site was observed in all patients. The review of computer isodose distributions showed that the average dose received by the homolateral eyeball was 10% (range 9,2 - 10.0) of the prescribed surface dose to the surgical cavity. Conclusions: Brachytherapy can be integrated in the management of patients with malignant tumors of the maxilla in the form of a custom-made intracavitary mould carrying 192-Iridium sources. We found this technique particularly useful in cases with close or positive surgical margins

  11. Habituation in non-neural organisms: evidence from slime moulds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisseau, Romain P; Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey

    2016-04-27

    Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms. Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation, an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and quinine or caffeine as the stimulus, we showed that P. polycephalum learnt to ignore quinine or caffeine when the stimuli were repeated, but responded again when the stimulus was withheld for a certain time. Our results meet the principle criteria that have been used to demonstrate habituation: responsiveness decline and spontaneous recovery. To distinguish habituation from sensory adaptation or motor fatigue, we also show stimulus specificity. Our results point to the diversity of organisms lacking neurons, which likely display a hitherto unrecognized capacity for learning, and suggest that slime moulds may be an ideal model system in which to investigate fundamental mechanisms underlying learning processes. Besides, documenting learning in non-neural organisms such as slime moulds is centrally important to a comprehensive, phylogenetic understanding of when and where in the tree of life the earliest manifestations of learning evolved. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Casting Ductile Iron in Layer Moulds Made from Ecological Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rączka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the results of tests performed under the target project in Hardtop Foundry Charsznica.The objective of the tests and studies was to develop a technology of making high-quality ductile iron castings, combined witheffective means of environmental protection. The studies presented in this article related to castings weighing from 1 to 300 kg made from ductile iron of grades 400-15 and 500-7, using two-layer moulds, where the facing and core sand was the sand with an alkaline organic binder, while backing sand was the sand with an inorganic geopolymer binder.A simplified method of sand reclamation was applied with possible reuse of the reclaim as an addition to the backing sand. The castiron spheroidising treatment and inoculation were selected taking into account the specific conditions of Hardtop Foundry. A pilot batch of castings was made, testing the gating and feeding systems and using exothermic sleeves on risers. The study confirmed the validity of the adopted concept of making ductile iron castings in layer moulds, while maintaining the content of sand with an organic binder at a level of maximum 15%.

  13. Electroplating moulds using dry film thick negative photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharenka, E.; Farooqui, M. M.; Grigore, L.; Kraft, M.; Hollinshead, N.

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on progress on the feasibility of fabricating moulds for electroplating using Ordyl P-50100 (negative) acrylate polymer based dry film photoresist, commercially available from Elga Europe (http://www.elgaeurope.it). We used this photoresist as an alternative to SU8 negative epoxy based photoresist, which is very difficult to process and remove after electroplating (Lorenz et al 1998 Microelectron. Eng. 41/42 371-4, Eyre et al 1998 Proc. MEMS'98 (Heidelberg) (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 218-22). Ordyl P-50100 is easy to work with and can be easily removed after processing. A single layer of Ordyl P-50100 was deposited by lamination up to 20 µm thickness. Thicker layers (200 µm and more) can be achieved with multilayer lamination using a manual laminator. For our applications we found that Ordyl P-50100 dry film photoresist is a very good alternative to SU8 for the realization of 100 µm high moulds. The results presented will open up new possibilities for low-cost LIGA-type processes for MEMS applications.

  14. Assessment of the possibility of utilisation of used ceramic moulds originated from the investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holtzer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of wastes generated by investment casting technology and discussion on possibilities of disposal of the largest quantity waste from this technology - used ceramic mould is presented in the paper. Preliminary examinations of disintegration process of used ceramic mould conducted in various testing conditions were performed in the frame of presented research. Applied system of disintegration doesn’twarrant obtained material to be suitable for reuse in production of ceramic moulds. Investigations of the inter-phase boundary: ceramicmould-casting were performed to examine environmental harmfulness of used ceramic moulds. Additionally ecologic assessment of spentmoulds by means of it’s elution in the aspect of qualifying possibilities of it’s disposal were performed. Gained results qualify the waste from ceramic mould to storage in deposits for neutral wastes.

  15. Potential of the application of the modified polysaccharides water solutions as binders of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary tests of selected properties of the moulding sands with the binder in the form of a 5 % water solution of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (with a degree of substitution (DS of 0,2 and 0,87 arepresented in this study. The moulding sand properties such as permeability, abrasion resistance, tensile and bendingstrength - after curing - are shown in series of tests. The cure process was conducted in a field of electromagnetic radiation within the microwave range. The effect of the microwave treatment on the moulding sand was evaporating of water (solvent in a binder and cross-linking of the polymeric binder. As a result the cured moulding sands with particular properties, essential in the context of its application in the mould technology in the foundry industry, were obtained.

  16. Exercise in injection moulding: Predicting the non-uniform shrinkage from PVT data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard

    Injection moulding is a widely spread technique for producing plastic parts of many kinds, for example bowls, chairs, coverings for mobile phones etc. The basic principle of injection moulding is to inject molten plastic into a closed, cooled mould (i. e. tool), where it solidifies to give......) is manufactured using two types of commercial plastics (Polypropylene (PP) and Polycarbonate (PC)). Pressure transducers measure the pressure in the mould during the injection and the solidification. The temperature is measured by inserting a thermometer in the plastic melt. The difference in dimensions between...... the product. The product is recovered by opening the mould to release it. The quality of the product is highly dependent on tool design, process parameters such as pressure and temperature and which type of polymer that is used. Here, a plastic bar with four indentions (in the form of parallel lines...

  17. High-temperature expansion and knock-out properties of moulding sands with water glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the topic of improving the knock-out properties of moulding sand with water glass and ester hardener. It is settled that the cause of worse knock-out properties of moulding sand can be brought by their thermal expansion in increased temperatures. There is a presentation of the influence of different additives, containing Al2O3, on moulding sands’ expansion in increased temperatures. Within the frames of research, there was an elaboration of the influence of authors own additive- Glassex, on the expansion phenomenon of moulding sands with water glass and ester hardener. It is concluded, that the new additive stops the expansion of moulding sands and as well it improves their knock-out properties.

  18. Effects of holding pressure and process temperatures on the mechanical properties of moulded metallic parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Esteves, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal injection moulding is gaining more and more importance over the time and needs more research to be done to understand the sensitivity of process to different process parameters. The current paper makes an attempt to better understand the effects of holding pressure and process temperatures...... on the moulded metallic parts. Stainless steel 316L is used in the investigation to produce the specimen by metal injection moulding (MIM) and multiple analyses were carried out on samples produced with different combinations of holding pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature. Finally, the parts were...... characterized to investigate mechanical properties like density, ultimate tensile strength, shrinkage etc. The results are discussed in the paper. The main conclusion from this study is unlike plastic moulding, the tensile properties of MIM parts doesn’t vary based on the flow direction of the melt, and tensile...

  19. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  20. The diversity of moulds in the candied salak (Salacca edulis Reinw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SETYANINGSIH

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to identify moulds in candied fruit within three varieties of salak (i.e. sleman, gading and pondoh, and to know the effect of sugar concentration added, the time of storage, and additional of preservative chemical substance (benzoic acid for the diversity of moulds in candied salak. The isolation method of moulds was used direct plating. In order to determine the kind of moulds, which tolerance in sugar solution (osmotic pressure, the samples were put on the surface of glucose 25% peptone yeast-extract agar (GPYA medium, and then incubated at 30oC for seven days. After that the colony was transferred on potato dextrose agar (PDA and czapeks dox agar (CDA identification media. The results indicated that there were 10 different kind of moulds can be found in all samples, namely Aspergillus flavus, A, niger, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus, Aspergillus sp., Monilia sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sp. and Wallemia sp. In order to examine the influence of sugar concentration on the growth of moulds, the candied salaks were treated in different concentration. Candied salak with or without additional benzoic acid were treated with sugar concentration of 200 g/l, 250 g/l and 300 g/l. The highest concentration of sugar showed to lowest diversity of moulds for varieties of sleman and gading, conversely for variety of salak pondoh, the additional of high sugar concentration showed increase in their diversity. The diversity of moulds in day of seventh was smaller than the diversity of moulds in day of null. The concentration of benzoic acid (1 g/l confined the diversity of moulds.

  1. Microstructure, SDAS and Mechanical Properties of A356 alloy Castings Made in Sand and Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinugu B. R.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out to ensure the granulated blast furnace (GBF slag as an alternative mould material in foundry industry by assessing the cast products structure property correlations. Sodium silicate-CO2 process was adopted for preparing the moulds. Three types of moulds were made with slag, silica sand individually and combination of these two with 10% sodium silicate and 20 seconds CO2 gassing time. A356 alloy castings were performed on these newly developed slag moulds. The cast products were investigated for its metallography and mechanical properties. Results reveal that cast products with good surface finish and without any defects were produced. Faster heat transfers in slag moulds enabled the cast products with fine and refined grain structured; and also, lower Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS values were observed than sand mould. Slag mould casting shows improved mechanical properties like hardness, compression, tensile and impact strength compared to sand mould castings. Two types of tensile fracture modes, namely cleavage pattern with flat surfaces representing Al−Si eutectic zone and the areas of broken Fe-rich intermetallic compounds which appear as flower-like morphology was observed in sand mould castings. In contrast, GBF slag mould castings exhibit majority in dimple fracture morphology with traces of cleavage fracture. Charpy impact fractured surfaces of sand mould castings shows both transgranular and intergranular fracture modes. Only intergranular fracture mode was noticed in both GBF slag and mixed mould castings.

  2. Surface wear of TiN coated nickel tool during the injection moulding of polymer micro Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Limited tool life of nickel mould inserts represents an issue for the mass-production of polymer optics with complex micro three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding. TiN coating was applied to a nickel insert for the injection moulding of polycarbonate micro Fresnel lenses. Surface wear...

  3. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh

    2018-04-10

    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  4. Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates in association with disseminated actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontfraid, F; Ramphal, R

    1994-07-01

    The most common infectious cause of bilateral upper-lobe pulmonary disease is tuberculosis. However, we recently encountered a patient with bilateral apical infiltrates and multiple soft-tissue abscesses caused by Actinomyces odontolyticus. Other findings included fever, weight loss, and leukocytosis, and the patient's only known source of immunosuppression was a long history of alcoholism. There was no history of diabetes, steroid use, or other chronic underlying disease. The diagnosis was made by culture of drainage fluid from one abscess. Therapy with intravenous penicillin G led to rapid clinical improvement and reduction in the infiltrates. To our knowledge, the presentation of pulmonary infection, with bilateral apical infiltrates due to A. odontolyticus has not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  5. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  6. Structure Distribution in Precise Cast Iron Moulded on Meltable Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrbek B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Topic of this work is to compare metalurgy of cast irons poured into sand moulds and into shell molds at IEG Jihlava company and from it following differencies in structures of thin- and thick-walled castings. This work is dealing with investigation and experimental measurement on surfaces and sections suitable thin- and thick-walled investment castings at IEG Jihlava. Cast irons with flake graphite (grey cast iron and cast irons with spheroidal graphite (ductile cast iron. Both mechanical and physical properties are determined using calculations from as measured values of wall thicknesses L and Lu, Vickers hardness and remanent magnetism. Measurement results are discussed, findings are formulated and methods for castings metallurgical quality improvement are recommended finally.

  7. Low pressure powder injection moulding of stainless steel powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zampieron, J.V.; Soares, J.P.; Mathias, F.; Rossi, J.L. [Powder Processing Center CCP, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Filho, F.A. [IPEN, Inst. de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Cidade Univ., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Low-pressure powder injection moulding was used to obtain AISI 316L stainless steel parts. A rheological study was undertaken using gas-atomised powders and binders. The binders used were based on carnauba wax, paraffin, low density polyethylene and microcrystalline wax. The metal powders were characterised in terms of morphology, particle size distribution and specific surface area. These results were correlated to the rheological behaviour. The mixture was injected in the shape of square bar specimens to evaluate the performance of the injection process in the green state, and after sintering. The parameters such as injection pressure, viscosity and temperature were analysed for process optimisation. The binders were thermally removed in low vacuum with the assistance of alumina powders. Debinding and sintering were performed in a single step. This procedure shortened considerably the debinding and sintering time. (orig.)

  8. Improved Processing of Titanium Alloys by Metal Injection Moulding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidambe, A T; Figueroa, I A; Todd, I; Hamilton, H

    2011-01-01

    The commercially pure (CP-Ti) and Ti6Al4V (Ti-64) powders with powder size of sub 45-micron were mixed with a water soluble binder consisting of a major fraction of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG), a minor fraction of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and some stearic acid as surfactant. The pelletised mix was injection-moulded into standard tensile bar specimens and then subjected solvent debinding by water leaching and thermal debinding in an argon atmosphere. The titanium compacts were then subjected to sintering studies using the Taguchi method. The results of the oxygen impurity levels of the sintered parts are presented in this paper. Titanium parts conforming to Grade 2 requirements were achieved for CP-Ti whilst those conforming to Grade 5 were achieved for Ti-64.

  9. Electric moulding of dispersed lipid nanotubes into a nanofluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi; Manabe, Tatsuhiko; Kagiyama, Eri; Hirano, Ken; Kameta, Naohiro; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophilic nanotubes formed by lipid molecules have potential applications as platforms for chemical or biological events occurring in an attolitre volume inside a hollow cylinder. Here, we have integrated the lipid nanotubes (LNTs) by applying an AC electric field via plug-in electrode needles placed above a substrate. The off-chip assembly method has the on-demand adjustability of an electrode configuration, enabling the dispersed LNT to be electrically moulded into a separate film of parallel LNT arrays in one-step. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique as well as the digital microscopy visualised the overall filling of gold nanoparticles up to the inner capacity of an LNT film by capillary action, thereby showing the potential of this flexible film for use as a high-throughput nanofluidic device where not only is the endo-signalling and product in each LNT multiplied but also the encapsulated objects are efficiently transported and reacted.

  10. Effect of the settlement of sediments on water infiltration in two urban infiltration basins

    OpenAIRE

    LASSABATERE, Laurent; ANGULO JARAMILLO, R; GOUTALAND, David; LETELLIER, Laetitia; GAUDET, JP; WINIARSKI, Thierry; DELOLME, C

    2010-01-01

    The sealing of surfaces in urban areas makes storm water management compulsory. The suspended solids from surface runoff water accumulate in infiltration basins and may impact on water infiltration. This paper describes a study of the effect of the settlement of sedimentary layers on the water infiltration capacity of two urban infiltrations basins. In situ water infiltration experiments were performed (1) to quantify the effect of sediment on water infiltration at local scale and (2) to deri...

  11. Modeling of Flexible Polyurethane Foam Shrinkage for Bra Cup Moulding Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, moulding technology has become a remarkable manufacturing process in the intimate apparel industry. Polyurethane (PU foam sheets are used to mould three-dimensional (3D seamless bra cups of various softness and shapes, which eliminate bulky seams and reduce production costs. However, it has been challenging to accurately and effectively control the moulding process and bra cup thickness. In this study, the theoretical mechanism of heat transfer and the thermal conductivity of PU foams are first examined. Experimental studies are carried out to investigate the changes in foam materials at various moulding conditions (viz., temperatures, and lengths of dwell time in terms of surface morphology and thickness by using electron and optical microscopy. Based on the theoretical and experimental investigations of the thermal conductivity of the foam materials, empirical equations of shrinkage ratio and thermal conduction of foam materials were established. A regression model to predict flexible PU foam shrinkage during the bra cup moulding process was formulated by using the Levenberg-Marquardt method of nonlinear least squares algorithm and verified for accuracy. This study therefore provides an effective approach that optimizes control of the bra cup moulding process and assures the ultimate quality and thickness of moulded foam cups.

  12. Flow Dynamics of green sand in the DISAMATIC moulding process using Discrete element method (DEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovad, E; Walther, J H; Thorborg, J; Hattel, J H; Larsen, P

    2015-01-01

    The DISAMATIC casting process production of sand moulds is simulated with DEM (discrete element method). The main purpose is to simulate the dynamics of the flow of green sand, during the production of the sand mould with DEM. The sand shot is simulated, which is the first stage of the DISAMATIC casting process. Depending on the actual casting geometry the mould can be geometrically quite complex involving e.g. shadowing effects and this is directly reflected in the sand flow during the moulding process. In the present work a mould chamber with “ribs” at the walls is chosen as a baseline geometry to emulate some of these important conditions found in the real moulding process. The sand flow is simulated with the DEM and compared with corresponding video footages from the interior of the chamber during the moulding process. The effect of the rolling resistance and the static friction coefficient is analysed and discussed in relation to the experimental findings. (paper)

  13. Studies on mould growth and biomass production using waste banana peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, J P; Akpan, E J; Essien, E P

    2005-09-01

    Hyphomycetous (Aspergillus fumigatus) and Phycomycetous (Mucor hiemalis) moulds were cultivated in vitro at room temperature (28 + 20 degrees C) to examined their growth and biomass production on waste banana peel agar (BPA) and broth (BPB) using commercial malt extract agar (MEA) and broth (MEB) as control. The moulds grew comparatively well on banana peel substrates. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in radial growth rates was observed between moulds cultivated on PBA and MEA, although growth rates on MEA were slightly better. Slight variations in sizes of asexual spores and reproductive hyphae were also observed between moulds grown on MEA and BPA. Smaller conidia and sporangiospores, and shorter aerial hyphae (conidiophores and sporangiophores) were noticed in moulds grown on BPA than on MEA. The biomass weight of the test moulds obtained after one month of incubation with BPB were only about 1.8 mg and 1.4 mg less than values recorded for A. fumigatus and M. hiemalis respectively, grown on MEB. The impressive performance of the moulds on banana peel substrate may be attributed to the rich nutrient (particularly the crude protein 7.8% and crude fat 11.6% contents) composition of banana peels. The value of this agricultural waste can therefore be increased by its use not only in the manufacture of mycological medium but also in the production of valuable microfungal biomass which is rich in protein and fatty acids.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF FLUORINE-FREE MOULD FLUX APPLIED IN LOW CARBON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme Alves de Souza Junior

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ract The mould flux is a mixture of non-metallic oxides that, in contact with liquid steel melts, becomes a liquid slag which the mainly function is to lubricate and control heat transfer between mould and strand during the continuous casting process. The mould flux without fluoride has the advantage of decreasing the wear of machine and the SEN in comparison to common mould flux. The application in Continuous Casting of Slabs has been a great challenge in relation to the operational viability together with internal and surface quality of slabs. Another differential is the decrease of environmental issues on account of the contamination of secondary cooling water by the fluorides. It is considered that properties of mould flux as chemical composition, viscosity, softening, melting flowing temperatures, fusion rate, etc, should be suitable to the chemical composition and the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of steel and also the operational parameters such as casting temperature, casting speed, mould frequency, among others. This work presents a preliminary analysis in relation to operational viability, analysis of surface quality of slabs, measurements of fluorides content in the water of secondary cooling of machine. In addition to that, the analyses of operational features as measurements of wear of SEN, mould flux consumption, slag pool and behavior of thermocouples of detection system break outs (MSD are considered.

  15. Grains colonised by moulds: fungal identification and headspace analysis of produced volatile metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paola Tampieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify if the headspace analysis of fungal volatile compounds produced by some species of Fusarium can be used as a marker of mould presence on maize. Eight samples of maize (four yellow maize from North Italy and four white maize from Hungary, naturally contaminated by Fusarium and positive for the presence of fumonisins, were analyzed to detect moisture content, Aw, volatile metabolites and an enumeration of viable moulds was performed by means of a colony count technique. Headspace samples were analysed using a gas-chromatograph equipped with a capillary column TR-WAX to detect volatile metabolites of moulds. Furthermore macro and microscopic examination of the colonies was performed in order to distinguish, according to their morphology, the genera of the prevalent present moulds. Prevalent mould of eight samples was Fusarium, but other fungi, like Aspergillus, Penicillum and Mucoraceae, were observed. The metabolites produced by F.graminearum and F. moniliforme were Isobutyl-acetate, 3-Methyl-1-butanol and, only at 8 days, 3-Octanone. The incubation time can affect off flavour production in consequence of the presence of other moulds. Further studies on maize samples under different conditions are needed in order to establish the presence of moulds using the count technique and through the identification of volatile compounds.

  16. Myceliophthora thermophila syn. Sporotrichum thermophile: a thermophilic mould of biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    Myceliophthora thermophila syn. Sporotrichum thermophile is a ubiquitous thermophilic mould with a strong ability to degrade organic matter during optimal growth at 45 °C. Both genome analysis and experimental data have suggested that the mould is capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. The mould is able to secrete a large number of hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, laccases, xylanases, pectinases, lipases, phytases and some other miscellaneous enzymes) employed in various biotechnological applications. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of wild and recombinant enzymes suggests that this mould is highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. The native enzymes produced by the mould are more efficient in activity than their mesophilic counterparts beside their low enzyme titers. The mould is able to synthesize various biomolecules, which are used in multifarious applications. Genome sequence data of M. thermophila also supported the physiological data. This review describes the biotechnological potential of thermophilic mould, M. thermophila supported by genomic and experimental evidences.

  17. Virtual analysis of influence of a filter on mould filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhian Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic filters are used to avoid slag and impurities in foundry applications. When not properly applied, the presence of these filters may have a significant influence on mould filling. 3-D casting simulation has been applied to study the effects of the use of a ceramic filter on the metal flow in a gating system. Instead of using a pressure drop model to represent the behaviour of a fluid metal flow passing through a filter, a real exact filter geometry, which is created by a high resolution CT-scan and a non-destructive imaging technique, in the gating system is applied in the simulation. In this research, nodular cast iron is poured into a block casting. A depressurized gating system is used. After a choke, a filter with different orientations is placed in the system. Mould filling coupled with temperature is simulated. Geometries using different orientations of the filter, and without the filter have been researched. The simulated results show that the filter has no influence on the pouring time of the casting if the choke section is small enough compared to the effective section of the filter. Although the filter has no significant influence on the flow patterns in the block casting itself, the flow patterns in the filter zone are different. When the liquid metal passes a horizontal filter, it will be broken into many small streams and show a shower effect. After the part under the filter is full, the shower effect disappears. When the filter is located at the vertical position, due to the gravity, the shower effect is less. If no filter presents on the system, the liquid metal passes through the filter zone with a high speed and causes surface turbulence.

  18. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  19. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  20. Transcription of Small Surface Structures in Injection Moulding - An Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlø, Uffe Rolf; Kjær, Erik Michael

    2000-01-01

    The ability to replicate the surface roughness from mold wall to the plastic part in injection moldning has many functional and cosmetic important implications from medical use to designer products. Generally the understanding of surface transcription i.e the the replication of the surface...... structure from the mould to plastic part, also relates to micro injection moulding and moulding of parts with specific micro structures on the surface such as optical parts. The present study concerns transcription of surface roughness as a function of process parameters. The study is carried out...

  1. Thermal Conductivity of Moulding Sand with Chemical Binders, Attempts of its Increasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zych J.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the thermal conductivity of the selected group of moulding sands with chemical binders, mainly organic, are presented in the hereby paper. Studies encompassed also moulding sands into which additions improving the thermal conductivity were introduced. Two testing methods were applied, i.e. investigations at a steady and unsteady temperature zone. For investigations at a steady temperature zone the new original experimental stand was designed and built, adapted also for testing moulding sands with binders undergoing destruction at relatively low temperatures.

  2. Plaster: its influence on the behaviour of mould surface in the gluing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordao, M.A.P.; Goulart, E.P.; Souza, D.D.D. de; Kiyohara, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Plaster is an important auxiliary raw material in ceramics, but the industry in Brazil use to give litle importance to its properties. The IPT Ceramic Department initiated studies to upgrade local knowledge on this material. In this paper, the following already studied topics are presented. Characterization of α and β plaster powder, by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy, specific gravity and surface are (BET). Influence of the plaster/water ratio on the mould characteristics by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, porosity and permeability. Behavior of the plaster mould surface against the moulded surface after several aluminum oxide splip castings by scanning electron microscopy [pt

  3. Replication of microstructures on three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding of liquid silicone rubber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Mischkot, Michael; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, liquid silicon rubber (LSR) parts with micro pillars are studied. The LSR parts were produced by injection moulding and are used as anchoring device for electrode implants inside humans. Micro-structures with specific dimension on implant surfaces can reduce encapsulation...... by the human body, thereby improving implant performance. This paper presents a method of applying micro structure on 3D parts. A Ni-plate with micro holes on the surface was cut into inserts and stuck in a cavity for injection moulding. 1000 injection moulding cycles were performed. Key dimensions...

  4. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  5. Xanthomatous infiltration of ankle tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, C.G.; Disler, D.G.; Kremer, J.M.; Jennings, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    We present a case of type II hyperbetalipoproteinemia in a patient whose diagnosis had been previously unrecognized, and who had previously been misdiagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis and later gout. Radiographic and MR imaging features of the patient's ankles were pronounced but otherwise typical of xanthomatous infiltration. Radiologic assessment can be useful in permitting a specific diagnosis to be made in patients with periarticular and tendinous swelling. (orig.). With 4 figs

  6. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zakwan, Mohammad; Muzzammil, Mohammad; Alam, Javed

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach ...

  7. LIMITED RUN PRODUCTION USING ALUMIDE® TOOLING FOR THE PLASTIC INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS#1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Combrinck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Existing techniques for the production of conventional steel tooling for plastic injection moulding are expensive and time-consuming. As a result, many new products often do not advance beyond the prototype stage. This paper describes an investigation into the possibility of using laser sintered Alumide® (an aluminium-filled nylon material in a novel alternative process for producing hybrid rapid tooling tools. Initial experiments performed by researchers at the Central University of Technology have shown excellent results. An Alumide® tool can be manufactured in a shorter time and at a significantly lower cost than the same size direct metal laser sintered tool.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Bestaande tegnieke vir die vervaardiging van konvensionele staal gietstukke vir die plastiek spuit-giet proses is duur en tydrowend. Die gevolg hiervan is dat baie nuwe produkte nie verder as die prototipe stadium vorder nie. Hierdie artikel ondersoek die moontlikheid om laser gesinterde Alumide® (aluminium gevulde nylon materiaal in ’n nuwe benadering as ’n alternatiewe proses vir die vervaardiging van snel hibried-gietvorms te gebruik. Aanvanklike eksperimente uitgevoer deur navorsers aan die Sentrale Universiteit vir Tegnologie het uitstekende resultate gelewer. ’n Alumide® gietvorm kan vinniger en goedkoper vervaardig word as dieselfde grootte direk metaal gesinterde gietvorm.

  8. Evaluation of optical functional surfaces on the injection moulding insert by micro milling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Dongya; Davoudinejad, Ali; Zhang, Yang

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of micro milling process for manufacturing injection moulding inserts with an optical functionalsurface. The objective is the optimal surface functionality. Micro ridges were used as the microstructures to realize the function to generate contrast between...

  9. Laser cleaning of the contaminations on the surface of tire mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yayun; Jia, Baoshen; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yilan; Tang, Hongping; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Chuanchao; Yao, Caizhen

    2017-07-01

    During the manufacturing of tires, surface pollutants on tire mould will lead to the production of unqualified tires. Tire moulds need to be regularly cleaned. Laser cleaning is recognized as a non-destructive, effective, precise and environmental friendly method. In this paper, laser cleaning was used to remove contaminants on tire mould surface. First, laser induced damage experiments were performed. The results showed that the roughness and hardness of the cast steel sample surface seldom changed under the energy range of 140.1-580.2 mJ laser irradiation 1 pulse and the energy range of 44.7-168.9 mJ laser irradiation 100 pulses. In the laser cleaning experiments, the cleaning thresholds and the optimal cleaning parameters were obtained. Results indicated that laser cleaning was safe and effective for tire mould contamination removal.

  10. Influence of the Reclaim Addition on Properties of Moulding Sands with the Geopol Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drożyński D.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the influence of the reclaim additions on the properties of moulding sands with the GEOPOL geopolymer binder developed by the SAND TEAM Company were presented. Two brands of hardeners were applied in the tested compositions, the first one was developed by the SAND TEAM Company, marked SA72 and the new hardener offered by the KRATOS Company, marked KR72. The main purpose of investigations was to determine the influence of reclaim fractions and the applied hardener on the basic moulding sands properties, such as: bending and tensile strength, permeability and grindability. The unfavourable influence of the reclaim additions into moulding sands on the tested properties as well as an increased hardening rate, were found. Moulding sands, in which the hardener KR72 of the KRATOS Company was used, were less sensitive to the reclaim additions

  11. Effects of mould on electrochemical migration behaviour of immersion silver finished printed circuit board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Pan; Xiao, Kui; Dong, Chaofang; Zou, Shiwen; Li, Xiaogang

    2018-02-01

    The role played by mould in the electrochemical migration (ECM) behaviour of an immersion silver finished printed circuit board (PCB-ImAg) under a direct current (DC) bias was investigated. An interesting phenomenon is found whereby mould, especially Aspergillus niger, can preferentially grow well on PCB-ImAg under electrical bias and then bridge integrated circuits and form a migration path. The cooperation of the mould and DC bias aggravates the ECM process occurring on PCB-ImAg. When the bias voltage is below 15V, ECM almost does not occur for Ag coating. Mechanisms that explain the ECM processes of PCB-ImAg in the presence of mould and DC bias are proposed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Modelling the effect of ethanol on growth rate of food spoilage moulds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dantigny, P.; Guilmart, A.; Radoi, F.; Bensoussan, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ethanol (E) on the radial growth rate (¿) of food spoilage moulds (Aspergillus candidus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium herbariorum, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium

  13. Rheological and thermal analysis of the filling stage of injection moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Szucs

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Flow conditions are different in the cavity of the injection mould from the capillary flow of a laboratory rheological instrument. An injection moulding slit die rheometer (Rheo-mould was designed with a series of slit and orifice dies. Four pressure sensors were built in the stationary side of the mould, therefore the pressure could be measured at four different places. A changeable slit die insert was designed in the moving side. The shear stress and the shear rate can be calculated from the pressure gradient and from the flow rate of the melt, respectively. Flow curves of low density polyethylene were determined using Bagley, Rabinowitsch and Mooney corrections. The results were compared to the flow curves determined by Göttfert and Haake capillary equipments. It was found that the agreement between the methods is excellent.

  14. Replication quality assessment and uncertainty evaluation of a polymer precision injection moulded component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Precision injection moulding holds a central role in manufacturing as only replication process currently capable of accurately producing complex shaped polymer parts integrating micrometric features on a mass scale production. In this scenario, a study on the replication quality of a polymer...... injection moulded precision component for telecommunication applications is presented. The effects of the process parameters on the component dimensional variation have been investigated using a statistical approach. Replication fidelity of produced parts has been assessed using a focus variation microscope...... with sub-micrometric resolution. Measurement uncertainty has then been evaluated, according to the GUM considering contributions from different process settings combinations and mould geometries. The analysis showed that the injection moulding manufacturing process and the utilized measurement chain...

  15. Inhibitory Properties of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Moulds Associated with Spoilage of Bakery Products

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Adesina; A. O. Ojokoh; D. J. Arotupin

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the potentiality of LAB strains isolated from different fermented products to inhibit moulds associated with spoilage of bakery products. Methodology: Lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains obtained from fermented products (“burukutu”, “pito”, yoghurt, and “iru”) were screened for antifungal activity against moulds (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus repens and Penicillium sp.) isolated from spoilt bakery products. Inhibitory activities of the lactic acid...

  16. Manuscript title: antifungal proteins from moulds: analytical tools and potential application to dry-ripened foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms. These techniques contribute to a better understanding of the response of moulds against AFPs, allowing the design of complementary strategies to maximize or overcome the limitations of using AFPs on foods. AFPs alter chitin biosynthesis, and some fungi react inducing cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, moulds able to increase chitin content at the cell wall by increasing proteins in either CWI or calmodulin-calcineurin signalling pathways will resist AFPs. Similarly, AFPs increase the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moulds increasing G-protein complex β subunit CpcB and/or enzymes to efficiently produce glutathione may evade apoptosis. Unknown aspects that need to be addressed include the interaction with mycotoxin production by less sensitive toxigenic moulds. However, significant steps have been taken to encourage the use of AFPs in intermediate-moisture foods, particularly for mould-ripened cheese and meat products.

  17. Two-step infiltration of aluminum melts into Al-Ti-B4C-CuO powder mixture pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Lee, Jung-Moo; Cho, Young-Hee; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Yu, Huashun

    2016-03-01

    Aluminum matrix composites with a high volume fraction of B4C and TiB2 were fabricated by a novel processing technique - a quick spontaneous infiltration process. The process combines a pressureless infiltration with the combustion reaction of Al-Ti-B4C-CuO in molten aluminum. The process is realized in a simple and economical way in which the whole process is performed in air in a few minutes. To verify the rapidity of the process, the infiltration kinetics was calculated based on the Washburn equation in which melt flows into a porous skeleton. However, there was a noticeable deviation from the calculated results with the experimental results. Considering the cross-sections of the samples at different processing times, a new infiltration model (two step infiltration) consisting of macro-infiltration and micro-infiltration is suggested. The calculated kinetics results in light of the proposed model agree well with the experimental results.

  18. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  19. Assessing the stretch-blow moulding FE simulation of PET over a large process window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G. H.; Yan, S.

    2017-10-01

    Injection stretch blow moulding has been extensively researched for numerous years and is a well-established method of forming thin-walled containers. This paper is concerned with validating the finite element analysis of the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process in an effort to progress the development of injection stretch blow moulding of poly(ethylene terephthalate). Extensive data was obtained experimentally over a wide process window accounting for material temperature, air flow rate and stretch-rod speed while capturing cavity pressure, stretch-rod reaction force, in-mould contact timing and material thickness distribution. This data was then used to assess the accuracy of the correlating FE simulation constructed using ABAQUS/Explicit solver and an appropriate user-defined viscoelastic material subroutine. Results reveal that the simulation was able to pick up the general trends of how the pressure, reaction force and in-mould contact timings vary with the variation in preform temperature and air flow rate. Trends in material thickness were also accurately predicted over the length of the bottle relative to the process conditions. The knowledge gained from these analyses provides insight into the mechanisms of bottle formation, subsequently improving the blow moulding simulation and potentially providing a reduction in production costs.

  20. Study on the Mould-Resistant Properties of Moso Bamboo Treated with High Pressure and Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo’s products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for six different treatment durations. The results showed that reducing sugar content was decreased dramatically from 0.92 mg/L to 0.19 mg/L and the starch content decreased from 1.18% to 0.96% when the pressure was increased from 0 psi to 100 psi. Regression analysis showed that the effects of an individual amylase reaction and individual pressure treatment on the starch or reducing sugar content were significant with a high correlation coefficient. Three traditional types of moso bamboo moulds (Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, and Trichoderma viride were then used for mould resistance testing. The results revealed that the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo blocks could be greatly improved by the combined effect of enzyme activity and pressure treatment. Mould resistance was enhanced by increasing the pressure or prolonging the treatment time. This research could provide a new method for the protection of bamboo from mould attack.

  1. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  2. Reengineering of Permanent Mould Casting with Lean Manufacturing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Władysiak

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available At the work were introduced main areas of production system project of casts produced in permanent moulds, that constitutes reengineering of conventional production system according to Lean Manufacturing (LM methods. New resolution of cooling of dies with water mist was shown to casting of car wheels made from aluminium alloys in low pressure casting process. It was implemented as a part of goal-oriented project in R.H. Alurad Sp.z o.o. in Gorzyce. Its using intensifies solidification and self-cooling of casts shortening the time of casting cycle by the 30%. It was described reorganizing casting stations into multi-machines cells production and the process of their fast tool’s exchange with applying the SMED method. A project of the system was described controlling the production of the foundry with the computer aided light Kanban system. A visualization of the process was shown the production of casts with use the value stream mapping method. They proved that applying casting new method in the technology and LM methods allowed to eliminate down-times, to reduce the level of stocks, to increase the productivity and the flow of the castings production.

  3. Error analysis in predictive modelling demonstrated on mould data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, József; Csernus, Olívia; Beczner, Judit

    2014-01-17

    The purpose of this paper was to develop a predictive model for the effect of temperature and water activity on the growth rate of Aspergillus niger and to determine the sources of the error when the model is used for prediction. Parallel mould growth curves, derived from the same spore batch, were generated and fitted to determine their growth rate. The variances of replicate ln(growth-rate) estimates were used to quantify the experimental variability, inherent to the method of determining the growth rate. The environmental variability was quantified by the variance of the respective means of replicates. The idea is analogous to the "within group" and "between groups" variability concepts of ANOVA procedures. A (secondary) model, with temperature and water activity as explanatory variables, was fitted to the natural logarithm of the growth rates determined by the primary model. The model error and the experimental and environmental errors were ranked according to their contribution to the total error of prediction. Our method can readily be applied to analysing the error structure of predictive models of bacterial growth models, too. © 2013.

  4. Simulation of mould filling process for composite skeleton castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dziuba

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work authors showed selected results of simulation and experimental studies on temperature distribution during solidification of skeleton casting and mould filling process. The aim of conducted simulations was the choice of thermal and geometrical parameters for the needs of designed calculations of the skeleton castings and the estimation of the guidelines for the technology of manufacturing. The subject of numerical simulation was the analysis of ability of filling the channels of core by liquid metal at estability technological parameters.. Below the assumptions and results of the initial simulated calculations are presented. The total number of the nodes in the casting was 1920 and of the connectors was 5280 what gave filling of 100% for the nodes and 99,56% for the connectors in the results of the simulation. Together it resulted as 99,78 % of filling the volume of the casting. The nodes and connectors were filled up to the 30 level of the casting in the simulation. The all connectors were filled up to the 25 level of the casting in the simulation. Starting from the 25 level individual connectors at the side surface of the casting weren’t filled up. The connectors weren’t supplied by multi-level getting system. The differences of filling the levels are little (maximally 5 per cent.

  5. Birefringence in heat-mechanical modified freshly moulded polyester fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velev, V; Dimov, T; Popov, A; Denev, Y; Hristov, H; Angelov, T; Markova, K; Zagortcheva, M; Arhangelova, N; Uzunov, N, E-mail: v.velev@shu-bg.ne

    2010-11-01

    The article submits new experimental data concerning to the role of combined thermo-mechanical treatments on the structural development of freshly moulded uncrystallized but crystallizable poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. The object of the present work is PET as a thermoplastic polymer with a large practical application. The report is devoted to the influence of the heat-mechanical modification temperature on the structure rearrangement in uniaxially orientated amorphous PET. The heat-mechanical modification of the investigated yarns and the optical measurements were realized by specialized gears constructed and built in the author's laboratories. The fibers heat-mechanical modification includes samples annealing at constant temperature above their glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) without strain stress. The yarn annealing has been followed from well defined uniaxially strain-loading with values from 0 MPa up to 30 MPa during two minutes. The optical measurements were carried out by an optical system using a polarization microscope and a CCD camera. The obtained experimental data has been analyzed by Mocha-1.2 (Jandel Scientific) software. There are established dependences between the heat-mechanical modification mode and the structural rearrangements running in the studied PET samples.

  6. Dimensional measurement of micro-moulded parts by computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ontiveros, S.; Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Jiménez, R.

    2012-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular for ...... and the analysis of the results provide valuable conclusions about the advantages and drawbacks of using CT metrology in comparison with other measuring systems when these techniques are employed for the quality control of micro-moulded parts.......Computed tomography (CT) is progressively assuming an important role in metrology applications and great efforts are being made in order to turn it into a reliable and standardized measuring technology. CT is typically used for non-destructive tests, but it is currently becoming very popular...... for dimensional metrology applications due to its strategic advantages such as the capability of performing measurements on both the component's surface and volume, allowing inspection possibilities to otherwise non-accessible internal features. This paper focuses on the dimensional verification of two micro...

  7. Biosolubilization gamma irradiate ion result coal by mould trichoderma sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingkan Aditiawati; Dea Indriani Astuti; Irawan Sugoro; Dwiwahju Sasongko

    2011-01-01

    Biosolubilization of coal is process of converting solid coal to liquid fuel/chemicals by mean of microorganism. The aim of this research was to study the effect of gamma rays irradiation with varian doses of irradiation into solubilization of subbituminous coal by Trichoderma sp. The dosage used was 5, 10, and 20 kGy and unirradiated coal as control. The method was submerged culture in MSS+ medium and incubated at room temperature and agitated at 150 rpm for 21 th days. The parameters observed were colonization, pH and biosolubilization product based on absorbance value at λ 250nm and λ 450nm and GC/MS analysis for the best treatment. The results showed that coal biosolubilization could be increased by gamma irradiation. The mould could growth well in medium containing irradiated coal and the medium of pH was decreased after incubation. The biosolubilization was increased but the irradiation dosage of coal didn't affect significantly. The best dose was 20 kGy with product biosolubilization similar to gasoline and solar. Based on the result, the pre-treatment of gamma irradiation on coal has potency to increased biosolubilization. (author)

  8. Transformation of Medicago truncatula via infiltration of seedlings or flowering plants with Agrobacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trieu, A.T.; Burleigh, S.H.; Kardailsky, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two rapid and simple in planta transformation methods have been developed for the model legume Medicago truncatula. The first approach is based on a method developed for transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana and involves infiltration of flowering plants with a suspension of Agrobacterium....... The second method involves infiltration of young seedlings with Agrobacterium. In both cases a proportion of the progeny of the infiltrated plants is transformed. The transformation frequency ranges from 4.7 to 76% for the flower infiltration method, and from 2.9 to 27.6% for the seedling infiltration method....... Both procedures resulted in a mixture of independent transformants and sibling transformants. The transformants were genetically stable, and analysis of the T-2 generation indicates that the transgenes are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. These transformation systems will increase the utility of M...

  9. Infiltrating giant cellular blue naevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, A L; Monteiro, D A; De Pretto, O J

    2007-01-01

    Cellular blue naevi (CBN) measure 1-2 cm in diameter and affect the dermis, occasionally extending into the subcutaneous fat. The case of a 14-year-old boy with a giant CBN (GCBN) involving the right half of the face, the jugal mucosa and the lower eyelid with a tumour that had infiltrated the bone and the maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses is reported. Biopsies were taken from the skin, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus. The following markers were used in the immunohistochemical evaluation: CD34, CD56, HMB-45, anti-S100, A-103, Melan A and MIB-1. The biopsy specimens showed a biphasic pattern affecting the lower dermis, subcutaneous fat, skeletal muscle, bone, jugal mucosa and maxillary sinus, but there was no histological evidence of malignancy. The tumour cells were CD34-, CD56-, HMB45+, anti-S100+ and A-103+. Melan A was focally expressed. No positive MIB-1 cells were identified. The present case shows that GCBN may infiltrate deeply, with no evidence of malignancy.

  10. Heater Choice, Dampness and Mould Growth in 26 New Zealand Homes: A Study of Propensity for Mould Growth Using Encapsulated Fungal Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Boulic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the use of unflued gas heaters (UGH, N = 14 and heat pump heaters (HP, N = 12 located in the living rooms, and mould growth on the living room and bedroom walls, of 26 New Zealand (NZ occupied homes was investigated during winter. Two methods were employed to evaluate the potential of mould growth on walls: (i measurement of daily hyphal growth rate using a fungal detector (encapsulated fungal spores; and (ii estimation of fungal contamination based on a four level scale visual inspection. The average wall psychrometric conditions were significantly different between the two heater type groups, in both the living rooms and the bedrooms with the UGH user homes being colder and damper than HP user homes. The UGHs were found to be a significant additional source of moisture in the living rooms which dramatically increased the capacity for fungi to grow on wall surfaces. The average daily hyphal growth rates were 4 and 16 times higher in the living rooms and in the bedrooms of the UGH user homes, respectively. Results from both mould detection methods gave good agreement, showing that the use of a fungal detector was an efficient method to predict the potential of mould growth on the inside of the external walls in NZ homes.

  11. A framework of cloud supported collaborative design in glass lens moulds based on aspheric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Wang, Yu; Na, Jingxin; Zhi, Yanan; Fan, Yufeng

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric mould design includes the top-down design and reversal design. In this paper, a new framework of reversal design is proposed combining with cloud supported collaborative design (CSCD) based on aspheric measurement. The framework is a kind of collaborative platform, which is composed of eight modules, including the computerized aspheric precision measurement module (CAPM), computer-aided optical design of aspheric lens system (CAOD), computer-aided design of lens mould (CADLM), FEM(finite element method) simulation of lens molding module (FEMLM), computer-aided manufacture of lens and moulds (CAMLM), measurement data analysis module (MDAM), optical product lifecycle management module (OPLM) and cloud computing network module (CCNM). In this framework, the remote clients send an improved requirement or fabrication demand about optical lens system through CCNM, which transfers this signal to OPLM. In OPLM, one main server is in charge of the task distribution and collaborative work of other six modules. The first measurement data of aspheric lens are produced by clients or our proposed platform CAPM, then are sent to CAOD for optimization and the electronic drawings of lens moulds are generated in CADLM module. According the design drawings, the FEMLM could give the lens-molding simulation parameters through FEM software. The simulation data are used for the second design of moulds in CADLM module. In this case, the moulds could be fabricated in CAMLM by ultra-precision machine, and the aspheric lens could be also produced by lens-molding machine in CAMLM. At last, the final shape of aspheric lens could be measured in CAPM and the data analysis could be conducted in MDAM module. Through the proposed framework, all the work described above could be performed coordinately. And the optimum design data of lens mould could be realized and saved, then shared by all the work team.

  12. Influence of the mould on the size of A A 8090 alloy in the material melting bulk state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolfarini, Claudemiro

    1996-01-01

    Wedge like samples were casted into investment moulds of alumina and spodumen. The later were additionally coated with lithium, barium, magnesium and calcium fluorides and chlorides based salts and other special materials. It was used the 2,6% Li-containing alloy AA8090. The grain size was measured as a function of the wedge thickness nd mould material. The results showed a strong dependence of the grain size to the mould materials for the same cast conditions: pouring temperature, mould temperature and chemical composition of the alloy. The AA8090 alloy had no addition of titanium-boron based grain refiner. (author)

  13. The Influence of the Content of Furfuryl Alcohol Monomer on the Process of Moulding Sand's Thermal Destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobosz St. M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of the influence of furfuryl alcohol content in resin binders on properties of moulding sand at elevated temperature. Reducing the share of this component - due to the requirements of the European Union regarding its toxicity - may cause a decrease in temperature of moulding sands’ destruction and, consequently, the thermal deformation of moulds and the creation of many casting defects. The study examined the impact of the furfuryl alcohol content of the thermal destruction processes and on the strength of the moulding sand at an ambient temperature and the tendency to thermal deformation.

  14. Optimisation of warpage on plastic injection moulding part using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm method (GA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miza, A. T. N. A.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Fathullah, M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, Computer Aided Engineering was used for injection moulding simulation. The method of Design of experiment (DOE) was utilize according to the Latin Square orthogonal array. The relationship between the injection moulding parameters and warpage were identify based on the experimental data that used. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used as to validate the model accuracy. Then, the RSM and GA method were combine as to examine the optimum injection moulding process parameter. Therefore the optimisation of injection moulding is largely improve and the result shown an increasing accuracy and also reliability. The propose method by combining RSM and GA method also contribute in minimising the warpage from occur.

  15. CURING OF POLYMERIC COMPOSITES USING MICROWAVE RESIN TRANSFER MOULDING (RTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. YUSOFF

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to compare the difference between microwave heating and conventional thermal heating in fabricating carbon/epoxy composites. Two types of epoxy resin systems were used as matrices, LY5052-HY5052 and DGEBA-HY917-DY073. All composite samples were fabricated using resin transfer moulding (RTM technique. The curing of the LY5052-HY5052-carbon and the DGEBA-HY917-DY073-carbon composite systems, were carried out at 100 °C and 120 °C, respectively. Microwave heating showed better temperature control than conventional heating, however, the heating rate of the microwave cured samples were slower than the conventionally cured samples. This was attributed to the lower power (250 W used when heating with microwaves compared to 2000 W used in conventional heating. Study of thermal characteristics as curing progressed showed that the polymerisation reaction occurred at a faster rate during microwave curing than in conventional curing for both the DGEBA and the LY/HY5052 carbon composite systems. The actual cure cycle was reduced from 60 minutes to 40 minutes when using microwaves for curing DGEBA-carbon composites. As for LY/HY5052-carbon composites, the actual cure cycle was reduced from 3 hours to 40 minutes. Both conventional and microwave heating yielded similar glass transition temperatures (120 °C for DGEBA systems and 130 °C for LY/HY5052 systems. Microwave cured composites had higher void contents than conventionally cured composites (2.2-2.8% and 1.8-2.4% for DGEBA and LY/HY5052 microwave cured composites, respectively, compared to 0.2-0.4% for both DGEBA and LY/HY5052 thermally cured composites. C-scan traces showed that all composites, regardless of methods of curing, had minimal defects.

  16. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zuhaib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the effi cacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1 To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM. (2 To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM. (3 To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, signifi cant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle

  17. Microinjection moulding of polymeric composites with functionalized carbon nanotubes =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tania Sofia Araujo Figueiras

    Microinjection moulding of polymeric composites with functionalized carbon nanotubes The unique electronic, mechanical, and structural properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT) make them suitable for applications in the fields of electronics, sensors, medical devices, aerospace and automotive industries. The preparation of CNT/polymer nanocomposites presents particular interest among the various possible applications. However, the long entangled nanotubes form agglomerates that poses serious obstacles to further development of nanocomposites with the target properties. One of the approaches to overcome the CNT chemical inertness, enhance the compatibility with the matrix and improve homogeneous dispersion through the matrix is through its covalent functionalization. This is expected to improve the CNT interface with the polymer matrix, thus improving the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites at very low content. One of the purposes of this thesis was to implement the covalent modification of the CNT surface using a simple functionalization method, to increase the CNT surface reactivity and possibly help their dispersion into the polyamide matrix without inducing structural damage on the CNT. The functionalization of CNT was carried out through the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethine ylides using a solvent-free reaction route. CNT were successful functionalized with pyrrolidine groups through a simple and fast procedure that was scaled up, and may be compatible with current industrial processes. Another objective was to disperse the CNT in polyamide 6 (PA6) using melt mixing, and to produce PA6/CNT nanocomposites by microinjection molding (plM). Finally, the morphological and physical properties of the mouldings produced were evaluated. The plM process is becoming of greater importance for the manufacturing of polymeric micro- components considering its low cost and short cycle times, useful for mass production. The as-received and functionalized CNT

  18. Application of spreadsheet to estimate infiltration parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zakwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Infiltration is the process of flow of water into the ground through the soil surface. Soil water although contributes a negligible fraction of total water present on earth surface, but is of utmost importance for plant life. Estimation of infiltration rates is of paramount importance for estimation of effective rainfall, groundwater recharge, and designing of irrigation systems. Numerous infiltration models are in use for estimation of infiltration rates. The conventional graphical approach for estimation of infiltration parameters often fails to estimate the infiltration parameters precisely. The generalised reduced gradient (GRG solver is reported to be a powerful tool for estimating parameters of nonlinear equations and it has, therefore, been implemented to estimate the infiltration parameters in the present paper. Field data of infiltration rate available in literature for sandy loam soils of Umuahia, Nigeria were used to evaluate the performance of GRG solver. A comparative study of graphical method and GRG solver shows that the performance of GRG solver is better than that of conventional graphical method for estimation of infiltration rates. Further, the performance of Kostiakov model has been found to be better than the Horton and Philip's model in most of the cases based on both the approaches of parameter estimation.

  19. Fungicide-driven evolution and molecular basis of multidrug resistance in field populations of the grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Kretschmer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1 that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of

  20. Changes of gas pressure in sand mould during cast iron pouring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mocek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a test method developed to measure changes of gas pressure in sand moulds during manufacture of iron castings. The pressure and temperature measurements were taken in the sand mould layers directly adjacent to the metal – mould interface. A test stand was described along with the measurement methodology. The sensors used allowed studying the fast-changing nature of the processes which give rise to the gas-originated casting defects. The study examined the influence of binders, clays and refining additives on the nature of the gas evolution process. The effect of the base sand type - quartz or olivine - on the nature of pressure changes was compared. The test stand design ensured the stability of technological parameters in the examined mould elements, and a repeatable process of making pilot castings. The main outcome was classification of sand mixtures in terms of pressure occurring during pouring of iron castings. The obtained results confirm the usefulness of the described method for testing gas pressure occurrence in a sand mould.

  1. Moulding Sands with New InorganicBinders - Ecology Assessment in the Aspect of Work Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Szanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of economy and industry introducing new technologies and materials often means the increased threat of occurrenceof factors harmful to humans and environment. Workers employed in foundries as mould pourers are the group of high professional risk.Foundry moulding sands when poured with liquid metal are a source of the emission of harmful, toxic and carcinogenic (benzene,PAHs compounds.The paper presents the results of studies on the concentration of chemical compounds emitted in the process of casting aluminiumalloy and brass using moulding sands with the new inorganic binders. The specific values of the exposure indices were compared with thelimit values. This enabled an assessment of the impact of moulding sands on work environment. The obtained results were compared withthe values of contaminants emitted when pouring foundry moulds made from furan sands and bentonite sands with an addition of coaldust.Studies were carried out under the project POIG.01.01.02-00-015/09 "Advanced materials and technologies."

  2. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees.

  3. Active binder content as a factor of the control system of the moulding sand quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broaderapplication in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castingsand supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressurecastings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is theassessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presentedinvestigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The presented investigations were aimed at the selection of the neuralnetwork able to predict the active bentonite content in the moulding sand on the basis of this sand properties such as: permeability,compactibility and the compressive strength. An application of the Statistica program allowed to select automatically the type of networkproper for the representation of dependencies occurring in between the proposed moulding sand parameters. The most advantageousconditions were obtained for the uni-directional multi-layer perception (MLP network. Knowledge of the neural network sensitivity to individual moulding sand parameters, allowed to eliminate not essential ones.

  4. Influence of the recycled material percentage on the rheological behaviour of HDPE for injection moulding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javierre, C; Clavería, I; Ponz, L; Aísa, J; Fernández, A

    2007-01-01

    The amount of polymer material wasted during thermoplastic injection moulding is very high. It comes from both the feed system of the part, and parts necessary to set up the mould, as well as the scrap generated along the process due to quality problems. The residues are managed through polymer recycling that allows reuse of the materials in the manufacturing injection process. Recycling mills convert the parts into small pieces that are used as feed material for injection, by mixing the recycled feedstock in different percentages with raw material. This mixture of both raw and recycled material modifies material properties according to the percentage of recycled material introduced. Some of the properties affected by this modification are those related to rheologic behaviour, which strongly conditions the future injection moulding process. This paper analyzes the rheologic behaviour of material with different percentages of recycled material by means of a capillary rheometer, and evaluates the influence of the corresponding viscosity curves obtained on the injection moulding process, where small variations of parameters related to rheological behaviour, such as pressure or clamping force, can be critical to the viability and cost of the parts manufactured by injection moulding.

  5. ALGORITHMS FOR THE PROGRAMMING OF FOOTWEAR SOLES MOULDS ON WORKING POSTS OF INJECTION MACHINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA Cornelia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The moulds stock necessary for realization in rhythmically conditions, a certain volume of footwear soles depends on some criterions such as: the range of soles for footwear volume daily realized, the sizes structure of those soles for footwear and, respectively, the sizes tally, the technological cycle for an used mould depending on the equipment efficiency, the provide necessity of spare moulds, the using and fixing conditions etc. From the efficiency point of view, the equipments may have two working posts, or more working posts (always, an even number, as 6, 12, 24, 40 posts. Footwear soles manufacturing takes into account the percentage distribution of the size numbers of the size series. When o portative assembly is used for the manufacturing of the footwear soles using the injection with “n” working posts, it is very important an optimum distribution of the working posts. The disadvantages of these equipments are the situations of the no equilibrium programming of the moulds, so that, in one time, some working posts spread out of the work. The paper presents some practical and theoretical solutions for moulds stock programming in portative assembly for footwear soles injection, so that an optimum equilibrium degree of the working posts will obtain

  6. Placement suitability criteria of composite tape for mould surface in automated tape placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automated tape placement is an important automated process used for fabrication of large composite structures in aeronautical industry. The carbon fiber composite parts realized with this process tend to replace the aluminum parts produced by high-speed machining. It is difficult to determine the appropriate width of the composite tape in automated tape placement. Wrinkling will appear in the tape if it does not suit for the mould surface. Thus, this paper deals with establishing placement suitability criteria of the composite tape for the mould surface. With the assumptions for ideal mapping and by applying some principles and theorems of differential geometry, the centerline trajectory of the composite tape is identified to follow the geodesic. The placement suitability of the composite tape is examined on three different types of non-developable mould surfaces and four criteria are derived. The developed criteria have been used to test the deposition process over several mould surfaces and the appropriate width for each mould surface is obtained by referring to these criteria.

  7. Micro injection moulding process optimization of an ultra-small POM three-dimensional component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    Replication-based manufacturing processes are a cost effective method for producing complex and net-shaped components [1]. Micro injection moulding has a prominent place among them for its capability of accurately and precisely produce micro plastic parts in large production scale [2], [3......]. In this study, the optimization of the micro injection moulding process of an ultra-small (volume: 0.07 mm3; mass: 0.1 mg) three-dimensional Polyoxymethylene (POM) micro component for medical applications (see Figure 1) is presented. Preliminary experiments highlighted the need for venting channels in order...... with respect to design specifications, the flash areal size was utilized as quality indicator. A design of the experiments approach was carried out in order to study the effects of melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure and injection speed. For this task, a two-level full factorial design...

  8. Influence of tribological additives on friction and impact performance of injection moulded polyacetal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jens Lolle; Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Christoffersen, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Tribological additives are used to improve frictional properties of injection moulded thermoplastics. The additives might however also affect the mechanical properties of the material. The influence of processing conditions on both frictional and mechanical properties is highly relevant in the de......Tribological additives are used to improve frictional properties of injection moulded thermoplastics. The additives might however also affect the mechanical properties of the material. The influence of processing conditions on both frictional and mechanical properties is highly relevant...... in the development of tribologically modified grades. In the present study we investigate how two commonly used tribological additives, polydimethylsiloxane and polytetrafluoroethylene, affect friction and impact properties of polyacetal (polyoxymethylene). A new injection mould provides test specimens for both...

  9. Investigations of the Quality of the Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in theircirculation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigationmethods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimationof the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrixtechnological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrixquality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

  10. Economic trade-offs of additive manufacturing integration in injection moulding process chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charalambis, Alessandro; Kerbache, Laoucine; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing has emerged as an innovative set of novel technologies capable of replacing established manufacturing processes due to fabrication of highly complex parts and its continuous improvements of efficiency and cost effectiveness. This study is based on the idea that through...... the creation of synergies between additive and conventional manufacturing technologies it is possible to achieve greater cost advantages and operational benefits than by substituting injection moulding with additive manufacturing. The analysis presented explores the cost advantages that can be secured when...... additive manufacturing is used to support the fabrication of mould inserts for the product development phase of the injection moulding process chain. This study shows that fabrication of soft tooling by mean of AM is economically convenient with a cost reduction between 80% and 90%. Break-even points...

  11. Investigations of the Quality of The Reclaim of Spent Moulding Sands with Organic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern investigation methods and equipment for the quality estimation of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in the paper. These methods, utilising the special equipment combined with the authors investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH the University of Science and Technology, allow for the better estimation of the matrix quality. Moulding sands systems with organic binders require an in-depth approach to factors deciding on the matrix technological suitability as well as on their environmental impact. Into modern methods allowing for the better assessment of the matrix quality belongs the grain size analysis of the reclaimed material performed by means of the laser diffraction and also the estimation of the moulding sand gas evolution rate and identification of the emitted gases and their BTEX group gases content, since they are specially hazardous from the point of view of the Occupational Safety and Health.

  12. ANN modelling for the determination of moulding sand matrix grain size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the modern methods of the production optimisation are artificial neural networks. Neural networks are gaining broader and broader application in the foundry industry, among others for controlling melting processes in cupolas and in arc furnaces, for designing castings and supply systems, for controlling moulding sand processing, for predicting properties of cast alloys or selecting parameters of pressure castings. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. The presented investigations were obtained by using the Statistica 9.0 program. The aim of the investigations was to select the neural network suitable for prediction the moulding sand matrix grain size on the basis of the determined sand properties such as: permeability, compactibility, and compressive strength.

  13. Brachytherapy at the Institut Gustave-Roussy: Personalized vaginal mould applicator: technical modification and improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albano, M.; Dumas, I.; Haie-Meder, C.

    2008-01-01

    Brachytherapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with gynaecological cancers. At the Institut Gustave-Roussy, the technique of vaginal mould applicator has been used for decades. This technique allows a personalized tailored irradiation, integrating tumour shape, size and extension and vaginal anatomy. Vaginal expansion reduces the dose to the vaginal mucosa and to the organs at risk. We report a modification of the material used for vaginal mould manufacture. The advantages of the new material are a lighter weight, and transparency allowing a better accuracy in the placement of catheters for radioactive sources. This material is applicable for low dose-rate, pulse dose-rate and high dose-rate brachytherapy. Since 2001, more than 700 vaginal moulds have been manufactured with this new approach without any intolerance. (authors)

  14. [Study on the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds (Helianthus annus L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Katarzyna; Wolska, Jolanta; Debia, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to estimate the qualitative and quantitative composition of moulds colonizing sunflower seeds on RBCA, YpSs, DG18 media at 25, 37, and 45°C. Twenty samples of sunflower seeds (not roasted and not salted) were used for the analysis. The highest number of moulds were xerophilic species isolated on DG18 at 25°C (33), followed by mesophilic species (29) on RBCA medium at 25°C, and mesophilic (22) and thermophilic species (10) on YpSs medium at 37, and 45°C, respectively. Eurotium herbariorum was isolated from all samples. A total of 287 strains belonging to 52 mould species were isolated from sunflower seeds. The study revealed new species not previously isolated from sunflower seeds mycobiota.

  15. Shape Accuracy of Iron Precision Castings in Terms of Ceramic Moulds Physical Properties Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While analyzing shape accuracy of ferroalloy precision castings in terms of ceramic moulds physical anisotropy, low-alloy steel castings ("cover" and cast iron ("plate" were included. The basic parameters in addition to the product linear shape accuracy are flatness deviations, especially due to the expanded flat surface which is cast plate. For mentioned castings surface micro-geometry analysis was also carried, favoring surface load capacity tp50 for Rmax = 50%. Surface load capacity tp50 obtained for the cast cover was compared with machined product, and casting plate surface was compared with wear part of the conveyor belt. The results were referred to anisotropy of ceramic moulds physical properties, which was evaluated by studying ceramic moulds samples in computer tomography equipment Metrotom 800

  16. Manufacturing of kevlar/polyester composite by resin transfer moulding using conventional and microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, I.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave heating was incorporated into the resin transfer moulding technique. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mould was used to cure the composite panel. Through the use of microwave heating, the mechanical and physical properties of produced Kevlar fibre/polyester composites were compared to those manufactured by conventional resin transfer moulding. The flexural modulus and flexural strength of 6-ply conventionally cured composites was 45% and 9% higher than the flexural modulus and flexural strength of 6-ply microwaved cured composites, respectively. However, 19% increase in interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and 2% increase in compressive strength was observed in 6-ply microwave cured composites. This enhancement in ILSS and compressive strength is attributed to the better interfacial bonding of polyester resin with Kevlar fibres in microwaved cured composite, which was also confirmed via electron microscopy scanning. Furthermore, the microwave cured composite yielded maximum void contents (3%). (author)

  17. Advanced oxidation and adsorption modification of dust waste from standard moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baliński

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of advanced oxidation (AO with application of ultrasounds and surface modification of the dust waste collected during dry dedusting of processed moulding sands with bentonite binder. A beneficial effect of both AO and adsorption modification of dust waste, when performed with the selected type of polyelectrolyte, on the technological and mechanical properties of moulding sands prepared with an addition of this dust has been stated. In spite of the bentonite content in moulding sand reduced by 43% and replaced with modified dust waste, the mechanical properties, i.e. the compression and tensile strengths, examined on sand specimens have been improved by 10% and 13%, respectively, with no harm to other basic technological sand properties. At the same time, it was also possible to reduce by about 30% the emission rate of the main gaseous component from the BTEX group, i.e. benzene.

  18. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  19. Role of slope on infiltration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Renato; Saltalippi, Carla; Flammini, Alessia; Govindaraju, Rao S.

    2018-02-01

    Partitioning of rainfall at the soil-atmosphere interface is important for both surface and subsurface hydrology, and influences many events of major hydrologic interest such as runoff generation, aquifer recharge, and transport of pollutants in surface waters as well as the vadose zone. This partitioning is achieved through the process of infiltration that has been widely investigated at the local scale, and more recently also at the field scale, by models that were designed for horizontal surfaces. However, infiltration, overland flows, and deep flows in most real situations are generated by rainfall over sloping surfaces that bring in additional effects. Therefore, existing models for local infiltration into homogeneous and layered soils and those as for field-scale infiltration, have to be adapted to account for the effects of surface slope. Various studies have investigated the role of surface slope on infiltration based on a theoretical formulations for the dynamics of infiltration, extensions of the Green-Ampt approach, and from laboratory and field experiments. However, conflicting results have been reported in the scientific literature on the role of surface slope on infiltration. We summarize the salient points from previous studies and provide plausible reasons for discrepancies in conclusions of previous authors, thus leading to a critical assessment of the current state of our understanding on this subject. We offer suggestions for future efforts to advance our knowledge of infiltration over sloping surfaces.

  20. Modeling snowmelt infiltration in seasonally frozen ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budhathoki, S.; Ireson, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    In cold regions, freezing and thawing of the soil govern soil hydraulic properties that shape the surface and subsurface hydrological processes. The partitioning of snowmelt into infiltration and runoff has also important implications for integrated water resource management and flood risk. However, there is an inadequate representation of the snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils in most land-surface and hydrological models, creating the need for improved models and methods. Here we apply, the Frozen Soil Infiltration Model, FroSIn, which is a novel algorithm for infiltration in frozen soils that can be implemented in physically based models of coupled flow and heat transport. In this study, we apply the model in a simple configuration to reproduce observations from field sites in the Canadian prairies, specifically St Denis and Brightwater Creek in Saskatchewan, Canada. We demonstrate the limitations of conventional approaches to simulate infiltration, which systematically over-predict runoff and under predict infiltration. The findings show that FroSIn enables models to predict more reasonable infiltration volumes in frozen soils, and also represent how infiltration-runoff partitioning is impacted by antecedent soil moisture.

  1. [A new method of fabricating photoelastic model by rapid prototyping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Xia, Yin-pei

    2011-10-01

    To explore a novel method of fabricating the photoelastic model using rapid prototyping technique. A mandible model was made by rapid prototyping with computerized three-dimensional reconstruction, then the photoelastic model with teeth was fabricated by traditional impression duplicating and mould casting. The photoelastic model of mandible with teeth, which was fabricated indirectly by rapid prototyping, was very similar to the prototype in geometry and physical parameters. The model was of high optical sensibility and met the experimental requirements. Photoelastic model of mandible with teeth indirectly fabricated by rapid prototyping meets the photoelastic experimental requirements well.

  2. Effect of Irrigation Water Type on Infiltration Rates of Sandy Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Omran, A.M.; Al-Matrood, S.M.; Choudhary, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the effect of three water types (tap water, well water and sewage water) on the infiltration rate of three soils varying in texture (sand. loamy sand and sandy loam). A stationary rainfall simulator dispensing water at a rate of 45 mm h-1, connected to the different sources of water, was used to measure the infiltration rates. A total of 5 runs were carried out using each water quality. The volume of runoff against the time was recorded at each 5 minute interval. The infiltration rate was calculated as the difference between the water applied and the excesses water measured as surface runoff. Infiltration rate at first run were rapid in all the three soils and then progressively declined as the number of runs increased. The same trend was observed for each water quality tested. The reduction in infiltration rate with increasing number of runs for prewetted surface than for the initial dry surface was attributed to break down and settling of fine particles that took place earlier during prewetting. The infiltration curves for all the three soils when irrigared with different qualities of water was not distinguishable. The relationship between infiltration rate as function of time for the treatments applied were tested using Kostiakov equation I=bt-n. The infiltration data gave a coefficient of determination R2 >0.90 for all the treatments. The infiltration parameters B, and n varied strongly with respect to soil texture. Values of B decreased with changing soil textures, being highest for the sandy soil, and lowest for the sandy loamy soil, whereas n values showed the opposite trend. It was concluded that effect of soil texture on the infiltration rate was very pronounced while water qualities showed a little effect. (author)

  3. Effect of process parameters on flow length and flash formation in injection moulding of high aspect ratio polymeric micro features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eladl, Abdelkhalik; Mostafa, Rania; Islam, Aminul

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the effects of process parameters on the quality characteristics of polymeric parts produced by micro injection moulding (µIM) with two different materials. Four injection moulding process parameters (injection velocity, holding pressure, melt temperature an...

  4. Application of HS-SPME-GC-MS method for the detection of active moulds on historical parchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawoszczuk, Tomasz; Syguła-Cholewińska, Justyna; Del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this work was to analyse the profile of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) emitted by moulds growing on parchment samples, in search of particular volatiles mentioned in the literature as indicators of active mould growth. First, the growth of various moulds on samples of parchment was assessed. Those species that showed collagenolytic activity were then inoculated on two types of media: samples of parchment placed on media and on media containing amino acids that are elements of the structure of collagen. All samples were prepared inside 20-ml vials (closed system). In the first case, the media did not contain any sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, or sulphur, i.e. parchment was the only nutrient for the moulds. A third type of sample was historical parchment prepared in a Petri dish without a medium and inoculated with a collagenolytically active mould (open system). The MVOCs emitted by moulds were sampled with the headspace-SPME method. Volatiles extracted on DVB/CAR/PDMS fibres were analysed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatograms were carried out in search of indicators of metabolic activity. The results showed that there are three groups of volatiles that can be used for the detection of active forms of moulds on parchment objects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to measure MVOCs emitted by moulds growing on parchment.

  5. Respiratory health in children, and indoor exposure to (1,3)-beta-D-glucan, EPS mould components and endotoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tischer, C.; Gehring, U.; Chen, C-M; Kerkhof, M.; Koppelman, G.; Sausenthaler, S.; Herbarth, O.; Schaaf, B.; Lehmann, I.; Kraemer, U.; Berdel, D.; von Berg, A.; Bauer, C. P.; Koletzko, S.; Wichmann, H-E; Brunekreef, B.; Heinrich, J.

    For a long time, exposure to mould and dampness-derived microbial components was considered a risk factor for the development of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Some recent studies suggested that early childhood exposure to mould components, such as (1,3)-beta-D-glucan and extracellular

  6. 78 FR 12357 - Brockway Mould, Inc., a Division of Ross International Ltd. Including Robert Lerch From BJR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Division of Ross International Ltd. Including Robert Lerch From BJR Trucking, Brockport, PA; Amended..., applicable to workers and former workers of Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of Ross International Ltd... Brockway Mould, Inc., a division of Ross International Ltd., including Robert Lerch from BJR Trucking...

  7. THE WEAR OF INJECTION MOULD FUNCTIONAL PARTS IN CONTACT WITH POLYMER COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Brezinová

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the evaluation of material wear of injection moulds made of aluminium alloy Alumec 89 and copper alloy Moldmax HH in friction couples with plastomer materials with various filler contents. The friction relations in injection moulding were simulated in an adhesion dry wear test using an Amsler machine, with an area contact of the friction couple materials. The wear intensity was evaluated by determination of friction coefficient and relative wearing by the mass loss. Surface morphology changes of evaluated alloys after wear and the thermal conditions in particular friction couples were analysed simultaneously.

  8. Facial asymmetry correction with moulded helmet therapy in infants with deformational skull base plagiocephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Matthias; Fitze, Brigitte; Blecher, Christoph; Marcello, Augello; Simon, Ruben; Cremer, Rebecca; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Kunz, Christoph; Mayr, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The recommendation issued by the American Academy of Pediatrics in the early 1990s to position infants on their back during sleep to prevent sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has dramatically reduced the number of deaths due to SIDS but has also markedly increased the prevalence of positional skull deformation in infants. Deformation of the base of the skull occurs predominantly in very severe deformational plagiocephaly and is accompanied by facial asymmetry, as well as an altered ear position, called ear shift. Moulded helmet therapy has become an accepted treatment strategy for infants with deformational plagiocephaly. The aim of this study was to determine whether facial asymmetry could be corrected by moulded helmet therapy. In this retrospective, single-centre study, we analysed facial asymmetry of 71 infants with severe deformational plagiocephaly with or without deformational brachycephaly who were undergoing moulded helmet therapy between 2009 and 2013. Computer-assisted, three-dimensional, soft-tissue photographic scanning was used to record the head shape before and after moulded helmet therapy. The distance between two landmarks in the midline of the face (i.e., root of the nose and nasal septum) and the right and left tragus were measured on computer-generated indirect and objective 3D photogrammetry images. A quotient was calculated between the two right- and left-sided distances to the midline. Quotients were compared before and after moulded helmet therapy. Infants without any therapy served as a control group. The median age of the infants before onset of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 3-16 months). The median duration of moulded helmet therapy was 5 months (range 1-16 months). Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment quotients of the left vs. right distances measured between the tragus and root of the nose (n = 71) and nasal septum (n = 71) revealed a significant reduction of the asymmetry (Tragus-Nasion-Line Quotient: 0

  9. Reclamation of alkaline spent moulding sands of organic and inorganic type and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders requires the reclamation treatments in order to be able to reuse the matrices of spent sands. The spent sands, depending on the applied binding agent, are characterised by various abilities of the matrix reclamation. The results of investigations of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with the Rudal binder and spent sands with the Rezolit binder in the system of uniform sands and of mixed ones, are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by means of the special experimental stands designed and built in the AGH University of Science and Technology, AGH, in Krakow.

  10. A new approach for the validation of filling simulations in micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gava, Alberto; Tosello, Guido; Lucchetta, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    In manufacturing polymer micro products, numerical simulations are used with the same purposes as in conventional injection moulding, mainly the optimization of micro components design, the optimization of process parameters and the decrease of production costs. Dedicated simulations softwares fail...... to be improved. The main objective of this work is to evaluate whether the present numerical codes are suitable to characterize melt flow patterns in a micro cavity. In order to test the accuracy of the software, real and simulated experiments were performed and used to investigate the filling of a micro moulded...

  11. Effect of gamma radiation on storage moulds of wheat and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, S.P.; Kapoor, J.N.; Chatrath, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of different dosages of gamma radiation on the development of moulds on grains of wheat and maize and on the germination of the spores of these fungi was studied. There was marked reduction in storage moulds with increase in the dose and at a dose of 300 Krad, their development on grains was completely inhibited. The results on germination of spores of these fungi when treated with various radiation dosages show that several species of Aspergillus and Penicillium differed remarkably in their sensitivity to radiation. (author)

  12. Iron Melt Flow in Thin Walled Sections Cast in Vertically Parted Green Sand Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per; Andersen, Uffa; Rasmussen, Niels

    Shortage of resources can be expected to become more wide spread in the future. Furthermore the focus on the environmental aspects will also be intensified. Today the clearest example is the large attention on the fuel consumption of cars. Many different approaches can be made to reduce the fuel ...... of gating systems investigated in this work, cannot be recommended for castings with high demands to the quality, as the variation in the filling patterns can be very large from mould to mould and hence the stability of the quality will be affected....

  13. Induction Heating System Applied to Injection Moulding of Micro and Nano Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano

    The present Ph.D. thesis contains a study concerning induction heating system applied to injection moulding of micro and nano structures. The overall process chain was considered and investigated during the project including part design, simulation, conventional and non-conventional tooling...... part. In fact one of the main problems in micro injection moulding is the premature freezing of the polymer flow inside the cavity and often is not possible to obtain a full replica of the nano/micro structures embed on the surfaces. Some other defects that can be avoided with the use of an additional...

  14. Measurement of micro moulded parts by Computed Tomography and comparison to optical and tactile techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe, J.A.; Tosello, Guido; Carmignato, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on dimensional verification of two micro-injection moulded components, selected from actual industrial productions, using CT metrological tools. In addition to CT scanning, also a tactile Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) with sub-micrometer uncertainty and an Optical Coordinate...... Measuring Machine (OCMM) allowing fast measurements suitable for in-line quality control were employed as validation instruments. The experimental work carried out and the analysis of the results provide valuable conclusions about the advantages and drawbacks of using CT metrology in comparison with CMM...... and OCMM when these techniques are employed for quality control of micro moulded parts....

  15. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding...... a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...

  16. Influence of the Mould Cooling Process on the Quality and Properties of Aluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktorie Weiss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the effect on the quality of casting moulds (metal, bentonite mixture on the structure of the alloy AlZn5,5MgCu and selected mechanical properties of the alloy. The effect of foundry moulds can significantly affect formation and range of crystal segregation and the subsequent thermal process of homogenization which has an influence on the final quality of the alloy. The research focuses on the formation and range of crystal segregation and its removal with homogenization annealing, in which the observed influence of individual factors influencing the diffusion process and quality of the aluminium alloy.

  17. A capability study of micro moulding for nano fluidic system manufacture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tosello, Guido

    2013-01-01

    With the present paper the authors analysed process capability of ultra-precision moulding used for producing nano crosses with the same critical channels dimensions of a nano fluidic system for optical mapping of genomic length DNA. The process variation focused on product tolerances is quantified...... through AFM measurements. Uncertainty assessment of measurements on polymer objects is described and quality control results of sub-micro injection moulded crosses are shown in respect of the tolerance range specified by the end user as limit value for functional design....

  18. Determination of Unit Pressure Force in Material Volume in the Course of Refractory Stamping Press Moulding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orłowicz A.W.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of assessment of the unit pressure force within the refractory material volume in the course press-moulding of stampings for refractory precast shapes. The force was evaluated with the use of physical simulation of deformation undergone by lead balls placed in the raw refractory mass subjected to pressing in a metal die. To determine the value of unit pressure force applied to the aggregate grains in the course of stamping press-moulding, physical model of deformation of a sphere induced by the uniaxial stress state was used.

  19. Simulation and Validation of Injection-Compression Filling Stage of Liquid Moulding with Fast Curing Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ffion A.; Warrior, Nicholas A.; Simacek, Pavel; Advani, Suresh; Hughes, Adrian; Darlington, Roger; Senan, Eissa

    2018-03-01

    Very short manufacture cycle times are required if continuous carbon fibre and epoxy composite components are to be economically viable solutions for high volume composite production for the automotive industry. Here, a manufacturing process variant of resin transfer moulding (RTM), targets a reduction of in-mould manufacture time by reducing the time to inject and cure components. The process involves two stages; resin injection followed by compression. A flow simulation methodology using an RTM solver for the process has been developed. This paper compares the simulation prediction to experiments performed using industrial equipment. The issues encountered during the manufacturing are included in the simulation and their sensitivity to the process is explored.

  20. Assessment Method of Overheating Degree of a Spent Moulding Sand with Organic Binder, After the Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A proper management of sand grains of moulding sands requires knowing basic properties of the spent matrix after casting knocking out. This information is essential from the point of view of the proper performing the matrix recycling process and preparing moulding sands with reclaimed materials. The most important parameter informing on the matrix quality - in case of moulding sands with organic binders after casting knocking out - is their ignition loss. The methodology of estimating ignition loss of spent moulding sands with organic binder - after casting knocking out - developed in AGH, is presented in the paper. This method applies the simulation MAGMA software, allowing to determine this moulding sand parameter already at the stage of the production preparation.

  1. Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghafi, S.; Penjweini, R.; Becker, K.; Kratky, K. W.; Dodt, H.-U.

    2010-09-01

    When moulds are illuminated by visible electromagnetic-EM radiations, several effects on nucleus materials and nucleotides can be detected. These effects have a significant influence on mould generation or destruction. This paper presents the effects and implications of a red diode laser beam (660 nm), a second-harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser emitting green beam (532 nm), or the combination of both, on the eradication of Pistachio mould fungus. Incident doses (ID) of both beams are kept identical throughout the experiment. The absorption spectrums of irradiated mouldy samples and the bright-greenish-yellow-fluorescence (BGYF) of fungus occurring in mould texture due to electronic excitation are investigated. We found that a combination of a green and a red laser beam with an ID of 0.5 J/cm2 provides the optimal effects on Pistachio mould fungus eradication.

  2. Study of process parameters effect on the filling phase of micro injection moulding using weld lines as flow markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    , the relationships between the filling pattern and the different process parameter settings have to be established. In this paper, a novel approach based on the use of weld lines as flow markers to trace the development of the flow front during the filling is proposed. The effects on the filling stage of process......Micro-injection moulding (micro-moulding) is a process which enables the mass production of polymer microproducts. In order to produce high-quality injection moulded micro-parts, a crucial aspect to be fully understood and optimised is the filling of the cavity by the molten polymer. As a result...... manufactured by micro-electrodischarge machining. A commercially available polystyrene grade polymer has been moulded using a high-speed injection moulding machine. The design of experiment technique was employed to determine the effect of the process parameters on the filling phase of the micro...

  3. Characterization and analysis of weld lines on micro-injection moulded parts using atomic force microscopy (AFM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Gava, Alberto; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    In recent years plastic moulding techniques, such as injection moulding, have been developed to fulfil the needs of micro-components fabrication. Micro-injection moulding (SLIM) is the process which enables the mass production of polymer micro-systems such as micro-mechanical parts, micro...... the two original flows will generate and a weld line is formed on the surface of the micro-moulded part. This phenomenon has to be avoided or at least reduced, since in the weld line area the mechanical properties are poorer than in the bulk part, creating strength problems on the final part. Although...... injection moulding parameters on the weld lines' dimensions is presented, using an atomic force microscope (AFM). Depth and width of weld lines were chosen as parameters to be optimized....

  4. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G; Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  5. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G [Laboratory for Percutaneous Surgery, School of Computing, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John [CCSEO, Kingston General Hospital and Department of Oncology, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  6. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Caused by Leukemic Infiltration of the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Kuang Wu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome resulting from leukemic pulmonary infiltrates is seldom diagnosed antemortem. Two 60- and 80-year-old women presented with general malaise, progressive shortness of breath, and hyperleukocytosis, which progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS after admission. Acute leukemia with pulmonary infection was initially diagnosed, but subsequent examinations including open lung biopsy revealed leukemic pulmonary infiltrates without infection. In one case, the clinical condition and chest radiography improved initially after combination therapy with chemotherapy for leukemia and aggressive pulmonary support. However, new pulmonary infiltration on chest radiography and hypoxemia recurred, which was consistent with acute lysis pneumopathy. Despite aggressive treatment, both patients died due to rapidly deteriorating condition. Leukemic pulmonary involvement should be considered in acute leukemia patients with non-infectious diffusive lung infiltration, especially in acute leukemia with a high blast count.

  7. Model and calculations for net infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, S.W.; Long, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a conceptual model for calculating net infiltration is developed and implemented. It incorporates the following important factors: viability of climate for the next 10,000 years, areal viability of net infiltration, and important soil/plant factors that affect the soil water budget of desert soils. Model results are expressed in terms of occurrence probabilities for time periods. In addition the variability of net infiltration is demonstrated both for change with time and differences among three soil/hydrologic units present at the site modeled

  8. Prediction of snowmelt infiltration into frozen soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Y.X.; Gray, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    A numerical model is presented, based on the local volume averaging formulation of transport phenomena in porous media, for simulating meltwater infiltration into unsaturated, frozen soil. With the defined flow and freezing boundary conditions at the snow-soil interface, using the concept of a surface local averaging volume, the time variation in profiles of temperature, liquid/ice content, infiltration/percolation rates, and rate of phase change in upper soil layers are predicted. In addition to a parametric analysis, model estimates of infiltration are compared with quantities calculated from field measurements of soil moisture changes and temperature during snow cover ablation, showing a reasonable agreement

  9. CT imaging spectrum of infiltrative renal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, David H; De Alba, Luis; Migliaro, Matias; Previgliano, Carlos H; Sangster, Guillermo P

    2017-11-01

    Most renal lesions replace the renal parenchyma as a focal space-occupying mass with borders distinguishing the mass from normal parenchyma. However, some renal lesions exhibit interstitial infiltration-a process that permeates the renal parenchyma by using the normal renal architecture for growth. These infiltrative lesions frequently show nonspecific patterns that lead to little or no contour deformity and have ill-defined borders on CT, making detection and diagnosis challenging. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to describe the CT imaging findings of various conditions that may manifest as infiltrative renal lesions.

  10. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  11. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  12. Pituitary infiltration by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aral Ferihan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pituitary adenomas represent the most frequently observed type of sellar masses; however, the presence of a rapidly growing sellar tumor, diabetes insipidus, ophthalmoplegia and headaches in an older patient strongly suggests metastasis to the pituitary. Since the anterior pituitary has a great reserve capacity, metastasis to the pituitary and pituitary involvement in lymphoma are usually asymptomatic. Whereas diabetes insipidus is the most frequent symptom, patients can present with headaches, ophthalmoplegia and bilateral hemianopsia. Case presentation A 70-year-old woman with no previous history of malignancy presented with headaches, right oculomotor nerve palsy and diabetes insipidus. As magnetic resonance imaging revealed a sellar mass involving the pituitary gland and infundibular stalk, which also extended into the right cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus, the patient underwent an immediate transsphenoidal decompression surgery. Her prolactin was 102.4 ng/ml, whereas her gonadotropic hormone levels were low. A low level of urine osmolality after overnight water deprivation, along with normal plasma osmolality suggested diabetes insipidus. Histological examination revealed that the mass had been the infiltration of a high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma involving respiratory system epithelial cells. Paranasal sinus computed tomography scanning and magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax and abdomen were performed. Since magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormality, after paranasal sinus computed tomography was performed, we concluded that the primary lymphoma originated from the sphenoid sinus and infiltrated the pituitary. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the sellar area were planned, but the patient died and her family did not permit an autopsy. Conclusion Lymphoma infiltration to the pituitary is difficult to differentiate from pituitary adenoma, meningioma and other sellar lesions. To plan the

  13. Performance Evaluation of a Software Engineering Tool for Automated Design of Cooling Systems in Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauregui-Becker, Juan M.; Tosello, Guido; van Houten, Fred J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a software tool for automating the design of cooling systems for injection moulding and a validation of its performance. Cooling system designs were automatically generated by the proposed software tool and by applying a best practice tool engineering design approach. The two...

  14. effect of aluminum dross and rice husk ash on thermal and moulding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    mechanical properties in the cast component. This study ... microstructure and mechanical properties of as –cast thin wall ... sizes of 250-300 µm were used for moulding sand ..... [7] Ochulor, E. F; Amuda, M. O. H; Adeosun, S. O. and S. A.

  15. A new approach for the validation of filling simulations in micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gava, Alberto; Tosello, Guido; Lucchetta, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    to be improved. The main objective of this work is to evaluate whether the present numerical codes are suitable to characterize melt flow patterns in a micro cavity. In order to test the accuracy of the software, real and simulated experiments were performed and used to investigate the filling of a micro moulded...

  16. Effect of moulding on the changes in chemical composition of tabacco leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Florczak

    2014-01-01

    The process of moulding caused by the fungi: Aspergillus repens (Cda.) De Bart, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom, VPenicillium commune Thom and Penicillum spinulosum Tom influenced the decrease in soluble carbohydrate content with the simulataneous increase in the percentage of specific protein. It had an effect on the deterioration of technological and taste values of raw tabacco.

  17. Smith-Petersen Vitallium mould arthroplasty: a 62-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baker, J F

    2011-09-01

    A variety of materials were used for early hip prostheses. The introduction of Vitallium by Smith-Petersen represented a further advance in this surgical field. We present the longest known follow-up of a Smith-Petersen Vitallium mould arthroplasty.

  18. Assessment of concrete characteristics during the deliberate deformation of a flexible mould after casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Grunewald, S.; Troian, S.; Raghunath, P.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Copuroglu, O.; Pecur, I.B.; Baricevic, A.; Stirmer, N; Bjegovic, D.

    2017-01-01

    Expensive CNC (computer numerical controlled)-milled formwork is required for the production of double-curved precast concrete elements for cladding or shell structures. The innovative flexible mould method for economically efficient and sustainable production of such elements, developed at Delft

  19. Rheological parameters used for deliberate deformation of a flexible mould after casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Schipper, H.R.; Raghunath, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how curved precast concrete elements can be manufactured in an open and reusable flexible mould. The proposed method reduces formwork costs of architectural freeform elements in concrete. First, the method is described briefly, then a series of tests are discussed, demonstrating

  20. Properties of compression moulded new fully biobased thermoset composites with aligned flax fibre textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Th.; Bierer, M.; Natter, E.

    2011-01-01

    into composites using an industrial scale compression moulding machine, and their material properties were analysed. The density was calculated by using a computed microtomography system, and tensile tests were carried out. Besides the mechanical properties, the burning and the moisture absorption behaviour have...

  1. Micro Engineering: Experiments conducted on the use of polymeric materials in micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, Christian; Tosello, Guido; Nestler, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    To advance micro injection moulding it is necessary to study systematically the factors affecting process and tooling reliability. This paper reviews the main findings of Cardiff Universities 4M and SEMOFS research in this field. In particular, the factors affecting the manufacturability of micro...

  2. Can volatiles emitted by compost during spawn run be used to detect green mould infection early?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan, B.; Rutjens, J.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years green mould (Trichoderma aggressivum) has presented big problems to the Dutch mushroom industry. T. aggressivum infects compost at a very early stage and in the Dutch situation infection most likely takes place at the compost yard. Even though compost producers in the Netherlands are

  3. Effects of moulds on the safety and processing quality of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Marija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and wheat products are frequently subjected to mould infestations. Many of them are potential producers of various mycotoxins. Some of the consequences, due to the infestations by genus Fusarium and Alternaria, are mostly: yield loss, decrease of biological and technological quality, and unacceptable quality of infected kernels for the production and processing into human food because of the possible presence of mycotoxins. It is unknown whether and how the contaminated grains are distributed during milling into various flour streams and finished products. Wholegrain flours and related products contain all anatomic parts of kernels, including mycotoxins. It is a known fact that mycotoxins are resistant to thermal degradation, so they do not loose their toxicity during processing. Moulds from genus Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. synthesize mycotoxins, mostly zearalenon and ochratoxin A. The aim of the investigation was to examine mould contamination of wheat grain, as well as to identify the isolated species, especially those capable of producing toxins, and to determine their impact on technological quality, safety and sanitary condition of wheat. Six varieties of wheat, contaminated with moulds, were investigated. Each sample was separated manually into four fractions: sound kernels, black germ kernels, kernels infected slightly and those infected severely with Fusarium spp.

  4. Simultaneous Replication of both Refractive and Diffractive Optical Components using Electroformed Tools and Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    This research project has demonstrated that with carefully selected processes it is possible to fabricate tools for injection moulding of both diffractive and refractive optical components. The fabrication procedure is based on an aluminium disc on which selected optical components (gratings and ...

  5. Numerical modeling of the conduction and radiation heating in precision glass moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    wafer, heating can be performed by either conduction or radiation. The numerical simulation of these two heating mechanisms in the wafer based glass moulding process is the topic of the present paper. First, the transient heating of the glass wafer is simulated by the FEM software ABAQUS. Temperature...

  6. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  7. Prediction of the epoxy moulding compound aging effect on package reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noijen, S.P.M.; Engelen, R.A.B.; Martens, J.; Opran, A.; Sluis, van der O.; Silfhout, van R.B.R.

    2010-01-01

    Most semi-conductor devices are encapsulated by epoxy moulding compound (EMC) material. Even after curing at the prescribed temperature and time in accordance with the supplier’s curing specifications often the product is not yet 100% fully cured. As a consequence, the curing process of a product

  8. Fabrication of scalable and structured tissue engineering scaffolds using water dissolvable sacrificial 3D printed moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Larsen, Layla Bashir; Trifol Guzman, Jon

    2015-01-01

    One of the major challenges in producing large scale engineered tissue is the lack of ability to create large highly perfused scaffolds in which cells can grow at a high cell density and viability. Here, we explore 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial mould in a polymer casting...

  9. The development of thermoplastic fibre based reinforcements for the rotational moulding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemán, D. N. Castellanos; McCourt, M.; Kearns, M. P.; Martin, P. J.; Butterfield, J.

    2018-05-01

    Rotational moulding is a method used to produce hollow plastic parts through the heating, melting and cooling of polymer powder within a metal mould. A wide range of products are made using this process, such as fluid containment tanks, boats, light weight vehicle bodies and marine buoys. Rotomoulded composites using thermoplastic fibres are of increasing interest to the industry, as they have the potential to significantly improve impact strength, whilst reducing part weight, resulting in a structure that is 100% recyclable compared to a traditional composite. A series of self-reinforced thermoplastic weaves can be used to produce a number of composite structures using the rotational moulding process. This work outlines the improvements obtained from the range of rotomoulded composites structures, as well as preforms that could be used in future rotational moulding work. Characteristics of self-reinforced materials were exploited with the aim of increasing the mechanical properties, preserving the weaves and increasing the nature of the material adhesion. Addition of the fabrics in the cooling stage was shown to be of great interest as this avoided exposure of the material to the peak temperature, which may affect the integrity of the fabric. Placing the weave during cooling was useful as the material could receive the maximum amount of tensile force during the impact test. A total of nine diverse types of compounds were manufactured and tested, with seven of the impact tests showing an increase in strength greater than 50%.

  10. Effects of the inner mould material on the aluminium–316L stainless steel explosive clad pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xunzhong; Tao, Jie; Wang, Wentao; Li, Huaguan; Wang, Chen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Different mould materials were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constraint on the clad quality. ► The interface characteristics of clad pipe were analyzed for the different clad pipe. ► The clad pipes possess excellent bonding quality. - Abstract: The clad pipe played an important part in the pipeline system of the nuclear power industry. To prepare the clad pipe with even macrosize and excellent bonding quality, in this work, different mould materials were adopted to evaluate the effect of the constraint on the clad quality of the bimetal pipe prepared by explosive cladding. The experiment results indicated that, the dimension uniformity and bonding interface of clad pipe were poor by using low melting point alloy as mould material; the local bulge or the cracking of the clad pipe existed when the SiC powder was utilized. When the steel mould was adopted, the outer diameter of the clad pipe was uniform from head to tail. In addition, the metallurgical bonding was formed. Furthermore, the results of shear test, bending test and flattening test showed that the bonding quality was excellent. Therefore, the Al–316L SS clad pipe could endure the second plastic forming

  11. Moulds and profiles of the building facades of St. Petersburg of the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author underlines the importance of details (moulds and profiles for the architects of previous times. The architects of the 17th-19th centuries expressed their creative and filosofic position choosing some concrete example of the great theorists of the past when constructing moulds and orders. We should note that the negative attitude to Classicism theory reasoned in the lack of investigations of the architectural details of the buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, in particular the ones in Saint Petersburg. At the present moment the interest to studying the architectural theories and forms is reappearing both in Russia and in Europe. The article considers the architectural moulds of the eighteenth century buildings of St. Petersburg, examples of their construction in each stylistic period. The analysis shows the significant differences of the Russian moulds drawings from the recommendations of classical treatises of the Renaissance and educational counterparts. The author offers the basic analysis of the characteristic features and data elements for each stylistic period in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century, as well as a unique handwriting of the architects who worked in that era.

  12. Modelling the deformation of nickel foil during manufacturing of nanostructures on injection moulding tool inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Cech, Jiri; Pranov, H.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, a manufacturing process for transferring nanostructures from a glass wafer, to a double-curvedinsert for injection moulding is demonstrated. A nanostructure consisting of sinusoidal cross-gratings with a period of 426 nm issuccessfully transferred to hemispheres on an aluminium...

  13. Occurrence of mycotoxins and yeasts and moulds identification in corn silages in tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Krempser, P M; Batista, L R; Pereira, M N; Schwan, R F

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to identify yeasts and moulds as well as to detect mycotoxin in corn silages in southern Minas Gerais, Brazil. Corn silages from 36 farms were sampled to analyse dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, ash, neutral detergent fibre, nonfibre carbohydrates and mycotoxins contents, yeasts and moulds population, pH and temperature values. The mycotoxins found in high frequency were aflatoxin in 77·7% of analysed samples, ochratoxin (33·3%) and zearalenone (22·2%). There was no significant correlation between the mycotoxin concentration and the presence of moulds. The pH was negatively correlated with ochratoxin concentration. Aspergillus fumigatus was identified in all silages that presented growth of moulds. Ten different yeast species were identified using the culture-dependent method: Candida diversa, Candida ethanolica, Candida rugosa, Issatchenkia orientalis, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Pichia manshurica, Pichia membranifaciens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trichosporon asahii and Trichosporon japonicum. Another six different yeast species were identified using the culture-independent method. A high mycotoxin contamination rate (91·6% of the analysed silages) was observed. The results indicated that conventional culturing and PCR-DGGE should be combined to optimally describe the microbiota associated with corn silage. This study provides information about the corn silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Extent of moisture and mould damage in structures of public buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri J. Annila

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study concentrated on the extent of moisture and mould damage in different structures in 25 public buildings in Finland. Users of all the buildings had health symptoms suspected to be the result of moisture and mould damage, which is why moisture performance assessments had been performed. The assessment reports on each building were available as research material. The reports indicated that the examined buildings suffered from multiple moisture and mould problems in several different structures. On average, however, a relatively small proportion of the total number of structures had suffered damage. On the basis of the research material, damage was most extensive in walls in soil contact (16.3% and base floor structures (12.5%. The lowest damage rates were found in partition walls (2.4%, external walls (2.6% and intermediate floors (2.5%. The results of the study underline the importance of thorough moisture performance assessments to ensure that all point-sized moisture and mould damage is detected.

  15. Kine-Mould : Manufacturing technology for curved architectural elements in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H.R.; Eigenraam, P.; Grünewald, S.; Soru, M.; Nap, P.; Van Overveld, B.; Vermeulen, J.

    2015-01-01

    The production of architectural elements with complex geometry is challenging for concrete manufacturers. Computer-numerically-controlled (CNC) milled foam moulds have been applied frequently in the last decades, resulting in good aesthetical performance. However, still the costs are high and a

  16. A new application and experimental validation of moulding technology for ferrite magnet assisted synchronous reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qian; Lu, Kaiyuan; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new application of moulding technology to the installation of ferrite magnet material into the rotor flux barriers of Ferrite Magnet Assisted Synchronous Reluctance Machine (FASynRM). The feasibility of this application with respect to manufacturing process and motor...

  17. Study on the mould-resistant properties of moso bamboo treated with high pressure and amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Dong Huang; Chung-Yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2014-01-01

    Starch of moso bamboo mainly exists in the elongated parenchyma cells, and it is difficult for amylase to enter moso bamboo and dissolve the starch. Therefore, the mould resistance capability of moso bamboo's products cannot meet the need for bamboo to resist fungal decay. In this experiment, moso bamboo blocks were first treated at six levels of pressure and for...

  18. Liquid infiltration through the boiling-point isotherm in a desiccating fractured rock matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, O.M.

    1994-01-01

    Over a long time interval, the integrity of the radioactive waste repository proposed at Yucca Mountain may be compromised by corrosion accelerated by intermittent wetting which could occur by episodic infiltration of meteoric water from above through the fracture network. A simple two-dimensional model is constructed for the infiltration of liquid water down a fracture in a permeable rock matrix, beyond the boiling-point isotherm. The water may derive from episodic infiltration or from the condensation of steam above a desiccating region. Boiling of the water in the fracture is maintained by heat transfer from a surrounding superheated matrix blocks. There are two intrinsic length scales in this situation, (1): l s = ρ l q o L/(k m β) which is such that the total heat flow over this lateral distance balances that needed for evaporation of the liquid water infiltration, and (2): The thermal diffusion distance l θ = (k m t) 1/2 which increases with time after the onset of infiltration. The primary results are: (a) for two-dimensional infiltration down an isolated fracture or fault, the depth of penetration below the (undisturbed) boiling point isotherm is given by 1/2 π 1/2 (l s l θ ) 1/2 , and so increases as t 1/4 . Immediately following the onset of infiltration, penetration is rapid, but quickly slows. This behavior continues until l θ (and D) become comparable with l s . (b) With continuing infiltration down an isolated fracture or cluster of fractures, when l θ >> l s the temperature distribution becomes steady and the penetration distance stabilizes at a value proportional to l s . (c) Effects such as three-dimensionality of the liquid flow paths and flow rates, matrix infiltration, etc., appear to reduce the penetration distance

  19. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kistrup, Kasper, E-mail: kkis@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Skotte Sørensen, Karen, E-mail: karen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Center for Integrated Point of Care Technologies (CiPoC), DELTA, Venlighedsvej 4, DK-2870 Hørsholm (Denmark); Wolff, Anders, E-mail: anders.wolff@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Fougt Hansen, Mikkel, E-mail: mikkel.hansen@nanotech.dtu.dk [Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Nanotech, Building 345 East, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-04-15

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution.

  20. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/µg and 1.72(14) nL/µg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively. - Highlights: • We present an all-polymer mass producible passive filled microfluidic chip system. • Rapid system fabrication is obtained by injection moulding and ultrasonic welding. • The system is made for single-use nucleic acid extraction using magnetic beads. • We systematically map compatibility of the chip system with various surfactants. • We quantify the volume carry-over of magnetic beads in water and 0.1% triton-X solution

  1. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined

  2. Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caesarean section wound infiltration with ropivacaine versus placebo: Survey of chronic pelvic pain after 4 years' follow-up. ... South African Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  3. Quick test for infiltration of arable soils

    OpenAIRE

    Liebl, Boris; Spiegel, Ann-Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    The quick test makes the consequences of soil compaction on water infiltration and the yield of agricultural crops visible. It promotes an understanding of the effects of soil compaction and the importance of soil-conserving cultivation.

  4. Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Triana Harker, Ricardo; Castaneda del Gordo, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Hemiparesy, disartry, adenopathy and pulmonary infiltrated, in-patient of 72 years, masculine sex who consults for pain in the right inferior member of 6 months of evolution, decrease of the force in the right and moderate disartry

  5. Shear Strength of Remoulding Clay Samples Using Different Methods of Moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Nurul, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    Shear strength for clay soil was required to determine the soil stability. Clay was known as a soil with complex natural formations and very difficult to obtain undisturbed samples at the site. The aim of this paper was to determine the unconfined shear strength of remoulded clay on different methods in moulding samples which were proctor compaction, hand operated soil compacter and miniature mould methods. All the samples were remoulded with the same optimum moisture content (OMC) and density that were 18% and 1880 kg/m3 respectively. The unconfined shear strength results of remoulding clay soils for proctor compaction method was 289.56kPa with the strain 4.8%, hand operated method was 261.66kPa with the strain 4.4% and miniature mould method was 247.52kPa with the strain 3.9%. Based on the proctor compaction method, the reduction percentage of unconfined shear strength of remoulded clay soil of hand operated method was 9.66%, and for miniature mould method was 14.52%. Thus, because there was no significant difference of reduction percentage of unconfined shear strength between three different methods, so it can be concluded that remoulding clay by hand operated method and miniature mould method were accepted and suggested to perform remoulding clay samples by other future researcher. However for comparison, the hand operated method was more suitable to form remoulded clay sample in term of easiness, saving time and less energy for unconfined shear strength determination purposes.

  6. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  7. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  8. Assessment of sub-mm features replication capability in injection moulding using a multi-cavity tool produced by additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Charalambis, A.; Zhang, Y.

    This research investigates the effect of injection moulding process parameters on photopolymer mould inserts produced with the Digital Light Processing (DLP) additive manufacturing (AM) method. The main motivation of applying AM to produce mould inserts, is the potential of reducing lead time...... and manufacturing cost, as well as achieving a more flexible manufacturing method in case of non-mass produced products such as prototypes. In this research moulds inserts of 20 x 20 x 2.7 mm with mould cavities as small as 5 x 4 mm in dimensions are tested. The parts are analyzed and evaluated by the measurements...

  9. Effect of Process Parameters on Flow Length and Flash Formation in Injection Moulding of High Aspect Ratio Polymeric Micro Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkhalik Eladl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports an investigation of the effects of process parameters on the quality characteristics of polymeric parts produced by micro injection moulding (μIM with two different materials. Four injection moulding process parameters (injection velocity, holding pressure, melt temperature and mould temperature were investigated using Polypropylene (PP and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS. Three key characteristics of the mouldings were evaluated with respect to process settings and the material employed: part mass, flow length and flash formation. The experimentation employs a test part with four micro fingers with different aspect ratios (from 21 up to 150 and was carried out according to the Design of Experiments (DOE statistical technique. The results show that holding pressure and injection velocity are the most influential parameters on part mass with a direct effect for both materials. Both parameters have a similar effect on flow length for both PP and ABS at all aspect ratios and have higher effects as the feature thickness decreased below 300 μm. The study shows that for the investigated materials the injection speed and packing pressure were the most influential parameters for increasing the amount of flash formation, with relative effects consistent for both materials. Higher melt and mould temperatures settings were less influential parameters for increasing the flash amount when moulding with both materials. Of the two investigated materials, PP was the one exhibiting more flash formation as compared with ABS, when corresponding injection moulding parameters settings for both materials were considered.

  10. The Impact of Microwave Penetration Depth on the Process of Heating the Moulding Sand with Sodium Silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak D.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact of microwave penetration depth on the process of heating the moulding sand with sodium silicate. For each material it is affected by: the wavelength in vacuum and the real and imaginary components of the relative complex electrical permittivity εr for a selected measurement frequency. Since the components are not constant values and they change depending on the electrical parameters of materials and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave, it is indispensable to carry out laboratory measurements to determine them. Moreover, the electrical parameters of materials are also affected by: temperature, packing degree, humidity and conductivity. The measurements of the dielectric properties of moulding sand with sodium silicate was carried out using the perturbation method on a stand of waveguide resonance cavity. The real and imaginary components of the relative complex electrical permittivity was determined for moulding sand at various contents of sodium silicate and at various packing degrees of the samples. On the basis of the results the microwave penetration depth of moulding sand with sodium silicate was established. Relative literature contains no such data that would be essential to predicting an effective process of microwave heating of moulding sand with sodium silicate. Both the packing degree and the amount of sodium silicate in moulding sand turned out to affect the penetration depth, which directly translates into microwave power density distribution in the process of microwave heating of moulding sand with sodium silicate.

  11. Influence of Surface Biosolids Application on Infiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Zartman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids from waste water treatment facilities applied to soils not only add plant nutrients, but also increase infiltration and decrease runoff and erosion. Wet biosolids from New York, NY, were surface applied at 0 to 90 Mg ha−1 dry weight to soils near El Paso, Tex. Simulated rainfall intensities of 16.4 cm hr−1 for 30 minutes applied to 0.5 m2 soil plots yielded initial infiltration rates of ~16 cm hr−1 for all plots. Biosolids applications extended the duration of the initially high infiltration rates. After 30 minutes, infiltration rates for bare soil were 3 cm hr−1 without and 10 cm hr−1 with 90 Mg biosolids ha−1. Applied biosolids, plant litter, surface gravel, and plant base contributed surface cover, which absorbed raindrop energy and reduced erosion. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration on the vegetated, wet soils more than for the dry or bare soils. Biosolids increased cumulative infiltration from 2 to 6 cm on a bare gravelly soil and from 9.3 to 10.6 cm on a vegetated soil.

  12. ADVANCEMENT OF RAPID PROTOTYPING IN AEROSPACE INDUSTRY -A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Vineet Kumar Vashishtha,; Rahul Makade,; Neeraj Mehla

    2011-01-01

    Rapid prototyping technology have emerged a new innovation to reduced the time cost of moulds fabrication by creating 3D product directly from computer aided design thus the designer is able to perform design validation and accuracy analysis easily in a virtual environment as if using a physical model. The primary aim of this paper is to give the reader an overview of the current state of the art in rapid prototyping technology .The paper also deal with feature’s of rapid prototyping in Aeros...

  13. Long-term Effects of Relative Humidity on Properties of Microwave Hardened Moulding Sand with Sodium Silicate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Moulding sands containing sodium silicate (water-glass belong to the group of porous mixture with low resistance to increased humidity. Thanks to hydrophilic properties of hardened or even overheated binder, possible is application of effective methods of hydrous reclamation consisting in its secondary hydration. For the same reason (hydrophilia of the binder, moulds and foundry cores made of high-silica moulding sands with sodium silicate are susceptible to the action of components of atmospheric air, including the contained steam. This paper presents results of a research on the effect of (relative humidity on mechanical and technological properties of microwave-hardened moulding mixtures. Specimens of the moulding sand containing 1.5 wt% of sodium water-glass with module 2.5 were subjected, in a laboratory climatic chamber, to long-term action of steam contained in the chamber atmosphere. Concentration of water in atmospheric air was stabilized for 28 days (672 h according to the relative humidity parameter that was ca. 40%, 60% and 80% at constant temperature 20 °C. In three cycles of the examinations, the specimens were taken out from the chamber every 7 days (168 h and their mechanical and technological parameters were determined. It was found on the grounds of laboratory measurements that moulds and cores hardened with microwaves are susceptible to action of atmospheric air and presence of water (as steam intensifies action of the air components on glassy film of sodium silicate. Microwave-hardened moulding sands containing sodium silicate may be stored on a long-term basis in strictly determined atmospheric conditions only, at reduced humidity. In spite of a negative effect of steam contained in the air, the examined moulding mixtures maintain a part of their mechanical and technological properties, so the moulds and foundry cores stored in specified, controlled conditions could be still used in manufacture.

  14. Influence of sodalite zeolite infiltration on the coefficient of thermal expansion and bond strength of all-ceramic dental prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Ghassan Abdul-Hamid; Omar, Ros Anita; Yahya, Rosiyah

    2017-03-01

    In all-ceramic systems, a high incidence of veneer chip-off has been reported in clinical studies. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) behaviour is one of the factors that may increase residual stress in the interface and influence the veneer/core bond strength. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of sodalite zeolite-infiltration on the CTE behaviour and bond strength of different all-ceramic prostheses. The case-study groups were synthesized sodalite zeolite-infiltrated alumina (IA-SOD) and synthesized sodalite zeolite-infiltrated zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA) (IZ-SOD), while the control groups were glass-infiltrated alumina (IA-glass) and glass-infiltrated ZTA (IZ-glass). Forty cylindrical-shaped samples measuring 5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in height were tested for CTE using a thermo-mechanical analyser machine, and forty disc-shaped ceramic samples measuring 12 mm in diameter and 1.2 ± 0.2 mm in thickness were prepared using specially designed stainless steel split mould and veneered by cylinder-shaped (2 mm high × 2 mm diameter) low-fusing porcelain (Vita VM7). The veneer/core samples were sintered and tested for shear bond strength using a high precision universal testing machine. Scanning electron microscope, stereo microscope, atomic force microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural characteristics of samples at the fracture surface. The collected data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). IZ-SOD revealed highest CTE and shear bond strength values, while the IA-glass revealed the lowest values than the other groups. There was no significant difference in CTE and bond strength among IZ-SOD, IA-SOD and IZ-glass samples (p>0.05). The experimental SOD zeolite-infiltrated samples revealed higher CTE mismatch and bond strength along with a more favourable mode of failure than did the commercial glass-infiltrated samples. Sandblast technique is considered as effective

  15. Research on the infiltration processes of lawn soils of the Babao River in the Qilian Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, GuangWen; Feng, Qi; Zhang, FuPing; Cheng, AiFang

    2014-01-01

    Using a Guelph Permeameter, the soil water infiltration processes were analyzed in the Babao River of the Qilian Mountain in China. The results showed that the average soil initial infiltration and the steady infiltration rates in the upstream reaches of the Babao River are 1.93 and 0.99 cm/min, whereas those of the middle area are 0.48 cm/min and 0.21 cm/min, respectively. The infiltration processes can be divided into three stages: the rapidly changing stage (0-10 min), the slowly changing stage (10-30 min) and the stabilization stage (after 30 min). We used field data collected from lawn soils and evaluated the performances of the infiltration models of Philip, Kostiakov and Horton with the sum of squared error, the root mean square error, the coefficient of determination, the mean error, the model efficiency and Willmott's index of agreement. The results indicated that the Kostiakov model was most suitable for studying the infiltration process in the alpine lawn soils.

  16. Microbiological contamination with moulds in work environment in libraries and archive storage facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska-Jankiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozajda, Anna; Piotrowska, Malgorzata; Szadkowska-Stanczyk, Irena

    2008-01-01

    Microbiological contamination with fungi, including moulds, can pose a significant health hazard to those working in archives or museums. The species involved include Aspergillus, Penicillium, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Fusarium which are associated mostly with allergic response of different types. The aim of the study was to analyse, both in quantitative and qualitative terms, workplace air samples collected in a library and archive storage facilities. Occupational exposure and the related health hazard from microbiological contamination with moulds were assessed in three archive storage buildings and one library. Air samples (total 60) were collected via impact method before work and at hourly intervals during work performance. Surface samples from the artifacts were collected by pressing a counting (RODAC) plate filled with malt extract agar against the surface of the artifacts. The air sample and surface sample analyses yielded 36 different mould species, classified into 19 genera, of which Cladosporium and Penicillium were the most prevalent. Twelve species were regarded as potentially pathogenic for humans: 8 had allergic and 11 toxic properties, the latter including Aspergillus fumigatus. Quantitative analysis revealed air microbiological contamination with moulds at the level ranging from 1.8 x 10(2)-2.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3). In surface samples from library and archive artifacts, 11 fungal species were distinguished; the number of species per artifact varying from 1-6 and colony count ranging from 4 x 10(1) to 8-10(1) cfu/100 cm(2). Higher contamination levels were found only for Cladosporium cladosporioides (1.48 x 10(3) cfu/100 cm(2)) and Paecillomyces varioti (1.2 x 10(2) cfu/100 cm(2)). At the workposts examined, although no clearly visible signs of mould contamination could be found, the study revealed abundant micromycetes, with the predominant species of Cladosporium and Penicillium. The detected species included

  17. Soil macropores: Control on infiltration, hillslope and surface hydrology on a reclaimed surface-mined watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guebert, M.D.; Gardner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The hydrologic response of a surface-mined watershed in central Pennsylvania is controlled by rapid macropore flow within the unsaturated man-made topsoil. Newly reclaimed surface-mined watersheds in central Pennsylvania exhibit low steady-state infiltration rates (1--2 cm/hr) and produce runoff dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow. However, within four years after reclamation, infiltration rates on some mine surfaces approach premined rates (8 cm/hr). As infiltration rate increases, the volume of infiltrated water increases, but the total porosity of minesoil matrix remains constant. There is little change in the surface discharge volume, indicating that infiltrated water continues to contribute to the basin surface discharge by the processes of throughflow and return flow. Throughflow in the topsoil horizon occurs in rapid response to rainfall input, producing large volumes of water with throughflow rates closely related to rainfall rates and with throughflow peaks following rainfall peaks by only minutes. Increased return flow alters the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph by slightly lagging behind infiltration excess overland flow. These changes in the shape of the surface runoff hydrograph reduce the potential for severe gully erosion on the reclaimed site. In addition, throughflow water remains predominantly in the topsoil horizon, and therefore has limited contact with potentially acid-producing backfill. Better understanding of macropore flow processes in reclaimed minesoils will help investigators evaluate past strategies and develop new reclamation techniques that will minimize the short-term surface erosional effects of mining and reclamation, while optimizing the long-term effluent and groundwater quality

  18. Meningeal infiltration in recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, V.F.H.; Fan, Y.-F.

    2000-01-01

    Permeative infiltration of the meninges appears to be a distinct form of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The present report of eight patients with recurrent NPC illustrates meningeal infiltration following basal foramina extension. Seven of the eight patients (88%) showed jugular foramen involvement. Three patients had concomitant infiltration of the foramen magnum. There was one patient showing spread through the foramen lacerum. Only four (50%) of these patients had clinically detectable tumour in the nasopharynx, while the other half showed deep submucosal recurrence with endoscopically unremarkable findings. Permeative meningeal infiltration appears to be a distinct form of NPC recurrence. It is important to recognize this phenomenon so as to optimize the treatment options. The imaging studies were reviewed and the following features were recorded: local nasopharyngeal recurrence, the manner of intracranial spread and site of meningeal infiltration. Four patients had only MRI, two had only CT and two patients had both CT and MRI. The presence or absence of intracranial tumour before treatment was also recorded. Two observers reviewed the images and results were arrived at by consensus. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a lowsusceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited.The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

  20. Investigations of the Influence of the Matrix Recycling on Properties of the Moulding Sand with Geopol 618 Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-hardening moulding sands with water-glass hardened by liquid esters are applied in several foundry plants for making moulds for the production of heavy iron and steel castings. The main good point of this process is a low cost of sands. However, on account of a low susceptibility of this moulding sand for the matrix reclamation the fraction of sands originated from the reclamation is limited. The investigations presented in this work were aimed at the determination of the addition of the reclaimed material, obtained in the dry mechanical reclamation, on properties of the moulding sand with the Geopol 618 binder, which is water-glass modified by polymers and hardened by esters.

  1. Infiltration and redistribution of water in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, L.

    1976-01-01

    The flow of the liquid phase through a soil can be predicted from pressure gradients. Different ways of predicting infiltration for irrigation of a basin were compared: numerical approximation; semi-analytical and analytical. A partly empirical equation was developed for description of rate of infiltration, after examination of existing equations. Under certain conditions, infiltration was influenced by under or over pressure of the trapped gas phase and by swelling of clays. Complex models for redistribution were of little value in practice, since they could not be generalized and required too many physical data about the soil. A scheme was developed that grouped techniques for estimating physical properties of soil, according to cost and expertise required. A new experimental technique based on gamma transmission is described for estimating the physical properties of the soil. (Auth.)

  2. Copper infiltrated high speed steels based composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madej, M.; Lezanski, J.

    2003-01-01

    High hardness, mechanical strength, heat resistance and wear resistance of M3/2 high speed steel (HSS) make it an attractive material. Since technological and economical considerations are equally important, infiltration of high-speed steel skeleton with liquid cooper has proved to be a suitable technique whereby fully dense material is produced at low cost. Attempts have been made to describe the influence of the production process parameters and alloying additives, such as tungsten carbide on the microstructure and mechanical properties of copper infiltrated HSS based composites. The compositions of powder mixtures are 100% M3/2, M3/2+10% Wc, M3/2=30% WC. The powders were uniaxially cold compacted in a cylindrical die at 800 MPa. The green compacts were sintered in vacuum at 1150 o C for 60 minutes. Thereby obtained porous skeletons were subsequently infiltrated with cooper, by gravity method, in vacuum furnace at 1150 o C for 15 minutes. (author)

  3. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-01-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models

  4. Integrating measuring uncertainty of tactile and optical coordinate measuring machines in the process capability assessment of micro injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    Process capability of micro injection moulding was investigated in this paper by calculating the Cp and Cpk statistics. Uncertainty of both optical and tactile measuring systems employed in the quality control of micro injection moulded products was assessed and compared with the specified...... tolerances. Limits in terms of manufacturing process capability as well as of suitability of such measuring systems when employed for micro production inspection were quantitatively determined....

  5. Characterization and analysis of sub-micron surface roughness of injection moulded microfluidic systems using White Light Interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Surface topography is of great importance in polymer micro fluidics, therefore the replication capability of the process and the surface quality of the tool has to be suitably optimized. In this paper, optical profilometry (white light interferometry, WLI) is implemented for topographical...... characterization of polymer surfaces. In particular the study considers replication performance of injection moulding applied for the realization of microfluidic systems for blood analysis. Parts were produced by means of a series of statistically designed injection moulding experiments. Three process parameters...

  6. Formula of Moulding Sand, Bentonite and Portland Cement toImprove The Quality of Al-Si Cast Alloy

    OpenAIRE

    Andoko Andoko; Poppy Puspitasari; Avita Ayu Permanasari; Didin Zakaria Lubis

    2017-01-01

    A binder is any material used to strengthen the bonding of moulding sand grains. The primary function of the binder is to hold the moulding sand and other materialstogether to produce high-quality casts. In this study, there were four binder compositions being tested, i.e. 5% bentonite + 5% Portland cement, 4% bentonite + 6% Portland cement, 6% bentonite + 4% Portland cement, and 7% bentonite + 3% Portland cement. Each specimen was measured for its compressive strength, shear strength, tensil...

  7. PRELIMINARY STUDIES FOR PRODUCING CRUDE LIPASE FROM TEMPE’S MOULD CULTIVATED IN RICE-HUSK-BASED SOLID MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Sembiring, Kiky Corneliasari; Setiawan, Achmad Hanafi

    2010-01-01

    The goal of these preliminary studies is to support Indonesian program for increasing palm oil added value through independent production technology based on Indonesian natural resources. Various palm oil derivatives could be synthesized enzymatically using lipase from microbes that available in Indonesia. Tempe's mould is available in abundance in Indonesia and had already been proved for producing lipase. This paper provides information about producing crude lipase from Tempe's mould cultiv...

  8. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraya, S; Azman, M D; Fatchurrohman, N; Jaafar, A A; Yusoff, A R

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed. (paper)

  9. Inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds by Debaryomyces hansenii strains for biopreservation of dry-cured meat products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Maria J.; Thorsen, Line; Rodríguez, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    mould growth and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The inoculation of D. hansenii should be made at the beginning of processing (at the end of post salting) when the a(w) of the product is still high (near 0.94). This action in addition to application of appropriate hygienic actions......The ability of the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii to inhibit Penicillium nordicum, the most common ochratoxigenic mould encountered in dry-cured meat products, was evaluated. The antagonistic effect of ten D. hansenii strains isolated from dry-cured ham was screened in vitro using malt...... extract media and meat extract peptone media with the water activity (a(w)) adjusted to 0.97 and 0.90. A significant inhibition of the two tested P. nordicum strains by D. hansenii cells and cell-free supernatants was observed. At 0.97 a(w), increasing D. hansenii inoculum concentrations significantly...

  10. Decoring Behaviour of Chosen Moulding Materials with Alkali Silicate Based Inorganic Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conev M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains basic information about new processes for cores for cylinder heads production with alkali silicate based inorganic binders. Inorganic binders are coming back to the foreground due to their ecologically friendly nature and new technologies for cores production and new binder systems were developed. Basically these binder systems are modified alkali silicates and therefore they carry some well-known unfavourable properties with their usage. To compensate these disadvantages, the binder systems are working with additives which are most often in powder form and are added in the moulding material. This paper deals with decoring behaviour of different moulding sands as well as the influence of chosen additives on knock-out properties in laboratory terms. For this purpose, specific methods of specimen production are described. Developed methods are then used to compare decoring behaviour of chosen sands and binder systems.

  11. Effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened waterglass-containing moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a preliminary research of the effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands, containing sodium waterglass. Strength was determined at ambient temperature, on cylindrical specimens baked in an oven. Moulding sands for examinations were based on high-silica sand with addition of 2.5 % of non-modified, domestic-made waterglass grade 145. The prepared standard cylindrical specimens were hardened using the innovative microwave heating process and next baked for 30 minutes at temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C. Strength parameters of the specimens were determined on the specimens cooled- down to ambient temperature. The obtained results were compared with literature data to evaluate the effect of the applied hardening method and of the special additive on residual strength as a function of baking temperature. A favourable effect was found of both the innovative heating process and the applied bentonite addition.

  12. Selection of halophilic bacteria for biological control of tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane BERRADA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. is a serious threat for postharvest storage of tomatoes. Fifteen halophilic bacteria were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against B. cinerea: 11 Gram positive strains assigned to the genera Bacillus (9, Jeotgalibacillus (1 and Planococcus (1 and four Gram negative strains assigned to the genera Salinivibrio (1, Vibrio (2 and Photobacterium (1. In in vitro screening, 12 antifungal isolates secreted diffusible compounds, hydrolytic enzymes or volatile compounds. In vivo screening of the isolates, Bacillus safensis CCMM B582 and Bacillus oceanisediminis CCMM B584 showed permanent antagonistic activity on tomato fruits, with 100% inhibition of B. cinerea after 7 days. These two strains may offer potential for biological control of tomato gray mould.

  13. Comparison of conventional Injection Mould Inserts to Additively Manufactured Inserts using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Bey, Niki; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Polymer Additive Manufacturing can be used to produce soft tooling inserts for injection moulding. Compared to conventional tooling, the energy and time consumption during production are significantly lower. As the life time of such inserts is significantly shorter than the life time of traditional...... of their potential environmental impact and yield throughout the development and pilot phase. Insert geometry is particularly advantageous for pilot production and small production sizes. In this research, Life Cycle Assessment is used to compare the environmental impact of soft tooling by Additive Manufacturing...... (using Digital Light Processing) and three traditional methods for the manufacture of inserts (milling of brass, steel, and aluminium) for injection moulds during the pre-production phase....

  14. Two component injection moulding: an interface quality and bond strength dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2008-01-01

    on quality parameters of the two component parts. Most engineering applications of two component injection moulding calls for high bond strength between the two polymers, on the other hand a sharp and well-defined interface between the two polymers are required for applications like selective metallization...... of polymers, parts for micro applications and also for the aesthetic purpose of the final product. The investigation presented in this paper indicates a dilemma between obtaining reasonably good bond strength and at the same time keeping the interface quality suitable for applications. The required process...... conditions for a sharp and well-defined interface are exactly the opposite of what is congenial for higher bond strength. So in the production of two component injection moulded parts, there is a compromise to make between the interface quality and the bond strength of the two polymers. Also the injection...

  15. Gating Systems for Sizeable Castings from Al Alloys Cast into Ceramic Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stachovec

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to casting to conventional non-reusable “sand” moulds, for which calculating technique for an optimum design of the gating system is comparatively well-developed, a trial-and-error method is applied mostly for casting to ceramic shell moulds made by the investment casting technology. A technologist selects from gating systems of several types (that are standardized by the foundry mostly on the basis of experience. However, this approach is not sustainable with ever growing demands on quality of castings and also the economy of their fabrication as well as with new types of complex sizeable castings introduced to the production gradually (by new customers from the aircraft industry above all any more. The simulation software may be used as a possible tool for making the process of optimising gating systems more effective.

  16. Dehydration of moulding sand in simulated casting process examined with neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillinger, B., E-mail: Burkhard.Schillinger@frm2.tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Faculty for Physics E21, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Calzada, E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, FRM II and Faculty for Physics E21, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Eulenkamp, C.; Jordan, G.; Schmahl, W.W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department fuer Geo- und Umweltwissenschaften, Sektion Kristallographie, Theresienstr. 41, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-09-21

    Natural bentonites are an important material in the casting industry. Smectites as the main component of bentonites plasticize and stabilise sand moulds. Pore water as well as interlayer water within the smectites are lost as a function of time, location and temperature. Although rehydration of the smectites should be a reversible process, the industrially dehydrated smectites lose their capability to reabsorb water. This limits the number of possible process cycles of the mould material. A full understanding of the dehydration process would help to optimise the amount of fresh material to be added and thus save resources. A simulated metal casting was investigated with neutron radiography at the ANTARES neutron imaging facility of the FRM II reactor of Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Germany.

  17. Casting characteristics of Al-Mg alloy 535 cast in permanent moulds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoyinu, F.A.; Thomson, J.; Cousineau, D.; Castles, T.; Sahoo, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aluminum alloy 535 could be used for automotive and marine applications because of its good corrosion resistance against mild alkaline and salt spray exposure. The majority of components from this alloy are usually produced by sand casting because it is prone to hot shortness and has poor fluidity when poured in permanent moulds. In an attempt to improve its castability in permanent moulds, casting characteristics such as casting fluidity and hot tear resistance have been studied. In addition, the effectiveness of titanium, boron, scandium, zirconium and a combination of selected elements from this group as grain refiners were evaluated. It s shown that alloy 535 exhibits good casting fluidity when poured with adequate metal superheat and that there is significant improvement in hot tear resistance following grain refinement. (author)

  18. Uptake of caesium-137 from peat and compost mould by vegetables in a greenhouse experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malm, J.; Uusi-Rauva, A.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the root uptake of 137 Cs by vegetables grown in peat and composite mould in a greenhouse. The 137 Cs in the growing media originated from Chernobyl fallout. The vegetables were cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Farbio VDP SF 76), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Var. Virosa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill var. Non plus ultra), radish (Raphanus Sativus L. var. Nondan) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Atraktion). The effect of adding potassium to the peat was also studied. The transfer factors (activity in plant dry weight/activity in soil dry weight) varied from 0.66 to 1.8 for peat and from 0.060 to 0.19 for compost mould. Addition of potassium did not have any clear effect on the transfer factors. (Author)

  19. Injection moulding of plastic parts with laser textured surfaces with optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina-Estany, J.; García-Granada, A. A.; Corull-Massana, E.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to manufacture micro and nanotextured surfaces on plastic injection moulds with the aim of replicating them and obtaining plastic parts with optical applications. Different patterns are manufactured with nanosecond and femtosecond lasers in order to obtain three different optical applications: (i) homogeneous light diffusion (ii) 1D light directionality and (iii) 2D light directionality. Induction heating is used in the injections in order to improve the textures degree of replication. The steel mould and the plastic parts are analyzed with a confocal/focus variation microscope and with a surface roughness tester. A mock-up and a luminance camera are used to evaluate the homogeneity and luminance of the homogeneous light diffusion application in comparison with the current industrial solutions.

  20. Melt state behaviour of PEEK and processing window interpretation for fast compression moulding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessard, Emeline; De Almeida, Olivier; Bernhart, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Fast mould heating is nowadays possible by using induction technology for example with the Cage System registered developed by RocTool. It allows heating and cooling kinetics of about 100 deg. C per minute and new perspectives are thus possible to optimize the compression moulding process of long fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites. Indeed, a high forming temperature may favour polymer creep and so on composite consolidation. Nevertheless, the processing time of PEEK composite above melt temperature must be reduced to a few minutes due to the fast thermal degradation of the matrix. On the other hand, high cooling rates may have negative effect on matrix crystallinity. The proposed procedure consist in performing a few minutes isotherm around 300 deg. C during the fast cooling. It would favour a high degree of crystallinity of PEEK without extending the cycle time.

  1. Modelling injection moulding machines for micro manufacture applications through functional analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantoni, G.; Tosello, Guido; Gabelloni, D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of an injection moulding machine using functional analysis to identify both its critical components and possible working problems when such a machine is employed for the production of polymer-based micro products. The step-by-step procedure starts from the study...... of the process phases of a machine and then it employs functional analysis to decompose the phases and attributes functions to part features. Part features are subsequently analyzed to understand the causal chains bringing either to the desired behaviour or to failures to avoid. The assessment of the design...... solution is finally performed by gathering quantitative data from experiments. The case study investigates the design motivations and functional drivers of a micro injection moulding machine. The analysis allows identifying the correlations between failures and advantages with the design of the machine...

  2. Micro injection moulding process validation for high precision manufacture of thermoplastic elastomer micro suspension rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, M.; Tosello, G.; Elsborg Hansen, R.

    Micro injection moulding (μIM) is one of the most suitable micro manufacturing processes for flexible mass-production of multi-material functional micro components. The technology was employed in this research used to produce thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) micro suspension rings identified...... main μIM process parameters (melt temperature, injection speed, packing pressure) using the Design of Experiment statistical technique. Measurements results demonstrated the importance of calibrating mould´s master geometries to ensure correct part production and effective quality conformance...... on the frequency in order to improve the signal quality and assure acoustic reproduction fidelity. Production quality of the TPE rings drastically influence the product functionality. In the present study, a procedure for μIM TPE micro rings production optimization has been established. The procedure entail using...

  3. Numerical modelling of thermal and fluid flow phenomena in the mould channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sowa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a mathematical and a numerical model of the solidification of a cylindrical slender shaped casting, which take into account the process of filling the mould cavity with molten metal, has been proposed. Pressure and velocity fields were obtained by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation, while the thermal fields were obtained by solving the heat conduction equation containing the convection term. Next, the numerical analysis of the solidification process of metals alloy in a cylindrical mould channel has been made. In the model one takes into account interdependence the heat transfer and fluid flow phenomena. Coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena has been taken into consideration by the changes of the fluidity function and thermophysical parameters of alloy with respect to the temperature. The influence of the pressure and the temperature of metal pouring on the solid phase growth kinetics were estimated. The problem has been solved by the finite element method.

  4. Uptake of caesium-137 from peat and compost mould by vegetables in a greenhouse experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malm, J.; Uusi-Rauva, A.; Paakkola, O. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry); Rantavaara, A. (Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the root uptake of {sup 137} Cs by vegetables grown in peat and composite mould in a greenhouse. The {sup 137}Cs in the growing media originated from Chernobyl fallout. The vegetables were cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Farbio VDP SF 76), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Var. Virosa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum A.W. Hill var. Non plus ultra), radish (Raphanus Sativus L. var. Nondan) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var Atraktion). The effect of adding potassium to the peat was also studied. The transfer factors (activity in plant dry weight/activity in soil dry weight) varied from 0.66 to 1.8 for peat and from 0.060 to 0.19 for compost mould. Addition of potassium did not have any clear effect on the transfer factors. (Author).

  5. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Relevance of Mast Cell Infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Daniel S; Seger, Shanon; Bussmann, Christian; Pierlot, Gabin M; Groenen, Peter M A; Stalder, Anna K; Straumann, Alex

    2018-05-17

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic-inflammatory disease characterized clinically by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and histopathologically by a prominent eosinophilic inflammation. Despite eosinophils having histologically a pre-dominant position, their role in the immunopathogenesis of the disease is still questionable. Several other inflammatory cells are involved and may play a critical role as well. The purpose of this study was to characterize the mast cell infiltration, and to correlate it with clinical state of EoE. Using immunohistochemistry and quantitative morphometry, we extensively investigated eosinophils and mast cells in esophageal biopsies from patients with active EoE and from patients with EoE in remission, and compared the findings with healthy individuals. In EoE, epithelium and lamina propria were similarly infiltrated with eosinophils. In contrast, mast cells infiltration was limited to the epithelium, displaying a localized immune response. Interestingly, whereas epithelial mast cells and eosinophils were high in active EoE, some patients in remission e.g. normalized epithelial eosinophils, showed remaining high numbers of mast cells. Patient clustering supported 2 groups of patients in clinical remission, differentiating based on presence or absence of epithelial mast cells. Active EoE is characterized - in addition to the well-known tissue eosinophilia by a marked epithelium-restricted mast cell infiltration. Of interest, in a subgroup of patients, mast cell infiltration persisted despite clinical remission. To elucidate the clinical consequence of persistent epithelial mast cells infiltration further studies are required following patients in clinical remission longitudinally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering t...

  7. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N H; Shahin, A A.M.; Mahrous, S R [National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Far, F M [Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza (Egypt)

    2007-07-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10{sup 4} cfu/g, 6.3 x 10{sup 6} cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10{sup 3} cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 {mu}g/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize.

  8. Control of fusarium moulds and fumonisin B1 in grains by gamma Irradiation * Key words: Irradiated grains, Mycotoxins, Fusarium moulds, Fumonisins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Mahrous, S.R.; El-Far, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of naturally occurring Fusarium moulds producing fumonisin B1 in seeds was determined. Fusarium infection of grain samples ranged from 10 to 60% and F.moniliforme was the predominant species. Fusarium counts in wheat grains were 8.1 x 10 4 cfu/g, 6.3 x 10 6 cfu/g in maize and 4.8 x 10 3 cfu/g in barley. Wheat, maize and barley grains naturally contaminated with varying levels of fumonisin B1 (1.4 - 5.8, 8.0 - 13.8 and 0.1 - 0.5 μg/g, respectively). Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum were the major Fusarium contaminants producing fumonisin B1 . The effect of gamma irradiation on Fusarium moulds and levels of fumonisin B1 were also determined. The viable counts of Fusarium in grains was decreased by increasing the radiation dose levels, and the growth of Fusarium spp was inhibited at 4.0 KGy for barley and 6.0 KGy for wheat and maize. Application of gamma radiation dose at 5 KGy inactivated fumonisin B1 by 96.6, 87.1 and 100% for wheat, maize and barley, respectively, and a dose of 7 KGy was sufficient for complete destruction of fumonisin B1 in wheat and maize

  9. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  10. Grey mould development in greenhouse tomatoes under drip and furrow irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Aissat , Kamel; Nicot , Philippe ,; Guechi , Abdelhadi; Bardin , Marc; Chibane , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Several methods can be used to provide water to plants in cropping systems where irrigation is necessary. For instance, drip irrigation has recently received much attention due to its advantages for water conservation. The type of irrigation can also impact the development of several pathogens responsible for soilborne diseases. Here, we studied the effect of drip irrigation and furrow irrigation on the development of grey mould, caused by the airborne fungus Botrytis cinerea, on tomato plant...

  11. Evolution of the gas atmosphere during filing the sand moulds with iron alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mocek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of atmosphere of the mould cavity when pouring the cast iron has been analyzed. It was find that in dry sand mold the cavity is filled by air throughout the casting time. In green sand the air is removed by the water vapor the hydrogen or carbon oxides formed in contact with the liquid metal. The theoretical results have been confirmed experimentally.

  12. Effect of moulding on the changes in chemical composition of tabacco leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Florczak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of moulding caused by the fungi: Aspergillus repens (Cda. De Bart, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, Penicillium expansum (Link Thom, VPenicillium commune Thom and Penicillum spinulosum Tom influenced the decrease in soluble carbohydrate content with the simulataneous increase in the percentage of specific protein. It had an effect on the deterioration of technological and taste values of raw tabacco.

  13. Solving mould and condensation problems: A Dehumidifier Trial in a Suburban House in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Galvin, Ray

    2010-01-01

    High humidity can lead to condensation and mould formation if a house is well sealed and indoor temperatures fall significantly during the night. Solutions that have been offered are to keep heaters on throughout the night, to increase the thickness of insulation, or to install heat-exchange ventilators. These solutions are expensive. The cultural practice of heating homes to around 20°C during the day and evening has been challenged, but lack of heating will not prevent natural temperature s...

  14. INFLUENCE OF REGRIND ON PROPERTIES OF PLASTICS PRODUCED BY INJECTION MOULDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Dulebová

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the evaluation of results of selected mechanical tests. Materials Crastin® PBT (with 30 % glass fibre and Celanex® 2004-2 PBT (without filler were used at tests with various percentage of added regrind into basic material. The mechanical properties were obtained by tensile test and Shore hardness test. Utilization of regrind at the production of new moulded parts is important from aspect of reduction plastics waste and pollution abatement of environment.

  15. Computation of Thermal Development in Injection Mould Filling, based on the Distance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Per-Åke

    2002-01-01

    The heat transfer in the filling phase of injection moulding is studied, based on Gunnar Aronsson’s distance model for flow expansion ([Aronsson], 1996). The choice of a thermoplastic materials model is motivated by general physical properties, admitting temperature and pressure dependence. Two-phase, per-phase-incompressible, power-law fluids are considered. The shear rate expression takes into account pseudo-radial flow from a point inlet. Instead of using a finite element (FEM) solver for ...

  16. Criteria for an advanced assessment of quality of moulding sands with organic binders and reclamation process products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reclamation of used moulding and core sands has been defined as a treatment of waste moulding refractory materials, enabling a recovery of at least one of the components having properties similar to those of the fresh component, and reuse for production of casting moulds and cores. However, at present, there is a lack of a reclaimed material assessment index, which could be applied to each type of moulding sand and reclaim. Modern investigation methods and equipment for the estimation of the quality of the moulding sands matrices with organic binders, in their circulation process, are presented in this paper. These methods, utilizing the special equipment combined with the author’s investigation methods developed in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering, AGH - University of Science and Technology, allow the better estimation of the matrix quality both in an aspect of its application as a fresh sand substitute in the preparation of moulding sands, and also with regard to the environmental protection. The most important criteria for the technological assessment of the reclaimed materials and the quality of sands with organic binders are presented in this paper.

  17. Production Of Hollow Toy Product From Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) By Using Casting And Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2013-01-01

    Hollow toy products are very synonym to the child from the age of months since it able to stimulating each of their sense such as sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. Most of hollow toy products are made from natural rubber latex by using moulding and casting technique. The moulding and casting technique is a manufacturing process by pored liquid latex into a mould, which contain cavity of the desired shape. The mould made from plaster of Paris able to absorbs water from latex meanwhile the presence of calcium ions from plaster of Paris will tend to diffuse into latex thus promote formation of deposit on surface of cavity mould. To improve the quality and safety of hollow toy product made from latex, Radiation Pre vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) has been identified to be used because it can fulfill the standard requirement for latex and also due to its special abilities such as lower modulus (soft latex products), nitrosamines free, low in nitrosatables, free from chemical accelerators induced allergies and better biodegradability. This paper identify the problem appears from the process of making hollow toy products from RVNRL by using moulding and casting technique. (author)

  18. Sand moulds milling for one-of-a-kind pieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A.; Calleja, A.; Olvera, D.; Peñafiel, F. J.; López de Lacalle, L. N.

    2012-04-01

    Time to market is a critical measurement for today's foundry market. Combining 3D digitizing and sand blocks milling is possible to reduce this time. Avoiding the use of a wood pattern, this technique is useful for art pieces or unique parts, when only one component is necessary. The key of the proposed methodology is to achieve enough tool life with conventional tool qualities, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage. A special study of tool wear is presented in this work, studying different tool materials and different sand types. Two examples of unique parts are also presented in this work following the proposed methodology in order to reduce time and cost for the rapid reproduction of very short batches.

  19. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea, respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1, niacin (vitamin B3, pyridoxine (vitamin B6, and menadione (vitamin K3. In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10⁶ colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml. Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  20. Differential Control Efficacies of Vitamin Treatments against Bacterial Wilt and Grey Mould Diseases in Tomato Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Kim, Hyeon Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yang, Hye Ji; Kim, Do Hoon; Sung, Chang Hyun; Park, Chang-Jin; Chang, Seog Won

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt and grey mould in tomato plants are economically destructive bacterial and fungal diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and Botrytis cinerea , respectively. Various approaches including chemical and biological controls have been attempted to arrest the tomato diseases so far. In this study, in vitro growths of bacterial R. solanacearum and fungal B. cinerea were evaluated using four different vitamins including thiamine (vitamin B1), niacin (vitamin B3), pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and menadione (vitamin K3). In planta efficacies of the four vitamin treatments on tomato protection against both diseases were also demonstrated. All four vitamins showed different in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in dose-dependent manners. However, treatment with 2 mM thiamine was only effective in reducing bacterial wilt of detached tomato leaves without phytotoxicity under lower disease pressure (10 6 colony-forming unit [cfu]/ml). Treatment with the vitamins also differentially reduced in vitro conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea . The four vitamins slightly reduced the conidial germination, and thiamine, pyridoxine and menadione inhibited the mycelial growth of B. cinerea . Menadione began to drastically suppress the conidial germination and mycelial growth by 5 and 0.5 mM, respectively. Grey mould symptoms on the inoculated tomato leaves were significantly reduced by pyridoxine and menadione pretreatments one day prior to the fungal challenge inoculation. These findings suggest that disease-specific vitamin treatment will be integrated for eco-friendly management of tomato bacterial wilt and grey mould.

  1. Thermoset polymers chemo-rheology dedicated to reactive rotational moulding (RRM) understanding and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viale, J.

    2009-12-01

    This study comes within the scope of New Technology for Energy, particularly for high pressure hydrogen storage. Reactive Rotational Moulding has been identified as an adapted process for hydrogen-tight liners manufacturing. Thus the Reactive Rotational Moulding process has been studied in order to find theoretical tools dedicated to the understanding of such a reactive forming process. Chemical kinetics of four polyurethanes and poly-epoxides reactive systems have been determined on classical isothermal conditions and original aniso-thermal conditions i.e. on temperature ramps. Aniso-thermal conditions have been selected because they corresponds better to real process conditions. Rheological behaviour have also been characterized on two different approaches, an isothermal one and on temperature ramps. In particular, viscosity have been described as a function of heating rate. These physical and chemical results have been compiled in an original state diagram in order to show material properties evolution in a time-temperature space. The whole ex situ characterizations are then managed to described the behavior of the different formulations during the rotational moulding. Moreover they allow to form specific materials and so to widen the range of material to thermoset polymers. Finally, in order to correlate theoretical deduction to real reactive systems evolution, the elaboration of innovating monitoring tool based on ultrasonic analysis has been studied. To begin, polymerization monitoring criteria have been identified and then specific techniques have been set to monitor these criteria in real forming process. (author)

  2. Thermal analysis control of in-mould and ladle inoculated grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Chisamera

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of addition of 0.05wt.% to 0.25 wt.% Ca, Zr, Al-FeSi alloy on in-ladle and in-mould inoculation of grey cast irons was investigated. In the present paper, the conclusions drawn are based on thermal analysis. For the solidification pattern, some specific cooling curves characteristics, such as the degree of undercooling at the beginning of eutectic solidifi cation and at the end of solidifi cation, as well as the recalescence level, are identifi ed to be more infl uenced by the inoculation technique. The degree of eutectic undercooling of the electrically melted base iron having 0.025% S, 0.003% Al and 3.5% Ce is excessively high (39–40℃, generating a relatively high need for inoculation. Under these conditions, the in-mould inoculation has a more signifi cant effect compared to ladle inoculation, especially at lower inoculant usage (less than 0.20 wt.%. Generally, the efficiency of 0.05wt.%–0.15wt.% of alloy for in-mould inoculation is comparable to, or better than, that of 0.15wt.%–0.25wt.% addition in ladle inoculation procedures. In order to secure stable and controlled processes, representative thermal analysis parameters could be used, especially in thin wall grey iron castings production.

  3. Control of superficial mould in Provolone Valpadana cheese with environmental treatments. Preliminary trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corradini, C.; Innocente, N.

    2001-01-01

    The possibility of relying on technological systems as an alternative to the use of additives in controlling the development of surface mould was evaluated on Valpadana Provolone cheese made on an industrial scale. Experimental tests were performed to evaluate the effect of sanitising the environment with ultraviolet radiation of the dryer area instead of the classic method of fumigation, as well as the effectiveness of direct treatment of the cheese with UV radiation, in order to prevent contamination with mould. Monitoring at the dairy, as well as analyses of the cheese at different stages in the maturation process, revealed that treating the rooms with UV radiation was just as effective as fumigation in preventing the development of mould. Likewise, the direct treatment of the cheese with UV proved to be a valid alternative physical method to the use of surface chemical additives, although it was difficult to radiate uniformly over the whole cheese owing to the presence of shaded areas at the cords. Lastly, it was considered that the application of suitable plastic coatings, instead of paraffin, applied after the rind has formed, could also be used as alternative antifungus additives. In this case, it was observed that the use of the Plasticoat polymer led to a decrease in the humidity of the curd with respect to paraffin treatment, also affecting the maturation process [it

  4. Cycle time improvement for plastic injection moulding process by sub groove modification in conformal cooling channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Wahab, M. S.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Raus, A. A.; Ahmed, Aqeel

    2017-09-01

    Mould designers have been struggling for the improvement of the cooling system performance, despite the fact that the cooling system complexity is physically limited by the fabrication capability of the conventional tooling methods. However, the growth of Solid Free Form Technology (SFF) allow the mould designer to develop more than just a regular conformal cooling channel. Numerous researchers demonstrate that conformal cooling channel was tremendously given significant result in the improvement of productivity and quality in the plastic injection moulding process. This paper presents the research work that applies the passive enhancement method in square shape cooling channel to enhance the efficiency of cooling performance by adding the sub groove to the cooling channel itself. Previous design that uses square shape cooling channel was improved by adding various numbers of sub groove to meet the best sub groove design that able reduced the cooling time. The effect of sub groove design on cooling time was investigated by Autodesk Modlflow Insight software. The simulation results showed that the various sub groove designs give different values to ejection time. The Design 7 showed the lowest value of ejection time with 24.3% increment. The addition of sub groove significantly increased a coolant velocity and a rate of heat transfer from molten plastic to coolant.

  5. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Plasmacytoma Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-19

    REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/19/2018 Poster 01/19/2018-01/21/2018 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Plasmacytoma...Infiltrating Leiomyoma in Multiple Myeloma Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Capt Eden, Rina Se. TASK NUMBER Sf

  7. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  8. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  9. Postoperative Analgesia using Bupivacaine Wound Infiltration with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Effective management of postcesarean section (CS) pain is important for the well‑being of mother and child; even in limited‑resource areas, there are drug options which can be explored to achieve this. Aim: This study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of a combination of bupivacaine wound infiltration with ...

  10. water infiltration, conductivity and runoff under fallow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of runoff was done during the long rains of. 2003 and short rains of 2004. Infiltration was invariably higher under agroforestry systems (P<0.001) than sole cropping, particularly under Alnus and Calliandra systems. A similar pattern was observed for saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat), which was greater in ...

  11. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  12. Inhibition of ochratoxigenic moulds by Debaryomyces hansenii strains for biopreservation of dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Maria J; Thorsen, Line; Rodríguez, Alicia; Córdoba, Juan J; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-01-17

    The ability of the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii to inhibit Penicillium nordicum, the most common ochratoxigenic mould encountered in dry-cured meat products, was evaluated. The antagonistic effect of ten D. hansenii strains isolated from dry-cured ham was screened in vitro using malt extract media and meat extract peptone media with the water activity (a(w)) adjusted to 0.97 and 0.90. A significant inhibition of the two tested P. nordicum strains by D. hansenii cells and cell-free supernatants was observed. At 0.97 a(w), increasing D. hansenii inoculum concentrations significantly improved the inhibition of mould growth on solid medium, whereas at 0.90 a(w) this was not always the case. As observed by bright field microscopy, most D. hansenii strains were able to delay P. nordicum spore germination when co-cultured in malt extract broth. D. hansenii FHSCC 253H showed the highest overall in vitro inhibition of ochratoxigenic mould growth, and was therefore chosen for co-cultivation assays in dry-cured ham slices incubated at 0.94 and 0.84 a(w) simulating ham ripening. Regardless of the experimental conditions tested, lower levels of the inoculated P. nordicum strain were detected in co-cultivation batches compared with batches without D. hansenii. The highest level of mould growth inhibition was observed in batches at 0.94 a(w). Ochratoxin A (OTA) production in ham samples was detected by HPLC-MS. Co-culturing of P. nordicum with D. hansenii FHSCC 253H resulted in lower OTA levels compared with control samples without D. hansenii. The decrease of the mycotoxin presence due to D. hansenii FHSCC 253H was more efficient at 0.94 a(w) (OTA was below the detection limit). In conclusion, D. hansenii is potentially suitable as a biopreservative agent for preventing ochratoxigenic mould growth and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The inoculation of D. hansenii should be made at the beginning of processing (at the end of post salting) when the a(w) of

  13. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  14. Investigation plan for infiltration experiment in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtinen, A.; Lindgren, S.; Ikonen, A.

    2008-11-01

    A three-year field experiment to investigate potential changes in pH and redox conditions, and in buffering capacity as well as the hydrogeochemical processes related to groundwater infiltration is designed for implementation in the vicinity of ONKALO. The idea is to monitor the major infiltration flow path from the ground surface into the upper part of ONKALO at about 50 to 100 m depth depending on the observations made during the experiment. The geochemical evolution of the groundwater is strongly affected by infiltration from the surface. In natural conditions in Olkiluoto most of the geochemical reactions occur along the first few tens of metres of the flow path, in an interface between anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The dissolved aggressive agents, CO 2 and O 2 , of the infiltrating water are consumed and the hydrogeochemistry stabilises on neutral and anaerobic conditions due to weathering processes. As a consequence of this evolution, reaction fronts are formed in the flow channels between acid-neutral and aerobic-anaerobic interfaces. The construction of ONKALO may, however, increase the hydraulic gradient and flow into bedrock, which can move these fronts to deeper depths and decrease the buffering capacity of the rock fractures against surficial water infiltration. Detailed integration of hydrogeochemical (including microbiology), geological and hydrogeological studies is essential for a successful experiment. Accurate hydrogeochemical and hydrogeological data that will be collected during this experiment are used in coupled modelling exercises (P/O studies in site reports), which will be carried out to evaluate the movements of the reaction fronts and the buffering capacity of Olkiluoto bedrock against surficial water infiltration. Good quality information is also necessary for calibrating predictive calculations for the safety case estimating future evolution of the site. In addition to the geochemical targets, the experiment can be used in

  15. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  16. Pollution of soil and groundwater from infiltration of highly contaminated stormwater - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, P.S.; Häfliger, M.; Ochs, M.

    1997-01-01

    and subsurface sediments and some even exceeded guidelines fixed to preserve the fertility of soil. However, the contamination decreased rapidly with depth. None of the measured metal concentrations in simulated soil solutions exceeded defined drinking water quality standards. Surprisingly, the surface......A surface and a sub-surface infiltration system that received runoff water from trafficked roads for several decades was dug up and the contamination with heavy metals, PAH and AOX was investigated. Most measured solid phase concentrations exceeded background concentrations in nearby surface soils...... contamination due to stormwater infiltration, but highlights that well absorbable contaminants readily available in urban stormwater runoff eventually build up in surface soils and sub-surface sediments to environmentally critical concentration levels. Thus, on the one hand stormwater infiltration systems may...

  17. New species of Simona Moulds, 2012 and Chelapsalta Moulds, 2012 cicadas (Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Australia: comparative morphology, songs, behaviour and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W; Marshall, D C

    2015-08-20

    In 2012, Moulds established the morphologically similar cicada genera Simona and Chelapsalta, each with one Australian species (sancta Distant and puer Walker, respectively). In this paper, two new species are described within the genus Simona Moulds 2012, S. erema sp. nov. and S. retracta sp. nov., and one within the genus Chelapsalta Moulds 2012, C. myoporae sp. nov. The type species of Simona (female holotype), S. sancta (Distant, 1913), is redescribed based on a contemporary male, nominated a plesiotype, held in the Australian National Insect Collection. Melampsalta subgulosa Ashton 1914 is supported as a junior synonym of S. sancta. The species within the two genera of Simona and Chelapsalta are morphologically very similar. S. erema occurs widely through the arid regions of inland Australia, extending west from western Queensland through the Northern Territory, to central-western Western Australia, a linear distance of approximately 2200 km. S. retracta is known from a single semi-arid locality in southern inland Queensland. C. myoporae occurs widely through southeast, central and southwest Queensland, extending southwards into inland and western N.S.W. and southeastern South Australia. It tends to occur most commonly within vegetation associated with seasonal riverine floodplains, and in some areas of poorly drained and clay-rich soils. The calling songs of these three species, together with those of S. sancta and C. puer, are described. Detailed comparisons made of the songs of S. erema and C. myoporae, each from three widely separated locations, clearly exhibit structural consistency in their calling songs across their distributions. The Simona songs are complex and contain multiple elements; the species are very mobile and wary, and inhabit low dense shrubland. The songs of the two Chelapsalta species, both relatively sedentary in behaviour, in contrast consist of relatively uniform chirping and buzzing elements. It is suggested that, although the two

  18. Single domain YBCO/Ag bulk superconductors fabricated by seeded infiltration and growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K; Babu, N H; Shi, Y; Cardwell, D A; Miyazaki, T; Murakami, M; Sakai, N

    2008-01-01

    We have applied the seeded infiltration and growth (IG) technique to the processing of samples containing Ag in an attempt to fabricate Ag-doped Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) bulk superconductors with enhanced mechanical properties. The IG technique has been used successfully to grow bulk Ag-doped YBCO superconductors of up to 25 mm in diameter in the form of single grains. The distribution of Ag in the parent Y-123 matrix fabricated by the IG technique is observed to be at least as uniform as that in samples grown by conventional top seeded melt growth (TSMG). Fine Y-211 particles were observed to be embedded within the Y-123 matrix for the IG processed samples, leading to a high critical current density, J c , of over 70 kA/cm 2 at 77.3 K in self-field. The distribution of Y-211 in the IG sample microstructure, however, is inhomogeneous, which leads to a variation in the spatial distribution of J c throughout the bulk matrix. A maximum-trapped field of around 0.43 T at 1.2 mm above the sample surface (i.e. including 0.7 mm for the sensor mould thickness) is observed at liquid nitrogen temperature, despite the relatively small grain size of the sample (20 mm diameter x 7 mm thickness)

  19. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  20. Harmfulness Assessment of Moulding Sands with a Geopolymer Binder and a New Hardener, in An Aspect of the Emission of Substances from the Btex Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The harmfulness assessment of moulding sands with a geopolymer binder and a new hardener, in an aspect of the emission of substances from the BTEX group, was performed. Within the expedience project the new series of hardeners for the inorganic GEOPOL binder was developed. Before the introduction of the new system of moulding sands it was necessary to estimate their influence on the environment. To this aim the gasses emission from moulding sands subjected to the influence of liquid cast iron was tested with regard to the content of the gases from the BTEX group (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes. For the comparison the analogous investigations of the up to now applied moulding sands with the geopolymer binder, were performed. It was found that both systems of moulding sands binding emit similar amounts of gases, as well as similar amounts of substances from the BTEX group. Moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder are much more environmentally friendly than moulding sands with organic binders. The content of the BTEX group substances in gases emitted from moulding sands with the GEOPOL binder was approximately 10-times lower than in case of the moulding sands with organic binders.

  1. On the variations of strength of the CO sub 2 -silicate mould. CO sub 2 igata no kyodo henka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Kenzo; Natori, Yoshikatsu; Suganuma, Sadao (Koei Co., Ltd., Saitama, (Japan) Nippon Chemical Industrial Co., Ltd., Tokyo, (Japan))

    1990-01-25

    Moulds prepared by uniform hardening were stored in normal foundry atmosphere and in the humidity controlled chamber to investigate properties of mould. Then, the relationship between the reaction rate of CO {sub 2} and Na {sub 2} 0 contained in mould binder and mould strength was studied. Followings were found: Turning point between absorption and desorption of mould exsits between 81-83% relative humidity (RH). Under the hith RH of the turning point or more, more the water glass addition, more the absorbed amount. When moulds were stored in the humidity controlled chamber, close relation was found between RH%, desorption or absorption rate and mould strength, that is, higher the desorption rate, higher the strength. Further, the reversible relationship was found between the strength and absorpion or desorption rate. Although any deterioration of strength was not found for moulds stored in the humidity controlled chamber (RH of 44-81%), moulds stored in normal foundry stmosphere lost the strength or deteriorated gradually. 7 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Effect of ethanol on growth of Chrysonilia sitophila ('the red bread mould') and Hyphopichia burtonii ('the chalky mould') in sliced bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, E; Scaramuzza, N

    2013-10-01

    Contamination of food industrial environments and recontamination of finished products by Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii have long represented serious problems for the bakery industries. As one of the most common ways to slow down or avoid fungal spoilage on bakery products is the use of ethanol, in the present work the effect of this substance has been assessed on growth of two of the most frequently occurring associated moulds, C. sitophila and H. burtonii, by means of tests on both synthetic media and sliced bread. Test on synthetic media: H. burtonii was less markedly affected in lag-phase duration and radial growth rates by the addition of ethanol to DG18 and the reduction in incubation temperature than C. sitophila that failed to grow at the highest concentrations of ethanol tested (2·0 and 4·0% at 15°C; 4·0% at 25°C). Test on sliced bread: ethanol proved to be effective to prevent spoilage by C. sitophila even at the lowest concentration tested (0·8%, w/w), while higher concentrations (2·0%, w/w) were needed to prevent spoilage by H. burtonii. This study shows that ethanol could represent an effective barrier to prevent spoilage of bakery products by associated moulds such as Chrysonilia sitophila and Hyphopichia burtonii, whose growth on packed and sliced bread was inhibited at very low (0·8%) or medium (2·0%) ethanol concentrations, respectively. The results obtained represent a fundamental point of reference for the bakery industries, as they can apply them in the productive practice to avoid spoilage by C. sitophila and H. burtonii on their products. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2017-10-10

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  5. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  6. Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollutant removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration, ...

  7. Diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma invading subarachnoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kase S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoru Kase1, Kazuhiko Yoshida1, Shigenobu Suzuki2, Koh-ichi Ohshima3, Shigeaki Ohno4, Susumu Ishida11Department of Ophthalmology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo; 2Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo; 3Section of Ophthalmology, Okayama Medical Center, Okayama; 4Department of Ocular Inflammation and Immunology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, JapanAbstract: We report herein an unusual case of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma involving the brain, which caused a patient’s death 27 months after enucleation. An eight-year-old boy complained of blurred vision in his right eye (OD in October 2006. Funduscopic examination showed optic disc swelling, dense whitish vitreous opacity, and an orange-colored subretinal elevated lesion adjacent to the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescence in the peripapillary region at an early-phase OD. Because the size of the subretinal lesion and vitreous opacity gradually increased, he was referred to us. His visual acuity was 20/1000 OD on June 20, 2007. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy showed a dense anterior vitreous opacity. Ophthalmoscopically, the subretinal orange-colored area spread out until reaching the mid peripheral region. A B-mode sonogram and computed tomography showed a thick homogeneous lesion without calcification. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed a markedly enhanced appearance of the underlying posterior retina. Enucleation of the right eye was performed nine months after the initial presentation. Histopathology demonstrated retinal detachment and a huge choroidal mass invading the optic nerve head. The tumor was consistent with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. The patient died due to brain involvement 27 months after enucleation. Ophthalmologists should be aware that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma may show an unfavorable course if its diagnosis is delayed

  8. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  9. Deep reactive ion etching of silicon moulds for the fabrication of diamond x-ray focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, A. M.; Fox, O. J. L.; Alianelli, L.; Korsunsky, A. M.; Stevens, R.; Loader, I. M.; Wilson, M. C.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; May, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Diamond is a highly desirable material for use in x-ray optics and instrumentation. However, due to its extreme hardness and resistance to chemical attack, diamond is difficult to form into a structure suitable for x-ray lenses. Refractive lenses are capable of delivering x-ray beams with nanoscale resolution. A moulding technique for the fabrication of diamond lenses is reported. High-quality silicon moulds were made using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. The study of the etch process conducted to achieve silicon moulds with vertical sidewalls and minimal surface roughness is discussed. Issues experienced when attempting to deposit diamond into a high-aspect-ratio mould by chemical vapour deposition are highlighted. Two generations of lenses have been successfully fabricated using this transfer-moulding approach with significant improvement in the quality and performance of the optics observed in the second iteration. Testing of the diamond x-ray optics on the Diamond Light Source Ltd synchrotron B16 beamline has yielded a line focus of sub-micrometre width.

  10. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  11. Effect of selenium on control of postharvest gray mould of tomato fruit and the possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of selenium against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mould control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mould in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mould rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mould disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mould decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.

  12. Effect of biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould, fruit yield and fruit quality in organic strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PROKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant diseases, especially grey mould (Botrytis cinerea, may cause severe losses in organic strawberry production. In a two-year period, 2001–2002, the effects of different biological sprays on grey mould, the fruit yield and fruit quality of organically grown strawberry ‘Jonsok’ were studied in field trials at MTT Agrifood Research Finland in Ruukki and Mikkeli. In Experiment 1 the biological sprays were seaweed, garlic and compost extracts, silicon and Trichoderma spp. on both trial sites. In Experiment 2, compost extract, Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium catenulatum sprays were studied in Ruukki. The treatment time was chosen to control grey mould. The effect of different biological sprays on the incidence of grey mould and total and marketable yield was insignificant compared to the untreated control. In both years and in all trials the incidence of grey mould was low and rot occurred mainly in the latter part of the harvesting period, which may partly explain the small differences between treatments. Anyhow, despite of feasible biological control cultural control methods will be important to manage the fungus in organic strawberry production.;

  13. Corneal ring infiltration in contact lens wearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Tabatabaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of atypical sterile ring infiltrates during wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens due to poor lens care. A 29-year-old woman presented with complaints of pain, redness, and morning discharge. She was wearing soft silicone hydrogel contact lens previously; her current symptoms began 1 week before presentation. On examination, best-corrected visual acuity was 20/40 in that eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed dense, ring-shaped infiltrate involving both the superficial and deep stromal layers with lucid interval to the limbus, edema of the epithelium, epithelial defect, and vascularization of the superior limbus. Cornea-specific in vivo laser confocal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 2 Rostock Cornea Module, HRT 2-RCM, Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, Dossenheim, Germany revealed Langerhans cells and no sign of Acanthamoeba or fungal features, using lid scraping and anti-inflammatory drops; her vision completely recovered. We reported an atypical case of a sterile corneal ring infiltrate associated with soft contact lens wearing; smear, culture, and confocal microscopy confirmed a sterile inflammatory reaction.

  14. Management of white spots: resin infiltration technique and microabrasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hye Son

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report compared the effectiveness of resin infiltration technique (Icon, DMG with microabrasion (Opalustre, Ultradent Products, Inc. in management of white spot lesions. It demonstrates that although neither microabrasion nor resin infiltration technique can remove white spot lesions completely, resin infiltration technique seems to be more effective than microabrasion. Therefore resin infiltration technique can be chosen preferentially for management of white spot lesions and caution should be taken for case selection.

  15. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.927-1 Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or...

  16. Evaluation of some infiltration models and hydraulic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, F.; Gorji, M.; Shorafa, M.; Sarmadian, F.; Mohammadi, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of infiltration characteristics and some parameters of infiltration models such as sorptivity and final steady infiltration rate in soils are important in agriculture. The aim of this study was to evaluate some of the most common models used to estimate final soil infiltration rate. The equality of final infiltration rate with saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) was also tested. Moreover, values of the estimated sorptivity from the Philips model were compared to estimates by selected pedotransfer functions (PTFs). The infiltration experiments used the doublering method on soils with two different land uses in the Taleghan watershed of Tehran province, Iran, from September to October, 2007. The infiltration models of Kostiakov-Lewis, Philip two-term and Horton were fitted to observed infiltration data. Some parameters of the models and the coefficient of determination goodness of fit were estimated using MATLAB software. The results showed that, based on comparing measured and model-estimated infiltration rate using root mean squared error (RMSE), Hortons model gave the best prediction of final infiltration rate in the experimental area. Laboratory measured Ks values gave significant differences and higher values than estimated final infiltration rates from the selected models. The estimated final infiltration rate was not equal to laboratory measured Ks values in the study area. Moreover, the estimated sorptivity factor by Philips model was significantly different to those estimated by selected PTFs. It is suggested that the applicability of PTFs is limited to specific, similar conditions. (Author) 37 refs.

  17. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  18. High accuracy and precision micro injection moulding of thermoplastic elastomers micro ring production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido; Elsborg, René

    2016-01-01

    The mass-replication nature of the process calls for fast monitoring of process parameters and product geometrical characteristics. In this direction, the present study addresses the possibility to develop a micro manufacturing platform for micro assembly injection moulding with real-time process....../product monitoring and metrology. The study represent a new concept yet to be developed with great potential for high precision mass-manufacturing of highly functional 3D multi-material (i.e. including metal/soft polymer) micro components. The activities related to HINMICO project objectives proves the importance...

  19. Analisa Umur Ekonomis Untuk Menentukan Waktu Peremajaan Yang Optimal Bagi Mesin Moulding

    OpenAIRE

    Giatman, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    PT. Andalas Lumber Products is a company engaged in manufacturing semi-finished wood (sawn timber). The company's success in serving customer demand on time is determined by the readiness of the facility in carrying out its functions. One of the main engine is a molding machine is the machine used for the finishing process. The ability of these hourly Moulding machine is 600 m / hr working hours per day 7 hours, so if the machine does not operate in a single day because of damage to the busin...

  20. Laser confocal microscope noise evaluation on injection compression moulded (ICM) transparent polymer Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loaldi, D.; Calaon, Matteo; Quagliotti, Danilo

    , on an injection compression moulded (ICM) Fresnel lens, is defined. A set of two different objectives is considered, i.e. a standard series (SO), against a long working distance one (LWD); two different magnifications objectives, 50x and 100x and the use or not of a dark environment. The noise evaluation...... are measuring working distance, objective magnification and room lighting. The result confirms a strong difference of noise, using the considered objectives. The most interesting result is that the performance of SO 50x objective is better than LWD 100x....

  1. The effects of polymer melt rheology on the replication of surface microstructures in isothermal moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    microstructures were examined using a confocal laser scanning microscope. With increasing Deborah number, defined as De = G'/G'', there is a considerable decrease in the (non-dimensional) length the flow front has to move in order to fill the microchannels. Numerical flow calculations were performed using...... the Lagrangian Integral Method where the fluid is described by a molecular stress function (MSF) constitutive model. The numerical modelling of the flow was performed on two length scales, at a macro-level describing the flow between the mould plates and at a micro-level describing the flow into the structure...

  2. Polyolefin backbone substitution in binders for low temperature powder injection moulding feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Kuritka, Ivo; Bleyan, Davit

    2014-02-27

    This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al₂O₃ feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions containing polyethylene glycol as the initial opening agent and governing the proper mechanism of the degradation process. Moreover, the replacement of synthetic polymer by the natural wax contributes to an increase of environmental sustainability of modern industrial technologies.

  3. Polyolefin Backbone Substitution in Binders for Low Temperature Powder Injection Moulding Feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenika Hausnerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the substitution of polyolefin backbone binder components with low melting temperature carnauba wax for powder injection moulding applications. The effect of various binder compositions of Al2O3 feedstock on thermal degradation parameters is investigated by thermogravimetric analysis. Within the experimental framework 29 original feedstock compositions were prepared and the superiority of carnauba wax over the polyethylene binder backbone was demonstrated in compositions containing polyethylene glycol as the initial opening agent and governing the proper mechanism of the degradation process. Moreover, the replacement of synthetic polymer by the natural wax contributes to an increase of environmental sustainability of modern industrial technologies.

  4. THE OCCURRENCE OF INSECTS AND MOULDS IN STORED COCOA BEANS AT SOUTH SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Surveys on postharvest handling and technology processing of cocoa beans at farmer, trader and exporter levels in South Sulawesi were conducted together with investigations on moisture content, pest infestation (insect and mould and quality characteris tics in terms of reducing sugar, free amino acid and free fatty acid content. Surveys were conducted during dry (July 1997 and wet seasons (February 1998 in three regencies (Pinrang, Polewali-Mamasa and Luwu and Ujung Pandang, South Sulawesi province. Interviews were carried out during surveys in the dry season. Number of respondents from farmers, trailers and exporters was 38, 15 and 5, respectively. In each season, number of samples taken from farmers, traders and exporters was 9, 21 and 15, respectively. In general, farmers, traders and exporters did not carry out postharvest handling and technology processing properly. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected from farmers, traders and exporters were higher than the tolerabl e limit recommended by SNI (7.5%. Moisture content of cocoa beans collected during the wet season was higher than in the dry season. Insects were found on cocoa beans collected from traders and exporters. Species composition and the presence of each insect species were varied among the two seasons, but the predominant species was Tribolium castaneum. At trader level the percentage of insect-damaged beans during the wet season was higher than that during the dry season, while at exporter le vel it was lower. During the two seasons the percentage of mouldy beans at farmer level was lower than the tolerable limit recommended by SNI (4%, while those from some samples at trader and exporter levels were higher than 4%, but based on the direct plating method, all of the samples at trader and exporter levels were mouldy. Species composition and the percentage of beans infected by each mould species at farmer, trader and exporter levels during the two seasons were va ried. The

  5. Microstructure of Magnesium alloy AZ91-HP cast in permanent and non-permanent moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels; Sørensen, Rasmus Kirkegaard; Albachari, Sami

    2003-01-01

    Casting of different geometries were made with AZ91-HP in different moulding media, so that a range of cooling conditions were obtained. Cooling curves were measured and compared to the microstructures found in the castings. It was shown that segregation in the alloy is highly dependent on cooling...... rate. This leads to precipitation of varying amounts of intermetallic phases. The distribution of phases in the material is controlled both by interdendritic and intergranular segregation, leading to an inhomogeneous microstructure. It is shown that local solidification time, segregation and diffusion...

  6. Adductor canal block with local infiltrative analgesia compared with local infiltrate analgesia for pain control after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Qiujuan; Dai, Weiwei; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wu, Ji; Huang, Chunshui; Zhao, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify articles comparing the combined adductor canal block with peri-articular infiltration and periarticular infiltration alone for pain control after TK...

  7. FAILURE MODE EFFECTS AND CRITICALITY ANALYSIS (FMECA AS A QUALITY TOOL TO PLAN IMPROVEMENTS IN ULTRASONIC MOULD CLEANING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fragassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inside the complex process used for tire production, ultrasonic cleaning treatment probably represents the best solution to preserve the functionality of tire moulds, by removing residuals from moulds and keeping an unaltered quality for their surfaces. Ultrasonic Mould Cleaning Systems (UMCS is, however, a complicated technology that combines ultrasonic waves, high temperature and a succession of acid and basic attacks. At the same time, an UMCS plant, as part of a long productive chain, has to guarantee the highest productivity reducing failures and maintenances. This article describes the use of Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA as a methodology for improving quality in cleaning process. In particular, FMECA was utilized to identify potential defects in the original plant design, to recognize the inner causes of some failures actually occurred during operations and, finally, to suggest definitive re-design actions. Changes were implemented and the new UMCS offers a better quality in term of higher availability and productivity.

  8. Numerical modelling of heat transfer in a cavity due to liquid jet impingement for liquid supported stretch blow moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Trevor; Menary, Gary; Geron, Marco

    2018-05-01

    Impingement of a liquid jet in a polymer cavity has been modelled numerically in this study. Liquid supported stretch blow moulding is a nascent polymer forming process using liquid as the forming medium to produce plastic bottles. The process derives from the conventional stretch blow moulding process which uses compressed air to deform the preform. Heat transfer away from the preform greatly increases when a liquid instead of a gas is flowing over a solid; in the blow moulding process the temperature of the preform is tightly controlled to achieve optimum forming conditions. A model was developed with Computational Fluid Dynamics code ANSYS Fluent which allows the extent of heat transfer between the incoming liquid and the solid preform to be determined in the initial transient stage, where a liquid jet enters an air filled preform. With this data, an approximation of the extent of cooling through the preform wall can be determined.

  9. Inhibition of grey mould in vitro and in vivo with essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane MOHAMMADI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the antifungal effects of the fennel essential oil against fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea the causal agent of grey mould disease of tomato fruit under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Treatments consisted of five concentrations (0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 lL-1.The fennel oil had a remarkable effect on spore germination of grey mould. The growth of grey mould was completely inhibited by fennel oil at 600 and 800 lL-1.The results in vivo showed that fennel oil increased the shelf life and decreased decay rate of tomato fruits. Also, fennel essential oil positively affected on postharvest quality factors. Treated fruits with fennel oil had significantly higher titrable acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and lycopene and -carotene content comparison to control. Thus, these results showed that fennel essential oil has impact on postharvest decay and fruit quality of tomato.

  10. PRELIMINARY STUDIES FOR PRODUCING CRUDE LIPASE FROM TEMPE’S MOULD CULTIVATED IN RICE-HUSK-BASED SOLID MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuku Beuna Bardant

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of these preliminary studies is to support Indonesian program for increasing palm oil added value through independent production technology based on Indonesian natural resources. Various palm oil derivatives could be synthesized enzymatically using lipase from microbes that available in Indonesia. Tempe's mould is available in abundance in Indonesia and had already been proved for producing lipase. This paper provides information about producing crude lipase from Tempe's mould cultivated in rice-husk-based solid media using palm oil as carbon source. Observed variables include solid media composition, optimum fermentation time, extraction and enriching process of crude lipase. The crude lipase was analyzed its hydrolysis activity on coconut oil and palm oil. The result of these preliminary studies shows that this production process is a simple and tough process and very potential to be developed.   Keywords: lipase, Tempe's mould, palm oil, solid fermentation, rice husk

  11. Influence of sand base preparation on properties of chromite moulding sands with sodium silicate hardened with selected methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on the relation between thermal preparation of chromite sand base of moulding sands containing sodium silicate, hardened with selected physical and chemical methods, and structure of the created bonding bridges. Test specimens were prepared of chromite sand - fresh or baked at 950°C for 10 or 24 hours - mixed with 0.5 wt.% of the selected non-modified inorganic binder and, after forming, were hardened with CO2 or liquid esters, dried traditionally or heated with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. It was shown on the grounds of SEM observations that the time of baking the base sand and the hardening method significantly affect structure of the bonding bridges and are correlated with mechanical properties of the moulding sands. It was found that hardening chromite-based moulding mixtures with physical methods is much more favourable than hardening with chemical methods, guaranteeing also more than ten times higher mechanical properties.

  12. Experimental investigation of the factors influencing the polymer-polymer bond strength during two component injection moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter Torben

    2007-01-01

    Two component injection moulding is a commercially important manufacturing process and a key technology for Moulded Interconnect Devices (MIDs). Many fascinating applications of two component or multi component polymer parts are restricted due to the weak interfacial adhesion of the polymers...... effectively control the adhesion between two polymers. The effects of environmental conditions on the bond strength after moulding are also investigated. The material selections and environmental conditions were chosen based on the suitability of MID production, but the results and discussion presented....... A thorough understanding of the factors that influence the bond strength of polymers is necessary for multi component polymer processing. This paper investigates the effects of the process and material parameters on the bond strength of two component polymer parts and identifies the factors which can...

  13. From the patient to the clinical mycology laboratory: how can we optimise microscopy and culture methods for mould identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyzantiadis, Timoleon-Achilleas A; Johnson, Elizabeth M; Kibbler, Christopher C

    2012-06-01

    The identification of fungi relies mainly on morphological criteria. However, there is a need for robust and definitive phenotypic identification procedures in order to evaluate continuously evolving molecular methods. For the future, there is an emerging consensus that a combined (phenotypic and molecular) approach is more powerful for fungal identification, especially for moulds. Most of the procedures used for phenotypic identification are based on experience rather than comparative studies of effectiveness or performance and there is a need for standardisation among mycology laboratories. This review summarises and evaluates the evidence for the major existing phenotypic identification procedures for the predominant causes of opportunistic mould infection. We have concentrated mainly on Aspergillus, Fusarium and mucoraceous mould species, as these are the most important clinically and the ones for which there are the most molecular taxonomic data.

  14. Yttria coating on quartz mould inner surface for fabrication of metal fuel slug using injection casting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, A.V.; Hemanth Kumar, S.; Manivannan, A.; Muralidaran, P.; Anthonysamy, S.; Sudha, R.

    2016-01-01

    Quartz moulds are used for casting metal alloy of U-Zr slugs by injection casting process. Ceramic (Y_2O_3) coating on inner surface of the quartz mould is provided to avoid silica contamination in the fuel slugs during casting. Experiments were carried out to standardise the coating process and optimising various parameters such as particle size of Y_2O_3, choice of suitable binder, method for application of coating, drying and sintering at high temperature to ensure uniformity and strength of coating. Required Coating thickness of ∼40 μm was achieved on a quartz mould of inner diameter of 4.98±0.01mm. Experimental procedure for coating on inner surface of the quartz tubes using yttrium oxide is described in this work. (author)

  15. Influence of the Training Set Value on the Quality of the Neural Network to Identify Selected Moulding Sand Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakubski J.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks are one of the modern methods of the production optimisation. An attempt to apply neural networks for controlling the quality of bentonite moulding sands is presented in this paper. This is the assessment method of sands suitability by means of detecting correlations between their individual parameters. This paper presents the next part of the study on usefulness of artificial neural networks to support rebonding of green moulding sand, using chosen properties of moulding sands, which can be determined fast. The effect of changes in the training set quantity on the quality of the network is presented in this article. It has been shown that a small change in the data set would change the quality of the network, and may also make it necessary to change the type of network in order to obtain good results.

  16. Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

  17. Attempts to use pulsed light as an emerging technology for inactivation of mould naturally present on rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA ARON MAFTEI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed light technology was used to inactivate moulds, naturally present on rye. The experiments were performed on samples containing 3.5·104 CFU/g and 4.3·103 CFU/g. Treatments of different duration (5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 pulses at intensity of 0.4 J·cm-2 per pulse were applied and mould inactivation was evaluated. Besides confirming the utilisation of pulsed light as decontamination method for cereals, this work contributes with new information regarding the effects of the spectral range of pulsed light, proving that the whole UV range of the spectrum accounts for the lethal effect against moulds. This research supports pulsed light as emerging technology in food preservation.

  18. The use of sodium carbonate to improve curing treatments against green and blue moulds on citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Pilar; Usall, Josep; Torres, Rosario; Abadias, Maribel; Smilanick, Joseph L; Viñas, Immaculada

    2004-08-01

    The effectiveness of curing oranges and lemons at 33 degrees C for 65h followed by storage under ambient and cold-storage conditions was investigated. This treatment effectively reduced the incidence of Penicillium digitatum (Pers) Sacc and P italicum Wehmer decay on inoculated and naturally infected oranges and lemons stored at 20 degrees C for 7 days. However, it failed to control green and blue mould infections on fruits placed in long-term cold storage, except green mould on oranges, which was effectively controlled. Dipping fruits in a sodium carbonate solution (20 g litre(-1)) for 2.5 min following a curing treatment at 33 degrees C for 65 h satisfactorily reduced green and blue mould incidence during subsequent long-term storage at 4 degrees C on oranges and at 10 degrees C on lemons. The efficacy was greater on injured fruits inoculated after the combination of treatments was applied, achieving a 60-80% reduction in decay in comparison with the curing treatment alone in all cases. A significant reduction of blue mould was also observed on fruits inoculated both before the treatments and on those re-inoculated after the treatments, demonstrating both protectant and eradicant activity. Thus, combining curing at 33 degrees C for 65 h with sodium carbonate treatment effectively controlled these post-harvest diseases on artificially inoculated citrus fruits and protected against re-infection. With naturally inoculated lemons, curing followed by sodium carbonate significantly reduced both green and blue mould incidence, but was not superior to curing alone. With naturally infected oranges, curing significantly reduced blue mould, but decay was not reduced further when followed by sodium carbonate treatment.

  19. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  20. Weld line optimization on thermoplastic elastomer micro injection moulded components using 3D focus variation optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasnaes, F.B.; Elsborg, R.; Tosello, G.

    2015-01-01

    The presented study investigates weld line depth development across a micro suspension ring. A focus variation microscope was used to obtain 3D images of the weld line area. Suspension rings produced with different micro injection moulding process parameters were examined to identify the correlat......The presented study investigates weld line depth development across a micro suspension ring. A focus variation microscope was used to obtain 3D images of the weld line area. Suspension rings produced with different micro injection moulding process parameters were examined to identify...

  1. Spergilli on Building Partitions Infested with Moulds in Residential Housing and Public Utility Premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Lechów, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    Aspergilli constitute a serious risk to the health of the inhabitants of infested rooms. Mycological analysis conducted in buildings infected with moulds in the area of the Lubuskie province (Poland) demonstrated the presence of 9 species of Aspergillus moulds: A. carbonarius A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A ustus and A. versicolor. The highest frequency (4 - frequently) was observed in the case of A. versicolor, while frequency 3 (fairly frequently) was characteristic of such species as A. flavus and A. niger. A. ustus was encountered with frequency 2 (individually), while frequency 1 (sporadically) referred to four species: A. carbonarius, A. clavatus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus. Because Aspergillus versicolor occurs with the highest frequency in buildings, and as a consequence of this, synthesizes toxic and carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST), it constitutes the greatest risk to the inhabitants of the infested premises. All species of Aspergillus present on building partitions are able to synthesise mycotoxins, are pathogens and may cause allergies.

  2. Improved moulding material for addition to nuclear fuel particles to produce nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miertschin, G.N.; Leary, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made to improve the moulding materials used to produce carbon-contained nuclear fuel particles by a coke-reducing added substance. The nuclear fuel particles are meant for the formation of fuel elements for gas-cooled high-temperature nuclear reactors. The moulding materials are above all for the formation of coated particles which are burnt in situ in nuclear fuel element chambers out of 'green' nuclear fuel bodies. The added substance improves the shape stability of the particles forming and prevents a stiding or bridge formation between the particles or with the surrounding walls. The following are named as added substances: 1) Polystyrene and styrene-butadiene-Co polymers (mol. wt. between 5oo and 1,000,000), 2) aromatic compounds (mol. wt. 75 to 300), 3) saturated hydrocarbon polymers (mol. wt. 5,000 to 1,000,000). Additional release agents further improve the properties in the same direction (e.g. alcohols, fatty acids, amines). (orig.) [de

  3. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Asking 'why' from a distance facilitates emotional processing: a reanalysis of Wimalaweera and Moulds (2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayduk, Ozlem; Kross, Ethan

    2009-01-01

    Wimalaweera and Moulds [Wimalaweera, S. W., & Moulds, M. L. (2008). Processing memories of anger-eliciting events: the effect of asking 'why' from a distance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 402-409] reported a failure to replicate previous findings demonstrating the effectiveness of analyzing anger-related experiences from a self-distanced perspective for reducing negative affect in the short-term (Ayduk, O., & Kross, E. (2008). [Enhancing the pace of recovery: self-distanced-analysis of negative experiences reduces blood pressure reactivity. Psychological Science, 9(3), 229-231; Kross, E., Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2005). When asking "why" does not hurt. Psychological Science, 16, 709-715.] and facilitating adaptive emotional processing over time [Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2008). Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: distinguishing distanced-analysis of depressive experiences from immersed-analysis and distraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin]. A reanalysis of their data that takes into account effect sizes and participants' scores on the avoidance subscale of the Impact of Events Scale, which were not reported in the original write-up, contradict this and a number of other conclusions reported in their article. In this article, we review the key findings that emerged from this reanalysis.

  5. Mould deterioration of agricultural commodities during transit: problems faced by developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, R V

    1988-12-01

    Huge quantities of agricultural commodities are being either imported or exported by the developing countries. The commodities have to be transported from the fields of cultivation to the centres of consumption, considerable time being taken for the movement not only because of long distances but also because of various socio-economic, environmental and biological reasons. These commodities are likely to be damaged by mould growth and subsequent aflatoxin accumulation. If the contamination occurs during transit, often no insurance cover for the risk is available. Because of different methods of sampling followed in the exporting and importing countries it is often difficult to define the exact responsibility of the development of aflatoxin as having taken place during transit. The statistics of the export of aflatoxin high-risk commodities like red pepper (chillies), cotton seed and groundnut extractions clearly, for the last decade, demonstrate the extent of loss suffered by the exporting countries because of aflatoxins. The problem of mould damage and mycotoxin contamination can be minimised by improving facilities for storage at ports and transit points as well as on ships.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAl castings produced by zirconia ceramic mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their low density and attractive high-temperature properties, gamma titanium aluminide alloys (TiAl alloys, hereafter have significant potential application in the aerospace and automobile industries, in which these materials may replace the heavier nickel-based superalloys at service temperatures of 600 – 900℃. Investment casting of TiAl alloys has become the most promising cost-effective technique for the manufacturing of TiAl components. Ceramic moulds are fundamental to fabricating the TiAl casting components. In the present work, ceramic mould with a zirconia primary coat was designed and fabricated successfully. Investment casting of TiAl blades and tensile test of specimens was carried out to verify the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method. The tensile test results indicate that, at room temperature, the tensile strength and the elongation are about 450 MPa and 0.8%, respectively. At 700℃, the tensile strength decreases to about 410 MPa and the elongation increases to 2.7%. Microstructure and mechanical properties of investment cast TiAl alloy are discussed.

  7. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Nair

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.

  8. Paraffin wax removal from metal injection moulded cocrmo alloy compact by solvent debinding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandang, N. A. N.; Harun, W. S. W.; Khalil, N. Z.; Ahmad, A. H.; Romlay, F. R. M.; Johari, N. A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the most crucial and time consuming phase in metal injection moulding (MIM) process is “debinding”. These days, in metal injection moulding process, they had recounted that first debinding practice was depend on thermal binder degradation, which demanding more than 200 hours for complete removal of binder. Fortunately, these days world had introduced multi-stage debinding techniques to simplified the debinding time process. This research study variables for solvent debinding which are temperature and soaking time for samples made by MIM CoCrMo powder. Since wax as the key principal in the binder origination, paraffin wax will be removed together with stearic acid from the green bodies. Then, debinding process is conducted at 50, 60 and 70°C for 30-240 minutes. It is carried out in n-heptane solution. Percentage weight loss of the binder were measured. Lastly, scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis and visual inspection were observed for the surface of brown compact. From the results, samples debound at 70°C exhibited a significant amount of binder loss; nevertheless, sample collapse, brittle surface and cracks were detected. But, at 60°C temperature and time of 4 hours proven finest results as it shows sufficient binder loss, nonappearance of surface cracks and easy to handle. Overall, binder loss is directly related to solvent debinding temperature and time.

  9. Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Spectroscopy Applied for Wood Rot Decay and Mould Fungi Growth Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Material characterization may be carried out by the attenuated total reflectance (ATR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR radiation spectroscopical technique, which represents a powerful experimental tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids, and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to IR radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Thus ATR saves time and enables the study of materials in a pristine condition, that is, the comprehensive sample preparation by pressing thin KBr pellets in traditional FTIR transmittance spectroscopy is hence avoided. Materials and their ageing processes, both ageing by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect wood rot decay and mould fungi growth on various building material substrates. An experimental challenge and aim is to be able to detect the wood rot decay and mould fungi growth at early stages when it is barely visible to the naked eye. Another goal is to be able to distinguish between various species of fungi and wood rot.

  10. Comparison of infiltration models in NIT Kurukshetra campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balraj; Sihag, Parveen; Singh, Karan

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the performance of infiltration models used to calculate the infiltration rate of the soils. Ten different locations were chosen to measure the infiltration rate in NIT Kurukshetra. The instrument used for the experimentation was double ring infiltrometer. Some of the popular infiltration models like Horton's, Philip's, Modified Philip's and Green-Ampt were fitted with infiltration test data and performance of the models was determined using Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), coefficient of correlation (C.C) and Root mean square error (RMSE) criteria. The result suggests that Modified Philip's model is the most accurate model where values of C.C, NSE and RMSE vary from 0.9947-0.9999, 0.9877-0.9998 to 0.1402-0.6913 (mm/h), respectively. Thus, this model can be used to synthetically produce infiltration data in the absence of infiltration data under the same conditions.

  11. Warmed local anesthetic reduces pain of infiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, J A; McDougall, E P

    1996-01-01

    The effect of warming local anesthetic on the amount of pain experienced during local infiltration was tested by comparing equal volumes of 40 degrees C- and 21 degrees C-infiltrates in each of 26 subjects. Six subjects were patients undergoing excision of two benign asymptomatic nevi in separate locations, and 20 subjects were healthy adult volunteers who were injected in bilateral antebrachial sites. The warmed and room temperature solutions were randomized to each side, so that each subject received both temperature injections in random order. All subjects and the injector were blinded. The rate of injection was time-controlled (0.05 ml/sec). Following both injections, subjects were asked to rate the pain experienced at each site. In addition, the subject was asked if there was no difference, a slight difference, or a substantial difference between the two sites. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to analyze the mean difference in pain scores for all subjects. Paired analysis of the pain scores for each subject eliminated intersubject variance of pain tolerance. The mean difference in pain score between the room temperature and warmed solutions was +1.5 (p < 0.0001). Of the 21 subjects (81%) who found the warmed solution less painful, 11 (52%) found the difference to be significant, while 10 (48%) found the difference to be slight. Two subjects (8%) found no difference between the two, while 3 subjects (11%) found the colder solution slightly less painful. We conclude that warming local anesthetic to 40 degrees C prior to subcutaneous injection is a simple, inexpensive means of reducing the pain of local infiltration.

  12. Moulding citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putri, Prathiwi Widyatmi

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a modern domestic water management system in Batavia, colonial Jakarta, involved struggles over territories between different actors. The multifaceted territorial character of managing water and land reveals the highly contested notion of citizenship as there were continuous processe...

  13. Philosophy of Education: Main Methodological Vectors of Moulding the Person of the Future in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galyna Berehova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the main methodological vectors of the world outlook moulding of the person of the future in higher school required with time and defined with the state of the modern higher education in Ukraine, external and internal social and economic, political and cultural processes. The necessity of moulding a new (modern practical world outlook of the young person in higher school, — the world outlook, which would embrace professional activity wider, joining in harmony the general values of the social system, is confirmed. The strategic approaches to the educational-and-bringing up system of higher educational establishments are outlined, the main methodological vectors of moulding the world outlook of the person of the future in higher school are determined. The first of such vectors is the correlation of moral grounds of our modern society (and of the personality in it with the polyphony of global transformations, and thus taking into consideration the constant changes in the moral status of the modern young person in the contemporary educational spaciousness as the result of influence of general ethical processes in the world (social constructivism, cultural determinism, the negation of the individual identity, non-acceptance of traditionalism, the negation of the universalism of ethical principles, unrecognition of the transcendental origin of ethical norms. The second vector of moulding the world outlook of the person of the future is the humanization and humanitarization of higher school, which can, in the unity of synergetic character, help the humankind move away from the consumer’s attitude to the nature and society. It is mentioned that the humanization and humanitarization of higher education can be deepened by means of the humanitarian disciplines which give the whole idea about the person-nature-society and the sense of the person’s existence, reached by regulating the richness of content of the educational material

  14. Warpage optimisation on the moulded part with straight-drilled and conformal cooling channels using response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimisation (GSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Sharif, S.; Nasir, S. M.; Zainal, N.

    2017-09-01

    In injection moulding process, quality and productivity are notably important and must be controlled for each product type produced. Quality is measured as the extent of warpage of moulded parts while productivity is measured as a duration of moulding cycle time. To control the quality, many researchers have introduced various of optimisation approaches which have been proven enhanced the quality of the moulded part produced. In order to improve the productivity of injection moulding process, some of researches have proposed the application of conformal cooling channels which have been proven reduced the duration of moulding cycle time. Therefore, this paper presents an application of alternative optimisation approach which is Response Surface Methodology (RSM) with Glowworm Swarm Optimisation (GSO) on the moulded part with straight-drilled and conformal cooling channels mould. This study examined the warpage condition of the moulded parts before and after optimisation work applied for both cooling channels. A front panel housing have been selected as a specimen and the performance of proposed optimisation approach have been analysed on the conventional straight-drilled cooling channels compared to the Milled Groove Square Shape (MGSS) conformal cooling channels by simulation analysis using Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) 2013. Based on the results, melt temperature is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 39.1% after optimisation for straight-drilled cooling channels and cooling time is the most significant factor contribute to the warpage condition and warpage have optimised by 38.7% after optimisation for MGSS conformal cooling channels. In addition, the finding shows that the application of optimisation work on the conformal cooling channels offers the better quality and productivity of the moulded part produced.

  15. Demonstration of an infiltration evaluation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.D.; Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T.; Nichols, W.M.; Bresler, E.

    1990-07-01

    An Infiltration Evaluation Methodology (IEM) was developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide a consistent, well formulated approach for evaluating drainage through engineered covers at low-level radioactive waste (LLW) sites. The methodology is designed to help evaluate the ability of proposed waste site covers to minimize drainage for LLW site license applications and for sites associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program. The objective of this methodology is to estimate the drainage through an engineered burial site cover system. The drainage estimate can be used as an input to a broader performance assessment methodology currently under development by the NRC. The methodology is designed to simulate, at the field scale, significant factors and hydrologic conditions which determine or influence estimates of infiltration, long-term moisture content profiles, and drainage from engineered covers and barriers. The IEM developed under this study acknowledges the uncertainty inherent in soil properties and quantifies the influence of such uncertainty on the estimates of drainage in engineered cover systems at waste disposal sites. 6 refs., 1 fig

  16. [Treatment of lymphangioma with OK-432 infiltration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Cáceres, F; Vargas, P

    2012-10-01

    The management of lymphangioma using sclerotherapy has proven to be an effective therapeutic. Our aim was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of OK-432 (Picibanil) in patients with lymphagioma. The study was performed from November 2010 to July 2011. Fifteen patients of both genders were diagnosed with lymphangioma, 12 days to 12 years old. All patients were infiltrated with OK-432. The studied variables were: previous surgery, localization, type of lymphangioma, number of effective injections, reduction of mass valued as excellent (100% reduction), good (reduction > 50%) and bad (reduction < 50%), presence of recurrence and complications. 40% of pacients had prior surgery and 53.3% were located in the cervical-face region. The type of macrocystic lymphangioma was present in 40% of the series, mixed type in 46.6% and microcystic type in 13.4%. The number of effective infiltrations were 3. In 6 cases (40%) the result was excellent in 5 cases (33.4%) the result was good and in 4 cases (26.6%). We had 1 recurrence (6.6%) and we haven't had complications. Injection of OK-432 in macrocystic lymphangioma and mixed had a safe therapeutic modality with satisfactory results. So it is a valid alternative to conventional surgery.

  17. Investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During the study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2,400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures--caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors--have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO 2 , CO, SO 2 , and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality

  18. Undercooling and demixing in rapidly solidified Cu-Co alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battezzati, L.; Curiotto, S.; Johnson, Erik

    2007-01-01

    The Cu–Co system displays a metastable miscibility gap in the liquid state. A considerable amount of work has been performed to study phase separation and related microstructures showing that demixing of the liquid is followed by coagulation before dendritic solidification. Due to kinetic...... competition of transformation phenomena, the mechanisms have not been fully disclosed. This contribution reviews such findings with the help of a computer calculation of the phase diagram and extends the present knowledge by presenting new results obtained by rapidly solidifying various Cu–Co compositions...... using a wide range of cooling rates achieved by forcing the liquid into cylindric and conic moulds and by melt spinning....

  19. Leukemia kidney infiltration can cause secondary polycythemia by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Tomoo; Awazu, Midori; Fujimura, Eriko; Yamazaki, Fumito; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2013-06-01

    Secondary polycythemia with increased production of erythropoietin (EPO) is known to occur in kidney diseases such as hydronephrosis and cystic disease, but the mechanism remains unclear. We report an 18-year-old female with isolated renal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia accompanied by polycythemia. At the relapse, she presented with bilateral nephromegaly, mild renal dysfunction, and erythrocytosis with increased serum EPO levels up to 52.1 mIU/mL (9.1-32.8). Renal biopsy demonstrated diffuse lymphoblastic infiltration. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, which is undetectable in normal kidney, was observed in the renal tubule epithelium compressed by lymphoblastic cells. These findings suggest that erythrocytosis was caused by renal ischemia due to leukemic infiltration. Polycythemia probably became apparent because of the lack of leukemic involvement of the bone marrow. With chemotherapy, the serum EPO level rapidly decreased to normal range accompanied by the normalization of kidney size and function. Renal leukemic infiltration may enhance EPO production, although not recognized in the majority of cases because of bone marrow involvement. Our case has clarified the mechanism of previously reported polycythemia associated with renal diseases as renal ischemia. Furthermore, we have added renal ischemia resulting from tumor infiltration to the list of causes of secondary polycythemia.

  20. Immune infiltrates as predictive markers of survival in pancreatic cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia eProtti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The tumor microenvironment is composed by multiple cell types, molecular factors and extracellular matrix forming a strong desmoplastic reaction, which is a hallmark of the disease. A complex cross-talk between tumor cells and the stroma exists with reciprocal influence that dictates tumor progression and ultimately the clinical outcome. In this context, tumor infiltrating immune cells through secretion of chemokine and cytokines exert an important regulatory role. Here we review the correlation between the immune infiltrates, evaluated on tumor samples of pancreatic cancer patients underwent surgical resection, and disease free and/or overall survival after surgery. Specifically, we focus on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, mast cells and macrophages that all contribute to a Th2-type inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment. In these patients tumor immune infiltrates not only do not contribute to disease eradication but rather the features of Th2-type inflammation and immunosuppression is significantly associated with more rapid disease progression and reduced survival.